WorldWideScience

Sample records for bitumen synthetic crude

  1. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  2. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Jet fuels from synthetic crudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, A. C.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the technical problems in the conversion of a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or a coal synthetic crude oil into a suitable aviation turbine fuel. Three syncrudes were used, one from shale and two from coal, chosen as representative of typical crudes from future commercial production. The material was used to produce jet fuels of varying specifications by distillation, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Attention is given to process requirements, hydrotreating process conditions, the methods used to analyze the final products, the conditions for shale oil processing, and the coal liquid processing conditions. The results of the investigation show that jet fuels of defined specifications can be made from oil shale and coal syncrudes using readily available commercial processes.

  4. Sterane distribution of solid bitumen pyrolyzates. Changes with biodegradation of crude oil in the Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, J.A.; Harrison, W.E.; Smith, G.

    1983-01-01

    Solid bitumens (grahamite and impsonite) of southeastern Oklahoma have been shown to originate from near-surface alteration of crude oil (Curiale, 1981; Curiale and Harrison, 1981). Pyrolysis of these solids has been employed to compare the sterane distribution of geographically proximate oils to that of the bitumens. The ratio of rearranged to regular steranes is higher in the pyrolyzates than in the oils, a finding consistent with a bitumen origin due to biodegradation of oil. The remaining presence of steranes, particularly regular steranes, in the bitumens suggests that sterane occlusion may have occurred prior to or during the alteration process, thus removing tetracyclic compounds from the influence of microbial attack. These data suggest that pyrolysis- GC MS offers a viable approach to correlation problems involving solid bitumens. ?? 1983.

  5. Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-Situ Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    M?jean, A.; Hope, Chris

    2010-01-01

    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil (SCO) produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs...

  6. Aquathermolysis of crude oils and natural bitumen: chemistry, catalysts and prospects for industrial implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanyan, B. P.; Petrukhina, N. N.; Kayukova, G. P.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Foss, L. E.; Romanov, G. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of studies of alterations in the elemental and SARA compositions and physicochemical and rheological properties of highly viscous heavy crude oils upon catalytic and non-catalytic aquathermolysis are generalized. The chemistry of transformations of model hydrocarbons and heteroatomic compounds in aqueous media at high temperature, including subcritical and supercritical conditions, is considered. Comparative analysis of methods for activation of oil conversion via aquathermolysis using hydrogen donors, oil-soluble and water-soluble nanodispersed catalysts, ionic hydrogenation processes and various ways for reservoir heating is presented. Problems and prospects of oil-field implementation of catalytic aquathermolysis for upgrading heavy oils and natural bitumen are discussed. The bibliography includes 234 references.

  7. Extraction of bitumen, crude oil and its products from tar sand and contaminated sandy soil under effect of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, O V; Abramov, V O; Myasnikov, S K; Mullakaev, M S

    2009-03-01

    In the present paper, the kinetics of the water extraction of bitumen from tar sand and crude oil or residual fuel oil from model contaminated soils under the effect of ultrasound is studied. The influence of process temperature, ultrasound power, the nature, and properties of the components of heterogeneous mixtures being separated, and the concentration of added alkaline reagents on the rate and degree of oil recovery is investigated. A functional form of the dependencies of separation efficiency on the mean size of solid particles and the temperature of a working medium is found. Optimum concentrations of reagents in the process solution are determined. It is shown that the spent solution of sodium silicate can be multiply used for separation, its reuse even speeding up the yield of oil in the initial period. Taking into account obtained results, a multipurpose pilot plant with a flow-type reactor for ultrasonic extraction of petroleum and its products from contaminated soils was manufactured and tested. During tests, the purification of sandy soil contaminated with residual fuel oil was carried out which verified the results of laboratory studies.

  8. Geochemical characteristics of light hydrocarbons in cracking gases from chloroform bitumen A,crude oil and its fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The composition characteristics of light hydrocarbons from crude oil,chloroform bitumen A,saturated hydrocarbon fraction,aromatic hydrocarbon fraction,and asphaltene fraction during cracking have been studied systematically. The results revealed that the content of n-alkanes,branched alkanes and cycloalkanes in light hydrocarbons from the samples gradually decreased as the simulation temperature increased,and finally almost depleted completely,while the abundance of methane,benzene and its homologues increased obviously and became the main products. The ratios of benzene/n-hexane and toluene/n-heptane can be used as measures for oil cracking levels. Variation characteristics of maturity parameters of light hydrocarbons,for example,iC4/nC4,iC5/nC5,isoheptane value,2,2-DMC4/nC6,and 2-MC6+3-MC6/nC7 for different samples with increasing pyrolysis temperature,are consistent with those in petroleum reservoirs,indicating that these parameters may be efficient maturity index.

  9. Reduction of light cycle oil in catalytic cracking of bitumen-derived crude HGOs through catalyst selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fuchen; Xu, Chunming [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum Beijing, 102200 (China); Ng, Siauw H. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, 1 Oil Patch Drive, Suite A202, Devon, Alberta (Canada); Yui, Sok [Syncrude Research Centre, 9421-17 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    In an attempt to reduce the production of light cycle oil (LCO), a non-premium fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) product in North America, a large-pore catalyst containing rare-earth-exchanged Y (REY) zeolite, was used to crack two Canadian bitumen-derived crude heavy gas oils (HGOs) hydrotreated to different extents. For comparison, a regular equilibrium FCC catalyst with ultra-stable Y (USY) zeolite and a conventional western Canadian crude HGO were also included in the study. Cracking experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed microactivity test (MAT) reactor at 510 C, 30 s oil injection time, and varying catalyst-to-oil ratios for different conversions. The results show that pre-cracking of heavy molecules with wide-pore matrix, followed by zeolite cracking, enhanced conversion at the expense of light and heavy cycle oils at a constant catalyst-to-oil ratio, giving improved product selectivities (e.g., higher gasoline and lower dry gas, LCO, and coke yields, in general, at a given conversion). To systematically assess the benefits of employing the specialty catalyst over the regular catalyst in cracking Canadian HGOs, individual product yields were compared at common bases, including constant catalyst-to-oil ratios, conversions, and coke yields for three feeds, and at maximum gasoline yield for one feed. In most cases, the preferred choice of large-pore zeolite-rich catalyst over its counterpart was evident. The observed cracking phenomena were explained based on properties of catalysts and characterization data of feedstocks, including their hydrocarbon type analyses by gas chromatograph with a mass-selective detector (GC-MSD). (author)

  10. Biological effects and toxicity of diluted bitumen and its constituents in freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, William A; Hontela, Alice; Rood, Stewart B; Pyle, Greg G

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 50 billion cubic meters of bitumen resides within the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada. To facilitate the transport of bitumen from where it is extracted to where it is processed, the bitumen is diluted with natural gas condensate ('dilbit'), synthetic crude from hydrocracking bitumen ('synbit'), or a mixture of both ('dilsynbit'). A primary consideration for the effects of diluted bitumen products on freshwater organisms and ecosystems is whether it will float on the water surface or sink and interact with the stream or lake sediments. Evidence from a spill near Kalamazoo, MI, in 2010 and laboratory testing demonstrate that the nature of the spill and weathering of the dilbit, synbit or dilsynbit prior to and during contact with water will dictate whether the product floats or sinks. Subsequent toxicological data on the effects of dilbit and other diluted bitumen products on freshwater organisms and ecosystems are scarce. However, the current literature indicates that dilbit or bitumen can have significant effects on a wide variety of toxicological endpoints. This review synthesizes the currently available literature concerning the fate and effects of dilbit and synbit spilled into freshwater, and the effects of bitumen and bitumen products on aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Dilbit is likely to provide ecological impacts that are similar to and extend from those that follow from exposure to lighter crude oil, but the prospect of bitumen settling after binding to suspended sediments elevates the risk for benthic impacts in streams and lakes.

  11. Comparison of column phase configurations for comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatographic analysis of crude oil and bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T.C.; Harynuk, J.; Marriott, P. [RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Logan, G.A.; Grosjean, E. [Geoscience Australia, Canberra (Australia); Ryan, D. [Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Science and Technology

    2006-09-15

    An inverted phase (polar to non-polar) column set has been compared with a non-polar to polar column set for the GC x GC separation of petroleum hydrocarbons. This column configuration is shown to provide greatly enhanced resolution for less polar compounds and makes greater use of the two dimensional separation space. It improves resolution of a greater number of components within one analysis and offers new possibilities for crude oil fingerprinting. (Author)

  12. Carboxymethylated lignins with low surface tension toward low viscosity and highly stable emulsions of crude bitumen and refined oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang; Willoughby, Julie; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-11-15

    Kraft and organosolv lignins were subjected to carboxymethylation to produce fractions that were soluble in water, displayed a minimum surface tension as low as 34mN/m (25°C) and a critical aggregation concentration of ∼1.5wt%. The carboxymethylated lignins (CML), which were characterized in terms of their degree of substitution ((31)P NMR), elemental composition, and molecular weight (GPC), were found suitable in the formulation of emulsions with bitumens of ultra-high viscosity, such as those from the Canadian oil sands. Remarkably, the interfacial features of the CML enabled fuel emulsions that were synthesized in a very broad range of internal phase content (30-70%). Cryo-replica transmission electron microscopy, which was used here the first time to assess the morphology of the lignin-based emulsions, revealed the droplets of the emulsion stabilized with the modified lignin. The observed drop size (diametersoperations for power generation, which also take advantage of the high heating value of the emulsion components. The ability of CML to stabilize emulsions and to contribute in their combustion was tested with light fuels (kerosene, diesel, and jet fuel) after formulation of high internal phase systems (70% oil) that enabled operation of a fuel engine. A significant finding is that under certain conditions and compared to the respective pure fuel, combustion of the O/W emulsions stabilized by CML presented lower NOx and CO emissions and maintained a relatively high combustion efficiency. The results highlight the possibilities in high volume application for lignin biomacromolecules.

  13. Volatility of bitumen prices and implications for the industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Sustained crude oil price increases have led to increased investment in and production of Canadian bitumen to supplement North American oil supplies. For new projects, the evaluation of profitability is based on a prediction of the future price path of bitumen and ultimately light/medium crude oil. This article examines the relationship between the bitumen and light crude oil prices in the context of a simple error-correction economic-adjustment model. The analysis shows bitumen prices to be significantly more volatile than light crude prices. Also, the dominant effect of an oil price shock on bitumen prices is immediate and is amplified, both in absolute terms and percentage price changes. It is argued that the bitumen industry response to such market risks will likely be a realignment toward vertical integration via new downstream construction, mergers, or on a de facto basis by the establishment of alliances. ?? 2008 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  14. Cooee bitumen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    We study chemical aging in “Cooee bitumen” using molecular dynamic simulations. This model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: “2 resins → 1 asphaltene.” Molecular...... dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule are determined for the four...

  15. Properties Correlations and Characterization of Athabasca Oil Sands-derived Synthetic Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Zhao Suoqi; Xu Chunming; Chung Keng H.

    2007-01-01

    Narrow fractions of Athabasca oil sands-derived synthetic crude oil (SCO) from Canada were obtained by distillation at 20 ℃ to 500 ℃ and characterized. The yield and properties, such as density, refractive index, viscosity,freezing point, sulfur and nitrogen content and UOP K-index, were correlated as a function of boiling temperature (Tb).The properties of naphtha fractions, jet fuel and diesel fractions could be predicted accurately with the correlations, which are useful for process design considerations, such as optimizing operating conditions of refinery processing units. The other key properties and characteristics of naphtha fractions, jet fuel, diesel and vacuum gas oil were also determined.

  16. Physico-chemical modification of asphalt bitumens by reactive agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil distillation, has long been used in numerous engineering applications that range from the construction of road pavements to waterproof membranes for the roofing industry. On account of its properties (impermeability, adhesiveness, elasticity, ductility, etc.), bitumen is the most suitable material to be used as a binder of mineral aggregates for paving industry, and consequently, roads are mainly constructed using a composite mixture of bitumen (~ 5 wt.%) ...

  17. Decolorization of synthetic melanins by crude laccases of Lentinus polychrous Lév.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2013-01-01

    Melanins are complex natural pigments that darken the skin and are difficult to degrade. This study evaluated synthetic melanin decolorization by the crude laccase from fungus Lentinus polychrous in the absence and presence of selected redox mediators. The greatest melanin decolorization activity was 87 % at pH 6.5 within 3 h in the presence of 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS), whereas only about 22 % melanin decolorized at pH 5.0 in case of no mediator. The optimum temperatures for melanin decolorization in the absence and presence of ABTS were 55 and 35°C, respectively. Using a natural redox mediator, 1.0 mmol/L vanillin leads to 45 % melanin decolorization. Our results suggest the possibility of applying vanillin for L. polychrous laccase-catalyzed decolorization of melanin.

  18. Effect of active species in crude oil on the interfacial tension behavior of alkali/synthetic surfactants/crude oil systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Liwei; Hou Jirui; Yue Xiang'an; Zhao Ji

    2008-01-01

    The effect of active species present in crude oil on the interfacial tension (IFT) behavior of alkali/synthetic surfactants/crude oil systems was studied. The system consisted of heavy alkyl benzene sulfonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydrate and Daqing crude oil. Experimental results indicated that active species would diffuse from oil/aqueous interface to aqueous phase and finally an equilibrium could be reached in the system with increasing contact time. Moreover, the minimum IFT and equilibrium IFT values increased with increasing contact time and a linear relationship existed between dynamic IFT and t-1/2 when IFT value approaching the minimum and after the minimum IFT was reached. This indicated that the dynamic IFT-time behavior was diffusion controlled. The oil and aqueous phases were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. IR spectra of oil and aqueous phases illustrated that the content of active species in the oil phase decreased, but the content of active species in the aqueous phase increased after alkali reacted with crude oil. This indicated that the active species present in oil played an important role in reducing IFT.

  19. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  20. Mutagenicity of nitrogen compounds from synthetic crude oils: collection, separation and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T K; Epler, J L; Guerin, M R; Clark, B R; Ho, C H

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the long range health effects such as carcinogenicity/mutagenicity/teratogenicity/toxicity, associated with the newly emerging energy technologies, we have utilized the Ames Salmonella assay to evaluate mutagenic properties of synthetic fuels. Coupling with class fractionation was necessary. Organic extraction and liquid/liquid partitioning was used to separate acidic and basic fraction. The neutral material was separated using Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration into saturated and aromatic fractions of various ring sizes. The alkaline fraction was subfractionated eluting with benzene and ethanol on a basic alumina column and then with isopropanol and acetone using a Sephadex LH-20 gel column. The frameshift strain TA-98 was utilized along with Aroclor-induced rat liver homogenate (S-9 mix) for the mutagenicity assay. The natural crude oils were slightly mutagenic, the polynucleararomatics constituting the activity, while the coal-derived fuels indicated mutagenicity associated with alkaline constituents as well as polyaromatics. Hydrotreated coal (H-coal, HDT) or Shale (Paraho-Shale oil, HDT) derived fuels were not mutagenic. Ninety percent of the mutagenic activity in alkaline fraction was recovered in the acetone subfraction. High resolution spectroscopy of this fraction indicates polycyclic aromatic primary amines along with azaarenes as organic constituents responsible for the mutagenic activity associated with shale- and coal-derived fuels.

  1. Rheological properties of styrene butadiene styrene polymer modified road bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon D. Airey [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Centre for Pavement Engineering, School of Civil Engineering

    2003-10-01

    The use of polymers for the modification of bitumen in road paving applications has been growing rapidly over the last decade as government authorities and paving contractors seek to improve road life in the face of increased traffic. Currently, the most commonly used polymer for bitumen modification is the elastomer styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) followed by other polymers such as styrene butadiene rubber, ethylene vinyl acetate and polyethylene. This paper describes the polymer modification of two penetration grade bitumens with SBS. Six polymer modified bitumens (PMBs) were produced by mixing the bitumens from two crude oil sources with a linear SBS copolymer at three polymer contents. The rheological characteristics of the SBS PMBs were analysed by means of conventional as well as dynamic mechanical analysis using a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR). The results of the investigation indicate that the degree of SBS modification is a function of bitumen source, bitumen polymer compatibility and polymer concentration, with the higher polymer concentrations in a high aromatic content bitumen producing a highly elastic network which increases the viscosity, complex modulus and elastic response of the PMB, particularly at high service temperatures. However, ageing of the SBS PMBs tends to result in a reduction of the molecular size of the SBS copolymer with a decrease in the elastic response of the modified road bitumen. 25 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Mass balance calculation of the pyrolysates generated from marine crude oil: A prediction model of oil cracking gas resources based on solid bitumen in reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG TongShan; GENG AnSong; XIONG YongQiang; GENG XinHua

    2007-01-01

    Oil cracking gas plays an important role in the resources of natural gas in the basins with high and over mature marine source rocks in China. The prediction of the oil cracking gas resources becomes necessary and urgent in the gas exploration in these basins. A marine crude oil sample was pyrolyzed using sealed gold tubes system. The pyrolysates including gas, liquid and solid were quantitatively analyzed. Based on the pyrolysis data and kinetic calculation, the yield correlativity among gas, liquid and solid products was regressed with high correlative coefficients to establish a prediction model suitable for the resource estimation of oil cracking gas. The verification formula for this model was also established on the principle of mass conservation. The affecting factors and the application preconditions of this prediction model were discussed. This model would enlighten and provide some new ideas for the resource assessment of natural gas in the high and over mature marine carbonate source rock areas in China. It is expected to be valuable in gas exploration.

  3. Simulation and energy performance assessment of CO2 removal from crude synthetic natural gas via physical absorption process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjun Guo; Fei Feng; Guohui Song; Jun Xiao; Laihong Shen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an energy performance assessment of CO2 removal for crude synthetic natural gas (SNG) upgrade by Selexol absorption process.A simplified process simulation of the Selexol process concerning power requirement and separation performance was developed.The assessment indicates that less pressure difference between crude SNG and absorption pressure favors the energy performance of CO2 removal process.When both crude SNG and absorption pressures are 20 bar,CO2 removal process has the best energy performance.The optimal specific power consumption of the CO2 removal process is 566 kJ/kgCO2.The sensitivity analysis shows that the CO2 removal efficiency would significantly influence the total power consumption of the removal process,as well as higher heating value (HHV) and CO2 content in SNG.However,the specific power consumption excluding crude SNG and SNG compressions changes little with the variance of CO2 removal efficiency.If by-product CO2 is compressed for CO2 capture,the process would turn into a CO2-sink for the atmosphere.Correspondingly,an increase of 281 kJ/kgCO2 in specific power consumption is required for compressing the separated CO2.

  4. A rheological study of behavior of polymer-bitumen blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djonlagic, J. [Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy; Dunjic, B. [Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy; Javanovic, J.A. [Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy

    1996-12-01

    The influence of the elastomer such as SBS and SBR and their mixtures on the structure and rheological properties of blown bitumen B 65 blends, was studied. The crude oil denoted as SEB (Soviet Export Blend) was used to obtain the B 65 sample. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Es wurde die Wirkung der SBR- und SBS-Elastomere und ihrer Mischungen, auf die Struktur und die rheologischen Eigenschaften des aus geblasenem Bitumen B 65 hergestellten Polymer-Bitumens (PmB), untersucht. Die B 65 Probe stammte aus dem Erdoel SEB (Soviet Export Blend). (orig./HS)

  5. Extraction of Peace River bitumen using supercritical ethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jeffrey Lawrence

    2000-10-01

    As the supply of conventional crude oil continues to decline, petroleum companies are looking for alternative hydrocarbon sources. The vast reserves of heavy oil and bitumen located in northern Alberta are among the alternatives. The challenge facing engineers is to develop a process for recovering this oil which is economic, efficient and environmentally acceptable. Supercritical fluid extraction is one method being investigated which could potentially meet all of these criteria. In this study, Peace River bitumen was extracted using supercritical ethane. The bitumen was mixed with sand and packed into a semi-batch extractor. Ethane contacted the bitumen/sand mixture and the fraction of the bitumen soluble in the ethane was removed and subsequently collected in a two phase separator. The flow of ethane was such that the experiments were governed by equilibrium and not mass transfer. Experimental temperatures and pressures were varied in order to observe the effect of these parameters on the mass and composition of the extracted material. The extraction yields increased as the temperature decreased and pressure increased. Samples were collected at various time intervals to measure changes in the properties of the extracted bitumen over the duration of the process. As the extraction proceeded, the samples became heavier and more viscous. The bitumen feed was characterised and the experimental data was then modelled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The characterisation process involved the distillation of the bitumen into five fractions. The distillation curve and density of each fraction was measured and this data was used in conjunction with correlations to determine the critical properties of the bitumen. Interaction parameters in the equation of state were then optimised until the predicted composition of extracted bitumen matched the experimental results.

  6. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang

    2015-04-01

    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  7. Oxidation of visbreaker bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giavarini, C.; Saporito, S.

    1989-07-01

    A series of oxidation tests was carried out on a small-scale blowing unit fed with two different visbreaker (VB) bitumens, and with two straight-run (SR) soft bitumens for reference. The purpose was to study the possibility of applying the blowing process to VB feeds, and to evaluate process kinetics and product characteristics. The results showed that industrial blowing of VB bitumens is feasible and that the rate of reaction can be expressed by a first order equation with respect to change in softening point. Production of distillate oils was quite high, especially when iron trichloride was used as a catalyst; in industrial application it is suggested that VB bitumens may be oxidized without any catalyst, the kinetics of the non-catalytic process being satisfactory. Air consumption was unsteady compared with the SR operation, and plugging of the air coil was more frequent. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Nine-Lump Kinetic Study of Catalytic Pyrolysis of Gas Oils Derived from Canadian Synthetic Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis of gas oils derived from Canadian synthetic crude oil on a kind of zeolite catalyst was conducted in a confined fluidized bed reactor for the production of light olefins. The overall reactants and products were classified into nine species, and a nine-lump kinetic model was proposed to describe the reactions based on appropriate assumptions. This kinetic model had 24 rate constants and a catalyst deactivation constant. The kinetic constants at 620°C, 640°C, 660°C, and 680°C were estimated by means of nonlinear least-square regression method. Preexponential factors and apparent activation energies were then calculated according to the Arrhenius equation. The apparent activation energies of the three feed lumps were lower than those of the intermediate product lumps. The nine-lump kinetic model showed good calculation precision and the calculated yields were close to the experimental ones.

  9. Life Cycle Analysis of Bitumen Transportation to Refineries by Rail and Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimana, Balwinder; Verma, Aman; Di Lullo, Giovanni; Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Canter, Christina E; Olateju, Babatunde; Zhang, Hao; Kumar, Amit

    2017-01-03

    Crude oil is currently transported primarily by pipelines and rail from extraction sites to refineries around the world. This research evaluates energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for three scenarios (synthetic crude oil and dilbit with and without diluent return) in which 750 000 bpd of Alberta's bitumen is transported 3000 km to determine which method has a lower environmental impact. Each scenario has a pipeline and rail pathway, and the dilbit without diluent return scenario has an additional heated bitumen pathway, which does not require diluent. An Excel based bottom-up model is developed using engineering first-principles to calculate mass and energy balances for each process. Results show that pipeline transportation produced between 61% and 77% fewer GHG emissions than by rail. The GHG emissions decreased by 15% and 73% for rail and pipelines as the capacity increased from 100 000 to 800 000 bpd. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to determine the uncertainty in the emissions and found that the uncertainty was larger for pipelines (up to ±73%) and smaller for rail (up to ±28%). The uncertainty ranges do not overlap, thus confirming that pipelines have lower GHG emissions, which is important information for policy makers conducting pipeline reviews.

  10. Technology Status of Extracting Bitumen from Oil Sand using Hot alkaline Water%油砂沥青热碱水萃取分离技术现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茂; 耿安松; 廖泽文

    2011-01-01

    作为非常规石油资源的油砂受到愈来愈多的重视.本文评述了世界油砂资源开发现状和中国油砂资源的利用前景,总结了工业上成熟的油砂沥青热碱水萃取技术分离沥青的流程,论述了热碱水萃取过程中沥青与矿物、粘土和气泡之间相互作用及其对沥青分离效率的影响;全面总结了油砂沥青热碱水萃取过程中温度、pH值、多价阳离子和加工助剂等物理化学条件对沥青与矿物之间相互作用和沥青有效分离的影响.最后指出油砂沥青热碱水萃取分离的最优化实验技术研究是值得进一步深入研究的方向,原子力显微镜的运用和不同萃取技术的综合运用将在改善沥青的萃取分离效果上发挥作用.%As an unconventional fuel resource, tar sand is widely considered to be an important supplement for oil production in the near future due to the skyrocketing price of crude oil and the increasing demand of fuel resources in the world. This paper reviewed oil sand utilization worldwide and the prospect of oil sand exploitation in China.The commercial procedures for hot water based bitumen extraction and subsequent bitumen purification were reviewed. Interactions of bitumen-minerals, bitumen-clay and bitumen-gas bubbles were discussed. The effect of various physical, chemical parameters, such as water temperature, pH value, metal ions in the slurring water and various processing additives, to the interactions of bitumen-mineral and the final recovery of bitumen is systematically summarized. The reviewers believed that finding optimized technique for the hot water based bitumen extraction and separation will be a potential future research focus, and believed that application of Atom Force Microscopy and synthetic utilization of various extraction methods will play an important role in enhancing oil sand bitumen extraction.

  11. Visbreaking based integrated process for bitumen upgrading and hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, C.; Gonzalez, M.F.; Carbognani, L.; Perez-Zurita, M.J.; Lopez-Linares, F.; Husein, M.; Moore, G.; Pereira, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Alberta In Situ Centre For In Situ Energy, Schulich School Of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    New and cost effective upgrading schemes for distillates production and residue disposal are needed in order to recover Alberta's vast heavy oil and bitumen reserves. On average, heavy oils and bitumen contain 50 per cent (w/w) of components remaining after vacuum distillation. A new alternative for upgrading vacuum resids was proposed. The method involves the following 3 processing steps: production of modified, nearly unstable heavy molecules by mild thermal cracking known as visbreaking; adsorption of modified heavy molecules over inexpensive, tailor-designed porous sorbents or catalysts; and, production of hydrogen by low temperature catalytic steam gasification of the adsorbed molecules. This cost effective way of producing hydrogen is based on the selective segregation of a minimal fraction of the heaviest hydrocarbon molecules, those most instable, followed by their gasification at low temperature. This paper presented results on the combined processing as well as using both a model molecule and real feedstock from the Athabasca vacuum resids for the adsorption and hydrogen production steps. The study showed that this new process can obtain high rates of hydrogen production when a kaolin based solid formulation is used as both, adsorbent and catalysts, for these heavy molecules. It was concluded that this alternative method for producing hydrogen at upgrading sites in northern Alberta has potential for both installed and future up-graders to improve the quality of synthetic crude being produced. The hydrogen produced from the gasification of these heavy compounds could be used for both refining purposes or for in-situ reservoir upgrading. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  12. COOEE bitumen: chemical aging

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2013-01-01

    We study chemical aging in "COOEE bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. The model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins $\\rightarrow$ 1 asphaltene". Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule, are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  13. A regenerable bitumen composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudzuki, K.; Asakava, Y.; Matsui, A.; Ogava, A.

    1982-10-18

    The regenerable bitumin composition includes the bitumen material (asphalt, oxidized bitumen, petroleum or asphalt pitch) emulsified by an cation emulsifier (alkylamine or an imidazole derivative) and additionally by a noniononic emulsifier (polyoxyethylenamine), an amide, which contains greater than 1 amide groups per molecule (amide derivative, imidazoline), an epoxide compound with greater than 1 epoxide group per molecule (preferably with an epoxy equivalent of 180 to 500), an inorganic compound which hardens in water (Portland cement or silicate cement) and additionally, water. The total content of the second third components is 1 to 200 parts per million to 100 parts of the first component, while the content of the fourth component is from 1 to 400 parts. The water content in the composition is 5 to 1,000 percent of the total content of the first three components. The patented composition is characterized by high stability, strength, chemical stability, resistance to water and good adhesion properties.

  14. Some peculiarities of bitumen emulsion modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Batyrbayev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymer modification of bitumen emulsions obtained from bitumen of domestic production with the use of several commercial emulsifiers was studied. The influence of the polymer modifier concentration on bitumen emulsion physical-mechanical properties was considered. Possibility of obtaining of modified bitumen emulsion with high impact resistance was shown.

  15. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  16. Calculations of the effect of boiling water on bitumen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering]|[Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory; McGee, B. [E-T Energy Limited, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Alberta's vast resources of heavy oil and bitumen are playing an increasing role as a main resource for crude oil. Thermal recovery methods for heavy oil and bitumen include steam injection and steam flooding in which thermal energy is given to the oil to reduce its viscosity and allow it to flow towards a production spot. A viable alternative to steam injection is the electromagnetic heating method for heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. Electromagnetic heating transfers heat to heavy oil reservoirs based on electromagnetic energy and can be used in situations where steam injection may not work well. The process can also be used to preheat the reservoir before steam injection. This study examined the possible displacement mechanisms of such processes with particular focus on the physics of boiling water in porous media as a potential displacement agent for heavy oil and bitumen. It is very possible that water could vaporize while being electrically heated and the vaporized water could push more heavy oil or bitumen out of reservoir. As such, higher oil recovery could be expected due to water vaporization. The role of water vaporization during electrical heating process was examined and a methodology to estimate the magnitude of incremental oil recovery was developed based on simple conceptual models with numerical simulators and illustrative experiments. The primary contributors of this process appear to be a combination of drainage, imbibition, viscosity reduction and gas expansion. The study showed that the expansion of water into steam could very efficiently flush oil out of pore spaces. It was concluded that water vaporization inside the reservoir can be an additional driving force for heavy oil or bitumen production, and that this alternative to steam injection can offer energy savings for the recovery process. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs., 1 appendix.

  17. Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

  18. Quantitative studies of hydrocarbon loss of the Silurian bitumen sandstone in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of Tarim Basin experienced several tectonic movements,of which Caledonian movement caused a serious damage to reservoirs of Silurian. The earlier reservoirs size and the later hydrocarbon loss are two key factors to exploration prospect of Silurian. On the basis of net thickness of bituminous sandstone and recovery coefficient of crude oil converting to bitumen,the scale of the hydrocarbon loss of palaeo-accumulation in bitumen sandstone of Silurian was calculated (86.30×108t). The deter-mination of net thickness of bitumen sandstone was completed mainly by several methods,such as physical property demarcation,observing lithology,grains with oil inclusion (GOI) technology,and quantitative grains fluorescence (QGF) technology. The samples of black sandstone and white sand-stone were collected and compared by means of the methods mentioned above. The results showed that there was little hydrocarbon,or none,in the white sandstone. The recovery coefficient was ob-tained by the analyses of plentiful physical parameters of crude oil and bitumen sandstone,based on the hypothesis that nonhydrocarbon compounds and bitumen were invariable in the process of bitu-men forming. The calculated result,which is more scientific and actual,indicates the exploration pros-pect is more promising in Silurian of the Tarim Basin.

  19. Crude soybean hull peroxidase treatment of phenol in synthetic and real wastewater: enzyme economy enhanced by Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steevensz, Aaron; Madur, Sneha; Feng, Wei; Taylor, Keith E; Bewtra, Jatinder K; Biswas, Nihar

    2014-02-05

    Soybean peroxidase (SBP)-catalyzed removal of phenol from wastewater has been demonstrated as a feasible wastewater treatment strategy and a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, has the potential for increasing the enzyme economy of the process. Systematic studies on the enzyme-surfactant system have been lacking as well as demonstration of its applicability to industrial wastewater. This paper addresses those two gaps, the latter based on real wastewater from alkyd resin manufacture. The minimum effective Triton X-100 concentrations for crude SBP-catalyzed phenol conversion (≥95%) over 1-10 mM showed a linear trend. To illustrate translation of such lab results to real-world samples, this data were used to optimize crude SBP needed for phenol conversion over that concentration range. Triton X-100 increases enzyme economy by 10- to 13-fold. This treatment protocol was directly applied to tote-scale (700-1000 L) treatment of alkyd resin wastewater, with phenol ranging from 7 to 28 mM and total organic carbon content of >40 g/L, using a crude SBP extract derived from dry soybean hulls by simple aqueous elution. This extract can be used to remove phenol from a complex industrial wastewater and the process is markedly more efficient in the presence of Triton X-100. The water is thus rendered amenable to conventional biological treatment whilst the hulls could still be used in feed, thus adding further value to the crop.

  20. Diluent and bitumen, an uneasy mix : considerations for treating, blending, transportation, marketing and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, C. [Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation evaluated several issues regarding the use of diluent as a blending agent with Canadian bitumen. Heavy and viscous crude oils are commonly diluted with condensates and gasolines. This improves field processing, transportability in pipelines and acceptability in markets and refineries. The demand for such diluent is increasing because of the large amounts of heavy oil and bitumen currently produced in Canada. The current tenable price of diluents has meant that a wide range of diluent sources and components are finding their way into the Canadian diluent supply stream. This has raised concerns regarding diluent performance and the affect on blended crude oils. The cost of diluent is among the most controllable expense associated with most bitumen production projects. Market factors were considered in this presentation, such as supply demand; price and infrastructure; operational processing and blending issues; diluent quality and component variability; and downstream issues such as refinery processing and production. tabs., figs.

  1. Effect of Temperature and Process on Quantity and Composition of Laboratory-generated Bitumen Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliet, Christophe; Kriech, Anthony J; Juery, Catherine; Vaissiere, Mathieu; Brinton, Michael A; Osborn, Linda V

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the impact of temperature on emissions as related to various bitumen applications and processes used in commercial products. Bitumen emissions are very complex and can be influenced in quantity and composition by differences in crude source, refining processes, application temperature, and work practices. This study provided a controlled laboratory environment to study five bitumen test materials from three European refineries; three paving grade, one used for primarily roofing and some paving applications, and one oxidized industrial specialty bitumen. Emissions were generated at temperatures between 140°C and 230°C based on typical application temperatures of each product. Emissions were characterized by aerodynamic particle size, total organic matter (TOM), simulated distillation, 40 individual PACs, and fluorescence (FL-PACs) spectroscopy. Results showed that composition of bitumen emissions is influenced by temperature under studied experimental conditions. A distinction between the oxidized bitumen with flux oil (industrial specialty bitumen) and the remaining bitumens was observed. Under typical temperatures used for paving (150°C-170°C), the TOM and PAC concentrations in the emissions were low. However, bitumen with flux oil produced significantly higher emissions at 230°C, laden with high levels of PACs. Flux oil in this bitumen mixture enhanced release of higher boiling-ranged compounds during application conditions. At 200°C and below, concentrations of 4-6 ring PACs were ≤6.51 μg/m(3) for all test materials, even when flux oil was used. Trends learned about emission temperature-process relationships from this study can be used to guide industry decisions to reduce worker exposure during processing and application of hot bitumen.

  2. Effect of metal ions and redox mediators on decolorization of synthetic dyes by crude laccase from a novel white rot fungus Peniophora sp. (NFCCI-2131).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Shikha; Nill, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different metal ions and two redox mediators on laccase activity and laccase-catalyzed decolorization of five synthetic dyes was investigated in vitro using crude laccase from a novel white rot fungus Peniophora sp. (NFCCI-2131). The fungus effectively decolorized crystal violet and brilliant green on malt extract agar medium. Laccase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Cd(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Na(+) Ca(2+), and Cu(2+). Among the different dyes tested, highest decolorization of crystal violet (96.30 %) was obtained in the presence of 1 mM ABTS followed by 86.01 % by HBT. The results conspicuously indicated that laccase from Peniophora sp. has the potential for color removal from textile dye effluent even in the presence of toxic metal ions.

  3. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil spill recovery and remediation options. Here we report on the application of charred hay as a method for modifying the surface behavior of bitumen in aquatic environments. Waste or surplus hay is abundant in North America. Its surface can easily be modified through charring and/or chemical treatment. We have characterized the modified and charred hay using solid-state NMR, contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopy. Tests of these materials to treat spilled bitumen in model aquatic systems have been undertaken. Our results indicate that bitumen spills on water will retain their buoyancy for longer periods after treatment with charred hay, or charred hay coated with calcium oxide, improving recovery options.

  4. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  5. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  6. The Human Bitumen Study: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Pesch, Beate; Rühl, Reinhold; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Bitumen has attracted attention from the scientific community and regulating agencies. The debate on health effects of exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen during the hot application of bitumen ranges from respiratory and neurological effects to carcinogenicity. In 2000, the German Hazardous Substances Committee (AGS), in collaboration with the German Bitumen Forum, initiated the examination of a group of mastic asphalt workers and a same number of construction workers without exposure bitumen using a cross-shift design. The study was then extended to the Human Bitumen Study, and the recruitment was finished in 2008 after examination of 500 workers on 80 construction sites. Three hundred and twenty workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen at high processing temperatures and 118 workers at outdoor construction sites were included. In the Human Bitumen Study external exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen, internal exposure to PAH by analysing urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes and the sum of 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalenes, irritative effects in the upper and lower airways and genotoxic effects in blood cells were investigated. The study turned out to be one of the largest investigations of workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen under current exposure conditions. The present paper summarizes its background and main topics.

  7. Influence of redox mediators and metal ions on synthetic acid dye decolourization by crude laccase from Trametes hirsuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Couto, S; Sanromán, Ma; Gübitz, G M

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of redox mediators on synthetic acid dye decolourization (Sella Solid Red and Luganil Green) by laccase from Trametes hirsuta cultures has been investigated. All the redox mediators tested, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), led to higher activities than those obtained without mediators addition showing the suitability of the laccase/mediator system (LMS) in the decolourization of acid dyes. HBT was by far the most effective mediator, showing a decolourization percentage of 88% in 10 min for Sella Solid Red and of 49% in 20 min for Luganil Green. On the other hand, the stability of laccase against several metal ions, normally found in textile wastewater, was assessed. Laccase was stable at a concentration of 1mM for 7d against all the metal ions tested except for Zn+2, CrO4(-2), Cd+2, Cr2O7(-2), Fe+2, Cu+2 and especially Hg+2. When the concentration was increased to 10mM laccase stability decreased against all the metals assayed, in particular against Fe+2. In addition, the effect of metal ions on the decolourization process was also studied. It was found that Hg+2 inhibited the dye decolourization process, being the presence of HBT absolutely required for dye decolourization.

  8. Column flotation of bitumen at Fort Hills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizama, H.M. [Teck Cominco, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Romero, D. [UTS Energy Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Armour, M. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Flotation columns are used by mineral processors to separate mineral species. The separation is based on the premise that different mineral particles have different surface hydrophobicities. There are 2 carrier phases, notably air bubbles moving up and aqueous pulp moving down. Hydrophobic particles predominantly adhere to rising air bubbles and form a froth, while hydrophilic particles remain in aqueous suspension and flow down and out the bottom of the column. This paper described a demonstration plant near Fort McMurray where bitumen extraction was tested. The plant included 2 columns for bitumen flotation. Oil sands material was passed through a roll sizer and fed to a countercurrent drum separator, where it was mixed with water at 75 degrees C. Column data from the demonstration plant provided the opportunity to examine the separation behaviour during flotation of bitumen. The bitumen grade was described only in terms of bitumen content and solids content in order to simplify the interpretation of the bitumen flotation data. Bitumen/solids separation in the first column was successful at 50 to 60 degrees C, with feeds having bitumen grades between 1 and 19 per cent, and where the solids had about 60 per cent fines. Bitumen/solids separation did not occur in the second column at 50 to 60 degrees C, with feeds having bitumen grades between 8 and 63 per cent, and where the solids had about 90 per cent fines. The lack of separation was probably due to high solids entrainment in the flotation froth. It was concluded that bitumen column flotation data can be analyzed and interpreted by adopting mineral processing principles. Bitumen/solids separation can be evaluated and predicted by plotting solids recovery as a function of bitumen recovery. 7 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  9. Impact of salinity on bitumen extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, H.A.W; Schaffer, M. [Total EandP Canada Ltd (Canada); Gingras, J.P. [TOTAL Petrochemicals Mont-Lacq Research and Development (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil sands industry, the hot water extraction process is used to extract bitumen. Recovery of bitumen is thus dependent on the water chemistry. Previous studies identified that divalent cations such as calcium present in water have a negative effect on bitumen recovery but the effect of monovalent cations such as sodium at high concentrations is still unknown. This paper assessed the potential impact of both monovalent and divalent cations on bitumen recovery. Extraction tests were conducted with two low grade and one average grade ore and with different water chemistries. Results showed that monovalent cations can have a negative impact on bitumen recovery for specific ore types. The study was not successful in determining the responsible mechanism but it is presumed to be related to coagulation of fine clays. This paper highlighted that monovalent cations can impact the bitumen recovery; further work is required to determine the responsible factors.

  10. Phenomena occurring at the bitumen /Water and the bitumen/Mineral substrate interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    For decades, project contracting officials have been using bitumen-in-water emulsions in the manufacture of cold mixes for wearing and base courses or surface rehabilitations. These emulsions are a complex system in which bitumen and water are solubilised by an emulsifier. Regardless the applications of bitumen emulsions, four main properties are always controlled: viscosity, bitumen/mineral surface adhesion, storage stability and rupture at the mineral surface. The two latter are related to ...

  11. Decreasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emission from bitumen using alternative bitumen production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulzadeh, Y; Mortazavi, S B; Yousefi, A A; Khavanin, A

    2011-01-30

    In 1988, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that bitumen fumes should also be considered a potential occupational carcinogen and management practices such as engineering controls should be implemented. Changing the production process of bitumen, as a source control method, was investigated in our study. For the first time, a novel alternative process was used to produce paving grade bitumen with decreased PAH emissions as well as improved bitumen performance grade (PG). Post-consumer latex and natural bitumen (NB) were used as additives to obtain 60/70 modified bitumen directly from the vacuum bottom (VB) without any need for air-blowing. The emissions were produced by a laboratory fume generation rig and were sampled and analyzed by GC-Mass and GC-FID as described in NIOSH method 5515. The PG of the resulting modified 60/70 bitumen in this study covers a wider range of climatic conditions and has higher total resistance against deformation than conventional 60/70 bitumen. The total PAH emissions from modified 60/70 bitumen (100.2619 ng/g) were decreased approximately to 50% of PAHs emitted from conventional 60/70 bitumen (197.696 ng/g). Therefore, it is possible to obtain modified bitumen with lower PAH emissions and better quality than conventional bitumen via additives and without air-blowing.

  12. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  13. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Levels and Cysteamine Supplementation on Protein Synthetic and Degradative Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Luo, Yiqiu; Zhang, Bolin; Xing, Shen; Zhu, Yuping; Sun, Hui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation can affect growth performance and protein metabolism of pigs. However, the influence of dietary protein intake on the growth response of CS-treated pigs is unclear, and the mechanisms involved in protein metabolism remain unknown. Hence, we investigated the interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation and the effects of dietary crude protein levels and CS supplementation on protein synthetic and degradative signaling in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. One hundred twenty barrows (65.84 ± 0.61 kg) were allocated to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with five replicates of six pigs each. The primary variations were dietary crude protein (CP) levels (14% or 10%) and CS supplemental levels (0 or 700 mg/kg). The low-protein (LP) diets (10% CP) were supplemented with enough essential amino acids (EAA) to meet the NRC AA requirements of pigs and maintain the balanced supply of eight EAA including lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and leucine. After 41 days, 10 pigs per treatment were slaughtered. We found that LP diets supplemented with EAA resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma somatostatin (SS) (Pdietary protein levels did not affect other traits. However, CS supplementation increased the average daily gain (Ppigs receiving CS. Additionally, CS supplementation increased the protein levels for the phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), eIF-4E binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (Pdietary protein levels and CS supplementation for all traits. In conclusion, dietary protein levels and CS supplementation influenced growth and protein metabolism through independent mechanisms in pigs. In addition, LP diets supplemented with EAA did not affect growth performance and other traits except the concentrations of SS and PUN probably through maintenance of protein synthesis and degradation signaling. Moreover, CS

  14. Mechanism of Solid Bitumen in Silurian Sandstones of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinglian; Zhu Bingquan

    1997-01-01

    @@ There are a large amount of solid bitumen within Silurian sandstones in Tabei, Tazhong, Kalpin uprifts of the Tarim Basin. Petroleum geochemists are interested in the super giant fossil oil pool. Unfortunately,some key questions have not been solved, such as: what generated the bitumen? When did the bitumen generate and when did the bitumen accumulated in the sandstones?

