WorldWideScience

Sample records for bitumen

  1. Cooee bitumen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    We study chemical aging in “Cooee bitumen” using molecular dynamic simulations. This model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: “2 resins → 1 asphaltene.” Molecular...... dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule are determined for the four...

  2. Bitumen pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past bitumen was a preferred matrix for the embedding of low and intermediate level radioactive waste: its geological history promised long term stability in final repositories. A great variety of waste has been embedded: technological waste, spent ion exchange resins, concrete, rubble, etc. Liquid waste like evaporator concentrates can be dried and embedded simultaneously in extruders, allowing simple processes and equipment. Unfortunately, during long term intermediate storage the bituminized waste drums proved out being not as stable as expected: a significant number turned out to be no longer acceptable for final disposal, and some of them even needed repacking to enable further intermediate storage. A method to rework such drums with bituminized radioactive waste seems to be urgently needed. Pyrolysis and pyro-hydrolysis (= pyrolysis with water steam added) have a long history for the treatment of organic waste: spent solvent (TBP), spent ion exchange resins, alpha waste (predominantly PVC), etc. Due to its low process temperature and the endothermic character, such processes offer significant safety advantages, as compared to incineration or dissolving in organic solvents. Results of lab-scale investigations and concepts for facilities are presented. (authors)

  3. COOEE bitumen: chemical aging

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2013-01-01

    We study chemical aging in "COOEE bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. The model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins $\\rightarrow$ 1 asphaltene". Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule, are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  4. Project scenarios for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The established reserves of Alberta's heavy oil resources are 178 billion barrels, and potential recoverable reserves are 315 billion barrels. The challenge of production includes the logistics of recovery, upgrading and transportation to market. Utilization of the bitumen is not simple because bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline. In addition, it is not processable by most existing refineries unless it can be upgraded through dilution. This paper examined different factors regarding the economic viability of various upgrading methods of a wide range of bitumen feedstocks. The study also examined the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, along with the competitiveness among bitumen-based feedstock and conventional crudes. Western Canada, Ontario and the PADD II district in the United States are the 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen based feedstock, the demand for which depends on refinery configurations and asphalt demand. This paper described the following 4 generic scenarios that describe Alberta bitumen upgrading projects: (1) adjacent to open pit mines, (2) adjacent to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities, (3) remotely located from resource production at an existing refinery, and (4) pipeline bitumen. It was noted that producers should determine the best way to upgrade the bitumen to ensure there is an economic market for the product, but they should also be aware not to over process the bitumen so as not to leave existing refinery facilities under-utilized. 2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  5. Diluent evaluation for bitumen pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, P.; Cooper, S.; Alem, T. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands crudes are expected to represent over 75 per cent of the crude produced in Western Canada. Since bitumen is too viscous to be shipped in pipelines, it must be diluted with a lighter hydrocarbon. Although thermal processing could be used together with a smaller quantity of diluent, the resulting fuel would be less stable. This presentation reported on a study that examined the compatibility and stability of virgin and cracked bitumen in natural diluents and synthetic diluents. Diluent ranking for asphaltene stability in virgin bitumen and cracked bitumen was also examined. Four heavy oils and bitumens were used in this study, notably Athabasca bitumen (AB), cracked Athabasca bitumen, heavy oil B and a light crude C. Natural gas condensate and oil sand derived liquids were the 2 diluents used to investigate the insolubility number and solubility blending number of different crudes, diluents and their blends. It was concluded that the stability of different heavy oils can be determined accurately by observing flocculation of asphaltenes. The study also evaluated and ranked the strength of different diluents for keeping asphaltenes soluble in the oil matrix. Although synthetic diluents were found to be better solvents than natural gas condensates for bitumen, the order of the solvent strength was reversed when bitumen was processed. tabs., figs.

  6. The big bitumen breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ongoing transformation of the oilsands and heavy oil sector from a poor cousin a few years ago into the cornerstone of the Alberta oil industry, was discussed. Much of this change is due to the development of SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology for the underground recovery of heavy oil and tarry bitumens, aided by partly government-funded research, and boosted by a revised provincial royalty regime. The thermal recovery process makes use of a pair of horizontal injection and recovery wells, drilled one above the other. The efficiency of this new technology could produce a shift in the petroleum industry's spending towards oil sands and heavy oil if investors conclude that it is more profitable to produce heavy oil than conventional light oil. Some of the oil sands producers that are poised to invest billions of dollars in various underground bitumen projects in Alberta over the next five years include Suncor, Syncrude, Alberta Energy Co., Amoco Canada, Elan Energy, Imperial Oil Resources, CS Resources, Koch Oil, and Gulf Resources. The ultimate goal is recovery costs of $6 per barrel, which is comparable to the costs of the conventional oil sector. The added advantage of oil sands production is, of course, the virtual elimination of the exploration risk. 3 figs

  7. Processing options for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that 178 billion barrels of oil can be recovered from Alberta's vast heavy oil reserves. The challenge lies in the logistics of recovering, upgrading and transporting the oil to market. The Canadian Energy Research Institute conducted a recent study to determine market potential by 2007 for diluted bitumen and synthetic crude oil produced from upgraded bitumen. The viability for a wide range of bitumen feedstocks was assessed along with the sensitivity of refinery demand to their prices. The 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen include PADD 2 in the United States, western Canada, and Ontario. Bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline and cannot be processed by most of the existing refineries. Therefore, in order to develop a mass market for the product, bitumen must undergo the energy intensive upgrading process at existing refineries. The factors impacting which method of upgrading is most suitable were discussed with particular attention to the impact that Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may have on Alberta's bitumen resource in terms of costs of complying with greenhouse gas reduction initiatives. The authors emphasized that it is crucial to customize an upgrading project to meet site and market specific factors. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Selective extraction of natural bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work performed in the field of natural bitumen extraction is aimed at maximum separation of organic phase. On treating bituminous rocks with solvents, the associated metals are extracted together with the organic phase and may further exert a negative effect on refining of natural bitumen. the authors propose a simplified two stage technique for the extraction of bitumen which enables to utilize V and Ni contained in the concentrate of the second stage extraction (Table). At the first stage, negative bitumen is extracted with the summary content of metals not exceeding 0.005%. This allows to avoid de metallization of native bitumen and subject it to treatment by catalytic cracking. during this stage gasoline and kerosene fractions, different oil distillates and condensates can be used as solvents. at the second stage, aromatic and halo id compounds bearing wastes and by-products, i.e. cheap and non deficient reagents, serve as solvents. The technology was tested under laboratory conditions using Tatar bituminous sands. It is also possible to use one solvent only, however, on condition that at first the oil product with the summary metal content below 0.005%, and then the remaining product is extracted. The proposed technology has proved so universal that it can be applied to refining any type of raw material to be found in the territory of the Tatar republic, using surface extraction complexes. (author). 9 refs., tab

  9. The Human Bitumen Study: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Pesch, Beate; Rühl, Reinhold; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Bitumen has attracted attention from the scientific community and regulating agencies. The debate on health effects of exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen during the hot application of bitumen ranges from respiratory and neurological effects to carcinogenicity. In 2000, the German Hazardous Substances Committee (AGS), in collaboration with the German Bitumen Forum, initiated the examination of a group of mastic asphalt workers and a same number of construction workers without exposure bitumen using a cross-shift design. The study was then extended to the Human Bitumen Study, and the recruitment was finished in 2008 after examination of 500 workers on 80 construction sites. Three hundred and twenty workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen at high processing temperatures and 118 workers at outdoor construction sites were included. In the Human Bitumen Study external exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen, internal exposure to PAH by analysing urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes and the sum of 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalenes, irritative effects in the upper and lower airways and genotoxic effects in blood cells were investigated. The study turned out to be one of the largest investigations of workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen under current exposure conditions. The present paper summarizes its background and main topics. PMID:21369765

  10. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  11. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  12. Impact of salinity on bitumen extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, H.A.W; Schaffer, M. [Total EandP Canada Ltd (Canada); Gingras, J.P. [TOTAL Petrochemicals Mont-Lacq Research and Development (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil sands industry, the hot water extraction process is used to extract bitumen. Recovery of bitumen is thus dependent on the water chemistry. Previous studies identified that divalent cations such as calcium present in water have a negative effect on bitumen recovery but the effect of monovalent cations such as sodium at high concentrations is still unknown. This paper assessed the potential impact of both monovalent and divalent cations on bitumen recovery. Extraction tests were conducted with two low grade and one average grade ore and with different water chemistries. Results showed that monovalent cations can have a negative impact on bitumen recovery for specific ore types. The study was not successful in determining the responsible mechanism but it is presumed to be related to coagulation of fine clays. This paper highlighted that monovalent cations can impact the bitumen recovery; further work is required to determine the responsible factors.

  13. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  14. Upgrading of bitumen using supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayukawa, T. [JGC Corp., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation outlined the technical and economic aspects of thermal cracking by supercritical water. Supercritical water (SCW) is a commonly used method for upgrading heavy oil to produce pipeline-transportable oil from high-viscous bitumen. The process uses water and does not require hydrogen nor catalysts. Pre-heated bitumen and water enter a vertical reactor with flows of counter current at the supercritical point of water. The upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) and pitch are obtained from the top of the reactor when the bitumen is thermally cracked. Bench-scale studies have shown that Canadian oil sands bitumen can be converted to 80 volume per cent of SCO and 20 volume per cent of pitch. The SCO has satisfied Canadian pipeline specifications in terms of API gravity and kinetic viscosity. The kinetic viscosity of the pitch has also satisfied boiler fuel specifications. tabs., figs.

  15. A New Approach for Evaluating Rejuvenator Diffusing into Aged Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Dongliang; FENG Zhengang; YU Jianying; CHEN Xing; ZHOU Bo

    2011-01-01

    Rejuvenator diffusing into aged bitumen was evaluated by determining penetration and chemical components of aged bitumen with rejuvenator coat before and after diffusing experiment.Effects of temperature, time and viscosity of rejuvenator on the diffusing ability of rejuvenator into aged bitumen were investigated. Results indicated that the diffusing ability of rejuvenator into aged bitumen could be enhanced with the increasing of temperature and time, however, the diffusing of rejuvenator into aged bitumen would be restricted due to the volatilization of light component and aging of rejuvenator under high temperature (over 170 ℃). Rejuvenator with low viscosity diffused into aged bitumen more easily.

  16. Market challenges for SCO and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various options available to producers of bitumen to market their product are reviewed. Marketing as bitumen blend is one of the options, however, the ability of doing this becomes constrained by the availability of diluent and refinery capacity to utilize the crude. Building a complex upgrader and produce an upgraded synthetic crude is another option, but that too will face marketing constraints as oilsands development continues to grow. A third option is to partially upgrade the bitumen, enough to be pumpable, and then sell it to a refiner for further upgrading. Partial upgrading in the field appears to be the most viable option but it will likely require long term integration with refineries to be effective. Refiners are faced with the challenge to reduce sulphur in gasoline, which means that they may well be reluctant to take bitumen as feedstock due its being hydrogen deficient, requiring substantial hydrogen addition or coke withdrawal to make them more compatible with existing refiners, most of which are not able to deal with bitumen efficiently. Regardless of the option chosen, increased production of bitumen will require new markets (perhaps PADD II, the US Midwest or more remote markets) and may require investments in new refining facilities to absorb all new synthetic supplies. While the availability of an adequate diluent supply is the major issue, there is also the added pressure on refiners to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; this in itself could be a significant factor in deciding where upgrading of bitumen should occur. The paper concludes by saying that to meet these challenges it will be necessary for producers, upgraders and refiners to work much more closely together than they have in the past

  17. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the market potential for crude bitumen and derivative products from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in 2007. As part of the study, CERI assessed the economic viability of a wide range of bitumen-based feedstock based on their refining values, investigated the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, and examined the competitiveness of bitumen-based feedstocks and conventional crudes. A US$18.00 per barrel price for West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma, was assumed in all calculations, including other crude prices, as well as for Western Canadian and US crude oil production forecasts. Four different scenarios have been considered, but only the 'most plausible' scenario is discussed in the report. Consequently, Hydrocracked/Aromatics Saturated Synthetic Crude Oil, which is currently only a hypothetical product, is excluded from consideration. The availability of historical price differentials for the various competing crudes was another assumption used in developing the scenario. Proxy prices for the bitumen-based feedstock were based on their respective supply costs. The study concludes that the principal dilemma facing bitumen producers in Western Canada is to determine the amount of upgrading necessary to ensure an economic market for their product in the future. In general, the greater the degree of upgrading, the higher is the demand for bitumen-based feedstock. However, it must be kept in mind that the upgrading decisions of other bitumen producers, along with many other factors, will have a decisive impact on the economics of any individual project. The combination of coking capacity and asphalt demand limits the market for heavy and extra-heavy crudes. As a result, the researchers concluded that major expansion of heavy crude conversion capacity may have to wait until the end of the current decade. The economic market for bitumen-based blends in 2007 is estimated at

  18. Langmuir films of solids-free bitumen and bitumen fractions at toluene/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyev, A.; Zhang, L.; Xu, Z.; Masliyah, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This study examined the interfacial behaviour of bitumen and bitumen fractions at an organic solvent/water interface using a Langmuir trough and atomic force microscope (AFM). The objective was to better understand the stability of water-in-solvent diluted bitumen emulsions. The accumulation of interfacially active components at the oil/water interfaces promotes the formation of interfacial films, which resist the coalescence of water droplets thereby stabilizing water-in-oil emulsions. The bitumen fractions included maltene, and asphaltene films at the toluene/de-ionized water interface. Langmuir films of bitumen, maltene and asphaltene were spread at toluene/water interfaces where they exhibited different interfacial pressure-area isotherms. Asphaltenes were found to be irreversibly adsorbed at the toluene/water interface when the films were subjected to multiple washings with fresh toluene. Interfacial pressure-area isotherms remained unchanged. Consecutive washings of maltene films with fresh toluene showed a progressive loss of interfacial materials from the toluene/water interface. However, the pressure-area isotherms showed a consistent shift during the first 2 consecutive bitumen film washings and then no further shift with subsequent washings. After the first 2 washings, the isotherms were same as the original asphaltene films. According to AFM images of Langmuir-Blodgett films deposited from the toluene/water interface, the topographical features of asphaltene films resembled that of bitumen films. However, they were very different from that of maltene films. The study results demonstrated that the bitumen film at a toluene/water interface is composed primarily of asphaltenes. The asphaltenes contribute to the stability of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions because they are irreversibly adsorbed at the interface. tabs., figs.

  19. Vergelijkend AFM Onderzoek: microstructuur van bitumen in relatie tot healing

    OpenAIRE

    Schmets, A. J. M.; Nahar, S.N.; Dillingh, B.; Fischer, H.; Scarpas, A.; Erkens, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present the background, the scientific and experimental approach and the results of AFM experiments performed on two different batches of bitumen. The specific bitumen researched in this project has also been studied in the context of the InfraQuest project ‘Pragmatisch Healing Onderzoek’. It has been known for quite some time already that bitumen posessess a microstructure at the typical length scale of micrometers. This can be shown experimentally by imaging the bitumen su...

  20. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The best types of refineries for processing western Canadian bitumen-based feedstock (BBF) were identified and a potential market for these feedstock for year 2007 was calculated. In addition, this power point presentation provided an estimation of potential regional and total demand for BBF. BBF included Athabasca bitumen blend, de-asphalted blend, coked sour crude oil (SCO), coked sweet SCO, hydrocracked SCO and hydrocracked/aromatic saturated SCO (HAS). Refinery prototypes included light and mixed prototypes for primary cracking units, light and heavy prototypes for primary coking units, as well as no coking, coking severe and residuum prototypes for primary hydrocracking units. The presentation included graphs depicting the natural market for Western Canadian crudes as well as U.S. crude oil production forecasts by PADD districts. It was forecasted that the market for bitumen-based feedstock in 2007 will be tight and that the potential demand for bitumen-based blends would be similar to expected production. It was also forecasted that the potential demand for SCO is not as promising relative to the expected production, unless price discounting or HAS will be available. 11 figs

  1. The conditioning of radioactive waste by bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of radioactive sludge and waste by bitumen is studied. Results are given concerning various trials carried out on the lixiviation of the final product by water as a function of the pH, of the time, and of the composition. The conditions for carrying out this process of coating the waste are controlled from a radioactive point of view. (author)

  2. Market outlook for Athabasca bitumen: the economics of location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) was shown to have lowered supply costs and made Athabasca bitumen competitive in the North American market for heavy crudes and bitumen. As part of a SAGD commercialization study, the potential market for Athabasca bitumen, its transportation and netback prices were studied. While both Syncrude and Suncor have identified a need for additional bitumen in the future, it was also recognized that Athabasca bitumen prices must be cost competitive with Syncrude's and Suncor's own products. The study also revealed that the most significant obstacle for Athabaska bitumen to being fully competitive in the North American market was the lack of transportation infrastructure. It was suggested that using larger volume pipelines would aid in keeping pipeline tariffs low , which in turn, would improve Athabaska bitumen's competitiveness and enable further development of the deposit. 8 figs., 1 table

  3. The need for a marketing strategy for Alberta bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 15 years, government and industry have invested heavily in research and development of new technology for extracting bitumen from the Alberta oil sands. The results have been a dramatic increase in the fraction of oil sands deposits that could be economically exploited and a drop in production costs. However, no rapid increase in bitumen recovery has been achieved and most new bitumen production projects have been postponed or cancelled. This is the result of very variable prices for bitumen and the inadequacy of a marketing strategy which relies on the sale of raw bitumen. Options such as transport of bitumen to southern markets are limited by the need to reduce bitumen viscosity for pipelining and by the limited market for emulsified or diluted bitumen. Another possible strategy, conversion of the bitumen to synthetic crude oil, is limited by high costs, product characteristics (too much diesel and not enough gasoline), and a market limited to specialized refineries. A third strategy is to convert and refine bitumen to transportation fuels in Alberta, using inexpensive local natural gas, and transporting the products through existing pipeline facilities. 3 figs

  4. Properties and long-term behaviour of bitumen and radioactive waste-bitumen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I represents a survey of the properties and the long-term behaviour of pure bitumens and mixtures of bitumens with radioactive reactor and reprocessing wastes. This survey includes information on the origin, amounts, and composition of the various wastes considered for bituminization and the different waste bituminization techniques used. The influence of various factors on the quality of waste-bitumen products and on the radiological safety during transport, short- and long-term storage of the final products is described. Special consideration is given to the most important safety relevant factors associated to the use of bitumen as matrix material for radioactive wastes, such as leach-resistance, radiolysis, chemical and mechanical stability, combustibility, and microbial attack. Part II consists of a comprehensive bibliography on the bituminization of radioactive wastes, giving about 300 references to literature published from the beginning of the use of bitumen in radioactive waste management in 1960 until the beginning of 1979. Methods for the quality control of bituminous materials and some useful data are given in an annex. (author)

  5. Experimental PVT property analyses for Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashrafi, Mohammad; Souraki, Yaser; Karimaie, Hassan; Torsaeter, Ole [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway); Bjorkvik, Bard J.A. [SINTEF Petroleum Research (Norway)

    2011-07-01

    To study fluid behavior in a reservoir it is very important to find out exact and complete data on the rock system, fluid properties, and rock-fluid interactions. PVT properties are among the most critical data that reservoir engineers need to evaluate the reservoir. This paper presents the experimental study of a few PVT properties of Athabasca bitumen. The viscosity of Athabasca heavy crude was measured using a rotational viscometer. These viscosity data are a reliable input for simulation purposes. The Athabasca oil was characterized using gas chromatography analysis. Whole sample molar mass was measured at 534 g/mol by cryoscopy. Density and molar mass were also measured. Based on the experimental study, a formula was derived for Athabasca bitumen density prediction in the temperature and pressure range studied. From the results, the interfacial tension between oil and steam was measured, using the pendant drop method, and found to be between 25 and 18 mN/m.

  6. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  7. Bitumens from the Barrandian Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, Ivana; Suchý, Václav

    Porto: Departamento de geologia, Centro de geologia da Universidade do Porto, 1998, s. 54-55. ISSN 0873-741X. [Symposium on Gondwana Coals and 50th ICCP Meeting/2./. Porto (PT), 20.09.1998-26.09.1998] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : bitumens * maturation Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. Investigation of rheological properties of TPS modified bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全涛; 吴少鹏; 刘聪慧; 王金刚

    2008-01-01

    Rheological properties of the virgin bitumen and TPS modified bitumen binders with several percentages of TPS additives were studied.All TPS modified bituminous binders were prepared on a laboratory scale.Dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) strain sweep test was made to measure the linear viscoelasticity areas of various bitumen binders at -20-70 ℃,then temperature sweep test and frequency sweep test were made in the linear viscoelasticity areas.Complex modulus master curves were drawn to analyze and compare various bitumen binders’ rheological properties.Based on the test results,the ideal percentage of TPS additive was brought forward.The results show that TPS modified bitumen binders have more excellent properties at high,medium and low temperatures compared with original bitumen.The dosages of TPS additive are vital to their properties.

  9. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Physico-chemical modification of asphalt bitumens by reactive agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil distillation, has long been used in numerous engineering applications that range from the construction of road pavements to waterproof membranes for the roofing industry. On account of its properties (impermeability, adhesiveness, elasticity, ductility, etc.), bitumen is the most suitable material to be used as a binder of mineral aggregates for paving industry, and consequently, roads are mainly constructed using a composite mixture of bitumen (~ 5 wt.%) ...

  11. The long-term stability of natural bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural bitumen can be an aid in the assessment of the long-term behaviour of technical bitumen. Natural occurrences of bitumen usually have the drawback that the original material before alteration or degration began is not known. The present work applies an alternative approach: on the basis of the geology and stratigraphy at a site where bitumen samples have been taken, the existence of a gradient in the parameters of subaerial and microbial degradation processes may be assumed. Therefore relative variation in properties, composition and structure (bitumen content, volative fraction, elemental composition, chromatographic fractions, saturated hydrocarbons, trace metals, humic substances) at different locations within the deposit have been analysed. The bitumen impregnates a bed of porous Jurassic limestone which crops out at the surface and dips under sediments of various permeability. The quality of the bitumen is in compliance with standards for soft technical bitumen, although it can be characterized as highly biodegraded. It has probably not been affected to any marked degree by degradation since the Quarternary or possibly even late Tertiary, however, as observable variations in composition and properties are only minor and seem to exhibit no clear relation to the present geological setting. Only near the present outcrop do there seem to be signs of increased oxidation. Direct exposure to the weather at the surface leads to destruction of the bitumen within a very thin surface layer. Traces of humic substances probably originating from the decomposition of bitumen were found. The rate of bitumen degradation at outcrops seems to coincide with the rate of weathering and erosion of the host rock. It can be concluded from the results that the time scales necessary to achieve significant alteration of bitumen under the given conditions far exceed the time scales dictated by the half-lives of radionuclides in low- and medium-level radioactive waste

  12. Cooee bitumen II: Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Lemarchand, Claire,; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J.C.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen. Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen, eventually leading to road deterioration. This paper focuses on understanding the mechanisms behind nanoaggregate size and stability. We used molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the probability of ...

  13. Effect of base bitumen composition on asphalt rubber binder properties

    OpenAIRE

    Partl, M.N.; Ould-Henia, M.; Dumont, A.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt rubber blend properties are strongly related to its base components properties. The base bitumen composition is considered as a key factor influencing the final rheological properties of asphalt rubber binder. This paper describes results from a laboratory investigation of the interaction between crumb rubber and different composition bitumen according to the wet process. The bitumen composition is determined according to the SARA decomposition approac...

  14. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The μ-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  15. Pipeline transportation of emerging partially upgraded bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoverable reserves of Canada's vast oil deposits is estimated to be 335 billion barrels (bbl), most of which are in the Alberta oil sands. Canada was the largest import supplier of crude oil to the United States in 2001, followed by Saudi Arabia. By 2011, the production of oil sands is expected to increase to 50 per cent of Canada's oil, and conventional oil production will decline as more production will be provided by synthetic light oil and bitumen. This paper lists the announced oil sands projects. If all are to proceed, production would reach 3,445,000 bbl per day by 2011. The three main challenges regarding the transportation and marketing of this new production were described. The first is to expand the physical capacity of existing pipelines. The second is the supply of low viscosity diluent (such as natural gas condensate or synthetic diluent) to reduce the viscosity and density of the bitumen as it passes through the pipelines. The current pipeline specifications and procedures to transport partially upgraded products are presented. The final challenge is the projected refinery market constraint to process the bitumen and synthetic light oil into consumer fuel products. These challenges can be addressed by modifying refineries and increasing Canadian access in Petroleum Administration Defense District (PADD) II and IV. The technology for partial upgrading of bitumen to produce pipeline specification oil, reduce diluent requirements and add sales value, is currently under development. The number of existing refineries to potentially accept partially upgraded product is listed. The partially upgraded bitumen will be in demand for additional upgrading to end user products, and new opportunities will be presented as additional pipeline capacity is made available to transport crude to U.S. markets and overseas. The paper describes the following emerging partial upgrading methods: the OrCrude upgrading process, rapid thermal processing, CPJ process for

  16. Disjoining pressure isotherms of water-in-bitumen emulsion films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shawn D; Czarnecki, Jan; Masliyah, Jacob

    2002-08-01

    In the oil sands industry, undesirable water-in-oil emulsions are often formed during the bitumen recovery process where water is used to liberate bitumen from sand grains. Nearly all of the water is removed except for a small percentage (approximately 1 to 2%), which remains in the solvent-diluted bitumen as micrometer-sized droplets. Knowledge of the colloidal forces that stabilized these water droplets would help to increase our understanding of how these emulsions are stabilized. In this study, the thin liquid film-pressure balance technique has been used to measure isotherms of disjoining pressure in water/toluene-diluted bitumen/water films at five different toluene-bitumen mass ratios. Even though a broad range of mass ratios was studied, only two isotherms are obtained, indicating a possible change in the molecular orientation of surfactant molecules at the bitumen/water interfaces. At low toluene-bitumen mass ratios, the film stability appears to be due to a strong, short-range steric repulsion created by a surfactant bilayer. Similar isotherms were obtained for water/toluene-diluted asphaltene/water films, indicating that the surface active material at the interface probably originated from the asphaltene fraction of the bitumen. However, unlike the bitumen films, films of toluene-diluted asphaltenes often formed very rigid interfaces similar to the "protective skin" described by other researcher. PMID:16290773

  17. Investigations of Physical and Rheological Properties of Aged Rubberised Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Hassan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several road pavement distresses are related to rheological bitumen properties. Rutting and fatigue cracking are the major distresses that lead to permanent failures in pavement construction. Influence of crumb rubber modifier (CRM on rheological properties of bitumen binder such as improvement of high and intermediate temperatures is investigated in the binder’s fatigue and rutting resistance through physical-rheological changes in this research. The bitumen binders were aged by rolling thin film oven (RTFOT to simulate short-term aging and pressure aging vessel (PAV to simulate long-term aging. The effects of aging on the rheological and physical properties of bitumen binders were studied conducting dynamic shear rheometer test (DSR, Brookfield viscometer test, softening point test, and penetration test. The results showed that the use of rubberised bitumen binder reduces the aging effect on physical and rheological properties of the bitumen binder as illustrated through lower aging index of viscosity, lower aging index of , and an increase in with crumb rubber modifier content increasing, indicating that the crumb rubber might improve the aging resistance of rubberised bitumen binder. In addition, the results showed that the softening point increment ( and penetration aging ratio (PAR of the rubberised bitumen binder decreased significantly due to crumb rubber modification. Furthermore, the higher crumb rubber content, the lower after PAV aging, which led to higher resistance to fatigue cracking bitumen.

  18. Impact of fugitive bitumen on polymer-based flocculation of mature fine tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, C.; Harbottle, D; Alagha, L; Xu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In bitumen recovery from oil sands, a percentage of the bitumen is lost to tailings. The effect of fugitive bitumen on fines settling and consolidation in tailings ponds remains controversial. In the current study, the settling performance of mature fine tailings (MFT) in response to flocculant addition was considered by studying MFT of varying bitumen content. Bitumen content in the MFT was adjusted by controlled removal of bitumen using a Denver flotation cell. The initial settling rate of ...

  19. Vergelijkend AFM Onderzoek: microstructuur van bitumen in relatie tot healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmets, A.J.M.; Nahar, S.N.; Dillingh, B.; Fischer, H.; Scarpas, A.; Erkens, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present the background, the scientific and experimental approach and the results of AFM experiments performed on two different batches of bitumen. The specific bitumen researched in this project has also been studied in the context of the InfraQuest project ‘Pragmatisch Healing On

  20. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang

    2015-04-01

    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  1. Natural analogues of bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occurrences of natural bitumen provide possibilities to identify and assess materials, processes, phenomena and conditions in nature which can serve as model cases valid also with respect to a final repository. Natural bitumens meet the basic requirements for use as natural analogues. In natural sites, processes of bitumen formation and degradation often work simultaneously. The major processes are thermal alteration, evaporation, reaction with water, biodegradation, oxidation, weathering and radiation degradation. Progress in analytical organic geochemistry made during recent years has enabled a deeper understanding of the structural and compositional effects of these processes on bitumen. This is necessary in natural analogue applications. The time scales involved in degradation processes, as observed in natural occurrences, exceed the time scales dictated by the half-lives of most important fission products in low and medium level waste by orders of magnitude. Only exposure to the weather at the surface leads to a more rapid destruction of bitumen. Trace metals in bitumen arenot released until the matrix is completely destroyed. Products of radiation degradation and weathering of bitumen are able, to a certain degree, to delay migration of the metal ions released. Impregnation with bitumen may effectively reduce the microbial decomposition of easily destructable organic waste components, as can be deduced on the basis of the excellent preservation of fossils observed in bitumen. The complexity of all the natural sites described requires extensive understanding of the origin and kind of organic material in bitumen, its maturation, migration, alteration and degradation and of the geological and tectonic evolution of the site. The latter is used for establishing the time scale

  2. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  3. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND STORAGE STABILITY OF SEBS POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SI BACHIR DJAFFAR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, the effects of Styrene–Ethylene-Butylene–Styrene (SEBS modification on the conventional properties and rheological characteristics of pure bitumen were investigated. The polymer modified bitumens (PMBs were prepared by mixing bitumen with SEBS to four polymer contents using laboratory mixer. The physical properties of the PMBs have been determined using conventional test methods. The results indicated that polymer modification improved the conventional properties of the base bitumen such as; penetration, softening point and temperature susceptibility. The results of storage stability test showed that the storage-stable mixtures could be obtained if the polymer content was maintained below about 5 wt%. The rheological properties of the modified binders were characterized using dynamic shear rheometer (DSR. The results of the investigation indicate that the SEBS polymer improve rheological properties of base bitumen, such as increased elastic responses (increased complex shear modulus and decreased phase angle at low to high temperatures. The softening point and TSHRP of the modified bitumen become higher, indicating the improvement of high-temperature property of the modified bitumen.

  4. Marshall properties of waste polymer and nanoclay modified bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeque Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer modified bitumen is emerging as one of the important construction materials for flexible pavements. The addition of polymers in bitumen improves the deformational stability and durability of bitumen. Also Montmorillonite nanoclay has been successfully used as additive in polymer to significantly improve the thermal stability and mechanical properties. The present study, the effect of waste low density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP obtained from waste carry bag, crumb rubber obtained from Waste tyre (CRand nanoclay (MMT on Marshall stability have been evaluated. Waste plastics, whose disposal is a matter of concern can be used successfully to modify the bitumen, these waste polymers are added in 2%, 4% and 6% whereas nanoclay is added in 1,2 and 3 % in 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and its effect on stability and flow of bitumen are evaluated. The result of experimental study shows that there is significant improvement in the Marshall Stability of bitumen due addition of waste polymer and nanoclay.

  5. Bitumen pressure cell installation and monitoring procedure: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 6-in. (150-mm)-thick bitumen layer will be placed between the upper shaft preliminary concrete lining and the steel lining component of the final lining. The function of this layer is twofold; first, it will act as a compliant sealing layer which, because of the bitumen's fluid properties, will remain effective even if the concrete and steel lining components suffer significant strains; and second, it will help to ensure a uniform transmission of rock or hydrostatic loads to the inner lining components. A type 200--300 penetration grade bitumen (ASTM D946) will be used, with 32% by weight of added limestone flour. The purpose of the limestone flour is to ensure that the bitumen has a density which is greater than that of the formation fluids, resulting in a positive pressure gradient from the bitumen to the ground water. The resulting mixture will have a specific gravity of about 1.25 at 60/degree/F (15/degree/C). Pressure measurements in the bitumen layer are needed in order to determine loads on the inner lining components. Although some initial loading will occur in response to excavation, full rock and hydrostatic loads will not develop until post-construction thawing of the freeze wall is complete. Loads transmitted by the bitumen layer to the other lining components will be those which act radially, i.e., the bitustatic pressure, or the radial stress if deviatoric stresses develop

  6. Estimation of bitumen and clay content in fine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine tailings are the components of tailings ponds and the by-product of the oil sand extraction process, consisting mostly of water with small amounts of bitumen, sand, silts and clays. Because of the large volumes of tailings, an important environmental and production process issue involves the reduction of the remaining bitumen in the tailings stream. This paper presented the results of a study that used low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in order to estimate the bitumen, clay and water content of synthetic tailings samples. NMR is a non-destructive technique that is utilized to determine compositions of oil and brine emulsions and the viscosity of heavy oil and bitumen as well as in reservoir characterization, measuring properties such as permeability, porosity, mobile and immobile fluids, and fluid saturations. The study prepared and tested numerous samples with variable water, bitumen, sand and clay concentrations in the NMR tool under ambient conditions. Two qualities of water and bitumen were used to prepare the synthetic samples. Each type of water and bitumen was analyzed as a single substance and in a mixture with the typical solids found in tailings composition. These included kaolinite, illite, sodium montmorillonite and sand. These synthetic samples were analyzed using different mixing configurations, as a function of time and in two different NMR tools. It was concluded that NMR is a potential application for on-line determination of tailings streams composition. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs

  7. Rapid method for determining the penetration of bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Denisova, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid method for determining the penetration (for bitumens and other viscous materials) without changing the penetrometer, used according to GOST 1150-73 is proposed. The essence of the method consists in using in place of a cup for bitumen a vessel 83Cm/sup 3/ of cyclindrical tubes with diameter 10-15 mm and height 25 mm. Reducing the amount of bitumen and development of Pv cooling allows one to sharply reduce the test duration from 1.5-2 hours to 15-20 minutes.)

  8. Investigation of hydrogen and methane production when irradiation of bitumen B45 and bitumen B45 mixed with solid substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolysis of the bitumen components on influence of ionizing radiation causing gases generation, chiefly hydrogen and methane has been investigated. To avoid formation of explosive mixtures of some gases, for example, hydrogen with air, and to avoid heating of mixtures of bitumen and radioactive wastes because of the heat generation during decay, there is necessary to have cooling of bituminized wastes and removal of the radiolysis products in the stores for bituminized radioactive wastes with high specific activity. Investigations has shown that with specific activity higher than 10 Ci/kg heat remowal and remowal af radiolysis products were necessary. Bitumen B45 and bitumen compounds based on it has been exposed both to external irradiation by Cobalt-60 and to internal irradiation by incorporated into bitumen and bitumen compounds Strontium-90, Cesium-137 and Polonium-270. Internal irradiation is modeling real conditions of bituminized radioactive wastes burial. Parameters of the bitumen B45 are given. After irradiation, by means of the gas chromatography method it has been determined that the main components of the gases produced were hydrogen and methane. Volume of hydrogen and methane produced, depending on absorbed dose has been determined and coefficients of the hydrogen and methane production have been calculated. The results of investigations of methane and hydrogene production coefficients dependance from different conditions during external and internal irradiation are given. (I.T.)

  9. Angra 2 - qualification of the bitumen waste product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2, the concentrates from the liquid waste processing system and spent resins from the reactor coolant purification system, represent the low and intermediate level radioactive waste to be incorporate into a bitumen matrix. In order to attempt the Process Control Program aimed to obtain a waste product qualified to an intermediate and a final store, a program to qualify a Brazilian supplier bitumen manufacture, simulated tests in pilot scale in Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN and tests in industrial scale, in Angra 2 during the commissioning and licensing phase was performed. The paper presents the team experience gained since the bitumen selection up to the bitumen characterization simulated waste product. (author)

  10. Mechanisms of chloride decomposition in upgrading oil sands bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T.; Diaz, D.; Gray, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Eaton, P. [Champion Technologies, Fresno, TX (United States); Wu, A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    In addition to clay minerals, bitumens from mining operations contain chloride salts because of the salinity of the extraction process water and the connate water in the ore. These chlorides form corrosive hydrochloric acid. High concentrations of organic acid components known as naphthenic acids are also found in bitumen from Alberta's oil sands. These also cause corrosion. Chloride salts, clays and organic acids may interact in the presence of steam to promote hydrochloric acid formation causing major corrosion problems in downstream facilities. This study examined the behaviour of these components under upgrading conditions. In particular, it examined the rate and the extent of the hydrolysis reactions for salts found in bitumen. Mixtures of bitumen, salts and organic acids were exposed to flowing steam at 100 to 400 degrees C under nitrogen purge. Ion chromatography was used to analyze the condensed vapours for chloride.

  11. Bitumen immobilization of aqueous radwaste by thin-film evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, AECL built a Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) for managing low-level solid and aqueous liquid wastes for converting CANDU wastes. At present, two liquid waste streams are being treated at the WTC. The liquid waste streams are volume-reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO) and tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) membrane technologies. The concentrate produced from the TRO system and the volume-reduced MF backwash solutions are evaporated while simultaneously adding bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. A water-free product of chemical and radiochemical salts and bitumen is removed in 200-L galvanized steel drums for storage. The radiation field of product drums on contact typically has a value of 0.5 to 3 R/h depending upon the feed concentration of radioactivity to the evaporator. The total solids content in the 200-L drum ranges from 25 to 35%. Encapsulated in the bitumen matrix are a variety of nonradiochemical salts, which comprise the bulk of the total solids that are in the product drum. This report discusses the immobilization of the aqueous waste with bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. Simulated bituminized waste forms were leached in accordance with the ANS/ANSI 16.1 leach test. In this test, the waste form is immersed under water for an extended period of time, and the leachate is periodically removed and chemically analysed. The Leachability index varied between 7 and 9 for the emulsified bitumen waste forms produced at the WTC. Bitumen samples were unconfined and subjected to immersion and frequent leachate replenishment. The results of leach tests will be a lower bound for the performance of the bitumen waste product in an unsaturated environment. The Leachability indexes reported exceeds the USNRC minimum requirement for wasteform criteria. Adding protective overcoats of either Portland cement or oxidized bitumen enhanced the Leachability index. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  12. ELASTICITY OF BITUMEN BINDERS AND THE FACTORS CAUSING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of the initial bitumen penetration grade and different con-centrations of the mineral filler on the elasticity of the polymer-modified bitumen (PMB with 3 and 6 % of SBS type polymer. The dependences of elasticity of the PMB on the test conditions – such as the temperature and the stress state level are shown additionally.

  13. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  14. Storage stability of SBS/sulfur modified bitumens at high temperature: influence of bitumen composition and structure

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre de Carcer, I.; Masegosa Fanego, Rosa María; Viñas Sánchez, María Teresa; Sanchez-Cabezudo Tirado, Marta; Salom Coll, Catalina; González Prolongo, Margarita; Contreras, Verónica; Barceló, Francisco; Páez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Polymer modified bitumens, PMBs, are usually prepared at high temperature and subsequently stored for a period of time, also at high temperature. The stability of PMBs, in these conditions, has a decisive influence in order to obtain the adequate performances for practical applications. In this article the attention is focused in the analysis of the factors that determine the stability of styrene–butadiene–styrene copolymer (SBS)/sulfur modified bitumens when the mixtures are maintained at hi...

  15. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  16. Solubility bitumen testing by VIS-NIR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Bitumen is a semi-solid material which can be produced from certain oils by distillation or can be found in nature as 'natural asphalt' like 'tar sands, oil sands, etc'. It consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons of different molecular size, aromatic moieties and polarity. The largest use of bitumen is in for road pavements. Asphalt consists of bitumen and mineral mixed together at different amounts. Bituminous binders have varying solubility in different solvents; this property is an important parameter for their quality. The solubility is conventionally determined with a standard European test based on gravimetric differences of the asphalt before and after dissolution; this method is quite time-consuming and gives no information about the chemical nature of the dissolved bitumen. In this work a VIS-NIR (l: 500 - 900 nm) method is proposed based on the dissolution of the asphalt in an suitable filtering funnel equipped with a 270 Mesh (53 mm) filter clamped to a base. The asphalt is grinded and put into the filtering funnel; a specific quantity of solvent is added and after a fixed period of time the solution is filtered and poured into a flask. This solution is diluted in CH2Cl2 in well defined ratios, to become suitable for VIS-NIR analysis. Concentration of the bitumen is obtained from the absorbance values at determined VIS-NIR wavelengths, previously chosen to have no interferences from absorptions of the solvents; for each wavelength, absorbance calibration curves have been carried out. The calculated concentrations are compared to the maximum concentration of bitumen achievable by dissolving the whole bitumen contained in the asphalt, which is inferred from Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Some simple algorithms allow obtaining the degree of solubility of bituminous binders in different solvents. Moreover, the VIS-NIR spectra give information about the aromatic nature of dissolved bitumen. Some ratios between

  17. Studies Concerning Heat-Resisting Additives for Bitumens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Groll

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of causeway’s bitumen adhesiveness is becoming a current practice in our country, especially when is used acid (siliceous aggregate. One of the most important properties of bitumen is its adhesiveness to aggregate, and this property determine the using of bitumen in causeways area. Usually the adhesiveness is defined as the capacity of a binder to cover an aggregate without dispersing itself when touching the water or the traffic aggressions. Therefore, the adhesiveness additives are products that improve the adhesiveness of the bitumen to a certain aggregate. The used additives – ADETEN type (A01 and A03 have a high stocking stability, a low toxicity degree toward the amine, diamine, polyamine-based additives and are liquid products perfectly compatible with all bitumens and easy to use, in comparison to the paste or solid additives, which must be made liquid to be used. But a very important condition, which must be fulfilled by these promoters is the heat-resisting condition.

  18. Case study: modeling the phase behavior of solvent diluted bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, P.; Schoeggl, F.F.; Yarranton, H.W. [University of Calgary (Canada); Satyro, M.A. [Virtual Materials Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    To recover heavy oil and bitumen, thermal recovery methods such as cyclic steam stimulation and steam assisted gravity drainage are widely used in western Canada. Accurate predictions of phase behavior are required for the design of solvent-based and solvent-assisted heavy oil recovery. This paper presents the phase behavior modeling of solvent-diluted bitumen. The saturation pressures of live and dead bitumen were measured in a JEFRI PVT cell at various concentrations and temperatures. The onset of asphaltene precipitation was also measured for bitumen diluted with n-pentane by titrating bitumen with pentane and constantly circulating the mixture around a high-pressure microscope. The data were modeled using the advanced Peng-Robinson equation of state (APR EoS). By adjusting the binary interaction parameter between the solvent and the pseudo-components, the APR EoS was tuned to match the saturation pressures. The unrealistic phase behavior predictions were made based on the extrapolated SimDist data characterizations.

  19. Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 oC) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure

  20. Optical and UV-Aging Properties of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultraviolet-light (UV resistant material. In this study, LDHs were used to modify bitumen. The optical and UV aging properties of LDHs modified bitumen were investigated. Firstly, the thin films of bitumen, with and without LDHs, were prepared. By using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, absorbance, reflectance, and transmittance of bituminous thin film were evaluated. The morphology of LDHs-modified bitumen was observed by using fluorescence microscopy (FM. Finally, the aging resistance of LDH-modified bitumen was investigated by using the UV-aging oven. Results indicated that the LDHs, especially with 5 wt % in the bitumen, can effectively absorb and reflect the UV light and improve the UV-aging resistance of bitumen. This implied that the addition of LDHs into bitumen had the potential to prolong the service life of asphalt pavement.

  1. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and moisture resistance of oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; T N Ojha; R N Yadav

    2001-06-01

    Addition of bitumen emulsion to the matrix has been found to improve strength and soundness of the product while decreasing the initial setting periods. Thus, bitumen emulsion as an admixture in magnesia cement is a moisture proofing and strengthening material.

  2. Cooee bitumen. II. Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.;

    2014-01-01

    chose first to consider the simple case where only asphaltene molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate. We used a master equation approach and a related statistical mechanics model. The linear asphaltene nanoaggregates behave as a rigid linear chain. The most complicated case where all aromatic......Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen. Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen...... molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate is then discussed. The linear aggregates where all aromatic molecules are counted seem to behave as a flexible linear chain...

  3. Uranium-rich xenotime in bitumen, Moonta mines, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen from the Moonta copper mines is known to exhibit anomalous radioactivity. The bitumen contains abundant metalliferous inclusions, many of which are copper and iron sulphide minerals. Electron microscope studies reported show that the radioactive mineral is an yttrium phosphate phase, resembling xenotime which exhibits significant substitution by uranium, calcium and silicon. An average of 20 analyses yields the formula (Y0.66 U0.23 Ca0.12)1.01(P0.80 Si0.20)O4. A deficiency in the measured element total suggests that the formula may include up to 6 or 7 water molecules. It is assumed that the carbon in the bitumen was derived from younger sedimentary rocks which formerly overlay the ore deposit. 14 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  4. Cooee bitumen II: Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2014-01-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen.Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen, eventually leading to road deterioration. This paper focuses on understanding the mechanisms behind nanoaggregate size and stability. We used molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the probability of having a nanoaggregate of a given size in the stationary regime. To model this complicated behavior, we chose first to consider the simple case where only asphaltene molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate. We used a master equation approach and a related statistical mechanics model. The linear asphaltene nanoaggregates behave as a rigid linear chain. The most complicated case where all aromatic molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate is then discussed. The linear aggregates where all aromatic molecules are counted seem ...

  5. Cooee bitumen. II. Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, Claire A.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Hansen, Jesper S.

    2014-10-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen. Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen, eventually leading to road deterioration. This paper focuses on understanding the mechanisms behind nanoaggregate size and stability. We used molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the probability of having a nanoaggregate of a given size in the stationary regime. To model this complicated behavior, we chose first to consider the simple case where only asphaltene molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate. We used a master equation approach and a related statistical mechanics model. The linear asphaltene nanoaggregates behave as a rigid linear chain. The most complicated case where all aromatic molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate is then discussed. The linear aggregates where all aromatic molecules are counted seem to behave as a flexible linear chain.

  6. Evaluation of Venezuela's Orinoco bitumen as an MHD fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Orinoco Belt in Venezuela contains huge deposits of a bitumen that is complex to handle and refine into lighter hydrocarbon fractions. These deposits are in the early commercialization stage, being marketed as an emulsion with 30% water as a boiler fuel. The fuel is similar to oil in heating value (about 18,100 BTU/lbm) and ash (less than 0.4%). It has an extremely high carbon to hydrogen ratio, a parameter that is important in MHD for electrical conductivity. In this paper, the authors evaluate the potential for this bitumen as a fuel for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. An experimental program to demonstrate the merit of the bitumen as an MHD fuel and validate the calculations is suggested

  7. Diesel and Jet Fuels from Bitumen-derived Middle Distillates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SokYui

    2004-01-01

    Narrow fractions of light gas oils obtained from various upgrading processes of Athabasca oilsands bitumen were investigated as diesel and jet fuels. The relationship among the boiling range, cetane number, smoke point, and other properties such as aromatics content, aniline point, and the sulfur and nitrogen content was also studied. The study reveals that when appropriate processes and distillation boiling ranges are selected, oilsands bitumen can produce diesel and jet fuels that meet stringent environmental regulations and future product specifications. New correlations to predict CN and smoke point were developed as a function of density, boiling ranges by simulated distillation, and mono- and total aromatics by supercriticaL fluid chromatography. The correlations apply to bitumen-derived middle distiLLates that have a wide range of boiling points.

  8. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Lemarchand, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Dyre, J. C.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-component united-atom molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are carried out using graphic-processor-units based...... software in time spans in order of microseconds, which enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper also presents results of the model dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation. The...

  9. Mechanical properties of dual phase steel quenched in bitumen medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu A. ADEDIRAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of a dual phase steel treated in different intercritical windows and subjected to bitumen as the quenching medium was investigated. The viscosity of the quenchant was altered at several rate, the morphology of phases formed was characterized. Also, the quenched samples produced ferrite-martensite phases obtained at different intercritical windows. The tensile and hardness behaviour of the structures was examined; and the microstructures were characterized. It was observed that samples intercriticaly heat treated at 790°C and held for 60mins, bitumen quenched at 125°C, offers the highest impact toughness, while its counterpart at 730°C soaked for 30mins, bitumen quenched at 125°C offered the least impact toughness value. Sample intercriticaly treated at 790°C and held for 45mins in a 150°C quenching, offered the peak hardness factor. However, samples at 790°C held at 45mins and bitumen quenched at 150°C possessed relatively the best combination of tensile properties, hardness and impact energy. The water quenched samples at 790°C held for 60mins has the peak hardness value. The micrographs as well showed a uniformly distributed dual phase structure of ferrite and martensite at various volume fractions.

  10. Bitumen emulsions based on Ukrainian surface-active substances

    OpenAIRE

    Pyshyev, Serhiy; Grytsenko, Yuriy; Koval, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen emulsions can be obtained based on surface-active substances (SAS) according to DSTU B V.2.7- 129:200 produced at JSC “Barva” (Ukraine). These emulsions meet the demands of mentioned standard relative to sieve residue homogeneity, storage quality after 7 and 14 days and conventional viscosity at 25 C.

  11. Bitumen-rubber mixture for effective vibration damping sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Cherkasov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of researches of a bitumen-rubber mixture design for the damping sheet are presented. Application of vibration damping sheet in thin-walled construction designs allows reducing negative vibrations considerably. Existent bituminous and bituminous-rubber materials have insufficient vibration damping in the range of negative temperatures that is inadmissible in Russian climate conditions. Selection of structure bitumen-rubber mixture and regularity establishment of its properties will allow receiving a material with a wide temperature range of application. As an object of research there was chosen the polymeric matrix representing a mix of two materials – butyl rubber and bitumen, plasticized by industrial oil I-20A; the filler – swept of MTD-2 brands. The dependence of physical and mechanical properties of a material on the contents of bitumen-butyl rubber in a mix was established. The material based on the received mixture has effective vibration damping in the range of temperatures from -40 to +40 °C.

  12. Rheological, structural and chemical evolution of bitumen under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen derived from crude oil by fractional distillation has been used in the nuclear industry as a radioactive waste encapsulation matrix. When subjected to α, β and γ self-irradiation, this organic matrix undergoes radiolysis, generating hydrogen bubbles and modifying the physical and chemical properties of the material. In this paper, the effects of irradiation on bitumen materials, especially in terms of its physical, chemical, structural and rheological properties, were characterized at radiation doses ranging from 1 to 7 MGy. An increase in the shear viscosity and melt yield stress was observed with increasing doses. Similarly, the elastic and viscous moduli (G' and G'') increase with the dose, with a more pronounced increase for G' that reflects enhanced elasticity arising from radiation-induced cross-linking. In addition, a low-frequency plateau is observed for G', reflecting pseudo-solid behavior and leading to an increase of the complex viscosity. This behavior is due to increased interactions between asphaltene particles, and to aromatization of the bitumen by γ-radiations. Cross-linking of bitumen enhances its strength, as confirmed by various techniques (modulated DSC, DTA/TGA, SEC, FTIR and XRD). (authors)

  13. Field investigation of potential contamination by bitumen-coated piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coating piles with bitumen down to their neutral points to debond them from embedding soil is a feasible method to minimize the adverse effects of negative skin friction. Bitumen is a petroleum product composed of numerous extremely complex organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have been identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic and carcinogenic materials. To investigate the engineering behavior of bitumen-coated piles under extreme weather conditions, full-scale field tests were performed in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Instrumented piles were installed at these sites from 1989 to 1990. This paper presents the results of geoenvironmental field investigations performed at these sites to determine the spatial distribution of target PAHs in the subsurface after the piles had been installed for 2--3 1/2 yr. The findings of the investigation indicate that the subsurface contamination, if there is any, caused by the installation of bitumen-coated piles is well within acceptable limits

  14. Rheological properties of nanofiltered Athabasca bitumen and Maya crude oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasan, M.D.A.; Fulem, Michal; Bazyleva, A.; Shaw, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2009), s. 5012-5021. ISSN 0887-0624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : viscosity * rheology * Athabasca bitumen * Maya crude oil * phase behavior * asphaltenes * nanofiltration Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.319, year: 2009

  15. Bitumen and heavy oil rheological properties: reconciliation with viscosity measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazyleva, A.B.; Hasan, M.D.A.; Fulem, Michal; Becerra, M.; Shaw, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 1389-1397. ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Athabasca bitumen * Maya crude oil * rheological properties * viscosity measurements Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.089, year: 2010

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis of oilsand bitumen over nanoporous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, See-Hoon; Heo, Hyeon Su; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Yim, Jin-Heong; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Ko, Young Soo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Park, Young-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic cracking of oilsand bitumen was performed over nanoporous materials at atmospheric conditions. The yield of gas increased with application of nanoporous catalysts, with the catalytic conversion to gas highest for Meso-MFI. The cracking activity seemed to correlate with pore size rather than weak acidity or surface area. PMID:21446540

  17. Brewster angle microscopy of Langmuir films of athabasca bitumens, n-C5 asphaltenes, and SAGD bitumen during pressure-area hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Angle, Chandra W

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen films formed on water surfaces have negative consequences, both environmental and economic. CanmetENERGY has placed considerable research emphasis on understanding the structures of the bitumen films on water as a necessary step before optimization of bitumen extraction. The detailed structures of the adsorbed molecules and, especially, the role of asphaltene molecules at the interfaces are still under scrutiny and debate. In the present study, we compared bitumen and asphaltene films as they were compressed and expanded under various surface pressures in order to achieve a clearer understanding of bitumen film structures. We used a customized NIMA Langmuir trough interfaced to a Brewster angle microscope (BAM) and CCD camera (Nanofilm_ep3BAM, Accurion, previously Nanofilm Gmbh) to study images of bitumen films at the air/water interface. The bitumen film appeared uniform with high reflectivity at a surface pressure of 18 mN·m(-1) and exhibited a coarse pebblelike interface with reduced reflectivity in the liquid condensed (LC) phase at higher pressures (18-35 mN·m(-1)). During the first cycle of compression asphaltene films showed well-defined phase transitions and a uniformly smooth interface in the LC phase between 9 and 35 mN·m(-1). However, folding or buckling occurred at surface pressures from 35 to 44 mN·m(-1). On expansion, asphaltene films appeared to break into islands. The hysteresis of the pressure-area isotherm was much larger for asphaltenes than for bitumen. In both compression and expansion cycles, BAM images for bitumen films appeared to be more reproducible than those of the asphaltene films at the same surface pressures. Films for low-°API SAGD bitumen were almost identical to those for surface-mined bitumen. Films formed from partially deasphalted surface-mined bitumens showed higher compressibility and lower rigidity than the original bitumen. The BAM images illustrated significant differences between the partially deasphalted and

  18. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  19. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  20. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, July--September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report cites task number followed by a brief statement of each task and the action taken this quarter. The tasks are: NEPA environmental information statement; coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels, and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost estimation study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; development studies of disposal of sand by conveying or pumping of high solids concentration sand-water slurries; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of organic intercalated layered double hydroxides and their application in bitumen modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Song [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jianying, E-mail: jyyu@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Sun, Yubin [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wu, Shaopeng [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Organic layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) were prepared by anion-exchange method and applied to modify bitumen aiming at improving ageing resistance of bitumen. The organic LDHs (SDBS–LDHs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet and visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometry. The effect of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs on physical and anti-ageing properties of bitumen was evaluated by means of conventional and rheological test. The results of XRD, FTIR and SEM show that SDBS is successfully intercalated into interlayer of LDHs, and the UV–vis reflectance and absorbance curves illustrate that intercalation of SDBS enhances the UV shielding effect of LDHs. The addition of SDBS–LDHs or LDHs has little influence on physical properties of bitumen because SDBS–LDHs and LDHs are physically mixed in bitumen. Compared with pristine bitumen after TFOT and UV irradiation ageing, the introduction of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs significantly improves thermal- and photo-oxidative ageing resistance of bitumen. Notably, bitumen with SDBS–LDHs exhibits better anti-ageing performance than that with LDHs, implying more effective modification of SDBS-LDHs which is due to the enhanced UV protective ability and compatibility with bitumen of SDBS–LDHs. - Highlights: • XRD, FTIR and SEM were used to confirm the successful intercalation. • SDBS–LDHs show superior UV protective ability. • SDBS–LDHs improved the anti-ageing properties of bitumen.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of organic intercalated layered double hydroxides and their application in bitumen modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) were prepared by anion-exchange method and applied to modify bitumen aiming at improving ageing resistance of bitumen. The organic LDHs (SDBS–LDHs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet and visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometry. The effect of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs on physical and anti-ageing properties of bitumen was evaluated by means of conventional and rheological test. The results of XRD, FTIR and SEM show that SDBS is successfully intercalated into interlayer of LDHs, and the UV–vis reflectance and absorbance curves illustrate that intercalation of SDBS enhances the UV shielding effect of LDHs. The addition of SDBS–LDHs or LDHs has little influence on physical properties of bitumen because SDBS–LDHs and LDHs are physically mixed in bitumen. Compared with pristine bitumen after TFOT and UV irradiation ageing, the introduction of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs significantly improves thermal- and photo-oxidative ageing resistance of bitumen. Notably, bitumen with SDBS–LDHs exhibits better anti-ageing performance than that with LDHs, implying more effective modification of SDBS-LDHs which is due to the enhanced UV protective ability and compatibility with bitumen of SDBS–LDHs. - Highlights: • XRD, FTIR and SEM were used to confirm the successful intercalation. • SDBS–LDHs show superior UV protective ability. • SDBS–LDHs improved the anti-ageing properties of bitumen

  3. Thermal recovery of bitumen from carbonate reservoirs: formation damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimm, H.F. [Thimm Petroleum Technologies Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta, about a third of bitumen resources are located in carbonate reservoirs but none of it is considered as a reserve by the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB). In fact no pilot has been successful in recovering bitumen from carbonate reservoirs due to formation damage problems. Carbonate rock is chemically active at the high temperatures reached in thermal recovery processes, carbon dioxide is generated and carbonate minerals are precipitated. The aim of this paper is to find methods to control the phenomenon. Kinetic and thermodynamic controls were used. Results showed that formation damage is due to aqueous carbon dioxide attacking the reservoir rock. They found that a reduction of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide could inhibit the initial dissolution of rock material by reducing the concentration of aqueous carbon dioxide. A method to overcome the formation damage problem was found and a co-injection of gas and steam process was developed to apply it.

  4. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jesper S; Nielsen, Erik; Dyre, Jeppe C; Schrøder, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-component molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse-graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are being carried out using Graphic-Processor-Units based software in time spans in order of microseconds, and this enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper focuses on the high-temperature dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation. The diffusivity of the individual molecules changes little as a function of temperature and reveals distinct dynamical time scales as a result of the different constituents in the system. Different time scales are also observed for the rotational relaxation. The stress autocorrelation function features a slow non-exponential decay for all temperatures studied. From the stress autocorrelation function, the shear viscosity and shear ...

  5. Common ground : bitumen and gas producers come together to find gas-over-bitumen solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2005-08-01

    The gas-over-bitumen issue has meant that hundreds of natural gas wells remain closed while regulatory hearings and research activities continue. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board should soon reach a final decision on the status of gas wells considered to be a threat to thermal extraction of underlying oil sands. This article discussed collaborative efforts by oil and gas companies to resolve these issues, including the use of fluid injection technology, low pressure Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and artificial lift. The objective of the Gas Reinjection and Production Experiment (GRIPE) is to reinject gas to displace natural gas being produced. The pilot project, conducted by Paramount Resources Ltd., consists of 2 injector wells, 4 producers and 12 observation wells that measure gas pressure in the reservoir. The project also includes a 2 stage compressor modified to handle flue gas. According to reservoir simulations, Paramount should be able to recover between 50 to 60 per cent of the remaining gas in place. Results from the pilot suggest that the technique could result in more than half the currently shut-in pools being re-opened. It was suggested that gas-by-gas displacement may result in higher recovery rates because there is usually more remaining gas in place. It was noted that EnCana Corporation has also been repressurizing a depleted natural gas pool by injecting compressed air rather than flue gas. Various other projects were reviewed, including the use of electric submersible pumps, low pressure SAGD and new SAGD well pair configurations. It was concluded that the artificial lift and low pressure SAGD technical sub-committee have now filed 10 applications for funding under the Alberta Energy Department's Innovative Energy Technology Program.

  6. Mechanical properties of dual phase steel quenched in bitumen medium

    OpenAIRE

    Adeolu A.ADEDIRAN; Aribo, Sunday; Muhammed Olalekan Hakeem AMUDA

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of a dual phase steel treated in different intercritical windows and subjected to bitumen as the quenching medium was investigated. The viscosity of the quenchant was altered at several rate, the morphology of phases formed was characterized. Also, the quenched samples produced ferrite-martensite phases obtained at different intercritical windows. The tensile and hardness behaviour of the structures was examined; and the microstructures were characterized. It was obs...

  7. A Different Approach of the Adhesiveness of Bitumens to Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the capacity of coverage in the laboratory may be made visually as well. The operator ’s subjective perspective, the angle of view, the luminosity, the nature and colour of aggregates are many factors that may influence the result. The computer-assisted image analysis qualifies and quantifies objectively enough the capacity of coverage of bitumen on aggregates, removing any exterior influences. It is a simple, repeatable and reproducible used method.

  8. Kinetic of the reaction between bitumen and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of sulphur in bituminous binders has been tried for many years in a number of countries, mainly USA and Canada. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of the reaction between elemental sulphur and bitumen, with the production of hydrogen sulfide. The work was carried out with the help of a thermo balance. It was shown that H2S evolution starts immediately after sulphur melting and that the rate of reaction is of second order

  9. Baseline air quality evaluation for the Venezuelan Orinoco Bitumen Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve a harmonic relationship between oil exploration and production activities and the environment, Petroleos de Venezuela and its affiliated companies conducted environmental evaluations of the physical and bionic media in the Orinoco Bitumen Belt. This region covers an area of approximately 42000 km2 with estimated bitumen reserves on the order of 3 x 1012 barrels, one of the largest bitumen reservoirs in the world. This paper presents the results of a study of baseline air quality conditions: an emissions inventory, surface and upper layer meteorological conditions and measurements of air quality parameters of interest (CO, HC, NOx, SO2, H2S and T.S.P.) taken by a network of automated air quality stations using standard international reference techniques. The temporal (hourly and daily basis) and spatial air quality variability and the variables/activities that might determine the observed trends are discussed. NO, NO2, SO2 and H2S concentrations were lower than the detection limits of the analytical methods, while O3 and CO 1-hour average levels ranged from 5-30 ppb and 0.5-1.8 ppm, respectively, and T.S.P. daily means varied from 10-50 μg/m3, all of which is close to natural background concentrations. Maximum hourly average reactive hydrocarbon concentrations of 0.37 ppm were found near a producing oil field

  10. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter; Todd, Billy; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear...... rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates are...... viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex...

  11. Lessons learned from IOR steamflooding in a bitumen-light oil heterogeneous reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mudhafar, W.J.M.; Hosseini Nasab, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Steamflooding was considered in this research to extract the discontinuous bitumen layers that are located at the oil-water contact for the heterogeneous light oil sandstone reservoir of South Rumaila Field. The reservoir heterogeneity and the bitumen layers impede water aquifer approaching into the reservoir; therefore, Steamflooding would be efficient to extract bitumen layers and improve oil recovery. This research focused on adopting three Design of Experiments (DoE) approaches with t...

  12. Combustion and heat transfer characteristics of pipelineable water-bitumen emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a research program undertaken by CANMET's Energy Research Laboratories to compare the combustion and heat transfer characteristics of Western Canadian bitumen emulsions with those of heavy fuel oil. It has been shown that heavy bitumen burns and transfers heat in much the same manner as heavy fuel oil. It was concluded from this research program that bitumen emulsions would make excellent fuels for boilers and process combustors, providing the combustion and handling equipment

  13. Investigation of microstructures and ultraviolet aging properties of organo-montmorillonite/SBS modified bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Henglong [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Yu Jianying, E-mail: jyyu@whut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang Huacai; Xue Lihui [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} Microstructures and ultraviolet (UV) aging properties of organo-montmorillonite (OMMT)/Styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) modified bitumen were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and physical properties tests. {yields} OMMT/SBS modified bitumen forms an intercalated structure. {yields} The phase contrast between the dispersed domains and the matrix is inverted in SBS modified bitumen, which is decreased with the introduction of OMMT. {yields} The UV aging resistance of SBS modified bitumen can be improved obviously with the addition of OMMT. - Abstract: Organo-montmorillonite(OMMT)/Styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) modified bitumen nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending. The microstructures of OMMT/SBS modified bitumen were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The effect of OMMT on ultraviolet (UV) aging properties of SBS modified bitumen was investigated. FTIR and XRD analyses indicate that the OMMT/SBS modified bitumen forms an intercalated structure. It is observed that the phase contrast between the dispersed domains and the matrix is inverted in SBS modified bitumen, which is decreased with the introduction of OMMT according to AFM analysis. As a result of UV aging, both viscosity aging index and softening point increment of OMMT/SBS modified bitumen decrease significantly. There is a single phase trend in the morphology of the bitumen after aging, which is accelerated by the existence of SBS. However, these changes can be effectively prevented under the influence of OMMT, indicating the good UV aging resistance of OMMT/SBS modified bitumen.

  14. Study on possible explosive reactions of sodium nitrate-bitumen mixtures initiated by a shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential hazards of the mixture sodium nitrate-bitumen obtained by embedding in bitumen liquid radioactive effluents concentrated by evaporation are studied in case of accidental shock wave. A theoretical evaluation based on thermodynamical data show a low probability, nevertheless different from zero. No explosion occurred in tests realized in severe conditions. In conclusion there is no risk of detonation of large quantity of bitumen-nitrates stored in 200-liter drum in radioactive waste storage

  15. Determining the Rheological Properties of Neat and Rubber Modified Soft Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Kjosavik, Andreas Meling

    2013-01-01

    The properties of bitumen as an asphalt binder are dependent on temperature. At high temperatures, the bitumen softens enabling permanent deformation of the pavement. At low temperatures, the bitumen becomes stiff and inflexible and can crack as a result of strain and thermal contraction. Adding rubber from ground car tires increases the stiffness at high temperatures while maintaining or improving the flexibility of the binder at low temperatures. This thesis studies the interaction between ...

  16. Impact of maltene and asphaltene fraction on mechanical behavior and microstructure of bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Hofko, B.; L. Eberhardsteiner; Fussl, J.; H. Grothe; Handle, F.; Hospodka, M.; Grossegger, D.; Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A. J. M.; Scarpas, A.

    2015-01-01

    As a widely accepted concept, bitumen consists of four fractions that can be distinguished by their polarity. Highly polar asphaltene micelles are dispersed in a viscous phase of saturates, aromatics and resins (maltene phase). Different concentrations of asphaltenes in the bitumen result in a range of mechanical response properties. In an interdisciplinary study the impact of the maltene phase and asphaltenes on the linear viscoelastic behavior and the microstructure of bitumen were analyzed...

  17. Rheological Behaviour of Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate [EVA] Modified Road Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this present study, the effects of Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate (EVA) on the conventional characteristics and rheological properties of pure bitumen were investigated. The modified bitumen (PMB) has been prepared in laboratory by mixing bitumen with copolymer EVA. Three different contents of polymer have been tested to evaluate the modification. The basic properties of the PMBs have been determined by using conventional test methods. The results indicated that polymer modification improved the c...

  18. Isocyanate-functionalized castor oil as a novel bitumen modifier

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The use of biomaterials from renewable sources in the synthesis of polyurethane-derived polymers is lately receiving great attention from social, environmental and economic standpoints. In this work, prepolymers having different -NCO/-OH ratio were synthesized, by reaction of 4,4´-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) with castor oil (CO), to be used as modifying agent of asphaltic bitumen. Reactions between MDI and CO, performed with -NCO/-OH molar ratios of 8:1 and 4:1, have led to suitable bi...

  19. Prediction of the viscosity of solvent diluted live bitumen at temperatures up to 175 degree Celsius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motahhari, H.; Schoeggl, F. F.; Yarranton, H. W. [University of Calgary (Canada); Satyro, M. A. [Virtual Materials Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The methodology for predicting heavy and diluted oil bitumen was discussed in this work. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the expanded fluid (EF) viscosity correlation in predicting live and dead bitumen viscosity. Samples of live and dead Alberta bitumen were prepared and tested at a temperature range of 20 to 175 C and pressures up to 10 MPa. The different sample types identified were: pure bitumen, condensate, diluted dead bitumen, and diluted live bitumen. Oil viscosities were calculated from density measurements obtained using the mixing rule, both ideal and non-ideal. The EF correlation validity was tested from the measured data. It was shown that live bitumen viscosity obtained from the correlation deviated from measured data by 20 to 28%, whereas deviations in the dead bitumen were lower. In general, it was shown that the EF correlation proved to be a practical method for predicting the viscosity of heavy crudes subjected to thermal and solvent treatment.

  20. On the investigation of the bulk microstructure of bitumen - Introducing two new techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Dillingh, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Bitumen, the residue of oil distillation and applied e.g. as binder in asphalt pavements displays a rich microstructure at the bitumen surface-to-air surface with several clearly distinguishable phases. However, uncertainty still remains whether this micro-structure is just present at free surfaces

  1. High and Low Temperature Properties of FT-Paraffin-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Fazaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research on the effects of “Fischer Tropsch-Paraffin” (Sasobit content on physical and rheological properties of Sasobit modified bitumen at various operational temperatures. For this purpose, bitumen with a Performance Grade (PG of 58–22 is selected as the base and later it is modified with 1, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 weight percent of FT-Paraffin (Sasobit. The performance of modified bitumen at high, intermediate, and low temperatures is evaluated based on Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP Superpave tests. Results of the study show that FT-paraffin improves the performance of bitumen at high temperatures in addition to increasing the resistance of mixture against permanent deformation. Despite the advantages of FT-paraffin on bitumen performance at high temperatures, it does not show a considerable influence on the intermediate and low temperature performance of bitumen. The effect of FT-paraffin content on the viscosity of modified bitumen is also investigated using Brookfield Viscometer Apparatus. Results show that increasing the additive content lowers the viscosity of modified bitumen. This in return can reduce the mixing and compaction temperature of asphalt mixtures.

  2. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol...

  3. Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Resources in Geological Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy oil and natural bitumen are oils set apart by their high viscosity (resistance to flow) and high density (low API gravity). These attributes reflect the invariable presence of up to 50 weight percent asphaltenes, very high molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules incorporating many heteroatoms in their lattices. Almost all heavy oil and natural bitumen are alteration products of conventional oil. Total resources of heavy oil in known accumulations are 3,396 billion barrels of original oil in place, of which 30 billion barrels are included as prospective additional oil. The total natural bitumen resource in known accumulations amounts to 5,505 billion barrels of oil originally in place, which includes 993 billion barrels as prospective additional oil. This resource is distributed in 192 basins containing heavy oil and 89 basins with natural bitumen. Of the nine basic Klemme basin types, some with subdivisions, the most prolific by far for known heavy oil and natural bitumen volumes are continental multicyclic basins, either basins on the craton margin or closed basins along convergent plate margins. The former includes 47 percent of the natural bitumen, the latter 47 percent of the heavy oil and 46 percent of the natural bitumen. Little if any heavy oil occurs in fore-arc basins, and natural bitumen does not occur in either fore-arc or delta basins.

  4. Reservoir design of a shallow LP-SAGD project for in situ extraction of Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmgren, C.; Walker, I. [Alberta Oilsands (Canada); Carlson, M.; Uwiera, M. [Inc RPS Energy (Canada); Torlak, M. [Siemens AG (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Alberta Oilsands Inc. is developing a project 8 km southeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The Clearwater project aims to extract bitumen from a shallow bitumen reservoir through in situ production; the aim of this paper is to present this project and to evaluate the commercial viability of combining different technologies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), solvent co-injection and electro-magnetic heating. Alberta Oilsands will put 6 SAGD well pairs and infill wells in place to effectively recover the bitumen. Reservoir simulations were carried out using reservoir models based on geological, petrophysical and geostatical work. Results showed that the combination of SAGD, solvent co-injection and electro-magnetic heating can increase bitumen production while reducing the steam oil ratio. This paper provides information on the Phase I reservoir design of the Clearwater project; steam injection and bitumen recovery are expected to start in 2012.

  5. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. S.; Lemarchand, Claire A.; Nielsen, Erik; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    We propose a four-component united-atom molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are carried out using graphic-processor-units based software in time spans in order of microseconds, which enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper also presents results of the model dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation. The diffusivity of the individual molecules changes little as a function of temperature and reveals distinct dynamical time scales. Different time scales are also observed for the rotational relaxation. The stress autocorrelation function features a slow non-exponential decay for all temperatures studied. From the stress autocorrelation function, the shear viscosity and shear modulus are evaluated, showing a viscous response at frequencies below 100 MHz. The model predictions of viscosity and diffusivities are compared to experimental data, giving reasonable agreement. The model shows that the asphaltene, resin, and resinous oil tend to form nano-aggregates. The characteristic dynamical relaxation time of these aggregates is larger than that of the homogeneously distributed parts of the system, leading to strong dynamical heterogeneity.

  6. Base Course Modification through Stabilization using Cement and Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Marandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research was to analyze the use of combined cement and bitumen emulsion in base course stabilization in details and examine its replacement with conventional pavement in regions with low quality materials and limited construction period. To conduct the objectives, the research divided into three phases. Phase I involved the optimization of cement and bitumen emulsion. In this case, a series of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS and Marshal Tests carried out. In the second phase, various alternative roadway sections examined for minimizing the pavement thickness and increasing the bearing capacity and finally in third phase, a Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD machine used to examine the pavement bearing capacity for three sections of the roadway. It was found that, the optimum values to eliminate the creation of shrinkage cracks in the whole project and minimize the execution period and construction costs were 3% for both binders in stabilization and its replacement with conventional pavement method (i.e., stabilized layer with conventional sub-base and base layers. Also, FWD results showed that, the bearing capacity of the constructed pavement using stabilization method is far beyond the predicted values in pavement design. Furthermore, it was found that, with high inflation rate and political situation in the region, base stabilized method decreased the final roadway construction costs in compare with conventional pavement method.

  7. Foamed bitumen stabilization of MSWI bottom ash; Skumbitumenstabilisering av bottenaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Jacobsson, Torbjoern [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, Mikael; Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering

    2006-04-15

    Foamed bitumen is a mixture of bitumen, water and air. Bitumen that is heated to 175 deg C expands about 10-30 times compared to its original volume when injecting small amounts of water and air under high pressure. By exposing a granulate material to foamed bitumen the particles will be covered with a bitumen film. This will give the particles hydrophobic properties, as well as a smaller specific surface. At the same time the mechanical properties of the material are expected to improve due to the cohesive properties of the bitumen covered particles. The treatment can be made both offsite and in situ. The objective of this project was to investigate the possibility to treat municipal solid waste bottom ash with foamed bitumen to achieve improved leaching and mechanical properties. The following leaching tests have been performed on the original bottom ash and two foamed bitumen treated ashes with 2 and 4.5 % bitumen, respectively: one-stage batch test (EN 12457-4), pH-static test (prEN 14997), column test (prEN 14405) and monolithic leaching test (NEN 7345). In addition, the specific surface and intra-particle porosity were determined by BET N2 adsorption experiments on selected fractions of bottom ash. The results showed that the specific surface decreased with more than 50 % and manifested itself in a lower buffer capacity at both low and high pH. For most elements no significant difference in leaching behavior where found when comparing the results from the leaching tests for the three materials at their own pH. This is thought to be due to that sufficient specific area available for leaching exists to reach equilibrium despite the foam bitumen treatment. The results from the one-stage batch test show a minor reduction in leaching for Cl{sup -}, S, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Sb, and Ca for the foamed bitumen treated ashes. The results from the column test of the foamed bitumen stabilized ashes showed an increased leaching of some elements, especially

  8. Upgrading of Bitumen in Super Critical Water — Activation of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, D.; Kishita, A.; Jin, F.; Kazuyuki, T.; Enomoto, H.

    2007-03-01

    Recently, oil sand in Canada has been gathering attention because of its huge storage, and the lack of fossil fuels. However, the bitumen from the oil sand has the problems for commercial use due to its high viscosity, high sulfur and high heavy metal content. Our research group has been carrying heavy oil/bitumen upgrading by hydrothermal visbreaking in supercritical water with the addition of alkali. Results showed that by supercritical water treatment with alkali was very effective for upgrading heavy oil/bitumen. However, water activation for upgrading bitumen remains poorly understood. An understanding of water activation is needed for improving upgrading bitumen in supercritical water reaction. In this study, therefore, the effect of water on upgrading bitumen in supercritical water reaction was investigated by varying reaction pressure and temperature. Experiments were performed in both a batch reactor and a continuous-flow reactor. In batch experiment, experiments were performed at temperature of 380°C to 460°C, the reaction pressure of 24 MPa to 40 MPa, and the reaction time of 30 min. Results showed that pressure and temperature, particularly pressure, have great effect on upgrading bitumen in supercritical water reaction This suggests that that the desired product could be obtained by controlling the reaction pressure and temperature.

  9. Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Rheology and Chemistry of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultravioletlight (UV-resistant material. In this study, two types of LDHs (Mg-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-LDHs were applied to modify bitumen by melt-blending. The effect of ultraviolet aging on the rheology and chemistry of LDH-modified bitumen was studied by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry to reveal the mechanisms of action for LDHs and bitumen. The results showed that within the UV spectra (220–400 nm, the reflectance of Zn-Al-LDHs was larger than that of Mg-Al-LDHs. These two LDHs have different influences on the performance of bitumen. Mg-Al-LDHs had a more obvious influence on the physical and dynamic rheological properties of bitumen than Zn-Al-LDHs. Zn-Al-LDHs improved the UV-aging resistance of bitumen more. The reason can be that the reflectance of the Zn-Al-LDHs to the UV light is larger than that of the Mg-Al-LDHs. The Zn-Al-LDH-modified bitumen had more potential to improve the UV-aging resistance during the service life of asphalt pavement.

  10. In-situ analysis of solid bitumen in coal: Examples from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Glikson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Solid bitumen and associated vitrinite from selected coals from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin were studied using electron microprobe and micro-FTIR techniques. The coal studied covers a range of vitrinite reflectance from 0.59% to 1.33%. Carbon content in the bitumen is generally lower than in vitrinite in coals with vitrinite reflectance below 0.67%. In coals with reflectance above 0.67%, carbon content of bitumen is higher than in vitrinite, reflecting higher aromaticity due to hydrocarbon generation. Sulfur and iron content are comparable between vitrinite and bitumen. Functional group distribution suggests the presence of two types of bitumen in the Illinois Basin coals. The more aliphatic variety occurring in veins and cleats is interpreted as pre-gas generation bitumen, and the more aromatic variety filling cells and voids in inertinite as post-gas generation bitumen. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Solid bitumen and associated vitrinite from selected coals from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin were studied using electron microprobe and micro-FTIR techniques. The coal studied covers a range of vitrinite reflectance from 0.59% to 1.33%. Carbon content in the bitumen is generally lower than in vitrinite in coals with vitrinite reflectance below 0.67%. In coals with reflectance above 0.67%, carbon content of bitumen is higher than in vitrinite, reflecting higher aromaticity due to hydrocarbon generation. Sulfur and iron content are comparable between vitrinite and bitumen. Functional group distribution suggests the presence of two types of bitumen in the Illinois Basin coals. The more aliphatic variety occurring in veins and cleats is interpreted as pre-gas generation bitumen, and the more aromatic variety filling cells and voids in inertinite as post-gas generation bitumen.

  11. Towards the Development of Bitumen Carbonates: An Integrated Analysis of Grosmont Steam Pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeuko C.C.; Wang J; Kallos M.S.; Gates I.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Grosmont Formation in Alberta, Canada is a highly fractured, karstified and vuggy bitumen-rich carbonate reservoir located west of and below the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen carbonate platform extends about 500 km in length and up to 150 km in width and contains an estimated 64.5 billion m3 (406.5 billion barrels) of oil. The Grosmont Formation is larger than the combined total of all other known carbonate bitumen deposits in the world. Here, we analyze early Grosmont steam pi...

  12. Reflectance measurements of zooclasts and solid bitumen in Lower Paleozoic shales, southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik I.; Schovsbo, Niels H.; Nielsen, Arne T.

    2013-01-01

    Reflectance measurements have been carried out on zooclasts (graptolites, chitinozoans, and vase-shaped microfossils) and other organic particles (vitrinite-like particles, porous/granular vitrinite-like particles, and solid bitumen) in Middle Cambrian to Upper Silurian shales from central and...... graptolites at the same level of maturity. Reflectance measurements of solid bitumen are a poor maturity indicator, probably because bitumen can have various origins and morphologies and it may not be indigenous to the host rock. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Dating hydrocarbon genera-tion and migration based on bitumen reflectance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of thermal maturation theories of organic matter in sediments and an improved Karweil's method, a method for dating hydrocarbon generation and migration by means of bitumen reflectance has been suggested. A few representative boreholes in the Tazhong Area of the Tarim Basin was investigated by this method. The results indicate that the three phases of bitumen from the Tazhong Area formed during Middle and Late Ordovician, Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary, and Late Tertiary, respectively. This implicates that there were three phases of hydrocarbon generation and migration occurring in this area during geological history. This study provided a new idea for the geological application of geochemical data of bitumen.

  14. A miniature cell for gas solubility measurements in oils and bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Hooman; Acosta, Edgar J.; Kawaji, Masahiro

    2011-03-01

    A miniature cell has been designed and constructed to measure gas solubility in crude oils and bitumen. The cell was made of stainless steel with a total internal volume of 1.835 cc and only an oil sample of 0.4 cc was required for one set of measurements at different pressures. By using this small cell, the waiting time for reaching equilibrium was less than 10 min. The technique was validated by measuring CO2 gas solubility in two bitumen samples. The results were compared and found to be in very good agreement with available data. The apparatus was also used to study the effect of ashphaltene on CO2 solubility in bitumen. It was shown that ashphaltene had a negligible effect on CO2 solubility in bitumen.

  15. Effects of SBS Configuration on Performance of High Modulus Bitumen Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High modulus bitumens modified by polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS with different molecular structure were investigated on dynamic shear rheometer and fluorescence microscopy to evaluate viscoelastic properties and morphology of binders. The results shows that storage modulus (G’ is obviously less than loss modulus (G”, which means viscous behaviour of bitumen is dominant, and anti-rutting factor (G* ⁄ sin δ is markedly enhanced by star SBS than by linear SBS. The morphology indicated that star SBS improved the softening point more obviously, tending to form a cross-linked network in bitumen. As for linear SBS, it is dispersed in bitumen in the form of globules and enhances the ductility of binder.

  16. Study of the thermal and mechanical sensitivity of bitumen/oxygen salt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe handling characteristics of radioactive wastes containing nitrate salts to be fixed in bitumen for ultimate storage in salt mines according to a process developed at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center have been examined with respect to their combustibility and shock sensitivity in tests of inactive bitumen/salt mixtures. Samples containing 40% bitumen and 60% nitrates of alkali, alkaline earth, and heavy metals, organic acids and rare earths were used to determine the thermal sensitivity (ignition temperature, duration of burning, heating under contained conditions), the mechanical sensitivity (shock sensitivity) and, in order to simulate major shock stresses, the sensitivity against detonation stresses. A few basic experiments were also performed on some beta-irradiated inactive samples. It appeared that although the addition of nitrates increased the combustibility of bitumen, neither the high thermal nor the detonation stresses resulted in any explosion-type reaction. (orig.)

  17. Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: molecular archaeology reveals secrets of past civilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Connan, J.

    1999-01-01

    Natural asphalt (or bitumen) deposits, oil seepage and liquid oil shows are widespread in the Middle East, especially in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Ancient people from northern Iraq, south-west Iran and the Dead Sea area extensively used this ubiquitous natural resource until the Neolithic period (7000 to 6000 BC). Evidence of earlier use has been recently documented in the Syrian desert near El Kown, where bitumen-coated flint implements, dated to 40,000 BC (Mousterian period), have been ...

  18. New maturity indicators based on spectral fluorescence of alginite and bitumen, Monterey Formation, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chungi; Kennicutt, M.C. II (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)); Lo, H.B. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Conventional assessment of maturation level in the Monterey has been problematic, since sporinite and vitrinite are rare or absent. Organic matter is largely alginite and amorphous material, and reliable vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}%) and Thermal Alteration Index (TAI) are difficult to obtain. Large amounts of bitumen often imbedded in the highly fractured Monterey shales cause a suppression of T{sub max} and low values of S{sub 1}S{sub 1} + S{sub 2}. It is often difficult to determine whether bitumen is indigenous or migrated from other more mature strata. Spectral fluorescence measurements of alginite and bitumen have proved useful in assessing the maturity of the Monterey. A maturity scale based on red/green quotient (Q{sub v}) measured as the fluorescence of alginite B when excited by violet-light has been developed and applied to the Monterey. Alginite B is common in the Monterey, and accurate fluorescent measurements can be readily obtained given the highly fluorescent character of alginite B. A total scanning fluorescence technique was used to develop a maturity scale based on bitumen aromatic content and composition. The maturity parameter (R{sub 1}) developed in this study uses the intensity of fluorescence emitted at 360 nm ratioed to that at 320 nm when the solvent-dissolved bitumen is excited at the 270 nm. These parameters allow for the evaluation of the thermal maturity of algal organic matter and bitumen from the Monterey with R{sub o}% {lt} 1. Indigenous bitumen is also indicated by a comparison of maturity based on Q{sub v} (the solid phase) and bitumen maturity (the liquid phase) based on R{sub 1}.

  19. Numerical Simulation Study on Parameters related to Athabasca Bitumen Recovery with SAGD

    OpenAIRE

    Marianayagam, Kristin Reka

    2012-01-01

    The world’s total oil reserves are to some extent dominated by heavy oil. The heavy oil reserves are doubled in volume compared to conventional oil reserves. As conventional oil reservoirs are depleting, heavy oil and bitumen possesses a great potential in covering parts of the future energy demand. The possibility of horizontal drilling has created a pathway for SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage), which is the most preferred heavy oil and bitumen recovery method. The mechanism of SAGD in...

  20. Analys av Nedbrytningsprodukter av Polymerer för Bitumenändamål

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Björn

    2007-01-01

    This project was aimed to study the degradation of polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS). SBS is used to modify bitumen, the binder in asphalt. From earlier studies it is known that SBS degrades in bitumen, but the degradation products have not been identified. To be able to determine the long term effects of SBS in the environment, degradation products need to be identified. Polystyrene forms rigid blocks with polybutadiene as a rubbery matrix between the ridgid blocks. When bl...

  1. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device)

    OpenAIRE

    Nusrat Jahan; Jason Fawcett; Thomas L. King; Alexander M. McPherson; Katherine N. Robertson; Ulrike Werner-Zwanziger; Clyburne, Jason A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil ...

  2. Towards a Viscoelastic Model for Phase Separation in Polymer Modified Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jiqing

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, a review is given on the most popular polymers used today for polymer modification of bitumen. Furthermore, the development of a model for phase separation in polymer modified bitumen (PMB) is proposed, that will enable a better control and understanding of PMB phase behaviour, allowing thus to enhanced long-term performance. PMB is hereby considered as a blend and focus is placed on its structure, its equilibrium thermodynamics and its phase separation dynamics. The effects o...

  3. Chemically modified bitumens with enhanced rheology and adhesion properties to siliceous aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Partal López, Pedro; Ahmad, Naveed; Grenfell, James; Airey, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major premature failures that worsens the performance and shortens service life of pavements. This research assesses the effect that two chemical modifiers (thiourea and an isocyanate-functionalized castor oil prepolymer) exerts on the bitumen rheology and on the resistance to potential moisture damage of asphalt mixtures based on siliceous aggregates. Both thiourea and the isocyanate-based prepolymer improve the viscous and viscoelastic behaviours of bitumen at ...

  4. High-sulphur shale oil as a prime matter for bitumen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition and properties of heavy residues of Israeli shale oil (S content 6.8 %) were investigated as a source for bitumens. Both principal methods of asphalt production - vacuum distillation and oxidizing with air -were studied. Straight-run bitumen had satisfactory characteristics. As to oxidized bitumen, the values of its penetration, ductility and softening point were also satisfactory. The drawback of shale oil bitumens is their high viscosity after the thin film oven test, which means their high sensitivity to aging. The shale oil composition changes significantly as a result of distillation and oxidation. The content of asphaltenes sharply increases: from 3.5 to 20-22 % in straight-run bitumen and to 30 % in oxidized bitumen. It is explained by the reactions of condensation and polymerization of the most unstable polar components during heating and oxidation. Unlike petroleum, shale oil is a product of pyrogenic origin, i.e., it is formed as a result of thermal decomposition of large molecules of kerogen and a part of this cracked material consists of unstable fragments of these molecules, which have a tendency to polymerization. The C/H ratio and nitrogen content increase significantly in the order 'saturated hydrocarbons-naphthenoaromatics - aromatics - asphaltenes'. (author)

  5. Bitumen casting of 14 C contaminated ion exchangers in view of final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Cernavoda NPP commissioning in the frame of radioactive waste management the important issue of processing the ion organic resin exchangers occurred. This waste, generated in different processes of water purification, represents a source of low and intermediate level activity. 14 C occurs in important amounts during the purification of the moderator and transport primary circuit. To secure the environmental safety 14 C contaminating the ion exchangers must be immobilized into a monolithic block of cement, bitumen or organic polymers. Our studies indicated as optimal the immobilization in Romanian 160-70 type bitumen. The barrel containing the immobilized waste in bitumen is then cast in concrete into a stainless steel container. In this work the following stages were achieved: - establishing the technological process of 14 C contaminated ion exchangers conditioning; - conceiving, designing and building the pilot installation for 14 C contaminated ion exchangers conditioning; - conducting experiments of immobilization of the resins used in bitumen on the pilot installation to establish the optimal parameters of installation's operation; - choosing a method of retaining 14 C released in the bitumen incorporation process, in a material able of total absorption; - leaching studies on the bitumen-resin and cement-bituminated resin to determine the 14 C leaching rate

  6. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Todd, Billy D; Daivis, Peter J; Hansen, Jesper S

    2015-01-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear is investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity and normal stress differences of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid. The corresponding molecular structure is studied at the same shear rates and temperatures. The Cooee bitumen is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. The nanoaggregates are shown to break up at very high shear rates, leading only to a minor effect on the viscosity of the mixture. At low shear rates, bitumen can be seen as a colloidal suspension of nanoaggregates in a solvent. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified...

  7. Use of a density meter for analysis of process streams obtained during solvent extraction of bitumen from Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J.R.; Kumar, A.; Sparks, B.D.; Kotlyar, L.S.

    A fast and accurate densimetry method has been developed that allows analysis of concentrated solutions of bitumen in diluents (such as naptha, varsol, etc.) used in solvent extraction processes. By means of an equation described in this paper, densimetry can also be applied to the determination of diluent occluded in agglomerated sand in the presence of bitumen. In this case a prior determination of bitumen content by some other method is required for complete determination.

  8. Polymer and bitumen modified OPC for the immobilisation of ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study has been made of the modification of ordinary Portland cement with polymeric additives, and of the properties of waste forms based on these matrix materials. The additives were styrene butadiene and bitumen emulsions, and epoxide and polyurethane resins: the simulated wastes were organic ion exchanger beads, PWR evaporator concentrate, reprocessing concentrate and Magnox metal. The effect of polymer:cement (p:c) and water:cement ratios on the properties of the hardened cement paste has been comprehensively investigated. Substantial increases in strain to failure, and modest reductions in permeability to water and leach rates for 137Cs, are obtained at p:c >= 0.2. Much larger volume fractions of organic ion exchange beads can be encapsulated in polymer modified OPC than in unmodified OPC, perhaps because of their better strain capability. The radiation stability of cemented PWR evaporator concentrate is better for a polymer modified matrix than an unmodified OPC matrix. Two hundred litre trials have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  9. Incoherent quasielastic scattering of slow neutrons on bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of the cold neutron quasielastic scattering measurements on ESSO bitumen compound at room temperature. The area of the quasielastic peak as a function of the impulse transfer has an oscillatory behavior having a very prominent peak at 0.5 A-1. As the translational motions are too slow in this case, the dynamical behavior of the system is given by rotational motions of different molecular groups of the compound. The so-called 'elastic incoherent structure factor' (E.I.S.F.) of rotational motions depends mainly on the squared Bessel function j0(κd) (where κ is the impulse transfer and d is the gyration radius of the scattering cluster). Using the position of the main maximum in the E.I.S.F. plot as a function of κ we obtained a diameter of about 10 A for the molecular scattering cluster. This value can be assigned to polynuclear aromatic sheets inside of a asphaltene-micelle aggregate, according to Yen colloidal model proposed for compounds of this type. (authors)

  10. Research on swelling clays and bitumen as sealing materials for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a programme of research to investigate the performance of composite seals incorporating adjacent blocks of swelling clay and bitumen. It is shown that the interaction of the materials can promote a self-sealing mechanism which prevents water penetration, even when defects are present in the bitumen layer. A review of the swelling properties of highly compacted bentonite and magnesium oxide is presented, and the characteristic sealing properties of bituminous materials are described. On the basis of this review, it is concluded that bentonite is the preferred candidate material for use in composite clay/bitumen seals for intermediate-level radioactive waste repositories. However, it is thought that magnesium oxide may have other sealing applications for high-level waste repositories. A programme of laboratory experiments is described in which relevant swelling and intrusion properties of highly compacted bentonite blocks and the annealing characteristics of oxidised and hard-grade industrial bitumens are examined. The results of composite sealing experiments involving different water penetration routes are reported, and factors governing the mechanism of self-sealing are described. The validation of the sealing concept at a laboratory scale indicates that composite bentonite/bitumen seals could form highly effective barriers for the containment of radioactive wastes. Accordingly, recommendations are made concerning the development of the research, including the implementation of full-scale demonstration experiments to simulate conditions in an underground repository. 13 tabs., 41 figs., 62 refs

  11. On the determination of diffusivities of volatile hydrocarbons in semi-solid bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide, supercritical ethane and propane have been considered as solvents to recover heavy oil. Given that mixing solvent with bitumen is one of the important parameters governing the performance of the solvent extraction processes, good understanding of solvent dispersion is essential for the proper design of the process. Produced bitumen can still contain some residual volatile hydrocarbons after gas flashing off a three-phase separator. When exposed to the air due to a spill or ruptured line, these residual hydrocarbons can escape and create air pollution problems. Consequently, knowledge of the diffusivities of volatile components in bitumen is needed to assess the extent of environmental damage that may result from bitumen spill or working loss of vapour to the atmosphere. This paper discusses the de-coupled transfer model developed by this author (and described in a paper in vol. 78 of this journal) and its limiting solution, and provides a re-intrepretation of the method by Fu and Phillips (1979) which in turn was based on the late-time limiting solution advanced by Tang and Zhang (2000). The analysis indicates that gas purging is a valid method for determining the diffusion coefficients of trace, volatile hydrocarbons in bitumen. However, the assumption of de-coupling may not be appropriate for large diffusion flux and slow gas flow. Furthermore, improper use of the limiting solution theory could lead to a 25 per cent error in calculating the diffusion coefficient. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  12. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil spill recovery and remediation options. Here we report on the application of charred hay as a method for modifying the surface behavior of bitumen in aquatic environments. Waste or surplus hay is abundant in North America. Its surface can easily be modified through charring and/or chemical treatment. We have characterized the modified and charred hay using solid-state NMR, contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopy. Tests of these materials to treat spilled bitumen in model aquatic systems have been undertaken. Our results indicate that bitumen spills on water will retain their buoyancy for longer periods after treatment with charred hay, or charred hay coated with calcium oxide, improving recovery options.

  13. Thermal Fatigue with Freeze-thaw Cycles of Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Glaoui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research contributes to characterize the EVA polymer modified bitumen, which was subjected to thermal fatigue. The aim of this work was to determine the rheological components and their evolutions under thermal fatigue with freezing - thawing cycles. To represent thermal fatigue phenomenon of polymer modified bitumen in laboratory, both freezer and controlled temperature room were used to produce the real cycles of freeze-thaw of winter season. The results suggest that thermal fatigue is more complicated on rheological behavior of polymer modified bitumen. It is shown that thermal fatigue influenced thermal cracking, fatigue cracking and permanent deformation resistance. It is concluded that thermal fatigue due to thermal cycling, is a big problem to accelerate the degradation of pavement.

  14. Diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in natural bitumens and pyrolysates from different humic coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan-Tan; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1992-07-01

    Data are presented on the distribution of diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in the natural bitumens extracted from unheated coals identified as Rocky Mountain coal (RMC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Eocene coal (GEC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Cretaceous coal (GCC), and Texas Wilcox lignite (WL), as well as from pyrolysates obtained from heating of these coals. It was found that pentacyclic triterpanes are dominant in GEC, GCC, and WL, whereas diterpanes strongly predominate in the bitumen of RMC, indicating that resin is a more important constituent of RMC than of the other coals and that it releases the diterpenoids at an early stage of diagenesis. It was also found that the composition of diterpanes is different among these coals and that the distributions of sterane and triterpane in the natural bitumen of coals are very different from those of pyrolysates.

  15. Diluent and bitumen, an uneasy mix : considerations for treating, blending, transportation, marketing and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation evaluated several issues regarding the use of diluent as a blending agent with Canadian bitumen. Heavy and viscous crude oils are commonly diluted with condensates and gasolines. This improves field processing, transportability in pipelines and acceptability in markets and refineries. The demand for such diluent is increasing because of the large amounts of heavy oil and bitumen currently produced in Canada. The current tenable price of diluents has meant that a wide range of diluent sources and components are finding their way into the Canadian diluent supply stream. This has raised concerns regarding diluent performance and the affect on blended crude oils. The cost of diluent is among the most controllable expense associated with most bitumen production projects. Market factors were considered in this presentation, such as supply demand; price and infrastructure; operational processing and blending issues; diluent quality and component variability; and downstream issues such as refinery processing and production. tabs., figs

  16. Performance Test for Open Grade Bitumen and Cement Mixture OGBC-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Wu, Z. L.; Li, C. M.; Gan, X. Z.; Xiong, X. J.

    For effective prevention of urban road intersection special sections for nit diseases and improving the pavement durability, an open grade bitumen and cement (OGBC-20) mixture is proposed. In organic hydraulic cement mixture design, mix proportion designs of cement mortar and matrix open-graded bitumen were done. The matrix mixture gradation was adjusted .It has greater void of air volume than that of ATPB-25. A variety of tests in laboratory for OGBC-20 were performed. The experimental results show that: The void of air volume of adjusted gradation matrix asphalt mixture is up to 23%. and binder drainage loss is ≤ 0.3%. Cement mortar filling is fuller and better water stability and low temperature crack resistance compared to ordinary bitumen mixture. It has the absolute advantage on high temperature stability and shows the superiority of the new pavement materials.

  17. Modeling the release, behavior, and fate of bitumen-water emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modeling approach was developed for simulating the release, fate, and transport of an Orimulsion spill in lakes, rivers or seas. Orimulsion (a new substitute for heavy fuel oils), is a bitumen and water emulsion which can have a positive, neutral or negative buoyancy depending on the properties of the surrounding water. The unique physical characteristics of Orimulsion make it necessary to modify existing oil behaviour models. Three areas of experimentation were identified: (1) estimating discharge rates from a leaking tanker, (2) understanding weathering of the product, and (3) examining the consequences of subsurface transport. A formula was devised for generalizing oil sedimentation models to include bitumens. It was shown that any bitumen in a marine spill that does not aggregate, sink to the bottom, or adhere to suspended sediment will be transported by the subsurface current. 25 refs

  18. Observations and morphological analysis of supermolecular structure of natural bitumens by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yevgeny A. Golubev; Olga V. Kovaleva; Nikolay P. Yushkin [Institute of Geology of RAS, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    The supermolecular structures of natural bitumens of the thermal consequent row asphaltites lower kerites (albertites), higher kerites (impsonites), anthraxolites from the Timan-Pechora petroleum province and Karelian shungite rocks, Russia, were studied in details. The experimental technique used was atomic force microscopy (AFM), following fracture preparation. The element distribution of the sample surfaces was analyzed by an X-ray microanalyser 'Link ISIS', combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In this work, we characterized the supermolecular evolution of natural solid bitumens in the carbonization sequence by quantitative parameters. We showed that supermolecular structure can be important in defining to which classification group solid bitumens belong. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Diluent and bitumen, an uneasy mix : considerations for treating, blending, transportation, marketing and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, C. [Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation evaluated several issues regarding the use of diluent as a blending agent with Canadian bitumen. Heavy and viscous crude oils are commonly diluted with condensates and gasolines. This improves field processing, transportability in pipelines and acceptability in markets and refineries. The demand for such diluent is increasing because of the large amounts of heavy oil and bitumen currently produced in Canada. The current tenable price of diluents has meant that a wide range of diluent sources and components are finding their way into the Canadian diluent supply stream. This has raised concerns regarding diluent performance and the affect on blended crude oils. The cost of diluent is among the most controllable expense associated with most bitumen production projects. Market factors were considered in this presentation, such as supply demand; price and infrastructure; operational processing and blending issues; diluent quality and component variability; and downstream issues such as refinery processing and production. tabs., figs.