  15. Rheological characteristics of synthetic road binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon D. Airey; Musarrat H. Mohammed; Caroline Fichter [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    This paper deals with the synthesis of polymer binders from monomers that could in future be derived from renewable resources. These binders consist of polyethyl acrylate (PEA) of different molecular weight, polymethyl acrylate (PMA) and polybutyl acrylate (PBA), which were synthesised from ethyl acrylate, methyl acrylate and butyl acrylate, respectively, by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The fundamental rheological properties of these binders were determined by means of a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) using a combination of temperature and frequency sweeps. The results indicate that PEA has rheological properties similar to that of 100/150 penetration grade bitumen, PMA similar rheological properties to that of 10/20 penetration grade bitumen, while PBA, due to its highly viscous nature and low complex modulus, cannot be used on its own as an asphalt binder. The synthetic binders were also combined with conventional penetration grade bitumen to produce a range of bitumen-synthetic polymer binder blends. These blends were batched by mass in the ratio of 1:1 or 3:1 and subjected to the same DSR rheological testing as the synthetic binders. The blends consisting of a softer bitumen (70/100 pen or 100/150 pen) with a hard synthetic binder (PMA) tended to be more compatible and therefore stable and produced rheological properties that combined the properties of the two components. The synthetic binders and particularly the extended bitumen samples (blends) produced rheological properties that showed similar characteristics to elastomeric SBS PMBs. 30 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Levels and Cysteamine Supplementation on Protein Synthetic and Degradative Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    Full Text Available Dietary protein levels and cysteamine (CS supplementation can affect growth performance and protein metabolism of pigs. However, the influence of dietary protein intake on the growth response of CS-treated pigs is unclear, and the mechanisms involved in protein metabolism remain unknown. Hence, we investigated the interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation and the effects of dietary crude protein levels and CS supplementation on protein synthetic and degradative signaling in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. One hundred twenty barrows (65.84 ± 0.61 kg were allocated to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with five replicates of six pigs each. The primary variations were dietary crude protein (CP levels (14% or 10% and CS supplemental levels (0 or 700 mg/kg. The low-protein (LP diets (10% CP were supplemented with enough essential amino acids (EAA to meet the NRC AA requirements of pigs and maintain the balanced supply of eight EAA including lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and leucine. After 41 days, 10 pigs per treatment were slaughtered. We found that LP diets supplemented with EAA resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma somatostatin (SS (P<0.01 and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN (P<0.001, while dietary protein levels did not affect other traits. However, CS supplementation increased the average daily gain (P<0.001 and lean percentage (P<0.05, and decreased the feed conversion ratio (P<0.05 and back fat (P<0.05. CS supplementation also increased the concentrations of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (P<0.001, and reduced the concentrations of leptin, SS, and PUN (P<0.001. Increased mRNA abundance of Akt1 and IGF-1 signaling (P<0.001 and decreased mRNA abundance of Forkhead Box O (FOXO 4 (P<0.01 and muscle atrophy F-box (P<0.001 were observed in pigs receiving CS. Additionally, CS supplementation increased the protein levels for the phosphorylated mammalian target of

  17. Siberian Platform: Geology and Natural Bitumen Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Freeman, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: The Siberian platform is located between the Yenisey River on the west and the Lena River on the south and east. The Siberian platform is vast in size and inhospitable in its climate. This report is concerned principally with the setting, formation, and potential volumes of natural bitumen. In this report the volumes of maltha and asphalt referred to in the Russian literature are combined to represent natural bitumen. The generation of hydrocarbons and formation of hydrocarbon accumulations are discussed. The sedimentary basins of the Platform are described in terms of the Klemme basin classification system and the conditions controlling formation of natural bitumen. Estimates of in-place bitumen resources are reviewed and evaluated. If the bitumen volume estimate is confined to parts of identified deposits where field observations have verified rock and bitumen grades values, the bitumen resource amounts to about 62 billion barrels of oil in-place. However, estimates of an order of magnitude larger can be obtained if additional speculative and unverified rock volumes and grade measures are included.

  18. Waste reduction algorithm used as the case study of simulated bitumen production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste reduction algorithm - WAR is a tool helping process engineers for environmental impact assessment. WAR algorithm is a methodology for determining the potential environmental impact (PEI of a chemical process. In particular, the bitumen production process was analyzed following three stages: a atmospheric distillation unit, b vacuum distillation unit, and c bitumen production unit. Study was developed for the middle sized oil refinery with capacity of 5000000 tones of crude oil per year. Results highlight the most vulnerable aspects of the environmental pollution that arise during the manufacturing process of bitumen. The overall rates of PEI leaving the system (PEI/h - Iout PEI/h are: a 2.14105, b 7.17104 and c 2.36103, respectively. The overall rates of PEI generated within the system - Igen PEI/h are: a 7.75104, b -4.31104 and c -4.32102, respectively. Atmospheric distillation unit have the highest overall rate of PEI while the bitumen production unit have the lowest overall rate of PEI. Comparison of Iout PEI/h and Igen PEI/h values for the atmospheric distillation unit, shows that the overall rate of PEI generated in the system is 36.21% of the overall rate of PEI leaving the system. In the cases of vacuum distillation and bitumen production units, the overall rate of PEI generated in system have negative values, i.e. the overall rate of PEI leaving the system is reduced at 60.11% (in the vacuum distillation unit and at 18.30% (in the bitumen production unit. Analysis of the obtained results for the overall rate of PEI, expressed by weight of the product, confirms conclusions.

  19. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  20. CNOOC Builds Bitumen Plant in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ In the petrochemical sector, CNOOC is building a 300,000 tonsper-year bitumen plant in western China, marking its first such investment in the remote but fast developing region, the company said on December 3. CNOOC, which produces 20 per cent of China's domestic bitumen output, will own 88 per cent of the US$36 million project in Sichuan Province and two local firms will own the remaining 12 per cent. Bitumen, or asphalt, production is scheduled to begin by the end of June 2004.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED BITUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erofeev Vladimir Trofimovich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available At the present time the most widely used type of road pavement is asphalt-concrete pavement produced on the basis of oil bitumen. One of the efficient ways to increase the quality and durability of asphalt-concrete pavement is modification of bitumen. Though Russian specialists still don’t have the global view of the ideal and real asphalt cement, the requirements to its quality and durability indicators in the composition of road structure haven’t yet formed. The authors present the investigation results of the properties of oil asphalt cement containing 0.5-2.0% of modifier “Olazol”. The physical, mechanical and rheological properties of the modified bitumen are determined. The dependences of the dynamic viscosity of the modified bitumen from the quantity of introduced modifier, shear rate and reheat temperature are analyzed.

  2. Modular mobility investigation of polymer binder bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayupov, D.; Makarov, D.; Murafa, A.; Khozin, V.; Khakimullin, Y.; Sundukov, V.; Khakimov, A.; Gizatullin, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is aimed to obtain polymer binder bitumen for the road applications with improved properties. Objectives included studying the degradation of crumb rubber during devulcanization in melted petroleum bitumen for its modification and resulted structural properties of bitumen. Using equilibrium swelling technique reduced density of the polymer chains was observed and analysis of sol-gel fractions showed a significant decrease in gel fraction. Under selected method of devulcanization 64% of the backbone rubber remained. With The H1 NMR relaxation method the reduction of bitumen molecular mobility was observed due to thickening of its light fractions. The effectiveness of devulcanization was optimized using a new agent in a powder form and vacuum application. The developed binder has an improved spectrum of physical and technical properties such as softening point temperature, hardness, elasticity, frost resistance, low temperature characteristics.

  3. Effect of processing temperature on the bitumen/MDI-PEG reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Alfonso, M.J.; Partal, P.; Navarro, F.J.; Garcia-Morales, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de ' El Carmen' , Universidad de Huelva, 21071, Huelva (Spain); Bordado, J.C.M. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, IBB, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Diogo, A.C. [Materials Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    Reactive polymers are lately gaining acceptance to give added value to a residue of the crude oil refining process such as bitumen. The resulting material should display enhanced mechanical properties to be considered for advanced applications in construction. In the present paper, we report the effect of processing temperature on the reaction between bitumen compounds and an isocyanate-based reactive polymer, synthesized by reaction of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) with a low molecular weight polyethylene-glycol (PEG). Rheokinetics experiments, viscosity measurements at 60 C, atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization, thin layer chromatography (TLC-FID) analysis and thermogravimetric studies (TGA) were performed on the reactive polymer and on samples of MDI-PEG modified bitumen containing 2 wt.% of the polymer. Results showed the existence of an optimum processing temperature arisen as a consequence of opposite effects: microstructural availability for the formation of a polymer-bitumen network, reaction ability and polymer thermal degradation. Consequently, this study aims to serve as a guideline for the refining and asphalt industries facing the stage of selecting the optimum processing parameters. (author)

  4. A New Approach for Evaluating Rejuvenator Diffusing into Aged Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Dongliang; FENG Zhengang; YU Jianying; CHEN Xing; ZHOU Bo

    2011-01-01

    Rejuvenator diffusing into aged bitumen was evaluated by determining penetration and chemical components of aged bitumen with rejuvenator coat before and after diffusing experiment.Effects of temperature, time and viscosity of rejuvenator on the diffusing ability of rejuvenator into aged bitumen were investigated. Results indicated that the diffusing ability of rejuvenator into aged bitumen could be enhanced with the increasing of temperature and time, however, the diffusing of rejuvenator into aged bitumen would be restricted due to the volatilization of light component and aging of rejuvenator under high temperature (over 170 ℃). Rejuvenator with low viscosity diffused into aged bitumen more easily.

  5. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  6. Orinoco bitumen in water emulsion (Orimulsion): untapping an unlimited premium fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, D.R.; Euler Jimenez G.; Javier Izaguirre M.; Jose Salazar P.; Carrizo, R.; Alcantara, J.

    1987-01-01

    Venezuela has extensive recoverable reserves of extra heavy crudes and natural bitumens located in the Orinoco Oil Belt. INTEVEP, S.A. and LAGOVEN, S.A. have developed the Orinoco bitumen in water emulsion (ORIMULSION) for the production, handling and transportation of those hydrocarbons. This emulsion is considered a premium fuel due to its performance in conventional liquid firing systems. Pilot scale combustion tests, conducted during 1986, at INTEVEP Combustion Research Facility (ICRF) and Nagasaki Technical Institute (NTI-Mitsubishi Heavy Industries), Japan, have demonstrated the technical feasibility of burning this natural fuel steam-assisted, obtaining high combustion efficiency values (99.90%), which resemble those of a No.6 fuel-oil. This allows forecasting a promising future for ORIMULSION as a new fuel for thermal power stations.

  7. RADIATION CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF OIL DERIVED FROM OIL-BITUMEN ROCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Jabbarova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research in the radiation processing of synthetic oil derived from oil–bitumen rock of the Balakhany deposit in Azerbaijan are presented. The study has been conducted on a 60Co gamma-source at a dose rate of P = 0.5 Gy/s and various absorbed doses of D = 43–216 kGy. Samples of synthetic oil from natural bitumen rocks have been analyzed by chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and IR-spectroscopy, and their radiation resistance has been evaluated. The results of the study allow for both assessment of the feasibility of manufacturing petrochemicals for various applications by radiation processing and use of these materials for isolating radioactive sources to preclude their impact on the environment.

  8. Microstructure and Properties of Desulfurized Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The microstructures of general crumb rubber(CR), dynamic desulfurized crumb rubber(DDCR) and high speed agitation desulfurized crumb rubber(HSADCR) modified bitumens were investigated by a fluorescence microscope, and the physical properties of these three modified bitumens were studied.The results show that the dynamic desulfuration can improve the swelling capacity of crumb rubber in bitumen by destroying the sulfuratized bond of the crumb rubber,but the reunion of rubber particles during dynamic desulfuration also makes the swelling and the DDCR in bitumen difficult, so properties of the DDCR modified bitumen are not superior to the general crumb rubber modified bitumen.However,high speed agitation desulfuration can not only improve the swelling capacity of crumb rubber in bitumen,but also avoid the reunion of rubber particles,so some properties of bitumen can be improved by the modification of HSADCR.

  9. Cooee bitumen. II. Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.;

    2014-01-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen. Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen...

  10. [Use of bitumen in medicine throughout the ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourée, Patrice; Blanc-Valleron, Marie-Madeleine; Ensaf, Mansour; Ensaf, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Bitumen, which results of the storage of organic material and of the decomposition in process of time, was used since ancient times for cosmetic, art and the caulk of boats. So, mummies were treated by bitumen to improve their preservation. But bitumen was held to be useful to cure varying pulmonary, digestive, ENT troubles and even to set fractures. Besides, bitumen was used to realize the first photograph. In Iran, bitumen is yet used to improve the quality of the skin, but mixed with to limit its toxicity.

  11. Bitumen recovery from surface mined oil sands recycle water ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikula, R.J.; Munoz, V.A.; Elliott, G. L. [Natural Resources Canada, CanmetENERGY, Devon, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In surface mined oil sands, high bitumen recovery can be achieved but tailings have accumulated over the years. Several technologies have been proposed for recovering bitumen from tailings, but because this bitumen carries high surfactant concentrations there have been processing problems. This paper presents the application of oxidized ore characterization and processing methods to process tailings pond bitumen. Laboratory tests were carried out to characterize bitumen samples coming from four different tailings sources and tests were run with caustic additive. Results showed that high caustic additions can be applied to surfactant rich tailings pond bitumen to avoid downstream froth treatment emulsion problems; the oxidation degree should be carefully monitored. This study demonstrated that the use of caustic additive, already used for oxidized ores, can be applied to treat the bitumen recovered from tailings streams.

  12. Interaction forces in bitumen extraction from oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob

    2005-07-15

    Water-based extraction process (WBEP) has been successfully applied to bitumen recovery from Athabasca oil sand ore deposits in Alberta. In this process, two essential steps are involved. The bitumen first needs to be "liberated" from sand grains, followed by "aeration" with air bubbles. Bitumen "liberation" from the sand grains is controlled by the interaction between the bitumen and sand grains. Bitumen "aeration" is dependent, among other mechanical and hydrodynamic variables, on the hydrophobicity of the bitumen surface, which is controlled by water chemistry and interactions between bitumen and fine solids. In this paper, the interaction force measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM) between bitumen-bitumen, bitumen-silica, bitumen-clays and bitumen-fines is summarized. The measured interaction force barrier coupled with the contacted adhesion force allows us to predict the coagulative state of colloidal systems. Zeta potential distribution measurements, in terms of heterocoagulation, confirmed the prediction of the measured force profiles using AFM. The results show that solution pH and calcium addition can significantly affect the colloidal interactions of various components in oil sand extraction systems. The strong attachment of fines from a poor processing ore on bitumen is responsible for the corresponding low bitumen flotation recovery. The identification of the dominant non-contact forces by fitting with the classical DLVO or extended DLVO theory provides guidance for controlling the interaction behavior of the oil sand components through monitoring the factors that could affect the non-contact forces. The findings provide insights into megascale industrial operations of oil sand extraction.

  13. Gaps in scientific knowledge about the carcinogenic potential of asphalt/bitumen fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Despite a relatively large body of published research, the potential carcinogenicity of asphalt/bitumen fumes is still a vexing question. Various uncertainties and gaps in scientific knowledge need to be addressed. These include uncertainties in chemistry, animal studies, and human studies. The chemistry of asphalt/bitumen fumes is complex and varies according to the source of the crude oil and the application parameters. The epidemiological studies, while showing weak evidence of lung cancer, are inconsistent and many confounding factors have not been addressed. Studies of animal exposure are also inconsistent regarding laboratory and field-generated fumes. There is a need for further human studies that address potential confounding factors such as smoking, diet, coal tar, and diesel exposures. Animal inhalation studies need to be conducted with asphalt/bitumen fumes that are chemically representative of roofing and paving fumes. Underlying all of this is the need for continued characterization of fumes so their use in animal and field studies can be properly assessed. Nonetheless, uncertainties such as these should not preclude appropriate public health actions to protect workers in the even that asphalt fumes are found to be a carcinogenic hazard.

  14. Origin of Unliberated Bitumen in Athabasca Oil Sands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TuYun; J.B.O'Carroll; B.D.Sparks; L.S.Kotlyar; S.Ng; K.H.Chung; G.Cuddy

    2005-01-01

    Oil sands contain a so-called organic rich solids component (ORS), i.e., solids whose surfaces are strongly associated with toluene insoluble organic matter (TIOM). Typically, humic material is the major component of TIOM.It provides sites for adsorption and chemical fixation of bitumen. This bound bitumen is """"""""unliberated"""""""", and considerable mechanical or chemical energy may be required to release it. In order to establish a correlation between bitumen recovery and ORS content, a few selected oil sands were processed in a Batch Extraction Unit (BEU).Analysis of the middlings and coarse tailings streams from these tests indicated a relatively constant bitumen to ORS ratio of 2.8±0.7. This value allows the liberated-unliberated bitumen balance (LUBB) to be calculated for any given oil sands. The amounts of bitumen recovered as primary froth during the BEU experiments are close to the estimated liberated bitumen contents in each case tested. This observation indicates that the liberated-unliberated bitumen calculation is an important quantitative parameter for prediction of bitumen recovery under specific recovery conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the ORS content of an oil sands may be estimated from the carbon content of bitumen free oil sands solids.

  15. The production of stable bitumen-polymer blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, J.; Sokic, M. (Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Univ. Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Smiljanic, M.; Pab, I. (Highway Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Neumann, H.J.; Rahimian, I. (German Inst. for Petroleum Research, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    If either blown bitumen or bitumens of inadequate origin and type are used for the production of bitumen-polymer blends containing SBS- and/or SBR-elastomers, it is often not possible to obtain stable homogeneous bitumen-polymer blends. In that case pretreatment of the elastomer component is necessary. The production of stable bitumen-polymer blends from SBS- and SBR-elastomers and blown bitumens from Yugoslav refineries in Novi Sad and Pancevo were studied in this paper. Pretreatment of the elastomer components was performed with a residue of the distillation of fatty acids and/or with pyrolysis oil from a naphtha steam pyrolysis unit. Infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the kinetics of the dissolution of the elastomers in the bitumen. The rate of dissolution of SBR-elastomer was practically independent of the bitumen type. In the case of SBS-elastomer, however, the kinetics of the dissolving process was strongly influenced by the bitumen type. The origin of bitumen influenced the dissolution kinetics too. (orig.).

  16. Use of Bitumen Emulsion for Flexible Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Singh Dhriyan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study bitumen is replaced by bitumen emulsion for the construction of flexible pavement. The conventional method of road construction involves the burning of bitumen which produces toxic gases which degrades the environment. In colder region it is difficult to maintain the paving temperature of hot mix. To overcome these problems and conserve the energy bitumen emulsion is considered as good option. Likewise emulsion can be used in the areas having higher rate of rainfall where the hot mix plant is closed most of the time because of rain. Emulsified bitumen can be used during rainy season and colder regions. To study the suitability of emulsion Marshal Test is carried out to find the stability value, flow value and optimum binder content. Experiments performed shows that bitumen emulsion (Cold Mix have high stability value therefore it can be used as binder.

  17. Investigation of rheological properties of TPS modified bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全涛; 吴少鹏; 刘聪慧; 王金刚

    2008-01-01

    Rheological properties of the virgin bitumen and TPS modified bitumen binders with several percentages of TPS additives were studied.All TPS modified bituminous binders were prepared on a laboratory scale.Dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) strain sweep test was made to measure the linear viscoelasticity areas of various bitumen binders at -20-70 ℃,then temperature sweep test and frequency sweep test were made in the linear viscoelasticity areas.Complex modulus master curves were drawn to analyze and compare various bitumen binders’ rheological properties.Based on the test results,the ideal percentage of TPS additive was brought forward.The results show that TPS modified bitumen binders have more excellent properties at high,medium and low temperatures compared with original bitumen.The dosages of TPS additive are vital to their properties.

  18. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  19. Effect of base bitumen composition on asphalt rubber binder properties

    OpenAIRE

    Partl, M.N.; Ould-Henia, M.; Dumont, A.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt rubber blend properties are strongly related to its base components properties. The base bitumen composition is considered as a key factor influencing the final rheological properties of asphalt rubber binder. This paper describes results from a laboratory investigation of the interaction between crumb rubber and different composition bitumen according to the wet process. The bitumen composition is determined according to the SARA decomposition approac...

  20. Mutagenicity of bitumen and asphalt fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, P R; Väänänen, V; Hämeilä, M; Linnainmaa, K

    2003-08-01

    The mutagenicity of asphalt fumes was tested with the Salmonella bioassays. The aim was to investigate if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of emissions. Recycling of old asphalt is increasing, and we studied also the mutagenicity of emissions sampled during the re-use of asphalt. The composition of vapours and fumes were analysed by gas chromatography and by liquid chromatography. Bitumens containing coal fly ash (CFA) or waste plastics were heated to the paving temperatures in the laboratory. In the field, bitumen fumes were collected during paving of stone mastic asphalts (lime or CFA as a filler), remixing of stone mastic asphalt (lime or CFA as a filler), and of asphalt concrete. All the lab-generated vapour fractions were non-mutagenic. The particulate fractions were mutagenic with TA98 in the presence of the S9 activation. In addition, the lab-fumes from bitumen containing waste plastics were positive with both strains without S9. Only particulate fractions sampled in the field were tested. They were mutagenic with and without metabolic activation with both strains. The mutagenic potency of the field samples was higher than that of the lab-generated fumes without S9, and the remixing fumes were more mutagenic than the normal paving and lab-generated fumes with S9. The use of inorganic additive, CFA, did not change the mutagenicity of the fumes, whereas the organic additive, waste plastics, increased the mutagenicity of the laboratory emissions significantly.

  1. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Investigations of Physical and Rheological Properties of Aged Rubberised Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Hassan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several road pavement distresses are related to rheological bitumen properties. Rutting and fatigue cracking are the major distresses that lead to permanent failures in pavement construction. Influence of crumb rubber modifier (CRM on rheological properties of bitumen binder such as improvement of high and intermediate temperatures is investigated in the binder’s fatigue and rutting resistance through physical-rheological changes in this research. The bitumen binders were aged by rolling thin film oven (RTFOT to simulate short-term aging and pressure aging vessel (PAV to simulate long-term aging. The effects of aging on the rheological and physical properties of bitumen binders were studied conducting dynamic shear rheometer test (DSR, Brookfield viscometer test, softening point test, and penetration test. The results showed that the use of rubberised bitumen binder reduces the aging effect on physical and rheological properties of the bitumen binder as illustrated through lower aging index of viscosity, lower aging index of , and an increase in with crumb rubber modifier content increasing, indicating that the crumb rubber might improve the aging resistance of rubberised bitumen binder. In addition, the results showed that the softening point increment ( and penetration aging ratio (PAR of the rubberised bitumen binder decreased significantly due to crumb rubber modification. Furthermore, the higher crumb rubber content, the lower after PAV aging, which led to higher resistance to fatigue cracking bitumen.

  3. The comparative study of solvents to expedite removal of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuchi, Manabu; Sugiyama, Masahide; Oyatsu, Yasuyuki; Fukai, Takao

    2009-03-01

    Hot-bitumen burn is a unique case in all types of burns. This melting substance is difficult to remove when it adheres to the skin and solidifies. It causes burns and sticks to the skin when it is cooled to the skin temperature. Some reports are available on many kinds of solvents for the removal of solid bitumen. However, there have thus far been no comparative studies. It is necessary to seek for an optimum method to remove bitumen without consuming so much time and with minimum injury to the skin. The selected solvents in this study were petrolatum, olive oil, salad oil, butter, Neosporin ointment and De-solv-it. They were often reported as being effective for hot-bitumen burn injuries with little irritation for a damaged skin. It is easy to purchase them commercially. Each solvent was poured over the bitumen in a test tube. Afterwards, the concentrations of the bitumen in the solvents were quantified with the fluorescence measurement technique. We consider De-solv-it is the one of the best solvent for the removal of bitumen and highly recommended for hot-bitumen burns. The results of this study suggest that dressing change should be done every 4 to 8 h or as frequently as needed until the bitumen is entirely removed.

  4. High temperature corrosion control and monitoring for processing acidic crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, C. [Betz/GE Water and Process Technologies, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of processing heavy crudes and bitumen in a reliable and economical way was discussed. Many refiners use a conservative approach regarding the rate at which they use discounted crudes or depend upon capital-intensive upgrades to equipment. New strategies based on data-driven decisions are needed in order to obtain the greatest benefit from heavy feedstock. The feasibility of successfully processing more challenging feed can be estimated more accurately by better understanding the interactions between a particular feed and a particular crude unit. This presentation reviewed newly developed techniques that refiners can use to determine the feeds corrosion potential and the probability for this potential to manifest itself in a given crude unit. tabs., figs.

  5. Effect of different montmorillonites on rheological properties of bitumen/clay nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶园园; 余剑英; 李斌; 冯鹏程

    2008-01-01

    Different composites of organomodified montmorillonite(OMMT)/bitumen were prepared by melt blending with hexadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium modified montmorillonite(HBM) and double octadecyl dimethyl ammonium modified montmorillonite(DOM).The structures of two kinds of montmorillonite modified bitumen were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD).The effects of different montmorillonites on the dynamic rheological properties of the modified bitumens were investigated by dynamic shear rheometer(DSR).The XRD results show that DOM modified bitumen forms an intercalated structure,whereas the HBM modified bitumen forms an exfoliated structure.DSR results indicate that OMMT modified bitumens exhibit higher complex modulus,lower phase angle than pristine bitumen,which means that the resistance to rutting at high temperatures of pristine bitumen is improved due to the introduction of OMMT.Compared with DOM modified bitumen,HBM modified bitumen shows better rutting resistance,which is contributed to the formation of exfoliated structure in HBM modified bitumen.

  6. Aqueous leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from bitumen and asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, H C; de Groot, P C

    2001-12-01

    The application of bitumen in, e.g. asphalt roads, roofs and hydraulic applications will lead to the leaching of compounds from the bitumen/asphalt into the environment. Because polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in bitumen, static and dynamic leach tests have been performed to study the leaching behaviour of this class of compounds. Nine petroleum bitumens covering a representative range of commercially available products and one asphalt made from one of the bitumens have been tested in a static leach test. The asphalt has been also subjected to a dynamic leach test. The main conclusions are that a 30h dynamic leach test is sufficient to determine the equilibrium concentration that will be reached after bitumen or asphalt has been in contact with the water for more than 3-6 days. As an alternative to performing a leach test, this concentration can be calculated from the PAH concentrations in the bitumen, and their distribution coefficients, as calculated here, or from their aqueous solubilities. The equilibrium PAH concentrations in the leach water from bitumens stay well below the surface water limits that exist in several EEC-countries and are also more than an order of magnitude lower than the current EEC limits for potable water.

  7. Vergelijkend AFM Onderzoek: microstructuur van bitumen in relatie tot healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmets, A.J.M.; Nahar, S.N.; Dillingh, B.; Fischer, H.; Scarpas, A.; Erkens, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present the background, the scientific and experimental approach and the results of AFM experiments performed on two different batches of bitumen. The specific bitumen researched in this project has also been studied in the context of the InfraQuest project ‘Pragmatisch Healing On

  8. Developments in the uses of foamed bitumen in road pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, K.J.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; De Groot, J.L.A.; Van de Ven, M.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    Following the lapse in patent rights on foam-producing nozzles, the use of foamed bitumen for the improvement of road construction materials has become more accessible and as a result, it's use increased considerably in the 1990's. In addition, the applications of foamed bitumen process have diversi

  9. Kinetics of hydrolysis of emulsified salts in Canadian bitumens and inhibition of hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Kaur, H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Eaton, P.E. [Champion Technologies, Fresno, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of desalting heavy oils and diluted bitumens was discussed. Chloride is released from the salts when crude oil is heated by steam, resulting in corrosion and fouling of refinery equipment. Several physical and chemical factors are responsible for the rate of reaction of the salts and the rate of release of the chloride. These factors include the concentration of mineral solids, naphthenic acids, and the size and composition of the salt crystals. This study investigated the hydrolysis of chloride salts to better understand the factors causing the release of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in refinery units. A model was used in which heavy crude oil blends were in contact with flowing steam at 100 to 350 degrees C. The study showed that the decomposition of brine salts depended greatly on the components of the crude oil medium. Pure CaCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O was very reactive in actual crudes because of the presence of naphthenic acids. It was concluded that inhibitor formulations based on alkaline earth elements may provide protection for refinery equipment since they successfully reduce the extent and rate of hydrolysis. tabs., figs.

  10. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  11. The problem of the compatibility of bitumen sheets for the reconstruction and ehabilitation of roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plachý Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the renovation of flat roofs, the waterproofing layer is often repaired locally rather than completely replaced. When making such repairs, it is very important to know whether the proposed bitumen sheets are compatible in order to prevent delamination and the release of the joints. This paper deals with the determination of the resistance of bitumen sheet joints against peeling when combined with different bitumen materials. On the basis of the described test methodology it was possible to determine whether the selected bitumen materials were compatible with bitumen sheets. As part of the experiments, modified bitumen sheets with plastomers (PO, oxidized bitumen (OX, and elastomers (SBS, were tested.

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    Accomplishments are briefly described for the following tasks: environmental impact statement; coupled fluidized bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost examination study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; determine thickener requirements; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  13. Flume tank studies to elucidate the fate and behavior of diluted bitumen spilled at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Thomas L; Robinson, Brian; Boufadel, Michel; Lee, Kenneth

    2014-06-15

    An economical alternative to conventional crudes, Canadian bitumen, harvested as a semi-liquid, is diluted with condensate to make it viable to transport by pipeline to coastal areas where it would be shipped by tankers to global markets. Not much is known about the fate of diluted bitumen (dilbit) when spilled at sea. For this purpose, we conducted dilbit (Access Western Blend; AWB and Cold Lake Blend; CLB) weathering studies for 13 days in a flume tank containing seawater. After six days of weathering, droplets detached from the AWB slick and were dense enough to sink in seawater. The density of CLB also increased, but at a slower rate compared to AWB, which was attributed to the high concentration of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in it, which are more resistant to weathering. An empirical, Monod-type model was introduced and was found to closely simulate the increase in oil density with time. Such a model could be used within oil spill models.

  14. Electroarc vapourtron for bitumen extraction and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganieva, G. R.; Timerkaev, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we propose the unique submersible arc vapourtron designed to generate very large amount of highly overheated water vapour. The most prospective application of such vapourtron is producing and processing of heavy oil and natural bitumen. The vapourtron represents an electroarc plasmatron using water or water vapour as a working media. Firstly arriving from an external source water enters the cooling jackets of the cathode and the cylindrical anode, where it is preheated to high temperatures. In extreme cases. Water can be heated till the boiling point. Then, this water is supplied to the plasmatron where it is sprayed as the media for the plasma generation. A special twist of the water flow protects the anode walls from overheating.

  15. Rheological characteristics of polymer modified and aged bitumens

    OpenAIRE

    Airey, Gordon Dan

    1997-01-01

    The demands on asphalt pavements, as a result of the growth in traffic volumes, traffic loads and tyre contact pressures, has resulted in an increased interest in the use of modified bitumens, particularly over the last ten years. Of the various types of modified and specialised binders that are available worldwide, polymer modified bitumens (PMB’s) have tended to be the most popular. Polymer modification significantly alters the rheological characteristics of the binder, thereby requiring th...

  16. Modelling viscosity and mass fraction of bitumen - diluent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miadonye, A.; Latour, N.; Puttagunta, V.R. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    In recovery of bitumen in oil sands extraction, the reduction of the viscosity is important above and below ground. The addition of liquid diluent breaks down or weakens the intermolecular forces that create a high viscosity in bitumen. The addition of even 5% of diluent can cause a viscosity reduction in excess of 8%, thus facilitating the in situ recovery and pipeline transportation of bitumen. Knowledge of bitumen - diluent viscosity is highly important because without it, determination of upgrading processes, in situ recovery, well simulation, heat transfer, fluid flow and a variety of other engineering problems would be difficult or impossible to solve. The development of a simple correlation to predict the viscosity of binary mixtures of bitumen - diluent in any proportion is described. The developed correlation used to estimate the viscosities and mass fractions of bitumen - diluent mixtures was within acceptable limits of error. For the prediction of mixture viscosities, the developed correlation gave the best results with an overall average absolute deviation of 12% compared to those of Chironis (17%) and Cragoe (23%). Predictions of diluent mass fractions yielded a much better result with an overall average absolute deviation of 5%. The unique features of the correlation include its computational simplicity, its applicability to mixtures at temperatures other than 30 degrees C, and the fact that only the bitumen and diluent viscosities are needed to make predictions. It is the only correlation capable of predicting viscosities of mixtures, as well as diluent mass fractions required to reduce bitumen viscosity to pumping viscosities. The prediction of viscosities at 25, 60.3, and 82.6 degrees C produced excellent results, particularly at high temperatures with an average absolute deviation of below 10%. 11 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. ELASTICITY OF BITUMEN BINDERS AND THE FACTORS CAUSING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of the initial bitumen penetration grade and different con-centrations of the mineral filler on the elasticity of the polymer-modified bitumen (PMB with 3 and 6 % of SBS type polymer. The dependences of elasticity of the PMB on the test conditions – such as the temperature and the stress state level are shown additionally.

  18. Investigation of the possibility of using waste cooking oil as a rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Majid; Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Asli, Hallizza; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2012-09-30

    The ageing of the bitumen during storage, mixing, transport and laying on the road, as well as in service life, are the most important problems presented by the use of bitumen in pavements. This paper investigates the possibility of using waste cooking oil (WCO), which is a waste material that pollutes landfills and rivers, as an alternative natural rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen to a condition that resembles the original bitumen. With this target, the physical and chemical properties of the original bitumen, aged bitumen and rejuvenated bitumen were measured and compared by the bitumen binder tests - softening point, penetration, Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the behaviour of the WCO rejuvenated bitumen is investigated and compared with virgin bitumen after using the rolling thin film oven ageing process. In general, the results showed that using 3-4% of WCO the aged bitumen group 40/50 was rejuvenated to a condition that closely resembled the physical, rheological properties of the original bitumen (80/100), however, there was a difference in the tendency to ageing between the WCO rejuvenated bitumen and the virgin bitumen during mixing, transport and laying on the road.

  19. Biotechnological methods for upgrading of bitumen, heavy oil, and residue. Final report for phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, G.; Rioux, S.; Scharer, J.M.; Moo-Young, M.

    1989-01-01

    Research was conducted on establishing the most suitable organisms and growth conditions for microbially upgrading Lloydminster crude. A series of comparative experiments were performed, using a variety of bacterial species and growth conditions for both Lloydminster crude and a synthetic analogue. These early experiments indicated a superiority of one organism, Arthrobacter paraffineus, in viscosity and interfacial surface tension reduction and for sulfur removal. Optimum growth conditions and medium compositions were determined. In a series of studies aimed at optimizing the performance of Arthrobacter paraffineus in a continuously stirred tank reactor, various combinations of media, aeration, and growth conditions were investigated using Lloydminster crude as a substrate. It was found that 12% of the organic sulfur could be removed during a six-day incubation period under aerobic conditions. Sulfur removal was dependent on growth conditions. Comparative studies under anaerobic conditions were performed with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Anoxic conditions were maintained by sparging the continuous stirred reactor with nitrogen. The sulfur removal ranged from 10.7% in synthetic media to 0.17% sulfur from crude oil. The low sulfur removal from crude oil was attributed to growth-inhibitory compounds in the crude. These preliminary results indicate that limited sulfur removal from crude oil is possible using monocultures of Arthrobacter paraffineus or Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. A concurrent beneficial effect is a reduction of viscosity (by biosurfactants) and surface tension obtainable under these conditions. 8 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Storage stability of SBS/sulfur modified bitumens at high temperature: influence of bitumen composition and structure

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre de Carcer, I.; Masegosa Fanego, Rosa María; Viñas Sánchez, María Teresa; Sanchez-Cabezudo Tirado, Marta; Salom Coll, Catalina; González Prolongo, Margarita; Contreras, Verónica; Barceló, Francisco; Páez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Polymer modified bitumens, PMBs, are usually prepared at high temperature and subsequently stored for a period of time, also at high temperature. The stability of PMBs, in these conditions, has a decisive influence in order to obtain the adequate performances for practical applications. In this article the attention is focused in the analysis of the factors that determine the stability of styrene–butadiene–styrene copolymer (SBS)/sulfur modified bitumens when the mixtures are maintained at hi...

  1. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  2. Geochemical features and genesis of the natural gas and bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs of Nanpanjiang Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MengJun; ZHANG ShuiChang; ZHAO Lin; DA Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Bitumen from the Nanpanjiang Basin occurs mainly in the Middle Devonian and Upper Permian reef limestone paleo-oil reservoirs and reserves primarily in holes and fractures and secondarily in minor matrix pores and bio-cavities. N2 is the main component of the natural gas and is often associated with pyrobitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs. The present study shows that the bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs was sourced from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock and belongs to pyrobitumen by crude oil cracking under high temperature and pressure. But the natural gas with high content of N2 is neither an oil-cracked gas nor a coal-formed gas generated from the Upper Permian Longtan Formation source rock, instead it is a kerogen-cracked gas generated at the late stage from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock. The crude oil in paleo-oil reservoirs completely cracked into pyrobitumen and methane gas by the agency of hugely thick Triassic deposits. After that, the abnormal high pressure of methane gas reservoirs was completely destroyed due to the erosion of 2000-4500-m-thick Triassic strata. But the kerogen-cracked gas with normal pressure was preserved under the relatively sealed condition and became the main body of the gas shows.

  3. Geochemical features and genesis of the natural gas and bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs of Nanpanjiang Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bitumen from the Nanpanjiang Basin occurs mainly in the Middle Devonian and Upper Permian reef limestone paleo-oil reservoirs and reserves primarily in holes and fractures and secondarily in minor matrix pores and bio-cavities. N2 is the main component of the natural gas and is often associated with pyrobitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs. The present study shows that the bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs was sourced from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock and belongs to pyrobitumen by crude oil cracking under high temperature and pressure. But the natural gas with high content of N2 is neither an oil-cracked gas nor a coal-formed gas generated from the Upper Permian Longtan Formation source rock, instead it is a kerogen-cracked gas generated at the late stage from the Middle Devonian argilla- ceous source rock. The crude oil in paleo-oil reservoirs completely cracked into pyrobitumen and methane gas by the agency of hugely thick Triassic deposits. After that, the abnormal high pressure of methane gas reservoirs was completely destroyed due to the erosion of 2000--4500-m-thick Triassic strata. But the kerogen-cracked gas with normal pressure was preserved under the relatively sealed condition and became the main body of the gas shows.

  4. Cohesion in crumb rubber modified bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páez Dueñas, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study of crumb rubber-mediated improvement in bitumen cohesion, analyzed with the UCL method. UCL, a procedure developed to characterize bituminous binders, evaluates the cohesion obtained by adding a certain amount of bitumen or bituminous mastic to a standard mix aggregate. This method was chosen because it can be used to assess bitumen containing crumb rubber added by either the wet or the dry mix process. In the dry mix process crumb rubber is combined with the mix as if it were a fine aggregate; i.e., crumb rubber and binder are blended during mix manufacture, laying and compaction. In the wet mix process, the binder is blended with the crumb rubber prior to mixing with the aggregate; i.e., when added to the mix, it has already been modified. The effect of digesting this dry mixed material prior to use was also analyzed in the present study. A comparison of the dry (with and without digestion and wet mix processes showed the latter to be more effective, particularly when the crumb rubber was blended with the binder via microscopic dispersion.El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar la influencia del polvo de neumático en la mejora de la cohesión proporcionada por la adición del polvo de neumático al betún mediante el método UCL. El método UCL es un procedimiento desarrollado para caracterizar ligantes bituminosos, basado en la evaluación de la cohesión dada por una cantidad determinada de un betún o un mástico bituminoso a unos áridos de granulometría establecida (mezcla patrón. Se ha empleado este método porque permite valorar al mismo tiempo los dos procedimientos de incorporación del polvo de neumático al betún: vía seca y vía húmeda.El procedimiento seco se lleva a cabo añadiendo el polvo de neumático a la mezcla como si fuera un filler, de modo que el polvo de neumático y el ligante se mezclan durante la fabricación, extendido y compactación de la mezcla. En el procedimiento h

  5. Characterization of nickel and vanadium compounds in tar sand bitumen by petroporphyrin quantitation and size exclusion chromatography coupled with element specific detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Jones, E.L.; Bennett, J.A.; Biggs, W.R.

    1988-02-01

    Previously, we have examined the Ni and V in heavy crude oils, residua, and processed products by several metal speciation techniques to ascertain molecular structure and processing behavior. Two classes of metal compounds were found/--/metallopetroporphyrins and metallo-nonporphyrins/--/each having unique reactivity during processing. In efforts to better understand the binding of metals in the oil medium, we have now examined Ni and V in tar sand bitumens. The bitumen was solvent extracted from the sand matrix and was separated by column chromatography to quantitate petroporphyrin content. The petroporphyrin contents ranged from virtually none to over 36% of the total metals. Asphalt Ridge (Utah) has primarily Ni petroporphyrins; Big Clifty (Kentucky) and Athabasca (Canada) have primarily V petroporphyrins; Arroyo Grande and McKittrick (California) have roughly equal amounts of both types; and Sunnyside (Utah) has virtually none of either. Size characteristic profiles (SEC-HPLC-ICP) were generated for the extracted bitumens. The profiles are generally bimodal in shape and resemble several different specific heavy crude oils and residua. For examples, Arroyo Grande and McKittrick appear to be similar to Kern River (California) 650/degree/F+ residuum, while Athabasca resembles Morichal (Venezuela) 650/degree/F+ residuum. These results will be discussed in terms of generalized profile and petroporphyrin behavior. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. CO2驱油中沥青质沉积条件及对驱油效果影响的研究%The Study on Depositional Condition of Bitumen and Displacement Characteristics Effect of CO2 Flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明国; 赵宇

    2011-01-01

    Reservoir conditions in Yushulin Oil field, through PVT Parameters and CO2 flooding experiments is simulated. The depositional condition of bitumen after CO2 injection is studied and analyzd the displacement characteristics of CO2 flooding on the effect of bitumen deposition. The results show that: at the reservoir temperature (108℃), the bitumen deposition is appeared when the injection pressure reaches 28.4 MPa, with the temperature increases, the pressure of the formation of bitumen deposition and the degree of bitumen deposition increases; with the pressure of CO2 injection increase, the bitumen deposition increases, and the bitumen in the crude oil decreased, the content of colloid, aromatics, saturated hydrocarbon increased, after the pressure of CO2 injection reach 28 MPa, the content of bitumen deposition decreased, the bitumen content of recovery oil increased. Bitumen deposition reduce the recovery ratio of 12.29% and the recovery ratio decrease sharpest when the injection pressure of 25-28 MPa.%在模拟榆树林油田地层条件下,通过高压物性及CO2驱油实验,研究了注CO2后沥青质的沉积条件,并对沥青质沉积对CO2驱油效果的影响进行了分析.结果表明:在地层温度(108℃)下,注气压力达到28.4 MPa时可明显出现沥青质沉积.随着温度增加,形成沥青质沉积的压力增加,沥青质沉积的程度增加;随CO2注入压力的增加,沥青质沉积量增加,原油中的沥青质含量降低,胶质、芳烃、饱和烃含量增加;达到28 MPa后沥青质沉积量逐渐减少,采出油中沥青质含量增加.沥青质沉积使采收率降低12.29%以上,在(25-28) MPa时采收率降低幅度最大.

  7. Reducing CO2 emission from bitumen upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John

    2011-07-15

    The treatment of sand oil can result in significant CO2 emission. Ceramatec Inc. has developed a technology to reduce the emission of CO2 during the upgrading of feedstocks bearing heteroatoms. This technology can be applied to kerogen derived oil (shale oil) and heavy oil as well as to bitumen from oil sands. Metallic sodium is used as the reducing and heteroatom scavenging agent. Hydrogen, methane or other hydrocarbons may be used to cap radicals formed in the process. But using methane can lead to lower material and capital costs, greater product yield, and lower CO2 emission. During the upgrading process, the aromatic constituents remain in the product, after treatment with sodium and removal of sulphur, nitrogen and metals. Aromatic saturation is not required with sodium, so less hydrogen is needed which leads to reduced CO2 emission. The reason is that CO2 is emitted in the steam methane reforming (SMR) process where hydrogen is produced. An example is introduced to demonstrate the reduction of CO2 emission from hydrogen production. Another advantage of the sodium/methane upgrading process is the incorporation of methane into the fuel. In addition, the total acid number, TAN, becomes negligible in the sodium upgrading processes. Ceramatec has also developed a process for the recovery of sodium from the sodium salts generated in the sodium/methane upgrading process.

  8. Optical and UV-Aging Properties of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultraviolet-light (UV resistant material. In this study, LDHs were used to modify bitumen. The optical and UV aging properties of LDHs modified bitumen were investigated. Firstly, the thin films of bitumen, with and without LDHs, were prepared. By using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, absorbance, reflectance, and transmittance of bituminous thin film were evaluated. The morphology of LDHs-modified bitumen was observed by using fluorescence microscopy (FM. Finally, the aging resistance of LDH-modified bitumen was investigated by using the UV-aging oven. Results indicated that the LDHs, especially with 5 wt % in the bitumen, can effectively absorb and reflect the UV light and improve the UV-aging resistance of bitumen. This implied that the addition of LDHs into bitumen had the potential to prolong the service life of asphalt pavement.

  9. Effect of Layered Double Hydroxides on Ultraviolet Aging Resistance of SBS Modifi ed Bitumen Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Song; YU Jianying; XUE Lihui; SUN Yubin; XIE Dong

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs)/styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer modified bitumen was prepared by melt blending. The effect of LDHs on the ultraviolet (UV) aging behavior of SBS modifi ed bitumen was investigated. The changes of chemical structures of modifi ed bitumen before and after UV aging were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that LDHs obviously reduce the variation of softening point and low temperaturefl exibility of SBS modifi ed bitumen under different UV radiation intensities, which indicates that the UV aging resistance performance of SBS modifi ed bitumen is improved effectively by LDHs. Compared with SBS modifi ed bitumen, the changes of carbonyl, sulfoxide and butadienyl of LDHs/SBS modified bitumen decrease significantly after UV aging according to FTIR analysis, demonstrating that the oxidation and degradation reactions of SBS modifi ed bitumen were restrained effectively by adding LDHs.

  10. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and moisture resistance of oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; T N Ojha; R N Yadav

    2001-06-01

    Addition of bitumen emulsion to the matrix has been found to improve strength and soundness of the product while decreasing the initial setting periods. Thus, bitumen emulsion as an admixture in magnesia cement is a moisture proofing and strengthening material.

  11. SBS改性沥青路用性能试验研究%Experimental Research on Pavement Performance of SBS Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁永灿; 覃德伟

    2012-01-01

    在沥青混凝土路面建设过程中,由于基质沥青性能受原油属性制约,其技术性能不能满足交通增长的需要.寻找优异的改性材料和改性方法,是提高沥青路面综合性能的有效途径.本文通过对各种聚合物改性沥青性能的比较,从中选择出改性效果较优的SBS,并分析其用量对沥青的温度敏感性、高温特性、低温抗裂性、弹性及耐久性的影响,提出SBS的最佳用量建议值.%In the construction of bitumen concrete pavement, the bitumen performance is restricted by the attribute of crude petroleum and is unable to technically fulfill the needs of transportation development. To develop the adaptive and excellent modified materials and modified methods is the effective approach to improve the bitumen pavement. In the paper the SBS with better modification has been selected by comparing the performances of diverse polymer modified bitumen. The influence of SBS usage volume upon the temperature sensitivity, high-temperature characteristics, iow-temperatu.ee crack resistance, elasticity and durability of bitumen is also analyzed and the optimum SBS usage volume recommended.

  12. Air sampling and determination of vapours and aerosols of bitumen and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Human Bitumen Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Dietmar; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Höber, Dieter; Emmel, Christoph; Musanke, Uwe; Rühl, Reinhold; Spickenheuer, Anne; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Bramer, Rainer; Seidel, Albrecht; Schilling, Bernd; Heinze, Evelyn; Kendzia, Benjamin; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Welge, Peter; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2011-06-01

    The chemical complexity of emissions from bitumen applications is a challenge in the assessment of exposure. Personal sampling of vapours and aerosols of bitumen was organized in 320 bitumen-exposed workers and 69 non-exposed construction workers during 2001-2008. Area sampling was conducted at 44 construction sites. Area and personal sampling of vapours and aerosols of bitumen showed similar concentrations between 5 and 10 mg/m(3), while area sampling yielded higher concentrations above the former occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 10 mg/m(3). The median concentration of personal bitumen exposure was 3.46 mg/m(3) (inter-quartile range 1.80-5.90 mg/m(3)). Only few workers were exposed above the former OEL. The specificity of the method measuring C-H stretch vibration is limited. This accounts for a median background level of 0.20 mg/m³ in non-exposed workers which is likely due to ubiquitous aliphatic hydrocarbons. Further, area measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were taken at 25 construction sites. U.S. EPA PAHs were determined with GC/MS, with the result of a median concentration of 2.47 μg/m(3) at 15 mastic asphalt worksites associated with vapours and aerosols of bitumen, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.45 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.78). PAH exposure at mastic-asphalt works was higher than at reference worksites (median 0.21 μg/m(3)), but about one order of magnitude lower compared to coke-oven works. For a comparison of concentrations of vapours and aerosols of bitumen and PAHs in asphalt works, differences in sampling and analytical methods must to be taken into account.

  13. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. A.; Ikram, S.

    2016-01-01

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550–1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using 14C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644983

  14. Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gate, Laurent; Langlais, Cristina; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Nunge, Hervé; Bottin, Marie-Claire; Wrobel, Richard; Binet, Stéphane

    2006-08-15

    Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 degrees C) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure.

  15. Microscale investigation of thin film surface ageing of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P K; Kringos, N; Birgisson, B; Wallqvist, V

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the mechanism of bitumen surface ageing, which was validated utilizing the atomic force microscopy and the differential scanning calorimetry. To validate the surface ageing, three different types of bitumen with different natural wax content were conditioned in four different modes: both ultraviolet and air, only ultraviolet, only air and without any exposure, for 15 and 30 days. From the atomic force microscopy investigation after 15 and 30 days of conditioning period, it was found that regardless the bitumen type, the percentage of microstructure on the surface reduced with the degree of exposure and time. Comparing all the four different exposures, it was observed that ultraviolet radiation caused more surface ageing than the oxidation. It was also found that the combined effect was not simply a summation or multiplication of the individual effects. The differential scanning calorimetry investigation showed that the amount of crystalline fractions in bitumen remain constant even after the systematic conditioning. Interestingly, during the cooling cycle, crystallization of wax molecules started earlier for the exposed specimens than the without exposed one. The analysis of the obtained results indicated that the ageing created a thin film upon the exposed surface, which acts as a barrier and creates difficulty for the wax induced microstructures to float up at the surface. From the differential scanning calorimetry analysis, it can be concluded that the ageing product induced impurities in the bitumen matrix, which acts as a promoter in the crystallization process.

  16. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K A; Ikram, S; Evershed, R P

    2016-10-28

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550-1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using (14)C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  17. Studies Concerning Heat-Resisting Additives for Bitumens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Groll

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of causeway’s bitumen adhesiveness is becoming a current practice in our country, especially when is used acid (siliceous aggregate. One of the most important properties of bitumen is its adhesiveness to aggregate, and this property determine the using of bitumen in causeways area. Usually the adhesiveness is defined as the capacity of a binder to cover an aggregate without dispersing itself when touching the water or the traffic aggressions. Therefore, the adhesiveness additives are products that improve the adhesiveness of the bitumen to a certain aggregate. The used additives – ADETEN type (A01 and A03 have a high stocking stability, a low toxicity degree toward the amine, diamine, polyamine-based additives and are liquid products perfectly compatible with all bitumens and easy to use, in comparison to the paste or solid additives, which must be made liquid to be used. But a very important condition, which must be fulfilled by these promoters is the heat-resisting condition.

  18. Optical and UV-Aging Properties of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Liu; Shaopeng Wu; Gang Liu; Liping Li

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an ultraviolet-light (UV) resistant material. In this study, LDHs were used to modify bitumen. The optical and UV aging properties of LDHs modified bitumen were investigated. Firstly, the thin films of bitumen, with and without LDHs, were prepared. By using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, absorbance, reflectance, and transmittance of bituminous thin film were evaluated. The morphology of LDHs-modified bitumen was observed by using fluorescence microscopy (FM...

  19. Response of the microstructure of bitumen upon stress–damage initiation and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Dillingh, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of discrete cracking of bitumen and asphalt is difficult to observe/analyse mainly because of the viscous nature of the bitumen binder. Many techniques simply do not have the required resolution or analysis techniques do not get a good response from the highly dissipative bitumen. In

  20. Diesel and Jet Fuels from Bitumen-derived Middle Distillates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SokYui

    2004-01-01

    Narrow fractions of light gas oils obtained from various upgrading processes of Athabasca oilsands bitumen were investigated as diesel and jet fuels. The relationship among the boiling range, cetane number, smoke point, and other properties such as aromatics content, aniline point, and the sulfur and nitrogen content was also studied. The study reveals that when appropriate processes and distillation boiling ranges are selected, oilsands bitumen can produce diesel and jet fuels that meet stringent environmental regulations and future product specifications. New correlations to predict CN and smoke point were developed as a function of density, boiling ranges by simulated distillation, and mono- and total aromatics by supercriticaL fluid chromatography. The correlations apply to bitumen-derived middle distiLLates that have a wide range of boiling points.

  1. Cooee bitumen II: Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2014-01-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen.Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen, eventually leading to road deterioration. This paper focuses on understanding the mechanisms behind nanoaggregate size and stability. We used molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the probability of having a nanoaggregate of a given size in the stationary regime. To model this complicated behavior, we chose first to consider the simple case where only asphaltene molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate. We used a master equation approach and a related statistical mechanics model. The linear asphaltene nanoaggregates behave as a rigid linear chain. The most complicated case where all aromatic molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate is then discussed. The linear aggregates where all aromatic molecules are counted seem ...

  2. Solution gas flaring and venting at Alberta primary crude bitumen operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, C. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board is mandated by the Government of Alberta to ensure fair, responsible development and delivery of energy resources and utilities services in Alberta while maintaining the best public interest. One of the agencies' priorities is the reduction of solution gas flaring and venting. The performance of solution gas flaring and venting in Alberta and best practices respecting solution gas conservation are discussed. Data was presented on solution gas production, solution gas conserved, and solution gas conservation efficiency. The paper described best practices solutions such as increased gas to oil (GOR) test frequency; predetermination of economic gas conservation; collaboration with county gas utilities; and utilization of portable and scalable gas compression. The paper also presents a discussion of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA), a non-profit multistakeholder that recommended enhancements to Guide 60. Requirements discussed include the requirement to conserve solution gas at certain sites exceeding established flare and vent volumes, gas conservation prebuild requirements, and enhanced economic evaluation process. 5 figs.

  3. Investigation on the effects of gamma irradiation on bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, M.S.; Braz, D.; Motta, L.M.G., E-mail: Laura@coc.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Leite, L.F.M., E-mail: leniml@petrobras.com.br [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/RJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil has more than 218,000 km of asphalt-paved highways. Bitumen is a generic term for natural or manufactured black or dark-colored solid, semisolid, or viscous cementitious materials that are composed mainly of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (90-95%). Several papers have shown that the irradiation process has changed the mechanical behavior in some polymers. This work aims to analyze the behavior of Brazilian irradiated Bitumen (CAP 50-70). In order to provide a preliminary evaluation, bitumen samples and cylindrical specimens of asphaltic mixture were tested. The bitumen samples were irradiated 0.1 to 300 kGy, and asphaltic mixture specimen was irradiated 5 to 300 kGy. The cylindrical asphaltic mixture specimen of 10.16 cm diameter used in this study was molded using an asphalt-aggregate mixture. The specimens were irradiated in LIN/UFRJ/Brazil using a Gamma cell Co{sup 60} source of gamma irradiation with an applied dose rate of 29.7 Gy/min. After irradiated, the bitumen samples were subjected to penetration test and the asphaltic mixtures were subjected to indirect tensile strength test (diametral compression) for determination of the resilient modulus, according to ASTM method D 4123. The results of these experiments for each dose were compared with the control (nonirradiated). As expected, the penetration results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) decreases with increasing of irradiation dose for bitumen samples and the resilient modulus results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) increases with increasing of irradiation dose for asphaltic mixture. (author)

  4. In silico and in vitro physicochemical screening of Rigidoporus sp. crude laccase-assisted decolorization of synthetic dyes--approaches for a cost-effective enzyme-based remediation methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S; Chinnathambi, V; Arumugam, P; Suresh, P K

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare in silico data with wet lab physicochemical properties of crude laccase enzyme isolated from Rigidoporus sp. using wheat bran as solid substrate support towards dye decolorization. Molecular docking analysis of selected nine textile and non-textile dyes were performed using laccase from Rigidoporus lignosus as reference protein. Enzyme-based remediation methodology using crude enzyme enriched from solid state fermentation was applied to screen the effect of four influencing variables such as pH, temperature, dye concentration, and incubation time toward dye decolorization. The extracellular crude enzyme decolorized 69.8 % Acid Blue 113, 45.07 % Reactive Blue 19, 36.61 % Reactive Orange 122, 30.55 % Acid Red 88, 24.59 % Direct Blue 14, 18.48 % Reactive Black B, 16.49 % Reactive Blue RGB, and 11.66 % Acid Blue 9 at 100 mg/l dye concentration at their optimal pH at room temperature under static and dark conditions after 1 h of incubation without addition of any externally added mediators. Our wet lab studies approach, barring other factors, validate in silico for screening and ranking textile dyes based on their proximity to the T1 site. We are reporting for the first time a combinatorial approach involving in silico methods and wet lab-based crude laccase-mediated dye decolorization without any external mediators.

  5. Improvement of Life Expectancy of Jute Based Needlepunched Geotextiles Through Bitumen Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S. K.; Ray Gupta, K.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Sahu, R. B.; Mandol, S.

    2014-12-01

    Geotextiles have witnessed unrivalled growth worldwide in recent years in the field of different civil engineering constructions. The world of Geotextiles includes mainly non-biodegradable synthetic materials which are not environmentally compatible. With the increasing human awareness on environmental pollution aspects, biodegradable Jute Geotextile is increasingly gaining ground over its synthetic non-biodegradable counterpart. Though Jute is advantageous for its complete biodegradability in one hand but on the other hand it is disadvantageous for its poor microbial resistance and quicker biodegradation particularly under moist soil conditions, when applied as Geotextiles under soil. Therefore, it is a great challenge to the present researchers to make jute more microbial resistant (rot resistant) keeping its biodegradability intact during its performance period. Thorough investigation and study regarding the improvement of the durability of natural Jute Geotextile reveals the fact that though several attempts including chemical treatments have been made to enhance the life expectancy of jute fabrics yet these methods were neither found to be suitable nor techno-economically viable. Therefore, in order to accomplish the objective and based on the researchers' report of satisfactory thermal compatibility between hot bitumen and jute nonwoven fabrics, in the present study Bitumen emulsion with essential additives has been applied following a special technique, apart from the conventional method, on the Grey Jute Nonwoven Fabrics in different add on percentages to make a comparative assessment of the performance of both Grey Jute Fabrics and Bituminized Jute Nonwoven Fabrics by Soil Burial Test as per the BIS standard test method. The test results revealed that the durability and performance of the Bituminized Nonwoven Jute Fabrics are much better than that of Grey Jute Nonwoven Fabrics.

  6. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear...... rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates...

  7. Research on Viscoelasticity of Modiifed Bitumen Containing LDHs Anti-UV Aging Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xing; WU Shaopeng; LIU Gang; MA Shankui

    2015-01-01

    We applied LDHs to modify the bitumen by melt blending, and studied the viscoelasticity of LDHs modiifed bitumen by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR). The creep test was used to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior. The experimental results indicated that, due to the addition of the LDHs, the viscoelastic properties of modiifed bitumen were superior to those of pristine bitumen. Therefore, the LDHs would be an alternative to modiifers used in the bitumen to improve the UV-aging resistance during the service of asphalt pavement.

  8. Brewster angle microscopy of Langmuir films of athabasca bitumens, n-C5 asphaltenes, and SAGD bitumen during pressure-area hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Angle, Chandra W

    2013-01-08

    Bitumen films formed on water surfaces have negative consequences, both environmental and economic. CanmetENERGY has placed considerable research emphasis on understanding the structures of the bitumen films on water as a necessary step before optimization of bitumen extraction. The detailed structures of the adsorbed molecules and, especially, the role of asphaltene molecules at the interfaces are still under scrutiny and debate. In the present study, we compared bitumen and asphaltene films as they were compressed and expanded under various surface pressures in order to achieve a clearer understanding of bitumen film structures. We used a customized NIMA Langmuir trough interfaced to a Brewster angle microscope (BAM) and CCD camera (Nanofilm_ep3BAM, Accurion, previously Nanofilm Gmbh) to study images of bitumen films at the air/water interface. The bitumen film appeared uniform with high reflectivity at a surface pressure of 18 mN·m(-1) and exhibited a coarse pebblelike interface with reduced reflectivity in the liquid condensed (LC) phase at higher pressures (18-35 mN·m(-1)). During the first cycle of compression asphaltene films showed well-defined phase transitions and a uniformly smooth interface in the LC phase between 9 and 35 mN·m(-1). However, folding or buckling occurred at surface pressures from 35 to 44 mN·m(-1). On expansion, asphaltene films appeared to break into islands. The hysteresis of the pressure-area isotherm was much larger for asphaltenes than for bitumen. In both compression and expansion cycles, BAM images for bitumen films appeared to be more reproducible than those of the asphaltene films at the same surface pressures. Films for low-°API SAGD bitumen were almost identical to those for surface-mined bitumen. Films formed from partially deasphalted surface-mined bitumens showed higher compressibility and lower rigidity than the original bitumen. The BAM images illustrated significant differences between the partially deasphalted and

  9. Bitumen recovery from oil-sand extraction tailings: Part One: Bench-scale tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y. H.; Mikhail, M. W.; Salama, A. I. A. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology Western Research Centre, Devon, AB (Canada); Burns, B. [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Residual bitumen from extraction plant tailings were recovered in bench-scale tests using conventional froth flotation, flotation columns, air-sparged hydrocyclones, and various combinations of these techniques. A flowsheet combining the use of mechanically agitated flotation cells with a stationary separator was developed. Results indicate that this process is effective in recovering bitumen from tailings with low bitumen content. Investigation of the flotation kinetics in a batch flotation cell provided information on the relationship between retention and froth quality. The effect of operating parameters on bitumen flotation and the dispersion of bubbles and bitumen was also examined. Results suggests that properly increasing the turbulence energy level in flotation units will improve the recovery of bitumen by flotation. It is believed that that this is due to the interaction between bitumen droplets and bubbles and the increase in of liquid/air interfacial area. 3 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Ageing by UV radiation of an elastomer modified bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virginie Mouillet; Fabienne Farcas; Stanislas Besson [CETE Mediterranee Pole d' activite, Aix-en-Provence (France). Laboratoire Regional des Ponts et Chaussees d' Aix-en-Provence

    2008-09-15

    Laboratory methods to simulate the short- and long-term ageing occurring during the service life of pure and polymer modified bitumens in a pavement are standardized but none of them takes into account the influence of UV radiations. If the impact of thermal ageing on the degradation of SBS elastomers in bitumens has been extensively studied, there is not study dealing with the photo-oxidation of these copolymers in a bituminous matrix. So, the aim of our study was to investigate, by FTIR spectrometry and SEC chromatography, whether the architecture of elastomers (linear or radial) might have any influence on their ageing by UV radiation in a bituminous matrix. The results show that the elastomers oxidation kinetic, unlike the disappearance kinetic of trans-butadiene double bond, does not depend on their architecture. But, when putted into the same base bitumen, the two copolymers show exactly the same oxidation kinetic and the same decreasing kinetic of trans-butadiene double bond. So, this study has revealed that inside the bituminous matrix, on the one hand, the elastomers architecture does not influence on its degradation when submitted to UV radiation and, on the other hand, there is a 'protection' of the elastomers by the studied bitumen towards UV radiation. 46 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. The formation of explosive compounds in bitumen/nitrate mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada; Nur; Fujii

    1999-11-15

    Ignition of various bitumen/nitrate mixtures was examined using a new method of thermal analysis, developed in the present study, in order to determine the self-ignition temperatures (SIT) of the sample materials. The effects on the SIT of transition elements, particularly silver, and the heating rates were examined. The same bitumen/nitrate mixtures were prepared by mixing bitumen, NaNO(3), Ni(NO(3))(2) and either AgNO(3) or AgI. The sample heating rates were in the range from 0.5 to 4.0 degrees C/min. In the present work, SIT was found to be independent on the heating rate when AgI is added, while SIT was found to depend on the heating rate when AgNO(3) was added. The activation energy E(a) for the ignition of bitumen/nitrate mixtures has been calculated to be 30 kJ/mol. The suspected initiator of the ignition is thought to be silver fulminates or related compounds.

  12. Dynamics and structure of water-bitumen mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Greenfield, Michael L.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Systems of Cooee bitumen and water up to 4% mass are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The cohesive energy density of the system is shown to decrease with an increasing water content. This decrease is due mainly to an increase in the interaction energy which is not high enough to counter...

  13. Self-healing bitumen by microcapsules containing rejuvenator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, J.F.; Qiu, J.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Preservation and renovation bitumen of pavement is a big problem for the whole world. Traditionally, application rejuvenators is the only one method that can restore the original properties of the pavements. However, some puzzles still restrict its successful usage. Microencapsulation is a promising

  14. Synthesis and characterization of organic intercalated layered double hydroxides and their application in bitumen modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Song [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jianying, E-mail: jyyu@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Sun, Yubin [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wu, Shaopeng [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Organic layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) were prepared by anion-exchange method and applied to modify bitumen aiming at improving ageing resistance of bitumen. The organic LDHs (SDBS–LDHs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet and visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometry. The effect of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs on physical and anti-ageing properties of bitumen was evaluated by means of conventional and rheological test. The results of XRD, FTIR and SEM show that SDBS is successfully intercalated into interlayer of LDHs, and the UV–vis reflectance and absorbance curves illustrate that intercalation of SDBS enhances the UV shielding effect of LDHs. The addition of SDBS–LDHs or LDHs has little influence on physical properties of bitumen because SDBS–LDHs and LDHs are physically mixed in bitumen. Compared with pristine bitumen after TFOT and UV irradiation ageing, the introduction of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs significantly improves thermal- and photo-oxidative ageing resistance of bitumen. Notably, bitumen with SDBS–LDHs exhibits better anti-ageing performance than that with LDHs, implying more effective modification of SDBS-LDHs which is due to the enhanced UV protective ability and compatibility with bitumen of SDBS–LDHs. - Highlights: • XRD, FTIR and SEM were used to confirm the successful intercalation. • SDBS–LDHs show superior UV protective ability. • SDBS–LDHs improved the anti-ageing properties of bitumen.

  15. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  16. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, July--September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report cites task number followed by a brief statement of each task and the action taken this quarter. The tasks are: NEPA environmental information statement; coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels, and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost estimation study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; development studies of disposal of sand by conveying or pumping of high solids concentration sand-water slurries; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  17. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  18. Effects of thermal-oxidative aging on rheological properties of montmorillonite modified bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯鹏程; 余剑英; 王骁; 陶园园

    2008-01-01

    Organic montmorillonite(OMMT) modified bitumen nanocomposites was prepared by melt blending.The effects of thin-film oven test(TFOT) and pressure ageing vessel(PAV) on rheological properties of pristine bitumen and OMMT modified bitumen were investigated by dynamic shear rheometer(DSR).The results show that complex modulus(G*) increases,phase angle(δ) decreases and rutting factor(G*/sin δ) is enhanced for the pristine bitumen after TFOT,whereas G*,δ and G*/sin δ of OMMT modified bitumen have a little change before and after TFOT.Besides,the pristine bitumen exhibits a large increase of G* and a great decrease of δ after PAV aging.However,the changes in G* and δ of OMMT modified bitumen are small before and after PAV.Compared with the pristine bitumen,OMMT modified bitumen presents a lower fatigue factor(G*sin δ) after PAV.As a consequence,resistance to thermal-oxidative aging of bitumen is remarkably improved due to the introduction of OMMT.

  19. Mechanistic study on demulsification of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions by ethylcellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xianhua; Mussone, Paolo; Gao, Song; Wang, Shengqun; Wu, Shiau-Yin; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe

    2010-03-02

    In our previous study, ethylcellulose (EC), an effective, nontoxic, and biodegradable natural polymer, was found effective in dewatering water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions. In this study, the demulsification mechanism of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions by EC is investigated. In situ experiments using a micropipet apparatus provided direct evidence on both flocculation and coalescence of water droplets in diluted bitumen by EC. The addition of EC was found to decrease naphtha-diluted bitumen-water interfacial tension significantly. At the molecular level, AFM imaging revealed disruption of the continuous interfacial films formed from surface-active components of bitumen by EC. Our study clearly indicates that the demulsification by EC is through both flocculation and coalescence of water droplets, attained by competitive adsorption of EC at the oil-water interface and disruption of the original protective interfacial films formed from the surface-active components of bitumen.

  20. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Lemarchand, Claire; Nielsen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-component united-atom molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are carried out using graphic-processor-units based...... software in time spans in order of microseconds, which enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper also presents results of the model dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation...... the stress autocorrelation function, the shear viscosity and shear modulus are evaluated, showing a viscous response at frequencies below 100 MHz. The model predictions of viscosity and diffusivities are compared to experimental data, giving reasonable agreement. The model shows that the asphaltene, resin...

  1. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jesper S; Nielsen, Erik; Dyre, Jeppe C; Schrøder, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-component molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse-graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are being carried out using Graphic-Processor-Units based software in time spans in order of microseconds, and this enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper focuses on the high-temperature dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation. The diffusivity of the individual molecules changes little as a function of temperature and reveals distinct dynamical time scales as a result of the different constituents in the system. Different time scales are also observed for the rotational relaxation. The stress autocorrelation function features a slow non-exponential decay for all temperatures studied. From the stress autocorrelation function, the shear viscosity and shear ...

  2. Characterization of Ultra Fine Solids(BS) in Athabasca Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zai-Feng(李再峰); Judy KUNG; TU Yun(涂云); Luba S.KOTLYAR; Keng H.CHUNG

    2004-01-01

    The ultra fine (<200 nm) inorganic solids (BS) were separated from bitumen which was washed by toluene and centrifugated at 2000 rpm.The result of PAS FTIR and image of TEM showed that the structure of BS particles was smiliar to that of kaolinite clay.On the surface of BS,both toluene insoluble organic matter and structural OH group are detected at the same time.The surface characteristics imparted a bi-wettable nature to the BS.As a result,the BS is able to stabilize fine water emulsion in the bitumen phase.The organic matter associated with BS is a possible factor of the fouling on catalyst and equipment.

  3. Building Blocks Incorporating Waste Materials Bound with Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described an investigation and evaluation which was carried out in the United Kingdom-UK, on the properties of masonry building block materials that incorporate waste materials, namely: steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA, municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA or shortened as IBA, bound with bitumen or asphalt, named as Bitublock. The binder used was 50 pen bitumen. The properties of the blocks evaluated were: compressive strength, density, porosity, initial rate of suction (IRS, creep, and volume stability. It was found that the Bitublock performance can be improved by optimizing porosity and curing regime. Compaction level of 2 MPa and curing regime of 200°C for 24 hours gave satisfactory bitublock performances that at least comparable to concrete block found in the United Kingdom (UK. The Volume stability (expansion of the unit is affected by environment relative humidity.

  4. Thermal recovery of bitumen from carbonate reservoirs: formation damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimm, H.F. [Thimm Petroleum Technologies Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta, about a third of bitumen resources are located in carbonate reservoirs but none of it is considered as a reserve by the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB). In fact no pilot has been successful in recovering bitumen from carbonate reservoirs due to formation damage problems. Carbonate rock is chemically active at the high temperatures reached in thermal recovery processes, carbon dioxide is generated and carbonate minerals are precipitated. The aim of this paper is to find methods to control the phenomenon. Kinetic and thermodynamic controls were used. Results showed that formation damage is due to aqueous carbon dioxide attacking the reservoir rock. They found that a reduction of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide could inhibit the initial dissolution of rock material by reducing the concentration of aqueous carbon dioxide. A method to overcome the formation damage problem was found and a co-injection of gas and steam process was developed to apply it.

  5. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  6. Three-Year Field Test Summary for Experimental Modified Bitumen Roofing at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    forcement and factory-applied granule surfacing (area A), Membrane B-a hot-mopped SBS (styrene butadiene styrene) modified bitumen with polyester...membrane C) were in excellent condition. No visible changes were noted. However, the hot-mopped SBS modified bitumen (membrane B) had several problems...all of which seemed to be caused by the membrane plys slipping down the roof slope. Slippage of hot-mopped SBS modified bitumen membrane systems has

  7. Investigation of microstructures and ultraviolet aging properties of organo-montmorillonite/SBS modified bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Henglong [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Yu Jianying, E-mail: jyyu@whut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang Huacai; Xue Lihui [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} Microstructures and ultraviolet (UV) aging properties of organo-montmorillonite (OMMT)/Styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) modified bitumen were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and physical properties tests. {yields} OMMT/SBS modified bitumen forms an intercalated structure. {yields} The phase contrast between the dispersed domains and the matrix is inverted in SBS modified bitumen, which is decreased with the introduction of OMMT. {yields} The UV aging resistance of SBS modified bitumen can be improved obviously with the addition of OMMT. - Abstract: Organo-montmorillonite(OMMT)/Styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) modified bitumen nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending. The microstructures of OMMT/SBS modified bitumen were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The effect of OMMT on ultraviolet (UV) aging properties of SBS modified bitumen was investigated. FTIR and XRD analyses indicate that the OMMT/SBS modified bitumen forms an intercalated structure. It is observed that the phase contrast between the dispersed domains and the matrix is inverted in SBS modified bitumen, which is decreased with the introduction of OMMT according to AFM analysis. As a result of UV aging, both viscosity aging index and softening point increment of OMMT/SBS modified bitumen decrease significantly. There is a single phase trend in the morphology of the bitumen after aging, which is accelerated by the existence of SBS. However, these changes can be effectively prevented under the influence of OMMT, indicating the good UV aging resistance of OMMT/SBS modified bitumen.

  8. The problem of the compatibility of bitumen sheets for the reconstruction and ehabilitation of roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Plachý Jan

    2017-01-01

    During the renovation of flat roofs, the waterproofing layer is often repaired locally rather than completely replaced. When making such repairs, it is very important to know whether the proposed bitumen sheets are compatible in order to prevent delamination and the release of the joints. This paper deals with the determination of the resistance of bitumen sheet joints against peeling when combined with different bitumen materials. On the basis of the described test methodology it was possibl...

  9. Rheological Behaviour of Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate [EVA] Modified Road Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    DEKHLI, Samy; AIT MOKHTAR, Kkedidja; Hammoum, Ferhat; SI BACHIR, Djaffar

    2015-01-01

    In this present study, the effects of Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate (EVA) on the conventional characteristics and rheological properties of pure bitumen were investigated. The modified bitumen (PMB) has been prepared in laboratory by mixing bitumen with copolymer EVA. Three different contents of polymer have been tested to evaluate the modification. The basic properties of the PMBs have been determined by using conventional test methods. The results indicated that polymer modification improved the c...

  10. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds emission profiles from hot road bitumens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2014-07-01

    A procedure for the investigation and comparison of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission profiles to the atmosphere from road bitumens with various degrees of oxidation is proposed. The procedure makes use of headspace analysis and gas chromatography with universal as well as selective detection, including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The studies revealed that so-called vacuum residue, which is the main component of the charge, contains variable VOC concentrations, from trace to relatively high ones, depending on the extent of thermal cracking in the boiler of the vacuum distillation column. The VOC content in the oxidation product, so-called oxidized paving bitumen, is similarly varied. There are major differences in VOC emission profiles between vacuum residue and oxidized bitumens undergoing thermal cracking. The VOC content in oxidized bitumens, which did not undergo thermal cracking, increases with the degree of oxidation of bitumens. The studies revealed that the total VOC content increases from about 120 ppm for the raw vacuum residue to about 1900 ppm for so-called bitumen 35/50. The amount of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the volatile fraction of fumes of oxidized bitumens increases with the degree of oxidation of bitumen and constitutes from 0.34% to 3.66% (w/w). The contribution of volatile nitrogen compounds (VNCs) to total VOC content remains constant for the investigated types of bitumens (from 0.16 to 0.28% (w/w) of total VOCs). The results of these studies can also find use during the selection of appropriate bitumen additives to minimize their malodorousness. The obtained data append the existing knowledge on VOC emission from oxidized bitumens. They should be included in reports on the environmental impact of facilities in which hot bitumen binders are used.

  11. Parameters which Affect the Stiffness of Bitumen and Bituminous Hot Mixes

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with bitumen and bituminous mixes, using suitable mathematical models that take into account the parameters affecting their elastic and plastic stiffnesses. These parameters are stress level and acting time, penetration index, softening time and temperature. Viscosity and the total acting time of the load affect the elastic stiffness of bitumen. The elastic stiffness of bitumen and the voluminous concentration of the aggregate influence the elastic stiffness of th...

  12. Membrane and Flashing Condition Indexes for Modified Bitumen Roofs: Inspection and Distress Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ER D C/ CE R L TR -1 0 -5 Membrane and Flashing Condition Indexes for Modified Bitumen Roofs Inspection and Distress Manual David M...ERDC/CERL TR-10-5 March 2010 Membrane and Flashing Condition Indexes for Modified Bitumen Roofs Inspection and Distress Manual David M...Compliance” ERDC/CERL TR-10-5 ii Abstract: The U.S. Army is currently responsible for maintaining mil- lions of square feet of modified bitumen roofing

  13. Application of polymers to modify bitumen obtained from waxy oils

    OpenAIRE

    Гринишин, Олег Богданович; Фридер, Ірина Вікторівна

    2013-01-01

    The article describes one of the ways of solution of the actual problem of obtaining quality bituminous materials from residues of paraffin oil recycling. The authors examined the modification of bitumen with polymers, in particular with petroleum resins, polyethylene, and industrial modifiers Elvaloy 4170 and Butonal NS 198. The study was carried out in two ways. We have studied the basic regularities of the joint oxidation of paraffin tar and oil polymerous resins. It was found that the pre...

  14. Effects of diluted bitumen exposure on juvenile sockeye salmon: From cells to performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Sarah L; Lin, Feng; Farrell, Anthony P; Kennedy, Christopher J; Gillis, Todd E

    2017-02-01

    Diluted bitumen (dilbit; the product of oil sands extraction) is transported through freshwater ecosystems critical to Pacific salmon. This is concerning, because crude oil disrupts cardiac development, morphology, and function in embryonic fish, and cardiac impairment in salmon can have major consequences on migratory success and fitness. The sensitivity of early life-stage salmon to dilbit and its specific cardiotoxic effects are unknown. Sockeye salmon parr were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of dilbit for 1 wk and 4 wk, followed by an examination of molecular, morphological, and organismal endpoints related to cardiotoxicity. We show that parr are sensitive to WSF of dilbit, with total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations of 3.5 µg/L sufficient to induce a liver biomarker of PAH exposure, and total PAH of 16.4 µg/L and 66.7 µg/L inducing PAH biomarkers in the heart. Furthermore, WSF of dilbit induces concentration-dependent cardiac remodeling coincident with performance effects: fish exposed to 66.7 µg/L total PAH have relatively fewer myocytes and more collagen in the compact myocardium and impaired swimming performance at 4 wk, whereas the opposite changes occur in fish exposed to 3.5 µg/L total PAH. The results demonstrate cardiac sensitivity to dilbit exposure that could directly impact sockeye migratory success. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:354-360. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Effect of aging on the morphology of bitumen by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H L; Yu, J Y; Feng, Z G; Xue, L H; Wu, S P

    2012-04-01

    Effect of aging on the morphology of bitumen was investigated. Two bitumens were aged according to the thin film oven test (TFOT), pressure aging vessel (PAV) test and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, respectively. The morphology of the binders before and after aging was characterized by atomic force microscopy. The physical properties and chemical compositions of the binders were also measured. The results showed that aging affected the bitumen morphology significantly. Aging increased the overall surface stiffness of the bitumen and made the bitumen surface more solid-like. The extent of these changes was dependent on aging conditions. TFOT decreased the contrast between the dispersed domains and the matrix, which contributed to the single-phase trend of the binders. The effect of PAV aging on morphology of the binders was dependent on the base bitumen. In one case, it further accelerated the single-phase trend of bitumen in comparison with that after TFOT. In the other case, it caused the phase separation of bitumen. In both cases, PAV aging increased the surface roughness of the binders obviously. As a result of UV aging, the contrast between the matrix phase and dispersed phase was increased due to the difference in sensitivity to UV radiation of the bitumen molecules, which caused or further promoted the phase separation in the binders. Regardless of the aging procedure carried out, a strong correlation was observed between the changes in morphology and physical properties as well as chemical compositions of the binders before and after aging.

  16. Common ground : bitumen and gas producers come together to find gas-over-bitumen solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2005-08-01

    The gas-over-bitumen issue has meant that hundreds of natural gas wells remain closed while regulatory hearings and research activities continue. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board should soon reach a final decision on the status of gas wells considered to be a threat to thermal extraction of underlying oil sands. This article discussed collaborative efforts by oil and gas companies to resolve these issues, including the use of fluid injection technology, low pressure Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and artificial lift. The objective of the Gas Reinjection and Production Experiment (GRIPE) is to reinject gas to displace natural gas being produced. The pilot project, conducted by Paramount Resources Ltd., consists of 2 injector wells, 4 producers and 12 observation wells that measure gas pressure in the reservoir. The project also includes a 2 stage compressor modified to handle flue gas. According to reservoir simulations, Paramount should be able to recover between 50 to 60 per cent of the remaining gas in place. Results from the pilot suggest that the technique could result in more than half the currently shut-in pools being re-opened. It was suggested that gas-by-gas displacement may result in higher recovery rates because there is usually more remaining gas in place. It was noted that EnCana Corporation has also been repressurizing a depleted natural gas pool by injecting compressed air rather than flue gas. Various other projects were reviewed, including the use of electric submersible pumps, low pressure SAGD and new SAGD well pair configurations. It was concluded that the artificial lift and low pressure SAGD technical sub-committee have now filed 10 applications for funding under the Alberta Energy Department's Innovative Energy Technology Program.

  17. Reclaim and Evaluation of SBS Modified Bitumen%S BS改性沥青的回收与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马翔; 倪富健; 李强

    2014-01-01

    通过残留物、老化对回收 SBS 改性沥青性能的影响分析,研究了相应的改进措施,并对旧沥青的回收及再生效果进行了评价。研究表明:少量的矿粉和三氯乙烯均能明显影响回收沥青的性能,研究提出的改进措施能有效减少残留物的含量和回收过程中的老化,保证回收沥青的真实性能;老化使沥青明显变硬,常用的再生剂对 SBS 改性沥青的改善效果有限,过多掺加量将减低沥青的高温性能。%Based on the analysis of residues,aging effects on the performance of reclaimed SBS modified bitumen,corresponding improvement measures was studied,and effectiveness of reclaimed and recycling of aging asphalt effects were evaluated.The test results indicate that a small amount of filler and trichloroethylene can significantly affect the properties of the reclaimed asphalt,and improvement meas-ures proposed in this study can effectively decrease the content of the residues and aging during recove-ring process,ensured the actual performance of reclaimed bitumen.Aging makes the asphalt harden,and the improved effectiveness of common rejuvenator was limited to the properties of the reclaimed bitumen. Adding too much rejuvenator will degrade high-temperature performance of the reclaimed bitumen.

  18. Shear resistance properties of TPS modified bitumen binders and asphalt mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹庭维; 吴少鹏; 刘聪慧; 张涛

    2008-01-01

    Shear resistance properties of the virgin bitumen and modified bitumen binders with Tafpack Super(TPS) modifier and SBS modified bitumen were discussed.Dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) was used to measure the laboratory creep data for these binders over a wide range of constant shear stresses at 20 ℃ to characterize the shear creep behaviors of all kinds of asphalt binders,and the rutting test system was used to investigate the permanent deformation of porous asphalt mixtures using the above bitumen binders for a fixed compressive stress.The shear strain rate and shear creep modulus were used to characterize the shear creep behavior of the TPS modified bitumen,and the rutting test results were used to show the consistency of porous asphalt mixtures with the bitumen binders.Results indicate that a distinction of shear creep strain can be made among different contents of TPS modified bitumen at the same stress level,where the shear creep strain-time response curve of the SBS modified bitumen binder is between the curves of the 8% TPS and 12% TPS modified bitumen binders.The shear strain rate and the shear creep modulus of the TPS modified bitumen binders are obtained to compare with those of the SBS modified bitumen binder which results in the same trend as the shear creep strain-time response curve.Permanent deformation results of all the porous asphalt mixtures from the rutting test show reasonable agreement with the findings of the shear strain rates and shear creep modulus over the range of shear stress levels.

  19. Impact of oxidation process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliet, Christophe; Juery, Catherine; Thiebaut, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the oxidation process on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in blown bitumen and identified some key contributing parameters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's PAH list was used for this study. PAHs are considered a good toxicological marker, and measurement of PAHs in bitumen can be performed easily. The results of PAH content in blown bitumen and the corresponding feedstock was determined from the limit of detection up to 120 mg/kg for 24 samples. Compared to PAH levels in coal tar pitch, PAH levels in bitumen are very low. Measurements were performed by three laboratories using different methods to allow robust conclusions. The results highlight the difficulties in measuring PAHs in bitumen with accuracy for values below 30 mg/kg; therefore the discussion is based on summary statistics by adding concentrations of PAHs with common ring sizes. Incorporation of flux oil in the feed of the blowing bitumen unit tends to increase PAH content in feed stock and in blown bitumen, particularly the 4- to 6-ring PAHs, which are the most carcinogenic as identified by an animal skin painting test. The amount of PAH content from blown bitumen with flux oil can be at least three times higher than the amount in blown bitumen without flux oil, depending on the quality and quantity of the flux oil used. This study shows that the blowing process does not produce PAHs in bitumen. Conversely, it appears to reduce them in the final product. Close to 10 to 30% of PAHs are probably stripped from the liquid phase of bitumen during the blowing operation.

  20. Characterization of Bitumen Micro-Mechanical Behaviors Using AFM, Phase Dynamics Theory and MD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.

  1. Adhesion of single polyelectrolyte molecules on silica, mica, and bitumen surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob H

    2006-02-14

    In a recent study (Energy Fuels 2005, 19, 936), a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) was used as a process aid to recover bitumen from oil sand ores. It was found that HPAM addition at the bitumen extraction step not only improved bitumen recovery but also enhanced fine solids settling in the tailings stream. To understand the role of HPAM, single-molecule force spectroscopy was employed for the first time to measure the desorption/adhesion forces of single HPAM molecules on silica, mica, and bitumen surfaces using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Silicon wafers with an oxidized surface layer and newly cleaved mica were used, respectively, to represent sand grains and clays in oil sands. The force measurements were carried out in deionized water and in commercial plant process water under equilibrium conditions. The desorption/adhesion forces of HPAM obtained on mica, silica, and bitumen surfaces were approximately 200, 40, and 80 pN in deionized water and approximately 100, 50, and 40 pN in the plant process water, respectively. The measured adhesion forces together with the zeta potential values of these surfaces indicate that the polymer would preferentially adsorb onto clay surfaces rather than onto bitumen surfaces. It is the selective adsorption of HPAM that benefits both bitumen recovery and tailings settling when the polymer was added directly to the bitumen extraction process at an appropriate dosage.