  20. Modification of Bitumen with Desulfurized Crumb Rubber in the Present of Reactive Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zhigang; ZHANG Yuzhen; KONG Xianming

    2005-01-01

    Bitumen was modified with desulfurized crumb rubber (DCR) in the present of reactive additives. The effect of the kinds and content of the reactive additive on properties of DCR modified bitumen (DCRMB) was investigated. The morphology of DCRMB was characterized by SEM and the changes of the chemical structure of DCRMB without and with the addition of the reactive additive were analyzed by FTIR. The experimented results show that the softening point,the elasticity recovery and the storage stability of DCRMB were improved significantly by the addition of the reactive additive. This is because that a network structure of rubber in DCRMB was formed and the chemical reaction between C=C double bonds in bitumen and DCR has happened after the reactive additive was added into DCRMB.

  1. Diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes and aromatic hydrocarbons in natural bitumens and pyrolysates from different humic coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S.T.; Kaplan, I.R. (California University, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)

    1992-07-01

    There is a significant difference in the distribution of terpanes in natural bitumen extracted from Rocky Mountain coal (RMC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Eocene coal (GEC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Eocene Cretaceous coal (GCC), and Texas Wilcox lignite (WL). Pentacyclic triterpanes are dominant in GEC, GCC, and WL, diterpanes strongly predominate in the bitumen of RMC indicating that resin is a more important constituent of RMC than in the other coals and releases the diterpenoids at an early stage of diagenesis. Furthermore, the composition of diterpanes is also different among these coals. The diterpenoid content is negligible in the pyrolysates of all coals. The sterane and triterpane distributions in the natural bitumen of coals are very different from those in pyrolysates e.g. C31 alpha-beta-22R hopane predominates in the m/z 191 mass fragmentograms of the natural bitumens, whereas a homologous series of hopanes (C27-C35; except C28) is present in the coal pyrolysates. C27 steranes are absent in the natural bitumen, but are generated in pyrolysates during lengthy heating of coal kerogen. C29 monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons are abundant in the natural bitumen of the four coals. Triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons are only present in GCC, whereas significant amounts of tetra- and triaromatic triterpenoid hydrocarbons are present in the other three coals (GEC, RMC, and WL). The ratio of benzo(e)pyrene/perylene may be potentially useful as a maturity parameter because the amount of benzo(e)pyrene increases with thermal stress, whereas perylene decreases with heating time. Benzohopanes are widely present in four humic coals.

  2. Waste reduction algorithm used as the case study of simulated bitumen production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste reduction algorithm - WAR is a tool helping process engineers for environmental impact assessment. WAR algorithm is a methodology for determining the potential environmental impact (PEI of a chemical process. In particular, the bitumen production process was analyzed following three stages: a atmospheric distillation unit, b vacuum distillation unit, and c bitumen production unit. Study was developed for the middle sized oil refinery with capacity of 5000000 tones of crude oil per year. Results highlight the most vulnerable aspects of the environmental pollution that arise during the manufacturing process of bitumen. The overall rates of PEI leaving the system (PEI/h - Iout PEI/h are: a 2.14105, b 7.17104 and c 2.36103, respectively. The overall rates of PEI generated within the system - Igen PEI/h are: a 7.75104, b -4.31104 and c -4.32102, respectively. Atmospheric distillation unit have the highest overall rate of PEI while the bitumen production unit have the lowest overall rate of PEI. Comparison of Iout PEI/h and Igen PEI/h values for the atmospheric distillation unit, shows that the overall rate of PEI generated in the system is 36.21% of the overall rate of PEI leaving the system. In the cases of vacuum distillation and bitumen production units, the overall rate of PEI generated in system have negative values, i.e. the overall rate of PEI leaving the system is reduced at 60.11% (in the vacuum distillation unit and at 18.30% (in the bitumen production unit. Analysis of the obtained results for the overall rate of PEI, expressed by weight of the product, confirms conclusions.

  3. Research on swelling clays and bitumen as sealing materials for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a programme of research to investigate the performance of composite seals comprising juxtaposed blocks of highly compacted bentonite clay and bitumen. It is shown that interaction of the materials can promote a self-sealing mechanism which prevents weather penetration, even when defects are present in the bitumen layer. Factors affecting seal performance are examined by means of laboratory experiments, and implications for the design of repository backfilling and sealing systems are discussed. It is concluded that design principles and material specifications should be further developed on the basis of large scale experiments. (author)

  4. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol....... These are separated and identified using High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HP-GPC) with fluorescence detection. As an additional detection method Infra Red spectrometry (IR) is employed for selected samples. The methods have been used on aerosol, soil and other samples....

  5. Determination of the bitumen content in asphalt concrete using a neutron reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron physical method (reflection method) for the fast, nondestructive determination of the bitumen content in asphalt concrete has been developed. The determination is performed on cylindrical asphalt concrete samples containing desiccated rubble matrix. Using samples of about 1000g and measuring times of 20 min, the reproducibility of the bitumen determination is 0.15 w%, the sensitivity is 3.10-3 g/g. The thus obtained results were compared with data obtained by chemical analysis, using two different type of matrix. The mean values and the standard deviations are in good agreement for both cases. (T.G.)

  6. Solubility of methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide in bitumen and water for SAGD modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Murayri, M.T.; Harding, T.G.; Maini, B.B.

    2011-07-15

    The steam assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process is a technology used in unconventional reservoirs to enhance oil recovery, this technique sometimes uses the co-injection of noncondensable gases (NCGs). The co-injection of NCGs with steam is used to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in SAGD, but this technique also affects the performance of SAGD, making the knowledge of gas solubility in bitumen and water important. This study was undertaken to develop a systematic approach to predict the K-values for the gas-bitumen and gas water phase equilibria at different temperatures and pressures. This research has been carried out by using different existing correlations. It has been observed that the Mehrotra and Svrcek gas-solubility correlation should be used to calculate NCG's solubility in bitumen and that NCGs' solubility in water could be calculated with Harvey's correlation. This study defined successfully an approach to calculate NCGs' solubility in bitumen and water.

  7. Thermal maturity, alginite-bitumen transformation, and hydrocarbon generation in Upper Ordovician source rocks, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasiuk, L.D.; Osadetz, K.G. (Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    Organic petrological techniques have been used to study the alginite-bitumen-oil transformation in Upper Ordovician Yeoman Formation kukersite source rocks of the northern Williston Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada. The kukersites are characterized by two distinct interlaminated microfacies, disseminated and stromatolitic, each representing a growth stage of the precursor to the alginite maceral Gloeocapsomorpha prisca. Different rates of thermal maturation and thresholds of petroleum generation for the two G. prisca maceral subvarieties are indicated by different rates of percent reflectance in oil increase and are verified by shifts in fluorescence spectra and observations on transformation into bitumen. With increasing thermal maturation, disseminated G.prisca reaches a softening stage, losing its primary morphological features as it is transformed from a primary to a secondary maceral (bitumen). The stromatolitic subvariety of G. prisca does not display comparable alteration in response to increasing thermal stress. Hot stage experiments conducted on doubly polished thin sections of the kukersites support the optical discrepancies observed between the two maceral subvarieties in the subsurface. These findings indicate that hydrocarbon generation from kukersites may involve two steps controlled largely by organic microfacies. Inception of petroleum generation appears to occur at a depth of 3000 m for the disseminated alginite. Bitumen has been cracked to anisotropic 'coke' on a local thermal anomaly, and peak to postgeneration of petroleum has occurred at a maximum temperature of 148[degree]C, as suggested by homogenization temperatures for fluid inclusions.

  8. Chemical modification of bitumen heavy ends and their non-fuel uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Bitumen asphaltenes undergo a variety of simple chemical conversions. For example, asphaltenes can be oxidized, sulfonated, sulfomethylated, halogenated, and phosphorylated. The net result is the introduction of functional entities into the asphaltene structure which confers interesting properties on the products for which a variety of uses are proposed.

  9. Characterization of cement and bitumen waste forms containing simulated low-level waste incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinerator ash from the combustion of general trash and ion exchange resins was immobilized in cement and bitumen. Tests were conducted on the resulting waste forms to provide a data base for the acceptability of actual low-level waste forms. The testing was done in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Position on Waste Form. Bitumen had a measured compressive strength of 130 psi and a leachability index of 13 as measured with the ANS 16.1 leach test procedure. Cement demonstrated a compressive strength of 1400 psi and a leachability index of 7. Both waste forms easily exceed the minimum compressive strength of 50 psi and leachability index of 6 specified in the Technical Position. Irradiation to 108 Rad and exposure to 31 thermal cycles ranging from +600) to -300C did not significantly impact these properties. Neither waste form supported bacterial or fungal growth as measured with ASTM G21 and G22 procedures. However, there is some indication of biodegradation due to co-metabolic processes. Concentration of organic complexants in leachates of the ash, cement and bitumen were too low to significantly affect the release of radionuclides from the waste forms. Neither bitumen nor cement containing incinerator ash caused any corrosion or degradation of potential container materials including steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. However, moist ash did cause corrosion of the steel

  10. Solidification of low and medium level wastes in bitumen at Barsebaeck nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating experience is presented from 4 years of bitumen solidification of wastes coming from two boiling water reactors. Methods used to sample, analyse and document the wastes are described. Transport and storage methods without remote handling have been adopted. The risk of fire is discussed and a description is given of the measures taken for fire protection. (author)

  11. In situ analytical pyrolysis of coal macerals and solid bitumens by laser micropyrolysis GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, P.F.; George, S.C.; Pickel, W. [CSIRO Petroleum, PO Box 136, NSW 1670 N. Ryde (Australia); Zhu, Y. [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, 434102 Hubei (China); Zhong, N. [Applied Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Petroleum, Changping, 102200 Beijing (China)

    2001-04-01

    Specific macerals in coals and distinct solid organic bitumens within limestones from northern China were separately analysed in situ by laser micropyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major pyrolysates from the resinite and cutinite macerals included aromatic hydrocarbons such as alkylnaphthalenes, alkylbenzenes, alkyltetralins (in the resinite) and alkylphenols (in the cutinite), and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alk-1-enes, n-alkanes, pristane and phytane. The same classes of hydrocarbons were also detected in co-occurring vitrinites, including very similar relative distributions of alkylnaphthalenes in the case of the resin-rich coal. Several observed quantitative differences are consistent with previous molecular data from maceral concentrates. The qualitative similarity of the maceral data suggest (1) extensive assimilation of free hydrocarbons by all macerals within the coals; or (2) inefficient targeting of the macerals by the laser, although microscopic observation showed that the laser craters were generally constrained within surface boundaries of the maceral. The organic composition of a solid bitumen within a Carboniferous limestone was characterised by a distinctive distribution of C{sub 0}-C{sub 4} alkyldibenzofurans, as well as alkylbenzenes, alkylnaphthalenes and a low molecular weight distribution of n-alk-1-enes and n-alkanes. These data suggest the solid bitumen comprises a strongly aromatic matrix with terrestrially-derived oxygen functionality and alkyl linkages. The same aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon products were also detected in the morphologically homogenous carbonates hosting the solid bitumens, indicating the presence of sub-microscopic organic moieties throughout the limestone.

  12. Infrared microscopy investigation of oxidation and phase evolution in bitumen modified with polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virginie Mouillet; Jerome Lamontagne; Francoise Durrieu; Jean-Pascal Planche; Laurence Lapalu [Laboratoire Regional des Ponts et Chaussees, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2008-06-15

    Polymer modified bitumens (PmB) were studied in their original state and after conventional tests claimed to simulate the ageing during the mixing process and several years of road service (RTFOT + PAV). The PmB's included plastomers and elastomers, some of them being in situ crosslinked. Infrared microscopy was used to determine for each phase the polymer rate and functional indices characterizing the bitumen such as aromaticity, aliphaticity and condensation, and also to map the polymer distribution in the PmB. The characterization of PmB in their original state points out which species of the bitumen are involved in the polymer swelling and the effect of the polymer nature. The characterization of the same PmB's after the RTFOT + PAV ageing shows how the bitumen species responsible for the swelling evolve during ageing. In addition, kinetic studies were performed using an heating cell fitted to the IR microscope. They confirmed the tendencies obtained with the conventional ageing tests. These studies come to the conclusion of an interdependence of the ageing of the different constitutive phases in a PmB and of chemical exchanges between them. They make clear the micro-morphological modification induced by ageing in a PmB. They finally help to better understand the effect of a crosslinking on the PmB microstructure and its ageing mechanism. 44 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Bitumen modification with a low-molecular-weight reactive isocyanate-terminated polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.J. Navarro; P. Partal; M. Garcia-Morales; F.J. Martinez-Boza; C. Gallegos [Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales

    2007-10-15

    A low-molecular-weight polyethyleneglycol functionalized with a polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocynate) was used as a modifying agent for a 60/70 penetration grade bitumen. The rheological properties of the resulting modified binder, at both low and intermediate temperatures, before and after curing at room temperature were studied and compared with those corresponding to a SBS modified bitumen. The analysis showed that the addition of a small quantity of this reactive polymer leads to enhanced rheological properties mainly at high in-service temperature (50{sup o}C). However, modification was found to be rather slow during binder curing at room temperature. Moreover, storage stability analysis showed that phase separation did not take place after bitumen storage at 163{sup o}C, though storage at high temperature affects the modification capability of the reactive polymer. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the reactive polymer addition leads to asphaltene-rich regions with lower thermal susceptibility, which are present even at high temperature, yielding an improved bitumen viscosity in this range of in-service temperatures. 38 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Tire-tread and bitumen particle concentrations in aerosol and soil samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2002-01-01

    ire and bitumen particle concentrations are determined in aerosol and soil samples. They each constitute about 5 wt-% of the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in inner city air, collected with a Berner low pressure impactor, 5 m from a road. The particle size distribution shows that 92% of...

  15. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...

  16. Towards the Development of Bitumen Carbonates: An Integrated Analysis of Grosmont Steam Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeuko C.C.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Grosmont Formation in Alberta, Canada is a highly fractured, karstified and vuggy bitumen-rich carbonate reservoir located west of and below the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen carbonate platform extends about 500 km in length and up to 150 km in width and contains an estimated 64.5 billion m3 (406.5 billion barrels of oil. The Grosmont Formation is larger than the combined total of all other known carbonate bitumen deposits in the world. Here, we analyze early Grosmont steam pilots to improve the design of future pilots and commercial development of this massive bitumen deposit. In agreement with the conclusions of earlier analysis of these Grosmont pilots, they were reasonably successful considering the heterogeneous nature of the Grosmont Formation. Operational factors such as poor steam quality, non-optimized high injection pressures and completion issues appear to have heavily impacted recovery performances. Clearly, steam-based recovery operations have good potential for Grosmont, especially considering that it is mature commercial technology. Following an integrated analysis of early Grosmont pilots, we posit that Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS using horizontal wells exhibits greater potential for the development of Grosmont carbonate, compared with Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage technology (SAGD.

  17. Effect of processing temperature on the bitumen/MDI-PEG reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Alfonso, M.J.; Partal, P.; Navarro, F.J.; Garcia-Morales, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de ' El Carmen' , Universidad de Huelva, 21071, Huelva (Spain); Bordado, J.C.M. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, IBB, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Diogo, A.C. [Materials Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    Reactive polymers are lately gaining acceptance to give added value to a residue of the crude oil refining process such as bitumen. The resulting material should display enhanced mechanical properties to be considered for advanced applications in construction. In the present paper, we report the effect of processing temperature on the reaction between bitumen compounds and an isocyanate-based reactive polymer, synthesized by reaction of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) with a low molecular weight polyethylene-glycol (PEG). Rheokinetics experiments, viscosity measurements at 60 C, atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization, thin layer chromatography (TLC-FID) analysis and thermogravimetric studies (TGA) were performed on the reactive polymer and on samples of MDI-PEG modified bitumen containing 2 wt.% of the polymer. Results showed the existence of an optimum processing temperature arisen as a consequence of opposite effects: microstructural availability for the formation of a polymer-bitumen network, reaction ability and polymer thermal degradation. Consequently, this study aims to serve as a guideline for the refining and asphalt industries facing the stage of selecting the optimum processing parameters. (author)

  18. Use of a thin-film evaporator for bitumen coating of radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the development in the laboratory of a process for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen, a technological study of this coating process has been undertaken. The report describes a pilot installation for the bitumen coating of concentrates, which uses a thin-film evaporator LUWA L 150. The first, inactive series of tests was designed to determine the maximum and optimum capacities of the evaporator by varying the amounts of bitumen and of concentrate, the rotor speed and the thermo-fluid temperature. Two rotors were tested, one of conventional type, the other a model especially designed for high viscosity products. The maximum capacity of evaporation of the apparatus is 72 kg/hr for a heating temperature of 221 deg. C. During normal operation, the evaporator can produce 50 kg/hr of coated product containing 55 to 60 per cent of bitumen (Mexphalte 40/50), the water content of the product remaining under 0.5 per cent. A second series of tests will shortly be carried out on this pilot installation using, in particular, bituminous emulsions containing mainly Mexphalte 40/50 and 80/100. (authors)

  19. Effect of ageing under gamma radiations on the long term behaviour of bitumen material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The referential scenario considered for bituminized waste drums is an intermediate storage likely to be followed by a deep geological disposal. Under geological disposal conditions, when site will be re-saturated with water and containers will be corroded, the main phenomenon likely to alter bituminized waste is linked to the presence of water. During intermediate storage conditions, drums will be submitted to the effect of irradiation, and for the external part of the wasteform to the effect of oxidation by surrounding air. The combined effect of air and radiation may increase bitumen oxidation. In further disposal conditions, alteration phenomena of drums will concern aged drums. The aim of these studies dealing with ageing, is to characterise the effect of alteration factors such as irradiation and radio-oxidation on the potential release of radionuclides from bituminized waste in disposal conditions. Radio-oxidation depends on: - the diffusion of O2 in the matrix (diffusion coefficient, solubility), -the intensity of radiation (dose rate), -the time of exposure to radiations. Low dose rates of radiation, near realistic dose rates are here investigated in order to characterise the effect of ageing phenomena on the long term behaviour of bitumen properties. Results concern Infra-red characterization of oxidized bitumen, gases evolution and diffusion of water. The evolution of the thickness of the oxidized layer with the dose and the dose rate for bitumen sample can be deduced from profiles of oxidised compounds concentration obtained with FTIR (Fourier transformed Infrared Spectroscopy). (authors)

  20. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  1. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  2. Influence of mineral fillers on the rheological response of polymer-modified bitumens and mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cardone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of the bituminous components (bitumen and bituminous mastic within asphalt mixtures contribute significantly to the major distresses of flexible pavements (i.e. rutting, fatigue and low temperature cracking. Asphalt mixtures are usually composed of mastic-coated aggregates rather than pure bitumen-coated aggregates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of mineral fillers on the rheological behaviour of several polymer-modified bitumens (PMBs through laboratory mixing. A neat bitumen and two types of polymers (elastomeric and plastomeric were used to produce PMBs, and two fillers with different minerals (limestone and basalt were selected to obtain mastics. The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to characterize the rheological properties of PMBs and mastics. In particular, multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR tests were performed to evaluate the rutting potential at high temperatures, whereas BBR tests were carried out to investigate the low temperature behaviour of these materials. BBR results for unmodified mastics show that the increase of stiffness is similar regardless of the filler type, whereas results for polymer-modified mastics indicate that the degree of stiffening depends on the combination of filler/polymer types. MSCR results show that adding filler leads to a reduced susceptibility of permanent deformation and an enhanced elastic response, depending on the combination of filler/polymer types. Overall results suggest that a physical–chemical interaction between the filler and bitumen occurs, and that the interaction level is highly dependent on the type of polymer modification.

  3. The adsorption of Cs+, Sr2+ and Ni2+ on bitumen: a mechanistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of radionuclides on the waste matrix is a positive effect and contributes to the retardation of released radionuclides migrating to the geo-and biosphere. For the safety assessment studies, it is important to know whether or not radionuclides do adsorb on the waste matrix. In the present work the adsorption of 134Cs+, 85Sr2+ and 63Ni2+ on bitumen was studied as a function of the pH and ionic strength of the equilibrium solution. Bitumen emulsions with well defined surfaces were used. The surface of bitumen is negatively charged due to the deprotonation of weak acid carboxyl groups at the interface. The functional group density amounts to 1.37.1018 groups/m2 and their deprotonation behaviour can be well described by the 'Ionizable Surface Group' model. Cs+, Sr2+ and Ni2+ adsorb on the surface by three different processes, i.e. ion exchange, outer sphere complexation and inner sphere surface complexation respectively. The adsorption depends on the pH and the ionic strength of the contact solution. Under near field conditions, Cs+ and Sr2+ do not adsorb on the bitumen due to the competition with Na+, K+ and Ca2+ present in the cement pore water in contact with the bitumen. Ni2+ adsorption can also be neglected because the formation of neutral and anionic hydroxo complexes in solution competes strongly with the adsorption reaction. Other hydrolysable radionuclides of interest are expected to behave similarly to Ni2+. The main conclusion of the study is that the adsorption of radionuclides under near field conditions is expected to be very low. Consequently, this process need not to be considered in safety assessment studies. (author) figs., tabs., 30 refs

  4. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behaviors of Microcapsules/Bitumen Composites by a Repetitive Direct Tension Test

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Feng Su; Peng Yang; Ying-Yuan Wang; Shan Han; Ning-Xu Han; Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the self-healing behaviors of bitumen using microcapsules containing rejuvenator by a modified fracture healing–refracture method through a repetitive tension test. Microcapsules had mean size values of 10, 20 and 30 μm with a same core/shell ratio of 1/1. Various microcapsules/bitumen samples were fabricated with microcapsule contents of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt. %, respectively. Tension strength values of microcapsules/bitumen samples were measured by a repar...

  5. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Effect of hydrated lime and cement on moisture damage of recycled mixtures with foamed bitumen and emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Nosetti, R.A.; Pérez Jiménez, Félix Edmundo; Martínez Reguero, Adriana Haydée; Miró Recasens, José Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Cold recycling with foamed bitumen can be used as a sustainable and cost-effective rehabilitation technique. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the resistance to the water action in mixtures with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and foamed bitumen by means of indirect tensile test, comparing the effect of two active fillers: cement and hydrated lime. Additionally, mixtures recycled with RAP and asphalt emulsions were also tested in order to compare the response of both technologies. Resu...

  7. First Observation of the Blending Zone Morphology at the Interface of Reclaimed Asphalt Binder and Virgin Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, S.N.; Mohajeri, M.; Schmets, A. J. M.; Scarpas, T.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Schitter, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges in designing recycled asphalt mixtures with a high amount of RAP is to estimate the blending degree between RAP binder and the added virgin bitumen. The extent of blending is crucial in this case as asphalt concrete response is influenced by the final binder properties. This paper focuses on the evaluation of interaction and extent of blending between RAP-binder and virgin bitumen by studying the microstructures of the ‘blending zone’ with atomic force microscopy (AFM). ...

  8. Analysis of the Influence of the Modernized Bitumen Batching System on the Composition of the Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Bražiūnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The weighted mass of a binder in the bucket of the bitumen batcher of a batch-type asphalt plant should be such that its percentage of hot mix asphalt (HMA mixture lot would comply with the design amount of the job-mix formula in all mix batches. A bitumen batcher does not always weigh bitumen portions precisely. Their mass deviations from the amount determined by the project and its variation impair HMA composition and performance. The paper provides data on a statistical evaluation of bitumen batcher modernization performed at Lithuanian enterprise „LL“. The article analyzes differences in the structures of reconstructed and not reconstructed bitumen batching systems and presents methods for determining modernization effectiveness. The paper also focuses on the effectiveness of the batching system, determining deviations from bitumen content in subsamples taken and extracted everyday during two seasons (before and after batcher‘s modernization of producing HMA from the value of job-mix formula and comparing them to the values of tolerances.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, Claire A.; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Todd, Billy D.; Daivis, Peter J.; Hansen, Jesper S.

    2015-06-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. At a fixed temperature, the shear-shinning behavior is related not only to the inter- and intramolecular alignments of the solvent molecules but also to the decrease of the average size of the nanoaggregates at high shear rates. The variation of the viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex systems such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions, and associating polymer networks is discussed.

  10. Effect of Gamma-Irradiated Recycled Low-Density Polyethylene on the High- and Low-Temperature Properties of Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perviz Ahmedzade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes polymer modification of bitumen with gamma-irradiated recycled (γ-LDPER low-density polyethylene. The recycled low-density polyethylene (LDPER was obtained from greenhouse films exposed to sunlight at least one year. The surface of the LDPER was treated by gamma beam irradiation that provided formation of free radicals and some functional groups that may contribute to the creation of strong chemical bonds between polymer modifier and bitumen. Five different samples of bitumen/γ-LDPER compositions with the modifier content, wt. %: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9, were prepared. The effects of the γ-LDPER on original and aged bitumen were investigated by means of morphological, chemical, and physical testing program, including FTIR spectroscopy, conventional tests, rotational viscosity (RV, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, and bending beam rheometer (BBR tests. Superior performing asphalt pavements (Superpave specifications were used to analyze mechanical test results as well as to determine the performance grades (PG of the binders. Optimum usage of the γ-LDPER as modifier in bitumen were suggested after testing program. The results reveal the stiffening effect of the γ-LDPER on bitumen that provide enhanced temperature susceptibility and also promise better performance grades (PG with γ-LDPER polymer modification.

  11. A Review on the Effect of Crumb Rubber Addition to the Rheology of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdan Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crumb rubber modification has been proven to enhance the properties of pure bitumen. This paper looks at some of the international standards for producing crumb rubber modified bitumen (CRMB and reviews the effect of crumb rubber to the rheology of crumb rubber modified bitumen. The review shows that the rheology of CRMB depends on internal factors such as crumb rubber quantity, particle size, and pure bitumen composition, and external factors such as the mixing time, temperature, and also the modification technique. These factors govern the swelling process of crumb rubber particles that lead to the increase of viscosity of the modified bitumen. However, the mixing temperature and duration can cause rubber particles to depolymerize and subsequently cause loss of viscosity. Crumb rubber modification also improves the properties of bitumen by increasing the storage and loss modulus and enhancing the high and low temperature susceptibility. The effect of crumb rubber to aging properties of CRMB is also discussed. Finally several techniques of chemical modification to terminal blends of CRMB and the subsequent improvement to the settling property of CRMB are explained.

  12. Paleoenvironmental implications of novel C 30 steranes in Precambrian to Cenozoic Age petroleum and bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Mark A.; Michael Moldowan, J.; Lipton, Paul A.; Summons, Roger E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Jeganathan, Alwarsamy; Watt, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleums and bitumens from Early Proterozoic (≈ 1800 Ma) to Miocene (≈ 15 Ma) age marine strata contain 24-isopropylcholestanes, a novel group of C 30 steroids. The abundance of these compounds, relative to 24- n-propylcholestanes, varies with source rock age. Late Proterozoic (Vendian) and Early Cambrian oils and/or bitumens from Siberia, the Urals, Oman, Australia, and India have a high ratio of 24-isopropylcholestanes to 24- n-propylcholestanes (≥1), while younger and older samples have a lower ratio (≤0.4). Temporal changes in this parameter may reflect the relative abundance of certain Porifera (sponges) and certain marine algae through time. Geochemical indicators such as this, which can constrain the source rock age of a migrated oil, are useful in source rock identification during petroleum exploration.

  13. RADIATION CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF OIL DERIVED FROM OIL-BITUMEN ROCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Jabbarova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research in the radiation processing of synthetic oil derived from oil–bitumen rock of the Balakhany deposit in Azerbaijan are presented. The study has been conducted on a 60Co gamma-source at a dose rate of P = 0.5 Gy/s and various absorbed doses of D = 43–216 kGy. Samples of synthetic oil from natural bitumen rocks have been analyzed by chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and IR-spectroscopy, and their radiation resistance has been evaluated. The results of the study allow for both assessment of the feasibility of manufacturing petrochemicals for various applications by radiation processing and use of these materials for isolating radioactive sources to preclude their impact on the environment.

  14. Experimental study of simultaneous Athabasca bitumen recovery and upgrading using ultradispersed catalysts injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, R.; Pereira, P. [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    As the demand for oil is continuously increasing, the need for unconventional resources is rising. Oil extraction from bitumen and heavy oil reservoirs requires advanced techniques in order to decrease the viscosity of the oil. To increase the recovered original oil in place (OOIP) of a reservoir and decrease refining costs, new techniques to upgrade oil in situ are being developed. The current study investigates the use of ultra-dispersed (UD) submicronic catalysts to decrease oil viscosity. The experiment involved the injection of the catalyst and hydrogen gas in a sand pack saturated with Athabasca bitumen. Analysis was carried out by building recovery curves, and by comparing the oil recovery from the catalyzed process with that of catalyst-free processes. The study demonstrated that the oil recovered from the new technique had higher API gravity and lower viscosity, indicating the success of the in situ upgrading process.

  15. A parametric simulation study for solvent co-injection process in bitumen deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, A.; Alvestad, J.; Kjonsvik, D.; Gilje, E.; Kowalewski, E. [Statoil Canada (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The extraction of very large Canadian extra heavy oil and bitumen deposits is facing major challenges, such as energy requirements and access to sustainable water resources. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most common commercial in-situ recovery process used for the extraction but it has many associated economic and environmental challenges. Moreover, current knowledge of the fundamental physics and mechanics involved in the process is not satisfactory. This paper presents a parametric simulation study for a solvent co-injection (SCI) process in bitumen deposits. This process has the potential to improve the efficiency of steam processes as well as to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions. The study contributes to further understanding of the development process. Several operational and geological parameters were evaluated to assess their impact on SAGD operations. The results demonstrated that the basis for selecting the optimum solvent should not only be mobility improvement capability but should also include other operational and geological conditions.

  16. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Mukhametshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, which means that the targeted area can be heated up more effectively and with lower heat losses than with other thermal methods. Electromagnetic heating is still relatively new and is not widely used as an alternate or addition to traditional thermal recovery methods. However, studies are being conducted and new technologies proposed that could help increase its use. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs by electromagnetic heating through the review of existing laboratory studies and field trials.

  17. Radiation chemical conversion of oil derived from oil-bitumen rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research in the radiation processing of synthetic oil derived from oil-bitumen rock of the Balakhany deposit in Azerbaijan are presented. The study has been conducted on a 60Co gamma-source at a dose rate of P = 0.5 Gy/s and various absorbed doses of D = 43-216 kGy. Samples of synthetic oil from natural bitumen rocks have been analyzed by chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and IR-spectroscopy, and their radiation resistance has been evaluated. The results of the study allow for both assessment of the feasibility of manufacturing petrochemicals for various applications by radiation processing and use of these materials for isolating radioactive sources to preclude their impact on the environment. (authors)

  18. Unlocking bitumen in thin and/or lower pressure pay using cross SAGD (XSAGD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, J.L. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigated the effect of rate limits, pay thickness, steam injection pressure, and heterogeneity for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cross SAGD (XSAGD) processes. The results of symmetry element model simulations demonstrated that XSAGD offers significant advantages over SAGD in thin and/or low-pressured bitumen sands. By combining both gravity drainage and lateral displacement, XSAGD accelerated recovery, reduced steam requirements, and improved the economic potential of the reservoir when compared to SAGD. XSAGD efficiencies relative to SAGD increased in inverse proportion to pay thickness and injection pressures increases. Optimal accelerated bitumen recovery with lower steam requirement occurred in a homogenous payzone between 10 to 40 m thick with a pressure range of 1500 kPa at 100 m spacing. 3 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  19. Early Maritime Activity on the Dead Sea: Bitumen Harvesting and the Possible Use of Reed Watercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Asaf; Galili, Ehud; Hadas, Gideon; Klein, Micha

    2015-04-01

    Most studies of ancient maritime activity on the Dead Sea focus on the Hellenistic to the Early Byzantine periods, for which a rich body of archaeological and historic data exists. However, finds of Dead Sea bitumen at distant prehistoric sites and an anchor dating to the seventh century BC indicate that maritime activity on the lake preceded the Greek and Roman periods, and raise questions regarding this activity's origins and nature. By linking the exploitation of Dead Sea bitumen with the use of watercraft, and through consideration of a broader early maritime record of the ancient Near East, this study pushes back the dating of this activity on the lake and suggests the nature of its watercraft.

  20. Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayandiran, T A; Dahunsi, S O

    2016-02-01

    Toxicological evaluation of Clarias gariepinus from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria, was carried out in furtherance of studies on the environmental impacts of the bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were taken from three different (two polluted and one as control) sites. The effect of changes in monthly seasonal flow rate was assessed for the sites of study. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) and histological changes/lesions in various organs were evaluated as markers of pollution in the fish blood using standard methods. The result of the physicochemical properties of water from the sampling points revealed some of the values conforming to approved standards while others showed deviation. Significant differences were found in the blood and histological endpoints between the control and the polluted sites as well as between the two seasons evaluated across the sites. The public health implications of consuming this fish are fully discussed. PMID:26725477

  1. Experimental Investigationand Numerical Simulation ofThermal Recovery ProcessesApplicable in AthabascaBitumen Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Souraki, Yaser

    2013-01-01

    Due to reduction of high quality oil resources and consequently increase of oil price around the world, new sources of energy should be found to relief the high demand of energy. Hence, countries like Venezuela, United States and particularly Canada came up with their unconventional reservoirs which contain bitumen, extra heavy oil and heavy oil as remarkable sources of energy. Exploitation of such kind of reservoirs was not beneficial in the past but in recent years due to the increase of oi...

  2. Influence of the bitumen properties on the functional and rheological behaviour of asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Machado, A.V.; Pais, Jorge C.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about ten kilograms of tires are discarded per inhabitant annually. The negative impact of this residue can be reduced since rubber can be reused as a constituent of asphalt rubber (AR) builder in road pavements. However, the materials which constitute the AR binders and their interaction are not sufficiently characterized, In this work several base bitumens interacted with crumb rubber in order to produce AR binders, which were subsequently separated, by using a modified...

  3. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Albina Mukhametshina; Elena Martynova

    2013-01-01

    Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, w...

  4. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of hydrosoluble organic matter in bitumen leachates

    OpenAIRE

    Walczak, Isabelle; Libert, Marie-Françoise; Camaro, Sylvie; Blanchard, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    International audience Bitumen is currently used as an embedding matrix for low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in deep sediments. High impermeability and a great resistance to most chemicals are the two main properties sought. Indeed, the generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents could affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of radionuclide solubility. Therefore, the aim of this study is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of so...

  5. The role of multivalent metal cations and organic complexing agents in bitumen-mineral interactions in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Weibing

    A systematic investigation was carried out to study the interactions between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals (quartz, kaolinite and illite) in aqueous solutions containing multivalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+/Fe3+, in the absence and presence of organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, EDTA and citric acid). A range of experimental techniques, including coagulation measurement, visualization of bitumen-mineral attachment, metal ion adsorption measurement, zeta potential measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses, were employed in the investigation. Free energy changes of adsorption of metal cations on the minerals and bitumen were evaluated using the James & Healy thermodynamic model. Total interaction energies between the minerals and bitumen were calculated using classical DLVO theory. It was observed that while the tested minerals showed varying degrees of mutual-coagulation with bitumen (or hexadecane), the presence of the multivalent metal cations could prominently increase the mutual coagulation. It was also found that such enhancement of the mutual coagulation was only significant when the metal cations formed first-order hydroxyl complexes (such as CaOH +, MgOH+, etc.) or metal hydroxides (such as Fe(OH) 3, Mg(OH)2, etc.). Therefore, the increase of the bitumen-mineral mutual coagulation by the metal cations was strongly pH dependent. Organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, citric acid and EDTA) used in this study, citric acid in particular, significantly reduced or virtually eliminated the mutual coagulation between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals caused by metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe 2+ and Fe3+. Due to its ability to substantially lower the mutual coagulation between bitumen and mineral particles, citric acid was found the most effective in improving bitumen-mineral liberation in solutions containing the multivalent metal cations at pH 8--10. In small scale flotation experiments

  6. Electromagnetic heating for in-situ production of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, Bernd; Karmeileopardus, Denny; Trautmann, Bernd; Helget, Andreas; Torlak, Muris [Siemens AG (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the electro-magnetic (EM) heating process for in-situ production of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. The method aims at heavy oil and in-situ bitumen production in an environmentally friendly way that minimizes the surface footprint. The objective is to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen by a rise in temperature and enable displacement and transport towards the producer. The paper outlines and documents the step-by-step approach which must follow the technology analysis laid out in a government white paper on commissioning and field testing. A simulation example on the reservoir is also provided for in-situ production with EM heating. The paper also describes different electrical heating techniques, feasibility studies and simulation of inductive heating methods, the process of implementation and the benefits of EM heating. The study shows that the new technology is promising and also has other advantages which include cost effectiveness, energy efficiency, and a minimal environmental footprint.

  7. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen concrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediate level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+). The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium. (authors)

  8. Installation of a bitumen coating plant for high-activity concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the excellent results obtained on the industrial coating of radioactive sludges, the possibility of solidifying also the evaporation concentrates with bitumen has been considered. For high activity concentrates, the use of bitumen is however limited by two main parameters: temperature resistance, irradiation resistance. By making use of the characteristics of a blown bitumen, it has been possible to design a high activity coating pilot plant treating concentrations of several tens of curies per litre. This plant will make use of a screw-type extrusion machine capable of coating treated concentrates at a rate of 20 l/hr. Before being coated, the concentrates will be subjected to a coprecipitation treatment designed to make the radioelements insoluble. This installation will make possible, apart from technological studies, laboratory experiments on the coated material (measurements on self-heating, on electrical charges, on radiolytic gases, and also lixiviation tests. It is at present believed, on the basis of available data, that it is possible to coat concentrates having an activity of 20 Ci/l at a price of 1840 F per cubic metre. (authors)

  9. Management of the basal McMurray watersand during bitumen and heavy oil extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, K.C. [CH2M Hill Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The risks associated with basal aquifers in steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) recovery of heavy oils were discussed. Bitumen distribution within the McMurray Formation varies with facies changes in the deposit. The coarse-grained sand at the base of the formation forms a basal aquifer where the bitumen content is low and where pore pressures are high. The confined aquifer is very permeable which poses a major management issue for both open bit bitumen extraction and in situ heavy oil production. This is because the basal aquifer often requires depressurization, particularly in open pit mining because the high pore pressure can reduce pit wall stability. In addition, seepage to the pit floor can reduce the rate of traffic flow. Oilsand and basal aquifers, which provide the foundation for tailings ponds, can potentially form a groundwater flow path for pond seepage. One way to remedy this situation is to develop a strategy for wastewater injection into the basal aquifer, but before this is done certain issues must be addressed, including the effects of pressure interference, fracture initiation and related seepage. Other issues that must be addressed include the affect of increased discharge of poor quality insitu water into the Athabasca River.

  10. The bitumen situation : a Heartland group's hopes to buck the trend of upgrading and refining outside Alberta, and the government initiative that's starting to help

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discussed a campaign aimed at promoting bitumen refining at the site where it is mined. This initiative would increase the amount of bitumen upgraded in Alberta. Rather than investing in new upgrader capacity in Alberta, bitumen producers currently favour processing alliances with upgraders in the United States or Mexico. Bitumen production is valuable, but the end products of upgrading and refining would bring more value to the province. Processing the bitumen within Alberta would provide the basis for a petrochemical industry, supplying feedstock or the building blocks for end products, and create a talent pool of professionals. Alberta currently processes two-thirds of its bitumen, but this is expected to fall to less than 40 percent by 2020. Industry and government cooperation is needed for developing common infrastructure needed for multiple upgraders. Developing facilities in a cluster would lower the entry cost for new upgrader developers, but government would have to take a lead role in such a project. Upgraders are capital-intensive projects, and it currently costs half as much to construct on the Gulf of Mexico coast. The price difference between heavy and light oil has narrowed, leaving little incentive for upgrading bitumen. The Alberta Government's Bitumen Royalty in Kind Program, which gives the government the option of collecting royalties in bitumen (kind) instead of cash, is being used as a lever to attract new upgrading capacity. 1 fig.

  11. Pilot plant studies for a new hot water process for extraction of bitumen from Utah tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    A process development pilot plant for extracting bitumen from tar sands under arid conditions are described. The hot water recovery process under development is required to maximize heat and water recovery, recover more than 90% of the bitumen, minimize the operating cost, and eliminate the use of a tailings pond by increasing the effectiveness of solids separation and dewatering. Technical aspects of process flow conditions, the liquid cyclone separator under development, and testing to analyze the influence of flow rates, size distribution in discharge streams, amount of bitumen recovery from different streams, and air addition are summarized. Test results indicate that bitumen recovery should be at least 90%, water content from thickener underflow and dewater coarse solids averages about 30 weight percent moisture, and the forced vortex cyclone can produce an underflow solids concentration of 69 to 72 weight percent moisture. The proposed flow sheet is believed to be a very low-cost method for bitumen recovery. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens; Determination des produits organiques d'alterations chimiques et radiochimiques du bitume. Applications aux enrobes bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, I

    2000-01-27

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The {mu}-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  13. Biogeochemical modelling of the Mont Terri in situ bitumen-nitrate-clay interaction experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Bitumen-Nitrate-Clay Interaction experiment (BN) currently being performed at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (Switzerland) provides an in situ examination of redox reactions expected between nitrate containing wastes and mineral and organic electron donors present in clay host rocks and as degradation products of organic wastes. The BN experiment has been designed to examine the fate of nitrate that is present in the form of soluble salts within a bitumen matrix; they are part of intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste (ILW) manufactured in France and Belgium and planned for disposal in deep geological clay formations. The nitrate component of this bituminized waste form, as well as that present in other ILW, has the potential to affect the chemical conditions and the speciation and transport behaviour of redox sensitive radionuclides (e.g. Se, Tc, U, Np, Pu) in the near field and in host rocks with initially reducing conditions. A sequence of tests undertaken in the BN experiment will examine the reactions of nitrate with the Opalinus Clay together with acetate as a reference bitumen degradation product. The BN experiment includes comprehensive chemical and microbial characterisation of samples recovered during the nitrate injection tests that record the phases of microbial denitrification and other biogeochemical processes. As such the BN experiment provides an insight into the potential biogeochemical processes that may occur in the excavation and chemically disturbed zones (EDZ/CDZ) of a deep geological repository. In this paper the results of the BN experiment are modelled using the Generalised Repository Model (GRM) originally developed in the UK to examine biogeochemical processes occurring in cellulose containing low-level waste disposed in a near surface facility. The GRM simulation of the BN experiment provides further interpretation of the BN data. In addition, the study is aimed at building

  14. Application of thermodynamics to the estimation of the biodegradation of bitumen wastes package underground stored

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modelling approach to evaluate microbial activity in a geological system is adopted. It focusses upon the availability of key nutrients (C, H, O, N, P, S) and energy sources required for bacterial growth. The model is applied to determine the possible consequences of such microbiological activity in the presence of bitumen embedded waste in a repository for low - and intermediate - level waste. Taking into account this particular environment, thermodynamic and experimental results are given in terms of gas and organic complexant production. (authors)

  15. Gas chromatograph study of bitumen from oil shale of Amman Formation (upper cretaceous), NW Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extractable organic matter of seven outcrop samples of Amman Formation Oil Shale have been analysed by Gas Chromatography (GC). The bitumen is rich in heterocompounds contents (> 60 wt%). Gas chromatograms show a predominance of iosprenoids, specially phytane over n-alkanes, and low carbon preference index (CPI). This indicates that the organic matter is immature, and its origin is mainly of marine organisms. These rocks could be possible source rocks due to the high content of hydrocarbon. (authors). 22 refs., 4 figs. 3 tabs

  16. Effect of waste plastic as modifier on thermal stability and degradation kinetics of bitumen/waste plastics blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different modified bituminous binders are used in pavement construction for improved durability and for enhanced performance in resisting cracking and permanent deformation of bituminous layers. Waste plastics, whose disposal is a matter of concern, have been used successfully for modifying bitumen. This paper reports the thermogravimetric studies conducted on waste plastic modified bituminous binders. Modified bituminous binders prepared using different plastic contents (0-7 wt% by weight of bitumen) were investigated. The activation energies were determined from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data using Kissinger and the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, which do not require knowledge of the reaction mechanism. Modified bitumen (WPMB5) with 5 wt% plastic was found to have the highest thermal stability compared to other binders investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were carried out to find crystalline melting temperature and fusion enthalpy. Rheological parameters of modified binders prepared with different plastic contents also suggest that the 5 wt% plastic content is expected to yield optimal performance.

  17. Quantitative temperature-depending mapping of mechanical properties of bitumen at the nanoscale using the AFM operated with PeakForce TappingTM mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Stadler, H.; Erina, N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bitumen, such as elasticity/Young's modulus, stickiness/adhesion, hardness and energy loss, and sample deformation were acquired quantitatively and simultaneously with the topology at the microscale, discriminating clearly two separate phases within the bitumen. Temperat

  18. The most appropriate mixing method of polypropylene fiber with aggregates and bitumen based on binder mix design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zahedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt is used in road pavements as the binder of aggregates in a great extent all around the world. Asphalt Modifiers have used in pavement engineering in order to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. One of the most important of them is Polypropylene Fiber that causes increasing stability in the mixture. In this article usage of this fiber in civil engineering and especially in asphalt mixtures is investigated; Mixing methods of fiber with aggregates and bitumen are dry, wet and complex are investigated and the most appropriate method because of homogenous mixing and better result is introduced. Keywords: Polypropylene Fiber, Mixing, Bitumen, Aggregates, Binder.

  19. Changes in composition of sapropelic organic acid A and S bitumens from Lake Lakheper in relation to depth of origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar' , Ye.; Palu, V.; Veski, R.

    1982-01-01

    Test results are presented for acid bitumens (from A and S sapropelic post-glacier lake (Lakheper) in Estonian SSR). Using liquid gas chromatography and chromato-mass spectrometry normally saturated and unsaturated monocarbonic acids were determined (figures provided), as well as iso- and antiiso-monocarbonic acids, oxycarbonic, and cyclopropane acids (formulas provided). Analysis of derived data makes it possible to assume that changes in bitumen acids at early stages of diagenesis of the sapropelic mud is determined not only by diagenesis itself, but by changes in conditions under which sedimentation occurred.

  20. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertron, A.; Ranaivomanana, H.; Jacquemet, N.; Erable, B.; Sablayrolles, C.; Escadeillas, G.; Albrecht, A.

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+). The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  1. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sablayrolles C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  2. Integral migration and source-term experiments on cement and bitumen waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a programme of research which formed a part of the CEC joint research project into radionuclide migration in the geosphere (MIRAGE). This study addressed the aspects of integral migration and source term. The integral migration experiment simulated, in the laboratory, the intrusion of water into the repository, the leaching of radionuclides from two intermediate-level waste-forms and the subsequent migration through the geosphere. The simulation consisted of a source of natural ground water which flowed over a sample of waste-form, at a controlled redox potential, and then through backfill and geological material packed in columns. The two waste forms used here were cemented waste from the WAK plant at Karlsruhe in the Federal Republic of Germany and bitumenized intermediate concentrates from the Marcoule plant in France. The soluble fission products such as caesium were rapidly released from the cemented waste but the actinides, and technetium in the reduced state, were retained in the waste-form. The released of all nuclides from the bitumenized waste was very low

  3. Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in fluorite associated with the Windy Knoll bitumen deposit, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, M. R.; Rankin, A. H.; Milledge, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in fluorite, associated with an outcropping bitumen deposit at Windy Knoll, Derbyshire, have been analysed in situ using a combination of microthermometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectrometry, and ultraviolet (UV) microscopy. The inclusions in these samples can be considered as a series with two endmembers: aqueous inclusions containing a low-density vapour phase and inclusions containing liquid "oil" with no detectable aqueous phase. The majority of the inclusions are mixed types containing both aqueous and liquid hydrocarbon phases. Although microthermometry distinguishes at least two different aqueous fluids with varying homogenization temperatures and salinities, the oil fraction is cogenetic and trapped together with just one fluid, a low-salinity, low-calcium brine with an average homogenization temperature of 134°C. The majority of the liquid hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions fluoresce bright blue under UV illumination with peaks around 475 nm, characteristic of paraffinic oils. The FTIR spectra of these inclusions are dominated by peaks assigned to aliphatic C - H bonding. However, inclusions have also been found which display a fluorescence typical of the red-shift associated with less mature oils. The FTIR spectra display peaks assigned to CO, C - O, and O - CH 2 bonding. This study presents new data on the in-situ analysis of hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions from this important area of natural petroleum seepage and ore mineralization. The results suggest a direct link between the fluid inclusion populations, the outcropping bitumens, and fluorite deposition.

  4. Breaking through the bitumen upgrading barriers with the UOP Uniflex Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, D. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    High costs and environmental concerns are some of the challenges facing bitumen upgrading. In addition, yields from conventional process such as coking and ebullated bed hydrocracking are much lower than desired. As such, there is a need for processes that can maximize conversion and selectively produce transportation boiling range products, particularly distillates. There are both technical and financial challenges in providing a reliable high-conversion technology. UOP has developed the UOP Uniflex Process, a commercially based high-conversion residue upgrading process that selectively converts residues from conventional crude oils and bitumen to transportation fuels and high quality synthetic crude oil. The unique features of this technology were described along with commercialization background. Recent advances being developed by UOP under the AERI Hydrocarbon Upgrading Demonstration Program were also described, with particular reference to catalyst design, engineering design and residue by-product utilization. This presentation also outlined UOP's latest flow scheme options for use with existing upgrading technologies. tabs., figs.