  2. Influence of styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer modification on bitumen viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.; Isacsson, U. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Division of Highway Engineering

    1997-11-01

    It is reported that the effects of polymer content/structure and bitumen type on viscosity characteristics of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer modified bitumens were investigated. The study indicated that SBS polymers were not inert additives and increases in kinematic and dynamic viscosities of the modified bitumens were not directly proportional to polymer content; a marked viscosity increase was observed when the polymer content increased from 3 to 6% by weight of the blend. Modification with a sufficiently high polymer content also increased the degree of non-Newtonian behaviour of the bitumens. The base bitumens and modified bitumens containing 3% SBS were observed to be essentially shear rate independent, while those containing 6 to 9% SBS displayed shear-thinning behaviour. Compared to the modified bitumens with linear SBS, the modified bitumens with branched SBS demonstrated a higher degree of shear-thinning behaviour. These effects were dependent on ranges of shear rate and temperature. The increased degree of non-Newtonian behaviour was observed to influence the correlations between kinematic and dynamic viscosities. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. High and Low Temperature Properties of FT-Paraffin-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Fazaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research on the effects of “Fischer Tropsch-Paraffin” (Sasobit content on physical and rheological properties of Sasobit modified bitumen at various operational temperatures. For this purpose, bitumen with a Performance Grade (PG of 58–22 is selected as the base and later it is modified with 1, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 weight percent of FT-Paraffin (Sasobit. The performance of modified bitumen at high, intermediate, and low temperatures is evaluated based on Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP Superpave tests. Results of the study show that FT-paraffin improves the performance of bitumen at high temperatures in addition to increasing the resistance of mixture against permanent deformation. Despite the advantages of FT-paraffin on bitumen performance at high temperatures, it does not show a considerable influence on the intermediate and low temperature performance of bitumen. The effect of FT-paraffin content on the viscosity of modified bitumen is also investigated using Brookfield Viscometer Apparatus. Results show that increasing the additive content lowers the viscosity of modified bitumen. This in return can reduce the mixing and compaction temperature of asphalt mixtures.

  4. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol...

  5. Assessment of DNA damage in WBCs of workers occupationally exposed to fumes and aerosols of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczynski, Boleslaw; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Preuss, Ralf; Kappler, Martin; Schott, Klaus; Pesch, Beate; Zoubek, Gerd; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Mensing, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a cross-shift study with 66 bitumen-exposed mastic asphalt workers and 49 construction workers without exposure to bitumen. Exposure was assessed using personal monitoring of airborne bitumen exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and the sum of 1-, 2 + 9-,3-,4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH). Genotoxic effects in WBC were determined with nonspecific DNA adduct levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and the formation of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. Concentration of fumes and aerosols of bitumen correlated significantly with the concentrations of 1-OHP and OHPH after shift (r(s) = 0.27; P = 0.03 and r(s) = 0.55; P Bitumen-exposed workers had more DNA strand breaks than the reference group (P bitumen nor with urinary metabolite concentrations. Significantly more DNA adducts were observed after shift not only in bitumen-exposed workers but also in the reference group. Only low-exposed workers had significantly elevated 8-oxodGuo adduct levels before as well as after shift (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.02, respectively). Our results show that exposure to fumes and aerosols of bitumen may contribute to an increased DNA damage assessed with strand breaks.

  6. On the investigation of the bulk microstructure of bitumen - Introducing two new techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Dillingh, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Bitumen, the residue of oil distillation and applied e.g. as binder in asphalt pavements displays a rich microstructure at the bitumen surface-to-air surface with several clearly distinguishable phases. However, uncertainty still remains whether this micro-structure is just present at free surfaces

  7. Impact of maltene and asphaltene fraction on mechanical behavior and microstructure of bitumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofko, B.; Eberhardsteiner, L.; Fussl, J.; Grothe, H.; Handle, F.; Hospodka, M.; Grossegger, D.; Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, A.

    2015-01-01

    As a widely accepted concept, bitumen consists of four fractions that can be distinguished by their polarity. Highly polar asphaltene micelles are dispersed in a viscous phase of saturates, aromatics and resins (maltene phase). Different concentrations of asphaltenes in the bitumen result in a range

  8. Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Resources in Geological Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy oil and natural bitumen are oils set apart by their high viscosity (resistance to flow) and high density (low API gravity). These attributes reflect the invariable presence of up to 50 weight percent asphaltenes, very high molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules incorporating many heteroatoms in their lattices. Almost all heavy oil and natural bitumen are alteration products of conventional oil. Total resources of heavy oil in known accumulations are 3,396 billion barrels of original oil in place, of which 30 billion barrels are included as prospective additional oil. The total natural bitumen resource in known accumulations amounts to 5,505 billion barrels of oil originally in place, which includes 993 billion barrels as prospective additional oil. This resource is distributed in 192 basins containing heavy oil and 89 basins with natural bitumen. Of the nine basic Klemme basin types, some with subdivisions, the most prolific by far for known heavy oil and natural bitumen volumes are continental multicyclic basins, either basins on the craton margin or closed basins along convergent plate margins. The former includes 47 percent of the natural bitumen, the latter 47 percent of the heavy oil and 46 percent of the natural bitumen. Little if any heavy oil occurs in fore-arc basins, and natural bitumen does not occur in either fore-arc or delta basins.

  9. Rheological effects of commercial waxes and polyphosphoric acid in bitumen 160/220 low temperature performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylva Edwards; Yuksel Tasdemir; Ulf Isacsson [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Division of Highway Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Effects of adding three commercial waxes and a polyphosphoric acid to three bitumens of 160/220 penetration grade were studied using different types of laboratory equipment, such as dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), bending beam rheometer (BBR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), force ductilometer (FD) as well as equipment for determining conventional parameters like penetration, softening point and Fraass breaking point. The paper deals with low-temperature effects, which could influence the thermal cracking resistance of asphalt concrete pavements. The results show that magnitude and type of effect on bitumen rheology depend on the bitumen itself as well as type and amount of additive used. Bitumen composition was found to be of decisive importance. Adding polyethylene wax or polyphosphoric acid, especially to non-waxy 160/220-penetration grade bitumen, showed positive effects on the rheological behaviour at low temperatures. 24 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Levels and determinants of exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickenheuer, Anne; Rühl, Reinhold; Höber, Dieter; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Welge, Peter; Breuer, Dietmar; Gabriel, Stefan; Musanke, Uwe; Rode, Peter; Heinze, Evelyn; Kendzia, Benjamin; Bramer, Rainer; Knecht, Udo; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2011-06-01

    Bitumen (referred to as asphalt in the United States) is a widely used construction material, and emissions from hot bitumen applications have been a long-standing health concern. One objective of the Human Bitumen Study was to identify potential determinants of the exposure to bitumen. The study population analysed comprised 259 male mastic asphalt workers recruited between 2003 and 2008. Personal air sampling in the workers' breathing zone was carried out during the shift to measure exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen. The majority of workers were engaged in building construction, where exposure levels were lower than in tunnels but higher than at road construction sites. At building construction sites, exposure levels were influenced by the room size, the processing temperature of the mastic asphalt and the job task. The results show that protective measures should include a reduction in the processing temperature.

  11. Reservoir design of a shallow LP-SAGD project for in situ extraction of Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmgren, C.; Walker, I. [Alberta Oilsands (Canada); Carlson, M.; Uwiera, M. [Inc RPS Energy (Canada); Torlak, M. [Siemens AG (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Alberta Oilsands Inc. is developing a project 8 km southeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The Clearwater project aims to extract bitumen from a shallow bitumen reservoir through in situ production; the aim of this paper is to present this project and to evaluate the commercial viability of combining different technologies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), solvent co-injection and electro-magnetic heating. Alberta Oilsands will put 6 SAGD well pairs and infill wells in place to effectively recover the bitumen. Reservoir simulations were carried out using reservoir models based on geological, petrophysical and geostatical work. Results showed that the combination of SAGD, solvent co-injection and electro-magnetic heating can increase bitumen production while reducing the steam oil ratio. This paper provides information on the Phase I reservoir design of the Clearwater project; steam injection and bitumen recovery are expected to start in 2012.

  12. Crude glycerin in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the bio-diesel industry, there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of bio-diesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of f...

  13. Crude glycerin for monogastrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the biodiesel industry there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of biodiesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of fat ...

  14. Foamed bitumen stabilization of MSWI bottom ash; Skumbitumenstabilisering av bottenaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Jacobsson, Torbjoern [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, Mikael; Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering

    2006-04-15

    Foamed bitumen is a mixture of bitumen, water and air. Bitumen that is heated to 175 deg C expands about 10-30 times compared to its original volume when injecting small amounts of water and air under high pressure. By exposing a granulate material to foamed bitumen the particles will be covered with a bitumen film. This will give the particles hydrophobic properties, as well as a smaller specific surface. At the same time the mechanical properties of the material are expected to improve due to the cohesive properties of the bitumen covered particles. The treatment can be made both offsite and in situ. The objective of this project was to investigate the possibility to treat municipal solid waste bottom ash with foamed bitumen to achieve improved leaching and mechanical properties. The following leaching tests have been performed on the original bottom ash and two foamed bitumen treated ashes with 2 and 4.5 % bitumen, respectively: one-stage batch test (EN 12457-4), pH-static test (prEN 14997), column test (prEN 14405) and monolithic leaching test (NEN 7345). In addition, the specific surface and intra-particle porosity were determined by BET N2 adsorption experiments on selected fractions of bottom ash. The results showed that the specific surface decreased with more than 50 % and manifested itself in a lower buffer capacity at both low and high pH. For most elements no significant difference in leaching behavior where found when comparing the results from the leaching tests for the three materials at their own pH. This is thought to be due to that sufficient specific area available for leaching exists to reach equilibrium despite the foam bitumen treatment. The results from the one-stage batch test show a minor reduction in leaching for Cl{sup -}, S, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Sb, and Ca for the foamed bitumen treated ashes. The results from the column test of the foamed bitumen stabilized ashes showed an increased leaching of some elements, especially

  15. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  16. Base Course Modification through Stabilization using Cement and Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Marandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research was to analyze the use of combined cement and bitumen emulsion in base course stabilization in details and examine its replacement with conventional pavement in regions with low quality materials and limited construction period. To conduct the objectives, the research divided into three phases. Phase I involved the optimization of cement and bitumen emulsion. In this case, a series of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS and Marshal Tests carried out. In the second phase, various alternative roadway sections examined for minimizing the pavement thickness and increasing the bearing capacity and finally in third phase, a Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD machine used to examine the pavement bearing capacity for three sections of the roadway. It was found that, the optimum values to eliminate the creation of shrinkage cracks in the whole project and minimize the execution period and construction costs were 3% for both binders in stabilization and its replacement with conventional pavement method (i.e., stabilized layer with conventional sub-base and base layers. Also, FWD results showed that, the bearing capacity of the constructed pavement using stabilization method is far beyond the predicted values in pavement design. Furthermore, it was found that, with high inflation rate and political situation in the region, base stabilized method decreased the final roadway construction costs in compare with conventional pavement method.

  17. Valorization of phosphogypsum waste as asphaltic bitumen modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadri, A A; Navarro, F J; García-Morales, M; Bolívar, J P

    2014-08-30

    The accumulation of phosphogypsum waste from the fertilizer industries, which remain in regulated stacks occupying considerable land resources, is causing significant environment problems worldwide. In that sense, the scientific community is being pressured to find alternative ways for their disposal. In this research, we propose a novel application for phosphogypsum waste, as a modifier of bitumen for flexible road pavements. Viscous flow tests carried out on bitumen modified with a phosphogypsum waste and doped with sulfuric acid demonstrated an extraordinary increase in viscosity, at 60°C, when compared to a counterpart sample which had been modified with gypsum, the main component of phosphogypsum. Similarly, a significant improvement in the viscoelastic response of the resulting material at high temperatures was also found. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) scans provided evidences of the existence of chemical reactions involving phosphorus, as revealed by a new absorption band from 1060 to 1180cm(-1), related to COP vibrations. This result points at phosphorus contained in the phosphogypsum impurities to be the actual "modifying" substance. Furthermore, no COP band was observed in the absence of sulfuric acid, which seems to be the "promoting" agent of this type of bond.

  18. Effect of styrene-butadiene-styrene content on the adhesion properties of bitumen before and after heat aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinski, K. [Poznan Univ. of Technology, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Structural Engineering

    2008-05-15

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) is a common modifying polymer used in bitumen-based waterproofing building materials. SBS is used to improve the heat aging resistance of bitumen as well as to increase its resistance to temperature changes. This paper compared SBS-modified bitumen products with nonmodified bitumen products. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of heat aging and SBS content on the adhesion properties of 2 bitumen types to concrete and steel substrates. Two types of bitumen were tested: (1) paving-grade bitumen; and (2) an oxidized bitumen with a softening point at 25 degrees C. The thin film oven test was used to heat age the samples. Adhesion properties were measured before and after heat aging. The tests demonstrated that the adhesion strength of bituminous mastics to concrete and steel substrates decreased as SBS content increased. Bitumen products modified with 9 to 12 per cent of SBS showed a weaker bond with concrete and steel substrates than nonmodified equivalents. It was concluded that after heat aging, the adhesion strength of the nonmodified bitumen was higher than that of the bitumen modified with SBS. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  20. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon). The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass prov...

  1. Diluted bitumen causes deformities and molecular responses indicative of oxidative stress in Japanese medaka embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Barry N; Hodson, P V; Langlois, V S

    2015-08-01

    This study characterized the toxicity and physiological effects of unweathered diluted bitumen (Access Western Blend dilbit; AWB) to fish. Embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed for 17 days to dilutions of physically-dispersed (water accommodated fraction; WAF) and chemically-dispersed (chemically-enhanced WAF; CEWAF) dilbit. AWB dilbit exposure was not lethal to medaka, but resulted in a high prevalence of blue sac disease (BSD), impaired development, and abnormal or un-inflated swim bladders at hatch. Physiological effects were indicated by the relative mRNA levels of key genes associated with, among others, cell cycling and the response to mutations (p53), xenobiotic metabolism (ahr, arnt2), phase I (cyp1a) and II processes associated with oxidative stress (cat, g6pdh, hsp70, gst, gpx, gsr, nfe2, and sod). AWB dilbit treatment increased p53 and cyp1a transcript levels (1.5-fold and >15-fold, respectively), with significant, but less pronounced changes in indicators of oxidative stress and metabolism. The exposure-related changes in embryotoxicity and mRNA synthesis were consistent with metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to reactive and toxic metabolites. Medaka embryos responded similarly to WAF and CEWAF treatments, but CEWAF was about 100 times more efficient in delivering toxic concentrations of PAHs. The toxicity of chemically-dispersed nujol, a non-toxic mineral oil used as an experimental control, suggested that a portion of the observed effects of AWB could be attributed to excess dispersant in solution. This first study of the physiological effects of dilbit toxicity to fish embryos provides a baseline to compare toxicity between dilbit and conventional crude oils, and the groundwork for the development of molecular biomarkers of the sensitivity and level of risk of native Canadian fish species to dilbit exposure.

  2. Alternatives for Benzene in the Extraction of Bitumen Fume from Exposure Sample Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Benjamin; Ravera, Christel; Hussard, Caroline; Langlois, Eddy

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is frequently used to extract collected bitumen fumes from personal sampler substrates. However, this solvent is particularly dangerous because of its carcinogenicity (group 1 of the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification). Therefore, to prevent the exposure of laboratory technicians to benzene during the fume extraction step from samplers, a compromise had to be found to identify a less toxic solvent with the same extraction capacity. To compare the extraction capacities of selected solvents, bitumen fumes were generated in the laboratory from three different batches of road surfacing bitumen collected on dedicated bitumen fume samplers. The samplers were then extracted by benzene and the solvents tested. Of 11 selected solvents less toxic than benzene and used in studies on bitumen and bitumen fume analyses, n-hexane and n-heptane were identified as alternatives to benzene. In particular, the results demonstrated that n-heptane was the best candidate solvent for benzene replacement, due to its extraction efficiency comparable to benzene for the three bitumen fumes tested and its low toxicity, which is highly compatible with benzene replacement.

  3. Analysis of styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer modified bitumen using fluorescent microscopy and conventional test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoz, Burak; Isikyakar, Giray

    2008-01-31

    This paper presents a laboratory study of modified bitumen containing styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer. Polymer modified bitumen (PMB) samples have been produced by mixing a 50/70 penetration grade unmodified (base) bitumen with SBS Kraton D1101 copolymer at five different polymer contents. The fundamental characteristics of the SBS PMB samples have been determined using conventional methods. The morphology of the samples as well as the percent area (%) distribution of SBS polymers throughout the base bitumen have been characterized and determined by means of fluorescence microscopy and Qwin Plus image analysis program, respectively. The mechanical properties of the hot-mix asphalt (HMA) containing SBS PMBs have also been analyzed and compared with HMA incorporating base bitumen. The effect of polymer addition on the short and long term aging characteristics of HMA have been evaluated by indirect tensile strength (ITS) test. The results indicated that polymer modification improved the conventional properties (penetration, softening point, etc.) and the mechanical properties (Marshall, ITS, etc.) of the base bitumen. It was also concluded that at low polymer contents, the samples revealed the existence of dispersed polymer particles in a continuous bitumen phase, whereas at high polymer contents a continuous polymer phase has been observed. Moreover, it was found out that the polymer addition minimizes the short and long term aging of HMA.

  4. Effects of Fibers on Properties of Bitumens; Senitenkazai ga asufuaruto no seijo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi.; Moriyoshi, Akihiro. [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takahashi, Shigeki.; Cabrera, J.G. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Civil Engineering Materials Unit

    1999-07-01

    High-viscosity bitumen blended with Styrene Butadiene Copolymer (SBS) and fibers is used, of late, for drainage pavement, for the purpose to prevent cracking and rutting, as well as to prevent flow carrying bituminous mixtures. However, it was not impossible to evaluate whether, or not, the mechanical properties and durability of such bitumens are suitable, at extremes of low or high temperatures. The authors, therefore, have developed a method for determining the mechanical properties of these bitumens, using some new testes, such as the Improved Fraass Breaking Point (IFBP) Test, the Moriyoshi Breaking Point (MBP) Test, the High-Temperature Long-Time Durability (HTLTD) Test and the Bending Test. The method employed for measuring viscosity at high temperature was the Flow Test by rheometer. This paper describes the various results of tests for high-viscosity bitumens blended with the SBS and Fibers. The authors obtained some brittle points and mechanical properties of these bitumens by using the said testers. The authors found the fracture properties and durability of bitumen blend-ed with various fibers unfavorable, compared with the original bitumens. (author)

  5. Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Rheology and Chemistry of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultravioletlight (UV-resistant material. In this study, two types of LDHs (Mg-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-LDHs were applied to modify bitumen by melt-blending. The effect of ultraviolet aging on the rheology and chemistry of LDH-modified bitumen was studied by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry to reveal the mechanisms of action for LDHs and bitumen. The results showed that within the UV spectra (220–400 nm, the reflectance of Zn-Al-LDHs was larger than that of Mg-Al-LDHs. These two LDHs have different influences on the performance of bitumen. Mg-Al-LDHs had a more obvious influence on the physical and dynamic rheological properties of bitumen than Zn-Al-LDHs. Zn-Al-LDHs improved the UV-aging resistance of bitumen more. The reason can be that the reflectance of the Zn-Al-LDHs to the UV light is larger than that of the Mg-Al-LDHs. The Zn-Al-LDH-modified bitumen had more potential to improve the UV-aging resistance during the service life of asphalt pavement.

  6. Characterizing worker exposure to bitumen during hot mix paving and asphalt mixing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Igor; Ferrari, Pietro; Wegh, Hillion; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

    2002-01-01

    A survey of bitumen exposure was carried out during hot mix paving and asphalt mixing. Four methods of characterizing and quantifying bitumen fume in inhalable particles were used: gravimetric, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and total absorbance (of the particle filter surface). Dermal deposition of bitumen was assessed by determination of cyclohexanesoluble matter in the material collected by paper or cotton pads worn on the inside of a person's wrists. The researchers studied the correlation patterns between results of these methods using pairwise correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (for air concentrations only). For hot mix paving, within- and between-worker variance components were evaluated, adjusting for area paved. Collected fume was dark in color and mainly consisted of aliphatic hydrocarbons of less than 20 carbon atoms. Inconsistent correlation patterns between dermal deposition and air levels were observed. Quantification of organic matter using either infrared spectroscopy or gas chromatography appeared to be good methods for monitoring inhalable bitumen fume. Cotton pads seem to be more promising than paper pads for measuring dermal exposure during paving. Paving workers were uniformly exposed to bitumen fume. Assessment of the uniformity of dermal exposure depended on the type of pad used. Day-to-day variability and intensity of inhalable and dermal bitumen exposures depended on area paved. The small size of the study limits the potential application of the results to the asphalt industry in general. More research is needed to develop a valid and inexpensive method of assessing total bitumen exposure.

  7. Influencia del bitumen sobre la calidad de un reservorio siliciclástico: Aplicación al campo de Salam en el desierto occidental de Egipto

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Bitumen are rarely taken into account in the petrophysical characterization of reservoirs because they may be rather difficult to distinguish. This paper focuses on the effects of bitumen on the reservoir quality of the sandstones from the Salam Field in the Western Desert (Egypt). We describe the various morphologies of the bitumen by SEM and we relate these data with the chemical composition of the bitumen and with the porosity determined by Hg injection. The coatings of bitumen affect ...

  8. In-situ analysis of solid bitumen in coal: Examples from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Glikson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Solid bitumen and associated vitrinite from selected coals from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin were studied using electron microprobe and micro-FTIR techniques. The coal studied covers a range of vitrinite reflectance from 0.59% to 1.33%. Carbon content in the bitumen is generally lower than in vitrinite in coals with vitrinite reflectance below 0.67%. In coals with reflectance above 0.67%, carbon content of bitumen is higher than in vitrinite, reflecting higher aromaticity due to hydrocarbon generation. Sulfur and iron content are comparable between vitrinite and bitumen. Functional group distribution suggests the presence of two types of bitumen in the Illinois Basin coals. The more aliphatic variety occurring in veins and cleats is interpreted as pre-gas generation bitumen, and the more aromatic variety filling cells and voids in inertinite as post-gas generation bitumen. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Solid bitumen and associated vitrinite from selected coals from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin were studied using electron microprobe and micro-FTIR techniques. The coal studied covers a range of vitrinite reflectance from 0.59% to 1.33%. Carbon content in the bitumen is generally lower than in vitrinite in coals with vitrinite reflectance below 0.67%. In coals with reflectance above 0.67%, carbon content of bitumen is higher than in vitrinite, reflecting higher aromaticity due to hydrocarbon generation. Sulfur and iron content are comparable between vitrinite and bitumen. Functional group distribution suggests the presence of two types of bitumen in the Illinois Basin coals. The more aliphatic variety occurring in veins and cleats is interpreted as pre-gas generation bitumen, and the more aromatic variety filling cells and voids in inertinite as post-gas generation bitumen.

  9. Dating hydrocarbon genera-tion and migration based on bitumen reflectance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of thermal maturation theories of organic matter in sediments and an improved Karweil's method, a method for dating hydrocarbon generation and migration by means of bitumen reflectance has been suggested. A few representative boreholes in the Tazhong Area of the Tarim Basin was investigated by this method. The results indicate that the three phases of bitumen from the Tazhong Area formed during Middle and Late Ordovician, Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary, and Late Tertiary, respectively. This implicates that there were three phases of hydrocarbon generation and migration occurring in this area during geological history. This study provided a new idea for the geological application of geochemical data of bitumen.

  10. [Determination of the four generic fractions of aged bitumen by thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhengang; Zhang, Jianbin; Li, Xinjun; Yu, Jianying

    2015-02-01

    The aging process of bitumen has been paid more and more attention by the researchers. The four generic fractions (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) of bitumen change significantly during the aging process. The analysis of the changes of the four generic fractions of bitumen is very helpful to reveal the bitumen aging mechanisms and guide its engineering applications. In this study, the bitumen was aged by thin film oven test (TFOT) , pressurized aging vessel (PAV) test and ultraviolet (UV) aging test, respectively. Then the four generic fractions of bitumen before and after aging were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID) , which was further compared with the solubility procedures and chromatographic technique ( named as Corbett method). The compositions of the expanded solvents were also investigated. Finally, the correlation between the TLC-FID and Corbett method was further studied, which revealed a proper TLC-FID meth- od for detection of aged bitumen. The bitumen solution dissolved by dichloromethane was successively expanded by n-heptane, toluene/n-heptane (80 :20, v/v) and toluene/ethanol (55: 45, v/v) , followed by TLC-FID. This method is of great significance for the analysis of the four generic fractions of bitumen and for the exploration of bitumen aging mechanisms.

  11. Rheology and microstructure of MDI PEG reactive prepolymer-modified bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, F. J.; Partal, P.; Martínez-Boza, F.; Gallegos, C.; Bordado, J. C. M.; Diogo, A. C.

    2006-12-01

    This paper deals with the use of a new bitumen modifier, a reactive prepolymer, based on the reaction of 4,4‧-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and a low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG). The rheological and thermal behaviours of modified bitumen containing a low MDI PEG concentration, as well as its morphology, have been studied. A relatively low amount of MDI PEG (0.5 to 1.5% wt.) yields a significant improvement in the modified bitumen rheological properties, mainly in the high in-service temperature region. In this range of temperature, the rheological properties are clearly affected by curing time at room temperature. These results indicate that chemical changes, due to the reaction of MDI isocyanate groups with the most polar groups ( OH; NH) of asphaltenes and resins, are produced. Thus, new chemical structures, non-visible by optical microscopy, slowly develop in MDI PEG modified bitumen when samples are cured at room temperature.

  12. Low temperature extraction and upgrading of oil sands and bitumen in supercritical fluid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Sarah A; Riley, Sandra H; McGrady, G Sean; Tanhawiriyakul, Supaporn; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Willson, Christopher D

    2010-07-21

    Preliminary results are reported for the extraction and catalytic hydrocracking of Alberta bitumen and oil sands using supercritical fluid mixtures; high levels of extraction and upgrading were attained using reaction conditions significantly milder than those previously reported.

  13. Biological markers in bitumens and pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous bituminous chalks from the Ghareb Formation (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullkötter, Jürgen; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Spiro, Baruch

    1984-01-01

    The sterane and triterpane distributions of three bituminous chalks from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation (Israel) were investigated both in the original extractable bitumens and in extracts obtained after pyrolysis of whole rock and isolated kerogen samples at 450°C. Pyrolysis was performed in a closed system under hydrous (whole rock) and anhydrous conditions (isolated kerogens). The carbon number distributions of steranes and triterpanes differ significantly between original bitumen and pyrolyzates. Unlike the bitumens in which diasteranes were not detected, the anhydrous pyrolyzates contain small amounts of diasteranes. The presence of water during pyrolysis leads to an increase of sterane isomerization, the abundant formation of diasteranes and an increase of the 18α( H)- trisnorneohopane/17α( H)- trisnorhopane ratio. Sterane isomerization maturation parameters show a closer match between original bitumen and pyrolyzates after pyrolysis in a closed system when compared with an open system.

  14. Numerical Simulation Study on Parameters related to Athabasca Bitumen Recovery with SAGD

    OpenAIRE

    Marianayagam, Kristin Reka

    2012-01-01

    The world’s total oil reserves are to some extent dominated by heavy oil. The heavy oil reserves are doubled in volume compared to conventional oil reserves. As conventional oil reservoirs are depleting, heavy oil and bitumen possesses a great potential in covering parts of the future energy demand. The possibility of horizontal drilling has created a pathway for SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage), which is the most preferred heavy oil and bitumen recovery method. The mechanism of SAGD in...

  15. Analys av Nedbrytningsprodukter av Polymerer för Bitumenändamål

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Björn

    2007-01-01

    This project was aimed to study the degradation of polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS). SBS is used to modify bitumen, the binder in asphalt. From earlier studies it is known that SBS degrades in bitumen, but the degradation products have not been identified. To be able to determine the long term effects of SBS in the environment, degradation products need to be identified. Polystyrene forms rigid blocks with polybutadiene as a rubbery matrix between the ridgid blocks. When bl...

  16. Effects of SBS Configuration on Performance of High Modulus Bitumen Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Liang; Yong Hu; Xiangjun Kong; Weiyu Fan; Xue Xin; Hui Luo

    2016-01-01

    High modulus bitumens modified by polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS) with different molecular structure were investigated on dynamic shear rheometer and fluorescence microscopy to evaluate viscoelastic properties and morphology of binders. The results shows that storage modulus (G’) is obviously less than loss modulus (G”), which means viscous behaviour of bitumen is dominant, and anti-rutting factor (G* ⁄ sin δ) is markedly enhanced by star SBS than by linear SBS. The mo...

  17. Distinguishing solid bitumens formed by thermochemical sulfate reduction and thermal chemical alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Walters, C.C.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Afeworki, M.; Sansone, M.; Freund, H.; Pottorf, R.J.; Machel, H.G.; Zhang, T.; Ellis, G.S.; Tang, Y.; Peters, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Insoluble solid bitumens are organic residues that can form by the thermal chemical alteration (TCA) or thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) of migrated petroleum. TCA may actually encompass several low temperature processes, such as biodegradation and asphaltene precipitation, followed by thermal alteration. TSR is an abiotic redox reaction where petroleum is oxidized by sulfate. It is difficult to distinguish solid bitumens associated with TCA of petroleum from those associated with TSR when both processes occur at relatively high temperature. The focus of the present work was to characterize solid bitumen samples associated with TCA or TSR using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS is a surface analysis conducted on either isolated or in situ (>25 ??m diameter) solid bitumen that can provide the relative abundance and chemical speciation of carbon, organic and inorganic heteroatoms (NSO). In this study, naturally occurring solid bitumens from three locations, Nisku Fm. Brazeau River area (TSR-related), LaBarge Field Madison Fm. (TSR-related), and the Alaskan Brooks range (TCA-related), are compared to organic solids generated during laboratory simulation of the TSR and TCA processes. The abundance and chemical nature of organic nitrogen and sulfur in solid bitumens can be understood in terms of the nature of (1) petroleum precursor molecules, (2) the concentration of nitrogen by way of thermal stress and (3) the mode of sulfur incorporation. TCA solid bitumens originate from polar materials that are initially rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Aromaticity and nitrogen increase as thermal stress cleaves aliphatic moieties and condensation reactions take place. Organic sulfur in TCA organic solids remains fairly constant with increasing maturation (3.5 to ???17 sulfur per 100 carbons) into aromatic structures and to the low levels of nitrogen in their hydrocarbon precursors. Hence, XPS results provide organic chemical composition information that helps to

  18. Experimental research on bitumen preheating (fluidization) by using solar energy in passive mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luminosu, Ioan [Department of Physics, ' Politehnica' University Timisoara, 1, Regina Maria Plaza, RO 300004, Timisoara (Romania); Fara, Laurentiu [Department of Physics, ' ' Politehnica' ' University Bucharest, 313, Splaiul Independentei Blvd, RO 060032, Bucuresti (Romania)

    2009-01-15

    An important aim of worldwide research engineering is to identify new industries to introduce solar energy installations for average thermal level. Due to the mechanical and thermal properties of bitumen, such as the 44-49 C softening point of D80/100 type bitumen, this material can be preheated by using solar thermal installations. The Physics Department of 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara designed and studied a laboratory installation for preheating in environmental conditions an amount of 25.1 kg of bitumen up to 55 C per day. The paper developed a previous original research regarding bitumen preheating by using solar energy. The experimental installation was improved and experimental data were statistically processed. The main improvements were based on:-increasing the amount of incident solar radiation by: (a) reducing the height of the brick walls and replacing them with transparent glass plates; (b) painting the inner faces of the brick walls in white; -cutting down thermal losses by: (a) achievement of the double greenhouse effect in the transparent areas of the installation; (b) change of the brick walls into passive walls. The performances of the installation were improved as follows:-increasing time of the bitumen temperature increased from 7 hours to 8 hours, in the interval 8 am-4 pm; -bitumen maximum temperature increased from 55 to 63.3 C; -average temperature in bitumen increased from 41.4 to 46.4 C; -maximum efficiency increased from 12 to 14.4%; -daily average efficiency increased from 6.3 to 7.3%; -maximum difference between the bitumen temperature and environmental one increased from 24 to 32 C. (author)

  19. Chemically modified bitumens with enhanced rheology and adhesion properties to siliceous aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Partal López, Pedro; Ahmad, Naveed; Grenfell, James; Airey, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major premature failures that worsens the performance and shortens service life of pavements. This research assesses the effect that two chemical modifiers (thiourea and an isocyanate-functionalized castor oil prepolymer) exerts on the bitumen rheology and on the resistance to potential moisture damage of asphalt mixtures based on siliceous aggregates. Both thiourea and the isocyanate-based prepolymer improve the viscous and viscoelastic behaviours of bitumen at ...

  20. Chemical and rheological evaluation of ageing properties of SBS polymer modified bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.; Isacsson, U. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Division of Highway Engineering

    1998-07-01

    The ageing properties of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) polymer modified bitumens were evaluated using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy. The binders were aged by means of the Thin Film Oven Test (TFOT) and the Rolling Thin Film Oven Test (RTFOT), respectively. It was observed that ageing resulted in degradation of the SBS polymer containing molecules and increase in bitumen molecular weight. The polymer was observed to resist formation of sulphoxides. Changes in the rheological properties of aged-modified binders were dependent on a combined effect of bitumen oxidation and polymer degradation, which varied with bitumen source/grade and polymer type/content. In all cases, the aged modified binders showed better rheological properties than aged base bitumens. The study also indicated that the ageing index obtained using DMA was largely influenced by temperature and frequency. This parameter may be applied for evaluating the base bitumens and modified binders with a low polymer content (3% in this study), but not for modified binders with a high (6%) polymer content. 18 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Colloidal interactions between Langmuir-Blodgett bitumen films and fine solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob H

    2006-10-10

    In oil sand processing, accumulation of surface-active compounds at various interfaces imposes a significant impact on bitumen recovery and bitumen froth cleaning (i.e., froth treatment) by altering the interfacial properties and colloidal interactions among various oil sand components. In the present study, bitumen films were prepared at toluene/water interfaces using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) upstroke deposition technique. The surface of the prepared LB bitumen films was found to be hydrophobic, comprised of wormlike aggregates containing a relatively high content of oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen, indicating an accumulation of surface-active compounds in the films. Using an atomic force microscope, colloidal interactions between the LB bitumen films and fine solids (model silica particles and clay particles chosen directly from an oil sand tailing stream) were measured in industrial plant process water and compared with those measured in simple electrolyte solutions of controlled pH and divalent cation concentrations. The results show a stronger long-range repulsive force and weaker adhesion force in solutions of higher pH and lower divalent cation concentration. In plant process water, a moderate long-range repulsive force and weak adhesion were measured despite its high electrolyte content. These findings provide more insight into the mechanisms of bitumen extraction and froth treatment.

  2. Biological marker distribution in coexisting kerogen, bitumen and asphaltenes in Monterey Formation diatomite, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Ruth, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Organic-rich (18.2%) Monterey Formation diatomite from California was studied. The organic matter consist of 94% bitumen and 6% kerogen. Biological markers from the bitumen and from pyrolysates of the coexisting asphaltenes and kerogen were analyzed in order to elucidate the relationship between the various fractions of the organic matter. While 17 alpha(H), 18 alpha(H), 21 alpha(H)-28,30-bisnorhopane was present in the bitumen and in the pryolysate of the asphaltenes, it was not detected in the pyrolysates of the kerogen. A C40-isoprenoid with "head to head" linkage, however, was present in pyrolysates of both kerogen and asphaltenes, but not in the bitumen from the diatomite. The maturation level of the bitumen, based on the extent of isomerization of steranes and hopanes, was that of a mature oil, whereas the pyrolysate from the kerogen showed a considerably lower maturation level. These relationships indicate that the bitumen may not be indigenous to the diatomite and that it is a mature oil that migrated into the rock. We consider the possibility, however, that some of the 28,30-bisnorhopane-rich Monterey Formation oils have not been generated through thermal degradation of kerogen, but have been expelled from the source rock at an early stage of diagenesis.

  3. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Todd, Billy D; Daivis, Peter J; Hansen, Jesper S

    2015-01-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear is investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity and normal stress differences of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid. The corresponding molecular structure is studied at the same shear rates and temperatures. The Cooee bitumen is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. The nanoaggregates are shown to break up at very high shear rates, leading only to a minor effect on the viscosity of the mixture. At low shear rates, bitumen can be seen as a colloidal suspension of nanoaggregates in a solvent. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified...

  4. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  5. 储层沥青成因及其对油气运聚的影响——以鄂尔多斯盆地华庆地区长8油层组1砂组为例%Reservoir bitumen genesis and its impacts on hydrocarbon migration and accumulation:a case study from Chang 81 of Yangchang Fomation in Huaqing area, the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世加; 姚泾利; 路俊刚; 杨国平; 文延春; 张纪智; 石正灏

    2012-01-01

    Bitumen is common in the pores of Chang 8 pay zone of the Triassic Yanchang Formation in Huaqing area of the central part of Ordos Basin, and the oil-water relationship is very complicated. According to the analysis on the geochemical characteristics of reservoir extracts and crude oil, combining with comparative test on the reservoir physical property of cores containing bitumen before and after washing oil and the reservoir fluorescence analysis, authors studies in detail the reservoir bitumen genesis and its impact on reservoir physical property and hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in this area. The results show that the genesis of reservoir bitumen and crude oil are different, and the bitumen has lower maturity with strong biodegradation. Base on the experiment of washing oil, it is found that both the post-washing porosity and permeability of cores containing bitumen increase significantly, and the oil formed in late stage mainly distributes in the residual pore filled with bitumen. It is pointed out that bitumen has an important control on reservoir physical property and hydrocarbon migration andaccumulation at late stage. The Chang 81 formation experienced hydrocarbon two accumulation stages,the first stage happened in Middle-Late Jurassic and the second in Early Cretaceous. The early accumulated crude oil with low maturity suffered from strong biodegradation and were turned to bitumen,which filled in the pores of reservoir together with chlorites and ferrocalcites, making the reservoir tighter. The mature oil generated from the source rocks in late stage could only accumulate in the residual pores filled with bitumen or in pores of reservoir with less bitumen.%鄂尔多斯盆地中部华庆地区三叠系延长组长8油层组1砂组储层孔隙中普遍见沥青,油水关系十分复杂.通过对储层抽提物和原油的地球化学特征分析,并结合含沥青岩心洗油前后储层物性对比实验和储层显微荧光分析,系统研究了

  6. Studi Proses Pemisahan Bitumen dari Asbuton dengan Proses Hot Water Menggunakan Bahan Pelarut Kerosin dan Larutan Surfaktan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Sidiq

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan studi proses pemisahan bitumen dari asbuton dengan proses hot water menggunakan bahan pelarut kerosin dan larutan surfaktan. Asbuton adalah aspal alam yang terdeposit dalam batuan dengan kadar bitumen antara 15-30% yang terdapat di Pulau Buton, Sulawesi Tenggara dengan jumlah deposit aspal sebesar 677juta ton. Bitumen dapat digunakan sebagai campuran aspal minyak untuk pembangunan dan pemeliharaan sarana infrastruktur berupa jalan raya. Salah satu cara pemisahan bitumen dari mineral adalah dengan proses hot water menggunakan bahan pelarut kerosin dan larutan surfaktan. Sistem yang ditinjau dalam penelitian ini adalah tangki berpengaduk berbentuk silinder dengan kapasitar 2000cm2. Dalam penelitian ini akan ditinjau pengaruh dari penambahan ratio larutan surfaktan/asbuton dan penambahan kerosin terhadap %recovery bitumen. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan selama 20 menit dengan suhu proses 90oC dan kecepatan putar pengaduk 1500 rpm. Hasil proses ini akan terbentuk 3 lapisan yaitu lapisan atas terdiri dari larutan bitumen (kerosin dan bitumen, lapisan tengah terdiri dari air, larutan surfaktan dan mineral murni yang terpisah, dan lapisan bawah terdiri dari asbuton yang tidak terekstrak, kerosin dan sedikit air. Lapisan paling atas di ambil dan dilakukan analisa densitasnya untuk diketahui konsentrasi bitumennya. Sehingga dapat dihitung %recovery bitumen yang dihasilkan. Lapisan paling atas dipisahkan dan dianalisa konsentrasi bitumennya dengan mengukur densitasnya. Dari hasil eksperimen diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa (% recovery bitumen tertinggi adalah pada penambahan kerosin 50% dan 0,1% konsentrasi larutan surfaktan 35 % sebesar 80,797%.

  7. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawadee Chamnan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon. The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass provided the highest effectiveness tocontrol aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch. Control of A. craccivora was not significantly different between the synthetic insecticide and plant crude extracts, except methamidophos. Pod damage caused by pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer and yields were also not significantly different among treatments. However, the highest yield of 1,224.7 kg/rai was recorded in plots treated with neem seed extracts and the synthetic insecticide, carbosulfan. In untreated plots, the lowest yield of 587.3 kg/rai was collected.

  8. Physical and chemical characterization of asphalt (bitumen) paving exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Robert F; McClean, Michael D; Meeker, John D; Zwack, Leonard; Hanley, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of asphalt (bitumen) fume and vapor in hot mix asphalt roadway paving operations. Area and personal air samples were taken using real-time equipment and extractive sampling and analytical methods to determine worker asphalt exposure, as well as to characterize the properties of the particulate and vapor phase components. Analysis of personal inhalation and dermal samples by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy showed that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profile is dominated by compounds with molecular weights below 228, and that substituted and heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons comprised approximately 71% of the detectable mass concentration (vapor and particulate combined). Principal components analysis shows that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights greater than 190 are the driving force behind the polycyclic aromatic compound exposures measured for the dermal and particulate phases; there was no clear trend for the vapor phase Most of the aerosol particles are fine (mass median aerodynamic diameter 1.02 microm; count median diameter 0.24 microm).

  9. A Comparative Study on Properties of Malaysian Porous Asphalt Mixes with Different Bitumen Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Yusri Aman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate bitumen content in porous pavement construction may result in incomplete coating of aggregates which a thin bitumen film can oxidize rapidly resulting in premature failure of the pavement. This and presents the effects of porous asphalt prepared with 4.0% and up to 6.0% binder content with 0.5% increments binder. Bitumen penetration grade 60/70 and crushed granite were used in preparing the porous asphalt specimen. The porous asphalt mixes were compacted by applying 50 blows on each face using a Marshall Impact compactor. The specimens were tested for air voids, indirect tensile strength and water permeability and abrasion loss. The moisture sensitivity was assessed according to the AASHTO T283 procedures. The result shows that the increasing of bitumen content has decreased the, bulk density air voids, coefficient of permeability and abrasion loss values However, the Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS has significantly increased and this is a good indication to resistance against moisture sensitivity. It can be concluded that the increasing of bitumen content in porous asphalt has increased the thickness of binder coating around the aggregates. This results reduction in air voids and water permeability, on the other hands it increases resistance to disintegration and ITS value which give better resistance to moisture sensitivity of porous specimens.