  5. A New Method of Detecting Leaks in Reservoirs or Canals Using Labelled Bitumen Emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a method of detecting and localizing leaks in natural or artificial stored-water bodies such as lakes, canals, basins, reservoirs or wells. The method consists of injecting into the stored water an emulsion labelled with a radioactive tracer. The labelled emulsion is entrained into the leakage areas where emulsion particles separate from the water and accumulate. The distribution of these particles, which can be considered as proportional to the specific infiltration flow for structures with interstitial permeability, is then determined ''in situ'' simply by measuring the radioactivity. Where the labelled emulsion is an emulsion of bitumen, the plastic properties of this product are useful in promoting the agglomeration of the particles and their adhesion to the materials of the revetment or wall to be studied. The paper describes the preparation of an emulsion of bitumen labelled with iodine-131 and its application in determining permeability gradients and detecting leaks in canal revetments. It is pointed out in conclusion that this original method has a vast range of applications. It can, for example, be successfully used to study the relative permeabilities of strata in which wells, pits or boreholes have been drilled, and to distinguish between areas of varying permeabilities. (author)

  6. Fire test on a storage container filled with sodium nitrate-bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using combustible material e.g. bitumen, in the solidification of radioactive wastes from processing burnt fuel rods of nuclear power plants, the question always arises: What happens if this hardening material catches fire. The authors put this question to the test by filling a 100 l barrel of sheet steel with a test mixture (bitumen with 52% NaNO3) and placing the barrel in a larger sheet steel barrel (200 l) and filling the intermediate space with sand as well as covering the test barrel by approx. 15 cm. 74 l petrol are poured into this sand and ignited. Result: The barrel does not become noticeably warm at any position. If one assumes that such barrels are not piled ontop of one another and there is a good air supply, as well as - as the authors propose - the space between the barrels is filled, one can exclude any considerable damage, even if e.g. hydrogen should ignite. Should there be no ventilation (closed cavity in rock), then the fire will in any case extinguish when the available oxygen is consumed, there will be no damage in this case either. (orig./RB)

  7. A new method of detecting leaks in reservoirs or canals using labelled bitumen emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a method of detecting and localizing leaks in natural or artificial stored-water bodies such as lakes, canals, basins, reservoirs or wells. The method consists of injecting into the stored water an emulsion labelled with a radioactive tracer. The labelled emulsion is entrained into the leakage areas where emulsion particles separate from the water and accumulate. The distribution of these particles, which can be considered as proportional to the specific infiltration flow for structures with interstitial permeability, is then determined 'in situ' simply by measuring the radioactivity. Where the labelled emulsion is an emulsion of bitumen, the plastic properties of this product are useful in promoting the agglomeration of the particles and their adhesion to the materials of the revetment or wall to be studied. The paper describes the preparation of an emulsion of bitumen labelled with iodine-131 and its application in determining permeability gradients and detecting leaks in canal revetments. It is pointed out in conclusion that this original method has a vast range of applications. It can, for example, be successfully used to study the relative permeabilities of strata in which wells, pits or boreholes have been drilled, and to distinguish between areas of varying permeabilities. (author)

  8. Bitumen Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Daniel; Lejdeby, Mikael; Zarate, Inigo Oz. de; Delamarliere, Mathieu

    2002-01-01

    This bachelor degree thesis was assigned to us in the fall semester of 2001. The purpose was to redesign a machine for the company Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) in Karlskrona. ABB HVC in Karlskrona is manufacturing high voltage cables. Amongst these the seacables are the largest and most complex. The seacables are heavy naval cables and lies on the bottom of the sea. For these heavy-duty applications the cables need good armouring. The armouring, which is made of steel, needs a corrosion protection...

  9. Oil sands supply outlook : potential supply and costs of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil in Canada, 2003-2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment of the Canadian oil sands industry addressed bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs based on extraction, production and upgrading technologies. Forecasts of production under various global scenarios and energy price outlooks were also presented. It was revealed that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. Alberta's bitumen resources are one of the world's largest hydrocarbon deposits. At year-end 2002, the remaining established reserves of crude bitumen in Alberta were estimated to be 174.4 billion barrels and further growth is expected. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. This report discussed the resource base, recovery technologies, history of the oil sands industry, proposed oil sands development projects, and capital and operating costs. Supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios were included. Environmental issues were also addressed along with energy requirements, water requirements, water supply, diluent requirements, infrastructure constraints, and market constraints. The potential effect of natural gas production on the recovery of crude bitumen in the Athabasca oil sands area was also reviewed. Information on every operating, proposed and planned oil sands project in Alberta is available to organizations who provided funding for this study. 84 refs., 42 tabs., 24 figs

  10. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the recovery and extraction of crude bitumen from Canada’s oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in oil sands is presented. • The model is developed from fundamental engineering principles. • Cogeneration in the oil sands has the ability to offset GHG emissions. • The effect of key parameters is investigated through a sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: A model – FUNNEL-GHG-OS (FUNdamental ENgineering PrinciplEs-based ModeL for Estimation of GreenHouse Gases in the Oil Sands) was developed to estimate project-specific energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in major recovery and extraction processes in the oil sands, namely surface mining and in situ production. This model estimates consumption of diesel (4.4–7.1 MJ/GJ of bitumen), natural gas (52.7–86.4 MJ/GJ of bitumen) and electricity (1.8–2.1 kW h/GJ of bitumen) as fuels in surface mining. The model also estimates the consumption of natural gas (123–462.7 MJ/GJ of bitumen) and electricity (1.2–3.5 kW h/GJ of bitumen) in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), based on fundamental engineering principles. Cogeneration in the oil sands, with excess electricity exported to Alberta’s grid, was also explored. Natural gas consumption forms a major portion of the total energy consumption in surface mining and SAGD and thus is a main contributor to GHG emissions. Emissions in surface mining and SAGD range from 4.4 to 7.4 gCO2eq/MJ of bitumen and 8.0 to 34.0 gCO2eq/MJ of bitumen, respectively, representing a wide range of variability in oil sands projects. Depending upon the cogeneration technology and the efficiency of the process, emissions in oil sands recovery and extraction can be reduced by 16–25% in surface mining and 33–48% in SAGD. Further, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of key parameters on the GHG emissions in surface mining and SAGD. Temperature and the consumption of warm water in surface mining and the steam-to-oil ratio (SOR) in SAGD are major parameters

  11. Design of Hybrid Steam-In Situ Combustion Bitumen Recovery Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given enormous capital costs, operating expenses, flue gas emissions, water treatment and handling costs of thermal in situ bitumen recovery processes, improving the overall efficiency by lowering energy requirements, environmental impact, and costs of these production techniques is a priority. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most widely used in situ recovery technique in Athabasca reservoirs. Steam generation is done on surface and consequently, because of heat losses, the energy efficiency of SAGD can never be ideal with respect to the energy delivered to the sandface. An alternative to surface steam generation is in situ combustion (ISC) where heat is generated within the formation through injection of oxygen at a sufficiently high pressure to initiate combustion of bitumen. In this manner, the heat from the combustion reactions can be used directly to mobilize the bitumen. As an alternative, the heat can be used to generate steam within the formation which then is the agent to move heat in the reservoir. In this research, alternative hybrid techniques with simultaneous and sequential steam-oxygen injection processes are examined to maximize the thermal efficiency of the recovery process. These hybrid processes have the advantage that during ISC, steam is generated within the reservoir from injected and formation water and as a product of oxidation. This implies that ex situ steam generation requirements are reduced and if there is in situ storage of combustion gases, that overall gas emissions are reduced. In this research, detailed reservoir simulations are done to examine the dynamics of hybrid processes to enable design of these processes. The results reveal that hybrid processes can lower emitted carbon dioxide-to-oil ratio by about 46%, decrease the consumed natural gas-to-oil ratio by about 73%, reduce the cumulative energy-to-oil ratio by between 40% and 70% compared to conventional SAGD, and drop water consumption per unit oil produced

  12. Hydrogen production from wind energy in Western Canada for upgrading bitumen from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is produced via steam methane reforming (SMR) for bitumen upgrading which results in significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Wind energy based hydrogen can reduce the GHG footprint of the bitumen upgrading industry. This paper is aimed at developing a detailed data-intensive techno-economic model for assessment of hydrogen production from wind energy via the electrolysis of water. The proposed wind/hydrogen plant is based on an expansion of an existing wind farm with unit wind turbine size of 1.8 MW and with a dual functionality of hydrogen production and electricity generation. An electrolyser size of 240 kW (50 Nm3 H2/h) and 360 kW (90 Nm3 H2/h) proved to be the optimal sizes for constant and variable flow rate electrolysers, respectively. The electrolyser sizes aforementioned yielded a minimum hydrogen production price at base case conditions of $10.15/kg H2 and $7.55/kg H2. The inclusion of a Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) of $0.13/kWh renders the production price of hydrogen equal to SMR i.e. $0.96/kg H2, with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 24%. The minimum hydrogen delivery cost was $4.96/kg H2 at base case conditions. The life cycle CO2 emissions is 6.35 kg CO2/kg H2 including hydrogen delivery to the upgrader via compressed gas trucks. -- Highlights: ► This study involves development of a data intensive techno-economic model for estimation cost of hydrogen production from wind energy. ► Wind energy based electricity is used for electrolysis to produce hydrogen in Western Canada for bitumen upgrading for oil sands. ► Several scenarios were developed to study the electricity generation and hydrogen production from wind energy. ► The cost of production of hydrogen is significantly higher than natural based hydrogen in Western Canada.

  13. Sulfur species in source rock bitumen before and after hydrous pyrolysis determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Trudy B.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Lewan, Michael; Hill, Ronald J.; Grayson, Michael B.; Mitra-Kirtley, Sudipa; Bake, Kyle D.; Craddock, Paul R.; Abdallah, Wael; Pomerantz, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    The sulfur speciation of source rock bitumen (chloroform-extractable organic matter in sedimentary rocks) was examined using sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy for a suite of 11 source rocks from around the world. Sulfur speciation was determined for both the native bitumen in thermally immature rocks and the bitumen produced by thermal maturation of kerogen via hydrous pyrolysis (360 °C for 72 h) and retained within the rock matrix. In this study, the immature bitumens had higher sulfur concentrations than those extracted from samples after hydrous pyrolysis. In addition, dramatic and systematic evolution of the bitumen sulfur moiety distributions following artificial thermal maturation was observed consistently for all samples. Specifically, sulfoxide sulfur (sulfur double bonded to oxygen) is abundant in all immature bitumen samples but decreases substantially following hydrous pyrolysis. The loss in sulfoxide sulfur is associated with a relative increase in the fraction of thiophene sulfur (sulfur bonded to aromatic carbon) to the extent that thiophene is the dominant sulfur form in all post-pyrolysis bitumen samples. This suggests that sulfur moiety distributions might be used for estimating thermal maturity in source rocks based on the character of the extractable organic matter.

  14. The composition of acids in bitumen and in products from saponification of kerogen: Investigation of their role as connecting kerogen and mineral matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razvigorova, M.; Budinova, T.; Tsyntsarski, B.; Petrova, B. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Organic Chemistry, 1113 Sofia, Acad. Bonchev Str., bl. 9 (Bulgaria); Ekinci, E. [ISIK University, Kumbaba Mevkii, 34980 Istanbul (Turkey); Atakul, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-03

    In order to obtain more information and to understand the nature of relation between organic and mineral matter in oil shales, the compositions of soluble bitumen fractions obtained by extraction from Bulgarian oil shales before and after demineralization with 10% HCl, concentrated HF, and a HF/HCl mixture were investigated. The four extracts were quantitatively examined by IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The investigation of isolated acidic material of the bitumen fractions showed that the fatty acids are present in bitumen fractions as free acids, esters and salts. The amount of free acids in bitumen is very small. The dominant part of bitumen acids is associated with mineral components of the oil shales as well as part of them is included in the mineral matrix, and can be separated only after deep demineralization. The kerogen of the oil shales, obtained after separation of the bitumen fractions and mineral components, was subjected to saponification in order to determine the amount of acids, bound as esters to the kerogen matrix. The major components found were n-carboxylic, {alpha},{omega}-di-carboxylic, and aromatic acids. The connection of kerogen with mineral components is accomplished by the participation of carboxylic and complicated ester bonds. Experimental data for the composition of bitumen acids give evidence that algae and terrestrial materials are initial sources in the formation of soluble organic matter of Bulgarian oil shale. (author)

  15. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN)) and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H2/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H2S on HDS and NH3 on HDN. (author)

  16. Study of radioactivity diffusion for bitumen-coated blocks produced by an industrial coating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solidification by bitumen of chemical coprecipitation sludges from the Marcoule waste treatment station has been studied in the laboratory and has led to the construction of an industrial coating plant. The quality of the coated material obtained has been controlled by the lixiviation test carried out with ordinary water and with sea-water on 45 ml laboratory samples and on industrial coated blocks of 150 litres. Tests on blocks of such a size have necessitated the installation of three special tanks. Two, each of 2000 litres capacity, contain ordinary and sea-water which was continuously recycled at a rate of 2.5 cm/hr and renewed periodically. In the third tank having a capacity of 11000 litres, the coated block was buried in earth and sprinkled with ordinary water with a view to studying the migration of radioelements in soil. The results of these tests confirm those obtained during the laboratory experiments. (authors)

  17. Delayed coking studies on Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindhakannan, J.; Khulbe, C. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study that quantified the delayed coking product yields of Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil. It also investigated the effect of operating pressure and feed rates on product yield and quality. The effect of pressure on conversion of sulphur and nitrogen was also examined. Experimental results revealed that the yield of liquid products decreases and the yields of coke and gases increase as the operating pressure increases. Sulphur and nitrogen conversions increase with increasing pressure. In this study, the yield and quality of delayed coking products were not influenced by the variation in feed rates. It was concluded that feed rate changes do not significantly affect the yield and quality of delayed coking products because the residual liquid and coke trapped in the coker drum reside there for a duration that approaches infinity, compared to much smaller average residence time for vapor-phase compounds. tabs., figs.

  18. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chacón

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and ammonia (NH3 in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H2/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H2S on HDS and NH3 on HDN.

  19. Generation of smoke and clogging of ventilation filter under burning of bitumen/salt mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire and explosion accident happened at the bituminization demonstration facility of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan on March 11, 1997. To elucidate smoke generation and clogging mechanism of ventilation filters under burning of bitumen/salt mixture in the PNC facility, small-scale simulation experiments were performed. The mock mixtures were prepared by referring to the composition of the real liquid waste and were burnt by heating. The burning behavior of the mixture was observed and the filter pressure drop, which was caused by loading smoke, was measured. Moreover, mass, energy and smoke release rate as direct source term from the burnt mixture and the empirical equation, which could represent the relationship between the pressure drop and burnt mass, were determined by comparing between the calculation results based on a one-dimensional thermofluid analysis code CELVA-1D, and the experimental results. (author)

  20. Fire test a storage container filled with sodium nitrate-bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test was carried out by filling a 100 l barrel of sheet steel with a test mixture (bitumen with 52% NaNO3) and placing the barrel in a larger sheet steel barrel (200 l) and filling the intermediate space with sand as well as covering the test barrel by approx. 15 cm. 74 l petroleum are poured into this sand and ignited. The barrel does not become noticeably warm at any position. If one assumes that such barrels are not piled ontop of one another and there is a good air supply, and the space between the barrels is filled, one can exclude any considerable damage, even if hydrogen should ignite. Should there be no ventilation (closed cavity in rock), then the fire will in any case extinguish when the available oxygen is consumed

  1. Underwater behaviour of bitumen coated radioactive wastes: experimental validation of the Colonbo degradation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the release scenario considered for geologic repository, water is thought to be the main aggressive agent with regards to bituminized radioactive waste (composed in general of 60 weight % of bitumen, 40% of soluble/insoluble salts and a few ppm of radionuclides). Since liquid water can diffuse in pure bitumen, leaching of bituminized waste results in the dissolution of the most soluble salts and leads to the development of a more or less concentrated saline solution-filled pore structure (called permeable layer). In consequence of the generation of a porous layer in the bituminized waste, leaching of salts and radionuclides can then take place. Research performed at the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) aims therefore at understanding the consequences of ground-water immersion on the transport properties and radionuclides leaching of bituminized waste materials. To this end, a constitutive model (called COLONBO) which describes mathematically the leaching of bituminized waste has been developed. The COLONBO model is based on the following assumptions: 1. Water and dissolved salts migrate in the permeable layer according to Fick's first law. The diffusion of water and salts are quantified by effective diffusion coefficients which are unknown. 2. The mechanical properties of the bitumen matrix are not considered during leaching (free swelling). Up to now, the COLONBO model has been used only to model experimental water uptake and salt leach curves, leading (theoretical) estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. The aim of this work was to validate experimentally the numerical results obtained with the COLONBO model. First, the correspondence between experimental and simulated water uptake and salt leach rates obtained on various bituminized waste materials is checked, leading estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. Second, the evolution of the thickness and of the

  2. An optimized setup for determining the bitumen content in asphalt concrete by the neutron reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A setup was developed in order to determine the bitumen content in asphalt concrete by neutron reflection. The main parts of this setup are an Am-Be neutron source of 37 GBq and a 3He neutron detector. To avoid geometrical effects of the measurements, the optimum volume of the samples was determined by plotting the reflected neutron response versus the sample volume. For the calibration of the system, the American Standard Method (ASTM) was used when preparing aggregate and asphalt concrete samples. The method was then compared to the conventional chemical method by analyzing unknown samples taken from an asphalt concrete producing plant and finally the method was assessed in terms of reproducibility, sensitivity and precision. (author)

  3. The road that's taken : Alberta's bitumen and the world of asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately one third of the bitumen produced by the oil sands industry in Canada is used as asphalt in roads and roofing materials. Crude oils used for asphalt production require very little refining. The asphalt market has become a key profit centre for some Cold Lake operators. Imperial Oil has established a research centre devoted to asphalt production at its Sarnia-based refinery. A decline in heavy oil supplies from Mexico and Venezuela has left Canada with a larger margin of the asphalt market. Industry leaders predict that demand for asphalt products will grow by 2.6 per cent per year. A sharp increase in asphalt prices led to many construction delays in 2007. Trials are now being conducted on a new warm mix paving technology that allows users to lower the temperature of asphalt by 20 to 30 degrees C when paving. 2 figs

  4. Aquathermolysis of crude oils and natural bitumen: chemistry, catalysts and prospects for industrial implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanyan, B. P.; Petrukhina, N. N.; Kayukova, G. P.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Foss, L. E.; Romanov, G. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of studies of alterations in the elemental and SARA compositions and physicochemical and rheological properties of highly viscous heavy crude oils upon catalytic and non-catalytic aquathermolysis are generalized. The chemistry of transformations of model hydrocarbons and heteroatomic compounds in aqueous media at high temperature, including subcritical and supercritical conditions, is considered. Comparative analysis of methods for activation of oil conversion via aquathermolysis using hydrogen donors, oil-soluble and water-soluble nanodispersed catalysts, ionic hydrogenation processes and various ways for reservoir heating is presented. Problems and prospects of oil-field implementation of catalytic aquathermolysis for upgrading heavy oils and natural bitumen are discussed. The bibliography includes 234 references.

  5. Canadian heavy crude oil and bitumen: Some new and old ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian conventional heavy oil and bitumen production has been steadily increasing over the last five years. This rise is forecast to continue under modest future crude oil pricing assumptions. During 1990 and 1991, the heavy oil market suffered from wide pricing differentials relative to light crude due to market reductions in Montreal and a feedstock shift at Uno-Ven's Chicago refinery, as well as an increase in the percentage of heavy in the world crude oil supply because of the Iraqi war. These have been offset by price-related bitumen production cuts and minor refinery capacity growth at other locations. The industry is poised for positive change with modest but stable prices and reduced light-heavy differentials caused, in part, by anticipated market expansion due to the June start-up of the Conco coker (50,000 bbl/d) in Montana and the anticipated late fall start up of the Bi-Provincial Upgrader in Saskatchewan (50,000 bbl/d blend). For the future, refinery upgrading and new grass roots refinery additions are suggested for western Canada. Associated transportation savings and condensate blending stock costs are two areas of advantage. Taken together with environmental problems in other densely populated market areas, it makes sense to build new heavy processing capacity near Edmonton but only after all current capacity is debottlenecked and inexpensive additions to current facilities are completed. New capacity will only be built when the heavy/light price differential on feed stock provides economic justification. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Characterization of the viscoelastic behavior of the pure bitumen grades 10/20 and 35/50 with macroindentation and finite element computation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah

    2013-06-23

    In this article, we present an identification procedure that allows the determination of the viscoelasticity behavior of different grades of pure bitumen (bitumen 35/50 and bitumen 10/20). The procedure required in the first stage a mechanical response based on macroindentation experiments with a cylindrical indenter. A finite element simulation was performed in the second stage to compute the mechanical response corresponding to a viscoelasticity model described by three mechanical parameters. The comparison between the experimental and numerical responses showed a perfect matching. In addition, the identification procedure helped to discriminate between different bitumens characterized by different asphaltene and maltene contents. Finally, the developed procedure could be used as an efficient tool to characterize the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic materials, thanks to the quantified relationship between the viscoleastic parameters and the force-penetration response. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 3440-3450, 2013 Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Differences in bitumen and kerogen-bound fatty acid fractions during diagenesis and early catagenesis in a maturity series of New Zealand coals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-bearing functional groups, in particular the carboxylic groups of acids and esters, are mainly responsible for the chemical reactivity of sedimentary organic matter. We have studied kerogen and bitumen fractions from a coalification series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering the rank...... range from 0.28% to 0.80% vitrinite reflectance. We investigated the composition of fatty acids separated from the bitumen, and compared this to the distribution of kerogen-bound fatty acids (esters) obtained after selective chemical degradation of the macromolecular organic matter. We found remarkable...... differences in the fatty acid composition between bitumen and kerogen-bound acids, both in the short (< C20) and long chain (≥ C20) fatty acid range. The compositions of these two acid fractions changed independently as a function of maturation. This points to the long and short chain fatty acids in bitumen...

  8. Measurements of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss at MHz and GHz frequencies for ionic exchange resin embedded in concrete and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectric measurements have been carried out on concrete and bitumen containing ion exchange resin. The results indicate that absorption of radio waves would not prohibit measurements being made on full size waste forms, except in the case of concrete at high frequencies. The results also indicate that dielectric measurements on wastes may provide information related to the water content of concrete and bitumen, and possibly also to the curing time of concrete. (Auth.)

  9. An NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) Investigation of the Chemical Association and Molecular Dynamics in Asphalt Ridge Tar Sand Ore and Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, D. A.; Coover, P. T.

    1987-09-01

    Preliminary studies on tar sand bitumen given in this report have shown that the reassociation of tar sand bitumen to its original molecular configuration after thermal stressing is a first-order process requiring nearly a week to establish equilibrium. Studies were also conducted on the dissolution of tar sand bitumen in solvents of varying polarity. At a high-weight fraction of solute to solvent the apparent molecular weight of the bitumen molecules was greater than that of the original bitumen when dissolved in chloroform-d{sub 1} and benzene-d{sub 6}. This increase in the apparent molecular weight may be due to micellar formation or a weak solute-solvent molecular complex. Upon further dilution with any of the solvents studied, the apparent molecular weight of the tar sand bitumen decreased because of reduced van der Waals forces of interaction and/or hydrogen bonding. To define the exact nature of the interactions, it will be necessary to have viscosity measurements of the solutions.

  10. Paleoenvironmental implications of novel C[sub 30] steranes in Precambrian to Cenozoic age petroleum and bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, M.A.; Lipton, P.A. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)); Moldowan, J.M. (Cheveron Petroleum Technology Company, Richmond, CA (United States) Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Summons, R.E. (Australian Geological Survey Organization, Canberra City (Australia)); Peters, K.E. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States) Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Jeganathan, A.; Watt, D.S. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Petroleums and bitumens from Early Proterozoic ([approx] 1800 Ma) to Miocene ([approx] 15 Ma) age marine strata contain 24-isopropylcholestanes, a novel group of C[sub 30] steroids. The abundance of these compounds, relative to 24-n-propylcholestanes, varies with source rock age. Late Proterozoic (Vendian) and Early Cambrian oils and/or bitumens from Siberia, the Urals, Oman, Australia, and India have a high ratio of 24-isopropylcholestanes to 24-n-propylcholestanes ([ge] 1), while younger and older samples have a low ratio ([le]0.4). Temporal changes in this parameter may reflect the relative abundance of certain Porifera (sponges) and certain Marine algae through time. Geochemical indicators such as this, which can constrain the source rock age of a migrated oil, are useful in source rock identification during petroleum exploration.

  11. Bitumen coating as a tool for improving the porosity and chemical stability of simulated cement-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coating process of simulated cement-based waste form with bitumen was evaluated by performing physical and chemical experimental tests. X-ray diffraction (X-RD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and electron microscope investigations were applied on coated and non-coated simulated waste forms. Experimental results indicated that coating process improved the applicable properties of cement-based waste form such as porosity and leachability. Diffusion coefficients and leach indecies of coated specimens were calculated and show acceptable records. It could be stated that coating cemented waste form by bitumen emulsion, isolate the radioactive contaminants, thus reduces their back release to surrounding and in consequently save the environment proper and safe

  12. Molecular dynamics in bitumen compounds. A combined study by NMR and neutron scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative studies by the combined NMR and neutron scattering techniques opened new possibilities for the investigations of the molecular structures and molecular dynamics in liquids as well as in solids. One of the first works of this type, reported in the literature was carried out in our Institute on supercooled liquid phenol. Later, the idea was extended to molecular crystals by a joint research project, between IFIN-HH, Bucharest and Max-Planck Institute-MD Heidelberg, using advanced solid-state NMR and stronger neutron fluxes. Here, we report preliminary results of the combined NMR and neutron scattering investigations on bitumen compounds that are micellar structures with important industrial applications. The goal of the study is to bring information about the molecular dynamics in various phases of these compounds and on this basis to test and/or improve their microscopic models.The neutron scattering measurements were carried out at IBR-2 high flux reactor at JNIR-Dubna. The neutron energy in the incident beam was 4.43 meV and scattering angles ranging from 6 angle to 134 angle. The scattered neutron spectra at room temperature are shown, for several angles. The quasielastic peak gives direct information about the molecular dynamics via the linewidth dependence on the transfer momentum k2. On this basis we calculated an overall diffusion constant Dn = 1.26·10-7 cm2/s. Dn is a superposition of contributions from the various rotational diffusions as well as the Translational diffusion. The neutron scattering data can hardly distinguish between them. This ambiguity can be partially removed by the information brought in by NMR. The temperature dependence of the NMR spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of ESSO-bitumen, measured at ω0/2φ = 25 MHz indicates several particular features: a) The relaxation process cannot be explained by a single relaxation mechanism. The superposition of two V-type mechanisms produces a reasonable agreement with experimental

  13. Microbiological analysis of the in situ bitumen-nitrate-Opalinus clay interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clay formations like the Opalinus Clay are foreseen to serve as the host rock for geological disposal of high and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste in several countries, because of their favourable properties to delay the migration of radionuclides over time. However, bituminized intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste may physico-chemically perturb the clay barrier properties because in time it will leach substantial amounts of nitrate and organic bitumen degradation products (BDP). To study the physico-chemical impact of intermediate-level radioactive waste containing bitumen and nitrate, an in situ experiment in the Opalinus Clay (Saint Ursanne, Switzerland) named the Bitumen-Nitrate- Clay interaction (BN) experiment, is being performed at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. The in situ equipment of the BN-experiment consists of three separate packed-off intervals, supplied with a filter screen. Each interval is equipped with its own stainless steel water circulation unit. Such water circulation unit contains water sampling containers, circulation pumps and flow meters. One of the circulation units is equipped with an on-line UV spectrophotometer and pH electrode intervals, allowing a continuous monitoring of nitrate, nitrite concentrations, organic carbon level and pH. In a first series of tests, the microbial and biogeochemical effect of a nitrate and/or acetate perturbation is studied. Acetate is used as it a good representation of BDP. Hereto, nitrate was injected in interval 1 while a mixture of nitrate and acetate is injected in interval 2. As an active microbial community can have a significant impact on the physical and (geo)chemical conditions of the clay surrounding the disposal gallery, microbial analyses were performed on samples taken from the interval solutions before, during and after this first series of tests. Our microbial investigations which included Scanning Electron

  14. Measurement of bitumen viscosity in the room-temperature drop experiment: student education, public outreach and modern science in one

    OpenAIRE

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; A E Phillips; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    Slow flow of the viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration, the world-longest running experiment earning the Ig Nobel prize, one drop of pitch takes about 10 years to fall, leading to problems of actually observing the drops. Here, we describe our recent demonstration of slowly-flowing bitumen where appreciable flow is observed on the time scale of...

  15. Influence of the prepolymer molecular weight and free isocyanate content on the rheology of polyurethane modified bitumens

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera Páez, Virginia; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanate-based modification is lately gaining acceptance as a successful way to give added value to bitumen, a crude oil refining by-product. In order to study the influence of prepolymer type on the rheological properties of the resulting binders, six prepolymers synthesized from polypropylene-glycols (PPG) with varying molecular weight (between 440 and 2425) and different molar excess of a polymeric MDI (4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) were used. Two modification procedures, either inv...

  16. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in soil varied from (45.2 ± 5.3) to (484.2 ± 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 ± 2.1) and (22.8 ± 2.7) to (62.4 ± 6.8) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 ± 133.5), (13.3 ± 8.0) and (40.0 ± 10.2) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 ± 36.4), (16.1 ± 13.3) and (32.5 ± 13.1) Bq.kg-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 ± 8.9) nGy.h-1 and (50.7 ± 10.9) μSv.y-1, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 ± 15.6) nGy.h-1 and (36.1 ± 19.1) μSv.y-1, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

  17. Bitumen modifiers for reduced temperature asphalts: a comparative analysis between three polymeric and non-polymeric additives

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Carrera Páez, Virginia; Izquierdo Rodríguez, María Angeles; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    This study presents three bitumen modifiers which may find successful application in the fabrication of binders for warm mix asphalt in the paving industry. In that sense, two non-polymeric additives, thiourea and thiourea dioxide, along with a reactive isocyanate-terminated prepolymer have been evaluated. Viscous flow and linear viscoelasticity tests, at 60 ºC, reveal bituminous modified binders which evolve towards highly viscous materials when subjected to ambient curing. However, at 135 º...

  18. It's all about the bitumen : oilsands producers have the attention of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within 10 years, oilsands growth will make Canada the fifth largest oil producing country in the world, thereby greatly increasing Canada's political power. A review of oil sands development was presented, with reference to the way in which Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) has revolutionized the industry. Recent acquisitions have pointed to the growing level of international interest in the oilsands industry. Construction details of the Surmont project were discussed along with Devon Canada's SAGD project at Jackfish where about 100 well-pairs are expected to be drilled. Petrobank Energy and Resources is constructing its Whitesands project, which will employ the first field-scale application of the toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) recovery method which has lower operating costs and which uses less water and creates fewer greenhouse (GHG) emissions. The pilot was designed to produce up to 1800 barrels per day of partially upgraded bitumen. Details of CNRI's Horizon project were presented, including construction plans and schedules. Shell Canada's increased budget for the first expansion of the Athabasca Oilsands Project was reviewed with reference to their strategic decision to pre-build infrastructure for future expansions. Details of Suncor Energy's production goals were also reviewed, including details of new upgraders and applications. Syncrude's continuing expansions were discussed, as well as their current production levels. An outline of UTS Energy Corporation and Petro-Canada's plans concerning the Fort Hills Mining Project was presented, with details of the new BITMIN extraction process. It was noted that Imperial Oil has filed regulatory applications for the Kearl Oilsands Project, which have estimated total recoverable bitumen resources of 4.4 billion barrels. Husky Energy's Sunrise Project was discussed, as well as MEG Energy's regulatory approval for the first phase of the Christina Lake Regional Project. The Canadian Association of Petroleum

  19. Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory results of a comprehensive regulatory performance test program, using an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The testing has shown that the relatively viscous form of oxidized bitumen that was used has been able to meet all performance requirements. Using a 53-mm Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of ASTM D312, type III, air-blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, was used. The mixed liquid waste contained approximately 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium, and strontium. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, 40, 50, and 60 wt % salt. Performance test results include the 90-day American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements

  20. Proceedings of the 4. NCUT conference on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian oil sands are held as a prime resource opportunity as well as a key to future global energy needs. Expansion projects in Northern Alberta are expected to increase production from the current 1 million barrels per day to 3 million by 2020. However, significant research needs to be conducted to increase the economics of oil sands production. This conference examined various upgrading technologies related to bitumen production and presented details of new innovations in upgrading processes. Many of the presentations focused on issues related to the compatibility and stability of upgraded bitumen and heavy crudes to fuel and pipeline specifications. Research developments in asphaltene behaviour research were presented. Various hydrocracking techniques were evaluated. Issues concerning water use, energy efficiency, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were also discussed. A technical program was presented in which a keynote address examined issues concerning oil sands and the global marketplace. The main conference was divided into 5 sessions: (1) new technologies for bitumen upgrading; (2) energy independence and increased opportunities for value addition; (3) secondary upgrading developments and increasingly tight fuel specifications; (4) corrosion; and (5) fouling. Each session was followed by a question and answer period. The conference featured 31 presentations, of which 29 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  1. Proceedings of the 4. NCUT conference on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Canadian oil sands are held as a prime resource opportunity as well as a key to future global energy needs. Expansion projects in Northern Alberta are expected to increase production from the current 1 million barrels per day to 3 million by 2020. However, significant research needs to be conducted to increase the economics of oil sands production. This conference examined various upgrading technologies related to bitumen production and presented details of new innovations in upgrading processes. Many of the presentations focused on issues related to the compatibility and stability of upgraded bitumen and heavy crudes to fuel and pipeline specifications. Research developments in asphaltene behaviour research were presented. Various hydrocracking techniques were evaluated. Issues concerning water use, energy efficiency, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were also discussed. A technical program was presented in which a keynote address examined issues concerning oil sands and the global marketplace. The main conference was divided into 5 sessions: (1) new technologies for bitumen upgrading; (2) energy independence and increased opportunities for value addition; (3) secondary upgrading developments and increasingly tight fuel specifications; (4) corrosion; and (5) fouling. Each session was followed by a question and answer period. The conference featured 31 presentations, of which 29 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Effect of radio-oxidative ageing and pH on the release of soluble organic matter from bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen is employed as an embedding matrix for low and medium level radioactive wastes. An high impermeability and a great resistance against most of chemicals are two of main bitumen properties. These characteristics of bitumen confinement properties may be modified under environmental parameters during intermediate storage or deep repository such as radiations or the presence of water. The radio-oxidation induces an increase of the quantity of leached organic matter. The evolution of the soluble organic species release seems to be linear with the irradiation dose, as soon as the dose is higher than 20 kGy, and seems to be no dependant of the dose rate. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. An increase of the quantity of leached organic matter is also observed in presence of alkaline solutions. Identified molecules, by GC/MS analysis, are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. (authors)

  3. Thermomechanical properties of bitumen modified with crumb tire rubber and polymeric additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, V.; Martinez-Boza, F.J.; Navarro, F.J.; Gallegos, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Huelva, Campus del Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Perez-Lepe, A.; Paez, A. [Centro de Tecnologia, Repsol-YPF, Carretera de Extremadura, N-V, km 18, 28931 Mostoles-Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, the influence of some additives on the rheological and technological properties of crumb rubber modified binders has been studied. The research has been mainly focused on the degree of bitumen modification, measured as the improvement of the mechanical properties, produced by the additives used, and the storage stability of these binders at high temperature. The experimental results obtained reveal that all the polymeric additives used yield an improvement in both rheological and technological properties of the binder. The storage instability of these binders has been associated to sedimentation processes of insoluble CR particles that strongly influence the mechanical properties of the binder. The additives and processing conditions selected in this study do not completely prevent problems associated with the poor stability of CRMBs during storage at high temperature. Nevertheless, the use of polyoctenamer, FT-wax or SBS-containing additives improves CRMB stability. In this sense, similar loss tangent values were found before and after hot storage of these binders. (author)

  4. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, R.; Canale, A.; Bouza, A. [Departamento de Termodinamica y Fenomenos de Transporte. Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sanchez, Y. [Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas. Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN)) and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H{sub 2}/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H{sub 2}S on HDS and NH{sub 3} on HDN. (author)

  5. Polymer and bitumen-modified OPC for the immobilization of ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study has been made of the modification of ordinary Portland cement with polymeric additives, and of the properties of waste forms based on these matrix materials. The additives were styrene butadiene and bitumen emulsions, and epoxide and polyurethane resins: the simulated wastes were organic ion exchanger beads, PWR evaporator concentrate, reprocessing concentrate and Magnox metal. The effect of polymer: cement (p:c) and water:cement ratios on the properties of the hardened cement paste has been comprehensively investigated. Substantial increases in strain to failure, and modest reductions in permeability to water and leach rates for Cs137, are obtained at p:c > 0.2. Much larger volume fractions of organic ion exchange beads can be encapsulated in polymer modified OPC than in unmodified OPC, perhaps because of their better strain capability. The radiation stability of cemented PWR evaporator concentrate is better for a polymer-modified matrix than an unmodified OPC matrix. Two hundred litre trials have been successfully demonstrated. 20 refs, 20 tabs, 10 figs

  6. Super critical water reactor for use in steam generation for recovery of bitumen resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of recovering the bitumen (oil sand) resources in Alberta requires steam at high pressures. To help reduce the carbon footprint of exploiting these fuel resources, an innovative new design of a CANDU super critical water reactor (CANDU-SCWR) is being considered to provide the high pressure steam required for the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. The high temperature and pressure associated with the CANDU-SCWR allow for the high pressure, temperature steam to be produced without supplementary energy. The Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada (PTAC) has specified the SAGD process requires steam at 11 MPa and near 100% steam quality, and net electrical power of 106 MWe. This paper examines steam cycle and design options to meet the steam and power requirements defined by PTAC. Steam cycle options are examined focusing on the optimization of steam and power conversion. Additionally passive safety and cooling for both the heat transport and moderation systems are considered and their impact on performance are examined. As the CANDU-SCWR is at a preliminary stage of design, basic design parameters have been defined based on preliminary assessments. This paper is focused on a reactor with the following basic design assumptions: Vertical fuel channel; Re-entrant fuel channels; Pu-Th fuel; and Batch refuelling. (author)

  7. The Study Of Briquettes Produced With Bitumen, Caso4 And Starch As Binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ,Ikelle Issie Ikelle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The work was based on production and study of the properties of smokeless briquettes of various compositions with coal and rice husk. Different briquettes were produced with starch, bitumen and CaSO4 as the binders while Ca(OH2 was the desulphurizing agent. The proximate analysis of the raw coal sample showed ash content 19.12%, moisture content 6.25%, volatile matter 41.12%, fixed carbon 33.51% and calorific value 117 KJ/g, the rice husk had the following values ash content 7.53%, moisture content 10.48%, volatile matter 68.74%, fixed carbon 13.25% and calorific value 65.24 KJ/g. The briquettes produced are in the following ratio of mixtures of coal and rice husk 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 respectively. The prepared briquettes were sun dried for seven days, subjected to various tests to assess their fuel quality. The briquettes produced with starch as the binder had better results for faster ignition time, lower amounts of sulphur emissions during burning, highest calorific values and longer burning time for all the different compositions.

  8. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate del Valle, Pedro F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara - CUCEI, Ap. Postal 4-021, Guadalajara, Jalisco CP 44410 (Mexico); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Building 104, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503 (United States)]. E-mail: simoneit@coas.oregonstate.edu

    2005-12-15

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition ({delta} {sup 13}C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka ({sup 14}C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions.

  9. Hot solvent injection for heavy oil-bitumen recovery : an experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, V.; Babadagli, T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Edmunds, N.R. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Steam injection and generation costs can have a significant influence on the overall economics of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes. The economic feasibility of miscible recovery methods is based on the use of effective solvent retrieval procedures. This study investigated the performance of solvents at higher temperatures. Glass bead packs and Berea sandstone cores were used to represent different types of pore structures in a series of laboratory experiments. The samples were saturated with heavy oil and exposed to paraffinic solvent vapors at temperatures above boiling point at a pressure of 1500 kPa. The solvents were then collected from each sample and analyzed in order to determine composition, viscosity, and asphaltene content. The amounts of oil recovered were also analyzed and the quantity of the asphaltene precipitated with each of the tested solvents was determined. Results of the study were then used to determine optimal conditions for each solvent type and to assess which solvents had the highest recovery rates. Butane diluted the oil more than propane, which resulted in a lower asphaltene content and decreased viscosity in the oil samples. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  10. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition (δ 13C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka (14C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions

  11. Rubber bearing and bitumen infill support system for seismic protection of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prestressed concrete pressure vessel (PCPV) for the AGR is of cylindrical type. The whole of the reactor primary circuit is contained within the PCPV vault and includes the reactor core and support structures, boilers and gas circulators. The PCPV is essentially free standing on its foundation raft. In order to transmit gravitational and seismic loads between the PCPV and the foundation raft, a support system is used which consists of concentric rings of neoprene pads and a thin annulus of bitumen infill. In order to assess the importance of both stiffness and damping of the PCPV support system on the overall AGR response, detailed parametric studies were carried out using time-history dynamic analysis in conjunction with the modal superposition technique. The effects of both stiffness and damping are compared in terms of the maximum dynamic response (maximum accelerations and maximum relative displacements) and also floor response spectra at various locations on the nuclear island. It is clearly apparent from these investigations that for an appropriate range of structures on the nuclear island (such as the PCPV and its internals), greater reduction in seismic loading can be achieved by proper selection of stiffnesses and damping of the PCPV support system without resorting to strengthening techniques. (orig./HP)

  12. Chemistry and mineralogy of natural bitumens and heavy oils and their reservoir rocks from the United States, Canada, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, John W.; Meyer, R.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Doughten, M.W.; Anders, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one samples from natural bitumen and heavy oil deposits in seven States of the United States and six samples from outside the United States form the basis of this initial study. This Circular gives the mineral content of the reservoir rock, the trace-element distribution in the reservoir rock and hydrocarbons, and the composition of the heavy oil and natural bitumen. The reservoir rock and sediment residues from California contain more trace-element maximum amounts than any of the other rock samples. These relatively high concentrations of trace elements may be due, in part, to the low quartz content of the rock and to the presence of heulandite, cristobalite, siderite, and pyrite. The reservoir rock and sediment residues from Oklahoma contain more minimum amounts of trace elements than any of the other rock samples. This pattern probably results from the large amount of quartz in four of the samples and a large amount of calcite in the other sample. The maximum and minimum amounts of trace elements in the bitumen and heavy oil do not correlate with those in the reservoir rocks. The bitumen from Utah contains the greatest number of trace-element maxima, whereas there is no trend in the trace-element minima in the bitumen and heavy oil.

  13. It's all about the bitumen : oilsands producers have the attention of the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2005-09-01

    Within 10 years, oilsands growth will make Canada the fifth largest oil producing country in the world, thereby greatly increasing Canada's political power. A review of oil sands development was presented, with reference to the way in which Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) has revolutionized the industry. Recent acquisitions have pointed to the growing level of international interest in the oilsands industry. Construction details of the Surmont project were discussed along with Devon Canada's SAGD project at Jackfish where about 100 well-pairs are expected to be drilled. Petrobank Energy and Resources is constructing its Whitesands project, which will employ the first field-scale application of the toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) recovery method which has lower operating costs and which uses less water and creates fewer greenhouse (GHG) emissions. The pilot was designed to produce up to 1800 barrels per day of partially upgraded bitumen. Details of CNRI's Horizon project were presented, including construction plans and schedules. Shell Canada's increased budget for the first expansion of the Athabasca Oilsands Project was reviewed with reference to their strategic decision to pre-build infrastructure for future expansions. Details of Suncor Energy's production goals were also reviewed, including details of new upgraders and applications. Syncrude's continuing expansions were discussed, as well as their current production levels. An outline of UTS Energy Corporation and Petro-Canada's plans concerning the Fort Hills Mining Project was presented, with details of the new BITMIN extraction process. It was noted that Imperial Oil has filed regulatory applications for the Kearl Oilsands Project, which have estimated total recoverable bitumen resources of 4.4 billion barrels. Husky Energy's Sunrise Project was discussed, as well as MEG Energy's regulatory approval for the first phase of the Christina Lake Regional

  14. Hydroprocessing full-range of heavy oils and bitumen using ultradispersed catalysts at low severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Enzo

    The progressive exhaustion of light crude oils is forcing the petroleum industry to explore new alternatives for the exploitation of unconventional oils. New approaches are searching for technologies able to produce, transport and refine these feedstocks at lower costs, in which symbiotic processes between the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the conventional upgrading technologies are under investigation. The process explored in this thesis is an interesting alternative for in-situ upgrading of these crude oils in the presence of ultradispersed (UD) catalysts, which are included as a disperse phase able to circulate along with the processed feed. The objectives of this work are: (a) study the performance of UD catalysts in the presence of a full range (non fractioned) heavy oil and bitumen and (b) evaluate the recyclability of the UD catalysts. Four different heavy crude oils were evaluated in the presence with UD catalysts at a total pressure of 2.8 MPa, residence time of 8 hours and reaction temperatures from 360 up to 400ºC. Thermal and catalytic hydro-processing were compared in terms of conversion and product stability. A comparison between the different crude oils was additionally derived in terms of SARA, initial micro-carbon content and virgin oil stability among other properties. Advantages of catalytic hydro-processing over thermal hydro-processing were evidenced, with UD catalysts playing an essential hydrogenating role while retarding coke formation; microcarbon and asphaltenes reduction in the presence of UD catalysts was observed. To evaluate the feasibility of recycling the UD catalysts, a micro-slurry recycled unit was developed as part of this research. These main results showed: (a) a successful design of this unit, (b) that temperature, LHSV and fractional recycling ratio have more impact on VGO conversion, while pressure has almost no effect, and (c) an UD catalysts agglomeration process was detected, however this process is slow and reversible.

  15. Should Alberta upgrade oil sands bitumen? An integrated life cycle framework to evaluate energy systems investment tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions costs in energy systems investment decision-making requires the development of a framework that accounts for GHG and economic tradeoffs. This paper develops such a framework by integrating partial cost–benefit analysis with life cycle assessment to explore the question of whether bitumen should be upgraded in the Canadian province of Alberta to produce synthetic crude oil (SCO), or blended with light hydrocarbons to produce lower-quality diluted bitumen (dilbit). The net present value (NPV) of these options is calculated from the stakeholder perspectives of the oil sands industry, the Alberta public, and a climate-concerned Alberta resident. This calculation includes monetized GHG emissions costs stemming from a hypothetical economy-wide GHG price, and a sensitivity analysis explores the effects of variations in technical and economic conditions on stakeholders’ preferences. We find that under most plausible sets of conditions, industry would prefer the dilution option, while the climate-concerned Alberta resident would prefer the upgrading option. In contrast, the preferences of the general Alberta public depend on the values of key variables (e.g., the SCO-dilbit price differential). Key drivers of differences among stakeholders’ preferences include different perceptions of risks and responsibilities for life cycle GHG emissions. - Highlights: • We develop a novel integrated partial cost-benefit analysis/LCA framework. • We consider stakeholder perspectives, and technical and GHG price variations. • Upgrading is typically less GHG-intensive than dilution per barrel of bitumen. • Dilution is typically less GHG-intensive than upgrading per mega joule of gasoline. • Even stringent GHG prices may not align preferences on energy systems investment decisions

  16. Comparison of the chemical structure of coal hydrogenation products, Athabasca tar sand bitumen and Green River shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.; Yoshida, T.; Nakata, Y.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hino, M.; Ikawa, Y.; Makabe, M.; Bodily, D.M.

    1983-03-01

    Coal hydrogenation products, Athabasca tar sand bitumen, and Green River shale oil produced by retorting were analyzed by the Brown-Ladner method and the Takeya et al. method on the basis of elemental analysis and /sup 1/H-NMR data, by /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy and by FT-IR spectroscopy. Structural characteristics were compared. The results show that the chemical structure of oils from Green River shale oil and Athabasca tar sand bitumen, and the oils produced in the initial stage of hydrogenation of Taiheiyo coal and Clear Creek, Utah, coal is characterized as monomers consisting of units of one aromatic ring substituted highly with C/sub 5//sub -//sub 6/ aliphatic chains and heteroatom-containing functional groups. The chemical structure of asphaltenes from Green River shale oil and Athabasca tar sand bitumen is characterized by oligomers consisting of units of 1-2 aromatic rings substituted highly with C/sub 3//sub -//sub 5/ aliphatic chains and heteroatom-containing functional groups. The chemical structure of asphaltenes from coal hydrogenation is characterized by dimers and/or trimers of unit structures of 2 to 5 condensed aromatic rings, substituted moderately with C/sub 2//sub -//sub 5/ aliphatic chains and heteroatom-containing functional groups. The close agreement between f/SUB/a(/sup 1/H-NMR) and f/SUB/a(/sup 13/C-NMR) for Green River shale oil derivatives indicates that the assumption of 2 for the atomic H/C ratio of aliphatic structures is reasonable. For coal hydrogenation products, a value of 1.6-1.7 for the H/C ratio of aliphatic structures would be more reasonable. (25 refs).