  10. Assessment of dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road paving and mastic crews with an observational method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostini, M.; Fransman, W.; Vocht, F.D.; Joode, B.V.W.D.; Kromhout, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road pavers and indoor mastic workers in multiple crews using a semi-quantitative observational method [DeRmal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM)].Methods: Two skilled observers assessed dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among 85 a

  11. Rate of bitumen film transfer from a quartz surface to an air bubble as observed by optical microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelinski, D. [FFE Minerals USA Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Drelich, J. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Miller, J.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Hupka, J. [Gdansk Univ. of Technology, Gdansk (Poland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    2004-08-01

    Froth flotation is a separation process used to recover oil from oil sands. The two separation steps in froth flotation include the release of oil from mineral matter, and oil flotation from the slurry. During flotation, gas bubbles collide with and attach to oil droplets and to oily soil particles. The flotation of oil-in water emulsions in the absence of solids has been studied extensively. This study focused on liquid/liquid spreading. It was limited to simple systems involving pure single-component liquids. Multi-component oils were only used in a few experiments. In particular, this paper discussed the rate of high viscosity bitumen transfer from a bitumen-coated quartz slide to an air bubble surface that occurred in an aqueous alkaline solution. Bitumen spreading observations were recorded with a video camera attached to a stereoscopic microscope. The objective was to improve hot-water processing technology for bitumen recovery from Utah oil sands. The study showed that during bitumen spreading, a bulk layer followed the formation of thin bitumen films. The spreading velocity was one order of magnitude less than the velocity of the precursor film. The study provided a better understanding of the basic separation techniques encountered in the sequence of oil sand slurry digestion, aeration, gravity separation and flotation. It was concluded that a strong intermolecular attraction exists between the bitumen molecules. This interaction reduces the rate of bitumen spreading at the water surface. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Text size: s m l xl Crude Oil Spills and Health Overviews Health Information Coping with Disasters ... U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Return to top Oil Spills and Wildlife Environmental Quality: Oil Spill Preparation and ...

  13. Observations and morphological analysis of supermolecular structure of natural bitumens by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yevgeny A. Golubev; Olga V. Kovaleva; Nikolay P. Yushkin [Institute of Geology of RAS, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    The supermolecular structures of natural bitumens of the thermal consequent row asphaltites lower kerites (albertites), higher kerites (impsonites), anthraxolites from the Timan-Pechora petroleum province and Karelian shungite rocks, Russia, were studied in details. The experimental technique used was atomic force microscopy (AFM), following fracture preparation. The element distribution of the sample surfaces was analyzed by an X-ray microanalyser 'Link ISIS', combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In this work, we characterized the supermolecular evolution of natural solid bitumens in the carbonization sequence by quantitative parameters. We showed that supermolecular structure can be important in defining to which classification group solid bitumens belong. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Performance Test for Open Grade Bitumen and Cement Mixture OGBC-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Wu, Z. L.; Li, C. M.; Gan, X. Z.; Xiong, X. J.

    For effective prevention of urban road intersection special sections for nit diseases and improving the pavement durability, an open grade bitumen and cement (OGBC-20) mixture is proposed. In organic hydraulic cement mixture design, mix proportion designs of cement mortar and matrix open-graded bitumen were done. The matrix mixture gradation was adjusted .It has greater void of air volume than that of ATPB-25. A variety of tests in laboratory for OGBC-20 were performed. The experimental results show that: The void of air volume of adjusted gradation matrix asphalt mixture is up to 23%. and binder drainage loss is ≤ 0.3%. Cement mortar filling is fuller and better water stability and low temperature crack resistance compared to ordinary bitumen mixture. It has the absolute advantage on high temperature stability and shows the superiority of the new pavement materials.

  15. Modification of Bitumen with Desulfurized Crumb Rubber in the Present of Reactive Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zhigang; ZHANG Yuzhen; KONG Xianming

    2005-01-01

    Bitumen was modified with desulfurized crumb rubber (DCR) in the present of reactive additives. The effect of the kinds and content of the reactive additive on properties of DCR modified bitumen (DCRMB) was investigated. The morphology of DCRMB was characterized by SEM and the changes of the chemical structure of DCRMB without and with the addition of the reactive additive were analyzed by FTIR. The experimented results show that the softening point,the elasticity recovery and the storage stability of DCRMB were improved significantly by the addition of the reactive additive. This is because that a network structure of rubber in DCRMB was formed and the chemical reaction between C=C double bonds in bitumen and DCR has happened after the reactive additive was added into DCRMB.

  16. Effects of Different Ultrasound Irradiation Frequencies and Water Temperatures on Extraction Rate of Bitumen from Oil Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Hirokazu; Saito, Tomonao; Hosokawa, Ryota; Nakamura, Takashi; Kawamura, Youhei; Sugawara, Katsuyasu

    2010-07-01

    Low (28 kHz) and high (200 kHz) frequency sonication combined with hot water treatments at 45 and 75 °C were investigated to assess the effects of different ultrasound frequencies and water temperatures on the extraction of bitumen from oil sand. A mechanical stirrer was also used to compare the efficiency of separation. Bitumen extraction tests were performed under argon, air, and nitrogen atmospheres. Sonication at 200 kHz was shown to extract bitumen effectively from oil sand at 75 °C. The bitumen extraction rate for sonication at 200 kHz was slightly higher than that at 28 kHz. For low temperature (45 °C) solutions, only sonication at 28 kHz could extract bitumen from oil sand, demonstrating that sonication at 28 kHz can effectively breakdown the oil sand aggregates into a suspension.

  17. Foamed Bitumen Decay Equation and Bitumen Foaming Characteristics Evaluation%泡沫沥青衰变方程与发泡特性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 黄颂昌; 徐剑

    2011-01-01

    The expansion ratio and the half-life are usually utilized to evaluate the characteristics of foamed bitumen at present, but it' s hard to determine the optimum foaming parameters due to lack of definite numerical evaluation criteria. Therefore,an index is developed in this study to solve the problem. One of the existing decay equations is chosen as the basic form of the foamed bitumen decay equation. Then the general equation is derived by differential for the actual maximum expansion ratio, and a general decay equation is obtained with corrected boundary conditions of foamed bitumen decay. The foam energy index is defined from the view of energy,and the index formula is derived by integral. The foaming test data of four kinds of bitumen used in actual works are analyzed. The result shows that the foam energy index quantifies the bitumen foaming characteristics with a clear physical meaning, and it can be used to determine the optimum foaming parameters and evaluate the characteristics of different foamed bitumen.%目前常用膨胀率和半衰期指标来评价沥青的发泡特性,由于缺乏明确的数值评价标准,有时难以判断最佳发泡参数.比较了现有的4种衰变方程,选定了泡沫沥青衰变方程的基本形式,应用微分方法推导出实际最大膨胀率的通式,由泡沫沥青衰变的边界条件修正得到标准衰变方程,从能量角度出发定义了泡沫能量指标,通过积分给出了计算公式.对实际工程所用4种沥青的发泡试验数据进行分析,泡沫能量指标物理意义明确,量化了沥青的发泡特性,既可确定沥青的最佳发泡参数,又可评价不同沥青的发泡特性.

  18. Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Beate; Spickenheuer, Anne; Kendzia, Benjamin; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Welge, Peter; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Urinary hydroxylated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated as potential biomarkers of bitumen exposure in a cross-shift study in 317 exposed and 117 non-exposed workers. Personal measurements of the airborne concentration of vapours and aerosols of bitumen during a working shift were weakly associated with post-shift concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 1-, 2+9-, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes (further referred to their sum as OHPHE), but not 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalene (OHNA). Smoking showed a strong influence on the metabolite concentrations, in particular on OHNA. Pre-shift concentrations of 1-OHP and OHPHE did not differ between the study groups (P = 0.16 and P = 0.89, respectively). During shift, PAH metabolite concentrations increased in exposed workers and non-exposed smokers. Statistical modelling of post-shift concentrations revealed a small increase in 1-OHP by a factor of 1.02 per 1 mg/m(3) bitumen (P = 0.02) and 1.04 for OHPHE (P < 0.001). A group difference was observed that was diminished in non-smokers. Exposed non-smokers had a median post-shift 1-OHP concentration of 0.42 μg/l, and non-smoking referents 0.13 μg/l. Although post-shift concentrations of 1-OHP and OHPHE were slightly higher than those in the general population, they were much lower than in coke-oven workers. The small content of PAHs in vapours and aerosols of bitumen, the increasing use of additives to asphalt mixtures, the strong impact of smoking and their weak association with airborne bitumen limit the use of PAH metabolites as specific biomarkers of bitumen exposure.

  19. Elevated cancer mortality in a German cohort of bitumen workers: extended follow-up through 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Thomas; Schill, Walter; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2009-09-01

    The mortality follow-up in a cohort of German asphalt workers covered an additional 6 years. Male workers (N = 7919) were classified into four exposure categories: (1) exposure to bitumen only, (2) to bitumen and coal tar, (3) neither to tar nor to bitumen, and (4) unknown exposure. Exposure-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on age- and calendar period-specific national mortality rates were calculated. To compare exposed and unexposed workers, relative risks were estimated by Poisson regression. By the end of 2004, 835 workers had died. The SMR for lung cancer was 1.77 (95% CI 1.46-2.16). Head and neck cancer showed an SMR of 2.36 (95% CI 1.78-3.07). Bladder cancer mortality was elevated threefold. Significantly elevated cancer-related SMRs were also found for all malignant tumors. In addition, elevated mortality rates of nonmalignant causes such as alcoholism, liver cirrhosis, and unnatural causes of deaths including accidents were observed. After stratification by exposure group, cancer mortality was elevated among bitumen-exposed and unexposed subjects. In the internal analysis, the association between lung cancer and bitumen exposure was weakened as compared with the previous follow-up (relative risk [RR] = 1.15; 95% CI 0.72-1.84). The follow-up demonstrated an excess of cancer in this cohort of asphalt workers. However, the observed mortality patterns were not clear. Although exposure to bitumen cannot be ruled out as being responsible for the observed results, a higher prevalence of alcohol and tobacco consumption may partially explain the observed risk increases. Exposure assessment in future studies should account for multiple occupational agents and nonoccupational factors to rule out that the observed differences in SMR are not due simply to random variation.

  20. Terrestrial bitumen analogue of orgueil organic material demonstrates high sensitivity to usual HF-HCl treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korochantsev, A. V.; Nikolaeva, O. V.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the chemical composition and the interlayer spacing (d002) of organic materials (OM's) is known for various terrestrial OM's. We improved this general trend by correlation with corresponding trend of natural solid bitumens (asphaltite-kerite-anthraxolite) up to graphite. Using the improved trend we identified bitumen analogs of carbonaceous chondrite OM's residued after HF-HCl treatment. Our laboratory experiment revealed that these analogs and, hence, structure and chemical composition of carbonaceous chondrite OM's are very sensitive to the HF-HCl treatment. So, usual extraction of OM from carbonaceous chondrites may change significantly structural and chemical composition of extracted OM.

  1. Study on low temperature performance of Gussasphalt on steel decks with hard bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJun

    2003-01-01

    Using a Hamburg wheel-traek test device, the resistance to rutting of Gussasphalt is tested and compared.Gussasphalt with hard bitumen has good resistance to rutting. The related resistance abilities to cracking at low temperature of Gussasphalt are tested and compared through flexural experiments and the composite structure fatigue test with temperature dropping. Gussasphalt with high pedormanee polymer modified bitumen has a longer fatigue life and a lower breaking temperature; they can be used in the future sudaces for steel bridge decks in Germany.

  2. Reflectance measurements of zooclasts and solid bitumen in Lower Paleozoic shales, southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik I.; Schovsbo, Niels H.; Nielsen, Arne T.

    2013-01-01

    to that of graptolites at the same level of maturity. Reflectance measurements of solid bitumen are a poor maturity indicator, probably because bitumen can have various origins and morphologies and it may not be indigenous to the host rock. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......-Lower Paleozoic rocks containing vitrinite, starts, accordingly, at 1.56% R-o graptolite reflectance. Porous/granular vitrinite-like particles occur in minor amounts and they may represent graptolite fragments with a non-smooth surface. They generally yield slightly higher reflectance than non-granular vitrinite...

  3. Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Rheology and Chemistry of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Liu; Shaopeng Wu; Gang Liu; Liping Li

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an ultravioletlight (UV)-resistant material. In this study, two types of LDHs (Mg-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-LDHs) were applied to modify bitumen by melt-blending. The effect of ultraviolet aging on the rheology and chemistry of LDH-modified bitumen was studied by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotome...

  4. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  5. Synthetic foldamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Gilles; Huc, Ivan

    2011-06-07

    Foldamers are artificial folded molecular architectures inspired by the structures and functions of biopolymers. This highlight focuses on important developments concerning foldamers produced by chemical synthesis and on the perspectives that these new self-organized molecular scaffolds offer. Progress in the field has led to synthetic objects that resemble small proteins in terms of size and complexity yet that may not contain any α-amino acids. Foldamers have introduced new tools and concepts to develop biologically active substances, synthetic receptors and novel materials.

  6. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behaviors of Microcapsules/Bitumen Composites by a Repetitive Direct Tension Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the self-healing behaviors of bitumen using microcapsules containing rejuvenator by a modified fracture healing–refracture method through a repetitive tension test. Microcapsules had mean size values of 10, 20 and 30 μm with a same core/shell ratio of 1/1. Various microcapsules/bitumen samples were fabricated with microcapsule contents of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt. %, respectively. Tension strength values of microcapsules/bitumen samples were measured by a reparative fracture-healing process under different temperatures. It was found that these samples had tensile strength values larger than the data of pure bitumen samples under the same conditions after the four tensile fracture-healing cycles. Fracture morphology investigation and mechanism analysis indicated that the self-healing process was a process consisting of microcapsules being broken, penetrated and diffused. Moreover, the crack healing of bitumen can be considered as a viscosity driven process. The self-healing ability partly repaired the damage of bitumen during service life by comparing the properties of virgin and rejuvenated bitumen.

  7. Influence of Polyphosphoric Acid on the Consistency and Composition of Formulated Bitumen: Standard Characterization and NMR Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Catarina; Ribeiro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Over the recent years, bitumen modification with polymers, acids, or mineral fillers has gained relevance to adjust its performance properties. This work reports the use of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) for the modification of formulated bitumen. With this objective, an in-depth literature review on PPA modification was firstly performed. Subsequently, five individual refinery components were selected for the preparation of bitumen blends, namely, asphaltic residue, vacuum residue, and three lube oils extracts. Seven binary/ternary bitumen blends were prepared and then treated with PPA. Afterwards, the five components and the unmodified and PPA-modified bitumen were characterized by standard methods (penetration, softening point, and penetration index), SARA analysis, elemental analysis, and 31P and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results evidenced higher asphaltenes and lower saturates/resins contents in PPA-modified bitumen. The NMR data suggest that the paraffinic chains became longer, the content of condensed aromatics increased, more substituted aromatic structures appeared, and α-hydrogen in aromatic structures diminished. These findings disclosed the improved consistency and oxidation stability of PPA-modified bitumen blends. PMID:27579214

  8. Influence of Polyphosphoric Acid on the Consistency and Composition of Formulated Bitumen: Standard Characterization and NMR Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Catarina; Portugal, Inês; Ribeiro, Jorge; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, Carlos M

    2016-01-01

    Over the recent years, bitumen modification with polymers, acids, or mineral fillers has gained relevance to adjust its performance properties. This work reports the use of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) for the modification of formulated bitumen. With this objective, an in-depth literature review on PPA modification was firstly performed. Subsequently, five individual refinery components were selected for the preparation of bitumen blends, namely, asphaltic residue, vacuum residue, and three lube oils extracts. Seven binary/ternary bitumen blends were prepared and then treated with PPA. Afterwards, the five components and the unmodified and PPA-modified bitumen were characterized by standard methods (penetration, softening point, and penetration index), SARA analysis, elemental analysis, and (31)P and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results evidenced higher asphaltenes and lower saturates/resins contents in PPA-modified bitumen. The NMR data suggest that the paraffinic chains became longer, the content of condensed aromatics increased, more substituted aromatic structures appeared, and α-hydrogen in aromatic structures diminished. These findings disclosed the improved consistency and oxidation stability of PPA-modified bitumen blends.

  9. Bitumen modification with a low-molecular-weight reactive isocyanate-terminated polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.J. Navarro; P. Partal; M. Garcia-Morales; F.J. Martinez-Boza; C. Gallegos [Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales

    2007-10-15

    A low-molecular-weight polyethyleneglycol functionalized with a polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocynate) was used as a modifying agent for a 60/70 penetration grade bitumen. The rheological properties of the resulting modified binder, at both low and intermediate temperatures, before and after curing at room temperature were studied and compared with those corresponding to a SBS modified bitumen. The analysis showed that the addition of a small quantity of this reactive polymer leads to enhanced rheological properties mainly at high in-service temperature (50{sup o}C). However, modification was found to be rather slow during binder curing at room temperature. Moreover, storage stability analysis showed that phase separation did not take place after bitumen storage at 163{sup o}C, though storage at high temperature affects the modification capability of the reactive polymer. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the reactive polymer addition leads to asphaltene-rich regions with lower thermal susceptibility, which are present even at high temperature, yielding an improved bitumen viscosity in this range of in-service temperatures. 38 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Electro-thermal dynamic stripping process : integrating environmentalism with bitumen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, B.C.W.; McDonald, C.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[E-T Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Little, L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presented a new method of in situ oil sands extraction developed by Calgary-based E-T Energy. The Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process (ET-DSP) uses electricity to melt oil sands deposits that are too deep for open pit mining. The energy intensity of production compares favourably with alternative thermal bitumen extraction techniques and water consumption for the process is comparatively low, with all produced water being re-injected into the producing formation without any treatment. With ET-DSP, electrodes are drilled and completed next to the oil sands formation which ensures that the electrical currents are forced to flow to the oil sands formation. The viscosity of the bitumen is lowered by the heat from the current, thereby making the fluid flow more readily into vertical extraction wells. ET-DSP uses electricity directly from the power grid, and does not produce any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of its own. The process has the potential to allow operators to focus on areas of oil sands reservoirs that have remained inaccessible. Field studies confirmed that the production of bitumen using this method was achieved with reduced greenhouse gas emissions as compared to other thermal recovery process. The bitumen had trace amount of sand and no emulsions. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. In-situ water vaporization improves bitumen production during electrothermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); McGee, B. [E-T Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Electro-thermal processes are now being considered as an alternative or complementary process to steam injection processes. This study used an in situ vaporized water process to optimize electrothermal processes for steam injection enhanced oil recovery (EOR). A simulation tool was used to model electro-thermal processes in an Athabasca oil sands reservoir. Incremental oil recovery was estimated based on a 3-block conceptual model. A field scale model was then used to investigate the effects of electrode spacing, water injection rates, and electrical heating rates on bitumen recovery. Results of the simulation studies were then analyzed using a statistical tool in order to determine optimal conditions for maximizing bitumen production. Results of the study showed that incremental recovery using the water vaporization technique resulted in oil recovery rates of 25 per cent original oil in place (OOIP). Sensitivity analyses showed that medium electrical heating rates, low water injection rates, and small spacings between electrodes maximized bitumen production rates. It was concluded that the technique can be used alone or combined with other methods to economically produce bitumens. 2 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Laboratory investigation of bitumen based on round robin DSC and AFM tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soenen, H.; Besamusca, J.; Fischer, H.R.; Poulikakos, L.D.; Planche, J.P.; Das, P.K.; Kringos, N.; Grenfell, J.R.A.; Lu, X.; Chailleux, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the past years a wide discussion has been held among asphalt researchers regarding the existence and interpretation of observed microstructures on bitumen surfaces. To investigate this, the RILEM technical committee on nano bituminous materials 231-NBM has conducted a round robin study combining

  13. Phase-Separation Characteristics of Bitumen and their Relation to Damage-Healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    During the service life of flexible asphalt pavements, asphalt concrete degrades due to traffic loading and environmental conditions like temperature, rain, oxidation, ultraviolet-radiation from the sun. All these environmental factors have adverse effects on the performance of bitumen, which is the

  14. Solubility of methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide in bitumen and water for SAGD modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Murayri, M.T.; Harding, T.G.; Maini, B.B.

    2011-07-15

    The steam assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process is a technology used in unconventional reservoirs to enhance oil recovery, this technique sometimes uses the co-injection of noncondensable gases (NCGs). The co-injection of NCGs with steam is used to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in SAGD, but this technique also affects the performance of SAGD, making the knowledge of gas solubility in bitumen and water important. This study was undertaken to develop a systematic approach to predict the K-values for the gas-bitumen and gas water phase equilibria at different temperatures and pressures. This research has been carried out by using different existing correlations. It has been observed that the Mehrotra and Svrcek gas-solubility correlation should be used to calculate NCG's solubility in bitumen and that NCGs' solubility in water could be calculated with Harvey's correlation. This study defined successfully an approach to calculate NCGs' solubility in bitumen and water.

  15. Chemical modification of bitumen heavy ends and their non-fuel uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Bitumen asphaltenes undergo a variety of simple chemical conversions. For example, asphaltenes can be oxidized, sulfonated, sulfomethylated, halogenated, and phosphorylated. The net result is the introduction of functional entities into the asphaltene structure which confers interesting properties on the products for which a variety of uses are proposed.

  16. Tire-tread and bitumen particle concentrations in aerosol and soil samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2002-01-01

    ire and bitumen particle concentrations are determined in aerosol and soil samples. They each constitute about 5 wt-% of the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in inner city air, collected with a Berner low pressure impactor, 5 m from a road. The particle size distribution shows that 92% of...

  17. Towards the Development of Bitumen Carbonates: An Integrated Analysis of Grosmont Steam Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeuko C.C.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Grosmont Formation in Alberta, Canada is a highly fractured, karstified and vuggy bitumen-rich carbonate reservoir located west of and below the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen carbonate platform extends about 500 km in length and up to 150 km in width and contains an estimated 64.5 billion m3 (406.5 billion barrels of oil. The Grosmont Formation is larger than the combined total of all other known carbonate bitumen deposits in the world. Here, we analyze early Grosmont steam pilots to improve the design of future pilots and commercial development of this massive bitumen deposit. In agreement with the conclusions of earlier analysis of these Grosmont pilots, they were reasonably successful considering the heterogeneous nature of the Grosmont Formation. Operational factors such as poor steam quality, non-optimized high injection pressures and completion issues appear to have heavily impacted recovery performances. Clearly, steam-based recovery operations have good potential for Grosmont, especially considering that it is mature commercial technology. Following an integrated analysis of early Grosmont pilots, we posit that Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS using horizontal wells exhibits greater potential for the development of Grosmont carbonate, compared with Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage technology (SAGD.

  18. How Thermal Fatigue Cycles Change the Rheological Behavior of Polymer Modified Bitumen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaoui, B.; Merbouh, M.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Chailleux, E.; Youcefi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of thermal fatigue cycles phenomenon, which affects the performance of flexible pavement. The purpose of the paper is to extent the knowledge on the rheology of polymer modified bitumen which was affected by cycles of thermal fatigue. The aim of this research is to d

  19. Specifying, Installing and Maintaining Built-Up and Modified Bitumen Roofing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    Examines built-up, modified bitumen, and hybrid combinations of the two roofing systems and offers advise on how to assure high- quality performance and durability when using them. Included is a glossary of commercial roofing terms and asphalt roofing resources to aid in making decisions on roofing and systems product selection. (GR)

  20. Irritative effects of vapours and aerosols of bitumen on the airways assessed by non-invasive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Spickenheuer, Anne; Bramer, Rainer; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Merget, Rolf; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Irritative effects caused by vapours and aerosols of bitumen were assessed by non-invasive methods including spirometry, nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and induced sputum (IS) in a cross-shift study comparing 320 bitumen-exposed workers with 118 road construction workers as the reference group. Lung function parameters, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) were within normal ranges in both the reference and the bitumen-exposed groups pre- and post-shift with marginally lower values in smokers of both groups. During the shift, a slight decline in FEV(1) and FVC was observed in the bitumen-exposed group independent of their smoking habits, whereas in the non-smoking reference group, the decline in FEV(1) was not observed. No significant differences between bitumen-exposed workers and the reference group and no significant shift effect were observed on the upper airways using NALF analysis. The IS concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8, total protein and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were significantly higher in bitumen-exposed workers than in the reference group. However, the concentration of these three biomarkers in the IS samples, which are indicators of inflammatory effects on the lower airways of bitumen-exposed workers, was already higher in exposed workers before shift and did not show an increase during the shift. Therefore, the key finding of this aspect of the Human Bitumen Study is the detection of potentially (sub-) chronic irritative inflammatory effects in the lower airways of bitumen-exposed workers.

  1. Bitumen recovery from oil sands using deep eutectic solvent and its aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulati, Nuerxida

    Oil sands compose a significant proportion of the world's known oil reserves. Oil sands are also known as tar sands and bituminous sands, are complex mixtures of sand, clays, water and bitumen, which is "heavy" and highly viscous oil. The extraction and separation of bitumen from oil sands requires significant amount of energy and large quantities of water and poses several environmental challenges. Bitumen can be successfully separated from oil sands using imidazolium based ionic liquids and nonpolar solvents, however, ionic liquids are expensive and toxic. In this thesis, the ionic liquid alternatives- deep eutectic solvent, were investigated. Oil sands separation can be successfully achieved by using deep eutectic solvents DES (choline chloride and urea) and nonpolar solvent naphtha in different types of oil sands, including Canadian ("water-wet"), Utah ("oil-wet") and low grade Kentucky oil sands. The separation quality depends on oil sands type, including bitumen and fine content, and separation condition, such as solvent ratio, temperature, mixing time and mechanical centrifuge. This separation claims to the DES ability to form ion /charge layering on mineral surface, which results in reduction of adhesion forces between bitumen and minerals and promote their separation. Addition of water to DES can reduce DES viscosity. DES water mixture as a media, oil sands separation can be achieved. However, concentration at about 50 % or higher might be required to obtain a clear separation. And the separation efficiency is oil sands sample dependent. The highest bitumen extraction yield happened at 75% DES-water solution for Utah oil sands samples, and at 50 60% DES-water solutions for Alberta oil sands samples. Force curves were measured using Atomic Force Microscopy new technique, PeakForce Tapping Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PFTQNM). The results demonstrate that, by adding DES, the adhesion force between bitumen and silica and dissipation energy will

  2. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  3. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  4. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND EXTRACTION OF BITUMEN FROM BITUMINOUS SAND AND HEAVY OIL IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwizug-bee L. K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has the largest oil sands and bitumen resources in Africa and is one of the main leading countries in the world from the point of view of its significant potential heavy oil deposits. Research of geological and physicochemical properties confirmed that the Nigerian bitumen is an important energy source and an alternative source of hydrocarbon feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Nigeria imports black oil for the petrochemical industry and its heavy oil can act in place of this black oil. In addition, researchers have successfully established the possibility of producing electrical energy from this heavy oil. Tar sands and bitumen are able to help improve the economy of Nigeria

  5. Radial patterns of bitumen dykes around Quaternary volcanoes, provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbold, Peter R.; Ruffet, Gilles; Leith, Leslie; Loseth, Helge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Leanza, Hector A.; Zanella, Alain

    2014-12-01

    Where the Neuquén Basin of Argentina abuts the Andes, hundreds of veins of solid hydrocarbon (bitumen) are visible at the surface. Many of these veins became mines, especially in the last century. By consensus, the bitumen has resulted from maturation of organic-rich shales, especially the Vaca Muerta Fm of Late Jurassic age, but also the Agrio Fm of Early Cretaceous age. To account for their maturation, recent authors have invoked regional subsidence, whereas early geologists invoked magmatic activity. During 12 field seasons (since 1998), we have tracked down the bitumen localities, mapped the veins and host rocks, sampled them, studied their compositions, and dated some of them. In the provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, the bitumen veins are mostly sub-vertical dykes. They tend to be straight and continuous, crosscutting regional structures and strata of all ages, from Jurassic to Palaeocene. Most of the localities lie within 70 km of Tromen volcano, although four are along the Rio Colorado fault zone and another two are at the base of Auca Mahuida volcano. On both volcanic edifices, lavas are of late Pliocene to Pleistocene age. Although regionally many of the bitumen dykes tend to track the current direction of maximum horizontal tectonic stress (ENE), others do not. However, most of the dykes radiate outward from the volcanoes, especially Tromen. Thicknesses of dykes tend to be greatest close to Tromen and where the host rocks are the most resistant to fracturing. Many of the dykes occur in the exhumed hanging walls of deep thrusts, especially at the foot of Tromen. Here the bitumen is in places of high grade (impsonite), whereas further out it tends to be of medium grade (grahamite). A few bitumen dykes contain fragments of Vaca Muerta shale, so that we infer forceful expulsion of source rock. At Curacó Mine, some shale fragments contain bedding-parallel veins of fibrous calcite (beef) and these contain some bitumen, which is

  6. Influence of mineral fillers on the rheological response of polymer-modified bitumens and mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cardone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of the bituminous components (bitumen and bituminous mastic within asphalt mixtures contribute significantly to the major distresses of flexible pavements (i.e. rutting, fatigue and low temperature cracking. Asphalt mixtures are usually composed of mastic-coated aggregates rather than pure bitumen-coated aggregates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of mineral fillers on the rheological behaviour of several polymer-modified bitumens (PMBs through laboratory mixing. A neat bitumen and two types of polymers (elastomeric and plastomeric were used to produce PMBs, and two fillers with different minerals (limestone and basalt were selected to obtain mastics. The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to characterize the rheological properties of PMBs and mastics. In particular, multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR tests were performed to evaluate the rutting potential at high temperatures, whereas BBR tests were carried out to investigate the low temperature behaviour of these materials. BBR results for unmodified mastics show that the increase of stiffness is similar regardless of the filler type, whereas results for polymer-modified mastics indicate that the degree of stiffening depends on the combination of filler/polymer types. MSCR results show that adding filler leads to a reduced susceptibility of permanent deformation and an enhanced elastic response, depending on the combination of filler/polymer types. Overall results suggest that a physical–chemical interaction between the filler and bitumen occurs, and that the interaction level is highly dependent on the type of polymer modification.

  7. Roles of Thermophiles and Fungi in Bitumen Degradation in Mostly Cold Oil Sands Outcrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man-Ling; An, Dongshan; Caffrey, Sean M; Soh, Jung; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Oldenburg, Thomas B P; Larter, Steve R; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-01

    Oil sands are surface exposed in river valley outcrops in northeastern Alberta, where flat slabs (tablets) of weathered, bitumen-saturated sandstone can be retrieved from outcrop cliffs or from riverbeds. Although the average yearly surface temperature of this region is low (0.7°C), we found that the temperatures of the exposed surfaces of outcrop cliffs reached 55 to 60°C on sunny summer days, with daily maxima being 27 to 31°C. Analysis of the cooccurrence of taxa derived from pyrosequencing of 16S/18S rRNA genes indicated that an aerobic microbial network of fungi and hydrocarbon-, methane-, or acetate-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria was present in all cliff tablets. Metagenomic analyses indicated an elevated presence of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in these samples. This network was distinct from the heterotrophic community found in riverbeds, which included fewer fungi. A subset of cliff tablets had a network of anaerobic and/or thermophilic taxa, including methanogens, Firmicutes, and Thermotogae, in the center. Long-term aerobic incubation of outcrop samples at 55°C gave a thermophilic microbial community. Analysis of residual bitumen with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer indicated that aerobic degradation proceeded at 55°C but not at 4°C. Little anaerobic degradation was observed. These results indicate that bitumen degradation on outcrop surfaces is a largely aerobic process with a minor anaerobic contribution and is catalyzed by a consortium of bacteria and fungi. Bitumen degradation is stimulated by periodic high temperatures on outcrop cliffs, which cause significant decreases in bitumen viscosity.

  8. Assessment of micronuclei in lymphocytes from workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge, Peter; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Spickenheuer, Anne; Kendzia, Benjamin; Heinze, Evelyn; Angerer, Jürgen; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the micronucleus frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 225 mastic asphalt workers (age 17-62 years) and 69 non-bitumen-exposed road construction workers (age 18-64 years) in Germany before and after the working shift. Median shift exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen of exposed workers was 3.0 mg/m³. Micronuclei (MN) were determined with a standard method using cytochalasin B. Median MN frequency was 6.0 (interquartile range (IQR) 4.0-8.5) MN/1,000 binucleated lymphocytes (MN/1,000 BNC) in exposed workers and 6.0 (IQR 4.0-8.3) MN/1,000 BNC in non-exposed workers before shift. After shift, we observed 6.5 (IQR 4.4-9.3) MN/1,000 BNC in exposed workers and 6.5 (IQR 4.0-9.0) MN/1,000 BNC in non-exposed workers. Regression models were applied with the log-transformed MN frequency as the dependent variable in order to estimate the effects of exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen and of potential confounders. Age was the strongest predictor of MN formation in both exposed workers and referents. Our data suggest that MN formation was not associated with concentration of vapours and aerosols of bitumen during shift at the individual level. Although similar MN frequencies were observed in both groups, the modelling of factors potentially influencing MN frequency revealed a weak group difference in the post-shift model. We conclude that this small difference cannot be judged to be a relevant mutagenic effect of exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen, also with regard to the lack of adjustment for multiple testing and the lack of a group effect in the original data.

  9. Synthetic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes.

  10. 加拿大Athabasca油砂中部分沥青质油不易分离的原因%Origin of Unliberated Bitumen in Athabasca Oil Sands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Oil sands contain a so-called organic rich solids component (ORS), i.e., solids whose surfaces are strongly associated with toluene insoluble organic matter (TIOM). Typically, humic material is the major component of TIOM.It provides sites for adsorption and chemical fixation of bitumen. This bound bitumen is "unliberated", and considerable mechanical or chemical energy may be required to release it. In order to establish a correlation between bitumen recovery and ORS content, a few selected oil sands were processed in a Batch Extraction Unit (BEU).Analysis of the middlings and coarse tailings streams from these tests indicated a relatively constant bitumen to ORS ratio of 2.8±0.7. This value allows the liberated-unliberated bitumen balance (LUBB) to be calculated for any given oil sands. The amounts of bitumen recovered as primary froth during the BEU experiments are close to the estimated liberated bitumen contents in each case tested. This observation indicates that the liberated-unliberated bitumen calculation is an important quantitative parameter for prediction of bitumen recovery under specific recovery conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the ORS content of an oil sands may be estimated from the carbon content of bitumen free oil sands solids.

  11. Is there widespread metal contamination from in-situ bitumen extraction at Cold Lake, Alberta heavy oil field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skierszkan, Elliott K; Irvine, Graham; Doyle, James R; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2013-03-01

    The extraction of oil sands by in-situ methods in Alberta has expanded dramatically in the past two decades and will soon overtake surface mining as the dominant bitumen production process in the province. While concerns regarding regional metal emissions from oil sand mining and bitumen upgrading have arisen, there is a lack of information on emissions from the in-situ industry alone. Here we show using lake sediment records and regionally-distributed soil samples that in the absence of bitumen upgrading and surface mining, there has been no significant metal (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V) enrichment from the Cold Lake in-situ oil field. Sediment records demonstrate post-industrial Cd, Hg and Pb enrichment beginning in the early Twentieth Century, which has leveled off or declined since the onset of commercial in-situ bitumen production at Cold Lake in 1985.

  12. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND EXTRACTION OF BITUMEN FROM BITUMINOUS SAND AND HEAVY OIL IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nwizug-bee L. K.

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria has the largest oil sands and bitumen resources in Africa and is one of the main leading countries in the world from the point of view of its significant potential heavy oil deposits. Research of geological and physicochemical properties confirmed that the Nigerian bitumen is an important energy source and an alternative source of hydrocarbon feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Nigeria imports black oil for the petrochemical industry and its heavy oil can act in place of this bl...

  14. Coagulation of bitumen with kaolinite in aqueous solutions containing Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+: effect of citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Weibing; Liu, Qi

    2008-08-01

    Heterocoagulation experiments of kaolinite with solvent-diluted-bitumen were carried out to investigate the effect of hydrolyzable metal cations and citric acid on the liberation of bitumen from kaolinite. The adsorption of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) on kaolinite, and zeta potentials of kaolinite and bitumen droplets in solutions containing 10(-3)mol/L of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(3+) with or without citric acid were also measured. It was found that the heterocoagulation of bitumen with kaolinite was enhanced in the presence of the metal cations from pH 7 to pH 10.5, accompanied by a decrease in the magnitude of the zeta potentials and an increase in the adsorption of the metal cations on kaolinite and possibly on bitumen droplets. The addition of 5 x 10(-4)mol/L citric acid reduced the degree of coagulation from 90% to less than 40% in the presence of 10(-3)mol/L Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations at pH approximately 10, and at pH approximately 8 for Fe(3+). It was found that hydrolyzable metal cations enhanced bitumen-kaolinite interactions through electrical double layer compression and specific adsorption of the metal hydrolysis species on the surface of kaolinite. The effect of metal cations was removed by citric acid through formation of metal-citrate complexes and/or the adsorption of citrate anions, which restored the zeta potentials of both kaolinite and bitumen. Therefore, electrostatic attraction or repulsion was responsible for the coagulation or dispersion of kaolinite particles from bitumen droplets in the tested system.

  15. Effect of hydrated lime and cement on moisture damage of recycled mixtures with foamed bitumen and emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Nosetti, R.A.; Pérez Jiménez, Félix Edmundo; Martínez Reguero, Adriana Haydée; Miró Recasens, José Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Cold recycling with foamed bitumen can be used as a sustainable and cost-effective rehabilitation technique. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the resistance to the water action in mixtures with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and foamed bitumen by means of indirect tensile test, comparing the effect of two active fillers: cement and hydrated lime. Additionally, mixtures recycled with RAP and asphalt emulsions were also tested in order to compare the response of both technologies. Resu...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1010 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.1010 Section 29.1010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1010 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a...

  17. A Review on the Effect of Crumb Rubber Addition to the Rheology of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdan Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crumb rubber modification has been proven to enhance the properties of pure bitumen. This paper looks at some of the international standards for producing crumb rubber modified bitumen (CRMB and reviews the effect of crumb rubber to the rheology of crumb rubber modified bitumen. The review shows that the rheology of CRMB depends on internal factors such as crumb rubber quantity, particle size, and pure bitumen composition, and external factors such as the mixing time, temperature, and also the modification technique. These factors govern the swelling process of crumb rubber particles that lead to the increase of viscosity of the modified bitumen. However, the mixing temperature and duration can cause rubber particles to depolymerize and subsequently cause loss of viscosity. Crumb rubber modification also improves the properties of bitumen by increasing the storage and loss modulus and enhancing the high and low temperature susceptibility. The effect of crumb rubber to aging properties of CRMB is also discussed. Finally several techniques of chemical modification to terminal blends of CRMB and the subsequent improvement to the settling property of CRMB are explained.

  18. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, Claire A.; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Todd, Billy D.; Daivis, Peter J.; Hansen, Jesper S.

    2015-06-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. At a fixed temperature, the shear-shinning behavior is related not only to the inter- and intramolecular alignments of the solvent molecules but also to the decrease of the average size of the nanoaggregates at high shear rates. The variation of the viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex systems such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions, and associating polymer networks is discussed.

  19. The role of multivalent metal cations and organic complexing agents in bitumen-mineral interactions in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Weibing

    A systematic investigation was carried out to study the interactions between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals (quartz, kaolinite and illite) in aqueous solutions containing multivalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+/Fe3+, in the absence and presence of organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, EDTA and citric acid). A range of experimental techniques, including coagulation measurement, visualization of bitumen-mineral attachment, metal ion adsorption measurement, zeta potential measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses, were employed in the investigation. Free energy changes of adsorption of metal cations on the minerals and bitumen were evaluated using the James & Healy thermodynamic model. Total interaction energies between the minerals and bitumen were calculated using classical DLVO theory. It was observed that while the tested minerals showed varying degrees of mutual-coagulation with bitumen (or hexadecane), the presence of the multivalent metal cations could prominently increase the mutual coagulation. It was also found that such enhancement of the mutual coagulation was only significant when the metal cations formed first-order hydroxyl complexes (such as CaOH +, MgOH+, etc.) or metal hydroxides (such as Fe(OH) 3, Mg(OH)2, etc.). Therefore, the increase of the bitumen-mineral mutual coagulation by the metal cations was strongly pH dependent. Organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, citric acid and EDTA) used in this study, citric acid in particular, significantly reduced or virtually eliminated the mutual coagulation between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals caused by metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe 2+ and Fe3+. Due to its ability to substantially lower the mutual coagulation between bitumen and mineral particles, citric acid was found the most effective in improving bitumen-mineral liberation in solutions containing the multivalent metal cations at pH 8--10. In small scale flotation experiments

  20. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  1. Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayandiran, T A; Dahunsi, S O

    2016-02-01

    Toxicological evaluation of Clarias gariepinus from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria, was carried out in furtherance of studies on the environmental impacts of the bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were taken from three different (two polluted and one as control) sites. The effect of changes in monthly seasonal flow rate was assessed for the sites of study. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) and histological changes/lesions in various organs were evaluated as markers of pollution in the fish blood using standard methods. The result of the physicochemical properties of water from the sampling points revealed some of the values conforming to approved standards while others showed deviation. Significant differences were found in the blood and histological endpoints between the control and the polluted sites as well as between the two seasons evaluated across the sites. The public health implications of consuming this fish are fully discussed.

  2. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Mukhametshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, which means that the targeted area can be heated up more effectively and with lower heat losses than with other thermal methods. Electromagnetic heating is still relatively new and is not widely used as an alternate or addition to traditional thermal recovery methods. However, studies are being conducted and new technologies proposed that could help increase its use. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs by electromagnetic heating through the review of existing laboratory studies and field trials.

  3. Quasi-Brittle Fracture Modeling of Preflawed Bitumen Using a Diffuse Interface Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental understandings on the bitumen fracture mechanism are vital to improve the mixture design of asphalt concrete. In this paper, a diffuse interface model, namely, phase-field method is used for modeling the quasi-brittle fracture in bitumen. This method describes the microstructure using a phase-field variable which assumes one in the intact solid and negative one in the crack region. Only the elastic energy will directly contribute to cracking. To account for the growth of cracks, a nonconserved Allen-Cahn equation is adopted to evolve the phase-field variable. Numerical simulations of fracture are performed in bituminous materials with the consideration of quasi-brittle properties. It is found that the simulation results agree well with classic fracture mechanics.

  4. Characteristics of the mechanically fastened joints of one-layer bitumen sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petříček Tomá¡

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of mechanic fastening is one of the most frequently used variants of roof membrane stabilization against the impacts of wind sucking. With the growing number of applications of mechanically fastened roofs the number of defects is also growing. We particularly see them in the joints of waterproofing membranes. The contribution is thus dedicated to examination of mutual dependence between the type of the carrier and the strength characteristics of mechanically fastened joints of these sheets. Bitumen sheets with different types of carrier used for onelayer mechanically fastened waterproofing membranes of flat roofs were chosen as samples. The above mentioned dependence is frequently stated in the practice, but is not explicitly documented. The aim of the contribution is to confirm or refute a hypothesis that a relation between the bitumen sheet carrier type and the strength of their joints exists. The results were arranged on the base of statistic evaluation of data obtained by laboratory measurement.

  5. Early Maritime Activity on the Dead Sea: Bitumen Harvesting and the Possible Use of Reed Watercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Asaf; Galili, Ehud; Hadas, Gideon; Klein, Micha

    2015-04-01

    Most studies of ancient maritime activity on the Dead Sea focus on the Hellenistic to the Early Byzantine periods, for which a rich body of archaeological and historic data exists. However, finds of Dead Sea bitumen at distant prehistoric sites and an anchor dating to the seventh century BC indicate that maritime activity on the lake preceded the Greek and Roman periods, and raise questions regarding this activity's origins and nature. By linking the exploitation of Dead Sea bitumen with the use of watercraft, and through consideration of a broader early maritime record of the ancient Near East, this study pushes back the dating of this activity on the lake and suggests the nature of its watercraft.

  6. Influence of the association of the EVA and NBR on the characteristics of modified bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaada, A.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.; Saoula, S.

    2015-03-01

    Durability and the performance of pavement depend mainly on the characteristics of materials which change over time like all other organic substances. They are subject to significant changes due to environmental conditions during the different phases of use. In the present work we investigated experimentally the influence of the association of ethyl vinyl acetate polymer (EVA) with an industrial waste, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) on the modification of bitumen AC 35-50 and its rheological behavior. The incorporation of NBR and EVA in the bitumen improved its intrinsic characteristics (softening point, penetration and ductility). In addition to improving the characteristics of bituminous binders that will affect the durability of bituminous structures, the environment will be preserved by the recycling of industrial waste.