  17. Improved set-up for determination of bitumen content in asphalt concrete by the neutron reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set-up was developed for the determination of bitumen in asphalt concrete by the neutron reflection method. The main parts of this set-up include an Am-Be neutron source (1 Ci) and a 3He neutron detector. To avoid geometrical effects on the measurements, the optimum sample volume was determined from the neutron response vs volume sample plot. The AST method (ASTM) was used for calibration when preparing the aggregate and asphalt concrete samples. The method was compared to the conventional chemical method by analysing unknown samples taken from the asphalt concrete producing plant. The method was characterized by its reproducibility, sensitivity and precision

  18. Irritative effects of fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways: results of a cross-shift study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Pesch, Beate; Kappler, Martin; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Rihs, Hans Peter; Merget, Rolf; Bruening, Thomas [Institut der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Schott, Klaus [Berufsgenossenschaft der Bauwirtschaft (BG BAU), Munich (Germany); Preuss, Ralf; Angerer, Juergen [Universitaet Erlangen, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin (IPASUM), Erlangen (Germany); Hahn, Jens Uwe [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut fuer Arbeitsschutz (BGIA), Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Possible health hazards of fumes and aerosols of bitumen are in discussion, and data on their adverse effects on human airways under current exposure conditions are limited. To assess the irritative effects of exposure to fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways, a cross-sectional cross-shift study was conducted including external and internal exposure measurements, spirometry and especially non-invasive methods like nasal lavage collection and induction of sputum in order to identify and evaluate more precisely inflammatory process in the upper and lower airways. The cross-shift study comprised 74 mastic asphalt workers who were exposed to fumes and aerosols of bitumen and 49 construction workers without this exposure as reference group. Questionnaire, spirometry, ambient monitoring and urinary analysis were performed. Humoral and cellular parameters were measured in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and induced sputum. For data analysis, a mixed linear model was performed on the different outcomes with exposure group, time of measurement (pre-, post-shift), current smoking, German nationality and age as fixed factors and subjects as random factor. Based on personal exposure measurements during shift, mastic asphalt workers were classified into a low ({<=}10 mg/m{sup 3}; n = 46) and a high (>10 mg/m{sup 3}; n = 28) exposure group. High exposure was accompanied by significant higher urinary post-shift concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes. Acute respiratory symptoms were reported more frequently in the high exposure group after shift. Significant cross-shift declines in lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1} (% predicted)] and forced vital capacity [FVC (% predicted)]) were measured in mastic asphalt workers. Pre-shift FEV{sub 1} (% predicted) and FVC (% predicted) were higher in the low exposure group. In pre- and post-shift NALF samples, interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-, IL-8- and total protein concentrations

  19. Sorption of cesium, strontium, iodine, nickel and carbon in mixtures of concrete, crushed rock and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of Cs-134, Sr-85, I-125, Ni-63 and C-14 on simulated mixtures of materials present in the repositories for low and medium level wastes were studied. Samples were selected according to the Finnish plans for the repositories. The components of the mixtures were crushed rock, concrete (IVO and TVO) and bitumen (TVO) to be used as waste package, backfill and construction material. The ground water used was collected from the planned disposal sites for the low and medium level wastes. The solution-to-solid mass-ratios (V/M) have been chosen to simulate the conditions prevailing in repositories. The Ksub(d)-values of the mixtures were determined by the batch method. The Ksub(d)-values of the mixtures were also calculated using the relative mass of each component and the Ksub(d)-values determined for each component separately. The effect of concrete water as well as the correction due to the ratio of the liquid volume to solid mass (V/M-ratio) was taken into account in the determinations of the calculated Ksub(d)-values. The experimental Ksub(d)-values of cesium were 10 - 115 and 1 - 3 ml/g for TVO's and IVO's mixtures, respectively. The calculated Ksub(d)-values were 2 - 26 times higher than the experimental Ksub(d)-values. The experimental and calculated Ksub(d)-values of strontium, iodine and nickel were the same order of magnitude. The Ksub(d)-values of strontium were about 1 - 16 ml/g. Low sorption of iodine in all samples was found, the Ksub(d)-values were < 0.6 ml/g. The Ksub(d)-values of nickel were 2 - 15 ml/g. The experimental Ksub(d)-values of carbon were 0.1 - 12 ml/g. The calculated Ksub(d)-values of carbon were lower than the experimental Ksub(d)-values. The effect of V/M on Ksub(d) of sample mixtures was low for Sr. For cesium and iodine the Ksub(d) was lower by a factor of 5 for the V/M ratio 0.28:1 than 10:1. For nickel and carbon the Ksub(d)-values were 1 - 3 orders of magnitude smaller for low V/M ratio (0.28:1). (author)

  20. Evaluation of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; de Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Project RBMN was launched in November 2008 and aims to establish, manage and execute all tasks for implementing the Brazilian Repository, from its conception to its construction. The concept to be adopted will be a near-surface repository. The inventory includes wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities and from the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and activities research and development. The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. In Brazil, for the immobilization and solidification of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of radiation from NPPs are used cement, in Angra 1, and bitumen, in Angra 2. Studies indicate serious concerns about the risks associated with bituminization radioactive waste, much related to the process as the product. There are two major problems due to the presence of products bituminization in repositories, swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling, filling the drums must be limited to 70 - 90% of its volume, which reduces the structural stability of the repository and the optimization of deposition. This study aims to evaluate of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive. (author)

  1. Modification of an Amposta origin bitumen by using tlie Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluyiene-2,4-diisocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco, M.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available In this works, we have modified a bitumen from Amposta by using the Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluylene-2,4-diisocyanate in presence of aluminium trichloride, presenting as well as the characteristics of the original bitumen as the ones of the modification products. We have made technological test, aging of thin film, rheological test, thermical susceptibility and components analyses.

    En el presente trabajo se ha modificado un betún procedente de Amposta por reacción de Friedei y Crafts con 4-metil-1,3-bencenodiisocianato, en presencia de tricloruro de aluminio. Se han determinado las características del betún original así como las de los productos obtenidos en la modificación. Se han llevado a cabo ensayos de tipo tecnológico, envejecimiento en película delgada, propiedades reológicas, susceptibilidad térmica y análisis de componentes.

  2. Evaluation of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project RBMN was launched in November 2008 and aims to establish, manage and execute all tasks for implementing the Brazilian Repository, from its conception to its construction. The concept to be adopted will be a near-surface repository. The inventory includes wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities and from the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and activities research and development. The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. In Brazil, for the immobilization and solidification of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of radiation from NPPs are used cement, in Angra 1, and bitumen, in Angra 2. Studies indicate serious concerns about the risks associated with bituminization radioactive waste, much related to the process as the product. There are two major problems due to the presence of products bituminization in repositories, swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling, filling the drums must be limited to 70 - 90% of its volume, which reduces the structural stability of the repository and the optimization of deposition. This study aims to evaluate of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive. (author)

  3. Microbial processes in the final repository, the silo part. Theoretical approach and preliminary experiments on the biodegradation of bitumen. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Commission of SKBF/KBS the microbial processes that are likely to occur in the silo part of SFR, the final repository for medium- and low-level nuclear wastes, have been put together. The experimental studies concerning microbial degradation of bitumen are described. From a microbial point of view it is the biodegradation of bitumen that constitutes the greatest risk in the silo part of SFR. The degradation, aerobic as well as anaerobic, leads to production of carbon dioxide which might cause a decrease in pH to such an extent that hydrogen-gas producing corrosion of metal could occur. This production of gas can cause an increase in internal pressure of the repository. A culture of bacteria able to degrade bitumen aerobically has been enriched. Uptil now no culture degrading bitumen under anaerobic conditions have been obtained. When making a risk assessment of the SFR at the present time it is not possible to completely disregard the microbial activity. An account is also given for some international contacts in this area. 11 references

  4. Chemical modification of a bitumen and its non-fuel uses. [Reactions of tar sand asphaltenes in synthesis of non-fuel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1974-01-01

    Simple reactions are described whereby tar sand bitumen can be converted to a whole range of materials. Examples are given to illustrate the non-fuel uses of the products. The following reactions of Athabasca asphaltenes are considered: oxidation, halogenation, sulfonation and sulfomethylation, phosphorylation, hydrogenation, reactions with S and O, reactions with metal salts, and miscellaneous chemical conversions. (JGB)

  5. Localized enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, spruce needles, and lake sediments linked to in-situ bitumen extraction near Cold Lake, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of bitumen from the Alberta oil sands using in-situ technologies is expanding at a rapid rate; however, investigations into the environmental impacts of oil sands development have focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils, spruce needles, and lake sediment cores in the Cold Lake oil sands region to provide a historical and spatial perspective on PAH contamination related to in-situ extraction activities. A pronounced increase in PAH concentrations was recorded in one of two study lakes (Hilda Lake) corresponding to the onset of commercial bitumen production in ∼1985. Distance from extraction rigs was not an important predictor of PAH concentrations in soils, although two samples located near installations were elevated in alkyl PAHs. Evidence of localized PAH contamination in Hilda Lake and two soil samples suggests that continued environmental monitoring is justified to assess PAH contamination as development intensifies. -- Highlights: •In-situ bitumen extraction linked to rise in alkyl PAHs in one of two study lakes. •Alkyl PAHs elevated in two soil samples. •PAH contamination likely related to effluent sources, not atmospheric deposition. -- PAHs in sediments and soils were generally low in areas adjacent to in-situ bitumen extraction rigs in the Cold Lake Alberta oil sands, but evidence of localized contamination at some sites was evident

  6. Oil-bearing inclusions in vein quartz and kalcite and, bitumens in veins: Testament to multiple phases of hydrocarbon migration in the Barrandian basin (lower Palaeozoic), Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchý, V.; Dobeš, P.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Machovič, Vladimír; Stejskal, M.; Kroužek, J.; Chudoba, J.; Matějovský, L.; Havelcová, Martina; Matysová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2010), s. 285-297. ISSN 0264-8172 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3012703; GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrocarbon * fluid inclusion * bitumen Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.130, year: 2010

  7. Three-phase gas-liquid-solid foaming bubble reactors and self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Clara E.

    Two distinct topics in multi-phase flow of interest of the oil industry are considered in this thesis. Studies of three-phase gas-liquid-solid foaming bubble reactors and self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth are reported. Applications of foams and foaming are found in many industrial processes such as flotation of minerals, enhanced oil recovery, drilling in oil reservoirs, and refining processes. However the physics of foaming and defoaming are not fully understood. Foams trap gas and are not desirable in some processes such as oil refining. Previously, it has been found that foaming may be strongly suppressed in a cold slit bubble reactor by fluidizing hydrophilic particles in the bubbly mixture below the foam. In this work, we fluidized hydrophobic and hydrophilic versions of two different sands in a cold slit foaming bubble reactor. We found that the hydrophobic sands suppress the foam substantially better than their hydrophilic counterparts. To study the capacity of foams to carry particles, we built a new slit foaming bubble reactor, which can be continuously fed with solid particles. Global gas, liquid, and solid holdups were measured for given gas and liquid velocities and solid flow rates. This research provides the fundamental ground work for the identification of flow types in a slit three-phase foaming bubble reactor with continuous injection of particles. Bitumen froth is produced from the oil sands of Athabasca, Canada. When transported in a pipeline, water present in the froth is released in regions of high shear (at the pipe wall). This results in a lubricating layer of water that allows bitumen froth pumping at greatly reduced pressures and hence the potential for savings in pumping energy consumption. Experimental results establishing the features of this self lubrication phenomenon are presented. The pressure gradient of lubricated flows closely follow the empirical law of Blasius for turbulent pipe flow with a constant of proportionality

  8. Alberta's reserves 2002 and supply/demand outlook 2003-2012 : crude bitumen, crude oil, natural gas and liquids, coal, sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document, stake holders find reliable information concerning the state of reserves, supply, and demand for Alberta's energy resources such as bitumen, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, coal, and sulphur. Estimates of initial reserves, remaining established reserves, and ultimate potential were also included in the report, along with a 10-year supply and demand forecast for Alberta's energy resources. The development of Alberta's energy resources depend on factors such as reserve supply, costs of development, energy demands, conservation, and social, economic and environmental considerations. The energy development landscape in 2002 was determined in large part by changes in energy prices, drilling activity, and planned investments in the range of billions of dollars in oil sands projects. For the first time in 2001, conventional crude oil production was surpassed by raw bitumen production, and this growth continued in 2002. During 2002, 48 per cent of the province's crude oil and equivalent production was in the form of non-upgraded bitumen and synthetic crude oil production. This growth can be explained by increased bitumen production from oil sands mining. Levels similar to those of 2001 were achieved for in situ bitumen production. Approval was recently granted for several steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) schemes, and many are currently under review by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). Higher volumes of commercial production are expected from those schemes in future years. Decline in natural gas production in 2002 was due to less drilling activity, but this is expected to increase in 2003. For the remaining forecast period, production is expected to decline. Continued growth in coalbed methane (CBM) development activity is expected for 2002 and for the next few years. In response to this increased activity, the EUB will begin to calculate CBM reserves. 31 tabs., 66 figs., 3 appendices

  9. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xiayong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol−1 to 21.9 kJ mol−1 and from −85.4 J mol−1 K−1 to −101.8 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces

  10. Reactivity of nitrate and organic acids at the concrete–bitumen interface of a nuclear waste repository cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertron, A., E-mail: bertron@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Jacquemet, N. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Erable, B. [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, F-31030 Toulouse (France); Sablayrolles, C. [Université de Toulouse (France); INP (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, BP 44 362, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); INRA (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), F-31029 Toulouse (France); Escadeillas, G. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Albrecht, A. [Andra, 1-7, rue Jean-Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry (France)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Interactions of cement paste and organic acid–nitrate solutions were investigated. • Cement leaching imposed alkaline pH (>10) very rapidly in the liquid media. • Acetic acid action on cement paste was similar to that of classical leaching. • Oxalic acid attack formed Ca-oxalate salts; organic matter in solution decreased. • Nitrate was stable under abiotic conditions and with organic matter. - Abstract: This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen–concrete interface within repository cell for long-lived, intermediate-level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V cement paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the abiotic conditions of the experiments. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching in the absence of organic acids (i.e. carried out with water or strong acids); no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  11. Reactivity of nitrate and organic acids at the concrete–bitumen interface of a nuclear waste repository cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Interactions of cement paste and organic acid–nitrate solutions were investigated. • Cement leaching imposed alkaline pH (>10) very rapidly in the liquid media. • Acetic acid action on cement paste was similar to that of classical leaching. • Oxalic acid attack formed Ca-oxalate salts; organic matter in solution decreased. • Nitrate was stable under abiotic conditions and with organic matter. - Abstract: This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen–concrete interface within repository cell for long-lived, intermediate-level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V cement paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the abiotic conditions of the experiments. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching in the absence of organic acids (i.e. carried out with water or strong acids); no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium

  12. Carboxymethylated lignins with low surface tension toward low viscosity and highly stable emulsions of crude bitumen and refined oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang; Willoughby, Julie; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-11-15

    Kraft and organosolv lignins were subjected to carboxymethylation to produce fractions that were soluble in water, displayed a minimum surface tension as low as 34mN/m (25°C) and a critical aggregation concentration of ∼1.5wt%. The carboxymethylated lignins (CML), which were characterized in terms of their degree of substitution ((31)P NMR), elemental composition, and molecular weight (GPC), were found suitable in the formulation of emulsions with bitumens of ultra-high viscosity, such as those from the Canadian oil sands. Remarkably, the interfacial features of the CML enabled fuel emulsions that were synthesized in a very broad range of internal phase content (30-70%). Cryo-replica transmission electron microscopy, which was used here the first time to assess the morphology of the lignin-based emulsions, revealed the droplets of the emulsion stabilized with the modified lignin. The observed drop size (diametersdistribution. Such characteristics led to stable emulsified systems that are amenable for a wide range of applications. Emulsification with CML afforded bitumen emulsions with very high colloidal stability (no change was noted for over one month) and with a strong shear thinning behavior. Both features indicate excellent prospects for storage, transport and spraying, which are relevant in operations for power generation, which also take advantage of the high heating value of the emulsion components. The ability of CML to stabilize emulsions and to contribute in their combustion was tested with light fuels (kerosene, diesel, and jet fuel) after formulation of high internal phase systems (70% oil) that enabled operation of a fuel engine. A significant finding is that under certain conditions and compared to the respective pure fuel, combustion of the O/W emulsions stabilized by CML presented lower NOx and CO emissions and maintained a relatively high combustion efficiency. The results highlight the possibilities in high volume application for lignin

  13. Synthesis of quaternary derivatives of ortho-coco di-amido toluene and investigation of these compounds as cationic bitumen emulsifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanzadeh, Masoumeh; Tayebi, Leila; Dezfouli, Hedieh; Kambarani, Masoud; Avval, Parviz Ahmadi [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). ACECR, Designing Chemical Process Research Group

    2012-05-15

    Bitumen emulsions are preferred over conventional pavement systems due to their biologically and environmentally acceptable formulation, safety, low viscosity, storage stability, and cost effectiveness. The present investigation deals with the systematic study to synthesize ortho-cocodi-amido toluene and four quaternary derivatives by amidation of coconut oil and ortho toluene diamine (OTD), followed by quaternization with formaldehyde, formic acid mixture, and acrylonitrile, resulted in a new quaternary compound useful as cationic emulsifier in bitumen emulsions. The roles of temperature and reaction time in determining optimum conditions were investigated as well. Emulsifying behavior of these quaternary compounds was studied by sieve residue test, settlement and storage stability test of emulsified asphalt, and water solubility. The results show that the acrylonitrile imidazolinium derivative of o-cocodi-amido toluene (VI) can be used as a rapid-medium setting emulsifier. (orig.)

  14. Leaching and comprehensive regulatory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance test results obtained from laboratory testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste are presented. A relatively viscous form of oxidized bitumen (ASTM D 312, Type III) has been tested and has been shown to meet all of the current regulatory performance criteria. Molded specimens were obtained using a 53-mm extruder. A surrogate, low-level, mixed, liquid waste was used. The surrogate waste contained ∼30 weight percent sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium, and strontium. Waste form specimens contained three levels of waste loading: 40, 50, and 60 weight percent salt. Results include thermal testing, extraction procedure toxicity tests, and 90-day American Nuclear Society 16.1 leach tests, as well as compressive strength tests

  15. FORECASTING OF DURABILITY OF THE LAYER OF SUPERFICIAL PROCESSING OF ROAD COVERINGS ON THE BASIS OF THE MODIFIED BITUMENS WITH APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Tyukov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity of application of system of neural networks for forecasting durability of a layer of superficial processing of road coverings is considered. The offered technique of definition of efficiency of application of any additive in-tended for improvement of properties of bitumens at the device of layers of su-perficial processing of road coverings allows to receive the most authentic fore-cast of safety of a layer.

  16. Effect of non-homogeneous spatial distributions of surfactants on the stability of high-content bitumen-in-water emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effects of non-homogeneous spatial distributions of surfactants on the drop size of high-content bitumen-in-water emulsions, a modification of a standard Brownian Dynamics algorithm was employed. The new algorithm is able to simulate the evolution of oil/water emulsions towards flocculation and coalescence. The simulation boxes contain 216 and 125 particles initially distributed in a homogeneous simple cubic arrangement, corresponding to bitumen/water volume fractions of 0.30 and 0.51, respectively. The particles interact through a DLVO potential dependent on the total surfactant concentration, spatial surfactant distribution, and the amount of surfactant adsorbed to the bitumen/water interface. As will be shown in this article, certain combinations of the referred variables can produce a wide variety of repulsive potentials between similar drops. The variation of the total number of drops with time does not obey the usual analytical formalisms developed for more diluted cases, and instead, a simple exponential decrease of the number of drops with time is found. Such behavior has already been confirmed by experiment. Some similarities between the present results and those previously published for more diluted systems are discussed

  17. Native bitumens in surficial soils of the Athabasca oil sands region : preliminary characterization and assessment of contaminant mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, M.; Fleming, I. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering; Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). National Hydrology Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted on bitumen tarballs located in surficial soils in Alberta's Athabasca region. The tarballs occur in every soil type in the region, and pose a challenge to oil sands operators who hope to use the soils for reclamation activities. Chromatographic analyses have shown that the tarballs contain variable petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and possess a characteristic chromatographic footprint. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment has characterized the hydrocarbons according to various fractions. A soil-column leaching study is also being conducted by the University of Saskatchewan on heavily-impacted tarball soil under unsaturated conditions. Results of the study have indicated that the soil has low levels of contaminant mobility and degradation. Hydrocarbon concentrations in leachate water are less than 20 per cent of ground water guidelines for Alberta. It was concluded that after respiration over 9 months, the most active soil column in the study degraded only 2.7 g of an estimated 650 g.

  18. Nailing tailings : researchers close in on innovative ways to speed up reclamation of bitumen mine tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2009-09-15

    This article reviewed the collaborative research that is ongoing at the Canadian Oil Sands Network for Research and Development (CONRAD). Directive 74 issued by the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board stipulates that oilsand operators must accelerate their pace at developing tailings technologies. It requires the reduction of fluid tailings and their capture in ERCB-approved dedicated disposal areas. CONRAD's tailings consortium has representation from the 4 existing oilsands operators, namely Suncor Energy Inc., Syncrude Canada Ltd., Shell Canada Limited and Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL), as well as 3 companies with proposed projects. Technologies being considered include water capping, centrifugation, composite tails, mature fine tailings (MFT) drying, accelerated dewatering and the use of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). CO{sub 2} works chemically works on the fluid fine tails to create consolidated tailings, using MFT in the mix. Operators have the added advantage of receiving some credit for the CO{sub 2} that is sequestered in the tailings. These new processes are designed to reduce the footprint of the tailings pond, and by increasing the amount of water available for recycling, decrease the amount of river water needed to process bitumen. 3 figs.

  19. Ecotoxicological impacts of effluents generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and oil sands lixiviation on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenest, T., E-mail: tdebenest@yahoo.fr [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Turcotte, P. [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Gagne, F., E-mail: francois.gagne@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Gagnon, C.; Blaise, C. [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    The exploitation of Athabasca oil sands deposits in northern Alberta has known an intense development in recent years. This development has raised concern about the ecotoxicological risk of such industrial activities adjacent to the Athabasca River. Indeed, bitumen extraction generated large amounts of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which are discharged in tailing ponds in the Athabasca River watershed. This study sought to evaluate and compare the toxicity of OSPW and oil sands lixiviate water (OSLW) with a baseline (oil sands exposed to water; OSW) on a microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, at different concentrations (1.9, 5.5, 12.25, 25 and 37.5%, v/v). Chemical analyses of water-soluble contaminants showed that OSPW and OSLW were enriched in different elements such as vanadium (enrichment factor, EF = 66 and 12, respectively), aluminum (EF = 64 and 15, respectively), iron (EF = 52.5 and 17.1, respectively) and chromium (39 and 10, respectively). The toxicity of OSPW on cells with optimal intracellular esterase activity and chlorophyll autofluorescence (viable cells) (72 h-IC 50% < 1.9%) was 20 times higher than the one of OSW (72 h-IC 50% > 37.5%, v/v). OSLW was 4.4 times less toxic (IC 50% = 8.5%, v/v) than OSPW and 4.5 times more toxic than OSW. The inhibition of viable cell growth was significantly and highly correlated (<-0.7) with the increase of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, copper, lead, molybdenum and vanadium concentrations. The specific photosynthetic responses studied with JIP-test (rapid and polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence emission) showed a stimulation of the different functional parameters (efficiency of PSII to absorb energy from photons, size of effective PSII antenna and vitality of photosynthetic apparatus for energy conversion) in cultures exposed to OSPW and OSLW. To our knowledge, our study highlights the first evidence of physiological effects of OSPW and OSLW on microalgae.

  20. Ecotoxicological impacts of effluents generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and oil sands lixiviation on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploitation of Athabasca oil sands deposits in northern Alberta has known an intense development in recent years. This development has raised concern about the ecotoxicological risk of such industrial activities adjacent to the Athabasca River. Indeed, bitumen extraction generated large amounts of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which are discharged in tailing ponds in the Athabasca River watershed. This study sought to evaluate and compare the toxicity of OSPW and oil sands lixiviate water (OSLW) with a baseline (oil sands exposed to water; OSW) on a microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, at different concentrations (1.9, 5.5, 12.25, 25 and 37.5%, v/v). Chemical analyses of water-soluble contaminants showed that OSPW and OSLW were enriched in different elements such as vanadium (enrichment factor, EF = 66 and 12, respectively), aluminum (EF = 64 and 15, respectively), iron (EF = 52.5 and 17.1, respectively) and chromium (39 and 10, respectively). The toxicity of OSPW on cells with optimal intracellular esterase activity and chlorophyll autofluorescence (viable cells) (72 h-IC 50% 37.5%, v/v). OSLW was 4.4 times less toxic (IC 50% = 8.5%, v/v) than OSPW and 4.5 times more toxic than OSW. The inhibition of viable cell growth was significantly and highly correlated (<−0.7) with the increase of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, copper, lead, molybdenum and vanadium concentrations. The specific photosynthetic responses studied with JIP-test (rapid and polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence emission) showed a stimulation of the different functional parameters (efficiency of PSII to absorb energy from photons, size of effective PSII antenna and vitality of photosynthetic apparatus for energy conversion) in cultures exposed to OSPW and OSLW. To our knowledge, our study highlights the first evidence of physiological effects of OSPW and OSLW on microalgae.

  1. Measurements of the speed of sound and the absorption coefficient for ion exchange resin embedded in concrete and bitumen using ultrasonic waves at around 0.1 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic measurements have been carried out on concrete and bitumen containing ion exchange resin. The speed and absorption of sound was determined for different amounts of resin, different times after preparation of the samples, and for different temperatures. The absorption data indicate that it should be possible to use the technique on full-scale waste products. The data also indicate that the velocity of sound is sensitive to several parameters of interest in radioactive waste treatment and storage. The technique may also be used to gain information on the internal disposition of a waste package. (Auth.)

  2. Identification of organic sulfur compounds in coal bitumen obtained by different extraction techniques using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Maria Elisabete; Cappelli Fontanive, Fernando; Bastos Caramao, Elina; Alcaraz Zini, Claudia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Quimica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose Vladimir de [URI, Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes, Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    The determination of organic sulfur compounds (OSC) in coal is of great interest. Technically and operationally these compounds are not easily removed and promote corrosion of equipment. Environmentally, the burning of sulfur compounds leads to the emission of SO{sub x} gases, which are major contributors to acid rain. Health-wise, it is well known that these compounds have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Bitumen can be extracted from coal by different techniques, and use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detection enables identification of compounds present in coal extracts. The OSC from three different bitumens were tentatively identified by use of three different extraction techniques: accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE). Results obtained from one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometric detection (GC-qMS) and from two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC x GC-TOFMS) were compared. By use of 2D GC, a greater number of OSC were found in ASE bitumen than in SFE and UE bitumens. No OSC were identified with 1D GC-qMS, although some benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes were detected by use of EIM and SIM modes. GC x GC-TOFMS applied to investigation of OSC in bitumens resulted in analytical improvement, as more OSC classes and compounds were identified (thiols, sulfides, thiophenes, naphthothiophenes, benzothiophenes, and benzonaphthothiophenes). The roof-tile effect was observed for OSC and PAH in all bitumens. Several co-elutions among analytes and with matrix interferents were solved by use of GC x GC. (orig.)

  3. Does a more refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume and confounders alter risk estimates from a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Michela; Ferro, Gilles; Burstyn, Igor;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study.......To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study....

  4. Implication of cytochrome P-450 1A isoforms and the AH receptor in the genotoxicity of coal-tar fume condensate and bitumen fume condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevois, C; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A; Boillot, K; Brandt, H; Castegnaro, M

    1998-06-01

    During the hot application of bitumen- or coal-tar-containing materials, fumes are emitted that contain polycyclic aromatic compounds. Although workers' exposure to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. No study has reported the metabolic pathways involved in the genotoxicity of coal tar or bitumen fume condensates (CTFC, BFCs). We have therefore studied the DNA adducts formed by incubation of CTFC or BFCs with liver microsomes from several type of mice and with yeast microsomes expressing individual human CYP enzymes. Our results demonstrates that: (1) the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important role in the biotransformation of BFCs and to a lesser extent of CTFC; (2) for CTFC, both cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A isoforms are involved in the formation of genotoxic compounds, and the reactive metabolites formed via CYP 1A1, are substrates for epoxide hydrolase (mEH); (3) for BFCs, the genotoxicity is partially dependent upon CYP 1A1 and the reactive metabolites are not substrates for mEH; (4) CYP 1A isoforms are not exclusively responsible for the genotoxicity of the CTFC and BFCs as other CYPs and also enzymes of the [AH] gene battery, may play an important role. PMID:21781875

  5. Alberta's reserves 2001 and supply/demand outlook 2002-2011 : crude bitumen, crude oil, natural gas and liquids, coal, sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides stakeholders with a reliable source of information on the state of reserves, supply and demand for Alberta's energy resources including crude bitumen, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and coal. The report also includes estimates of initial reserves, remaining established reserves, and ultimate potential. A 10-year supply and demand forecast for Alberta's energy resources is also presented. The economic factors that determine the development of Alberta's energy resources depend on resource supply, development costs, energy demand, conservation and environmental and social considerations. Energy development in 2001 was driven in part by changes in energy prices, drilling activity and planned investments of billions of dollars in the oil sands projects. Production of raw bitumen exceeded conventional crude oil for the first time in 2001, with the first commercial steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production. Several SAGD schemes have been approved and more are under review. Although natural gas production is expected to decline in the second half of the forecast period, interest in coalbed methane development will likely increase. Alberta has the largest oil sands resource in the world, with nearly 50 billion cubic meters that are potentially recoverable. Alberta's remaining established reserves of conventional crude oil was estimated at 278 million cubic metres. 35 tabs., 55 figs., 3 appendices

  6. Proceedings of the 3. NCUT meeting on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen and synthetic crude oil and the 2. symposium on stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference highlights new developments in refining processes for heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crudes. The oil sands/heavy oil industry in Canada has grown significantly in the last decade and could triple by 2012 to reach 2.6 million barrels per day. Experts from the petroleum industry, government organizations and technology providers attended this conference which identified technology gaps and areas where improvements are needed. The presentations demonstrated that many new technologies associated with heavy oil bitumen upgrading and refining have posed compatibility and stability challenges for pipeliners, upgraders and refiners. One of the issues addressed at the conference was the effect of upgrading technologies on market price due to the expected increase in production. Another important issue is how production of bitumen can be increased without significantly increasing greenhouse gas emissions from the refineries and upgrading facilities. The sessions of the conference were entitled: new technology developments in bitumen upgrading; secondary upgrading developments and expanded product opportunities; environmental issues and expanded oil sands development; and, stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum. Twenty six presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  7. Inhibition of the radiolytic hydrogen production in the nuclear waste of 'bitumen coated' type: study of the interaction between hydrogen and cobalt hydroxo-sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear field in France, the bitumen is mainly used for the conditioning of the radioactive muds generated by the fuel reprocessing. However, the self-irradiation of the bitumen induces a production of hydrogen which generates safety problems. The comparison of various storage sites showed that the presence of cobalt hydroxo sulphide limited such a production. Consequently, this compound was regarded as an 'inhibitor of radiolytic hydrogen production'. However, the origin of this phenomenon was not clearly identified. In order to propose an explanation to this inhibition phenomenon, model organic molecules were used to represent the components of the bitumen. Irradiations were carried out by protons to simulate the alpha radiolysis. The organic molecules irradiations by a proton beam showed that cobalt hydroxo sulphide CoSOH, does not act as a hydrogenation catalyst of unsaturated hydrocarbons, nor as a radicals scavenger, but consists of a trap of hydrogen. Experiments of hydrogen trapping at ambient temperature were carried out according to two techniques: gravimetry and manometry. The solid was characterized before and after interaction with hydrogen (infrared and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction). The initial solid was composed of amorphous cobalt hydroxo sulphide and a minor phase of cobalt hydroxide. The gravimetry and manometry experiments showed that the maximum of hydrogen trapping capacity is equal to 0.59 ± 0.18 mole of hydrogen per mole of cobalt. After interaction with hydrogen, the Co(OH)2 phase disappeared and a new solid phase appeared corresponding to Co9S8. These observations, as well as the analysis of the gas phase, made it possible to conclude with the following reaction (1): 9 CoSOH + 11/2 H2 = Co9S8 + 9 H2O + H2S (1). Gravimetry experiments at temperatures between 50 and 210 C revealed the desorption of water but not of hydrogen sulphide. The absence of hydrogen sulphide in gaseous phase and the Co(OH)2 phase disappearance

  8. Techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production from underground coal gasification (UCG) in Western Canada with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) for upgrading bitumen from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Development of a techno-economic model for UCG-CCS and SMR-CCS. • Estimation of H2 production costs with and without CCS for UCG and SMR. • UCG is more economical for H2 production with CCS. • SMR is more cost efficient for H2 production without CCS. • Cost competiveness is highly sensitive to the IRR differential between UCG and SMR. - Abstract: This paper examines the techno-economic viability of hydrogen production from underground coal gasification (UCG) in Western Canada, for the servicing of the oil sands bitumen upgrading industry. Hydrogen production for bitumen upgrading is predominantly achieved via steam methane reforming (SMR); which involves significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with considerable feedstock (natural gas) cost volatility. UCG is a formidable candidate for cost-competitive environmentally sustainable hydrogen production; given its negligible feedstock cost, the enormity of deep coal reserves in Western Canada and the favourable CO2 sequestration characteristics of potential UCG sites in the Western Canadian sedimentary basin (WCSB). Techno-economic models were developed for UCG and SMR with and without CCS, to estimate the cost of hydrogen production including delivery to a bitumen upgrader. In this paper, at base case conditions, a 5% internal rate of return (IRR) differential between UCG and SMR was considered so as to account for the increased investment risk associated with UCG. The cost of UCG hydrogen production without CCS is estimated to be $1.78/kg of H2. With CCS, this increases to range of $2.11–$2.70/kg of H2, depending on the distance of the site for CO2 sequestration from the UCG plant. The SMR hydrogen production cost without CCS is estimated to be $1.73/kg of H2. In similar fashion to UCG, this rises to a range of $2.14 to $2.41/kg of H2 with the consideration of CCS. Lastly, for hydrogen production without CCS, UCG has a superior cost competitiveness in comparison to SMR for an IRR

  9. Installation of a bitumen coating plant for high-activity concentrates; Installation pilote d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Seyfried, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    Following the excellent results obtained on the industrial coating of radioactive sludges, the possibility of solidifying also the evaporation concentrates with bitumen has been considered. For high activity concentrates, the use of bitumen is however limited by two main parameters: temperature resistance, irradiation resistance. By making use of the characteristics of a blown bitumen, it has been possible to design a high activity coating pilot plant treating concentrations of several tens of curies per litre. This plant will make use of a screw-type extrusion machine capable of coating treated concentrates at a rate of 20 l/hr. Before being coated, the concentrates will be subjected to a coprecipitation treatment designed to make the radioelements insoluble. This installation will make possible, apart from technological studies, laboratory experiments on the coated material (measurements on self-heating, on electrical charges, on radiolytic gases, and also lixiviation tests. It is at present believed, on the basis of available data, that it is possible to coat concentrates having an activity of 20 Ci/l at a price of 1840 F per cubic metre. (authors) [French] A la suite des excellents resultats obtenus pour l'enrobage industriel des boues radioactives, il a ete envisage de solidifier egalement les concentrats d'evaporation par le bitume. Pour les concentrats de haute activite, l'emploi du bitume est cependant limite par deux parametres essentiels: tenue a la temperature, tenue a l'irradiation. Grace aux caracteristiques d'un bitume souffle, il a ete possible de concevoir une installation pilote d'enrobage haute activite contenant plusieurs dizaines de curies par litre. Cette installation utilisera une machine du type extrudeuse a vis qui peut enrober 20 l/h de concentrats traites. Avant leur enrobage, les concentrats subiront un traitement de coprecipitation destine a insolubiliser les radioelements. En dehors des etudes

  10. A multiple lines of evidence approach for the ecological risk assessment of an accidental bitumen release from a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Aslund, Melissa Whitfield; Sanders, Greg; Charlebois, Michael; Knopper, Loren D; Bresee, Karl E

    2016-01-15

    To assess the ecological impacts of two independent accidental bitumen releases from two steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in the Athabasca oil sands region, a multiple lines of evidence (LOE) approach was developed. Following the release in 2010, action was taken to minimize environmental impact, including the selective removal of the most highly impacted vegetation and the use of oil socks to minimize possible runoff. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was then conducted based on reported concentrations of bitumen related contaminants in soil, vegetation, and water. Results of biological assessments conducted at the site were also included in the risk characterization. Overall, the conclusion of the ERA was that the likelihood of long-term adverse health effects to ecological receptors in the area was negligible. To provide evidence for this conclusion, a small mammal sampling plan targeting Southern red-back voles (Myodes gapperi) was carried out at two sites and two relevant reference areas. Voles were readily collected at all locations and no statistically significant differences in morphometric measurements (i.e., body mass, length, foot length, and adjusted liver weight) were found between animals collected from impact zones of varying levels of coverage. Additionally, no trends corresponding with bitumen coverage were observed with respect to metal body burden in voles for metals that were previously identified in the source bitumen. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was statistically significantly elevated in voles collected from the high impact zones of sites compared to those collected from the reference areas, a finding that is indicative of continued exposure to contaminants. However, this increase in EROD was not correlated with any observable adverse population-wide biological outcomes. Therefore the biological sampling program supported the conclusion of the initial ERA and supported the hypothesis of no significant

  11. Aostra: how a government-industry partnership bridged the technology 'valley of death' and helped trump Venezuela's natural bitumen advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Robert

    2011-10-15

    The scale of Venezuela's in-place bitumen and heavy oil resources is comparable with Alberta's and is much more producible. Maurice Dusseault thinks that political stability and investment are the reasons that Alberta has surged ahead of Venezuela both in investment and production. The Canadian government began to foster the development of the oilsands from the late '60s and early '70s. Government and industry made financial support available for pilot projects and university research. The Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) was established in 1974. AOSTRA has played a critical role in fostering research and testing techniques and technologies on a pre-commercial scale. Successful examples of AOSTRA initiatives were cited in this article. By investing in R and D and creating a favorable investment climate, Alberta has become the centre of the heavy oil research and commercialization industry.

  12. Evaluation of pulp and mortar to pack bitumen radioactive waste; Avaliacao de pastas e argamassas para o embalado de rejeitos radioativos betuminizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorio, Marina da S.; Vieira, Vanessa M.; Tello, Cledola C.O., E-mail: msg@cdtn.br, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    According to international experience, for the deposition of cement in surface repository, is necessary the use of cement mortar pastes to immobilize the product. Determining the most efficient folder or for the packed mortar, as well as its ideal formulation, is the goal of this study. To do various experiments with samples of cement paste and mortar, with presence of fluxing and / or clay were performed. Viscosity, density, setting time and compressive strength were evaluated. This study will be presented only the results found in testing of compressive strength to be an essential parameter in the transport, storage and disposal of the product. From the results found will be selected the best formulations for use in packed bitumen tailings from the National Radioactive Waste Repository.

  13. Underwater behaviour of bitumen coated radioactive wastes: experimental validation of the Colonbo degradation model; Comportement sous eau des dechets radioactifs bitumes: validation experimentale du modele de degradation Colonbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwinner, B

    2004-03-01

    In the release scenario considered for geologic repository, water is thought to be the main aggressive agent with regards to bituminized radioactive waste (composed in general of 60 weight % of bitumen, 40% of soluble/insoluble salts and a few ppm of radionuclides). Since liquid water can diffuse in pure bitumen, leaching of bituminized waste results in the dissolution of the most soluble salts and leads to the development of a more or less concentrated saline solution-filled pore structure (called permeable layer). In consequence of the generation of a porous layer in the bituminized waste, leaching of salts and radionuclides can then take place. Research performed at the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) aims therefore at understanding the consequences of ground-water immersion on the transport properties and radionuclides leaching of bituminized waste materials. To this end, a constitutive model (called COLONBO) which describes mathematically the leaching of bituminized waste has been developed. The COLONBO model is based on the following assumptions: 1. Water and dissolved salts migrate in the permeable layer according to Fick's first law. The diffusion of water and salts are quantified by effective diffusion coefficients which are unknown. 2. The mechanical properties of the bitumen matrix are not considered during leaching (free swelling). Up to now, the COLONBO model has been used only to model experimental water uptake and salt leach curves, leading (theoretical) estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. The aim of this work was to validate experimentally the numerical results obtained with the COLONBO model. First, the correspondence between experimental and simulated water uptake and salt leach rates obtained on various bituminized waste materials is checked, leading estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. Second, the evolution of the thickness and of

  14. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by 32P-postlabelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Méo, M; Genevois, C; Brandt, H; Laget, M; Bartsch, H; Castegnaro, M

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in the fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during roadpaving. Although exposure of workers to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed weak to moderate mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Therefore, a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens, in such a way that they were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays, using a number of different strains. An attempt was made to relate the results to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for the total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal-tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts, obtained by 32P-postlabelling, arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for the formation of these adducts. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. PMID:8760390

  15. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by {sup 32}P-postlabelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Meo, M.; Genevois, C.; Brandt, H.; Laget, M.; Bartsch, H.; Castegnaro, M. [Laboratoire de Biogenotoxicologie et Mutagenese Environnementale, Marseille (France). Faculte de Pharmcie

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during road paving. Exposure of workers to these fumes might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Thus a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens which were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays. Results were related to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates were tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for their formation. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina M. Pons

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están decoloradas, alteradas y muy permeables por la ausencia de óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro, la disolución total a parcial de los cementos, losfeldespatos y líticos volcánicos y la alteración de estos últimos aargilominerales (illita> caolinita. Los minerales de cobre estándiseminados, en tubos o nódulos siempre en contacto con bitumen. Consisten enrestos de calcosina, covellina, trazas de calcopirita y una variedad deminerales de cobre supergénicos (malaquita, con crisocola, brochantita,azurita, tenorita, turquesa, atacamita, volbortita. También hay piritadiseminada y trazas de psilomelano. En las muestras con las mayoresconcentraciones de Cu (16% se detectaron anomalías de Mo (810 ppm, U (9,43ppm, Th (40,6 ppm y V (127-221 ppm. La geoquímica del bitumen indica que setrata de un residuo dejado por la migración de hidrocarburos generados a partirde rocas de origen marino del Jurásico (Formaciones Los Molles o Vaca Muerta.Las aguas de formación ricas en cloruros que migraron junto con loshidrocarburos, pudieron transportar el cobre y el azufre en solución. Lamigración de estos fluidos desde las rocas fuentes hacia los reservorios através de las fallas y estratos permeables, habría desempeñado un rol muyimportante en la extracción del cobre a partir del lavado de los óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro de los estratos rojos continentales infrayacentes. En sutransporte y en contacto con los niveles permeables de la Formación Portezuelo

  17. Bitumen coating of the radio-active sludges from the effluent treatment plant at the Marcoule centre. Review of the progress reports 1, 2, 3 and 4 (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides the very high activity liquids containing fission products, the chemical treatment of irradiated fuels produces a large volume of aqueous effluents and solid waste of relatively low radioactivity. These weakly active products can be eliminated in the ground, in a hydrographic land system or in the sea. Techniques of evaporation, of resin concentration, and of coprecipitation give rise to inorganic sludges with a high water content. All these residues occupy a large volume and represent a far from negligible weight. In the case of the sludge, their relative fluidity necessitates a conditioning guaranteeing safe storage. The solution to the problem will consist in passing directly from a liquid or a suspension, to a solid whose structure is homogeneous and whose matter is inert with respect to the storage medium (soil, sea, etc. ). We have proposed to coat the radioactive products with bitumen. This article is designed to give a review of the studies undertaken on this method. It consists of a progress report rather than a final assessment. (authors)

  18. Heavy oil and bitumen : thinking caps on : researchers look at new and greener ways to get at the heavy oil prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2008-01-15

    New steam stimulation processes developed by the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy were discussed. The J-well and gravity-assisted steam stimulation (JAGD) process uses a steam injection well located within the top few metres of a reservoir and a production well comprised of an inclined J-shaped well. JAGD is a transitional cold production-to-thermal-production technology. High pressure steam is used to heat and loosen the bitumen so that it flows to the producer well below. The configuration was designed to cut through mud and shale layers and is suitable for poor quality reservoirs. Simulations conducted in Athabasca reservoirs have demonstrated that JAGD uses approximately 75 per cent of the steam typically used in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. The iSAGD process was designed to reposition parallel wells in order to increase oil mobility. Researchers at the centre are also investigating a catalytic air-stream process called CASPAR which aims to upgrade oil from 10 degrees API to 16 degrees API within the reservoir. The process involves a mixture of heat, catalyst hydrogen, steam, air and water in the reservoir. The process leaves heavier ends of oil underground as well as fractions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Research is also being conducted on expanding-solvent SAGD (ES-SAGD) a process that adds butane to steam in order to reduce water use. 3 figs.

  19. Air Blowing of Bitumens: Process Variables and Structural Parameters Soufflage des bitumes : variables du procédé et paramètres structuraux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl J. S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of process variables viz. air rate, time of air blowing, temperature and catalyst concentration has been investigated and optimised to determine the possibility of making paving grade bitumen from 500°C+ Aghajari Short residue, of appropriate temperature susceptibility. Structural parameters of feed and some typical air blown products determined through NMR spectroscopy to follow the reaction mechanism leading to formation of increased asphaltene content during air blowing are also described. On a étudié et optimisé l'effet des variables du procédé comme le débit de l'air, le temps de soufflage, la température et la concentration en catalyseurs afin de déterminer la possibilité de fabriquer du bitume routier d'une susceptibilité à la température convenable, à partir d'un résidu Aghajari 500 °C+ de distillation poussée. On présente également les paramètres structuraux de la charge et de quelques produits types du soufflage, déterminés par résonance magnétique nucléaire, pour suivre le mécanisme de la réaction conduisant à une augmentation de la teneur en asphaltènes durant le soufflage d'air.

  20. 泡沫沥青冷再生混合料力学特性试验%Test of Mechanical Property of Cold Recycled Mixture with Foamed Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金枝; 郝培文; 刘丽

    2011-01-01

    采用间接拉伸强度、无侧限抗压强度及抗压回弹模量试验,分析了沥青路面旧料掺量及水泥用量对泡沫沥青冷再生混合料力学特性的影响.研究表明:随旧料掺量的增大或其中旧沥青含量的增多,泡沫沥青冷再生混合料设计最佳沥青用量减少,冷再生混合料抗拉、抗压、抗剪性能呈下降趋势,而抗压回弹模量逐渐增大;水泥用量的增大有助于提高冷再生混合料的强度、刚度及其水稳定性,但用量过大不利于冷再生混合料的抗裂性能,建议不超过2%;水泥用量较小(≤1.5%)的冷再生混合料强度增长主要集中于室温养生的24h以及40℃烘箱养生的第1个24h内,而水泥用量较大(1.5%~3%)的冷再生混合料养生期内强度增长比较匀速.%By indirect tensile strength test, unconfined compressive strength test and compressive resilient modulus test, the influences of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) content and cement content on mechanical property of cold recycled mixture with foamed bitumen ( CRMFB) were studied. The results indicate that ( 1) Increase of RAP content or content of old bitumen in RAP led to decrease of optimum foamed asphalt content and tensile, compressive, and shear strengths, but increase of compressive resilient modulus for CRMFB. (2) Increase of cement content contributed to the enhancement of mechanical property and water susceptibility of CRMFB. However, an excess of cement would have negative effect on crack resistance of CRMFB, so the cement content is suggested to be limited to 2% or less. (3) For the CRMFB with lower cement content ( ≤1. 5% ) , the strength increase mainly concentrated in the period of the 24 h at open air curing and the first 24 h at 40 t oven curing, while for the CRMFB with higher cement content (1.5% -3% ) , an uniform strength increase appeared in the whole curing period.

  1. Use of a thin-film evaporator for bitumen coating of radioactive concentrates; Utilisation d'un evaporateur a couche mince pour l'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefillatre, G.; Rodier, J.; Hullo, R.; Cudel, Y.; Rodi, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    Following the development in the laboratory of a process for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen, a technological study of this coating process has been undertaken. The report describes a pilot installation for the bitumen coating of concentrates, which uses a thin-film evaporator LUWA L 150. The first, inactive series of tests was designed to determine the maximum and optimum capacities of the evaporator by varying the amounts of bitumen and of concentrate, the rotor speed and the thermo-fluid temperature. Two rotors were tested, one of conventional type, the other a model especially designed for high viscosity products. The maximum capacity of evaporation of the apparatus is 72 kg/hr for a heating temperature of 221 deg. C. During normal operation, the evaporator can produce 50 kg/hr of coated product containing 55 to 60 per cent of bitumen (Mexphalte 40/50), the water content of the product remaining under 0.5 per cent. A second series of tests will shortly be carried out on this pilot installation using, in particular, bituminous emulsions containing mainly Mexphalte 40/50 and 80/100. (authors) [French] A la suite de la mise au point en laboratoire d'un procede d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats d'evaporation, une etude technologique de cet enrobage a ete entreprise. Ce rapport decrit une installation pilote d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats utilisant un evaporateur a couche mince LUWA L 150. La premiere serie d'essais en inactif a eu pour but de definir les capacites maximales et optimales de l'evaporateur en faisant varier les dosages en bitume et en concentrats, la vitesse du rotor et la temperature du thermo-fluide. Deux rotors ont ete testes, l'un de type classique, l'autre d'un modele special concu pour les produits de haute viscosite. La capacite d'evaporation maximale de l'appareil est de 72 kg/h d'eau pour une temperature de chauffage de 221 deg. C. En marche normale l

  2. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén Alteration,Cu mineralization and bitumen in the Barda González prospect, Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina M. Pons

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están decoloradas, alteradas y muy permeables por la ausencia de óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro, la disolución total a parcial de los cementos, losfeldespatos y líticos volcánicos y la alteración de estos últimos aargilominerales (illita> caolinita. Los minerales de cobre estándiseminados, en tubos o nódulos siempre en contacto con bitumen. Consisten enrestos de calcosina, covellina, trazas de calcopirita y una variedad deminerales de cobre supergénicos (malaquita, con crisocola, brochantita,azurita, tenorita, turquesa, atacamita, volbortita. También hay piritadiseminada y trazas de psilomelano. En las muestras con las mayoresconcentraciones de Cu (16% se detectaron anomalías de Mo (810 ppm, U (9,43ppm, Th (40,6 ppm y V (127-221 ppm. La geoquímica del bitumen indica que setrata de un residuo dejado por la migración de hidrocarburos generados a partirde rocas de origen marino del Jurásico (Formaciones Los Molles o Vaca Muerta.Las aguas de formación ricas en cloruros que migraron junto con loshidrocarburos, pudieron transportar el cobre y el azufre en solución. Lamigración de estos fluidos desde las rocas fuentes hacia los reservorios através de las fallas y estratos permeables, habría desempeñado un rol muyimportante en la extracción del cobre a partir del lavado de los óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro de los estratos rojos continentales infrayacentes. En sutransporte y en contacto con los niveles permeables de la Formación Portezuelo

  3. The influence of organic complexing agents upon the mobilization and migration of radionuclides from ILW contained in cement and bitumen under nearfield conditions for a repository in a salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of this project the influence of the synthetic organic complexing agents dibutylphosphate, tributylphosphate, ethylenediamine-tetra acetic acid, citrate and oxalate on the solubilities, the migration and sorption behaviour of the elements iodine, cesium, uranium neptunium, plutonium and americium was investigated in electrolyte solutions, representing the conditions of a near field of a waste repository in a salt dome after an intrusion of brines, considered as a hypothetical scenario. The electrolyte solutions were saturated NaCl solution and Q-brine, which were equilibrated with corrosion products of the matrices Portland 35-F cement and bitumen (Shell Mexphalte R 80-100) before starting the experiments, in order to simulate their influence on the chemical behaviour of the solutions used for the experiments. The temperature, at which the experiments were carried out, was 298 K. After determining the relevant pH- and Eh-values, pH was adapted to 12.3 for saturated NaCl solution equilibrated with cement and to 6.4 for Q-brine also being at equilibrium with cement. The electrolyte systems on the other hand containing bitumen were kept at those pH-values, which resulted from saturation with the complexing agents. 120 tabs., 87 figs., 67 refs

  4. Decision 99-8 : Shell Canada Limited application to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader in the Fort Saskatchewan area : Shell Canada Products Limited application to amend refinery approval in the Fort Saskatchewan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board considered an application by Shell Canada Limited to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader on Shell's property adjoining the existing Scotford refinery in the County of Strathcona. The upgrader would process bitumen from Shell's proposed Muskeg River Mine, located 70 km north of Fort McMurray, and other feedstocks available in the area. The Board also considered an application for an amendment to the existing Scotford refinery approval, Industrial Development Permit 89-10, for the processing of 3.75 million cubic metres per year of sour conversion feedstock. Under a coordinated application process, Shell filed a joint Shell Scotford Upgrader application/Environmental Impact Assessment. Issues considered with respect to these applications were: technology selection, air/health, sulphur recovery, noise/traffic, and land use conflict. Shell stated that its Scotford refinery is the most energy efficient refinery in the Americas and that is has the highest liquid yield per unit volume of crude oil feedstock of any refinery in the world. The refinery's hydrocracking capacity would make it possible to use hydro-conversion technology for its upgrader which is environmentally advantageous. After examining all of the evidence pertaining to the applications, the Board found the projects to be in the public interest and is prepared to approve the Scotford Upgrader and Scotford Refinery modifications assuming that certain prescribed conditions are met

  5. 沥青样品铼-锇同位素分析溶解实验研究%Dissolving Experimental Research of Re-Os Isotope System for Bitumen Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 屈文俊; 王登红; 陈郑辉; 杜安道; 张长青

    2011-01-01

    The content of Re-Os in asphalt samples is relatively low, and CO2 are released in digestion because of large amounts of organic matter. It is important to control the amount of asphalt in the sample and the proportion of oxidant to ensure the Os recovery and stability of the measured signal. The method for the Re-Os isotope was improved because of large amounts of organic matter contained in bitumen samples. The Oxidants was changed to 3 mL HC1, 4 mL HNO3 and 3mL H2 O2 from the original 3 mL HC1 and 6 mL HNO3, the improved method making the Os measured signal approximately 2 times larger than before. Changes in oxidants composition increase the amount of the bitumen sample weight greatly from th eoriginal 0.2 g to 0. 4 g. Influence of H2 O2 added with routine reverse aqua regia and direct distillation from a Carius tube on the signal intensity of osmium measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-MassSpectrometry( ICP-MS ). Was studied. Bitumen samples were dissolved and equilibrated with a known amount of 185Re and 190Os tracers in 2 mL HC1, 5 mL HNO3 and 2 mL H2O2 by a Carius tube at 200℃ for 12 h and 240℃ for 12 h, with the Os and Re separated using direct distillation or routine distillation and solvent extraction techniques, respectively. 187Re/185 Re, 187Os/190Os and 192Os/190Os were determined by ICP-MS. Bitumen samples in lead-zinc deposits from Yunnan Province were analyzed. The isochron ages was (60 ± 2 ) Ma ( MSWD = 2. 5, n = 7 ), and the initial 187Os/188Os values was 4. 36 ±0. 14. The results show that Re-Os isotope is an effective tool to date bitumen samples and the Os in the bitumen originated from the crust. The established method can be used to date and trace the source of bitumen samples.%沥青样品中Re、Os含量较低,且组成复杂,因含有大量有机质,在溶样过程中会释放大量CO2,需要大量氧化剂.控制样品称样量和氧化剂比例、用量对保证Os的回收率以及测量信号的稳定性非常重要.本文根

  6. Recent technological advances in the application of nano-catalytic technology to the enhanced recovery and upgrading of bitumen and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Almao, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Advances in Nanotechnology, such as manufacturing of nano-catalysts allow the online (during processing) and on site production of nano-catalysts for heavy oils upgrading. These inventions have also facilitated the development of two lines of heavy oils upgrading processes that make use of nano-catalysts for producing upgraded oil: In Situ Upgrading and Field Upgrading. Producing chemical upgrading of heavy oils is achievable and economically viable at lower temperatures and lower pressures than used in most upgraders if the use of nano-catalysts were implemented. The spontaneity of thermal, steam and hydro processing reactions for converting the different chemical families of hydrocarbons present in the heaviest fractions of heavy oils and bitumen (HO-B) into lighter products was shown recently. Spontaneity was measured by the value of the change of free energy at low pressure. These undesirable paths are spontaneous and uncontrollable under thermal cracking conditions, and require providing years of residence time for intermolecular hydrogen redistribution to minimize olefins polymerization, if at all possible. Instead, hydroprocessing in the presence of hydrogen activating catalysts would create an abundance of hydrogen radicals impeding large molecules condensation and olefins proliferation. In Situ Upgrading: performs coupled Enhanced Oil Recovery with In Reservoir Upgrading via Hot Fluid Injection (HFI). The heat handling of this HFI process and the production of transportable oil with no need of diluent from the start of operation completes the originality of it. This technology uses heavy fractions separated from produced oil to reintroduce heat into the reservoir along with suspended nano-catalysts and hydrogen. These components react in the well bore and inside the reservoir to release more heat (hydroprocessing reactions are exothermic) producing light gases and volatile hydrocarbons that contribute to increase oil detachment from the rock resulting in

  7. In situ and laboratory investigation of the alteration of Boom Clay (Oligocene) at the air–geological barrier interface within the Mol underground facility (Belgium): Consequences on kerogen and bitumen compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boom Clay formation (Oligocene) is studied as a reference host rock for methodological studies on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. During excavation of galleries within the Clay formation (HADES underground research facility, Mol, Belgium), the physico-chemical conditions are significantly modified as an air–clay interface is created. In order to study the long-term impact of the air–clay contact on the organic matter contained in the Boom Clay, two types of samples were studied: (1) a reference series of clay samples having been in contact with the atmosphere of the HADES gallery for increasing times up to several years and (2) unaltered clay samples submitted to artificial oxidation in a ventilated oven at 80 °C. The evolution of geochemical data of the two series was compared using Rock-Eval pyrolysis, GC–MS and size exclusion chromatography. The organic matter of the unaltered clays sampled in the HADES galleries is dominated by type III kerogen (terrestrial) with some contribution of type II (marine) and is thermally immature. The evolution of geochemical parameters during air alteration for the two series are very similar. They show progressive oxidation of kerogen accompanied by the release of bitumen enriched in low molecular weight constituents. Molecular analysis evidences the presence of a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic O-bearing compounds, inherited from the degradation of kerogen as well as from the clay catalyzed oxidation of the bitumen. These results show that (1) air oxidation is a major process in the in situ alteration of the organic matter of Boom Clay within the HADES galleries, (2) laboratory oxidation experiments at 80 °C yield similar results as in situ air alteration of Boom Clay and (3) artificial air oxidation may be used to assess the long term exposure of the organic matter to air.

  8. BioDiesel as Additive in High Pressure and Temperature Steam Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Utilisation d’un biogazole comme additif pour la récupération d’huile lourde et de bitume par injection de vapeur à hautes pression et température

    OpenAIRE

    Babadagli T.; Ozum B.

    2012-01-01

    Use of additives to improve the efficiency of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes has been studied extensively over the decades. Two common types of additives used in thermal applications, mainly steam assisted recovery, are solvents and surfactants. Commercial use of solvents has setbacks due to their high costs and retrieval difficulties. Cost and stability of the surfactants under reservoir operating temperature and pressure are the major concerns. We propose the use of bioDie...

  9. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria; Radioactivite et evaluation de la dose dans des echantillons de bitume et de sol autour d'un depot bitumineux dans l'etat d'Ondo, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ademola, J.A.; Ademonehin, S. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2010-07-15

    Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in soil varied from (45.2 {+-} 5.3) to (484.2 {+-} 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 {+-} 2.1) and (22.8 {+-} 2.7) to (62.4 {+-} 6.8) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 {+-} 133.5), (13.3 {+-} 8.0) and (40.0 {+-} 10.2) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 {+-} 36.4), (16.1 {+-} 13.3) and (32.5 {+-} 13.1) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 {+-} 8.9) nGy.h{sup -1} and (50.7 {+-} 10.9) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 {+-} 15.6) nGy.h{sup -1} and (36.1 {+-} 19.1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

  10. EUB Decision 2006-112 : Suncor Energy Inc. application for expansion of an oil sands mine (North Steepbank mine extension) and a bitumen upgrading facility (Voyageur Upgrader) in the Fort McMurray area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    needed to increase the recovery of bitumen resources and provide the upgrading capacity required by Suncor for additional bitumen production from its mining and in situ projects. 1 fig

  11. Application of foamed bitumen cold-place recycling in heavy repair of highway%泡沫沥青就地冷再生在公路大修中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces the application of the foamed bitumen cold-place recycling in the heavy repair of highways in Anhui province, illustrates the scheme selection and construction craft, and evaluates the application effect from conomy, the durability and well resistant reflection crack in foundation, so it provides experience for the selection for heavy repair of highways and the recycling utility of pavement used materials.%介绍了泡沫沥青就地冷再生在安徽省公路大修工程中的应用情况,就其方案比选及施工工艺流程进行了阐述,从其经济性、耐久性及良好的抗基层反射裂缝等方面对其使用效果进行了评价,为公路大修方案的选择及路面废旧料再生利用提供了可借鉴的经验.

  12. 接枝杜仲胶对干法橡胶沥青混合料的改性机理与效果%Modification mechanism and effect of grafted eucommia ulmoides gum on dry-process rubber bitumen mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 李聪; 蔡敏东

    2014-01-01

    Domestic natural rubber, the eucommia ulmoides gum( EUG) , was used to create chemi-cal links between rubber crumb and asphalt.After rubber crumb was mixed with EUG, it was found that by the microscopic analysis and macroscopic representation of mixture, EUG owns double bond structure which could be vulcanized with the sulfur of rubber crumb.EUG was grafted with maleic anhydride ( MA) reacting with the asphalt amino-group, and thus chemical links were built between the EUG and asphalt.Then the modification effect of grafted eucommia ulmoides gum, EUG and imports was experimented by the microscopic and performance test of rubber bitumen, the high and low temperature performance, water stability and mechanical property of dry-process rubber bitumen mixture.Test results show that EUG can contribute to the vulcanization of rubber crumb, but it can-not create the reaction network between the vulcanized rubber crumb and asphalt,so the rubber as-phalt mixture performance improvement is not obvious.EUG grafted with MA establishes the re-sponse network of vulcanized rubber crumb and asphalt, so the rubber asphalt mixture performance improvement is obvious, and the modification effect can reach the level of foreign products.There-fore, EUG can only achieve chemical reaction between rubber powder and asphalt through grafting, which is the fundament of the dry rubber asphalt mixture.%利用国内特有天然橡胶---杜仲胶来建立橡胶粉与沥青之间的化学链接。首先通过橡胶粉干拌杜仲胶后的微观分析和宏观表象,发现杜仲胶的双键结构可以与橡胶粉的硫交联硫化;并将杜仲胶接枝于沥青氨基反应的马来酸酐,在杜仲胶与沥青之间产生化学链接。然后通过对橡胶沥青微观和路用性能,以及干法橡胶沥青混合料高低温、水稳性及力学性能进行试验,研究了杜仲胶、国外进口橡胶反应剂的改性效果。试验结果表明:杜仲胶可以促进橡胶粉的硫化

  13. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, L.; Helgeson, H.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1998-12-01

    To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for {approximately}360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17{alpha}(H)- and 17{beta}(H)-hopanes, 5{alpha}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{beta}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{alpha}(H),14{beta}(H)-, and 5{beta}(H),14{beta}(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms

  14. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Laurent; Helgeson, Harold C.

    1998-12-01

    To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for ˜360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17α(H)- and 17β(H)-hopanes, 5α(H),14α(H)-, 5β(H),14α(H)-, 5α(H),14β(H)-, and 5β(H),14β(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms. Calculations of this kind permit comprehensive

  15. Decontamination by fractional distillation of a radioactive mixture of perchlorethylene, bitumen, and sludges from chemical co-precipitations; Decontamination par distillation fractionnee d'un melange radioactif constitue par du perchlorethylene, du bitume et des boues de coprecipitation chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefillatre, G.; Hullo, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    It is not possible to incinerate the contaminated organic waste containing chlorine, produced at the Marcoule Centre. The only valid method for these solvents of average activity is fractional distillation. This report presents a pilot fractional distillation plant designed for decontaminating the residual solvents produced by the Centre's Waste Processing Station. These contaminated solvents come from the decontamination of a screw extrusion apparatus with perchlorethylene; this equipment is used for coating the radioactive sludges with bitumen. The pilot plant operates discontinuously and is used to decontaminate the perchlorethylene, to separate the perchlorethylene from the water, and to process the distillation residue. The electrically heated boiler is fitted with a removable base in the form of a disposable container. The installations decontamination factor is 3.4 x 10{sup 6} when solvents with a specific activity of 0.23 Ci/m{sup 3} are used. The average flow-rate for a distillation run is 10 l/hr at atmospheric pressure, and 21 l/hr at a residual pressure of 40 torr. The decontamination factor for the installation is better at atmospheric pressure than in a vacuum. (authors) [French] Les effluents organiques contamines chlores du Centre de Marcoule ne peuvent etre incineres. Le seul mode de traitement qui s'impose pour ces solvants de moyenne activite s'avere etre la distillation fractionnee. Ce rapport presente une installation pilote de distillation fractionnee qui a ete concue pour decontaminer des solvants residuaires provenant de la Station de Traitement des Effluents du Centre. Ces solvants contamines resultent de la decontamination au moyen de perchlorethylene d'une extrudeuse a vis servant a l'enrobage par le bitume des boues radioactives de cette station. L'installation pilote fonctionne en discontinu et assure a la fois la decontamination du perchlorethylene, la separation du perchlorethylene et de l'eau et le

  16. BioDiesel as Additive in High Pressure and Temperature Steam Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Utilisation d’un biogazole comme additif pour la récupération d’huile lourde et de bitume par injection de vapeur à hautes pression et température

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babadagli T.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of additives to improve the efficiency of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes has been studied extensively over the decades. Two common types of additives used in thermal applications, mainly steam assisted recovery, are solvents and surfactants. Commercial use of solvents has setbacks due to their high costs and retrieval difficulties. Cost and stability of the surfactants under reservoir operating temperature and pressure are the major concerns. We propose the use of bioDiesel such as fatty acids methyl ester as a surfactant additive reducing heavy oil/bitumen-water interfacial tension in steam assisted recovery processes. Advantages of using bioDiesel as a surfactant additive are that bioDiesel is chemically stable under the operating pressure and temperature of the reservoir, it causes no harm on bitumen fuel quality and on release water chemistry and its use is economically feasible. We conducted a series of steam assisted bitumen recovery experiments to clarify the additional recovery potential and efficiency improvement capacity of bioDiesel. High pressure steam at 1.8 MPa pressure, 205°C was used in these tests at a 900 g/h feed rate. The porous media used was a normal grade oil sands ore obtained from a surface mine operation in Northern Alberta, Canada. Oil sands ore was packed in a basket and placed in a high pressure cell. Bitumen recovery experiments were performed by spraying canola oil fatty acid methyl ester on oil sands ore at a 2 g/kg-bitumen dosage. These tests show that bitumen recovery efficiency increases over 40%. In another series of tests, tall oil fatty acids methyl ester was injected into a high pressure steam line at a 8.3 g-bioDiesel/kg-steam dosage. Because of the solubility of bioDiesel in bitumen, the effect of bioDiesel on bitumen recovery could not be accurately concluded. Vapor pressure measurements performed on canola oil and tall oil derived bioDiesel samples suggest that saturation

  17. Bitumen coating of the radio-active sludges from the effluent treatment plant at the Marcoule centre. Review of the progress reports 1, 2, 3 and 4 (1963); Enrobage par le bitume des boues radioactives de la station de traitement des effluents du centre de Marcoule. Mise au point des etats d'avancement 1, 2, 3 et 4. (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Scheidhauer, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Besides the very high activity liquids containing fission products, the chemical treatment of irradiated fuels produces a large volume of aqueous effluents and solid waste of relatively low radioactivity. These weakly active products can be eliminated in the ground, in a hydrographic land system or in the sea. Techniques of evaporation, of resin concentration, and of coprecipitation give rise to inorganic sludges with a high water content. All these residues occupy a large volume and represent a far from negligible weight. In the case of the sludge, their relative fluidity necessitates a conditioning guaranteeing safe storage. The solution to the problem will consist in passing directly from a liquid or a suspension, to a solid whose structure is homogeneous and whose matter is inert with respect to the storage medium (soil, sea, etc. ). We have proposed to coat the radioactive products with bitumen. This article is designed to give a review of the studies undertaken on this method. It consists of a progress report rather than a final assessment. (authors) [French] En dehors des liquides de tres haute activite contenant des produits de fission, le traitement chimique des combustibles irradies produit un volume important d'effluents aqueux et de residus solides de radioactivite relativement faible. Ces produits, faiblement actifs, peuvent etre elimines dans le sol, dans un systeme hydrographique terrestre ou dans la mer. Les techniques d'evaporation, de concentration sur resine, de coprecipitation, permettent la decontamination prealable des liquides. La coprecipitation donne naissance a des boues minerales dont la teneur en eau est elevee. Tous ces residus occupent un volume important et representent un poids non negligeable. Dans le cas des boues, leur fluidite relative exige un conditionnement donnant toutes garanties de securite au stockage. La solution du probleme consistera a passer directement d'un liquide ou d'une suspension a un solide

  18. Inhibition of the radiolytic hydrogen production in the nuclear waste of 'bitumen coated' type: study of the interaction between hydrogen and cobalt hydroxo-sulphide; Inhibition de la production d'hydrogene radiolytique dans les dechets nucleaires de type 'enrobes bitumineux': etude de l'interaction entre l'hydrogene et l'hydroxosulfure de cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, C

    2006-11-15

    In the nuclear field in France, the bitumen is mainly used for the conditioning of the radioactive muds generated by the fuel reprocessing. However, the self-irradiation of the bitumen induces a production of hydrogen which generates safety problems. The comparison of various storage sites showed that the presence of cobalt hydroxo sulphide limited such a production. Consequently, this compound was regarded as an 'inhibitor of radiolytic hydrogen production'. However, the origin of this phenomenon was not clearly identified. In order to propose an explanation to this inhibition phenomenon, model organic molecules were used to represent the components of the bitumen. Irradiations were carried out by protons to simulate the alpha radiolysis. The organic molecules irradiations by a proton beam showed that cobalt hydroxo sulphide CoSOH, does not act as a hydrogenation catalyst of unsaturated hydrocarbons, nor as a radicals scavenger, but consists of a trap of hydrogen. Experiments of hydrogen trapping at ambient temperature were carried out according to two techniques: gravimetry and manometry. The solid was characterized before and after interaction with hydrogen (infrared and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction). The initial solid was composed of amorphous cobalt hydroxo sulphide and a minor phase of cobalt hydroxide. The gravimetry and manometry experiments showed that the maximum of hydrogen trapping capacity is equal to 0.59 {+-} 0.18 mole of hydrogen per mole of cobalt. After interaction with hydrogen, the Co(OH){sub 2} phase disappeared and a new solid phase appeared corresponding to Co{sub 9}S{sub 8}. These observations, as well as the analysis of the gas phase, made it possible to conclude with the following reaction (1): 9 CoSOH + 11/2 H{sub 2} = Co{sub 9}S{sub 8} + 9 H{sub 2}O + H{sub 2}S (1). Gravimetry experiments at temperatures between 50 and 210 C revealed the desorption of water but not of hydrogen sulphide. The absence of hydrogen

  19. Oil generation history of Paleozoic source rocks and its implications for the origin of Feixianguan reservoir bitumens in Northeastern Sichuan Basin%川东北地区古生界烃源岩生油模拟及其对飞仙关组储层沥青来源的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳飞; 王一刚

    2013-01-01

    The origin of Feixianguan reservoir bitumens in the Northeastern Sichuan Basin has been controversial for a long time.Previous knowledge mostly was based on geochemical data,and less hydrocarbon generation procedure was taken into account.In this study,basin modeling was used to investigate oil generation histories and resource potentials of three probable hydrocarbon source rocks (the Lower Cambrian,the Lower Permian and the Upper Permian mudstones) for the Feixianguan reservoir bitumens in Northeastern Sichuan basin.The results showed that the main oil generation stages occurred in the Permian-early Triassic period,early-middle Triassic period and late Triassic-early Jurassic period for the Lower Cambrian,Lower Permian and Upper Permian mud source rocks,respectively.With respect to resource potentials,the Lower Silurian mudstone source rocks produced the largest amount of oils during the whole middle-late Triassic period,accounting for 80%-90% of the total oils generated by the three sets of source rocks.During the early Jurassic sedimentary period,the Upper Permian shale was the primary oil source rocks in the Puguang area and the Lower Silurian shale became sub-ordinary,only accounting for 10%-20% of total oils generated during this period.However,the Lower Silurian shale source rocks contributed about 80% of oils in the Luojiazhai area.Considering absolute oil quantities generated in the middle-late Triassic period much more than those in the early Jurassic period,the oils in Feixianguan giant paleo-pools were believed to be sourced from the Lower Silurian hydrocarbon source rock and a minor contribution from the Permian shale source rock,and its contribution is variable in different regions.It was worthy to note that the huge quantities of oils generated from the Lower Cambrian shale were not trapped in the Feixianguan paleo-pools,because their generation was prior to the formation of Feixianguan reservoirs.They might be trapped in the Paleozoic

  20. INVESTIGATION OF EMULSIFIER PROPERTIES FOR ROAD BITUMEN EMULSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanyk, V.; Terletckaya, V.

    2006-01-01

    The properties of emulsifier for bituminous emulsions have been investigated. Concentration dependences of interfacial tension of emulsifier water solutions and index of adsorption of the surface active substances (SAS) on surface of mineral aggregates have been established.

  1. Characteristics of two-component epoxy modified bitumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Y.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Su, Z.; Zandvoort, F.

    2010-01-01

    Coal tar bearing emulsions were used in the Netherlands as binder in anti-skid surfaces for runways because of their perfect adhesion and fuel resistance properties. They are however toxic and will not be allowed anymore after 2010. Therefore alternatives need to be developed. As one of the alternat

  2. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report

  3. Turning Back Time: Rheological and Microstructural Assessment of Rejuvenated Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A. J. M.; Schlangen, E; M. Shirazi; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Schitter, G.; Scarpas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Countermeasures to the ageing of bituminous asphalt binders is a highly important topic, both for service-life extension of asphalt ‘in the field’ and for recycling old pavements (RAP) into new structures with similar functional requirements as the original structure. Usually this is achieved by applying additives that restore the adhesive and mechanical properties of the original bituminous binder. These additives are commonly termed (asphalt) rejuvenators. Here we examine the performance of...

  4. Evaluating Properties of Middle East Bitumen and Preparing Modified Bitumen%中东基质沥青评价及改性沥青研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴玉同; 黄婉利; 沈家永

    2013-01-01

    选用高温、中温、低温性能较优的Bahrain沥青作为改性沥青的原料沥青,采用SBS、GN-1及GN-2改性剂进行复合,制备了PG 76-16、PG 76-22、PG 82-16、PG 82-22四个系列改性沥青产品,优化配方,降低成本,其技术方案在中东地区应用,具有较好的经济效益.

  5. Bitumen and cement solidifications of LL and ML liquid radwaste. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation is focused on the thin-film evaporator technology and the experience gained in the field of the NPPs and research centers on radwaste conditioning. As early as 1970, SGN was licensed by the CEA for the bituminization of LL and ML radwaste. With the support of EDF and COGEMA, SGN has been performing in depth research on cement solidification of borated concentrates and ion exchange resins generated by reactors or reprocessing plant since 1983

  6. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: the analytical tool for heavy oil and bitumen characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Thomas B.P; Brown, Melisa; Hsieh, Ben; Larter, Steve [Petroleum Reservoir Group (prg), Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICRMS), developed in the 1970's by Marshall and Comisarow at the University of British Columbia, has become a commercially available tool capable of analyzing several hundred thousand components in a petroleum mixture at once. This analytical technology will probably usher a dramatic revolution in geochemical capability, equal to or greater than the molecular revolution that occurred when GCMS technologies became cheaply available. The molecular resolution and information content given by the FTICRMS petroleum analysis can be compared to the information in the human genome. With current GCMS-based petroleum geochemical protocols perhaps a few hundred components can be quantitatively determined, but with FTICRMS, 1000 times this number of components could possibly be resolved. However, fluid and other properties depend on interaction of this multitude of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon components, not the components themselves, and access to the full potential of this new petroleomics will depend on the definition of this interactome.

  7. Influence of ageing on the properties of bitumen from asphalt mixtures with recycled concrete aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Pasandín, A. R.; Pérez, I.; Oliveira, Joel; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of recycled concrete aggregates in new hot-mix asphalt can be a more sustainable method of production, but these mixtures may need a heat treatment before compaction to improve their water sensitivity performance. A direct consequence of this treatment is an increase in the hot-mix asphalt resilient modulus. The aim of this paper is to analyse the effect of ageing on the stiffness of asphalt mixtures with different amounts of recycled concrete aggregates, before and after a heat tre...

  8. Integral migration and source term experiments on cement and bitumen waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a programme of research which formed a part of the CEC joint research project into radionuclide migration in the geosphere (MIRAGE). This study addressed the aspects of integral migration and source term. The integral migration experiment simulated, in the laboratory, the intrusion of water into the repository, the leaching of radionuclides from two intermediate level wasteforms and the subsequent migration through the geosphere. The simulation consisted of a source of natural ground water which flowed over a sample of wasteform, at a controlled redox potential, and then through backfill and geological material packed in columns. The two wasteforms used here were cemented waste from the WAK plant at Karlsruhe, W. Germany and bitumenised intermediate concentrates from the Marcoule plant in France. The soluble fission products such as caesium wire rapidly released from the cemented waste but the actinides, and technetium in the reduced state, were retained in the wasteform. The release of all nuclides from the bitumenised waste was very low. (author)

  9. Sample preparation procedure for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum vacuum residue and bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilgenast, Ewelina; Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Kaminski, Marian [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemical Faculty, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Gdansk (Poland); Przyjazny, Andrzej [Kettering University, Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Flint, MI (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This paper describes a novel method of sample preparation for the determination of trace concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in high-boiling petroleum products. Limits of quantitation of the investigated PAHs in materials of this type range from tens of nanograms per kilogram to <20 {mu}g/kg. The studies revealed that in order to separate most of interferences from the analytes without a significant loss of PAHs, it is necessary to use size exclusion chromatography as the first step of sample preparation, followed by adsorption using normal-phase liquid chromatography. The use of orthogonal separation procedure described in the paper allows the isolation of only a group of unsubstituted and substituted aromatic hydrocarbons with a specific range of molar mass. The lower the required limit of quantitation of PAHs, the larger is the scale of preparative liquid chromatography in both steps of sample preparation needed. The use of internal standard allows quantitative results to be corrected for the degree of recovery of PAHs during the sample preparation step. Final determination can be carried out using HPLC-FLD, GC-MS, or HPLC-UV-VIS/DAD. The last technique provides a degree of identification through the acquired UV-VIS spectra. (orig.)

  10. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

  11. Processing of concentrated radioactive wastes into cement and bitumens following calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief characteristic is presented of the most frequently used processes of solidification of liquid radioactive wastes, viz., bituminization, cementation and their combination with calcination. The effect of individual parameters is assessed on the choice of the type of solidification process as is their importance in the actual process, in temporary storage, during transportation and under conditions of long-term storage. It has been found that a combination of the procedures could lead to a modular system of methods and equipment. This would allow to approach optimal solidification of wastes in the present period and to establish a research reserve for the development of more modern, economically advantageous and safer procedures. A rough estimate is made of the costs of the solidification of 1 m3 of radioactive concentrate from the V-1 power plant at a production of 380 m3/year, this for the cementation-calcination and bituminization-calcination procedures. The said rough economic analysis only serves to identify the major operating components which have the greatest effect on the economic evaluation of the solidification procedures. (Z.M.)

  12. The conductivity and dielectric behavior of solutions of bitumen in toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.S.; Tse, D.L.; Takamura, K.

    1988-06-01

    Previous work on the conductivity and dielectric behavior of residual oil (the fraction remaining in the distillation tower) has suggested that the asphaltene fraction (pentane insolubles) was responsible for the conductivity behavior of solutions of this oil in organic solvents. In this work it is shown that the asphaltenes in heavy crude oils determine the conductivity behavior of solutions of the bulk oil in toluene, while the dielectric behavior is influenced by each component of the oil. The strong dependence of the conductivity on the asphaltene fraction makes it possible to determine the asphaltene content of a heavy crude oil by a conductimetric technique. The conductivity and dielectric behavior of crude oils and fractions of the crude oils, as well as the technique for determining the asphaltene content by conductivity will be presented.

  13. Transport, installation, and testing of a transportable volume reduction and bitumen solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of the Transportable Volume Reduction/Radioactive Waste Solidification System (TVR) shows that the fabrication of the system meets the Duke contract specifications and current regulatory requirements and that the system has successfully demonstrated its ability to solidify boric acid, EPRI chemical cleaning solvent, and demineralizer resin wastes in asphalt. Review of disassembly, transport and reassembly reveals the TVR System's flexibility to move in and out of a station without undue impact on station personnel. Modification of the plant for TVR installation is easily accomplished upon conducting a comprehensive review of design considerations; a discussion is given of the actual coordination, design, and construction applied in modifying Duke Power Company's Riverbend Steam Station. Initial results are presented from processing boric acid, chemical cleaning, and demineralizer resin wastes which show that this system is capable of volume reducing and solidifying the wastes. 3 refs

  14. Exploration and production. Know-how. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation. In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than 100 million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks. These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. (A.L.B.)

  15. Recycled tyre rubber modified bitumens for road asphalt mixtures: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Presti, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, only a small percentage of waste tyres are being land-filled. The Recycled Tyre Rubber is being used in new tyres, in tyre-derived fuel, in civil engineering applications and products, in moulded rubber products, in agricultural uses, recreational and sports applications and in rubber modified asphalt applications. The benefits of using rubber modified asphalts are being more widely experienced and recognized, and the incorporation of tyres into asphalt is likely to increase. The te...

  16. Physico-mechanical properties of asphalt concrete based on road bitumen modified by rapeseed oil epoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Nykypanchuk, Mykhailo; Hrynchuk, Yurii; Olchovyk, Mykola

    2013-01-01

    The investigation results of type B fine asphalt concrete and its form modified by rapeseed oil epoxide are represented. The efficiency of ERO addition and its positive effect on the physico-mechanical properties of asphalt concrete has been established.

  17. Methods for neutron activation determination of metallic microconcentrations in oils and bitumens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron activation method for determining Co, Na, Mn, Br, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, and Sc is discussed. A quartz ampoule containing petroleum coke or oil (0.5 to 1 g) and a standard sample are placed into an aluminium cylindrical case. Irradiation is carried out with a neutron flux of 1.2x1013 per cm2xc for 30 to 60 min, followed by a delay of several hours. Repeated spectra measurements during 7 to 10 days are made with a scintillation counter (with a 40x50 mm NaI crystal and a 6.5% resolution for the 1.33 MeV line of 60Co) having an AI-100 or an AI-256 pulse analyser. When a quantitative analysis is made the gamma-peak intensities of the standard sample and the specimen are compared. The reproducibility evaluated by independent determination of Co, Na, and Br in oils is characterized by a 20% mean-root-square error in a single determination. The Co, Cu, Ga, Zn, and Mn analysis features are described

  18. Remediation of crude oil contaminated soils by means of bitumen emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas Sánchez, María Teresa; Páez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Effective remediation of contaminated sites with oils, heavy metals and other chemical agents is one of the most important environmental problems all over the world. Contaminated soils by petroleum from different sites and origins, might contaminate groundwater aquifers and then be spread by rain. Many years and the requirement of remedial techniques may be needed to remediate them. However, previous experiences show the uselessness of these methods for the solution of all problems. As ...

  19. Influences of the Basin Brines on Extractable Bitumen of Kupferschiefer from southwestern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉壮

    2000-01-01

    A study of the influences of the basin brines on hydrocarbon generation of the Kupferschiefer in southwestern Poland has been carried out.The samples from the Konrad and Polkowics mines were analyzed by orgainc geochemical,microscopic and FTIR methods.The results indicate that organic matter of Kupferschiefer tends to decrease with the ascending,oxidizing brines,In the Konrad profile,the Kupferschiefer was strongly oxidized.The extract yields were depleted up to 50mg Ext/g Corg.Gas chromatography(GC) and gas chromatography-mass spctrometry(GC/MS) data indicate that the depletion occureed predominantly in saturated hydrocarbon compounds.The identified n-alkanes in smpale KD1 were depleted at least to 5000μg/g Corg.The aromatic compounds show a fidderent trend of variation.The concentrations of phenanthrene+ alkylphenanthrenes(Ph-PAH) and naphthalene+alkylnaphthalenes(Na-PAH) show a decrease,whereas sulfur polyaromatic hydrocarbons(S-PAH)and oxygen polyaromatic hydrocarbons(O-PAH) show an incrase under the influences of oxidizing brines,In the Polkowice profile,organic matter under the influences of oxidizing fluids shows a simlar trend of varation as in the Konrad mine.Analyses of polar compounds shed light on the oxidation processes at the molecule level.The dominant products of oxidation are aliphatic acid.alcohol and ester.FTIR results indicate that the oxidation of organic matter led to a decrease in aliphatic CH3 and an increase in C-O,C=O bands.

  20. Investigation of the possibility of decontamination of bitumen concrete pavement contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of the environment is possible during operation of nuclear power plants and the utilization of radionuclide sources in the economy. The problem of decontaminating the surfaces of industrial objects and environmental objects which are contaminated by radionuclides can be solved by different methods of depending on the character of the object: chemical treatment of metallic surfaces of equipment parts by application of different washing fluids, mechanical removal of contaminants or washing contaminants off with a jet of liquid, as well as adding different abrasive additives, the use of film-forming substances for sorption and removal of the decontaminating layer from the surface being cleaned, and other methods

  1. Measurement of Bitumen Viscosity in a Room-Temperature Drop Experiment: Student Education, Public Outreach and Modern Science in One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; Phillips, A. E.; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    The slow flow of a viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and the public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration--the world's longest-running experiment, which has earned the Ig Nobel prize--one drop of pitch takes about ten years to fall,…

  2. C and S isotope characteristics of bitumen, calcite, Fe and Cu sulfides in the metallogenic analysis of the Ocoita metallotec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a significant increase in the rate of convergence of the Phoenix and South American plates during the Early Cretaceous (120 -100 Ma.), a basin, defined by Aberg et al., (1984) as an 'Aborted Marginal Basin', developed in Central Chile. In the late stages of this back-arc marine basin, submarine lava flows extruded through the thinned continental crust underlying the bottom of the shallow sea. The porphyritic lavas of the Pabellon Formation are the northernmost units of this event and are very similar to those of the Ocoa member in the Veta Negra Formation (Cisternas et al. 1999). The lava sequence lies conformably above calcareous rocks of the Pabellon Formation (Barremian-Aptian) and average 70 meters of thickness. The whole sequence dips to the east with a north-south directed strike. A notable characteristic of these lavas are the abundant (>40%) centimeter-size plagioclase phenocrysts, which can be associated with the 'lavas ocoiticas' or 'ocoitas' of the Ocoa member in the Veta Negra Formation of Central Chile. Geochemical analysis of the Pabellon formation lavas indicates that these lavas were derived from K-rich calc-alkaline to transitional magmas, typical of a continental margin subduction, however with an important component of intra-plate contamination (Galindo 1998; Cisternas et al., 1999). The basal rocks are cut by intrusives (119-93 ma.), the same age as the lavas. These intrusives are believed to be the source of heat needed for the thermal maturation of organic matter in the underlying beds. The organic matter rich limestones of the Nantoco formation are the most probable source of the hydrocarbons, which were mobilized by hydrothermal fluids and deposited in veinlets and voids in the lavas (au)

  3. The most appropriate mixing method of polypropylene fiber with aggregates and bitumen based on binder mix design

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Zahedi; Ramin Bayat; Mehdi Nazemi Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt is used in road pavements as the binder of aggregates in a great extent all around the world. Asphalt Modifiers have used in pavement engineering in order to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. One of the most important of them is Polypropylene Fiber that causes increasing stability in the mixture. In this article usage of this fiber in civil engineering and especially in asphalt mixtures is investigated; Mixing methods of fiber with aggregates and bitu...

  4. Effects of Mineral Filler to Polymer Modified Bitumen Ratio on the Design Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt and its Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Current development in the design of asphalt concrete especially in the upper layers of flexible pavements contains about acceptable proportion of mineral fillers passing 75?m (# 200 sieve, which contributes towards the mix cohesion, resistant to rutting and improves serviceability. Three filler to PMA (Polymer Modified Asphalt ratios (i.e. 2.4, 3.4. and 4.4% in Marshall Method of mix design were used in order to determine the optimum filler content at relatively low design asphalt contents (3.83%, for asphalt concrete having PMA and 100% lime stone dust. Designed mix was laid on Southbound Turnol Taxila National Highway Section (N-5, Pakistan as a trial in year 2003. The study reveals that filler to asphalt ratio affects the mix properties to a greater extent and mix laid at site have shown relatively better performance during its service life of initial four critical years. For coarse graded mixes with low asphalt contents, designed especially for heavy loading and high temperatures regions like Pakistan, filler to asphalt ratio less than equal to 1.0 yields better results.

  5. Effects of Mineral Filler to Polymer Modified Bitumen Ratio on the Design Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt and its Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Hafeez; MUMTAZ AHMED KAMAL

    2010-01-01

    Current development in the design of asphalt concrete especially in the upper layers of flexible pavements contains about acceptable proportion of mineral fillers passing 75?m (# 200) sieve, which contributes towards the mix cohesion, resistant to rutting and improves serviceability. Three filler to PMA (Polymer Modified Asphalt) ratios (i.e. 2.4, 3.4. and 4.4%) in Marshall Method of mix design were used in order to determine the optimum filler content at relatively low design ...

  6. 氯丁胶乳乳化沥青稀浆封层的初探%The Study on Chloroprene Rubber Latex Emulsified Bitumen Slurry Seal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光明

    2005-01-01

    掺少量氯丁胶乳改善阳离子乳化沥青性能,用于大交通量和水泥路面稀浆封层铺筑,效果良好,简要介绍了氯丁胶乳改性乳化沥青稀浆封层的部分技术,供参考.

  7. Physical and Rheological Properties of Aged Rubberised Bitumen%橡胶沥青老化后物理和流变特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海波

    2013-01-01

    该文通过沥青物理-流变特性的改变,研究了橡胶粉改性剂(CRM)对沥青流变特性的影响。通过动态剪切流变(DSR)试验,布氏粘度试验,软化点试验和针入度试验研究了老化对沥青物理和流变特性的影响。结果表明,橡胶粉降低了老化对沥青物理和流变特性的影响。随橡胶粉掺量增加,粘度老化指数和G*/sinδ老化指数降低,而tanδ老化指数增加,表明,橡胶粉可以提高沥青的抗老化能力。橡胶粉改性使软化点增量(ΔS)和橡胶沥青针入度老化率(PAR)大幅度降低。此外,橡胶粉掺量越高,PAV老化后G*sinδ越低,沥青抗疲劳开裂能力提高。%In this paper, through the asphalt physical-changes in rheological properties were studied crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on the rheological properties of the asphalt. Through dynamic shear rheology (DSR) test, brookfield viscosity test, softening point test and penetration test study of aging on asphalt physical and rheological characteristics. The results show that the aging of rubber on asphalt powder reduces physical and rheological characteristics. With rubber powder content increases, the viscosity aging index and G*/sinδ aging index decreased, while tanδ aging index increased, indicating that asphalt rubber powder can improve the anti-aging ability. Rubber powder modified so that the softening point increment (ΔS) and rubber asphalt penetration aging rate (PAR) significantly reduced. In addition, the higher dosage rubber powder,PAV aging G*sinδ lower resistance to fatigue cracking of asphalt increased.

  8. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina M. Pons; Marta Franchini; Adolfo Giusiano; Agnes Impiccini; Marta Godeas

    2009-01-01

    Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén) y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están ...

  9. GLR-6乳化沥青设备的生产工艺及应用%The GLR-6 emulsified bitumen equipment's technique of production and applies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广平

    2009-01-01

    介绍了GLR-6型乳化沥青设备在金塘桥面铺装项目部的使用情况,重点介绍了乳化沥青设备的结构组成和乳化沥青的生产工艺、操作流程、以及在使用过程中需要注意的问题.通过与外购乳化沥青进行比较,发现利用乳化沥青设备自产的乳化沥青各项指标均可达到规范的要求,价格上也比外购成品乳化沥青要低很多,可节约大量乳化沥青的购置费用.

  10. Untersuchung von Bitumina zur Herstellung von Öl-in-Wasser-Emulsionen

    OpenAIRE

    Czubak, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the differences between O/W emulsifiable (droplets smaller than 1 micron) and not O/W emulsifiable bitumens (forming droplets much bigger than 1µm). The findings of this study were used for the production of small-scale bitumen emulsions with an initially not emulsifiable bitumen to drop sizes below 1 micron. On the way there, first the bitumen was examined itself. Bitumens, which form bitumen emulsions with big droplets, show micro-phase separations at AFM. Bitumens forming...

  11. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén Alteration,Cu mineralization and bitumen in the Barda González prospect, Neuquén

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina M. Pons; Marta Franchini; Adolfo Giusiano; Agnes Impiccini; Marta Godeas

    2009-01-01

    Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén) y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están ...

  12. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  13. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbol Tileuberdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  14. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Yerbol Tileuberdi; S. Kozbakarova; Yerdos Ongarbayev; B. Tuleutaev; Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-01-01

    In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  15. To Determine Impact of Shape of Course Aggregate on DBM Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaniyapurackal Jilu Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates are the principal material in pavement construction. The shape of aggregate particle has significant influence on performance of the Bitumen pavement. The strength serviceability requirements of Bitumen mixes such as stability, flow, voids in mineral aggregate , voids filled with bitumen and air voids are highly depend on the physical properties of aggregate.

  16. Exploration and production. Know-how. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future; Exploration et production. Savoir-faire. Bruts extra-lourds et bitumes. Des reserves pour demain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation. In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than 100 million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks. These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. (A.L.B.)

  17. Numerical analysis of bitumen-surface highway dynamic response under vehicle loads%汽车荷载作用下沥青路面公路动力响应数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵健; 李振存; 郭昕; 王健

    2012-01-01

    运用ANSYS软件建立沥青路面与路基三维动力分析模型,采用双频率正弦波动荷载模拟车辆动荷载,分析了三轴六轮组的东风重型货车在车速为72 km/h时,满载和超载80%两种工况下路面和路基动力响应.计算结果表明:轮距中心左右各2m的范围内,面层结构横向应力分布呈双峰状,轮迹处最大,然后向两边衰减;且随着深度增加,应力逐渐由压应力转化为拉应力,拉应力在面层下56 cm处达到最大;竖向动应力在路基内随着深度的增加逐渐减小,沿横向在路基表面呈马鞍状分布,且随着深度增加逐渐变为单峰分布;满载及超载80%时动荷载影响深度分别为2.2m和2.6m,影响宽度分别为4 m和6.5m.%3 d dynamic analysis models of asphalt pavement and subgrade were established by finite element software ANSYS. Vehicle dynamic loads were simulated by dual frequency sine wave. The dynamic response of pavement and subgrade were analyzed under the action of Dongfong truck when the speed is 72 km/h with full load and over load 80%. The calculated results show that within the scope of each 2 m around tread center, transverse stress distribution of the surface layer structure is bimodal shape. The maximum appears in place of wheel track and then attenuates toward both sides. With the increase of the depth, the stress changes gradually from the compressive stress into tensile stress, and the maximum tensile stress appears 56 cm under surface layer. Vertical dynamic stress decreases gradually with the increase of the depth in the subgrade. Vertical dynamic stress shows saddle - shaped distribution along the horizontal surface of the subgrade, and with increase of the depth, it increasingly becomes unimodal distribution. The influence depth of the dynamic loads with the action of full load and overload of 80% are 2.2 m and 2.6 m, the width are 4 m and 6.5 m.

  18. 废旧橡胶粉在道路改性沥青中的应用研究%Research on Application of Waste Rubber Powder in Road Modified Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鹏

    2012-01-01

    随着我国经济的发展,汽车工业得到迅速的发展,但是我们也面临着一个严峻的问题,那就是汽车的废旧轮胎的处理问题.我国每年产生的废弃轮胎大约有1400kt.废旧轮胎对环境有着严重的污染作用.因为这种材料不容易分解,需要相当长的时间.植物的生长会因之破坏,随之滋生的蚊虫也会影响人类的健康.因此,如何处理废旧轮胎成了亟待解决的问题.现在有一种工艺,可以变废为宝.那就是将废旧轮胎磨成橡胶粉,将其用于道路改性沥青当中.经实验证明,这种沥青能够改善沥青的高温与低温性能,大大降低路面的损害,同时能在很大程度上改善废旧轮胎产生的污染问题.目前,我国针对这方面的研究还不够成熟,相关的标准也不完善.%As the development of national economy, the development of auto industry is rapid, but we also face a serious problem, namely the problem of dealing with cars' scrap tires. It produces disused tires about 1400 kt in China annually. Scrap tires has severe pollution effect on the environment. Because the material is not easy to break down, needing quite a long time, the growth of plants will be damaged, thereupon, the breeding of mosquito also can affect human health. Therefore, how to deal with scrap tires becomes a problem to be solved. Taking the scrap tires ground into rubber powder and making the rubber powder applied in road modified asphalt is an effective method of dealing with above problem. By the experiment, it proves this kind of asphalt can improve the high temperature and low temperature performance of asphalt, greatly reduce the damage of the road, at the same time, it can largely improve pollution from waste tires. However, it is still not mature for the research of this aspect in our country at present, and the relevant standards is not improved.

  19. Application of the Superpave bitumen pavement technology on Gan-Yue Expressway%Superpave沥青路面技术在赣粤高速公路上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家明

    2004-01-01

    该文通过Superpave技术在赣粤高速公路中的应用,进行了Superpave沥青混合料目标配合比和生产配合比设计,对混合料路用性能进行了评价,确定了施工工序,为今后推广使用Superpave沥青路面技术,提高沥青路面施工质量提供一些有益的参考.

  20. 沥青砼路面目标配合比设计的确定与优化%The Determination and Optimization of Bitumen Concrete Pavement Goal Mix Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪泳

    2003-01-01

    通过对曲菏高速公路沥青砼面层配合比设计的验证,对沥青用量及材料级配进行了调整和优化,使之更加符合和满足设计要求,为施工生产提供了科学的依据。

  1. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B) Production as Landfill Liner

    OpenAIRE

    Müfide Banar; Yücel Güney; Aysun Özkan; Zerrin Günkaya; Eren Bayrakcı; Derya Ulutaş

    2016-01-01

    Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW) was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded...

  2. Fatigue Properties of Layered Double Hydroxides Modified Asphalt and Its Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of layered double hydroxides (LDHs on the fatigue properties of asphalt mixture. In this paper, different aging levels (thin film oven test (TFOT and ultraviolet radiation aging (UV aging for short of bitumen modified with various mass ratios of the LDHs were investigated. The TFOT and UV aging process were used to simulate short-term field thermal-oxidative aging and long-term field light UV aging of bitumen, respectively. The influences of LDHs on the fatigue properties of LDHs were evaluated by dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and indirect tensile fatigue test. Results indicated that the introduction of LDHs could change the fatigue properties of bitumen under a stress control mode. The mixture with modified bitumen showed better fatigue resistance than the mixture with base bitumen. The results illustrated that the LDHs would be alternative modifiers used in the bitumen to improve the lifetime of asphalt pavements.

  3. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the study of bituminization of simulated radwaste - spennt ion-exchange resins, borate evaporator/concentrates and animal ashes, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidizer bitumen were used. Characterization of the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weigt composition (30, 40, 50, 60% by weight of dry waste material) was carried out. The asphaltene and parafin contents in the bitumens were also determined. Some additives and were used with an aim to improve the characteristcs of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were with Cs - 134 and mixtures of resin-bitumen were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. A conventional screw-extruder, common in plastic industry, was used determine operational parameters and process difficulties. Mixtures of resin-bitumen and evaporator concentrate-bitumen obtained from differents operational conditions were characterized. (Author)

  4. Study of the Raveling Resistance of Porous Asphalt Pavements Used in Sustainable Drainage Systems Affected by Hydrocarbon Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodriguez-Hernandez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are one of the most commonly-used sustainable drainage systems (SuDS in urban areas for managing stormwater runoff problems. Porous asphalt is widely used in surface layers of permeable pavement systems, where it can suffer from accidental oil spills from vehicles. Oil spills affect bituminous mixes through the solvent action of the hydrocarbons on the bitumen, reducing the raveling resistance of asphalt pavements. In order to assess the raveling resistance in porous asphalt pavements, the Cantabro abrasion test was performed on 200 test samples after applying controlled oil spills. Three different types of binders were used: conventional bitumen, polymer-modified bitumen and special fuel-resistant bitumen. After analyzing the results, it was concluded that the most suitable bitumen to protect against oil leakages is the polymer-modified one, which is far better than the other two types of bitumen tested.

  5. Characterization of the properties of thermoplastic elastomers containing waste rubber tire powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to recycle waste rubber tires by using powdering technology and treating the waste rubber tire powder with bitumen. It has been proven that the elongation at break, thermal stability and processing flowability of composites of polypropylene (PP), waste rubber tire powder (WRT) and bitumen composites are better than those of PP/WRT composite. A comparative study has been made to evaluate the influence of bitumen content and different compatibilizers on the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites, using a universal testing machine (UTM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a capillary rheometer. The results suggested that the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites were dependent on the bitumen content and the kind of compatibilizer used

  6. Survey on product properties of bituminized waste concentrates from reprocessing, nuclear installations and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey on the product properties after solidification with bitumen of waste concentrates from reprocessing plants, nuclear research installations and nuclear power plants. The leach behaviour of bitumen products in water and saturated salt solutions is described as well as the radiolytic and thermal stability of the products. The reports also contain some data on sedimentation of salts fixed in bitumen. (orig.)

  7. University of Utah Oil Sand Research and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the Oil Sand Research and Development Program at the University of Utah will be presented. It will include resource characterization of the Uinta Basin oils and deposits and bitumens and bitumen-derived liquid recovery and upgrading technology and product utilization. The characterization studies will include the Whiterocks and Asphalt Ridge oil sands. The discussion of recovery and upgrading technologies will include aqueous separation, thermal recovery processes; solvent extraction, and thermal and catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen-derived heavy oils. Product evaluation studies will include jet fuels, diesel fuel, asphalt and specialty chemicals. Plans for the future of the project will be discussed.