  7. Paleoenvironmental implications of novel C 30 steranes in Precambrian to Cenozoic Age petroleum and bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Mark A.; Michael Moldowan, J.; Lipton, Paul A.; Summons, Roger E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Jeganathan, Alwarsamy; Watt, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleums and bitumens from Early Proterozoic (≈ 1800 Ma) to Miocene (≈ 15 Ma) age marine strata contain 24-isopropylcholestanes, a novel group of C 30 steroids. The abundance of these compounds, relative to 24- n-propylcholestanes, varies with source rock age. Late Proterozoic (Vendian) and Early Cambrian oils and/or bitumens from Siberia, the Urals, Oman, Australia, and India have a high ratio of 24-isopropylcholestanes to 24- n-propylcholestanes (≥1), while younger and older samples have a lower ratio (≤0.4). Temporal changes in this parameter may reflect the relative abundance of certain Porifera (sponges) and certain marine algae through time. Geochemical indicators such as this, which can constrain the source rock age of a migrated oil, are useful in source rock identification during petroleum exploration.

  8. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  9. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

  10. Experimental Investigationand Numerical Simulation ofThermal Recovery ProcessesApplicable in AthabascaBitumen Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Souraki, Yaser

    2013-01-01

    Due to reduction of high quality oil resources and consequently increase of oil price around the world, new sources of energy should be found to relief the high demand of energy. Hence, countries like Venezuela, United States and particularly Canada came up with their unconventional reservoirs which contain bitumen, extra heavy oil and heavy oil as remarkable sources of energy. Exploitation of such kind of reservoirs was not beneficial in the past but in recent years due to the increase of oi...

  11. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Albina Mukhametshina; Elena Martynova

    2013-01-01

    Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, w...

  12. Rheological analysis of bitumens dy dynamic shear rheometer : effect of thermical history on the results

    OpenAIRE

    MOUILLET, V; LAPALU, L; PLANCHE, JP; DURRIEU, F

    2004-01-01

    In order to prevent binder-related pavement failures, it is very important to be able to characterize the performances of bituminous binders that play an essential role in the construction and reinforcement of pavements. However, because of its specific and complex composition, bitumen is a visco-elastic material whose intrinsic rheological properties depend upon the temperature and the loading time. One way to characterize this particular behaviour is to measure the response of the material ...

  13. The analysis of implementation options of transverse joints of bitumen sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plachý Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent sources of faults on flat roofs is a violation of the waterproof layers along the transverse joints between bitumen sheets. This fault is caused by a failure to adhere to the technological methodologies. This paper presents current solutions, as well as a new solution, for creating such joints. The new solutions are experimentally compared with existing solutions.

  14. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  15. Characteristic Temperatures of Waxy Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yingru; Zhang Jinjun; Li Hongying; Chen Jun

    2007-01-01

    Gel point or pour point is widely used to evaluate the low temperature flowability of crude oil. However, it is not adequate to describe the gelling properties of waxy crude oils under flow conditions with gel point or pour point,since the rheological behavior of crude oils is dependent on shear history. Waxy crude oils tend to gel at a low temperature. Based on gelation theory, the characteristic temperature of waxy crude oil was determined by analyzing viscosity-temperature data. Two mathematical models were developed for calculating characteristic temperatures of virgin crude oils and pour point depressants (PPD) beneficiated crude oils, respectively. By using these two models, the characteristic temperatures of crude oils that have experienced shearing and thermal histories can be predicted. The model for predicting the characteristic temperature of virgin crude oils has an average relative deviation of 4.5%, and all predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. Tested by 42 sets of data, the prediction model for crude oil treated with PPD has a high accuracy, with an average relative deviation of 4.2%, and 95.2 percent of predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. These two models provide useful ways for predicting the flowability of crude oils in pipelines when only wax content, wax appearance point and gel point are available.

  16. Processing of Liaohe Highly Sour Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shijie

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the problems related with processing low-quality Liaohe highly sour crude, the Liaohe Petrochemical Company has explored the possibility in optimizing the processing of highly sour crude by adopting different process schemes depending upon the properties of the highly sour crude. The Liaohe naphthenic-base crude oil with low freezing point is earmarked for manufacture of naphthenic lube oils and heavy traffic paving asphalt, while the extra-heavy Liaohe crude with high acid number is routed directly to delayed coking unit coupled with corresponding corrosion preventing measures, resulting in tackling the problem of equipment corrosion arising from refining of Liaohe highly sour crude to obtain light distillates from Liaohe heavy crude through a short process scheme.

  17. 沥青燃烧特性的实验研究%Experimental research on combustion characteristics of bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚东; 冯丹丹; 吴珂; 敖文; 黄志义

    2011-01-01

    采用热重分析法对SBS改性沥青和阻燃沥青及其胶浆的燃烧特性进行研究,实验条件为空气环境、升温速率为20℃/min.结果表明:两种沥青胶浆的燃烧特性曲线形状十分相近,大致分为5个阶段.两种沥青燃烧过程较一致,主要分为4个阶段.沥青二次挥发分燃烧与残炭燃烧同时进行.目前的阻燃技术对沥青自燃点的影响不大,其主要作用是减缓沥青的燃烧速度.阻燃沥青的平均燃烧速率约为SBS改性沥青的60%.两种沥青胶浆的灰分含量相差不大,其平均燃烧速率也相差不大.%The combustion characteristics of SBS modification bitumen and fire retardant bitumen and their mortar were studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis with air as the ambient gas and 20 ℃/min heating rate. The experimental results showed that the combustion characteristics curves of the mortar of these two kinds of bitumen are very similar, and all have 5 sections. The combustion processes of two kinds of bitumen are similar and have 4 sections. The secund volatile component and carbon residue of bitumen burned at the same time. The flame- resistant technology has little effect on the bitumen' s self - ignition point at present, and its primary action is to slow down the reaction rate of bitumen combustion. The average combustion rate of flame-retardant bitumen is 60% of that of SBS modification bitumen The mortar of two kinds of bitumen has the similar ash content, so has the similar average combustion rate.

  18. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch.

  19. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  20. DNA adducts and strand breaks in workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen: associations between exposure and effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczynski, Boleslaw; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Spickenheuer, Anne; Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Mensing, Thomas; Engelhardt, Beate; Lee, Eun-Hyun; Schindler, Birgit K; Heinze, Evelyn; Welge, Peter; Bramer, Rainer; Angerer, Jürgen; Breuer, Dietmar; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    To study the associations between exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen and genotoxic effects, a cross-sectional and cross-shift study was conducted in 320 exposed workers and 118 non-exposed construction workers. Ambient air measurements were carried out to assess external exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen. Hydroxylated metabolites of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were measured in urine, whereas (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide ((+)-anti-BPDE), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8oxodGuo) and DNA strand breaks were determined in blood. Significantly higher levels of 8-oxodGuo adducts and DNA strand breaks were found in both pre- and post-shift blood samples of exposed workers compared to those of the referents. No differences between exposed workers and referents were observed for (+)-anti-BPDE. Moreover, no positive associations between DNA damage and magnitude of airborne exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen could be observed in our study. Additionally, no relevant association between the urinary metabolites of PAH and the DNA damage in blood was observed. Overall, our results indicate increased oxidative DNA damage in workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen compared to non-exposed referents at the group level. However, increased DNA strand breaks in bitumen workers were still within the range of those found in non-exposed and healthy persons as reported earlier. Due to the lack of an association between oxidative DNA damage and exposure levels at the workplaces under study, the observed increase in genotoxic effects in bitumen workers cannot be attributed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen.

  1. The geochemical characteristics and genetic types of crude oils in the western depression of the Liaohe Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Guoyan; ZHONG Ningning; LIU Bao; ZHANG Ning; XU Guangjie

    2009-01-01

    The physical properties and group compositions of crude oils in the western depression of the Liaohe Basin possess such characteristics as to increase gradually in density, viscosity and wax contents, and decrease in saturated hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon and bitumen contents from the deep level to the shallow level and from the center of the depression to its boundary. Saturated hydrocarbons have various spectra, such as single peak and double peak patterns, front peak and rear peak patterns, and smooth peak and serated peak patterns, as well as the chromatograms of biodegraded n-alkanes. The ratios of Pr/Ph in crude oils from the southern part of the depression are generally higher than those in the northern part. The distribution of regular steranes C27-C29 is predominantly of the ramp type, and only a few samples have relatively high C28 contents in the southern part of the depression. As viewed from their physical properties and geochemical characteristics, crude oils in the study area can be divided into two types (I and II) based on oil-generating sources and sedimentary environments, and then further divided into three sub-types (Ia, Ib and Ic:IIa, IIb and IIIc, respectively) based on their degrees of maturation and secondary transformation. This will provide the reliable basis for oil-source correlation and petroleum exploration and prediction.

  2. Radioactive waste processing: Borosilicate glasses and synthetic rocks. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The biliography contains citations concerning radioactive waste processing and disposal by incorporation in borosilicate glasses and synthetic rock materials. Formulations, leach tests and evaluations, melting characteristics, phase determinations, scaled-up processes, and process variables are considered. The Synroc process, and general preparation and evaluation studies are also included. Waste vitrification in materials other than borosilicates and synthetic rocks, and waste fixation using cements and bitumens are discussed in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-06-13

    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash.

  4. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  5. Solubility of crude oil in methane as a function of pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, L.C.; Wenger, L.M.; Ging, T.; Blount, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    solubility, as does the presence of fine grained rocks. The n-paraffin distributions (as well as the overall composition) of the solute condensates are controlled by the temperature and pressure of solution and exsolution, as well as by the composition of the original starting material. It appears quite possible that primary migration by gaseous solution could 'strip' a source rock of crude-oil like components leaving behind a bitumen totally unlike the migrated crude oil. The data of this study demonstrate previous criticisms of primary petroleum migration by gas solution are invalid; that primary migration by gaseous solution cannot occur because methane cannot dissolve sufficient volumes of crude oil or cannot dissolve the highest molecular weight components of petroleum (tars and asphaltenes). ?? 1983.

  6. Quantitative temperature-depending mapping of mechanical properties of bitumen at the nanoscale using the AFM operated with PeakForce TappingTM mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Stadler, H.; Erina, N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bitumen, such as elasticity/Young's modulus, stickiness/adhesion, hardness and energy loss, and sample deformation were acquired quantitatively and simultaneously with the topology at the microscale, discriminating clearly two separate phases within the bitumen. Temperat

  7. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens; Determination des produits organiques d'alterations chimiques et radiochimiques du bitume. Applications aux enrobes bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, I

    2000-01-27

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The {mu}-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  8. Organic metamorphism in the California petroleum basins; Chapter B, Insights from extractable bitumen and saturated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-five shales from the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Southern San Joaquin Valley Basins were extracted and analyzed. Samples were chosen on the basis of ROCK-EVAL analyses of a much larger sample base. The samples ranged in burial temperatures from 40 ? to 220 ? C, and contained hydrogen-poor to hydrogen-rich organic matter (OM), based on OM visual typing and a correlation of elemental kerogen hydrogen to carbon ratios with ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices. By extractable bitumen measurements, rocks with hydrogen- poor OM in the Los Angeles Basin began mainstage hydrocarbon (HC) generation by 90 ? C. The HC concentrations maximized by 165 ? C, and beyond 165 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all began decreasing to low values reached by 220 ? C, where HC generation was largely complete. Rocks with hydrogen-poor OM in the Southern San Joaquin Valley Basin commenced mainstage HC generation at 135 ? C and HC concentrations maximized by 180 ? C. Above 180 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all decreased to low values reached by 214 ? C, again the process of HC generation being largely complete. In both cases, bell-shaped HC-generation curves were present versus depth (burial temperature). Mainstage HC generation had not yet begun in Ventura Basin rocks with hydrogen-poor OM by 140 ? C. The apparent lower temperature for initiation of mainstage generation in the Los Angeles Basin is attributed to very recent cooling in that basin from meteoric-water flow. Thus, HC generation there most probably occurred at higher burial temperatures. In contrast, mainstage HC generation, and all aspects of organic metamorphism, were strongly suppressed in rocks with hydrogen-rich OM at temperatures as high as 198 ? C. For example, shales from the Wilmington field (Los Angeles Basin) from 180 ? to 198 ? C retained ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices of 550- 700 and had saturated-HC coefficients of only 4-15 mg/g organic carbon. The rocks

  9. Geothermal waste heat utilization from in situ thermal bitumen recovery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakevska, Nevenka; Schincariol, Robert A; Dehkordi, S Emad; Cheadle, Burns A

    2015-01-01

    In situ thermal methods for bitumen extraction introduce a tremendous amount of energy into the reservoirs raising ambient temperatures of 13 °C to as high as 200 °C at the steam chamber edge and 50 °C along the reservoir edge. In essence these operations have unintentionally acted as underground thermal energy storage systems which can be recovered after completion of bitumen extraction activities. Groundwater flow and heat transport models of the Cold Lake, Alberta, reservoir, coupled with a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) model, allowed for investigating the use of closed-loop geothermal systems for energy recovery. Three types of BHEs (single U-tube, double U-tube, coaxial) were tested and analyzed by comparing outlet temperatures and corresponding heat extraction rates. Initial one year continuous operation simulations show that the double U-tube configuration had the best performance producing an average temperature difference of 5.7 °C, and an average heat extraction of 41 W/m. Given the top of the reservoir is at a depth of 400 m, polyethylene piping provided for larger extraction gains over more thermally conductive steel piping. Thirty year operation simulations illustrate that allowing 6 month cyclic recovery periods only increases the loop temperature gain by a factor of 1.2 over continuous operation. Due to the wide spacing of existing boreholes and reservoir depth, only a small fraction of the energy is efficiently recovered. Drilling additional boreholes between existing wells would increase energy extraction. In areas with shallower bitumen deposits such as the Athabasca region, i.e. 65 to 115 m deep, BHE efficiencies should be larger.

  10. Retrospective exposure assessment for carcinogenic agents in bitumen waterproofing industry in Finland and Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P.; Heikkila, P.; Makela, M.; Schlunssen, V.; Priha, E. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the study was (I) to identify the carcinogenic agents that may cause confounding when studying the exposure-response relationship between bitumen fume exposure and cancer among roofing membrane-manufacturing workers and roofers and (ii) to assess exposures to the identified carcinogens and bitumen fume in roofing membrane manufacturing and roofing in Finland and Denmark from 1950 to 2005. Information on the use of carcinogenic agents and other relevant data were collected through semi-structured interviews of senior employees in the industry. Semi-quantitative exposure assessments were made on the basis of available measurement data and information obtained from the interviews and literature. Most of the production line workers in roofing membrane plants in Finland were exposed to asbestos until the mid-1970s. Also, some of the mixer operators in the plants were exposed to asbestos in Finland during the 1970s and in Denmark from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s. In both countries, coal tar pitch was used in roofing membrane manufacturing until the mid-1960s, and consequently, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the plants was high in the 1950s and still significant in the early 1960s. Exposure of production line workers to quartz dust was high until the 1980s and is still relatively high compared with current occupational exposure limit values. Bitumen roofers' exposure to coal tar-derived PAHs may have been significant in both countries until the end of 1960s. Roofers' exposure to asbestos and quartz was estimated to have been near background level.

  11. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...... system - high content of heavy metals - high emissions of particulate matter and PAH This investigation deals with the problem of separation due to high shear stress in the injection system. It is shown that the viscosity of the injected fuel can be used to estimate whether the emulsion has separated...

  12. Study of oil and residual fractions in products of thermal destruction of bitumen beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diskina, D.Ye.; Kadyrov, M.U.; Shabalina, T.N.; Soldatova, V.G.; Tokareva, R.V.; Tyshchenko, N.Ye.; Usacheva, G.M.; Vigdergauz, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation of average and heavy fractions derived from thermodestruction products in the bitumen bed at Mordovo-Karmal in Tatariya. Composition of average fractions is characterized by presence of unsaturated and a certain volume of oxygen-containing compounds, as well as high content of S and a low congelation temp. With respect to content of aromatic compounds, these fractions are similar to fractions of sulphurous oils. Residual fractions (..-->..350/sup 0/) were studied by conversion chromatography; these have low values of viscosity, density, content of S (in comparison with the same fractions of Mordovo-Karmal oil). Examines potential directions for utilizing these fractions.

  13. Ion exchange resin immobilization into bitumen; Imobilizacao de resinas de troca-ionica em betume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzella, Marcia Flavia Righi; Silva, Tania Valeria da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    This work presents the results of a research carried out at CDTN/CNEN (Nuclear Technology Development Center) to incorporate spent ion exchange resin into national bitumen. The campaigns were performed at a bituminization pilot plant in CDTN. The waste products properties were evaluated according national and international standards to determine the softening point, penetration, flash point, water content, the thermo differential analysis and homogeneity. These properties are important to evaluate the waste products in order to allow for the system to be operated safely. The so obtained products should meet the standard safety criteria for disposal. (author)

  14. 7 CFR 29.6009 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.6009 Section 29.6009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6009 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. (See Rule 15.)...

  15. Effect of Organophilic Montmorillonite on Ther-mal-oxidative Aging Behavior of SBS Modified Bitumen Crack Filling Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianying; WANG Xilin; KUANG Dongliang; ZHANG Henglong

    2009-01-01

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS)modified bitumen crack filling material with or-ganophilic montmorillonite(OCFM)was prepared by melt blending.X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the interlayer spacing of organophilic montmorillonite(OMMT)in OCFM is widened and an exfoliated structure may be formed.Thermal-oxidative aging behavior of OCFM and SBS modified bitumen crack filling material(SCFM)was investigated.The experimental results indicate that the rate of thermal-oxidative aging of OCFM is much slower than that of SCFM,which can be attributed to barrier of exfoliated structure of OCFM to oxygen.

  16. Bitumen workers handling mastic versus rolled asphalt in a tunnel: assessment of exposure and biomarkers of irritation and genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Spickenheuer, Anne; Pesch, Beate; Welge, Peter; Rühl, Reinhold; Bramer, Rainer; Kendzia, Benjamin; Heinze, Evelyn; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Emission levels of vapours and aerosols of bitumen are different when processing rolled asphalt compared to mastic asphalt, with working temperatures up to 180 and 250°C, respectively. During the Human Bitumen Study, we examined six workers handling rolled asphalt and mastic asphalt in two consecutive weeks at the same construction site in a tunnel. In addition to the determination of exposure to bitumen and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during shift, we examined urinary PAH metabolites, irritative and genotoxic effects before and after shift. Median personal shift concentration of vapours and aerosols of bitumen was 1.8 (range 0.9-2.4) mg/m(3) during the application of rolled asphalt and 7.9 (range 4.9-11.9) mg/m(3) when mastic asphalt was applied. Area measurement of vapours and aerosols of bitumen revealed higher concentrations than the personal measurements for mastic asphalt (mastic asphalt: 34.9 mg/m(3); rolled asphalt: 1.8 mg/m(3)). Processing mastic asphalt was associated also with higher PAH concentrations. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and the sum of 1-, 2+ 9-, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene increased slightly during shift without clear difference between mastic and rolled asphalt application. However, the post-shift urinary PAH-metabolite concentrations did not reflect the different PAH exposure during mastic and rolled asphalt application. Individual workers could be identified by their spirometry results indicating that these data reflect more chronic than acute effects. In most cases, an increase of 8-oxodGuo adducts was observed during shift that was independent of the asphalt application. 8-oxodGuo and (+)-anti-BPDE-DNA adducts were higher than in exposed workers of the Human Bitumen Study independent of the asphalt application. The DNA-strand breaks were considerably higher pre-shift and decreased during shift. In this study, mastic asphalt application led to significantly higher exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen, as well as to airborne

  17. Technology of Anticorrosive Protection of Steel Constructions by Coatings Based on Rapid-Hardening Bitumen-Latex Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nykyforchyn, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recipes of rapid-hardening bitumen-latex emulsions and coatings on its base are created, in-laboratory tests of their physical, chemical and anticorrosive properties are carried out. The technology of anticorrosive protection and the installation technical documentation for making of aqueous bitumen-latex emulsion is developed, installation is mounted and a pilot lot of rapid-hardening emulsion is produced. Experimental-industrial approbation of the technology of coating formation on pipes in oil and gas industry is carried out.

  18. The mechanisms of electrical heating for the recovery of bitumen from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, B.C.W. [McMillan-McGee Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Vermeulen, F.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper described the Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process (ET-DSP), a thermal recovery process in which oil sands are electrically heated. This technology has evolved since the 1970s as an alternative to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and surface mining of Alberta's oil sands. The heat and mass transfer mechanisms associated with electrical heating were examined along with the gravity forces to better understand how the heated bitumen is recovered from the oil sand. Initially, all fluids are immobile. Heat is created in the oil sand as a current flows through the connate water. This results in a pressure and temperature distribution that is characteristic to an electrical heating process. The electrical heating process changes as the temperature of the oil sand increases and as the bitumen is produced. The heat, mass and electromagnetic fields are strongly coupled and are in a transient state throughout the recovery process. This paper presented the main mechanism for electrical heating in terms of equations. A 3-dimensional quasi-harmonic finite element electromagnetic model was coupled to a mass and energy equation and solved in time. A thermal recovery strategy was then presented in terms of electrode spacing, duration of heating, energy supply and ideal operating conditions.

  19. Reactivity modeling of the visbreaking of Athabasca bitumen using molecular representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, W.C.; Gray, M.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Dettman, H.D. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2008-07-01

    The visbreaking of an Athabasca bitumen feedstock was modeled using a Monte Carlo approach. A rule based construction algorithm was then used to create a molecular representation for the Athabasca bitumen. The molecular representation was consistent with many types of data, including 13C-NMR spectroscopy, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, vapor pressure osmometry, and simulated distillation. Molecular representations that contained a minimum number of molecules were produced using sequential optimization. Each feed molecule was represented using connection and structural matrices. Model compound reactivity studies published in the literature were used to determine the probability of cracking of various C-C and CS bonds. These probabilities were used in a continuous reaction algorithm that used matrix transformations to react feed molecules into product molecules. The reaction simulations were broken down into reaction steps. At each reaction step, molecules were first stochastically chosen to react, and then specific bonds were stochastically chosen to crack. The boiling point of each molecule in the feed and product fractions was calculated using the group contribution theory. The aromaticity, molecular weight, and sulfur content of the cracked liquid product were found to be consistent with the experimental properties.

  20. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sablayrolles C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  1. Suriname installing first crude-oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, E.W. (E.W. McAllister Engineering Services, Houston, TX (US))

    1992-04-27

    This paper reports that the first cross country crude-oil pipeline in the south American country of Suriname is currently under construction. The State Oil Co. of Suriname (Staatsolie) is building the 34.4-mile, 14-in. pipeline to deliver crude oil from the Catharina Sophia field (Tambaredjo) to the Tout Lui Faut terminal near the capital, Paramaribo. Crude oil from the Jossi Kreek field will be injected at mile point (MP) 3.4. Oil from these two fields is now being moved to tout Lui Faut by Staatsolie-owned motorized ocean barges. Increased production to meet requirements of a planned refinery near Tout Lui Faut prompted the pipeline.

  2. New crude oils from Caspian Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmykhova, N.M.; Krylova, S.M.; Arenbrister, L.P.; Kolevatova, V.P.

    1987-07-01

    In this article the authors are reporting data on the characteristics of crude oils from new fields of the North Emba oil district (Zhanazhol, Kozhasaya, Karachaganak) and old fields in this same district (Kenkiyak, Kara-Tyube), and also the Tengiz field, which was discovered in the South Emba district. During the last few years, twenty samples of crude oils and condensates from these fields have been investigated at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Petroleum Processing (VNII NP). Characteristics of some of these crudes are listed.

  3. The composition of acids in bitumen and in products from saponification of kerogen: Investigation of their role as connecting kerogen and mineral matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razvigorova, M.; Budinova, T.; Tsyntsarski, B.; Petrova, B. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Organic Chemistry, 1113 Sofia, Acad. Bonchev Str., bl. 9 (Bulgaria); Ekinci, E. [ISIK University, Kumbaba Mevkii, 34980 Istanbul (Turkey); Atakul, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-03

    In order to obtain more information and to understand the nature of relation between organic and mineral matter in oil shales, the compositions of soluble bitumen fractions obtained by extraction from Bulgarian oil shales before and after demineralization with 10% HCl, concentrated HF, and a HF/HCl mixture were investigated. The four extracts were quantitatively examined by IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The investigation of isolated acidic material of the bitumen fractions showed that the fatty acids are present in bitumen fractions as free acids, esters and salts. The amount of free acids in bitumen is very small. The dominant part of bitumen acids is associated with mineral components of the oil shales as well as part of them is included in the mineral matrix, and can be separated only after deep demineralization. The kerogen of the oil shales, obtained after separation of the bitumen fractions and mineral components, was subjected to saponification in order to determine the amount of acids, bound as esters to the kerogen matrix. The major components found were n-carboxylic, {alpha},{omega}-di-carboxylic, and aromatic acids. The connection of kerogen with mineral components is accomplished by the participation of carboxylic and complicated ester bonds. Experimental data for the composition of bitumen acids give evidence that algae and terrestrial materials are initial sources in the formation of soluble organic matter of Bulgarian oil shale. (author)

  4. Sulfur species in source rock bitumen before and after hydrous pyrolysis determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Trudy B.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Lewan, Michael; Hill, Ronald J.; Grayson, Michael B.; Mitra-Kirtley, Sudipa; Bake, Kyle D.; Craddock, Paul R.; Abdallah, Wael; Pomerantz, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    The sulfur speciation of source rock bitumen (chloroform-extractable organic matter in sedimentary rocks) was examined using sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy for a suite of 11 source rocks from around the world. Sulfur speciation was determined for both the native bitumen in thermally immature rocks and the bitumen produced by thermal maturation of kerogen via hydrous pyrolysis (360 °C for 72 h) and retained within the rock matrix. In this study, the immature bitumens had higher sulfur concentrations than those extracted from samples after hydrous pyrolysis. In addition, dramatic and systematic evolution of the bitumen sulfur moiety distributions following artificial thermal maturation was observed consistently for all samples. Specifically, sulfoxide sulfur (sulfur double bonded to oxygen) is abundant in all immature bitumen samples but decreases substantially following hydrous pyrolysis. The loss in sulfoxide sulfur is associated with a relative increase in the fraction of thiophene sulfur (sulfur bonded to aromatic carbon) to the extent that thiophene is the dominant sulfur form in all post-pyrolysis bitumen samples. This suggests that sulfur moiety distributions might be used for estimating thermal maturity in source rocks based on the character of the extractable organic matter.

  5. Rheological and chemical evaluation on the ageing properties of SBS polymer modified bitumen: From the laboratory to the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Nielsen, E.; Komacka, J.; Greet, L.; Ven, M.V.D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the ageing properties of the styrene-butadiene- styrene polymer modified bitumen (SBS PMB) from the laboratory to the field. The virgin SBS PMB had been kept for 23 years and its field-aged binder was extracted from the reclaimed stone matrix asphalt (SMA) after the 22-year s

  6. Influence of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on properties of different asphalts for a wearing course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komačka, J.; Remišová, E.; Liu, G.; Leegwater, G.; Nielsen, E.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was performed to study the effect of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on the properties describing asphalt performance. Three types of asphalts used for wearing courses in Europe (SMA 11, AC 11 and PA 8) were investigated. Five combinations of reclaimed asph

  7. The Preparation of the Quick-Drying Bitumen Emulsion for the Protection of the Road Surface Asphalt Concrete Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria S. Ryabenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered getting fast drying bitumen emulsion and study its main operating parameters of the film drying rate and durability of the emulsion. The optimum ratio of the components of the emulsion "binder" – "solvent" – "water".

  8. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. III - Generation of bitumen in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, I. R.

    1987-01-01

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature kerogens (from the Monterey and Green River Formations) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the impact of the mineral matrix on the bitumen that was generated. Calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of bitumen and also shows virtually no adsorption capacity for any of the pyrolysate. In contrast, montmorillonite (M) and illite, to a lesser extent, alter bitumen during dry pyrolysis. M and illite also display strong adsorption capacities for the polar constituents of bitumen. By this process, hydrocarbons are substantially concentrated within the pyrolysate that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The effects of the clay minerals are significantly reduced during hydrous pyrolysis. The strong adsorption capacities of M and illite, as well as their thermocatalytic properties, may in part explain why light oils and gases are generated from certain argillaceous source-rock assemblages, whereas heavy immature oils are often derived from carbonate source rocks.

  9. First Observation of the Blending Zone Morphology at the Interface of Reclaimed Asphalt Binder and Virgin Bitumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Mohajeri, M.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, T.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Schitter, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges in designing recycled asphalt mixtures with a high amount of RAP is to estimate the blending degree between RAP binder and the added virgin bitumen. The extent of blending is crucial in this case as asphalt concrete response is influenced by the final binder properties. This pa

  10. Characterization and utilization of hydrotreated products produced from the Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen-derived liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.H.; Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.

    1991-12-31

    The bitumen-derived liquid produced in a 4-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor from the mined and crushed ore from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit has been hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor. The purpose was to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variable. A sulfided nickel-molybendum on alumina hydrodenitrogenation catalyst was used in all experiments. Moderately severe operating conditions were employed; that is, high reaction temperature (617--680 K) high reactor pressure (11.0--17.1 MPa) and low liquid feed rate (0.18--0.77 HSV); to achieve the desired reduction in heteroatom content. Detailed chemical structures of the bitumen-derived liquid feedstock and the hydrotreated total liquid products were determined by high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses. The compounds identified in the native bitumen included isoprenoids; bicyclic, tricycle, and tetracyclic terpenoids; steranes; hopanes; and perhydro-{beta}-carotenes. In addition, normal and branched alkanes and alkenes and partially dehydrogenated hydroaromatics were identified in the bitumen-derived liquid. The dominant pyrolysis reactions were: (1) the dealkylation of long alkyl side chains to form {alpha} - and isoolefins; and (2) the cleavage of alkyl chains linking aromatic and hydroaromatic clusters. Olefinic bonds were not observed in the hydrotreated product and monoaromatic hydrocarbons were the predominant aromatic species. The properties of the jet fuel fractions from the hydrotreated products met most of the jet fuel specifications. The cetane indices indicated these fractions would be suitable for use as diesel fuels.

  11. Characterization and utilization of hydrotreated products produced from the Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen-derived liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.H.; Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The bitumen-derived liquid produced in a 4-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor from the mined and crushed ore from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit has been hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor. The purpose was to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variable. A sulfided nickel-molybendum on alumina hydrodenitrogenation catalyst was used in all experiments. Moderately severe operating conditions were employed; that is, high reaction temperature (617--680 K) high reactor pressure (11.0--17.1 MPa) and low liquid feed rate (0.18--0.77 HSV); to achieve the desired reduction in heteroatom content. Detailed chemical structures of the bitumen-derived liquid feedstock and the hydrotreated total liquid products were determined by high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses. The compounds identified in the native bitumen included isoprenoids; bicyclic, tricycle, and tetracyclic terpenoids; steranes; hopanes; and perhydro-{beta}-carotenes. In addition, normal and branched alkanes and alkenes and partially dehydrogenated hydroaromatics were identified in the bitumen-derived liquid. The dominant pyrolysis reactions were: (1) the dealkylation of long alkyl side chains to form {alpha} - and isoolefins; and (2) the cleavage of alkyl chains linking aromatic and hydroaromatic clusters. Olefinic bonds were not observed in the hydrotreated product and monoaromatic hydrocarbons were the predominant aromatic species. The properties of the jet fuel fractions from the hydrotreated products met most of the jet fuel specifications. The cetane indices indicated these fractions would be suitable for use as diesel fuels.

  12. Systematic Engineering of Escherichia coli for d-Lactate Production from Crude Glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zei Wen; Saini, Mukesh; Lin, Li-Jen; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2015-11-04

    Crude glycerol resulting from biodiesel production is an abundant and renewable resource. However, the impurities in crude glycerol usually make microbial fermentation problematic. This issue was addressed by systematic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of d-lactate from crude glycerol. First, mgsA and the synthetic pathways of undesired products were eliminated in E. coli, rendering the strain capable of homofermentative production of optically pure d-lactate. To direct carbon flux toward d-lactate, the resulting strain was endowed with an enhanced expression of glpD-glpK in the glycerol catabolism and of a heterologous gene encoding d-lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, the strain was evolved to improve its utilization of cruder glycerol and subsequently equipped with the FocA channel to export intracellular d-lactate. Finally, the fed-batch fermentation with two-phase culturing was carried out with a bioreactor. As a result, the engineered strain enabled production of 105 g/L d-lactate (99.9% optical purity) from 121 g/L crude glycerol at 40 h. The result indicates the feasibility of our approach to engineering E. coli for the crude glycerol-based fermentation.

  13. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  14. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    The marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria salina Biswas, Plectonema terebrans Bornet et Flanhault and Aphanocapsa sp. degraded Bombay High crude oil when grown in artificial seawater nutrients as well as in plain natural seawater. Oil removals...

  15. Modulation of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites by enzyme polymorphisms in workers of the German Human Bitumen Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihs, Hans-Peter; Spickenheuer, Anne; Heinze, Evelyn; Pesch, Beate; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Data concerning the influence of sequence variants of metabolizing enzymes on the effect modulation of current exposure to vapors and aerosols of bitumen in humans are limited. To assess the influence of 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes coding for enzymes involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and amine metabolism regarding their impact on urinary markers 1-hydroxpyrene (1-OHP) and the sum of 1-, 2+9-, 3-, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPHE). Based on personal ambient monitoring data for bitumen emissions, 218 German workers exposed to vapors and aerosols of bitumen during a shift and 96 German roadside construction workers without exposure to bitumen but with similar working tasks were studied. SNP determination based on DNA aliquots isolated from blood samples by real-time PCR or direct sequencing. The impact of sequence variants on the urinary levels of 1-OHP and sum of OHPHE was estimated with mixed linear models, adjusted for age, creatinine, exposure, smoking, SNP, and time of measurement. In the mixed linear model, an increasing metabolite level of OHPHE was only slightly modulated by the CC variant of the cytochrome P450 SNP CYP1A1 3801T>C (rs4646903; P = 0.051). In contrast, GSTM1 carriers showed a significant (P= 0.046) and double-mutated variants of three NAT2-specific SNP (NAT2*341CC, P = 0.06; NAT2*481TT, P = 0.06; NAT2*803GG, P = 0.042) displayed a decreasing influence on OHPHE levels. None of the SNP studied showed a significant effect on 1-OHP. The modulating SNP effects on OHPHE in the adjusted model were less pronounced when compared with the effects observed in a recent study with 170 workers occupationally exposed to PAH in German industries. This may be due to the much lower PAH exposure in the Human Bitumen Study.

  16. Extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: new technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Venezuela has reserves of heavy and extra heavy crude oil in the eastern part of the country. There is a need for lower capital cost extraction technologies. At the moment, heavy oil is diluted with light or medium crude oil before it is sold on the market. In order to remove this requirement, PDVSA Research Institute has been working on developing a new technology to convert heavy crude oil into upgraded crude oil. This paper presents the technology, named Aquaconversion, and its applications. The technology consists of a catalytic steam conversion process which converts heavy oil into transportable upgraded crude oil with a higher density and lower viscosity than can be achieved using other technologies. This technology can be used onsite to obtain transportable upgraded crude or to replace visbreaking units in refineries. This paper presents a new technology that makes the extraction of heavy oil in Venezuela economically feasible.

  17. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell.

  18. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattouh, Bassam [The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  19. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Over-the-Counter Medications Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cannabinoids Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drug Use ...

  20. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Over-the-Counter Medications Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cannabinoids Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drug Use ...

  1. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  2. Fluidized bed pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone at sub-atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.V.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-01-01

    A 15.2 cm diameter fluidized bed reactor was designed, built, and operated to study the pyrolysis of oil sands at pressures slightly less than atmospheric. Fluidizing gas flow through the reactor was caused by reducing the pressure above the bed with a gas pump operating in the vacuum mode. Pyrolysis energy was supplied by a propane burner, and the hot propane combustion gases were used for fluidization. The fluidized bed pyrolysis at reduced pressure using combustion gases allowed the reactor to be operated at significantly lower temperatures than previously reported. At 450[degree], over 80% of the bitumen fed was recovered as a liquid product, and the spent sand contained less than 1% coke. The liquid product recovery system, by design, yielded three liquid streams with distinctly different properties.

  3. Fluidized bed pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone at sub-atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.V.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-03-01

    A 15.2 cm diameter fluidized bed reactor was designed, built, and operated to study the pyrolysis of oil sands at pressures slightly less than atmospheric. Fluidizing gas flow through the reactor was caused by reducing the pressure above the bed with a gas pump operating in the vacuum mode. Pyrolysis energy was supplied by a propane burner, and the hot propane combustion gases were used for fluidization. The fluidized bed pyrolysis at reduced pressure using combustion gases allowed the reactor to be operated at significantly lower temperatures than previously reported. At 450{degree}, over 80% of the bitumen fed was recovered as a liquid product, and the spent sand contained less than 1% coke. The liquid product recovery system, by design, yielded three liquid streams with distinctly different properties.

  4. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chacón

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and ammonia (NH3 in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H2/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H2S on HDS and NH3 on HDN.

  5. Effect of crude oil pollution on organic carbon and humus content in grey-brown soils in Mangyshlak,Pre-Caspian Sea Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saimbulek; DOSBERGENOV

    2010-01-01

    The organic carbon and humus content in oil polluted brown and grey-brown soils in Mangyshlak,Pre-Caspian Sea Region,was analyzed from 2000 to 2008.The results indicated that bitumen substances from crude oil pollution deteriorated the soil property,however,the organic carbon content increased significantly.The products of oil pollution changed the composition of car-bonaceous substances which formed soil humus,and changed the ratios of the humus components.Residual insoluble carbon increased with the rise of oil organic carbon.The mobility of humus components was significantly increased because of the high oxidation-reduction process in the topsoil,and the humus content and microorganism activity increased.The organic carbon content increased significantly,while it decreased with the distance away from the oil well.The rearrangement of physical,physical-chemical and chemical properties of the polluted soils was significant.

  6. Purification of Indonesian oil sands bitumen%印尼油砂沥青的净化工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宽勇; 韩冬云; 李福起; 石薇薇; 庞海全; 曹祖宾

    2016-01-01

    溶剂萃取法分离油砂制得油砂沥青中含大量机械杂质,影响沥青的品质及后期加工利用。通过XRD和激光粒度仪表征了机械杂质的矿物组成和粒度分布等特性。针对机械杂质的特性,开发了复配试剂,通过稀释剂降黏沥青、复配试剂净化沥青、稀释剂回收再生及循环利用3个操作单元对油砂沥青进行了脱杂净化实验,并分析了净化机理。结果表明:降黏过程,温度70℃、时间10min、稀释剂与沥青比0.3g/g,稀释沥青70℃黏度为3.2Pa·s;净化过程,6%盐酸与稀释沥青比0.2mL/g、CaCl2与稀释沥青比0.01g/g,温度70℃,混合时间10min,沉降时间20min,机械杂质脱除率可达到93.5%;回收及循环过程,稀释剂回收率为98%,循环使用5次,机械杂质脱除率仍92%以上。该工艺具有沉降时间短、机械杂质脱除彻底的优点。%Oil sands bitumen obtained from solvent extraction contained a great amount of mechanical impurities(MI),which was harmful to the post processing of bitumen. The characterization of mineral components of MI by XRD and particle size distribution of MI by laser particle analyzer were presented. Compound reagent was developed for the removal of MI and the reaction mechanism was presented. The technology consisted of three steps,namely,dilution of bitumen by diluent(P1), purification of diluted bitumen by compound reagent(P2)and recovery of diluent(P3). In P1,under the optimal reaction conditions of 70℃,10min,m(diluent)/m(bitumen)=0.3g/g,the viscosity of diluted bitumen at 70℃ was 3.2Pa·s. In P2,under the optimal reaction conditions ofV(HCl,6%)/m(diluted bitumen)=0.2mL/g,m(CaCl2)/m(diluted bitumen)=0.01g/g,70℃,mixing time 10min,settling time 20min,the mechanical impurities removal rate(MIRR)could reach 93.5%. In P3,the recovery rate of diluent was 98%,MIRR remained above 92% after diluent being recycled 5 times. The technology has the advantages of short

  7. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed.

  8. Differences in bitumen and kerogen-bound fatty acid fractions during diagenesis and early catagenesis in a maturity series of New Zealand coals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2016-01-01

    differences in the fatty acid composition between bitumen and kerogen-bound acids, both in the short (fatty acid range. The compositions of these two acid fractions changed independently as a function of maturation. This points to the long and short chain fatty acids in bitumen......Oxygen-bearing functional groups, in particular the carboxylic groups of acids and esters, are mainly responsible for the chemical reactivity of sedimentary organic matter. We have studied kerogen and bitumen fractions from a coalification series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering the rank...... range from 0.28% to 0.80% vitrinite reflectance. We investigated the composition of fatty acids separated from the bitumen, and compared this to the distribution of kerogen-bound fatty acids (esters) obtained after selective chemical degradation of the macromolecular organic matter. We found remarkable...

  9. Characterization of the viscoelastic behavior of the pure bitumen grades 10/20 and 35/50 with macroindentation and finite element computation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah

    2013-06-23

    In this article, we present an identification procedure that allows the determination of the viscoelasticity behavior of different grades of pure bitumen (bitumen 35/50 and bitumen 10/20). The procedure required in the first stage a mechanical response based on macroindentation experiments with a cylindrical indenter. A finite element simulation was performed in the second stage to compute the mechanical response corresponding to a viscoelasticity model described by three mechanical parameters. The comparison between the experimental and numerical responses showed a perfect matching. In addition, the identification procedure helped to discriminate between different bitumens characterized by different asphaltene and maltene contents. Finally, the developed procedure could be used as an efficient tool to characterize the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic materials, thanks to the quantified relationship between the viscoleastic parameters and the force-penetration response. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 3440-3450, 2013 Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. In-situ bitumen extraction associated with increased petrogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds in lake sediments from the Cold Lake heavy oil fields (Alberta, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosi, Jennifer B; Cooke, Colin A; Eickmeyer, David C; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2016-11-01

    Most future growth in the Alberta bituminous sands will be based on thermal in-situ recovery technologies. To date, however, most attention on the environmental effects of bitumen recovery has focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. Recent uncontrolled bitumen flow-to-surface incidents (FTS; appearance at the surface of bitumen emulsions from deep subsurface recovery zones) reported at the Cold Lake heavy oil fields highlight the need to better understand the potential role of in-situ extraction as a source of contaminants to landscapes and surface waters. We analyzed sediment cores from a lake located ∼2 km away from a recent bitumen FTS incident to provide a long-term perspective on the delivery of metals, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to surface freshwaters, and to assess whether the onset of local in-situ bitumen extraction can be linked to contaminant increases in nearby lakes. An increase in alkyl PACs coincided with the onset and expansion of commercial in-situ bitumen extraction, and multiple lines of evidence indicate a petrogenic source for recent alkyl PAC enrichment. However, no coincident increase in vanadium (enriched in bitumen) occurred that would suggest the source of petrogenic PAC enrichment is direct input of bituminous particles. Our results show that, similar to surface mining in the Athabasca region, activities associated with in-situ extraction can increase the burden of petrogenic PACs in nearby lakes, but many questions still remain regarding the exact sources and pathways of PACs into the environment. Given that more than 80% of Alberta's bitumen reserves can only be accessed using in-situ technologies, we recommend that this be made a research priority.

  11. Radiation for crude drugs contaminated with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satake, Motoyoshi; Sekita, Setsuko; Kamakura, Hiroyuki [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Recently, it became urgent to develop an effective method for repressing the microbials in a crude drug and its preparation. In some countries in Asia and Western countries, radiosterilization for natural drugs has been approved and the dose was within a range. 10-30 kGy. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the safety of such radiosterilization for crude drugs. Concerning bacterial contamination in the original materials for crude drugs, the proportion rates of materials containing less than 10{sup 3}, 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} and more than 10{sup 5} cells were 54, 27 and 19%, respectively. Since the previous study revealed that those microbials were almost diminished by exposure to 10 kGy, various crude drugs were exposed to 5 kGy and the amounts of remaining microbials were determined. The number of microbials remained after radiation at 5 kGy was 1 x 10{sup 3} for plantago seed, rhubarb and cyperus rhizome and less than 10{sup 2} for other samples tested. The effects of radiation on the respective active ingredients of each crude drug underwent using HPLC. (M.N.)

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of Tahe Medium Gravity Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Zou Ying; Weng Huixin

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive evaluation of Tahe medium gravity crude has demonstrated that this type of crude belongs to a intermediate base sour crude, featuring high vanadium content (103ppm), high carbon residue content, low pour point, and low acid value. Based on the crude processing conditions at SINOPEC Luoyang Petrochemical Branch Company, a proposal on the appropriate process flow scheme for processing Tahe crude oil has been raised with the main ideas presented as follows. The IBP-175 ℃ fraction is not an ideal feedstock for catalytic reforming; the 75-250℃ fraction is a qualified feedstock for zeolite de-waxing; the 140-230℃ fraction can be used to manufacture the No. 3 jet fuel through appropriate distillation range adjustment and product refining; the 175-350℃ fraction can be directly used to manufacture No.-10 diesel through proper refining; the atmospheric resid boiling over 350℃ is not suited to be used as the RFCC feedstock; the 350-520℃ vacuum distillate oil can be used as the FCC feedstock; and the vacuum residuum boiling over 520℃ is a good feedstock for manufacture of asphalt.

  13. Development of an on-line coupling of liquid-liquid extraction, normal-phase liquid chromatography and high-resolution gas chromatography producing an analytical marker for the prediction of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of bitumen and bitumen fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, J; de Groot, P C; Brandt, H C; van der Does, J J; Schoenmakers, P J

    1999-07-23

    A fast and fully automated system for the determination of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) is described. The system has been developed to produce an analytical 'marker', correlating chemical characteristics (including PAC analysis) with mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. The products of interest are bitumen fumes, bitumen and other (heavy or even residual) oil products, regardless of their boiling range. Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) extractables obtained from a flow-injection analysis (FIA) system are introduced on-line in a normal-phase liquid chromatographic (NPLC) system. Here, the PACs are separated from the DMSO and possible co-extracted heavy residual species. The final step incorporates on-line gas chromatographic analysis of the three-to-six-ring PAC fraction, followed by flame-ionisation detection for quantification. It was demonstrated that data obtained from samples in the distillate lubrication-oil range correlate well with data obtained from the manual DMSO-extraction method standardised by the Institute of Petroleum as IP346.

  14. An NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) Investigation of the Chemical Association and Molecular Dynamics in Asphalt Ridge Tar Sand Ore and Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, D. A.; Coover, P. T.

    1987-09-01

    Preliminary studies on tar sand bitumen given in this report have shown that the reassociation of tar sand bitumen to its original molecular configuration after thermal stressing is a first-order process requiring nearly a week to establish equilibrium. Studies were also conducted on the dissolution of tar sand bitumen in solvents of varying polarity. At a high-weight fraction of solute to solvent the apparent molecular weight of the bitumen molecules was greater than that of the original bitumen when dissolved in chloroform-d{sub 1} and benzene-d{sub 6}. This increase in the apparent molecular weight may be due to micellar formation or a weak solute-solvent molecular complex. Upon further dilution with any of the solvents studied, the apparent molecular weight of the tar sand bitumen decreased because of reduced van der Waals forces of interaction and/or hydrogen bonding. To define the exact nature of the interactions, it will be necessary to have viscosity measurements of the solutions.

  15. The investigation of the bitumen from ancient Greek amphora using FT ICR MS, H/D exchange and novel spectrum reduction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Solovyov, Sergey; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2016-06-01

    Recently Russian archeologists have discovered on Taman peninsula an ancient (V B.C.) Greek amphora full of dense bitumen. This is the oldest amphora in the world that contains bitumen. We report the investigation of this bitumen using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Also we used recently developed in-ESI source Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange approach for the structural characterization of the individual molecules and estimation of the biodegradation of the bitumen. The increase of number of the labile hydrogens compared to the non-degraded oil can serve as an additional evidence of the degradation of bitumen via oxidation. For the facilitation of the spectrum processing we have developed the special iterative spectrum reduction approach. It was observed that molecules that have only oxygen heteroatoms possess two -OH groups what is unusual for the petroleum. Based on this we suggested that the bitumen degraded during its being in amphora for 2500 years. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  17. CNPC's Crude Production Maintained Steady Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Mature oilfields report steady output rises despite reserves decline Ghina's largest oil base Daqing Oilfield has fulfilled its production target by stabilizing its crude oil output above 40 million tons in the past year,although its reserves have been on the decline.Its 2008 crude oil production stood at 40.2 million tons,which was the smallest in three years if compared to the 41.7 million tons in 2007 and 43.41 million tons in 2006.But its 2008 natural gas output hit 2.76 billion cubic meters,up 8.241 percent from the 2.55 billion cubic meters in 2007.

  18. Paleoenvironmental implications of novel C[sub 30] steranes in Precambrian to Cenozoic age petroleum and bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, M.A.; Lipton, P.A. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)); Moldowan, J.M. (Cheveron Petroleum Technology Company, Richmond, CA (United States) Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Summons, R.E. (Australian Geological Survey Organization, Canberra City (Australia)); Peters, K.E. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States) Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Jeganathan, A.; Watt, D.S. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Petroleums and bitumens from Early Proterozoic ([approx] 1800 Ma) to Miocene ([approx] 15 Ma) age marine strata contain 24-isopropylcholestanes, a novel group of C[sub 30] steroids. The abundance of these compounds, relative to 24-n-propylcholestanes, varies with source rock age. Late Proterozoic (Vendian) and Early Cambrian oils and/or bitumens from Siberia, the Urals, Oman, Australia, and India have a high ratio of 24-isopropylcholestanes to 24-n-propylcholestanes ([ge] 1), while younger and older samples have a low ratio ([le]0.4). Temporal changes in this parameter may reflect the relative abundance of certain Porifera (sponges) and certain Marine algae through time. Geochemical indicators such as this, which can constrain the source rock age of a migrated oil, are useful in source rock identification during petroleum exploration.

  19. Geostatistical modeling of facies, bitumen grade and particle size distribution for the Joslyn oil sand open pit mine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babak, Olena; Insalaco, Enzo; Mittler, Andreas [Total EandP Canada Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Joslyn North Mine Project is currently in the pre-development stage; the aim of this study is to use different available data to draw a geological model of facies, bitumen grade, full particle size distribution (PSD) and ore/waste discrimination. The study was conducted with the database of around 800 wells, stochastic, indicator and Gaussian simulations were performed along with a sensitivity study. Results demonstrated the importance of some parameters for evaluating grade cases including variogram uncertainty, sampling limitations and errors in geostatistical workflow. In addition, modeling the full PSD dataset was shown to be useful. This study demonstrated how to use available database through an overall workflow to develop case scenarios for bitumen in place in ore and characterize the ore material.

  20. Effect of biosurfactants on crude oil desorption and mobilization in a soil system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyukina, M.S.; Ivshina, I.B. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm (Russian Federation). Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms; Makarov, S.O.; Litvinenko, L.V. [Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation); Cunningham, C.J. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre; Philp, J.C. [Napier University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Sciences

    2005-02-01

    Microbially produced biosurfactants were studied to enhance crude oil desorption and mobilization in model soil column systems. The ability of biosurfactants from Rhodococcus ruber to remove the oil from the soil core was 1.4-2.3 times greater than that of a synthetic surfactant of suitable properties, Tween 60. Biosurfactant-enhanced oil mobilization was temperature-related, and it was slower at 15{sup o}C than at 22-28{sup o}C. Mathematical modelling using a one-dimensional filtration model was applied to simulate the process of oil penetration through a soil column in the presence of (bio)surfactants. A strong positive correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.99) was found between surfactant penetration through oil-contaminated soil and oil removal activity. Biosurfactant was less adsorbed to soil components than synthetic surfactant, thus rapidly penetrating through the soil column and effectively removing 65-82% of crude oil. Chemical analysis showed that crude oil removed by biosurfactant contained a lower proportion of high-molecular-weight paraffins and asphaltenes, the most nonbiodegradable compounds, compared to initial oil composition. This result suggests that oil mobilized by biosurfactants could be easily biodegraded by soil bacteria. Rhodococcus biosurfactants can be used for in situ remediation of oil-contaminated soils. (author)

  1. Bitumen modifiers for reduced temperature asphalts: a comparative analysis between three polymeric and non-polymeric additives

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Carrera Páez, Virginia; Izquierdo Rodríguez, María Angeles; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    This study presents three bitumen modifiers which may find successful application in the fabrication of binders for warm mix asphalt in the paving industry. In that sense, two non-polymeric additives, thiourea and thiourea dioxide, along with a reactive isocyanate-terminated prepolymer have been evaluated. Viscous flow and linear viscoelasticity tests, at 60 ºC, reveal bituminous modified binders which evolve towards highly viscous materials when subjected to ambient curing. However, at 135 º...

  2. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  3. The influence of UV aging of a styrene/butadiene/styrene modified bitumen: comparison between laboratory and on site aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francoise Durrieu; Fabienne Farcas; Virginie Mouillet [Service Physico-chimie des Materiaux, Paris (France). Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees

    2007-07-15

    During the service life in a pavement, neat bitumen and modified bitumen age as the result of the mixing with aggregates, the process of laying, the climatic conditions and the traffic. Laboratory methods for simulating the short-term and long-term ageing (RTFOT and PAV, respectively) are standardized. None of them takes into account the influence of UV radiations. In the particular case of a pavement located in south France, a comparison is drawn through Fourier Transformed InfraRed (FTIR) analysis. Three types of ageing are compared: the standard simulated ageings, the actual on site ageing after 12 and 26 months of road service and the ageing when UV exposure in a weathering oven follows RTFOT simulation. According to carbonyle function evolution by FTIR spectroscopy, this work shows that for all tested binders, the same ageing level as the one simulated by PAV is reached in a few hours when a thin film of binder is submitted to UV exposure after RTFOT. It is also to be noted that the level of the on site ageing of a SBS Polymer modified Bitumen (PmB) reaches the simulated PAV ageing after 12 months of pavement life. 23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Bitumen II from the Paleoproterozoic Here’s Your Chance Pb/Zn/Ag deposit: Implications for the analysis of depositional environment and thermal maturity of hydrothermally-altered sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Alex I.; Grice, Kliti; Jaraula, Caroline M. B.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2014-08-01

    The formation of sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) Pb/Zn deposits is linked to ocean euxinia, but recent evidence suggests that ferruginous conditions may have dominated the deep ocean during the Middle Proterozoic, a maximum period for SEDEX distribution. Biomarkers of sulfate-reducing and sulfide-oxidising bacteria are valuable indicators of euxinic conditions in such settings. Organic matter (OM) from SEDEX deposits is often affected by alteration and/or migration, but OM entrapped within the kerogen/mineral matrix (Bitumen II) may be less affected than the freely-extractable OM (Bitumen I). We analysed Bitumen II from the Paleoproterozoic Here’s Your Chance (HYC) Pb/Zn/Ag deposit to find evidence of euxinic conditions in the depositional environment. n-Alkane distributions in Bitumen II are markedly distinct from previously-reported Bitumen I. Bitumen II contains long-chain n-alkanes (up to C36 or C38) and a strong even-over-odd distribution in a number of samples, which are 4‰ to 7‰ depleted in 13C compared to n-alkanes in Bitumen I and verified as indigenous by comparison with δ13C of isolated kerogen. These features are interpreted as evidence of sulfate-reducing and sulfide-oxidising bacteria, confirming that HYC was deposited under euxinic conditions. Bitumen II has the potential to reveal information from OM that is degraded and/or overprinted in Bitumen I. Commonly-used methylphenanthrene maturity ratios give conflicting information as to the relative maturity of Bitumens I and II. Bitumen I contains a far higher proportion of methylated phenanthrenes than Bitumen II. As Bitumen II is sequestered within the kerogen/mineral matrix it may have restricted access to the ‘methyl pool’ of organic compounds that can donate methyl groups to aromatic hydrocarbons. Parameters that include both phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes do not appear suitable to compare the maturity of Bitumens I and II; hence there is no clear evidence that Bitumen II is of

  5. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  6. Utilization of crude glycerin in nonruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refined glycerin is a colorless, viscous liquid, containing approximately 99% glycerin; and a metabolizable energy per kilogram of approximately 3,850 and 3,700 kcal for swine and poultry, respectively. The crude glycerin co-product generated from biodiesel production facilities, in contrast, ranges...

  7. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  8. China's Crude Oil Imports Rises Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese imports of crude oil rose 10.8 percent year-on-year over the first four months of this year, due to the country's growing need for resources to fuel its rapidly developing economy, the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced in mid-May.

  9. CRUDE OIL BIOREMEDIATION: THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a state-of-the-art extended abstract presentation summary of the outputs from the oil spill program over the last 11 years. It summarizes the results of 3 field studies involving intentional releases of crude oil: the Delaware study in 1994 (sandy beach), the St. Lawrence...

  10. Redução do nível de proteína bruta da ração com suplementação de aminoácidos sintéticos para leitões na fase inicial Effects of reducing dietary crude protein levels for piglets supplemented with synthetic amino acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo

    2006-06-01

    meal levels on performance, N excretion, organs weight and diarrhea incident were evaluated in pigs supplemented with amino acids. The diets contained four levels of CP (21.0, 19.5, 18.0, and 16.5% and were supplemented with synthetic amino acid (lysine, metionine and treonine. In experiment I, eight crossbred (LD x LW castrated males (initial weight = 22 kg were individually allotted to a randomized block design, with split plot arrangement to determine N balance. No significant changes in amount of N ingested and excreted in the feces were observed among the treatments. However, the treatments linearly decreased N excreted in the urine, as dietary CP decreased. In experiment II, 60 pigs (initial weight = 8.5 kg were assigned to a randomized blocks design with 4 x 3 factorial arrangement (four diets and three slaughter ages, with five blocks and one animal per unit experimental, to evaluate the relative weights of liver, spleen and pancreas and intestinal morfometry during the first three post weaning weeks. No significant differences on these parameters were observed across the treatments, whereas crypt depth changed in the first post weaning week, that showed cubic effect. In experiment III, 60 animals (initial weight = 8,0 kg were allotted to a randomized blocks design, with five blocks and three animals per experimental unit, to evaluate the performance and diarrhea incidence. No significant differences on these parameters were observed across the treatments. Pigs fed diet with 16.5% CP showed decreasing diarrhea incidence. Reducing the dietary CP levels from 21 to 16.5% for pigs in the nursery phase decreased N excretion in the urine and diarrhea incidence with no changes on performance and physiologic parameters of piglets from 8 to 25 kg BW.

  11. Thermomechanical properties of bitumen modified with crumb tire rubber and polymeric additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, V.; Martinez-Boza, F.J.; Navarro, F.J.; Gallegos, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Huelva, Campus del Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Perez-Lepe, A.; Paez, A. [Centro de Tecnologia, Repsol-YPF, Carretera de Extremadura, N-V, km 18, 28931 Mostoles-Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, the influence of some additives on the rheological and technological properties of crumb rubber modified binders has been studied. The research has been mainly focused on the degree of bitumen modification, measured as the improvement of the mechanical properties, produced by the additives used, and the storage stability of these binders at high temperature. The experimental results obtained reveal that all the polymeric additives used yield an improvement in both rheological and technological properties of the binder. The storage instability of these binders has been associated to sedimentation processes of insoluble CR particles that strongly influence the mechanical properties of the binder. The additives and processing conditions selected in this study do not completely prevent problems associated with the poor stability of CRMBs during storage at high temperature. Nevertheless, the use of polyoctenamer, FT-wax or SBS-containing additives improves CRMB stability. In this sense, similar loss tangent values were found before and after hot storage of these binders. (author)

  12. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate del Valle, Pedro F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara - CUCEI, Ap. Postal 4-021, Guadalajara, Jalisco CP 44410 (Mexico); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Building 104, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503 (United States)]. E-mail: simoneit@coas.oregonstate.edu

    2005-12-15

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition ({delta} {sup 13}C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka ({sup 14}C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions.

  13. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: I. dermal carcinogenicity evaluation of asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles R; Burnett, Donald M; Parker, Craig M; Arp, Earl W; Swanson, Mark S; Minsavage, Gary D; Kriech, Anthony J; Osborn, Linda V; Freeman, James J; Barter, Robert A; Newton, Paul E; Beazley, Shelley L; Stewart, Christopher W

    2011-10-01

    Asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates collected from the headspace above paving and Type III built up roofing asphalt (BURA) tanks were evaluated in two-year dermal carcinogenicity assays in male C3H/HeNCrl mice. A third sample was generated from the BURA using a NIOSH laboratory generation method. Similar to earlier NIOSH studies, the BURA fume condensates were applied dermally in mineral oil twice per week; the paving sample was applied 7 days/week for a total weekly dose of 50 mg/wk in both studies. A single benign papilloma was observed in a group of 80 mice exposed to paving fume condensate at the end of the two-year study and only mild skin irritation was observed. The lab generated BURA fume condensate resulted in statistically significant (P<0.0001) increases in squamous cell carcinomas (35 animals or 55% of animals at risk). The field-matched BURA condensate showed a weaker but significant (P=0.0063) increase (8 carcinomas or 13% of animals) and a longer average latency (90 weeks vs. 76 for the lab fume). Significant irritation was observed in both BURA condensates. It is concluded that the paving fume condensate was not carcinogenic under the test conditions and that the field-matched BURA fume condensate produced a weak tumor response compared to the lab generated sample.

  14. Phenols in hydrothermal petroleums and sediment bitumen from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Leif, R. N.; Ishiwatari, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aliphatic, aromatic and polar (NSO) fractions of seabed petroleums and sediment bitumen extracts from the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal system have been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (free and silylated). The oils were collected from the interiors and exteriors of high temperature hydrothermal vents and represent hydrothermal pyrolyzates that have migrated to the seafloor by hydrothermal fluid circulation. The downcore sediments are representative of both thermally unaltered and thermally altered sediments. The survey has revealed the presence of oxygenated compounds in samples with a high degree of thermal maturity. Phenols are one class of oxygenated compounds found in these samples. A group of methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols (C27-C29) is present in all of the seabed NSO fractions, with the methyl- and dimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols occurring as major components, and a trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenol as a minor component. A homologous series of n-alkylphenols (C13-C33) has also been found in the seabed petroleums. These phenols are most likely derived from the hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter. The n-alkylphenols are probably synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, but the isoprenoidyl phenols are probably hydrothermal alteration products of natural product precursors. The suites of phenols do not appear to be useful tracers of high temperature hydrothermal processes.

  15. Preparation of bitumen from charkchemical tar by catalytic oxidation and study of its structure and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimal conditions (temperature, time are determined for processes of oxidation of chark-chemical tar in the presence of FеСl3·6H2O catalyst. In the course of oxidation during increase of quantity of catalyst from 0.4 mass. % to 1.0 mass. % in the composition of initial tar the amount of tar decreased from 42,75 mass.% to 28,56 mass.%, the amount of hydrocarbons from 30,18 mass.% to  28,92 mass.%, and the quantity of asphaltene increased from 15,84 mass.% to   38 mass.%. The  values of physical-mechanical indicators of obtained products in the presence of 0,8 mass.% to 1,0 mass.% catalyst corresponds to the requirements of the standard, hence they may be quantitatively attributed to viscous construction oil bitumen of mark BH 70/30, BN 90/10. Chemical transformation in the composition of obtained products during catalytic oxidation is proved by the results of IR-spectroscopic analysis.

  16. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, R.; Canale, A.; Bouza, A. [Departamento de Termodinamica y Fenomenos de Transporte. Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sanchez, Y. [Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas. Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN)) and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H{sub 2}/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H{sub 2}S on HDS and NH{sub 3} on HDN. (author)

  17. Biohydrogen production from forest and agricultural residues for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Susanjib; Kumar, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    In this study, forest residues (limbs, tops, and branches) and straw (from wheat and barley) are considered for producing biohydrogen in Western Canada for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands. Two types of gasifiers, namely, the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) gasifier are considered for biohydrogen production. Production costs of biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues from a BCL gasification plant with a capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day are 1.17 and 1.29/kg of H{sub 2}, respectively. For large-scale biohydrogen plant, GTI gasification is the optimum technology. The delivered-biohydrogen costs are 2.19 and 2.31/kg of H{sub 2} at a plant capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. Optimum capacity for biohydrogen plant is 3000 dry tonnes/day for both residues in a BCL gasifier. In a GTI gasifier, although the theoretical optimum sizes are higher than 3000 dry tonnes/day for both feedstocks, the cost of production of biohydrogen is flat above a plant size of 3000 dry tonnes/day. Hence, a plant at the size of 3000 dry tonnes/day could be built to minimize risk. Carbon credits of 119 and 124/tonne of CO{sub 2} equivalent are required for biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. (author)

  18. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  19. Non-Linear Unit Root Properties of Crude Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Maslyuk; Russell Smyth

    2007-01-01

    While there is good reason to expect crude oil production to be non-linear, previous studies that have examined the stochastic properties of crude oil production have assumed that crude oil production follows a linear process. If crude oil production is a non-linear process, conventional unit root tests, which assume linear and systematic adjustment, could interpret departure from linearity as permanent stochastic disturbances. The objective of this paper is to test for non-linearities and un...

  20. 含沥青储层的测井识别及评价%Log Identification and Evaluation for Bitumen-bearing Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明江; 任兴国

    2012-01-01

    以塔里木盆地某区块泥盆系K组含沥青储层为例探讨含沥青储层的测井评价方法.分析沥青对储层物性及产能的影响,通过2口井测井曲线的对比分析,指出含沥青储层的测井响应特征,并建立含沥青储层的测井识别图版,将含沥青储层与泥质区分开.在定性识别的基础上,利用自然伽马与中子一密度交会法计算储层泥质含量的差值作为储层沥青相对含量,建立有效孔隙度校正模型,提高有效孔隙度计算精度,为准确评价储层提供依据.通过分析储层沥青相对含量及孔隙度在平面上的变化趋势,指出区块内油藏东部受破坏程度比西部强.%The deposition of bitumen in reservoir has serious bad effect on physical properties and productivity of reservoir, which may leads to wrong log interpretation results. This paper takes the bitumen-bearing reservoir in Devonian K group in a zone in Talimu basin as an example to discuss how to evaluate bitumen-bearing reservoir. First of all, the effect of bitumen on the physical properties and productivity of reservoir is analyzed and then the log responses of bitumen-bearing reservoir are identified by comparing logs from two different wells. A cross-plot for identifying bitumen-bearing reservoir is created to distinguish between bitumen and shale. The relative abundance of bitumen in reservoir is derived from the difference between shale content which is calculated with gamma log and from neutron-density cross-plot. A formula for porosity correction is created, which helps to improve the accuracy of porosity and provide foundation for accurate reservoir evaluation. At last, the horizontal variation trend of relative abundance of bitumen in reservoir is studied, which shows that the oil pool is damaged more seriously in the east part of the area than in the west.

  1. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  2. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  3. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  4. Use programmable controllers on crude trunklines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J. (Square D Co. (US))

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the use of programmable controllers on a 530-mi. 10-in., bidirectional crude oil trunkline linking Midland and Port Arthur, Texas. It has 14 pump stations and one control center. Amdel, constructed in 1926, allows injection/exit points at Port Arthur, Hearne, Bronte, Forsan, big Spring and Midland, Texas. A 6 MHz analog microwave backbone supplies the communications between the remote pump stations and the control center.

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CRUDE OILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗斌杰; 李新宇

    1994-01-01

    Crude oils from different basins in China ,Australia and New Zealand were analyzed to character-ize aromatic hydrocarbons produced in different environments by means of GC/MS .The distributions of some common compounds such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene,pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorine,dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran were found to be related to sedimentary environments.Especially the relative contents of fluorenes ,dibenzofurans and dibenzothiophenes can be used to di-vide the oils into three types(1) saline or marine carbonate environment;(2) fresh-brackish water lake;(3) swamp and coal-bearing sequence.A romatic biomarkers (e.g.retene, nor-abietene,derivatives of lupeol and β-amyrin)represent higher plant inpults with respect to the precursors of crude oils. High contents of sulphur-containing compounds like benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene series indicate a reducing sulphur-abundant diagenetic condition .The benzohopane series (C32-C35) was identified both in hypersaline and coal-bearing basins, and it is postulated to be the result of strong bacteria activity.In all the sam-ples, a complete series of alkyl benzenes was analyzed .The similarity of its carbon-number distrbu-tion with that of n-alkanes probably suggests their genetic relationship. The distribution of the methylphenanthrene series reflects the evolution degree of crude oils,MPI holding a positive correlation with C29-sterane 20S/(20S+20R).

  6. Synthetic Base Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  7. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capriola M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  8. Understanding crude oil import demand behaviour in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Marbuah, George

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil importation is a major drain on the economy of Ghana, yet no study has attempted to analyse the determinants of crude oil imports. This paper brings to the fore an understanding of the key drivers of crude oil import demand. Using the autoregressive distributed lag modelling framework (ARDL), we estimate variant short-run and long-run import demand models for crude oil using time series data over the period 1980-2012. The results show that demand for crude oil is price inelastic in ...

  9. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  10. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Today’s changeable market and resultant disturbance of crude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In case study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  11. Water Touch-and-Bounce from a Soft Viscoelastic Substrate: Wetting, Dewetting, and Rebound on Bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Bong; Dos Santos, Salomé; Antonini, Carlo

    2016-08-16

    Understanding the interaction between liquids and deformable solid surfaces is a fascinating fundamental problem, in which interaction and coupling of capillary and viscoelastic effects, due to solid substrate deformation, give rise to complex wetting mechanisms. Here we investigated as a model case the behavior of water drops on two smooth bitumen substrates with different rheological properties, defined as hard and soft (with complex shear moduli in the order of 10(7) and 10(5) Pa, respectively, at 1 Hz), focusing both on wetting and on dewetting behavior. By means of classical quasi-static contact angle measurements and drop impact tests, we show that the water drop behavior can significantly change from the quasi-static to the dynamic regime on soft viscoelastic surfaces, with the transition being defined by the substrate rheological properties. As a result, we also show that on the hard substrate, where the elastic response is dominant under all investigated conditions, classical quasi-static contact angle measurements provide consistent results that can be used to predict the drop dynamic wetting behavior, such as drop deposition or rebound after impact, as typically observed for nondeformable substrates. Differently, on soft surfaces, the formation of wetting ridges did not allow to define uniquely the substrate intrinsic advancing and receding contact angles. In addition, despite showing a high adhesion to the soft surface in quasi-static measurements, the drop was surprisingly able to rebound and escape from the surface after impact, as it is typically observed for hydrophobic surfaces. These results highlight that measurements of wetting properties for viscoelastic substrates need to be critically used and that wetting behavior of a liquid on viscoelastic surfaces is a function of the characteristic time scales.

  12. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enpeng

    data that contains information on the properties of a sample. We can analyze the data acquisition from the detectors and get the information on size, shape, etc. This is why we choose SANS as our research tool. The world's top energy problems are security concerns, climate concerns and environmental concerns. So far, oil (37%) is still the No.1 fuel in world energy consumption (Oil 37%, Coal 25%, Bio-fuels 0.2%, Gas 23%, Nuclear 6%, Biomass 4%, Hydro 3%, Solar heat 0.5%, Wind 0.3%, Geothermal 0.2% and Solar photovoltaic 0.04%). Even more and more alternative energy: bio-fuels, nuclear and solar energy will be used in the future, but nuclear energy has a major safety issue after the Japanese Fukushima I nuclear accidents, and other energies contribute only a small percent. Thus, it is very important to improve the efficiency and reduce the population of petroleum products. There is probably one thing that we can all agree on: the world's energy reserves are not unlimited. Even though it is limited, only 30% of the oil reserves is conventional oil, so in order to produce, transport, and refine of heavy crude oil without wasting huge amounts of energy, we need to reduce the viscosity without using high temperature stream heating or diluent; As more and more off-shore oil is exploited at that we need reduce the viscosity without increasing temperature. The whole petroleum consumed in U.S. in 2009 was 18.7 million barrels per day and 35% of all the energy we consumed. Diesel is one of the very important fossil fuel which is about 20% of petroleum consumed. Most of the world's oils are non-conventional, 15 % of heavy oil, 25 % of extra heavy oil, 30 % of the oil sands and bitumen, and the conventional oil reserves is only 30%. The oil sand is closely related to the heavy crude oil, the main difference being that oil sands generally do not flow at all. For efficient energy production and conservation, how to lower the liquated fuel and crude oil viscosity is a very important

  13. ZnCl sub 2 catalyzed flash hydropyrolysis of +525 sup 0 C pitch from Cold Lake bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, R.N.; Ingard, E. (Guelph Chemical Labs., Guelph, ON (Canada)); Ternan, M. (Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1989-06-01

    Flash hydropyrolysis experiments have been performed on the vacuum bottoms fraction of Cold Lake bitumen, using zinc chloride as a catalyst. Milligram size samples of vacuum bottoms resid were heated rapidly (120 - 400{sup 0}C/s) by passing a large electric current through the reactor tube. The variables studied included temperature, heating rate, catalysts/pitch ratio, vapour phase residence time and pressure. Temperature and catalysts/pitch ratio caused major changes in yields. In contrast pressure had little effect. It was found that high conversions could be obtained at hydrogen pressures which are much lower than those normally used in catalytically hydrocracking residual oils. 16 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. European project RE-ROAD: round robin test on extraction and recovery methods for Reclaimed Asphalts with Polymer modified Bitumens

    OpenAIRE

    MOUILLET, Virginie; PIERARD, Nathalie; Mollenhauer, Konrad; GINOUX, Marc Stéphane; Gabet, Thomas; Farcas, Fabienne; MIRSKI, Krzysztof; KEMPERLE, Ema

    2012-01-01

    The recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) in new hot-mix asphalt (HMA) is a common practice throughout Europe. However, Reclaimed Asphalts (RA) are complex materials and the use of significant proportions of RA involves a more accurate control of their characteristics. This is an essential step for asphalt mix design and a key factor to obtain good performances. At this time there is clearly a lack of knowledge and adequate test methods to analyse RA with Polymer modified Bitumens (PmBs). The p...

  15. Irritative effects of fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways: results of a cross-shift study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Pesch, Beate; Kappler, Martin; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Rihs, Hans Peter; Merget, Rolf; Bruening, Thomas [Institut der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Schott, Klaus [Berufsgenossenschaft der Bauwirtschaft (BG BAU), Munich (Germany); Preuss, Ralf; Angerer, Juergen [Universitaet Erlangen, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin (IPASUM), Erlangen (Germany); Hahn, Jens Uwe [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut fuer Arbeitsschutz (BGIA), Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Possible health hazards of fumes and aerosols of bitumen are in discussion, and data on their adverse effects on human airways under current exposure conditions are limited. To assess the irritative effects of exposure to fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways, a cross-sectional cross-shift study was conducted including external and internal exposure measurements, spirometry and especially non-invasive methods like nasal lavage collection and induction of sputum in order to identify and evaluate more precisely inflammatory process in the upper and lower airways. The cross-shift study comprised 74 mastic asphalt workers who were exposed to fumes and aerosols of bitumen and 49 construction workers without this exposure as reference group. Questionnaire, spirometry, ambient monitoring and urinary analysis were performed. Humoral and cellular parameters were measured in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and induced sputum. For data analysis, a mixed linear model was performed on the different outcomes with exposure group, time of measurement (pre-, post-shift), current smoking, German nationality and age as fixed factors and subjects as random factor. Based on personal exposure measurements during shift, mastic asphalt workers were classified into a low ({<=}10 mg/m{sup 3}; n = 46) and a high (>10 mg/m{sup 3}; n = 28) exposure group. High exposure was accompanied by significant higher urinary post-shift concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes. Acute respiratory symptoms were reported more frequently in the high exposure group after shift. Significant cross-shift declines in lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1} (% predicted)] and forced vital capacity [FVC (% predicted)]) were measured in mastic asphalt workers. Pre-shift FEV{sub 1} (% predicted) and FVC (% predicted) were higher in the low exposure group. In pre- and post-shift NALF samples, interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-, IL-8- and total protein concentrations

  16. Irritative effects of fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways: results of a cross-shift study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Pesch, Beate; Schott, Klaus; Kappler, Martin; Preuss, Ralf; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Angerer, Jürgen; Rihs, Hans Peter; Hahn, Jens Uwe; Merget, Rolf; Brüning, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Possible health hazards of fumes and aerosols of bitumen are in discussion, and data on their adverse effects on human airways under current exposure conditions are limited. To assess the irritative effects of exposure to fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways, a cross-sectional cross-shift study was conducted including external and internal exposure measurements, spirometry and especially non-invasive methods like nasal lavage collection and induction of sputum in order to identify and evaluate more precisely inflammatory process in the upper and lower airways. The cross-shift study comprised 74 mastic asphalt workers who were exposed to fumes and aerosols of bitumen and 49 construction workers without this exposure as reference group. Questionnaire, spirometry, ambient monitoring and urinary analysis were performed. Humoral and cellular parameters were measured in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and induced sputum. For data analysis, a mixed linear model was performed on the different outcomes with exposure group, time of measurement (pre-, post-shift), current smoking, German nationality and age as fixed factors and subjects as random factor. Based on personal exposure measurements during shift, mastic asphalt workers were classified into a low (10 mg/m(3); n = 28) exposure group. High exposure was accompanied by significant higher urinary post-shift concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes. Acute respiratory symptoms were reported more frequently in the high exposure group after shift. Significant cross-shift declines in lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV(1) (% predicted)] and forced vital capacity [FVC (% predicted)]) were measured in mastic asphalt workers. Pre-shift FEV(1) (% predicted) and FVC (% predicted) were higher in the low exposure group. In pre- and post-shift NALF samples, interleukin (IL)-1beta-, IL-8- and total protein concentrations were lower in the low exposure group compared to the

  17. Properties of Tahe crude oil and influence of separation components on crude oil viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaogang, Chen; Hongjun, Deng [Northwest Oilfield Branch Engineering and Technology Institute of Sinopec (China); Jixiang, Guo; Heyi, Wang; Meiqin, Lin [Enhanced Oil Recovery Research Center, China University of Petroleum (China)], email: guojx002@163.com

    2010-07-01

    The Tahe oil field in Xinjiang produces oil from depths of 5500m to 7000m whose temperatures range from 128 to 140 Celsius. The formation waters have a high salinity. To determine the major factors that contribute to the viscosity of the oil, such as saturate, aromatic resin, and asphaltene, a variety of techniques were used. Measurements were done using IR, scanning electron microscopy, energy spectrum analysis (EDX), elemental analysis, and ICP techniques. It was found, as predicted, that the viscosity of the crude oil decreased with increase of the temperature. However, different types of crude oil have various levels of temperature-sensitive turning points. The Tahe oil fields have a higher turning point due to the asphaltene and resins. To conduct the experiment the Tahe crude AD11 was separated into oil fractions using toluene as the solvent. It was concluded that the asphaltene has the greatest impact on viscosity.

  18. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  19. The control of the surface evenness in the Urban road bitumen pavement%城市道路沥青路面平整度控制浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃志学

    2012-01-01

      根据城市沥青路面的施工经验,分析了影响城市道路沥青路面平整度的各种因素,提出了城市道路各结构层平整度的质量控制要点。%  According to the construction experience of the urban bitumen pavement,analyze the various factors that affect the surface evenness of the bitumen pavement on urban road,and propose the quality control points of the evenness on structural layer for the urban road .

  20. The Positive Ion Emulsified Bitumen Applies in the Road Maintenance%阳离子乳化沥青应用于道路养护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范林眼; 王慧

    2009-01-01

    文章论述了乳化沥青的概念,详细叙述了乳化沥青在道路透层、黏层、路面防水层、稀浆封层和桥面防水层等部位中的应用情况.%This article elaborated the emulsified bitumen concept.Narrated spot in detail and so on in emulsified bitumen application situations, Seeps in the path, mounted the level, the road surface waterproof layer, spot and so on in thin paste sealing course and bridge floor waterproof layer.

  1. The Synthetic Cannabinoids Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Benyamina, Amine; Blecha, Lisa; Cottencin, Olivier; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    « Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids, which mimic the effects of cannabis, appears to become increasingly popular, in the new psychoactive substances landscape. In 2014, the existence of 134 different types of synthetic cannabinoids were reported by the European Union Early Warning System. These drugs are mainly sold online as an alternative to controlled and regulated psychoactive substances. They appear to have a life cycle of about 1-2 years before being replaced by a next wave of products. Legislation controlling these designer drugs has been introduced in many countries with the objective to limit the spread of existing drugs and control potential new analogs. The majority of the synthetic cannabinoids are full agonists at the CB1 receptor and do not contain tobacco or cannabis. They are becoming increasingly popular in adolescents, students and clubbers as an abused substance. Relatively high incidence of adverse effects associated with synthetic cannabinoids use has been documented in the literature. Numerous fatalities linked with their use and abuse have been reported. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of synthetic cannabinoids in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. To reach this objective, a literature search was performed on two representative databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar), the Erowid Center website (a US non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals), and various governmental websites. The terms used for the database search were: "synthetic cannabinoids", "spice", "new psychoactive substances", and/or "substance use disorder", and/or "adverse effects", and/or "fatalities". The search was limited to years 2005 to 2016 due to emerging scientific literature at

  2. Effect of Rejuvenator on Properties of Aged Bitumen of Different Aging Degree%再生剂对不同老化程度沥青再生性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况栋梁; 余剑英; 蔡正文; 宋献东

    2011-01-01

    采用再生剂对不同老化程度的沥青进行再生,研究了再生剂对不同老化程度沥青再生性能的影响,并探讨了再生沥青的化学组成与物理性能之间的关系.结果表明,对于轻度老化沥青和中度老化沥青,当新沥青的用量分别为40%和60%时,掺入10%~15%的再生剂即可使再生沥青的物理性能满足新沥青的规范要求,而重度老化沥青由于其沥青质含量较高,只有当新沥青用量在60%以上、再生剂用量为25%时,其物理性能才能符合新沥青的规范要求.化学组成分析表明再生沥青的沥青质含量和芳香分含量是影响再生沥青性能的关键指标,当再生沥青的沥青质含量和芳香分含量与新沥青的相近时,其物理性能可以得到很好恢复.%Effect of rejuvenator on the reclaimed properties of aged bitumen of different aging degree is investigated and relationship between physical properties and chemical component of recycled bitumen is explored. The results indicate that for slightly and medially aged bitumen, when content of fresh bitumen is 40% to 60%, the physical properties of recycled bitumen can be restored to meet the fresh bitumen standards by adding 10% to 15% rejuvenator. However, for severely aged bitumen, only when content of fresh bitumen exceed 60% and rejuvenator content is up to 25%, the physical properties of recycled bitumen can be restored to meet the fresh bitumen standards. The contents ofasphaltenes and aromatics have strong influence on the physical properties of recycled bitumen. The physical properties of recycled bitumen can be well restored when it has almoslly closed the fresh bitumen on content of asphaltenes and aromatics.

  3. A Management and Economic Survey in Implementation of Blown Bitumen Production Using Acidic Sludge Recycling (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Hassanpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many units of blown bitumen and used-motor oil reprocessing industries have been currently implemented and many modern technologies and additives are being developed and requested continuously. The objective of current study was a management and economic survey in implementation of blown bitumen production using acidic sludge recycling as a new additive that encompasses financial views and other success factors so carried out using a Kanji’s Business Excellence Model, empirical equations, professional experiences and observations during establishment an industry. Using acidic sludge had promoted the product quality in parallel with the TQM parameters. Current study had shown the indices values such as value-added percent, profit, annual income, breakeven point, value-added, output value, data value, variable cost of commodity unit and production costs were found to be about 44%, $ 5308605.14, $ 5252251.65, $ 1183.67 , $ 5401935.47, $ 6748064.5, $ 12150000, $ 140.93 and $ 6897748.4 respectively. The breakeven point about 2.46%, time of return on investment about 0.07, BES about 800.2 (for KBEM and 806.77 (for EFQM was represented a systematic practice so that thrift outlays and boost the strength and weakness points to improve.

  4. Modification of an Amposta origin bitumen by using tlie Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluyiene-2,4-diisocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco, M.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available In this works, we have modified a bitumen from Amposta by using the Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluylene-2,4-diisocyanate in presence of aluminium trichloride, presenting as well as the characteristics of the original bitumen as the ones of the modification products. We have made technological test, aging of thin film, rheological test, thermical susceptibility and components analyses.

    En el presente trabajo se ha modificado un betún procedente de Amposta por reacción de Friedei y Crafts con 4-metil-1,3-bencenodiisocianato, en presencia de tricloruro de aluminio. Se han determinado las características del betún original así como las de los productos obtenidos en la modificación. Se han llevado a cabo ensayos de tipo tecnológico, envejecimiento en película delgada, propiedades reológicas, susceptibilidad térmica y análisis de componentes.

  5. Evaluation of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; de Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Project RBMN was launched in November 2008 and aims to establish, manage and execute all tasks for implementing the Brazilian Repository, from its conception to its construction. The concept to be adopted will be a near-surface repository. The inventory includes wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities and from the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and activities research and development. The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. In Brazil, for the immobilization and solidification of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of radiation from NPPs are used cement, in Angra 1, and bitumen, in Angra 2. Studies indicate serious concerns about the risks associated with bituminization radioactive waste, much related to the process as the product. There are two major problems due to the presence of products bituminization in repositories, swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling, filling the drums must be limited to 70 - 90% of its volume, which reduces the structural stability of the repository and the optimization of deposition. This study aims to evaluate of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive. (author)

  6. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ming; QIAN Yu; LI Xiu-Xi

    2009-01-01

    Today's ohangeable market and resultant disturbance of orude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In oase study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  7. Kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqbool, T.; Hussein, I.A.; Fogler, H.S. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils was investigated using n-alkane precipitants. Recent studies have shown that there is a kinetic phenomenon associated with asphaltene precipitation. This study showed that the time needed to precipitate the asphaltenes can vary from a few minutes to several months, depending on the amount of n-alkane precipitant added. As such, the onset of asphaltene precipitation is a function of the concentration of precipitant and time. A technique to quantify the amount of asphaltenes precipitated as a function of time and precipitant concentration was presented. This study also investigated the kinetic effects caused by various precipitants. Optical microscopy was used to monitor the growth of asphaltene aggregates with time. Refractive index measurements provided further insight into the kinetics of asphaltene precipitation. Polarity based fractionation and dielectric constant measurements were used to compare the nature of asphaltenes precipitated early in the precipitation process with the asphaltenes precipitated at later times. It was concluded that asphaltenes precipitating at different times from the same crude oil-precipitant mixture are different from one another. 3 refs.

  8. Ecuador plans expanded crude-oil line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschat, J.; Sabathier, J. (Beicip-Franlab, Rueil-Malmaison (France))

    1995-01-23

    Ecuador plans to increase throughput of the 309 mile, 20 and 26-in. Trans Ecuadorian pipeline that moves crude oil from the Oriente in the Amazon basin to the Pacific coast for refining in local refineries and export. Increasing crude-oil production is driving the expansion. In investment, it is the largest pipeline project in the country in more than 20 years. In August 1992, Petro-ecuador, the Ecuadorian state company in charge of petroleum, hired the French petroleum consulting firm Beicip-Franlab to carry out the basic engineering and preparation of the technical tender documents for increasing the pipeline's throughput. The revamped Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, together with the Triunfo Nuevo-Condijua pipeline, will form the new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. This means that they will be integrated into a single system controlled and monitored from a main dispatching center in Guajalo near Quito which is now Petroecuador's maintenance center for the existing pipeline. As there is no supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system now on the Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, scada will be built along with a new telecommunication network covering the entire new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. Also, to comply with the most modern requirements in terms of environmental protection, especially in a country subject to seismic activity, a leak-detection system will be implemented on all lines.