  8. Low-level radioactive wastes bituminization - ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the research and development of low level radioactive waste treatment by bituminization process in Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN). Low level radioactive solid waste was simulated by mixed ion exchange resin. Cation exchange and anion resin were loaded with lithium and boric acid respectively and were incorporated in bitumen of suitable rheological properties. The simulated solid wastes incorporated in bitumen were 30 to 46 weight %. The rheological properties of waste product bitumen-mixed resin have been reported. The waste product with bitumen V-65 showed best physical and rheological properties and grave lowest leaching rates of boron and lithium. (author)

  9. Current understanding of oilsands extraction fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masliyah, J.; Xu, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Bitumen production entails bitumen extraction, froth treatment and tailings management. This presentation looked at bitumen extraction with a holistic approach, noting that a basic understanding of extraction is critical to process improvement. Over the past decade, modern characterization techniques have contributed to the progress in understanding the processability of various types of oil sands ores, with recovery ranging from 60 to over 90 per cent. Bitumen recovery involves 3 steps, including bitumen liberation from sand grains, bitumen aeration, and flotation of aerated bitumen. In order to improve bitumen recovery and froth quality, fine solids must be prevented from attaching to bitumen. Water chemistry together with ore characteristics play an important role in determining ore processability. This presentation summarized the progress in understanding and improving oil sands ore processability, made under the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Oil Sands Industry Research Chair program over the last 5 years. According to zeta potential distribution measurements and colloidal force measurements with atomic force microscope, the oil sands processability depends on the interaction and adhesion forces between fines ores and bitumen in divalent cation solutions. Both bitumen recovery and fines settling in tailings treatment can be enhanced by selective flocculation of fines by anionic polyacrylamide polymer. Single molecular force measurements demonstrate a stronger attachment of the added polymer on clays than on bitumen. Typically, oil sand ores containing hydrophobic fines have poor processability. In terms of water chemistry, the same level of divalent ions in de-ionized water and plant process water does not automatically give the same result in ore processability for a given ore. The existence of surface active components in the plant process water has a considerable impact on the synergistic role of divalent cations and

  10. Characterization of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching tests on real wastes embedded in cement, bitumens or resins are realized to study leachability of alpha-emitters or fission products and anion-cation exchange between leachate and embedded materials. Radionuclide distribution is examined by spectrogammametry on cores taken from cemented wastes. Qualitative results concerning degradation of waste blocks embedded in bitumens by bacteria in the ground are given

  11. The effect of Cryogenic Crumb Rubber in cold recycled mixes for road pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Dondi, Giulio; Sangiorgi, Cesare; Hededal, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt Pavement cold mixes for road bases, bound with bitumen emulsion and cement. The crumb rubber is produced cryogenically with granulometric selection, which together with the bitumen, the cement and the fine fractions of the mix forms a resilient mastic capable of imparting significant fatigue...

  12. Laboratory and Field Asphalt Fatigue Performance, Matching Theory with Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramesti, F.P.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between predicted and observed fatigue life of asphalt. This study also investigates the positive effects of modifying bitumen with Retona, a bitumen modifier produced in Indonesia from natural asphalt rock sources, on pavement performance in terms of increa

  13. Improving the quality of asphalt coating with carbon nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larisa, Urkhanova; Nikolay, Shestakov; Aleksandr, Semenov; Natalya, Smirnyagina; Irina, Semenova

    2015-07-01

    This article deals with the possibility of modifying the binder by adding carbon nanomodifier to bitumen to improve the quality of asphalt. Addition of 0.05%-0.5% of nanomodifier significantly changes the properties of bitumen. Asphalt with this astringent has increased strength, heat resistance and shear resistance.

  14. Characterisation of bitumenised waste in SFR 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Michael; Elert, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    The waste deposited in the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste, SFR, consists in part of waste solidified in bitumen. Bitumen is considered to have favourable chemical and physical properties to act as a fixation material for radioactive waste. However, during interim storage and subsequent disposal bitumen's properties may change. This may influence the stability of the bitumen matrix to retain radionuclides. This report discusses different processes affecting the long-term performance of bitumenised waste, and an evaluation of these properties in waste deposited in SFR 1 is made. The possible effect of a bitumen barrier on the release rate of radionuclides from SFR 1 is assessed. Based on leaching experiments reviewed in this study, it could take some thousand years, possibly more, to release all radionuclides in a 200-litre drum. The results are, however, extrapolated from experiments performed during a short period of time. Long- term deteriorating effects and the effect of a low temperature on the bitumen matrix are not very well documented. The literature focuses principally on bitumenised evaporator concentrate, but the bitumenised waste deposited in SFR 1 consists mainly of ion exchange resins. There are indications that the non-radioactive waste products usually investigated overestimate bitumen's ability to retain waste. Radiolytic effects has been estimated in this work to be negligible for waste categories F.17, F.20 and B.20 deposited in SFR 1, but for categories B.05, B.06 and F.18 the possibility of increased water uptake rate due to radiolysis can not be excluded. A more reasonable assumption is that bitumen will act as an effective barrier for radionuclide release during a time span from some hundreds to thousand of years. Generally, the majority of the inventory of radionuclides in SFR 1 is not solidified in bitumen. By taking the bitumen barrier into account in the modelling of release of radio- nuclides from SFR 1, the

  15. Characterisation of bitumenised waste in SFR 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste deposited in the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste, SFR, consists in part of waste solidified in bitumen. Bitumen is considered to have favourable chemical and physical properties to act as a fixation material for radioactive waste. However, during interim storage and subsequent disposal bitumen's properties may change. This may influence the stability of the bitumen matrix to retain radionuclides. This report discusses different processes affecting the long-term performance of bitumenised waste, and an evaluation of these properties in waste deposited in SFR 1 is made. The possible effect of a bitumen barrier on the release rate of radionuclides from SFR 1 is assessed. Based on leaching experiments reviewed in this study, it could take some thousand years, possibly more, to release all radionuclides in a 200-litre drum. The results are, however, extrapolated from experiments performed during a short period of time. Long- term deteriorating effects and the effect of a low temperature on the bitumen matrix are not very well documented. The literature focuses principally on bitumenised evaporator concentrate, but the bitumenised waste deposited in SFR 1 consists mainly of ion exchange resins. There are indications that the non-radioactive waste products usually investigated overestimate bitumen's ability to retain waste. Radiolytic effects has been estimated in this work to be negligible for waste categories F.17, F.20 and B.20 deposited in SFR 1, but for categories B.05, B.06 and F.18 the possibility of increased water uptake rate due to radiolysis can not be excluded. A more reasonable assumption is that bitumen will act as an effective barrier for radionuclide release during a time span from some hundreds to thousand of years. Generally, the majority of the inventory of radionuclides in SFR 1 is not solidified in bitumen. By taking the bitumen barrier into account in the modelling of release of radio- nuclides from SFR 1, the total

  16. Carbonaceous matters in epigenetic uranium deposits associated with zones of layer oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents investigations on the carbonaceous substances encountered in uranium deposits of a certain type. A set of methods (IR spectroscopy, ultimate analysis and others) was used to examine the various types of carbonaceous compounds, their composition, structure and geochemistry, and their role in the formation of uranium concentrations. All the carbonaceous substances are divided into two main groups according to their spacial distribution: those syngenetic to the ore-containing sediments; and epigenetic materials introduced into them as a result of the development of an ascending carbon-bitumen process. A considerable similarity was found between the compositions and properties of forms that are known to have no genetic relation to each other, while carbonaceous formations related by a common origin and belonging to the same group are represented by several modifications with different internal structures and compositons. All the carbonaceous compounds of the syngenetic group occur in a random relationships to the uranium mineralization. Nevertheless, the presence of syngenetic carbonaceous substances assists the formation of rich concentrations of uranium. The appearance of epigenetic carbonaceous substances (bitumens) is generally more closely spacially related to zones of development of uranium mineralization. The maximum concentrations of uranium are typical for hard insoluble bitumens. Among the soluble bitumens, the carbonaceous substances - bitumen S - bound in epigenetic materials, are most enriched in uranium (up to px10-3%). The role of the bitumens differs in the formation of displaced and primary uranium ores. In the first case, the significance of the bitumens, seems to lie in the reduction of the redox potential of the infiltrated uranium-bearing waters. In the second case, it is possible that a co-migration of uranium and certain types of carbonaceous substance (bitumen S, hard bitumen) took place in reducing (by iron) solutions

  17. Breaking the bottleneck : how best can we bring oil sands products to demanding markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta-based Altex Energy Ltd. is pursuing the development of an innovative heavy oil/bitumen pipeline from Alberta to the United States Gulf Coast (USGC). This energy infrastructure development company is led by a proven management team that developed and constructed the 3,700 km long Alliance Pipeline system. This presentation included a map of the $3.7 billion dollar Alliance Pipeline that identified the mainline compressor stations, lateral compressor stations, area offices and head offices. It was noted that oilsands will represent the most significant resource plays for many years. A graph indicating bitumen supply forecasts from 2005 to 2020 suggests that bitumen production will have exponential growth over the foreseeable future. Labor, materials and infrastructure limitations will create barriers to oilsands growth, as will uncertain market access. For that reason, assured pipeline capacity is needed along with an infrastructure to refineries and a favourable competitive balance for Canadian producers. The presentation addressed issues regarding marketing choices and the challenges of upgrading in Alberta. The economics of diluting heavy oil was also discussed along with industry response to the diluent challenge. Altex's proposed solution of a new direct greenfield pipeline from Alberta to the USGC would reach the largest refinery market in North America as well as the largest heavy oil/bitumen consuming regions. The Altex solution would be complementary to heavy oil/bitumen in Alberta. The proprietary pipeline technology permits alternative diluents, eliminating much of the diluent penalty. It mitigates the risks of upgrading in Alberta and competes on a cost basis with other expansion alternatives. The Altex pipeline system eliminates the need for costly condensate diluent, but accepts all current diluents. It transports up to 90 per cent more bitumen than clean diluted bitumen in a conventional pipeline. It can also transport as much as 175 per cent

  18. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in upgrading and refining of Canada's oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model-FUNNEL-GHG-OS (FUNdamental ENgineering PrinciplEs- based ModeL for Estimation of GreenHouse Gases in the Oil Sands) based on fundamental engineering principles was developed to estimate the specific energy consumption and GHGs (greenhouse gas emissions) for upgrading bitumen to produce SCO (synthetic crude oil). The model estimates quantity of SCO produced, the consumption of hydrogen, steam, natural gas and power in two different upgrading operations, namely delayed coking and hydroconversion. Hydroconversion upgrading is more energy and GHG (433.4 kgCO2eq/m3 of bitumen) intensive than delayed coker upgrading (240.3 kgCO2eq/m3 of bitumen) but obtains a higher yield of SCO. This research explores bitumen pathways in oil sands – upgrading bitumen to SCO, followed by transporting and refining SCO as compared to transporting and refining dilbit. The energy consumption, GHG emissions and volume of transportation fuels obtained from refining of different oil sands feeds has been investigated. Refining of oil sands products produce 7.9 to 15.72 gCO2eq per MJ of refined product. Refining of SCO to transportation fuels produces 41% and 49% less emissions than dilbit and bitumen respectively. - Highlights: • A model to estimate energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the oil sands is presented. • The model is developed from fundamental engineering principles. • Upgrading and refining of bitumen in oil sands is explored. • Upgrading of bitumen produces 240.3 and 433.4 kgCO2eq GHGs per m3 of bitumen. • Refining of oil sand products produces 7.9 to 15.72 gCO2eq per MJ of refined product

  19. A field guide for the protection and treatment of shorelines following an Orimulsion spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field guide for use in marine shoreline protection and treatment for Orimulsion was prepared. Orimulsion is a bitumen-based fuel consisting of 70 per cent bitumen and 30 per cent water, stabilized by a surfactant. The guide addresses a wide range of issues related to the protection and cleanup of Orimulsion contamination. Topics covered include the fate, behaviour, persistence and natural removal rates, recommended techniques for shoreline protection, terminology for assessment documentation, and response decision guidelines. The manual covers both forms of Orimulsion, i.e. the non-sticky dispersed bitumen, as well as the tarry residue that results from weathering. 13 refs., 8 figs

  20. Specific features of Bazhenov suite sediments in south-eastern Nurolsk sedimentary basin (Tomsk Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolivko, N.; Perevertailo, T.; Cunyi, Li; Abramova, R.

    2015-11-01

    The specific sediment features in Georgiev (J3kmgr), Bazhenov (J3vbg) and Kulomzin (K1bkl) suites, exposed by drilling in the S-E Nurolsk depression (Tomsk Oblast), were defined and described via petrographic, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence-microscopy analysis methods. The classification of agrillites was identified, the structure-texture features, composition, voids and bitumen types and their distribution were determined. It was defined that Bazhenov suite argillites are characteristic of fine-dispersion, high biogenic silica content and scattered organic matter, enriched multi-composite syngenetic bitumen (from light to resin- asphaltine), as well as fractured surface where the migration of light bitumen occurs.

  1. Technology Options and Integration Concepts for Implementing CO2 Capture in Oil-Sands Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordorica-Garcia, G.; Nikoo, M. [Alberta Innovates Technology Futures, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Carbo, M. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Bolea, I. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    The majority of the technology development for CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is driven by the electric-utility industry, in which the emphasis is on large centralized units for electric-power generation with coal as the primary fuel. The implementation of CCS in oil-sands operations has significant potential to provide meaningful carbon-emissions reductions. This paper presents various concepts for integrating leading CO2-capture techniques to bitumen-extraction and -upgrading processes. The main carbon-capture technologies are reviewed, and their relative advantages and disadvantages for implementation in bitumen mining, thermal bitumen extraction, and bitumen upgrading are discussed, leading to a qualitative assessment of their suitability for each oil-sands process.

  2. A procedure for fixing a mixture of diphenyl and diphenyl oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent organic mixture, after its use for cooling spent fuel elements, is added to bitumen in a proportion of 0.5/9.5 to 1.0/9.0, and the whole is treated in an evaporator together with radioactive concentrates; the diphenyl-diphenyloxide-bitumen-concentrate system is fed into the evaporator through a separate piping. Alternatively, spent organic radioactive sorbents or dry radioactive calcinate are added to this bitumen-containing mixture. The whole is then fixed in suitable vessels for long-term storage. The diphenyl-diphenyloxide mixture together with the bitumen and the liquid radioactive wastes is fed into the evaporator through a separate piping. (M.D.)

  3. Bituminous solidification, disposal, transport and burial of spent ion-exchange resins. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project dealing with the incorporation of spent ion-exchange resins into bitumen was performed within the Agency coordinated research programme on treatment of spent ion-exchange resins. Physical and chemical properties of commercial ion-exchange resins, bitumens and bituminized resins were studied. It was shown that bitumen with low oil content and with a softening point of 60-70 deg. C are applicable for the incorporation of resins. The final waste form is allowed to contain maximum 50% resin. The comprehensive study of the biological resistance of B-30 bitumen was performed. That showed that any bacteriological attack can be regarded as generally insignificant. A continuously operating technology was realized on a semi-plant scale. The best operating conditions of this technology were determined. On the basis of the experience gained from the experiments a design of the bituminization plant of 50m3 dry resin/year treatment capacity was proposed

  4. Source rock geochemistry and liquid and solid petroleum occurrences of the Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, J. A.

    Crude oils, solid bitumens and potential oil source rocks of the frontal and central Ouachita Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma are examined. The organic matter in each of these materials is characterized, and oils are correlated to potential source rocks in the Ouachita Mountains. Four Ouachita Mountain oils and seven solid bitumens (grahamite and impsonite) are analyzed. The oils are paraffinic and range from 31.8 to 43.1 API gravity. The oils are thermally mature and generally unaltered. All four oils are commonly sourced, by n-alkane, sterane and hopane distributions, stable isotope ratios, infrared spectra and vanadium/nickel ratios. A common source for the solid bitumens is also suggested by isotope ratios and pyrolyzate characteristics. An origin due to crude oil biodegradation is suggested for these solids, based on carbon isotope ratios, elemental analyses, and sterane distributions of the solid bitumen pyrolyzates.

  5. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  6. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and... compressor contains a process fluid that meets the conditions specified in § 60.593(b). In light...

  7. Study on the conditions of bituminization of radioactive wastes and their influence on the stability of stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations carried out on a laboratory and semi-industrial scale showed that the Polish oxidised industrial bitumen P-60 was suitable for the solidification of liquid radioactive waste and particularly for non-concentrated post-precipitation sludges. The bitumen products were highly stable and were resistant to leaching by acids, salt solutions and water. Laboratory leach tests gave values similar to those obtained by others using different bitumen. By evaluating the sorption characteristics of the soil and the hydrogeological conditions existing at a proposed storage site, it was shown that the solidified wastes could be stored directly in the soil without further isolation from the soil water. Based on the liquid wastes arising from a nuclear power plant it has been shown that solidification of the wastes in bitumen will be cheaper than solidification of the same wastes using cement

  8. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Tar Sand Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Tar sands represent a significant source of hydrocarbons in the United States. Also known by several other names including bitumen-bearing rocks, natural asphalt,...

  9. Utilization of Electronic Waste Plastic in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek S. Damal; Saurabh S. Londhe

    2015-01-01

    In India, bitumen pavements are commonly used for highways. Due to the increasing traffic intensity, distress such as rutting and cracking of pavements are very common in Indian roads. Under varying seasonal temperature, flexible pavements tend to become soft in summer and brittle in winter. Investigations revealed that properties of concrete can be better than bitumen roads. But now a day‟s concrete roads are used commonly because concrete roads have more life span than the bi...

  10. The Canadian oil sands industry under carbon constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the impact of climate policies on Canada’s oil sands industry, the largest of its kind in the world. Deriving petroleum products such as gasoline and diesel from oils sands involves significant amounts of energy, and that contributes to a high level of CO2 emissions. We apply the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy, augmented to include detail on the oil sands production processes, including the possibility of carbon capture and storage (CCS). We find: (1) without climate policy, annual Canadian bitumen production increases almost 4-fold from 2010 to 2050; (2) with climate policies implemented in developed countries, Canadian bitumen production drops by 32% to 68% from the reference 4-fold increase, depending on the viability of large-scale CCS implementation, and bitumen upgrading capacity moves to the developing countries; (3) with climate policies implemented worldwide, the Canadian bitumen production is significantly reduced even with CCS technology, which lowers CO2 emissions at an added cost. This is mainly because upgrading bitumen abroad is no longer economic with the global climate policies. - Highlights: ► We investigate the impact of climate policies on Canada’s oil sands industry. ► A computable general equilibrium model of the world economy is applied for the assessment. ► Without climate policy, Canadian bitumen production increases almost 4 fold from 2010 to 2050. ► With regional policy, bitumen output may drop by up to 68% and upgrading moves to no-policy countries. ► With global policy, bitumen production is significantly reduced since upgrading abroad is no longer viable.

  11. Cross-section seals for underground cavities and boreholes under special consideration of ultimate disposal of radioactive waste products. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the most important sealing materials for cross-section seals within the multiple barrier design are compiled: Clay, clay/sand mixtures, bitumen and asphalt. Bitumen and asphalts have very good characteristics with regard to corrosion restistance, ageing, solubility, adhesion, sorption characteristics and sealing effect. Experimental and theoretical investigations show that all requirements can be fulfilled by asphalt selection and construction technology, i.e. rheological parameters, solid sedimentation, pressure transmission and losses through annular flow. (orig.)

  12. Fatigue Properties of Layered Double Hydroxides Modified Asphalt and Its Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Liu; Shaopeng Wu; Ling Pang; Yue Xiao; Pan Pan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) on the fatigue properties of asphalt mixture. In this paper, different aging levels (thin film oven test (TFOT) and ultraviolet radiation aging (UV aging for short)) of bitumen modified with various mass ratios of the LDHs were investigated. The TFOT and UV aging process were used to simulate short-term field thermal-oxidative aging and long-term field light UV aging of bitumen, respectively. The influences of LDHs on t...

  13. Screening of zonal isolation agents for SAGD EOR applications

    OpenAIRE

    Danyalov, Asset

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) features is currently one of the most widely applied technologies for production of bitumen oil in Canadian oil sand fields. However, as in most oil and gas reservoirs, the bitumen oil reservoirs also differ depending on their reservoir structure; for the Surmont field case in Athabasca oil sands region, the lack of natural sealing and presence of overlying thief zones became a point of concern for a conventional application of the SAGD me...

  14. Nitrate reducing bacterial activity in concrete cells of nuclear waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht A.; Rafrafi Y.; Sablayrolles C.; Bertron A.; Kassim C.; Alquier M.; Erable B.

    2013-01-01

    International audience Leaching experiments of solid matrices (bitumen and cement pastes) have been first implemented to define the physicochemical conditions that microorganisms are likely to meet at the bitumen-concrete interface (see the paper of Bertron et al.). Of course, as might be suspected, the cement matrix imposes highly alkaline pH conditions (10 < pH < 11). The screening of a range of anaerobic denitrifying bacterial strains led us to select Halomonas desiderata as a model bac...

  15. Studi Pengaruh Penggunaan Bahan Tambah Zat Adiktif Yang Berbasis Hydrocarbon Terhadap Marshall dan Indirect Tensile Strenght

    OpenAIRE

    HAKIM, LUKMAN

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRAK Liquid Asbuton adalah nama suatu produk ekstraksi batuan aspal alam dari Pulau Buton melalui pengembangan teknologi, liquid Asbuton memiliki penetrasi yang sangat rendah, sehingga digolongkan sebagai aspal keras. pada umumnya mengandung 60% sampai dengan 75% kadar bitumen sisanya adalah mineral 25%-40% sebagai bahan pengisi alam, bitumen sebagian besar dibentuk oleh asphaltene dan sedikit maltene kadar stabilitas yang tinggi dan malten, yang terdiri dan polyaromatics resin (dengan...

  16. Effect of transesterification degree and post-treatment on the in-service performance of NCO-functionalized vegetable oil bituminous products

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The bitumen modification through polyurethane prepolymers presents significant benefits for the manufacture of bituminous products for the paving industry. In this sense, this work explores the use, as bitumen modifier, of a novel reactive prepolymer synthesized by reaction of 4,4´,diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and a vegetable oil-based polyol, castor oil (CO), previously transesterified with pentaerythritol. On the one hand, thermal analysis on transesterified CO revealed a highly stabl...

  17. Environmental Evaluation of gravel emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    GOYER, Sarah; Dauvergne, Michel; Wendling, Louisette; Fabre, Jean Claude; De La Roche, Chantal; Gaudefroy, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the result of a study on environmental impact of road construction techniques with bitumen emulsion. This review was limited to overall indicators (GreenHouse Gas emissions, energy and natural resources consumption). Road materials with bitumen emulsion are compared with conventional techniques as Hot Mixes Asphalts. Then, three cases of road maintenance are shown (lightly or highly deformed reshaping, and structural maintenance). Several maintenance solutions are proposed ...

  18. Inhibition de la production d'hydrogène radiolytique dans les déchets nucléaires de type « enrobés bitumineux » :
    étude de l'interaction entre l'hydrogène et l'hydroxosulfure de cobalt

    OpenAIRE

    Pichon, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    In the nuclear field in France, the bitumen is mainly used for the conditioning of the radioactive muds generated by the fuel reprocessing. However, the self-irradiation of the bitumen induces a production of hydrogen which generates safety problems. The comparison of various storage sites showed that the presence of cobalt hydroxosulphide limited such a production. Consequently, this compound was regarded as an « inhibitor of radiolytic hydrogen production » However, the origin of this pheno...

  19. Rheological behaviour of polymer-modified bituminous mastics : a comparative analysis between physical and chemical modification

    OpenAIRE

    Shivokhin, Maxim; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Gallegos Montes, Críspulo

    2012-01-01

    Mastic, a bitumen/filler blend which naturally forms when bitumen is mixed with aggregates is the actual product used to bind coarse mineral particles in the asphalt mixtures. As a result, the characterisation of mastics is essential to improve the understanding of the response and performance of asphalt concrete pavements. On the other hand, the lack of experimental data concerning the behaviour of mastics and, above all, polymer-modified mastics has been lately claimed. In that sense, this ...

  20. Temperature induced healing in strained bituminous materials observed by atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A. J. M.; Scarpas, A.; Schitter, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen is the binder in the composite material named asphalt concrete. Under cyclic mechanical loading of traffic passing over the pavement, eventually damage will initiate in the pavement, leading to eventual structural failure. This damaging process is accelerated by time dependent change of the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete due to ageing mechanisms like oxidation. Bitumen displays spatial heterogeneity at the micrometer scale, which has been observed by atomic force microscopy...

  1. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project: volume 1: project description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperial Oil Resources Limited has applied for approval from both the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board and the Albert Environmental Protection Branch for approvals to expand bitumen recovery operations at Cold Lake, Alberta. The proposed project will consist of: (1) a new three-phase oil field development called Mahkeses which will recover 46 million cubic metres of bitumen at a production rate of 4,800 cubic metres per day, (2) a 220 megawatt electrical power cogeneration facility at the Mahkeses central plant, and (3) additional development to maintain and optimize bitumen steam production at the company's existing Maskwa and Mahihkan operation areas at Cold Lake. Cyclic steam stimulation will be used to recover the bitumen. The expansion will involve drilling new wells, construction of pipelines and multiwell pads. Production will be processed at the plants before the bitumen is mixed with diluent to reduce its viscosity. The bitumen will be transported to markets through pipeline systems originating in Cold Lake. Approximately 45 per cent of the electricity generated from the electrical power cogeneration facility will be used on site. The remainder will be available for sale to the Alberta Power Pool. 18 refs., 32 tabs., 55 figs

  2. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  3. Alternative PMB produced from recycling waste PMMA/ATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan TUŠAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With development of production processes in refineries production of bitumen is decreasing, as well as the quality of produced bitumen. On the market this brings increased demand for bitumen accompanied by the demand for additives to improve such low quality bitumen. Many different types of additives are used, but most commonly SBS is added. Usage of additives bring additional direct costs, due to market price of additives and indirect cost due to adjustments in the technological process as such as additional mixing device in bitumen tanks, elevated temperature of asphalt or prolongation in mixing time. A topic of our research was development low price asphalt additive from waste poly-methyl methacrylate filled with a fine dispersion aluminium trihydrate (PMMA/ATH. Additionally with paraffin wax it was used as modifying agents for 70/100 paving grade bitumen. With regard to performance of modified asphalt mixtures, it was found that both additives considerably reduce moisture susceptibility and formation of ruts. With laboratory tests and field trial we found that combined technology PMA (polymer modified asphalt and WMA (warm mix asphalt technologies resulted in optimized production and excellent performance of pavement material.

  4. Enhancement of orimulsion biodegradation through the addition of natural marine carbon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, L.M.; Toy, E.; Lapham, L.; Cherrier, J.; Chanton, J.P. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (USA). Dept. of Oceanography

    2001-04-01

    Orimulsion is a bitumen-based heavy fuel that is a less expensive alternative to traditional fuel oils. However, because its density is intermediate between that of freshwater and seawater, in the event of a spill, the fuel could strand in the sediments. Previous work indicated that only 0.6 - 2.7% of the bitumen would degrade in long incubations of marine sediments. Various natural carbon substrates were added to stimulate the degradation of bitumen by native populations of benthic bacteria. The concentration and carbon isotopic signature of the respired carbon dioxide was measured to partition the substrates that supported bacterial respiration. It was found that the addition of seagrass and pinfish stimulated the degradation of bitumen by as much as 2 to 9-fold relative to incubations without these substrates. Biodegradation of bitumen may be enhanced by the addition of natural marine carbon substrates and may be a useful approach for bioremediation. Preadaption of the bacteria to bitumen did not significantly enhance their ability to degrade it. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tab.

  5. Proceedings of the Oilsands 2006 Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masliyah, J.; Gray, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering] (comps.)

    2006-07-01

    This conference was an outgrowth of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada's (NSERC) Oilsand Chairs symposia. As such, it summarized the progress that has been made since the launch of the program in understanding and improving oil sands ore processability. The conference provided an opportunity to learn and exchange information regarding integrated approaches to oilsands processing, pipelining, and marketing of oilsands products. Commercial bitumen recovery processes that were developed in Alberta were highlighted along with the interactions in industrial process waters that influence bitumen recovery and the sub-processes of water-based bitumen extraction from oilsands. Representatives from industry and academia presented the latest technology advancements in ore processability, tailings froth treatment, low cost hydrogen production, bitumen conversion and gasification. Topical issues such as hydrotreating product quality were discussed along with bitumen composition, bitumen properties, and energy efficiency. The conference featured 35 presentations, of which 34 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Hydraulic washing removal efficiencies of Orimulsion from rock surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.R.; Ward, S. [Coastal and Ocean Resources Inc., Sidney, BC (Canada); Sergy, G. [Environment Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Orimulsion is a fuel alternative composed of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. It is shipped from Venezuela to New Brunswick where it is used as fuel oil for power plants. While there have not been any major spills of Orimulsion, it is recognized that very little is known regarding the dispersal and weathering processes of Orimulsion, or the behaviour and cleanup of the product on both rocky and course sediment shorelines. For that reason, this study was conducted to determine the efficiency of hydraulic washing under different water temperatures and pressures to remove bitumen from rocky shorelines. The results of the study make it possible to assess the physical effectiveness of the method and to determine the range of effective operational parameters. The coating protocol was refined to create uniform coating of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen of rock surfaces. The use of a chemical agent for enhancing removal efficiency was also assessed. Orimulsion could reach shorelines as low concentration dispersions of bitumen particles suspended in a water column, or as a high concentration mixture of bitumen, water and air. Granite tiles were coated with uniform coatings of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen. They were then washed under different pressures, temperatures and other treatments. Temperatures of more than 40 degrees C and pressures of more than 76 kPa were needed to effectively remove the bitumen coatings. Weathering significantly increased coating tenacity for dispersed coatings, but did not affect coalesced coating tenacity. Immediate washing was found to be very effective for removing dispersed coating, but not for coalesced coating. Coating tenacity was also affected by submergence times. Pre-treatment of the coating with a dispersion called Corexit significantly improved the removal efficiencies of dispersed coatings, but not coalesced coatings. 6 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Hydraulic washing removal efficiencies of Orimulsion from rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orimulsion is a fuel alternative composed of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. It is shipped from Venezuela to New Brunswick where it is used as fuel oil for power plants. While there have not been any major spills of Orimulsion, it is recognized that very little is known regarding the dispersal and weathering processes of Orimulsion, or the behaviour and cleanup of the product on both rocky and course sediment shorelines. For that reason, this study was conducted to determine the efficiency of hydraulic washing under different water temperatures and pressures to remove bitumen from rocky shorelines. The results of the study make it possible to assess the physical effectiveness of the method and to determine the range of effective operational parameters. The coating protocol was refined to create uniform coating of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen of rock surfaces. The use of a chemical agent for enhancing removal efficiency was also assessed. Orimulsion could reach shorelines as low concentration dispersions of bitumen particles suspended in a water column, or as a high concentration mixture of bitumen, water and air. Granite tiles were coated with uniform coatings of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen. They were then washed under different pressures, temperatures and other treatments. Temperatures of more than 40 degrees C and pressures of more than 76 kPa were needed to effectively remove the bitumen coatings. Weathering significantly increased coating tenacity for dispersed coatings, but did not affect coalesced coating tenacity. Immediate washing was found to be very effective for removing dispersed coating, but not for coalesced coating. Coating tenacity was also affected by submergence times. Pre-treatment of the coating with a dispersion called Corexit significantly improved the removal efficiencies of dispersed coatings, but not coalesced coatings. 6 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Supplying synthetic crude oil from Canadian oil sands: A comparative study of the costs and CO2 emissions of mining and in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs of supplying synthetic crude oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that before 2035, the most influential parameters are the learning parameter in the case of in-situ bitumen and the depletion parameter in the case of mined bitumen. After 2035, depletion dominates in both cases. The results show that the social cost of CO2 has a large impact on the total costs of synthetic crude oil, in particular in the case of synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen, due to the carbon intensity of the recovery techniques: taking into account the social cost of CO2 adds more than half to the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from mined bitumen in 2050 (mean value), while the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen more than doubles. - Highlights: • We model the cost of Canadian synthetic crude oil (SCO) using Monte-Carlo techniques. • We reveal the uncertainty associated with each input parameter. • We quantify the effect of learning, depletion and CO2 using sensitivity analyses. • Accounting for the social cost of CO2 doubles the cost of SCO from in-situ bitumen. • CO2 pricing could have a large effect on the economics of the oil sands

  9. Changes in Densities of Basic Constituents during CRMB Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Aziz Memon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Along with other polymers, Crumb Rubber (CR obtained from scrap tyres has also resulted in enhanced performance of the virgin binder to meet the increased traffic density. However, the nature of reaction between the primary components has been reported to be different compared to the other polymer modification resulting in an heterogeneous blend of primary components. Despite the enhanced physical and performance characteristics of CRMB such as improved rutting and fatigue resistance, the product is still not widely accepted; the reason being inadequate and inconsistent observations from different researchers and agencies around the world. This has also led to a gap, where industry and the research community are still trying to understand and control the reaction mechanism between CR and bitumen to obtain consistent results. To understand the reaction mechanism, a total of 27 CRMB blends with different material combinations were prepared in the laboratory. To examine the changes, samples were collected after different intervals of blending and further subjected to laboratory observations for volumetric changes. The collected samples were then put through the separation processes to recover binder residue and swollen CR for further laboratory analysis. Results demonstrated that the aging of bitumen make it harder due to oxidation. Equally CRMB production also contributes to the hardening of base bitumen due to the diffusion of lighter fractions of bitumen into the CR particles. This resulted in changes in volumetric of the blend, bitumen and CR. The main factors responsible for these changes were; proportion of the primary components, CR size, base bitumen grade and volatilisation during production. As a result, a maximum increase of up to 0.42% and 3.9% was observed in the densities of CRMB and bitumen residue respectively. However, a significant reduction of 19% in the densities of the CR phase was observed.

  10. The occurrence of fatty acids in immature source rocks and their distribution characteris-tics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fatty acids in extractable bitumen and kerogen of immature source rocks of the Liaohe Basin and Jiyang sag were investigated in this study. The result showed that the bitumen fatty acids were mainly associated with non-hydrocarbon fraction and that the kerogen fatty acids with some tightly bound fatty acids were mainly bounded in a net structure of kerogen by ester bonds. For the investigated source rocks, the fatty acids in bitumen, bound fatty acids and tightly bound acids in kerogen ranged in 0.01% -0.073 9%, 0.005% - 0.045 5% and 0.005%- 0.010% respectively. Among the fatty acids analyzed in this study, mono-carboxylic acids, a, w-di-carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids accounted for 70%-100%, 0%-30% and <10% respec-tively. It was also found that the mono-carboxylic acids with longer chains mainly existed in bitumen, and that the a, w-di-carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids mainly existed in kerogen. From above, it was assumed that the mono-car- boxylic acids in bitumen might have played an important role in the hydrocarbon generation from fatty acids in imma-ture source rocks.

  11. Nitrate reducing bacterial activity in concrete cells of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching experiments of solid matrices (bitumen and cement pastes) have been first implemented to define the physicochemical conditions that microorganisms are likely to meet at the bitumen-concrete interface (see the paper of Bertron et al.). Of course, as might be suspected, the cement matrix imposes highly alkaline pH conditions (10 < pH <11). The screening of a range of anaerobic denitrifying bacterial strains led us to select Halomonas desiderata as a model bacterium capable of catalyzing the reaction of nitrate reduction in these extreme conditions of pH. The denitrifying activity of Halomonas desiderata was quantified in batch bioreactor in the presence of solid matrices and / or leachate from bitumen and cement matrices. Denitrification was relatively fast in the presence of cement matrix (<100 hours) and 2 to 3 times slower in the presence of bituminous matrix. Overall, the presence of solid cement promoted the kinetics of denitrification. The observation of solid surfaces at the end of the experiment revealed the presence of a biofilm of Halomonas desiderata on the cement paste surface. These attached bacteria showed a denitrifying activity comparable to planktonic bacterial culture. On the other side, no colonization of bitumen could be highlighted as either by SEM or epifluorescence microscopy. Now, we are currently developing a continuous experimental bioreactor which should allow us a more rational understanding of the bitumen-cement-microbe interactions. (authors)

  12. Leaching behavior of various low-level waste solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the leaching of radioactive nuclides from low-level wastes solidified with cement, bitumen or plastics. Considerations are made on the effects of type of solidification matrix and waste; type, amount and exchange frequency of leachate; type and conditions of embedding soil; temperature and pressure; and secular deterioration. It is assumed that a waste composite is entirely immersed in leachate and that the amount of the leachate is large compared to the surface area of the waste. Cement solid is characterized by its high alkalinity and porosity while plastic and bitumen solids are dense and neutral. The content of waste in a composite is low for cement and high for plastics. It is generally high in bitumen solid though it should be reduced if the solid is likely to bulge. The leaching of 137Cs from cement solid is slightly dependent on the waste-cement ratio while it increases with increasing waste content in the case of plastic or bitumen solid. For 60Co, the leaching from cement solid depends on the alkalinity of the cement material used though it is not affected by the waste-cement ratio. In the case of plastics and bitumen, on the other hand, the pH value of the waste have some effects on the leaching of 60Co; the leaching decreases with increasing pH. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Billions vs. millions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dispute over the gas production rights in land located in Alberta called the Surmont Lease has been brought before the Alberta's Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) by Gulf Canada Resources Ltd. and three smaller gas producers (NAL Resources, Northstar Energy Corp. and Wascana Energy Inc.). The gas producers have argued that the EUB doesn't have the legislative authority to confiscate the regulatory or property rights of gas producers. The lawyers for Gulf have requested that gas production be stopped in order to preserve the economic value of the bitumen to which they own the rights. Petro-Canada has also intervened on the side of Gulf Canada Resources. The EUB has acknowledged that their decision on this case could affect the fate of bitumen extraction in the entire Athabasca oil sands. Production of the gas pools in the bitumen deposits lowers the pressure in the bitumen reservoir and can render the deposit unfit for development using steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). A decision by the Board is expected to be made soon. The expectation is that given its mandate to govern the exploitation of hydrocarbons in a way that does not waste resources, the Board is likely to err on the side of bitumen conservation

  14. Nitrate reducing bacterial activity in concrete cells of nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquier, M.; Kassim, C.; Bertron, A.; Rafrafi, Y.; Sablayrolles, C.; Albrecht, A.; Erable, B.

    2013-07-01

    Leaching experiments of solid matrices (bitumen and cement pastes) have been first implemented to define the physicochemical conditions that microorganisms are likely to meet at the bitumen-concrete interface (see the paper of Bertron et al.). Of course, as might be suspected, the cement matrix imposes highly alkaline pH conditions (10 Halomonas desiderata as a model bacterium capable of catalyzing the reaction of nitrate reduction in these extreme conditions of pH. The denitrifying activity of Halomonas desiderata was quantified in batch bioreactor in the presence of solid matrices and / or leachate from bitumen and cement matrices. Denitrification was relatively fast in the presence of cement matrix (Halomonas desiderata on the cement paste surface. These attached bacteria showed a denitrifying activity comparable to planktonic bacterial culture. On the other side, no colonization of bitumen could be highlighted as either by SEM or epifluorescence microscopy. Now, we are currently developing a continuous experimental bioreactor which should allow us a more rational understanding of the bitumen-cement-microbe interactions.

  15. Nitrate reducing bacterial activity in concrete cells of nuclear waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaching experiments of solid matrices (bitumen and cement pastes have been first implemented to define the physicochemical conditions that microorganisms are likely to meet at the bitumen-concrete interface (see the paper of Bertron et al.. Of course, as might be suspected, the cement matrix imposes highly alkaline pH conditions (10 bitumen and cement matrices. Denitrification was relatively fast in the presence of cement matrix (<100 hours and 2 to 3 times slower in the presence of bituminous matrix. Overall, the presence of solid cement promoted the kinetics of denitrification. The observation of solid surfaces at the end of the experiment revealed the presence of a biofilm of Halomonas desiderata on the cement paste surface. These attached bacteria showed a denitrifying activity comparable to planktonic bacterial culture. On the other side, no colonization of bitumen could be highlighted as either by SEM or epifluorescence microscopy. Now, we are currently developing a continuous experimental bioreactor which should allow us a more rational understanding of the bitumen-cement-microbe interactions.

  16. Geology jump : unlocking Saskatchewan one core sample at a time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2007-05-15

    Oilsands Quest Inc. has pulled many core samples of intercepted bitumen from the ground below northwest Saskatchewan in an effort to prove that the resource is big enough to warrant a commercial project in the area. Geologists at three exploration camps are identifying the location of water bodies that once flowed across what has become the Alberta-Saskatchewan border. These channels now hold bitumen. Winter drilling in 2005-2006 resulted in 19 cores intersecting bitumen in the McMurray Formation. The company drilled 76 holes with 58 hitting bitumen-bearing McMurray Formation. Original bitumen in place has been estimated at up to 1.5 billion barrels. This article compared this find with Husky's Sunrise Project and Synenco's Borealis project which were also once exploration plays. The results of the current year's drilling program in northern Saskatchewan are not yet available, but it was emphasized that hundreds more evaluation wells are needed to determine the economic viability of oil sands development in the region. 10 figs.

  17. Development and operation experience from pilot-plant for bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes (UBD-200)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are given for investigations of liquid radioactive wastes bituminization on the pilot-plant of continious operation. The bituminization process is divided into two stages. On the first stage salts with definite moisture content are obtained. On the second stage, wet salts are mixed with melted bitumen. In this process the salts are finally dryed and bitumen compound produced is transported towards the discharge assembly. Design of the dryer and mixer is described and their technical parameters are given. Salt-bitumen compound is discharged in moulding bogies with volume of 0.5 m3. After hardening, salt-bitumen compound blocks are removed for burial. Average composition of liquid radioactive wastes coming for solidification is given. Dependences of the salt-bitumen compound characteristics on the parameters of the technological process of bituminization are given as well as the results of analysis of filling of compound by salts at the block height of 0.3 m. It is shown that division of the bituminization process into two stages do not affect on the chemical stability of compound. (I.T.)

  18. An investigation of problematic solids in oil sands processing : separation and characterization of organic matter strongly bound to oil sands solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, T.; Woods, J.R.; Kung, J.; Fu, D.; Kingston, D.; Kotlyar, L.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology; Sparks, B.D. [V. Bede Technical Associates, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Some of the solid fractions in Athabasca oilsands are associated with strongly bound organic matter that is insoluble in toluene, a solvent commonly used to extract bitumen. The presence of toluene insoluble organic matter (TIOM) increases oil wettability of solids which may adversely affect the release of bitumen from the oilsands. Some of the solid material from the coking operation may be carried over to downstream operations where it can cause fouling. This study used supercritical fluid extraction with methanol to remove TIOM from oilsands after extraction of bitumen by toluene. The methanol extract (ME) is soluble in toluene and was analyzed. Results were compared with corresponding bitumen fractions prepared using a modified HPLC SARA separation technique. Number average molecular weights for the ME were similar to those for resins separated from bitumen. The study also showed that the number of alkyl substituents on aromatic ring systems and the lengths of paraffinic straight chains for resins and ME samples were similar, with only minor differences in terms of H/C atomic ratios and aromaticities. The ME was more polar than the resin and asphaltene fractions, which may explain the selective adsorption of this fraction. tabs., figs.

  19. Feasibility study of producing lump fuel using oil-bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldybaev, A.B.; Ermagambetov, B.T.; Mamraeva, K.M.; Shin, R.G.; Bakirova, R.K. (Institut Organicheskogo Sinteza i Uglekhimii AN KazSSR (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Describes production of lump fuel by briquetting and coking different mixtures of non-caking coal with coal preparation sludge and bitumen extracted from oil sands. The coal used was from the Shubarkol'sk coal deposit (USSR); the sludge was from the Saburkhanskaya preparation plant. Properties and composition of oil-bituminous sands and of bitumen to be used as binder are given. Technological details of the briquetting and coking processes are provided. Results show that briquets produced from mixtures of coal and oil-bituminous sands can only be used as a high-ash lump fuel, which cannot be further processed into semicoke. Experiments were carried out briquetting coal or coke, sludge and 6-8% bitumen extracted from the sands, varying coal or coke grain fractions and composition of the mixture. An increased briquet strength was found after using the vacuum-distilled 300-350 C bitumen fraction. Briquets from this non-caking coal with bitumen binder are regarded as ecologically clean fuel. 5 refs.

  20. Operational exercise for the containment and recovery of OrimulsionR spills: Effectiveness of the methodology and equipment used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected containment and recovery measures to be used in the case of OrimulsionR spills were used in an exercise in Venezuela to evaluate the effectiveness of methodologies and equipment designed to contain and recover bitumen particles dispersed in the water column. The exercise involved pouring 325 litre of OrimulsionR at sea, the use of commercially available deep skirted booms to contain the dispersed bitumen particles, pumping the water with a submersible centrifugal pump, and subsequent treatment and separation of the bitumen from the water in a flotation and skimming tank located on a support vessel.Results of the exercise led to the conclusion that commercially available deep-skirted booms are effective for the containment of OrimulsionR spills, and that once contained, an OrimulsionR spill can be recovered by available response equipment. 19 refs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  1. Development of techniques for radwaste systems in CANDU power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques to reduce the volume of CANDU reactor wastes and to bitumenize them are being developed at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Reverse osmosis is suitable for initial purification of dilute radioactive aqueous wastes. Tubular membranes are used to concentrate wastes to 5 weight percent solids, and while the membranes do foul, they may be cleaned mechanically, chemically, or with fresh feed. A wiped-film evaporator then concentrates the retentate to a 20 weight-percent slurry. A twin-screw extruder-evaporator has been used to bitumenize this slurry, and it will also handle ion exchange resin and dry incinerator ash. Work on a wiped-film evaporator as a bitumenizer for various feeds is in progress. More experience in handling solid feeds is needed before work can proceed to the demonstraton phase. (auth)

  2. Organic geochemical records of hydrothermal alteration at Idrija mercury deposit, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jošt V. Lavrič

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A combined molecular and stable isotopes (C, N investigation of the organic matter associated to the Idrija mercury deposit is being used to track the pathway of the mineralizing hydrothermal fluids and their interaction with the organic matter. The studied samples include regional barren rocks, and host rocks and ore from the mine. The Rock-Eval parameters indicate that the organic matter disseminated in regional and mine rocks is mature to post mature. The bitumens from mineralized samples are depleted in aliphatichydrocarbons and enriched in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, aromatic sulfur compounds (S-PAH and hydrogenated PAH. The isotopic compositions of kerogens, bitumens,and individual hydrocarbons point to thermal and oxidative degradation of indigenous and migrated bitumens during mineralization and later evolution of the Idrija deposit.

  3. Leaching tests of immobilized spent ion-exchange resins contaminated with 14 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the conditioning of ion exchangers generated from operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 techniques of direct immobilization in cement, bitumen and organic polymers have been experimented. The selected process for conditioning of spent resins is their bituminization using industrial bitumen, I 60-70, made in Romania. The conditioning pilot plant was built in 1997 and the bituminization experiments were run during 300 hours in 1997-1998 using simulated inactive wastes (A 600 and C100H ion exchangers). The anionite was loaded with inactive carbon by equilibrating with a known amount of CO32- from the stock solution. This paper presents the results of leach tests on bitumen products for determination of leaching rates of 14 C. (authors)

  4. Performance Evaluation of Crumb Rubber Modified Stone Mastic Asphalt Pavement in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prevent pavement distresses there are various solutions such as adopting new mix designs or utilisation of asphalt additives. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding crumb tyre rubber as an additive to SMA mixture performance properties. This study investigated the essential aspects of modified asphalt mixtures in order to better understand the influence of CRM modifiers on volumetric, mechanical, and stiffness properties of SMA mixture. In this study, virgin bitumen 80/100 penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber (CRM at five different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20%, respectively, by weight of the bitumen. The appropriate amount of the added CRM was found to be 12% by weight of bitumen. This percentage results in the maximum level of stability. The resilient modulus (Mr of modified SMA samples including different percentages of CRM was obviously higher in comparison with that of unmodified samples.

  5. Sticky fix : new technology claims to solve separation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radison, T.

    2008-02-15

    A technology capable of turning a barrel of oilsands into stratified layers of bitumen, sands, and residual materials was presented. The Petromax technology has successfully separated bitumen from sand, and broken up mature fine tailings into layers of heavy metals, water, Petromax solution, and bitumen. The technology was originally designed to remove the sludge from crude oil storage tanks, and has been used to transform viscous sludge into pumpable slurries. The technology uses the zeta potential, which manipulates the ionic charge on the surface of materials through both a physical and chemical process, causing particles that normally attract each other to repel one another. Use of the technology in in situ underground processes without heat has resulted in a 95 per cent yield. The technology has also been in situ process with vertical wells rather than the horizontal wells typically used in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. The process is currently being patented, and pilot plants are being planned. 2 figs.

  6. Characterization of Clay Minerals and Kerogen in Alberta Oil Sands Geological End Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Limin

    The high degree of variability of oil sands ores can be attributed to a mixture of different geological end members, i.e., estuarine sand, estuarine clay, marine sand and marine clay. This study focused on the mineralogy, especially of clay minerals, and toluene insoluble organic matter, referred to as kerogen, in different oil sands end members. Clays and kerogens will likely have a significant impact on solvent recovery from the gangue following non-aqueous bitumen extraction. The bitumen-free solids were subjected to mineralogical and geochemical analysis. Kerogens were isolated and analyzed by various characterization methods. The types of clays were identified in oriented samples by X-ray diffraction analysis. The nitrogen to carbon ratio in the isolated kerogens is found to be higher than in bitumen. There are more type III kerogens in estuarine samples and more type II kerogens in marine samples.

  7. A composition for insulation operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymant, A.N.; Oborin, Iu.A.

    1979-11-15

    A thermohydroinsulation composition is being patented, and it includes bitumen, an emulsifier, and water, into which, for the purpose of decreasing hydroscopicity and increasing thermotechnical properties and strength, an organic isocyanate, caoutchouc, and an organic solvent are added. The composition has the following properites, in %: bitumen, 21 to 31.8; an emulsifier, 15.8 to 23.8; water, 15.8 to 23.8; organic isocyanate, 9.7 to 18.9; caoutchouc, 6.9 to 13.5; organic solvent, 4 to 15. In order to produce the composition, the organic isocyanate and the caoutchouc are diluted in the organic solvent, and with mixing, it is added into the asphalt mastic (bitumen + emulsifier + water).

  8. Goodbye water use, tailings and Co2?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, R.P.

    2011-03-15

    Alberta Bitumen Link (ABL), a new integrated oilsands technology, is described. ABL combines the use of dimethyl ester (DME) as a solvent at lower temperatures in SAGD and the manufacture of DME by gasification of coal and asphaltenes so CO2 formation is reduced. The heat from the gasification process cogenerates electricity, while the produced DME is sent for use in the in-situ bitumen recovery. ABL finds the same mobility in bitumen stimulated with solvent at 80 C as a reservoir heated to 230 C by steam. The intellectual property now resides with Envirotech Consulting Inc. of Edmonton and Thermax Systems Co. of Japan and the technology is in small-scale testing. 1 fig.

  9. Division of Waste Management, Production, and Reprocessing programs progress report for January--June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the 100-kg/day Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) facility was completed in June 1977 with the exception of the acid recycle mode, which is being added to the originally planned unit. Engineering tests of the acid recycle flowsheet, using test equipment one-quarter scale of the proposed acid recycle addition to RADTU, confirmed the validity of the zero effluent flowsheet proposed for RADTU. Studies were continued on immobilization of wastes in cement. Cement products containing up to 16 wt percent boric acid were successfully made and tested for compressive strength. The thermal characteristics of various waste products were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter. The ignition temperatures for bitumen and bitumen products containing salts, including sodium nitrate, were found to be about 4000C. There was no significant lowering of the ignition temperature below that of bitumen itself upon incorporation of these salts into bitumen. Urea-formaldehyde products exhibited ignition temperatures around 3000C. Ignition temperatures of resins (anion and cation) were relatively high (400 to 6000C) except for anion exchange resin in the nitrate form which ignited about 2500C. Leach tests were performed on various waste products immobilized in cement, urea-formaldehyde, and bitumen. The results indicated that cement solids exhibited the lowest leach rates for leaching of uranyl nitrate from immobilized anion exchange resin and from immobilized acid digestion residue. Leach rates of cesium and strontium from immobilized anion exchange resin were lowest for bitumen products. Work is proceeding on development of a process to reduce the volume of mercuric nitrate - nitric acid off-gas scrub solution without loss of the iodine. Preliminary results are promising and indicate that volume reductions of at least 10-fold can be achieved with as little as 0.01 percent of the iodine being volatilized

  10. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining of feedstock for oil chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Upgrading and deep processing of heavy natural and artificial hydrocarbon mixes is a serious technological problem. Such countries as Canada, Kazakhstan, Russia, USA, and Venezuela are extremely rich with heavy hydrocarbon reserves such as heavy oil or bitumen, the giant Athabaska oil sand deposits. Commercial development of these resources has a global strategic importance. However, the presently applied classic thermocatalytic processing technology of bitumen and heavy oil has several serious technological problems is hamped further development of these fields because: Produced bitumen extracts and/or original heavy crudeoil are poorly flowing substances and can not be directly transported through pipelines - most effective transportation systems. They must be physically (using diluent) and/or chemically (by cracking) transformed into moveable substances. Nonupgraded bitumen extract and originally heavy crude are of low market value and also cannot be processed by majority existing refineries even in the countries of developed oil industry. When refined, non-upgraded bitumen extracts and heavy crude produces relatively small amounts of market valuable and satisfying environmental requirement products. Methods for oil feedstock radiation-induced conversion developed by the authors of the paper are based on original experiments on radiation processing of heavy and high-viscous oil, refining residue, heavy oil, oil product wastes, etc. Our analysis shows that radiation technology of hydrocarbon processing with its low capital and operational costs that several times lower than those for a conventional refinery, shall allow economically, technologically and environmentally overcoming noted problems by the most effective way. In this paper we discuss only applications of oil radiation processing for solution of transportation and refining problems of heavy oil crude and bitumen extract. Numerous laboratory experiments have

  11. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-04-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  12. Quality factors to consider in condensate selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lywood, B. [Crude Quality Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many factors must be considered when assessing the feasibility of using condensates as a diluent for bitumen or heavy crude production blending. In addition to commercial issues, the effect of condensate quality is a key consideration. In general, condensate quality refers to density and viscosity. However, valuation decisions could be enhanced through the expansion of quality definitions and understanding. This presentation focused on the parameters that are important in choosing a diluent grade product. It also reviewed pipeline and industry specifications and provided additional information regarding general properties for bitumen and condensate compatibility; sampling and quality testing needs; and existing sources of information regarding condensate quality. tabs., figs.

  13. Mekanisk/hydraulisk utvikling og dimensjonering av rørgate

    OpenAIRE

    Romsaas, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Denne oppgaven tar for seg hydraulisk og mekanisk utvikling av en rørgate som skal frakte bensin, jet-A1, fyringsolje 6 og bitumen (asfalt) fra kai til tankanlegg. Distansen er gitt til å være 900m og trykktapet skal ikke overskride 2 bar. Fyringsolje 6 og bitumen er medier som krever relativt høy temperatur for å oppnå egnet viskositet for pumping. Rørgater som frakter slike medier må derfor utformes på en slik måte at temperaturen opprettholdes ellers kan det oppstå størkning og innvendig f...

  14. Proposed water treatment approach for commercial tar sand wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocornik, D.

    1986-09-01

    Waters produced during the steamflood extraction of bitumen from tar sand require treatment before they can be recycled as feedwater for steam generation. The characterization of two waters from commercial-scale tar sand operations indicates that the levels of hardness, oil and grease, silica, suspended solids, and iron must be reduced before these waters can be reused in the bitumen extraction process. The Western Research Institute proposes two treatment methods (electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration) that may, when used in conjunction with standard practices, improve the efficiency of the overall treatment process. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Effect of Organic Binders on The Quality of Manganese Ore Sinter Fines Briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinai Manganese Company imports the manganese ore sinter from abroad for ferromanganese alloy production. Large quantities of manganese ore sinter fines are produced in this process. These fines must be agglomerated to a suitable size in order to be reused for charging the electric arc furnace. The aim of this work is studying the briquetting ability of these fines using organic binders such as starch and bitumen. The results showed that, the suitable briquettes were produced with the addition of 5 % of starch and 20% H2O under pressure 3 ton/cm2 or 8 % bitumen under pressure 4 ton/cm2 and 3 days curing time

  16. Clean energy and hydrogen for oil sands development with CANDU SCWR nuclear reactors and Cu-Cl cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the unique capabilities and advantages of SCWR technology for cleaner oil sands development are discussed from two perspectives: lower temperature steam generation by supercritical water for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), and hydrogen production for oil sands upgrading by coupling SCWR with the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. The heat requirements for bitumen extraction from the oil sands and the hydrogen requirements for bitumen upgrading are evaluated. A conceptual layout of SCWR coupled with oil sands development is presented. The reduction of CO2 emissions due to the use of SCWR and thermo chemical hydrogen production cycle is also analyzed. (author)

  17. About the sizes of elastomer particles in the asphalt concrete binder providing the maximum service life of pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A. M.; Chekunaev, N. I.

    2014-05-01

    It is noted that the durability of asphalt concrete pavements is determined by the time of the trunk cracks formation in the polymer-containing composites - in the modified by elastomers (e.g., by rubber) bitumenous binder of asphalt. Developed by the authors previously the theory of the cracks propagation in heterosystems [1] has allowed to investigate the problem of the cracks propagation in the rubber-bitumen composite. This investigations show that most effectively to prevente the trunk cracks formation in asphalt concrete can ultrafine rubber particles (150-750 nm) in a bitumenos binder of asphalt.

  18. Nuclear-physical methods of analysis in oil geology and industry of Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods and results of elemental analysis of hydrocarbons performed by nuclear-physical methods are presented. It is shown that activation analysis (AA), X-ray fluorescent (XRF) analysis and atomic-emission spectroscopy with inductively-coupled plasma (AES-ISP) allow determination of up to 30 elements in oils and bitumens and up to 40 elements in petroleum cokes, in oil-bitumen rocks, in oil and coal shales. Presented are the results of scientific and practical applications of the developed techniques. (author)

  19. Role of minerals in thermal alteration of organic matter. II - A material balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Eli; Huizinga, Bradley J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents the results of pyrolysis experiments which were carried out on Green River and Monterey Formation kerogens with and without calcite, illite, or montmorillonite at 300 C for 2 to 1,000 hours under dry and hydrous conditions. The data reveal significant differences in the products generated by pyrolysis of kerogens with and without minerals. Both illite and montmorillonite adsorb a considerable portion of the generated bitumen. In the case of calcite, the pyrolysis products are similar to those from kerogen heated alone, and bitumen adsorption is negligible.

  20. Oil sands: Strategies for future development - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources developed a Task Force in 1993 to promote oil sands development, and to identify and publicize the social and economic benefits of oil sands operations. Formation, mission of the National Task Force, impediments and opportunities for development were summarized. Attributes of oil sands, benefits of their development, impediments to development, strategic development and potential growth scenarios were discussed. Cooperation between government and industry was deemed essential. Recommendations included development of a bitumen pipeline network, provision of incentives to encourage development, encouragement of risk and reward sharing between bitumen producers and up graders, and diversification of products and by-products. 7 figs., 12 refs

  1. Organic sulphur in macromolecular sedimentary organic matter. II. Analysis of distributions of sulphur-containing pyrolysis products using multivariate techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Eglinton, T.I.; Pool, W.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Eijkel, G.; Boon, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the analysis of sulphur-containing products from Curie-point pyrolysis (Py) of eighty-five samples (kerogens, bitumen, and petroleum asphaltenes and coals) using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with sulphur-selective detection. Peak areas of approximately forty individual

  2. Damage detection and artificial healing of asphalt concrete after trafficking with a load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, M.; Arraigada, M.; Partl, M. N.

    2016-08-01

    Artificial healing of asphalt concrete by induction heating requires the addition of electrically conductive and/or magnetic materials into the asphalt mixture. Hence, bitumen can be heated up by an alternating electromagnetic field, decreasing therefore its viscosity and allowing it to flow for closing cracks and recover bonding among the mineral aggregates.

  3. Low and medium level liquid waste processing at the new La Hague reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels produces low and medium activity liquid wastes. These radioactive wastes are decontamined before release in environment. The new effluent processing plant, which is being built at La Hague, is briefly described. Radionuclides are removed from liquid wastes by coprecipitation. The effluent is released after decantation and filtration. Insoluble sludges are conditioned in bitumen

  4. Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized data base of LLW leaching data has been developed. Long-term tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms containing simulated wastes are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms

  5. Review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion trademark combustion tests. Report for November 1998--January 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the late 1980s and through the 1990s, a new fossil fuel with the trade name Orimulsion has been marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil. Orimulsion, a bitumen-in-water emulsion, is produced from bitumen extracted from the Cerro Negro field of the Orinoco Belt of eastern Venezuela. Economically recoverable Orinoco bitumen reserves are estimated at 267 billion barrels (oil equivalent) representing approximately 26% of the world's recoverable crude oil reserves and 27% of the US recoverable coal reserves. Orimulsion is produced by Bitumenes Orinoco, S.A. (Bitor), a subsidiary of PdVSA, and derives its name from the combination of Orinoco and emulsion. In 1997, the US Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency to ''initiate a research activity to provide better scientific data on the qualities and characteristics of this product and the potential environmental impact of its introduction.'' As a first step in conducting this research activity, a review of the available literature on the topic of Orimulsion combustion and emissions was undertaken. The emphasis of this review is on the emissions of air pollutants rather than on the combustion behavior of the fuel, and particular emphasis will be placed on emissions from electric utility power boilers. While the combustion characteristics of Orimulsion will be addressed, it will be addressed primarily from the perspective of its ability to strongly influence the emissions of air pollutants

  6. EVALUATION OF EMISSIONS FROM COMBUSTION OF ORIMULSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the impact of Orimulsion on the environment. Orimulsion, an emulsion formed from Orinoco bitumen, water, and small amounts of additives, is being used as a primary fuel in electric utility boilers representing about 2000 MWe of generating capacity in Canada, D...

  7. The effect of microorganisms on asphaltopropylene concrete in a radioactive waste repository. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of asphaltopropylene concrete (APC) was examined after the action of aerobic bacteria and molds, and the changes in its volume, weight and swelling capacity were recorded. APC has been used as a sealing material in low level radioactive waste pits at the Dukovany NPP repository. Results of check-up sampling of microorganisms in the repository are evaluated. Sulphate reducing bacteria, which have been detected in soil near the reactor site, were isolated and their action upon asphaltopropylene (AP) was investigated. The resistance of bitumen layers containing model waste, against the action of aerobic bacteria and molds and against water was also examined. Bitumen samples containing model waste were found to absorb water at low temperatures considerably faster than unfilled bitumen. At elevated temperatures the absorption of water is appreciable, causing high weight losses of the bituminized waste layer due to degradation. The time dependences of the bitumen sample weight at 20 degC and 60 degC in distilled and cement water are given in the Appendix. The results included in the final reports ''Investigation of the effect of microorganisms on asphaltopropylene-based insulating materials employed as sealing in the secondary radioactive waste repository at the Dukovany NPP in relation to the microbial flora present. Bacteria'' and ''Investigation of the impact of biodegradation effects of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms including molds on asphalt and asphaltopropylene in conditions of the ground repository at the Dukovany NPP'' are also given. (J.B.). 8 tabs., 33 figs

  8. 谈稀浆封层质量保证措施%Ensuring the Qualities of Watery Slurry Tiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原子键; 刘丽平

    2000-01-01

    通过阳离子乳化沥青稀浆封层的施工过程及对材料要求的介绍,提出了对施工质量控制的措施。%Through the introduction of the watery slurry mixture emulsified by cation bitumen, the related measures are given to ensure the qualities.

  9. A process for the bituminization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for the incorporation of sodium nitrate solutions in bitumen, with a view to the bituminization of radioactive wastes. This process has involved the development of a chemical process and its technological application. A double jacket reactor equipped with an anchor-type stirrer has been built. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are fed into the reactor simultaneously with a bitumen emulsion while heated oil is circulated through the double jacket. After all the water has evaporated, the mixture is ''simmered'' at 170/180 deg C for up to 5 hours in order to get a homogeneous product which will be suitable for final storage. The product contains small salt crystals (10/50 μm) and has high viscosity (200/2000 poise at 160 deg C and 12 rpm), so that the possibility of sedimentation is eliminated. In comparative experiments with molten bitumen, large salt aggregates, inhomogeneously distributed, make the product unsuitable. It has been found that NaOH is responsible for the polimerization of the bitumen, which raises its viscosity. The degree of polimerization depends on the NaOH concentration and ''simmering'' time and temperature. NaOH is added to NaNO3 in order to raise the mixture's viscosity and thereby prevent sedimentation

  10. The dynamics of Orimulsion in water with varying salinity and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to determine the complex interaction between salinity, time and temperature when Orimulsion is spilled in a water column. Orimulsion is a surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsion composed of 70 per cent bitumen and 30 per cent water. It behaves very differently from conventional fuel oils when spilled because of its composition. It behaves predictably in both salt and fresh water, but its behaviour is difficult to predict in brackish water (2 per cent salt). Temperature also has an influence on the behaviour of Orimulsion. This study focused on examining the behaviour of Orimulsion at various low temperatures (5 to 15 degrees C), and a wide range of salinity values from fresh to salt water (values ranging from 0.1 to 33 per cent). A total of 19 experiments were conducted. The objective was to determine depletion rates and characteristics of Orimulsion when it was added to a 300 L tank of water and by determining the concentration of bitumen and the particle size distribution over time. The bitumen which rose to the top of the tank was collected and weighed. Simple equations were then developed to explain and predict the concentration of bitumen in the water column as a function of time. Nomograms indicating the quantity of oil on the bottom and on the water surface were also presented. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  11. The dynamics of Orimulsion in water with varying energy, salinity and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orimulsion is a surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsion composed of 70 per cent bitumen and 30 per cent water. Its unique composition causes it to behave differently from conventional fuel oils when spilled at sea. Earlier studies have shown that Orimulsion is driven by buoyancy to rise in salt water and sink in fresh water. This study conducted 11 experiments at lower temperature and salinity values to obtain new information on the behaviour of Orimulsion in salt, fresh and brackish water. The applied rotational field was adjusted to vary the energy. A time-series of samples of Orimulsion in a 300 litre tank of water were taken to determine depletion rates and characteristics. Oil on the surface was quantified and the concentration of bitumen and particle size distribution was determined. The study also measured changes in bitumen concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. The data was used to develop simple equations that predict concentrations of bitumen resurfacing and remaining in the water column as a function of time. It was concluded that there is a complex interaction between salinity, time, energy and temperature. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  12. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement se

  13. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  14. Modeling of asphaltene precipitation due to steam and n-alkane co-injection in the ES-SAGD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badamchizadeh, A.; Kohse, Bruce F.; Kumar, A. [Computer Modelling Group Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper provides an insight into the SAGD process in general, and the formation of asphaltene participates in the hybrid ES-SAGD process in particular. The objective of this work was to build an EoS model able to calculate the physical and chemical properties of the bitumen and n-alkane mixture, develop a model to quantify asphaltene participates in bitumen due to n-alkane injection, and investigate their effect on the ES-SAGD process. Athabasca bitumen properties identified under various test conditions and from the results of previous efforts, mainly the SimDist experimental data, were illustrated. These data were used to develop the EoS model, which in turn was used to generate the STARS thermal simulator. Overall, the EoS model was successfully developed and hence was able to predict bitumen and n-heptane properties. Moreover, asphaltene deposition in the ES-SAGD process was modeled in the thermal simulator its effect in causing oil blockage and restrictions in the steam chamber over a long run of the process was demonstrated.

  15. Are Biogenic PAHs Precursors for Fullerenes on Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.

    2002-03-01

    C60 fullerene in shungite and in bitumen from the Bohemian Massif could have formed in situ in two steps: 1. Cyclotrimerization of the PAH C20H12. 2. Dehydrogenation of C60H30 to C60. The necessary heat was provided during metamorphism.

  16. Approach to radwaste management at Russian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a contemporary approach to radwaste collection, processing, storage and disposal at NPPs in Russia. Usually liquid waste is solidified by bitumenization. Solid waste is processed by compression and incineration. Cementation units are tested and a vitrification unit is under development

  17. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  18. Alberta's reserves 2003 and supply/demand outlook 2004-2013. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents information on the state of reserves, supply, and demand for Alberta's energy resources including bitumen, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, coal, and sulphur. Estimates of initial reserves, remaining established reserves, and ultimate potential were also included, along with a 10-year supply and demand forecast for Alberta's energy resources. The development of Alberta's energy resources depends on reserve supply, costs of development, energy demands, conservation, and social, economic and environmental considerations. The energy development landscape in 2003 was largely determined by changes in energy prices, drilling activity, and planned investments in the range of billions of dollars in oil sands projects. Raw bitumen production continued to surpass the growth of conventional crude oil production. In 2003, 53 per cent of the province's crude oil and equivalent production was in the form of non-upgraded bitumen and synthetic crude oil production. This growth can be explained by increased bitumen production from oil sands mining. Approval was granted for several steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) schemes, and many more are under review by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). Higher volumes of commercial production are expected from those schemes in future years. Natural gas production declined in 2003 and is expected to stay the same in 2004. Continued growth in coalbed methane (CBM) development activity is expected for 2003 and for the next few years. A separate estimate of CBM reserves will be published for the first time in 2003. tabs., figs

  19. Evolution of rheological properties of nuclear bituminized waste products, towards an ageing/viscosity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a contribution to the understanding of rheological properties of bitumen and their evolution under gamma irradiation. The prediction of swelling ratio is necessary to evaluate the state of the containers, particularly during the reversibility phase of the storage. The objective of this work is thus to establish the rheological data its evolution under irradiation in order to predict the container swelling with time. After the rheological and thermal characterization of pure bitumen, a series of extrusion trials has been carried out. The state of dispersion essentially depends on the ratio N/Q (screw speed to feed rate). Extreme values of N/Q show the highest yield stress, indicating an improved dispersion state. The industrial bitumen compound exhibits the highest viscosity compared to model compounds, which limits bubble migration. Finally, the effect of gamma irradiation on pure bitumen and compounds behaviour has been studied. External and structural modifications have been evidenced. A theoretical model based on Krieger-Dougherty equation has been developed and shows a good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  20. Seal for underground ultimate storage sites for radioactive waste, and method of installing the seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-level radioactive waste from reprocessing is melted into a mass of glass and sunk in moulds into the borings of a salt mine. The upper closure of the borings is formed by a conical plug which, for better adhesion and sealing, has got a rough surface. The plug is made of ceramics, cast steel, a Pb alloy or bitumen. (DG)

  1. Application of dry stackable tailings technologies : providing the base for reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikula, R.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The tailings containment structures are some of the largest man made features on the planet. This presentation demonstrated that dry stackable tailings technology may reduce the volume of the accumulated fluid fine tailings. Dry stackable tailings can contribute to boreal forest reclamation and reduce water requirement from the Athabasca River. Much of the water used for the production of each barrel of bitumen is recycled. The water is tied up in the pore spaces of the mineral sand, silt, and clay component which forms the mature fine tailings (MFT) that are contained behind large dykes. Syncrude and Suncor have used a wide variety of technologies to create a dry stackable tailings from this fluid fine tailings substrate. The availability of dry stackable tailings will open options for reclamation strategies that end with the original wetlands or boreal forest. Some of the tailings management options that would lead to a dry stackable tailings naturally also significantly decrease the barrels of water lost with each barrel of bitumen production. These options were discussed along with an analysis of their impact on recycle and pore water quality and quantity. There is an opportunity to remove residual bitumen during the transfer of fluid fine tailings to recover water and create dry stackable tailings. If this bitumen removal is extensive enough, it might be possible to use the dry stackable tailings directly as a reclamation material. tabs., figs.

  2. Preliminary study of pur-revetment's application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, D.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van de Ven, M.

    2008-01-01

    PUR-revetment is a newly developed method for hydraulic application. Its structure is similar to that of open stone asphalt revetment, but the crushed stones are glued by polyurethane (PUR) instead of bitumen. To study the feasibility of applying PUR-revetment, a research based on the comparisons be

  3. Drug: D09106 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09106 Formula, Drug Satotsuko Bitumen, , Lard [DR:D05301], Sesame oil [DR:D03314] Traditional Chinese Medic...ine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for external use Formulas for external use D09106 Satotsuko PubChem: 96025786 ...

  4. Bitor's marketing challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Venezualan manufacturers of Orimulsion, a fuel with a 70/30% bitumen/water mix, Bitor are struggling to market this potential competitor to oil, gas and coal to European electric utilities. Concern over potential environmental impacts including air pollution and waste disposal difficulties, may not be deserved, but environmental groups and electric utilities remain firmly opposed to this new fuel. (UK)

  5. TSC mobile mining and extraction technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, W.J. [TSC Company Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-11-01

    This Power-Point presentation described an innovative mining and extraction technology developed by Calgary-based TSC Company Ltd. that has provided a major breakthrough in bitumen production from mineable oil sands. The presentation described the process and key mechanical components as demonstrated on oil sands leases. It also described the step change in cost structure and profitability. Oil sands mining provide a hugh resource base with no exploration costs and no decline in production. Despite these advantages, oil sands mining faces the challenge of high capital and operating costs and materials handling. Other challenges include the variability of the ore and environmental impacts. This paper described the fundamentals of the new technology called the Tar Sand Combine (TSC), a continuous mining machine, crusher, cyclone, tailings filter and stacker all in one mobile module. Several viewgraphs were included with the presentation to depict the recovery process as successfully demonstrated at a pilot project. Patent is pending on the process and components. The advantages of the TSC are reduced materials handling, and no tailings ponds are generated since tailings remain where they are mined. The final product is clean bitumen. The specifications of a commercial TSC are: 2000 ton/stream hour mining produce 25,000 bpsd bitumen at 12 per cent ore grade; mined ore bitumen recovery is greater than 95 per cent and the availability factor is 85 per cent. It was concluded that the TSC can maximize oil sands reserves, while providing significant cost savings and environmental benefits. 2 tabs., 24 figs.

  6. The Long Lake Project : the first field integration of SAGD and upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R.; Birdgeneau, J.; Pratt, B.; Yang, P.; Nieuwenburg, G. [Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Rettger, P.; Arnold, J.; Bronichi, Y. [OPTI Canada Inc. (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The Long Lake Project announced by OPTI Canada Inc. involves the construction of a bitumen recovery and upgrader facility near Fort McMurray. The project will make use of in situ filed upgrading technology to convert heavy, thick Athabasca bitumen into light, sweet synthetic crude oil for transport via pipeline. The main feature of the integrated upgrader is the patented OrCrude {sup TM} upgrading process that uniquely combines the processes of distillation, solvent deasphalting and thermal cracking in order to partially upgrade bitumen into the OrCrude product and produce an asphaltene by-product which can then be fed to a gasification system to produce hydrogen for the hydrocracker and syngas fuel for the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. The project will economically produce high quality synthetic crude that is superior to other synthetics. The capital cost of the project is expected to be comparable to other integrated Athabasca bitumen and upgrading projects. The process has been pilot tested at a demonstration facility near Cold Lake, Alberta. The project, which is currently under regulatory review, is expected to produce 70,000 bpsd of SAGD product and 70,000 bpsd of upgrading product. Construction is planned for late 2003 with first oil in 2006. 1 tab., 9 figs.

  7. Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program: Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1986-09-01

    A computerized data base of LLW leaching data has been developed. Long-term tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms containing simulated wastes are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms.

  8. Laboratory Investigation of Conventional Asphalt Mix Using Shell Thiopave for Indian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash B

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic performance of asphalt pavement always depends on the properties of bitumen, volumetric properties of asphalt mixtures. Bitumen is visco– elastic material where the temperature and rate of load application have a great influence on its behavior. There are different solutions to reduce the pavement distress such as using Thiopave (binder extender and asphalt mixture modifier in the mix design. Thiopave can significantly alter the performance properties of the mix and it is helpful to extend the life span of pavement. In this study, investigating use of thiopave and the change in the performance properties is dependent both on the percentage of virgin binder using VG-30 bitumen that is substituted with thiopave with different percentages. The study indicated that 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% replacement of binder was done with thiopave. The most notable impact of the addition of thiopave to a bituminous mixture is an increase in the stiffness of the mixture for better resistance to fatigue cracking and rutting. Thiopave materials can have a positive impact on laboratory mixture performance. The addition of thiopave has been shown to significantly increase Marshall Stability. From this study it is observed that thiopave can be utilized up to 30% to 40% as replacement to bitumen.

  9. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  10. COMPARISON OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF ORIMULSION AND OTHER FUELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of inhouse emissions testing and a literature review relating to Orimulsion, an emulsion of Venezuelan bitumen, water, and a proprietary surfactant, being used as a fuel for utilities in Canada, China, Denmark, Italy, Japan, and Lithuania, primarily as a r...

  11. Case study: Project Millennium oil sands expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suncor Energy's Millennium Project was confronted with many challenges of a regulatory nature while engaged in the approvals process. An outline is included of the key activities and strategies the company utilized to successfully meet the challenges while maintaining the desired project timeline. The project is expected to increase the production capacity of upgraded crude oil to the 220,000 barrel per day level to 2002 through the expansion of the Steepbank Mine and additional plant capacity. The scope of the project includes all activities necessary to plan, construct and operate a major facility expansion. These activities comprise: an expansion at the Steepbank Mine, Millennium Extraction plant, a second primary separation plant located in the east side of the Athabasca River to produce raw bitumen, raw bitumen pipeline to the existing Base Extraction Plant, modifications to the Base Extraction Plant to clean the raw bitumen and produce a diluted bitumen product. Also included in the expansion is a second upgrader train to produce a slate of upgraded crude oil products, addition of 360 megawatt co-generation plant supplying the required steam and power, and other related infrastructure to facilitate the increased production level (tankage, water treatment, support facilities). Suncor has worked diligently through the regulatory and environmental review process, and through innovation and hard work, plus a pro-active approach to consultation, Suncor was able to maintain its desired schedule, improve its project design and achieve full stakeholder support

  12. Final storage vessel for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final storage vessel consists of a 200 litre rolled seam barrel with an insert of workshop waste pieces, which are spot welded to each other. Radioactive waste slurry, e.g. from a BWR, is mixed with cement or bitumen in the rolled seam barrel. The rolled seam barrel is made to carry out a tumbling movement for this purpose. (DG)

  13. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs

  14. Evidence and characteristics of hydrolytic disproportionation of organic matter during metasomatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.; DeWitt, Ed

    2001-11-01

    Petroleum-geochemical analyses of carbonaceous regionally metamorphosed rocks, carbonaceous rocks from ore deposits, and alkalic plutonic rocks from diverse settings, demonstrated the presence of very low to moderately low concentrations of solvent-extractable organic matter, this observation in spite of the fact that some of these rocks were exposed to extremely high metamorphic temperatures. Biomarker and δ 13C analyses established that the extractable organic matter originated as sedimentary-derived hydrocarbons. However, the chemistry of the extractable bitumen has been fundamentally transformed from that found in sediment bitumen and oils. Asphaltenes and resins, as defined in the normal petroleum-geochemical sense, are completely missing. The principal aromatic hydrocarbons present in oils and sediment bitumens (especially the methylated naphthalenes) are either in highly reduced concentrations or are missing altogether. Instead, aromatic hydrocarbons typical of sediment bitumens and oils are very minor, and a number of unidentified compounds and oxygen-bearing compounds are dominant. Relatively high concentrations of alkylated benzenes are typical. The polar "resin" fraction, eluted during column chromatography, is the principal compound group, by weight, being composed of six to eight dominant peaks present in all samples, despite the great geologic diversity of the samples. These, and other, observations suggest that a strong drive towards equilibrium exists in the "bitumen." Gas chromatograms of the saturated hydrocarbons commonly have a pronounced hump in both the n-paraffins and naphthenes, centered near the C 19 to C 26 carbon numbers, and a ubiquitous minimum in the n-paraffin distribution near n-C 12 to n-C 14. Multiple considerations dictate that the bitumen in the samples is indigenous and did not originate from either surficial field contamination or from laboratory procedures. Our observations are consistent with the hydrolytic

  15. Effect of Variation in Blending Variables on the Properties of CRMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Aziz Memon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement in the properties of the modified blends largely depends on the proper understanding of the interaction between CR (Crumb Rubber and bitumen, where the CR particles swell after absorbing lighter fraction from the bitumen phase. However, the properties of CRMB (Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen blends at a wide range of temperatures are considered to be somewhat unclear due to the various interaction effects of CR and base bitumen. This largely depends on the interaction conditions such as blending time, temperature, speed and device, which may alter the properties of the blend to great extent. In this study, influence of the interaction condition was investigated by looking at the viscosity with a Brookfield viscometer. For this, CR and bitumen proportions along with other material characteristics were kept constant to understand the effect of interaction parameters of the properties of the CRMB blend. A total of 12 CRMB blends were produced with unvarying combinations of material constituents. However, selected variation in the blending parameters were; blending device, duration, speed and temperature. Observations from this laboratory study indicated: (1 blending performed with the high shear mixer resulted in higher viscosity values compared to the blends produced with the low shear mixer; (2 reduced blending time was required to achieve peak and ultimate stable viscosities, when blends were produced with the high shear mixer; (3 blending temperature of 180°C has resulted in the blends with consistent properties for longer blending durations compared to the blends produced at higher temperature. As a result, results with high shear mixer were always promising, which required comparatively lower interaction temperature, time and speed.

  16. New Syncrude recovery process : special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syncrude Canada is the world's largest producer of light, sweet crude oil from oil sand. Syncrude is a joint venture owned by several companies, in which Imperial Oil is the largest participant. Syncrude's facility located near Fort McMurray, Alberta, is the single largest source of crude oil in Canada. Syncrude mines oil sand from a surface mine, extracts the raw bitumen from the sand using steam and hot water, and upgrades it into crude oil by fluid coking, hydroprocessing, hydrotreating and reblending. The Cold Lake plant, which is 100 per cent owned and operated by Imperial, is Canada's second largest source of crude oil production. Cyclic steam-stimulation (CSS) is the production process used at Cold Lake. CSS is a process in which steam is injected down the wellbore into the oil sand formation to heat the bitumen to reduce its viscosity. The heated bitumen is then pumped to the surface where it is processed at the processing plant and blended with lighter hydrocarbon liquids so that it can be shipped by pipeline. Recovery rates with this process have been improved from 17 per cent up to 25 per cent of the total bitumen in place. Additional processes are being studied to further improve extraction ratio and thus profitability. Imperial Oil is progressing with work on a $450 million development that would add proven reserves of 250 million barrels and increase bitumen production by an estimated 30,000 barrels per day. Also underway at Syncrude is work to increase production from its base plant through development of the North Mine by 1998. Expenditures related to this project are expected to be about $3350 million for mine development and about $125 million for new upgrading processes and equipment.3 figs

  17. Stranded recovery : step-out thinking leads to new technology potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2007-11-15

    This article presented a conceptual technology known as the convergent bitumen recovery (CBR) process. CBR eliminates the need for oil sand mining, crushing, hydro transport and primary tailings work operations. As a result, the capital and operating costs associated with each of these functions are also eliminated. In addition, the ability to reclaim disturbed areas is significantly enhanced. CBR begins with muskeg, overburden, oilsand and limestone. Muskeg and overburden are then removed and blast holes are prepared and loaded with explosives at 3 levels to end up with a blasted deposit. The concept has similarities to the use of fracturing in conventional oil and gas. The objective is to break up the deposit to improve pathways for the bitumen to escape. A decant system is then constructed around the area using the overburden to control fluids. Vertical and horizontal wells are drilled into the formation, and a combination of hot water and compressed air is injected. One of the primary objectives of CBR is to eliminate the use of chemicals. Rather, bitumen is floated to the surface using compressed air. The bitumen froth can be decanted into a radiantly heated decant tank, and sent for further cleaning. Recycled hot water and tank bottoms are reinjected into the formation. The technology has the potential to harness currently uneconomic bitumen reserves. To date, bench-scale testing has been completed and an energy balance has been conducted by Hatch Energy. It was estimated that CBR will take 30 to 50 per cent of the energy required for today's mining and in situ operations. Field test design engineering and costing has been completed, and confidentiality agreements have been signed with several companies. Field test must be completed to confirm several theoretical assumptions of the process. 12 figs.

  18. Role of organic matter fractions in the Montney tight gas reservoir quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanei, Hamed; Wood, James M.; Haeri Ardakani, Omid; Clarkson, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a new approach in Rock-Eval analysis to quantify various organic matter fractions in unconventional reservoirs. The results of study on core samples from the Triassic Montney Formation tight gas reservoir in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin show that operationally-defined S1 and S2 hydrocarbon peaks from conventional Rock-Eval analysis may not adequately characterize the organic constituents of unconventional reservoir rocks. Modification of the thermal recipe for Rock-Eval analysis, in conjunction with manual peak integration, provides important information with significance for the evaluation of reservoir quality. An adapted Rock-Eval method, herein called the extended slow heating (ESH) cycle, was developed in which the heating rate was slowed to 10°C per minute over an extended temperature range (150 to 650°C). For Montney core samples from the wet gas window, this method provided quantitative distinctions between major organic matter components of the rock. We show that the traditional S1 and S2 peaks can now be quantitatively divided into three components: (S1ESH) free light oil, (S2a ESH) condensed hydrocarbon residue (CHCR), and (S2b ESH + residual carbon) solid bitumen (refractory, consolidated bitumen/pyrobitumen). The majority of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the studied Montney core samples consists of solid bitumen that represents a former liquid oil phase which migrated into the larger paleo-intergranular pore spaces. Subsequent physicochemical changes to the oil environment led to the precipitation of asphaltene aggregates. Further diagenetic and thermal maturity processes consolidated these asphaltene aggregates into "lumps" of solid bitumen (or pyrobitumen at higher thermal maturity). Solid bitumen obstructs porosity and hinders fluid flow, and thus shows strong negative correlations with reservoir qualities such as porosity and pore throat size. We also find a strong positive correlation between the quantities of

  19. Assessing radionuclide release and migration during deep geological disposal of bituminized waste: the COLONBO model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Bitumen is being used for many years in France as an embedding matrix for the conditioning of low and medium level activity waste resulting from nuclear effluent treatment. Long term management options for this kind of waste include at present deep geological disposal. As a consequence, the COLONBO model has been developed by CEA to predict the long term release of chemical species out of bitumen waste and the subsequent radionuclide migration in the deep geological near field. The COLONBO model is divided into a 'waste package' module, coupled with a 'near field' module. In the first module, the waste package is represented as a bitumen matrix containing an homogeneous dispersion of the salts resulting from the effluent insolubilization treatment. Radionuclides initially present in the waste are thus associated with a mixture of soluble (NaNO3 and Na2SO4) and sparingly soluble (mainly BaSO4) salts. Under leaching, solubilization of water in the bitumen occur at the wasteform surface, followed by water diffusion through the bitumen matrix. Consequently, the soluble salts are progressively dissolved by water accumulation, resulting in a local swelling of the waste package. This swelling induces a local alteration of the diffusive properties of the bitumen matrix, allowing an outward diffusion of the dissolved salts and radionuclides. The resulting migration of chemical species through the storage facility near field is then described in a 'near field' module. In this module, transport is accounted by a simplified reactive diffusion model through porous media, in both saturated or unsaturated conditions. Up to three different zones of the near field can be included, which are described by their respective porosity, hydraulic conductivity, diffusion and retention (Kd) parameters. In the whole system (waste package + near field), water concentration profiles, the position of salt dissolution fronts and chemical species migration are

  20. Canadian oil sands : supply and potential for market growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian oil sands recoverable reserves rank second only to Saudi Arabia and present enormous potential, particularly through technological gains. This paper discussed the market potential for oil sands both globally and in North America. It was estimated that oil sands production would eventually surpass declining conventional production, increasing from 42 per cent of Western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. Recoverable reserves were an estimated 174 billion barrels, with cumulative production at 4 billion barrels between 1967 to 2003. Statistics of U.S. and Canadian markets for crude oil were presented to the year 2020. A flow chart of oil sands products and market outlets was presented, as well as details of existing and potential markets for Canadian crude oil. Oil sands product dispositions were outlined, with the prediction that Asia may emerge as an incremental market. World crude oil production statistics were presented by type. World residual supply and demand estimates were presented, including details of conversion capacity and requirements for residual processing capacity in refineries and field upgraders. American refinery feedstocks were presented by type, with the identification of an increase in heavy crude runs. It was noted that recent pricing provided a strong incentive to add refining conversion capacity to process heavy oil. An outline of a study completed for the Alberta government and industry was presented, in which upgrading to light synthetic crude was determined as a base case. The value added to process bitumen beyond upgrading was discussed in relation to the upgrading of American refineries to process bitumen blends and synthetic crude. Potential cases for upgrading bitumen were presented, along with a comparison of capital costs. An overall economic comparison of projects was provided. Various measures to maximize markets for oil sands products in Alberta were presented. It was suggested that U.S. markets should absorb more new

  1. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.; Vonbank, R.;

    2011-01-01

    construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades’ render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol®1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the......Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in...... predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 μg/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials...

  2. Impact of carbon dioxide co-injection on the performance of SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, I.D.; Wang, J. [Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary (Canada); Bunio, G.; Robinson, B. [Paramount Resources (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is used as an effective method to recover bitumen from oil sands. However, development of alternative methods is needed since SAGD is a heavy consumer of energy and emits considerable amounts of CO2. A new method consists of using carbon dioxide as a solvent along with SAGD. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the addition of carbon dioxide on SAGD performance. Thermal reservoir simulations were carried out using the CMG simulator on a Grand Rapids oil sands reservoir. Results showed that this new method permits a large fraction of CO2 to sequestered within the reservoir and moderate carbon dioxide content does not harm SAGD performance. A steam carbon dioxide co-injection method to recover bitumen from oil sands was presented herein and it was proved to be effective at moderate carbon dioxide content.

  3. Study of the geometrical configuration of a Set-Up for the purpose of analysing organic matter using neutron backscattering with an AM-BE source and a HE3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron backscattering is a powerful technique to analyse organic matter and recently a set-up has been developed by our laboratory to determine bitumen content in asphalt concrete [1].This set-up is mainly composed of an Am-Be neutron source and a He-3 detector, the source being placed under the He-3 detector. In this work, we study two geometrical configurations, the first where the source is placed under the detector and the other one is when the source and the detector are side by side. The calibration curves for the determination of bitumen content in asphalt concrete, hydrogen and the ratio C/H are built for the two geometries and then compared in terms of sensitivity. Finally, some Algerian oil samples are analysed with these setups

  4. SAGD produced water recycling: technology challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdicakis, B.; Fulton, C [Water Treatment Technology, Heavy Oil Technology Center, Statoil Canada Limited (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta's oil sands, several in situ technologies are used to recover bitumen. These techniques consist of producing and then injecting steam into the reservoir to mobilize the bitumen. These techniques are dependent on the use of water and equipment to produce steam and handling the water thus produced represents a significant investment. The purpose of this paper is to present Statoil's efforts in developing new technologies to address the water issue in SAGD operations. Different collaborative development projects, whose aims are to reduce costs, improve reliability and reduce the environmental footprint through a minimization of makeup water use, are presented. In addition to these programs, Statoil is working on the development of a Water Technology Development Center with the aim of accelerating the implementation of water recycling technologies. This paper highlights the participation of Statoil in several projects to develop innovative technologies which will address SAGD-produced water recycling challenges.

  5. A better blueprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, Darrell

    2011-09-15

    Considerable quantities of bitumen are contained in the carbonate of Alberta. Most of these reserves are too deep to mine and economic recovery methods are thus needed to bring it to the surface. The recent development of cyclic steam stimulation and steam assisted gravity drainage technologies made important quantities of bitumen economically available and the aim of this paper is to present further innovations that oilsands producers are currently working on. Among the most innovative producers are Imperial Oil Limited, Cenovus Energy Inc., Athabasca Oil Sands Corp. and Larcina Energy Ltd. which are all developing new recovery technologies using solvent, wedge wells or combustion, all developments having the potential to improve oil recovery and oil reserves and recovery. This article highlighted the important efforts carried out by oilsands producers to develop new technologies which will at the same time help them improve the profitability of their wells and lower their environmental impact.

  6. Centralized coke gasification study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    du Plessis, Duke [Alberta Innovates (Canada); Pietrusik, Debbie [Alberta Finance and Enterprise (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    By the year 2020 Alberta will produce 3 million barrels of bitumen per day. Refining bitumen yields several by-products such as petroleum coke and off-gasses. These products can be further utilized as a low cost feedstock for additional applications to increase revenue. Alberta currently has the largest amount of coke stockpiled in the world. The presentation explores what is the most profitable way to use this coke and what future technologies would improve the economic and environmental impact of the process. The development of methane and hydrogen becomes competitive at intermediate gas and oil prices. The next generation of gasification technologies is going to be cheaper, efficient and much smaller. Pilot projects have shown positive results. Economies of scale can be reached simply by only 20-30% of annual coke production. The high cost of the current technology is creating the biggest challenge but new technologies and process innovations have the potential to drive down cost.

  7. Loss of 60 Co, 134 Cs and 137 Cs during the leaching test in the conditioned ion exchanger block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work is the study on immobilization of spent ion exchangers during the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes from Decontamination Center as a monolithic block, so that the safety of the environment be ensured during final disposal, according to international standards, all along the required time for radionuclide decay until an acceptable level is attained. The spent resin contains a lot of radionuclides (54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, 60 Co, 134 Cs and 137 Cs) requiring the finding of a matrix suitable for all these radionuclides. As a result of experiments performed on the simulated waste containing the same radionuclides (immobilization in cement, bitumen and organic polymers), it was determined that the most suitable matrix is industrial bitumen, I 60-70, made in Romania. (authors)

  8. CANDU energy for steam assisted gravity drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional open-pit mining has been used by industry for many years to remove oil sands from shallow deposits. To increase production capacity, the industry is looking for new technology to exploit bitumen from deep deposits. Among them, SAGD (Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage) appears to be the most promising approach. It uses steam to remove bitumen from underground reservoirs. Recently, the SAGD recovery process has been put into commercial operation by major oil companies.Atomic Energy Canada Limited has assessed the use of the ACR-1000 as a source of heat and electricity for oil sand extraction and processing. The ACR-1000 design is an evolutionary development of the familiar CANDU technology, adding innovations to enhance economics, operations, and safety margins. The net electrical output from a standard ACR-1000 will be close to 1100 MWe, depending on local cooling water temperature

  9. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  10. Synenco Energy's Northern Lights Project : update and key strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation described the Northern Lights Project and addressed the unique characteristics of oil sands which have led to innovative mine and extraction techniques. A table indicating the mining projects in development was presented with reference to recoverable bitumen and ore grade. The marketing aspects of synthetic crude that influence the choice of bitumen upgrader design and economics were discussed. It was noted that new pipeline developments should open up new market opportunities. The expected market for Synenco crude is the northern portion of the United States Midwest. There may also be a possibility to sell the product as diluent because Synenco crude has a lower vacuum gas oil (VGO) content and more naphtha than other synthetic crude. The properties of Synenco crude components were listed with reference to gravity, density, sulfur content, cetane number, smoke point, and feed quality. The trade-off between capital costs, operating cost and risk mitigation was also examined. tabs., figs

  11. The development of today's mineable oil sands projects, the key factors influencing economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many factors influence the perception of economic performance for developing projects. Some of these factors can be controlled by the developer, while some are outside the developer's sphere of influence. Technology selection, management systems, stakeholder involvement, environmental responsiveness and risk management are areas that may be influenced, however interest rates, product prices and currency exchange all have a measurable effect on project economics and are beyond a developer's control. Economic considerations for evaluating mineable oil sand development projects are outlined, focussing on the key factors unique to such developments in general and to the OSLO project in particular. The OSLO project is a proposed $5 billion energy development that entails constructing an open pit oil sands mine and a bitumen extraction facility north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, coupled with a bitumen upgrader in the Redwater area. 7 figs

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLUBILITY PRODUCT VISUALIZATION TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Turner; A.T. Pauli; J.F. Schabron

    2004-05-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed software for the visualization of data acquired from solubility tests. The work was performed in conjunction with AB Nynas Petroleum, Nynashamn, Sweden who participated as the corporate cosponsor for this Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) task. Efforts in this project were split between software development and solubility test development. The Microsoft Windows-compatible software developed inputs up to three solubility data sets, calculates the parameters for six solid body types to fit the data, and interactively displays the results in three dimensions. Several infrared spectroscopy techniques have been examined for potential use in determining bitumen solubility in various solvents. Reflectance, time-averaged absorbance, and transmittance techniques were applied to bitumen samples in single and binary solvent systems. None of the techniques were found to have wide applicability.

  13. Influence of the Scrap Tyre Processing Techniques on the Physical Properties of the Crumb Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Aziz Memon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The processing mechanism of scrap tyres to produce CR (Crumb Rubber has a great influence on the properties of the CRMB (Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen. A fair amount of research was observed in the literature on the bitumen modified by CR processed cryogenically and ambiently. However, little or no work has been done on the CR processed by the other methods such as the Aquablast processing technique, which is a relatively a new waste tyre rubber processing technique within the CR industry. In this study, CR obtained from the two sources; ambient and Aquablast grinding techniques were primarily assessed with a helium pycnometer and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy for their physical properties and appearance respectively. Observations from this laboratory study indicated: (1 the density of the ambient CR was slightly higher than the CR obtained from Aquablast technique; (2 difference in physical appearance was found insignificant.

  14. Application of the HTGR in tar sands oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study presented in this paper explored the potential application of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to supply both process steam and cogenerated electric power for tar sands oil recovery and upgrading. The raw product recovered from the tar sands is a heavy bitumen. Upgrading, which involves coking and hydrodesulfurization, produces a synthetic crude (refinable by current technology) and petroleum coke. Energy requirements by form for each process are considered. An HTGR plant could be the most economical source of steam and electric power. This paper includes a description of the HTGR plant, a heat cycle and energy balance developed for a typical commercial tar sands oil recovery operation, and a schematic field arrangement showing the coupling of the HTGR to the process. Data developed during this study include expected bitumen recovery, economic data, and a comparative assessment of the HTGR application for tar sands recovery

  15. Interaction of copper with fatty acids in Soxhlet ex-traction and its influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ming; XIA Yanqing; LEI Tianzhu; QIU Junli; ZHANG Rui

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with metallic copper for the removal of elemental sulfur from bitumen extracted from sedi-mentary rocks or petroleum is the most widely used method. Little attention has been paid, however, to its disadvan-tages. It was observed that copper can interact with some polar organic substances during conventional sulfur re-moval, which can strongly influence the quantitative and qualitative determination of bitumen, as has been con-firmed by interaction of long-chain fatty acids with copper. The copper soap generated was analyzed by element analysis, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), thermal analysis (TG-DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Mechanism of the interaction was investigated and elucidated. Our experimental results would necessitate improvement of the present method for sulfur removal and/or a search for a new one.

  16. Bituminous and asphaltic membranes for radioactive waste repositories on land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study has been to identify, within generic designs for waste facilities, areas where bituminous materials might be incorporated as a barrier. The report is presented in three sections: Part I - The properties of bitumen are described, with particular reference to the long-term behaviour of the material. The durability of bitumen is discussed, including aspects such as ageing, microbial degradation, chemical resistance and radiation resistance. Part II -The use of bituminous materials in hydraulic engineering is outlined. Much of this section of the report concentrates on the use of bituminous materials in embankment dams and reservoir construction. A review of material technology and construction techniques is presented and a detailed assessment made of the performance of the materials in service. Part III - Generic trench type radioactive waste repository designs incorporating bituminous materials are presented. Material and construction specifications for the designs are detailed, and a performance assessment presented. (author)

  17. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  18. The high-viscosity oils and the oil-asphalt rocks are the complex oil chemical row materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Kazakhstan districts have the rich resources of natural bitumen and oil bitumen rocks (OBR),which are bedded at the small depths (0 to 500 m) . The potential resources are estimated at 1,0 Billion tones. The main deposits description is given and analysis of OBR production and using in the road construction and various material production is made. It is noted, that the high efficient and profitable technologies for the synthetic oil and its fractions extraction from OBR are developed in Canada, USA and Venesuela. The synthetic oil production is reached up to 25 Mill.t.per year in Canada. It is shown that the Kazakhstan rich OBR resources are faintly used and a number of the large problems, associated with the high-capacity processing plant creating, the technology developing for this raw material in national economy, the geological survey and scientific research intensifying must be solved for essential situation change. 8 refs

  19. Challenges and choices : a U.S. refiner's perspective on Western Canadian crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation included a map depicting refineries, pipelines, terminals, coastal terminals and inland terminals in the eastern United States. Major oil trade movements between the United States, Canada, Mexico, South America, Central America, Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia-Pacific were also illustrated. A graph depicting Western Canada's long range crude supply forecast shows a decrease in conventional heavy oil supply but an increase in supply of diluent bitumen blend and synthetic bitumen blends. The presentation focused on this shift in refining and how product quality is viewed differently by producers and refiners in terms of gravity, sulfur content, boiling range distribution, distillate cetane, total acid number (TAN), asphalt properties, nitrogen and particulates. Refiners are looking for affordability, quality, consistency, yields and unit balance. Canadian marketing connections to PADD 1, 2, 4 and 5 were outlined. It was noted that more than 45 refineries in over 20 regions in the United States use Western Canadian crude oil. 22 figs

  20. Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Behavior of Mixes With and Wihtout Modified Bituments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature rutting in flexible pavement structure is being observed on most of the road network of Pakistan. It initiates primarily due to uncontrolled axle loading and high ambient temperatures. NHA (National Highway Authority, Pakistan has continuously been modifying aggregate gradations and penetration grade of bitumen, without any prior investigation of the mix behaviour under the prevailing axle load and environmental conditions of the country. A comprehensive laboratory investigation was carried out on six mixes ranging from finer to coarser. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading on UTM-5P (Universal Testing Machine to study the resistance against permanent deformation of the mixes at 25, 40 and 550C. At low temperatures and stress levels, both coarse and fine graded mixes showed less accumulated strain, whereas at higher temperatures and stress levels, coarse graded mix with PMB (Polymer Modified Bitumen showed good resistance to permanent deformation.