  9. Charactristics of the Biomarkers from Nonmarine Crude Oils in China—A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范璞; 李景贵

    1991-01-01

    The present paper deals with the biomarker characteristics of crude oils and source rocks from different environments(fresh,fresh-brackish and salt waters)of nonmarine depositional basins of different ages in China.Their characters are summarized as follows:1)Souce rocks and crude oils derived from fresh-water lacustrine facies have an odd/even predominance of n-alkanes and high pristine/phytane ratios.Oils from the fresh-water lacustrine facies differ from typical marine oils in the relative contents of total steranes and terpanes,the concentrations of hopanes and organic sul-phur compounds and the values of methylphenanthrene indices and C,H,S stable isotopes.2)The source rocks and crude oils derived from saline lacustrine facies possess an even/odd predominance of n-alkanes and high phytane/pristine ratios.There are also some differences between saline lacustrine oils and freshwater lacustrine oils in the concentrations of steranes,tricyclic terpanes and organic sulphur compounds,as well as in the values of methylphenanthrene indices and C,H,S stable isotopes.3)Oils derived from fresh-brackish water lake facies differ from oils from fresh-water lacustrine or samline lacustrine environments in respect of some biomarkers.According to the various distributions of these biomarkers,a number of geochemical parameters can be applied synthetically to differentiating and identifying the nature of original depositional environments of crude oils and source rocks and that of organisms-primary source materials present in those environments.

  10. SFC and National Synthetic Fuels Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothberg, P.F.

    1984-09-01

    Besieged by accusations such as mismanagement and malfeasance, the US Synthetic Fuels Corporation's (SFC) future is anything but secure. SFC set out to help stimulate a domestic synthetic fuels industry, a response to the energy problems of the 1970s. During its four year existence, the Corporation witnessed the resignation of many of its Board members and endured several corporate crises, while receiving vigorous attacks for its failure to operate efficiently and effectivley. Recent critics argue that the current energy situation precludes the need for SFC's $13.25 billion program; reduced oil prices and a world crude surplus have shifted concern from energy shortages to the enormous Federal budget deficit. Proponents argue that SFC's program would actually result in minimal budget outlays and that the long-term US national security and energy supply situation dictate the need for continued support. The controversy continues while SFC's Board sits dormant, without its four member quorum, unable to continue the roles of banker, insurance company and venture capital investor for which it was created. 2 tables.

  11. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  12. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Recently China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has gradually set up its own down stream industry in response to the development of oil fields, the demand of domestic market and the unique characteristics of crude oil resources.The capacity of crude oil processing has reached 21million tons per year approximately and 14 million tons of crude oil was processed in 1994,making up one-tenth of CNPC's total output.

  13. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into malic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Malic acid production from the biodiesel coproduct crude glycerol by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, ATCC 10577 and ATCC 12846 was observed to occur with the highest malic acid level acid being produced by A. niger ATCC 12846. Fungal biomass production from crude glycerol was similar, but ATCC 10577 produced the highest biomass. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into the commercially valuable organic acid malic acid appeared feasible.

  14. Yemen's light, sweet Alif crude assayed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-23

    Crude oil from Yemen's Alif field has been assayed. The light sweet crude, also known as Marib, is part of the Marib al-Jawf concession in northern Yemen. Alif field was discovered in 1984 by Hunt Oil Co. The field was declared commercial in November 1985. Alif production averaged 118,500 b/d in 1992. Physical and chemical properties are listed for the whole crude and its fractions.

  15. Toxicity assessment of unrefined crude oil fractions in soil ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudey, J.S.; Wilson, J.J. [HydroQual Lab. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Chu, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The chemical and physical differences amongst crude oils and bioavailability (toxicity) of crude oil constituents are not addressed with existing numerical criteria for remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The constituents of crude oil include short chain hydrocarbons, such as light ends or gasoline, and long chain hydrocarbons (saturates), aromatic and polar compounds and heavier asphaltenes. Natural weathering and biodegradation take care of the lighter compounds. Less biodegradable are the heavier compounds which tend to be immobile. A range of questions concerning these immobile substances need to be answered to determine their effect on the bioavailability, hence toxicity, when solutes become solvents, etc. In this study, different crude oils and crude oil fractions were assessed as to their effect on the bioavailability (as toxicity) to microbes, plants and invertebrates. Five fractions with boiling point distillation were obtained from the separation of each of three base crude oils for a total of fifteen fractions. This practical approach to fractionating hydrocarbon represents the standard method for crude characterization. Ecological relevance, volume requirements, and availability of standard methods formed the basis for the selection of the tests and test species. The relative amounts of the different compounds (aromatics, saturates, polars, and asphaltenes) were different for each crude. Worm survival and lettuce seeding emergence tests were conducted on the spiked soils, and the extracts were tested with bacterial luminescence and lettuce root elongation. The results obtained for the three crude oils were similar. It was found that the heavier fractions were not toxic. Aging decreased the toxicity of aqueous extracts of spiked soils. Methanol extracts showed no loss of toxicity. The toxicity of whole crude was compared to the toxicity recovered in the fractions. The aqueous extracts of the naphthenic crude and the methanol extract of the

  16. Freeze-Thaw Performance and Moisture-Induced Damage Resistance of Base Course Stabilized with Slow Setting Bitumen Emulsion-Portland Cement Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shojaei Baghini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-thaw (FT cycles and moisture susceptibility are important factors influencing the geotechnical characteristics of soil-aggregates. Given the lack of published information on the behavior of cement-bitumen emulsion-treated base (CBETB under environmental conditions, especially freezing and thawing, this study investigated the effects of these additives on the CBETB performance. The primary goal was to evaluate the resistance of CBETB to moisture damage by performing FT, Marshall conditioning, and AASHTO T-283 tests and to evaluate the long-term stripping susceptibility of CBETB while also predicting the liquid antistripping additives to assess the mixture’s durability and workability. Specimens were stabilized with Portland cement (0%–6%, bitumen emulsion (0%–5%, and Portland cement-bitumen emulsion mixtures and cured for 7 days, and their short- and long-term performances were studied. Evaluation results of both the Marshall stability ratio and the tensile strength ratio show that the additions of additives increase the resistance of the mixtures to moisture damage. Results of durability tests performed for determining the resistance of compacted specimens to repeated FT cycles indicate that the specimen with the 4% cement-3% bitumen emulsion mixture significantly improves water absorption, volume changes, and weight losses. This indicates the effectiveness of this additive as a road base stabilizer with excellent engineering properties for cold regions.

  17. Chemical modification of a bitumen and its non-fuel uses. [Reactions of tar sand asphaltenes in synthesis of non-fuel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1974-01-01

    Simple reactions are described whereby tar sand bitumen can be converted to a whole range of materials. Examples are given to illustrate the non-fuel uses of the products. The following reactions of Athabasca asphaltenes are considered: oxidation, halogenation, sulfonation and sulfomethylation, phosphorylation, hydrogenation, reactions with S and O, reactions with metal salts, and miscellaneous chemical conversions. (JGB)

  18. Bioconversion technologies of crude glycerol to value added industrial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Garlapati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol that is produced as the by-product from biodiesel, has to be effectively utilized to contribute to the viability of biodiesel. Crude glycerol in large amounts can pose a threat to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to convert this crude glycerol into valued added products using biotechnological processes, which brings new revenue to biodiesel producers. Crude glycerol can serve as a feedstock for biopolymers, poly unsaturated fatty acids, ethanol, hydrogen and n-butanol production and as a raw material for different value added industrial products. Hence, in this review we have presented different bioconversion technologies of glycerol to value added industrial products.

  19. Organic Solvent Extraction of Bitumen from Canada Oil Sands%有机溶剂萃取加拿大油砂应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯杰; 李鑫钢; 许宁津; 隋红

    2015-01-01

    Organic solvent extraction used for extraction of bitumen from oil sand was introduced,and the process has two stages:bitumen phase dissolution and separation of bitumen,solvent and sands.In this study,toluene,heptane,acetone,ethyl acetate,toluene/heptane,acetone/heptane and ethyl acetate/heptane were used as the solvent to investigate the total recovery of bitumen and the extraction efficiency of four defined fractions (saturates,aromatics,resins and asphaltenes) in bitumen.The result of the surface tension of bitumen/solvent showed that the surface tension varied only based on the type of solvent used and remained relatively unchanged during the extraction process of bitumen from oil sands.Mixture solvent systems were good for oil sand separation due to the extraction efficiency and the low surface tension.%介绍了溶剂作为萃取剂分离油砂的技术,溶剂萃取油砂过程包含两个阶段:沥青相向溶剂的溶解过程和沥青、溶剂与砂粒的分离过程.考察了单一溶剂甲苯、丙酮、乙酸乙酯和甲苯/正庚烷、丙酮/正庚烷、乙酸乙酯/正庚烷组成的复合溶剂体系在相同条件下对油砂沥青的萃取率,在此基础上进一步对比了不同溶剂体系对沥青四组分饱和分、芳香分、胶质和沥青质的萃取效果,同时考察了不同浓度的沥青-溶剂溶液的表面张力,结果表明在油砂萃取过程中沥青-溶剂体系的表面张力主要取决于所选溶剂的种类,而沥青的浓度对溶液表面张力的影响不大.混合溶剂体系甲苯/正庚烷、丙酮/正庚烷、乙酸乙酯/正庚烷相比纯溶剂萃取率较高,其沥青溶液表面张力较低,是良好的分离油砂溶剂体系.

  20. Solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sands amended with ionic liquid%离子液体促进溶剂萃取油砂沥青

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坚强; 李鑫钢; 隋红

    2014-01-01

    Both traditional water extraction and solvent extraction to extract bitumen from oil sands have their drawbacks,such as sand/clay entraining into bitumen and bitumen remaining in residual sands. To resolve these problems,an ionic liquid ([Emim]BF4) was used to enhance bitumen recovery from Canadian oil sands by methyl acetate/n-heptane. FTIR and SEM were used to qualitatively analyze the cleanliness of bitumen and residual sand. Quantitative results of fine sand/clay in bitumen and organic matter remaining in residual sand were also obtained by coupling SEM with Elementar and ICP. The optimal volume ratio of methyl acetate to n-heptane was 2∶3. Meanwhile [Emim]BF4 increased bitumen recovery ratio to 94.20%, 7.92% higher than composite solvent extraction without [Emim]BF4. The results obtained from FTIR , SEM , Elementar and ICP demonstrated that [Emim]BF4 could enhance bitumen separation efficiently. Negligible sand/clay was entrained in extracted bitumen,and no IL or bitumen was found in the treated sand.%传统水洗法和溶剂萃取法萃取油砂沥青时,存在沥青中含有沙土和残沙中含有油等缺点。为解决上述缺点,本文采用不同比例的乙酸甲酯/正庚烷复合溶剂萃取油砂沥青,研究了离子液体(1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑四氟硼酸盐,[Emim]BF4)对该溶剂萃取体系的萃取率和分离洁净程度的影响。采用红外光谱仪和扫描电镜对萃取后的残沙和沥青的洁净程度进行了定性分析,并结合元素分析仪和电感耦合等离子体发射光谱仪获得萃取后残沙和沥青的洁净程度的定量结果。实验结果表明:当复合溶剂体积比为2∶3时,[Emim]BF4促使沥青回收率达到最大值94.20%,比单纯复合溶剂萃取体系的最大萃取率高7.92%;通过上述测试方法的定性和定量分析,证明了[Emim]BF4能有效解决沥青夹带沙土和残沙中含油的问题。

  1. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  2. Synthetic studies towards bottromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ackermann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thio-Ugi reactions are described as an excellent synthetic tool for the synthesis of sterically highly hindered endothiopeptides. S-Methylation and subsequent amidine formation can be carried out in an inter- as well as in an intramolecular fashion. The intramolecular approach allows the synthesis of the bottromycin ring system in a straightforward manner.

  3. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  4. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  5. Sino-Kazakh Crude Pipeline Starts Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Sino-Kazakh Crude Oil Pipeline financed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and KazMunaiGaz, the state oil company of Kazakhstan,was launched on December 15, 2005, thanks to the commitments and endeavors of governments and constructors of both countries. The pipeline, with diameter of 813 mm, the total length of 962.2 km running from the Kazakhstan Atasu in the west to China's Alashankou in the east, with the phase I designed annual capacity up to 10 million tons. The launch of the pipeline is a milestone of the China-Kazakhstan energy cooperation, having great importance to the countries' economic growths, China's energy security strategy and the diversification of Kazakh oil exports.

  6. Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guipeng; ZHANG Li; SUN Xiaojing; JING Weiwen

    2006-01-01

    Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater is an important issue in marine environmental protection and is studied in this work. Results showed that petroleum hydrocarbons could be effectively degraded by the irradiation of high-pressure mercury light or natural sunlight. Photochemical reaction was controlled by various factors including light source, aquatic medium, heavy metal ion and photo-sensitizer. The rate of photo-degradation was fast at the initial stage of exposure, exhibiting a first-order reaction kinetic behavior. However, after irradiation for a few hours, the concentration of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum hydrocarbons stabilized. For all experimental conditions, the range of the photo-degradation rate is from 0.001 3 to 0.005 7/min.

  7. Calcium Uptake in Crude Tissue Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Philip A.; Kranias, Evangelia G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The various isoforms of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) are responsible for the Ca2+ uptake from the cytosol into the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR). In some tissues, the activity of SERCA can be modulated by binding partners, such as phospholamban and sarcolipin. The activity of SERCA can be characterized by its apparent affinity for Ca2+ as well as maximal enzymatic velocity. Both parameters can be effectively determined by the protocol described here. Specifically, we describe the measurement of the rate of oxalate-facilitated 45Ca uptake into the SR of crude mouse ventricular homogenates. This protocol can easily be adapted for different tissues and animal models as well as cultured cells. PMID:26695031

  8. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  9. Study on the Effect of Fly Ash to Modified Bitumen%粉煤灰含量对SBS改性沥青性能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯松锴; 杨遂中; 杨广军

    2011-01-01

    主要研究了粉煤灰含量对石油沥青性能的影响,探讨了不同质量比的石油沥青/粉煤灰对于SBS改性沥青性能的影响,同时研究了不同用量的芳烃油、SBS对改性石油沥青性能的影响.研究结果表明,石油沥青和粉煤灰的比例在一定范围内,使改性沥青的延度等指标完全满足SBSI-C标准.当石油沥青与煤沥青的质量比为60/22时,其综合性价比达到最佳值,为降低改性沥青的生产成本进行了有益的尝试.研究还发现,对于本改性体系,芳烃油和SBS的用量对于沥青的改性有较大的影响.%Modified bitumen had been mainly studied in this thesis. The effect of the different quality ratio of petroleum asphalt/fly ash to modified bitumen had been discussed. The effects of different aromatic oil and SBS to the properties of modified bitumen were also studied. The results showed that the ductility of modified bitumen can satisfy standard of SBS I-C by the addition of the ratio of asphalt and coal tar pitch in a certain range. When the different quality ratio of Petroleum asphalt and fly ash was 60/20, the comprehensive cost achieved the best value. The result also revealed that there is an obvious influence of the modified bitumen as a result of content of aromatic oil and SBS in this modified system.

  10. Three-phase gas-liquid-solid foaming bubble reactors and self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Clara E.

    Two distinct topics in multi-phase flow of interest of the oil industry are considered in this thesis. Studies of three-phase gas-liquid-solid foaming bubble reactors and self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth are reported. Applications of foams and foaming are found in many industrial processes such as flotation of minerals, enhanced oil recovery, drilling in oil reservoirs, and refining processes. However the physics of foaming and defoaming are not fully understood. Foams trap gas and are not desirable in some processes such as oil refining. Previously, it has been found that foaming may be strongly suppressed in a cold slit bubble reactor by fluidizing hydrophilic particles in the bubbly mixture below the foam. In this work, we fluidized hydrophobic and hydrophilic versions of two different sands in a cold slit foaming bubble reactor. We found that the hydrophobic sands suppress the foam substantially better than their hydrophilic counterparts. To study the capacity of foams to carry particles, we built a new slit foaming bubble reactor, which can be continuously fed with solid particles. Global gas, liquid, and solid holdups were measured for given gas and liquid velocities and solid flow rates. This research provides the fundamental ground work for the identification of flow types in a slit three-phase foaming bubble reactor with continuous injection of particles. Bitumen froth is produced from the oil sands of Athabasca, Canada. When transported in a pipeline, water present in the froth is released in regions of high shear (at the pipe wall). This results in a lubricating layer of water that allows bitumen froth pumping at greatly reduced pressures and hence the potential for savings in pumping energy consumption. Experimental results establishing the features of this self lubrication phenomenon are presented. The pressure gradient of lubricated flows closely follow the empirical law of Blasius for turbulent pipe flow with a constant of proportionality

  11. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption.

  12. Building a Consensus Forecast for Crude Oil Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    recommendations for follow-on research. 4 II. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter begins with a review of the history of crude oil production beginning...import supply curves Domestic crude oil production Domestic natural gas liquids production Domestic gas-to-liquids production Domestic coal-to-liquids

  13. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge rat

  14. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  15. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.

  16. WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN VISCOUS CRUDE PROCESSING IN SHENGLI OILFIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huaijie; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Apart from sewage pretreatment and stepped control, the Viscous Crude Processing Plant of Shengli Petrochemical General Works has established a new process of sewage treatment featuring with flexible and advanced technology and strong impact strength, with the crude sewage treatment yield reaching more than 95%.

  17. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Strategy of the Comprehensive Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude The further study on the properties and characteristics of the naphthenic base heavy crude shows that the utilization of naphthenic acid, production of low freezing point lube stocks and a series of asphalts are important future trends for comprehensive utilization of these resources.

  18. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea.

  19. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  20. Investigation on the Combined Effect of Fibers and Cement on the Mechanical Performance of Foamed Bitumen Mixtures Containing 100% RAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ashouri Taziani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about virgin aggregate sources and increasing demands for construction materials of transport infrastructures as the key parameters in development are the most important reasons, which convinced pavement engineers to develop new methods in order to use higher amount of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP. One of the common methodologies to produce mixtures containing RAP is foamed bitumen mix (FBM. In addition, according to previous research studies, incorporating various types of fibers and hydraulic binders such as cement could significantly improve the mechanical performance of mixtures. The present research study evaluated FBM containing 100% RAP and two types of fiber and Portland cement. Dynamic modulus, unconfined dynamic creep compression, and indirect tensile strength were evaluated in the laboratory at optimum moisture content, which was investigated in this research. Both types of fiber and cement proved to enhance specific properties of mixtures.

  1. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xiayong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol−1 to 21.9 kJ mol−1 and from −85.4 J mol−1 K−1 to −101.8 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces

  2. These Synthetic Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIT GILLET

    2008-01-01

    @@ Already slated to be one of the most important cultural events in the buildup to this summer's Olympic games, Synthetic Times-Media Art China 2008 will feature the works of more than 30 artists from around the world. Upwards of 40 media art installations will be exhibited in the National Art Museum of China alone, along with performances, workshops, presentations, and discussion panels focusing on the art works and the growth of media art as a discipline.

  3. Synthetic gases production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaud, J.P.

    1996-06-01

    The natural gas or naphtha are the main constituents used for the production of synthetic gases. Several production ways of synthetic gases are industrially used as for example the natural gas or naphtha catalytic reforming, the selective oxidation of natural gas or heavy fuels and the coal oxy-vapo-gasification. The aim of this work is to study the different steps of production and treatment of the synthetic gases by the way of catalytic reforming. The first step is the desulfurization of the hydrocarbons feedstocks. The process used in industry is described. Then is realized the catalytic hydrocarbons reforming process. After having recalled some historical data on the catalytic reforming, the author gives the reaction kinetics and thermodynamics. The possible reforming catalysts, industrial equipments and furnaces designs are then exposed. The carbon dioxide is a compound easily obtained during the reforming reactions. It is a wasteful and harmful component which has to be extracted of the gaseous stream. The last step is then the gases de-carbonation. Two examples of natural gas or naphtha reforming reactions are at last given: the carbon monoxide conversion by steam and the carbon oxides reactions with hydrogen (methanization). (O.M.). 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Synthetic biology in plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Lars B; Bock, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    Plastids (chloroplasts) harbor a small gene-dense genome that is amenable to genetic manipulation by transformation. During 1 billion years of evolution from the cyanobacterial endosymbiont to present-day chloroplasts, the plastid genome has undergone a dramatic size reduction, mainly as a result of gene losses and the large-scale transfer of genes to the nuclear genome. Thus the plastid genome can be regarded as a naturally evolved miniature genome, the gradual size reduction and compaction of which has provided a blueprint for the design of minimum genomes. Furthermore, because of the largely prokaryotic genome structure and gene expression machinery, the high transgene expression levels attainable in transgenic chloroplasts and the very low production costs in plant systems, the chloroplast lends itself to synthetic biology applications that are directed towards the efficient synthesis of green chemicals, biopharmaceuticals and other metabolites of commercial interest. This review describes recent progress with the engineering of plastid genomes with large constructs of foreign or synthetic DNA, and highlights the potential of the chloroplast as a model system in bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology approaches.

  5. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Angerer, J.; Pesch, B.; Marczynski, B.; Hahn, J.U.; Spickenheuer, A.; Preuss, R.; Ruhl, R.; Rode, P.; Bruning, T. [Institute at the Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In our research project entitled 'Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways,' 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  6. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Angerer, Jürgen; Pesch, Beate; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Hahn, Jens Uwe; Spickenheuer, Anne; Preuss, Ralf; Rühl, Reinhold; Rode, Peter; Brüning, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In our research project entitled "Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways," 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1- hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  7. Reactivity of nitrate and organic acids at the concrete–bitumen interface of a nuclear waste repository cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertron, A., E-mail: bertron@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Jacquemet, N. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Erable, B. [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, F-31030 Toulouse (France); Sablayrolles, C. [Université de Toulouse (France); INP (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, BP 44 362, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); INRA (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), F-31029 Toulouse (France); Escadeillas, G. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Albrecht, A. [Andra, 1-7, rue Jean-Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry (France)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Interactions of cement paste and organic acid–nitrate solutions were investigated. • Cement leaching imposed alkaline pH (>10) very rapidly in the liquid media. • Acetic acid action on cement paste was similar to that of classical leaching. • Oxalic acid attack formed Ca-oxalate salts; organic matter in solution decreased. • Nitrate was stable under abiotic conditions and with organic matter. - Abstract: This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen–concrete interface within repository cell for long-lived, intermediate-level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V cement paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the abiotic conditions of the experiments. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching in the absence of organic acids (i.e. carried out with water or strong acids); no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  8. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  10. 复合型胶粉改性沥青胶浆的流变性能研究%Research on the Rheological Properties of the Compound Rubber Power Modified Bitumen Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 涂亮亮

    2015-01-01

    通过 Brookfield 粘度试验及动态剪切流变试验,测试分析了复合型改性沥青胶浆的流变性能。研究结果表明,与 SBS 沥青相比,复合型改性沥青胶浆明显改善了沥青在高温下的稳定性,同时也降低了沥青的温度敏感性。%Through the Brookfield revolving viscosity test and the dynamic shear rheometer test,this paper analyzed the rheological properties of the compound rubber power modified bitumen mortar.The results indicated that,com-pared with the SBS bitumen mortar,the high-temperature stability of the compound rubber power modified bitumen mortar was significantly improved,and the temperature sensitivity of the bitumen was also reduced.

  11. Waxes and asphaltenes in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, N.X. [Branch of Vietnam Petroleum Institute, Ho Chi Min City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Geochemistry; Hsieh, M.; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    1999-07-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) hydrocarbons (> C{sub 40}) and asphaltenes are important constituents of petroleum, and can cause problems related to crystallization and deposition of paraffin waxes during production and transportation, as well as in the formation of tar mats. However, traditional methods to isolate asphaltene fractions, by adding 40 volumes in excess of low boiling point solvents such as pentane, hexane or heptane, can produce asphaltene fractions which are contaminated with a significant amount of microcrystalline waxes (> C{sub 40}). The presence of these microcrystalline waxes in the asphaltene fractions has the potential to provide misleading and ambiguous results in modeling and treatment programs. The sub-surface phase behaviour of an asphaltene fraction will be quite different from that of a wax-contaminated asphaltene fraction. Similarly accurate modelling of wax drop-out requires information on pure wax fractions and not asphaltene-dominated fractions. Hence the aim of this paper is to describe a novel method for the preparation of wax-free asphaltene fractions. In addition, this method provides a quantitative subdivision of the wax fraction into pentane soluble and insoluble waxes which, when correlated with physical properties of crude oil such as viscosity, pour point, cloud point, etc., may help explain causes of wax deposition during production, transportation and storage of petroleum. (author)

  12. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  13. Crude glycerin in diets for feedlot Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco van Cleef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on feed intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and total digestibility of Nellore bulls. In experiment 1, cattle (n = 30 were fed a control diet without crude glycerin and diets containing 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin, for 103 d. Animals were harvested and data of carcass characteristics were collected. In experiment 2, a digestibility trial was performed using indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF as internal marker, and five rumen-cannulated steers. Both experiments were conducted as a randomized complete block design and data were analyzed using mixed procedures. In experiment 1 no differences were observed among treatments on dry matter intake, and performance variables. Regarding carcass characteristics, no effect was observed, except for carcass fat estimates, which were greater in treatments with crude glycerin. In experiment 2, crude glycerin promoted a decrease in digestibility of fibrous fractions NDF and HEM, and increased digestibility of crude protein by 6%. Although it caused negative effect on digestibility of fibrous fraction of diets, crude glycerin can be a good energy source for Nellore bulls, since no losses are observed on performance and carcass characteristics when animals are fed up to 30% of this by-product.

  14. Synthetic petroleum stability under thermobaric conditions of the Earth crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serovaiskii, Aleksandr; Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays there are several dozens of large crude oil deposits at the depth more than 10 km (Kutcherov and Krayushkin, 2010). The existence of such deep oil fields at the depth exceeding conventional "oil window" could be explained by the migration of the deep fluid from the asthenosphere. This fluid migrates up to the surface and forms oil and gas deposits in different kind of rocks in the on various depths of the Earth's crust. Crude oil consists of a great numbers of different hydrocarbons. Its precise molecular composition is impossible to investigate nowadays. Instead of the natural hydrocarbons mixture synthetic petroleum with simpler composition was used in the experiments. The synthetic petroleum stability was investigated at the Earth crust thermobaric conditions corresponding to the depth down to 50 km. The experiments were carried out in Diamond Anvil Cells (DAC) with the internal resistive heating. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyse the petroleum composition. The analysis of the sample was made in situ during the experiment. Ruby and Sm:YAG Raman shifts were the controllers of the temperature and pressure inside the sample (Trots et al., 2012; Mao et al., 1986). Three series of the experiments were carried out at 320°C and 0.7GPa, 420°C and 1.2GPa, 450°C and 1.4GPa. After the experiment the Raman spectra of the sample was compared to the reference spectra of the petroleum before the experiment. The comparison showed no changes in the sample's composition after the experiment. Obtained data may explain the existence of deep oil fields located deeper than the "oil window". It can broaden the knowledge about the existing range of depths for the crude oil and natural gas deposits in the Earth crust. The evidence of the petroleum existence in the Earth low crust may support the existence of unconventional, deep abyssal hydrocarbons source.

  15. CASH vs. SYNTHETIC CDOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Eduard Dinca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, in the recent post-crisis aftermath, global asset managers are constantly searching new ways to optimize their investment portfolios while financial and banking institutions around the world are exploring new alternatives to better secure their financing and refinancing demands altogether with the enhancement of their risk management capabilities. We will exhibit herewith a comparison between the true-sale and synthetic CDO securitizations as financial markets-based funding, investment and risks mitigation techniques, highlighting certain key structuring and implementation specifics on each of them.

  16. Biopolymers Versus Synthetic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Adriana Cziple

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper present an overview of important synthetic and natural polymers with emphasis on polymer structure, the chemistry of polymer formation. an introduction to polymer characterization. The biodegradation process can take place aerobically and anaerobically with or without the presence of light. These factors allow for biodegradation even in landfill conditions which are normally inconducive to any degradation. The sheeting used to make these packages differs significantly from other “degradable plastics” in the market as it does not attempt to replace the current popular materials but instead enhances them by rendering them biodegradable.

  17. Diagenetic bitumen in Ordovician carbonate reservoirs of the northern Tarim Basin%塔北地区奥陶系碳酸盐岩中的储层沥青

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鼐; 王招明; 鞠凤萍; 肖中尧; 房启飞; 张宝收; 卢玉红; 余小庆

    2013-01-01

    According to the relationship between the relative intensity of D-peak, G-peak and G-D peak spacing of bitumens and the maturity of bitumen evolution, we deduced that the Dh/Gh ratio and G-D peak spacing are positively proportional to bitumen maturity. Bitumens in Ordovician reservoir in the northern Tarim Basin are thought to have evolved in three stages and the Dh/Gh ratio and G-D peak spacing of Raman measurements on these bitumens indicated that the first-stage bitumen is highly-mature carbonaceous reservoir bitumen, the second-stage one is mature asphaltene reservoir bitumen, and the third-stage one is a combination of overmature oily reservoir bitumen and asphaltene reservoir bitumen. The formation of the first- and second-stage bitumens is attributed to thermal metamorphism, while the co-existence of two different bitumens for the third-stage bitumen is mainly due to selective adsorption of rocks. The distribution and property of these three-stages bitumens in Ordovician reservoirs of the northern Tarim Basin may determine the nature of Ordovician reservoirs, which is characterized by the southern condensate oil later than the northern heavy oil. The observation of oily reservoir bitumen in the northern Halahatang-Yingmaili region can provide evidence and targets for exploring Himalayan condensate oil reservoirs in this area.%利用沥青质拉曼D峰相对强度、G峰相对强度、两峰间距宽窄与沥青演化成熟度关系,推出Dh/Gh和G-D与沥青成熟度成正比关系图.塔北奥陶系储层中发育3期储层沥青,通过3期储层沥青拉曼Dh/Gh和G-D认为:第Ⅰ期为高热成熟炭质储层沥青,第Ⅱ期为成熟沥青质储层沥青,第Ⅲ期为过成熟油质储层沥青和沥青质储层沥青共存.前两期储层沥青是由于热变质而成,第Ⅲ期两种储层沥青共存主要是岩石选择性吸附导致.3期储层沥青的分布及性质决定塔北奥陶系成藏北部老、南部新,北部重质油、南部凝析油的

  18. Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons in some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Rohinton A.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert Ian; Knox, John

    1985-10-01

    Tetracyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons (diterpanes) based on the ent-beyerane, phyllocladane and ent-kaurane skeletons have been identified in the hydrocarbon extracts of some Australian coals, sediments and crude oils. Structures were assigned to the geological diterpanes by comparison with synthetically prepared reference compounds. Studies of a sample suite consisting of low-rank coals and sediments indicate that the ratios of C-16 epimers of phyllocladane and ent-kaurane are maturity dependent, and that the relative proportion of the thermodynamically preferred 16β (H)-compounds increases with increasing thermal maturity. Thermodynamic equilibrium for the interconversion reactions is attained in sediments before the onset of crude oil generation. The most likely natural product precursors for the tetracyclic diterpanes are considered to be the tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbons which occur widely in the leaf resins of conifers. Tetracyclic diterpanes have been identified in sediments and coals of Permian age or younger, suggesting that these compounds are markers for both modern and extinct families of conifers. In particular, phyllocladane is proposed as a marker for the Podocarpaceae family of conifers.

  19. High-throughput preparation methods of crude extract for robust cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Chan; Jewett, Michael C

    2015-03-02

    Crude extract based cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful technology platform for high-throughput protein production and genetic part characterization. Unfortunately, robust preparation of highly active extracts generally requires specialized and costly equipment and can be labor and time intensive. Moreover, cell lysis procedures can be hard to standardize, leading to different extract performance across laboratories. These challenges limit new entrants to the field and new applications, such as comprehensive genome engineering programs to improve extract performance. To address these challenges, we developed a generalizable and easily accessible high-throughput crude extract preparation method for CFPS based on sonication. To validate our approach, we investigated two Escherichia coli strains: BL21 Star™ (DE3) and a K12 MG1655 variant, achieving similar productivity (defined as CFPS yield in g/L) by varying only a few parameters. In addition, we observed identical productivity of cell extracts generated from culture volumes spanning three orders of magnitude (10 mL culture tubes to 10 L fermentation). We anticipate that our rapid and robust extract preparation method will speed-up screening of genomically engineered strains for CFPS applications, make possible highly active extracts from non-model organisms, and promote a more general use of CFPS in synthetic biology and biotechnology.

  20. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  1. Determination of activation energy for animal fat and crude glycerol using thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Crhristoph [University of Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Mortari, Daniela; Avila, Ivonete; Santos, Antonio Moreira dos; Silva, Mario Lucio Cristovam; Crnkovic, Paula Manoel [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: iavila@sc.usp.br, asantos@sc.usp.br, paulam@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The present study deals with the determination of the activation energy of animal fat and crude glycerol from a biodiesel production plant. The activation energies were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in the temperature range of {delta}T = 25-600 deg C. The transient experiments were run for every sample (10 mg) at five different heating rates (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 30.0 deg C/min) in atmosphere of synthetic air. It is possible to establish a direct relation between the activation energy and the ignition delay, which characterizes the combustion quality of a fuel. The activation energy could be determined as a function of the conversion degree and the temperature by the isoconversional model free kinetics. Four distinct phases were found for each sample and one of these phases was identified as low-temperature oxidation (LTO). As this region is responsible for the first vaporization of the fuel, the activation energies were determined for this special region along the whole conversion range (0 - 100 %). The following mean values could be determined: animal fat = 108.87 +- 52.28 kJ/mol, and crude glycerol = 65.37+- 13.17 kJ/mol. From these data, it was possible to conclude that animal fat is the most complex sample between the ones studied in this work (author)

  2. Localized enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, spruce needles, and lake sediments linked to in-situ bitumen extraction near Cold Lake, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosi, J B; Irvine, G; Skierszkan, E K; Doyle, J R; Kimpe, L E; Janvier, J; Blais, J M

    2013-11-01

    The extraction of bitumen from the Alberta oil sands using in-situ technologies is expanding at a rapid rate; however, investigations into the environmental impacts of oil sands development have focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils, spruce needles, and lake sediment cores in the Cold Lake oil sands region to provide a historical and spatial perspective on PAH contamination related to in-situ extraction activities. A pronounced increase in PAH concentrations was recorded in one of two study lakes (Hilda Lake) corresponding to the onset of commercial bitumen production in ~1985. Distance from extraction rigs was not an important predictor of PAH concentrations in soils, although two samples located near installations were elevated in alkyl PAHs. Evidence of localized PAH contamination in Hilda Lake and two soil samples suggests that continued environmental monitoring is justified to assess PAH contamination as development intensifies.

  3. Synthesis of quaternary derivatives of ortho-coco di-amido toluene and investigation of these compounds as cationic bitumen emulsifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanzadeh, Masoumeh; Tayebi, Leila; Dezfouli, Hedieh; Kambarani, Masoud; Avval, Parviz Ahmadi [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). ACECR, Designing Chemical Process Research Group

    2012-05-15

    Bitumen emulsions are preferred over conventional pavement systems due to their biologically and environmentally acceptable formulation, safety, low viscosity, storage stability, and cost effectiveness. The present investigation deals with the systematic study to synthesize ortho-cocodi-amido toluene and four quaternary derivatives by amidation of coconut oil and ortho toluene diamine (OTD), followed by quaternization with formaldehyde, formic acid mixture, and acrylonitrile, resulted in a new quaternary compound useful as cationic emulsifier in bitumen emulsions. The roles of temperature and reaction time in determining optimum conditions were investigated as well. Emulsifying behavior of these quaternary compounds was studied by sieve residue test, settlement and storage stability test of emulsified asphalt, and water solubility. The results show that the acrylonitrile imidazolinium derivative of o-cocodi-amido toluene (VI) can be used as a rapid-medium setting emulsifier. (orig.)

  4. Synthetic collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Conde-Pueyo, Núria; Carbonell-Ballestero, Max; Montañez, Raúl

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent systems have emerged in our biosphere in different contexts and achieving different levels of complexity. The requirement of communication in a social context has been in all cases a determinant. The human brain, probably co-evolving with language, is an exceedingly successful example. Similarly, social insects complex collective decisions emerge from information exchanges between many agents. The difference is that such processing is obtained out of a limited individual cognitive power. Computational models and embodied versions using non-living systems, particularly involving robot swarms, have been used to explore the potentiality of collective intelligence. Here we suggest a novel approach to the problem grounded in the genetic engineering of unicellular systems, which can be modified in order to interact, store memories or adapt to external stimuli in collective ways. What we label as Synthetic Swarm Intelligence defines a parallel approach to the evolution of computation and swarm intelligence and allows to explore potential embodied scenarios for decision making at the microscale. Here, we consider several relevant examples of collective intelligence and their synthetic organism counterparts.

  5. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Debra J. H. Mathews

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  6. 环保型 SBS 改性沥青防水涂料的研制%Development of Eco -friendly SBS Modified Bitumen Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭树平

    2016-01-01

    formulation,manufacturing process,construction considerations of SBS modified bitumen coatingwere introduced,the main factors affecting the coating properties were discussed.%介绍了 SBS 改性沥青防水涂料的配方、生产工艺、施工注意事项,讨论了影响涂料性能的主要因素。

  7. A novel method for recovery of acidic sludge of used-motor oil reprocessing industries to bitumen using bentonite and SBS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jonidi Jafari; malek hassanpour; Mitra Gholam; Mehdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acidic sludge is a by-product from used motor oil reprocessing industries, which thousand tons of this sludge are disposed into the environment as a hazardous waste material daily. The acidic sludge contains unsaturated compounds that are polar and asphaltene. The bitumen under certain conditions is produced from mixing of bentonite, polymer styrene – butadiene – styrene (SBS), and acidic sludge. Context and purpose: The objective of this study was the recovery of acidic sludge...

  8. A novel method for recovery of acidic sludge of used-motor oil reprocessing industries to bitumen using bentonite and SBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jonidi Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acidic sludge is a by-product from used motor oil reprocessing industries, which thousand tons of this sludge are disposed into the environment as a hazardous waste material daily. The acidic sludge contains unsaturated compounds that are polar and asphaltene. The bitumen under certain conditions is produced from mixing of bentonite, polymer styrene – butadiene – styrene (SBS, and acidic sludge. Context and purpose: The objective of this study was the recovery of acidic sludge to bitumen using additives such as bentonite and SBS. Also, the effect of additives with different weight percentages (wt%(on the performance parameters of bitumen was evaluated. At first, spilled oil was separated from the acidic sludge by a centrifugal concentrator. Then, concentrated acidic sludge and additives were mixed in together. Finally, the performance tests were carried out to compare the quality of acidic sludge with the obtained products.The results indicated that performance parameters such as softening point (SP, weight loss, penetration degree, PI, Frass breaking point, and temperature susceptibility (TS were promoted from 37°C, 1.3%, 230 dmm, -0.07854, -5°C and 0.0451 to 54°C, 1%, 130 dmm, 2.7094, -11°C , 0.02721, respectively. According to the paired sample t-test analysis, a significant difference was found between the bentonite dosage and the improved performance parameters from concentrated acidic sludge and obtained products (pvalue ≤.001. The bentonite and SBS with 2 and 4 wt%, respectively were determined as the suitable additives in the recovery of acidic sludge to bitumen.

  9. Micrometer scale carbon isotopic study of bitumen associated with Athabasca uranium deposits: Constraints on the genetic relationship with petroleum source-rocks and the abiogenic origin hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangély, L.; Chaussidon, M.; Michels, R.; Brouand, M.; Cuney, M.; Huault, V.; Landais, P.

    2007-06-01

    In situ analytical techniques - Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (μFTIR) and ion microprobe - have been used to unravel the origin of solid bitumen associated with the uranium deposits of Athabasca (Saskatchewan, Canada). Both aliphaticity and carbon isotopic compositions within the samples are heterogeneous but spatially organized in concentric zonations at the micrometer scale. Finally, the δ13C values are positively correlated to the aliphatic contents over an extremely large isotopic range from ˜ - 49‰ to ˜ - 31‰. We infer that this positive correlation may be related to the carbon isotopic fractionations associated with the synthesis of bitumen through the catalytic hydrogenation of CO 2, rather than the result of pre-existing petroleum product precipitation and/or alteration (such as radiolysis). This explanation is consistent with (i) published results of abiogenic synthesis experiments, in which the differences in δ13C values between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons range from + 2 and + 19‰, in contrast to the differences systematically observed in conventional bitumen and petroleum ranging from 0‰ to - 4‰; (ii) the absence of a similar positive correlation between aliphatic contents and δ13C values in the other bitumen analyzed in the present study, for which a biogenic origin has been unequivocally established (samples from Oklo, Gabon, and Lodève, France, uranium deposits); (iii) the presence of CO 2 and H 2 in the gas-phase of fluid inclusions in the Athabasca uranium deposits, H 2 resulting from water radiolysis. The present results suggest that the δ13C vs. aliphaticity correlation could be used as a criterion to discriminate between abiogenic vs. biogenic origin of macromolecular organic matter.

  10. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ashoori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  11. Morpho-anatomical diagnostic of medical plants and medicinal crude

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila M. Seraya

    2012-01-01

    The main conclusions of the investigations of macro- and microscopically features of the plants and herbal drug crude of Ukraine are represented in the works of the author and the main publications are quoted.

  12. 300,000-tonnage Crude Oil Dock Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aproject of Jointly establishing 300,000-tonnage crude oil dock of Tianjin Port has been put into operations, thanks to its outut grid successfully connected with oil pipeline of Sinopec Tanggu reservior.

  13. Relationship between waxy crude viscosities and wax crystal microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 张劲军; 侯磊; 王海峰

    2008-01-01

    It is important and profound to quantitatively study the relation between rheology and microstructure for development of the microstructural mechanism of crude oil rheology and even for the waxy crude oil pipelining.However,due to the high complexity and irregularity of wax crystal morphology,quantitative characterization is hard to achieve.This has hampered further study on the rheology-microstructure relationship.A new approach combined the fractal geometry and the stereology theory is presented for quantifying the intricate wax crystal morphology and structure.Based on the characterization,the effects of microstructures and oil composition on the waxy crude viscosities are analyzed quantitatively.It further validates the previous qualitative research and enriches understanding into the microstructural mechanism of waxy crude oil rheology.

  14. 波形沥青防水板在某住宅工程中的应用%Application of Corrugated Bitumen Sheets on a Residential Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖磊; 原世伟; 何巍; 周励强

    2012-01-01

    波形沥青防水板作为下覆层在坡瓦屋面中应用,除具防水功能外,同时还能通风、除湿、隔热.结合波形沥青防水板在某住宅项目中的实际应用,总结了其在施工过程中的工艺做法,以及施工中的重点和难点.结果表明,波形沥青防水板能确保防水质量,缩短工期,并降低造价.%Corrugated bitumen sheets can be used on sloped roofs as covering layer under roof tiles. Apart from being waterproofing, they also provide functions such as roof ventilation, dehumidification and insulation to the roof. Combined with the application of corrugated bitumen sheets on a residential building, the construction technologies and key points in construction process are summarized. The application results show that the corrugated bitumen sheets can ensure the waterproof quality, reduce the construction cost and shorten the construction time.

  15. SBS改性沥青混合料性能对比试验研究%Testing Research on Pavement Performance of SBS Modified Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇峙; 刘朝晖; 黄云涌

    2001-01-01

    结合长沙市五一路改造工程中改性沥青路面的工程实际,对比研究了SBS改性沥青的技术指标、沥青与矿料的粘附性、沥青混合料的马歇尔稳定度、浸水马歇尔稳定度、沥青混合料车辙动稳定度、劈裂强度、无侧限抗压强度、抗压模量等参数,对改性沥青的效果与路用性能指标进行了全面的试验研究。%Combining with modified asphalt pavement engineering of the Wuyi Road in Changsha City, the parameter of the technica l index of SBS modified bitumen, the bond between bitumen and aggregate, the Mar shall stability of asphalt mixture, the Marshall stability of impregnated asphal t mixture, the rut dynamic stability of asphalt mixture, the cleavage st rength and unconfined compression strength as well as compression modulus we re researched by comparative test. The effect of modified bitumen and the index of pavement performance were comprehensively studied through testing.

  16. Application of instrumental techniques like NMR and GPC in the field of polymer modified bitumens; Determinazione mediante NMR e GPC di polimeri incorporati in bitumi modificati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, M.; Di Gennaro, E.; Mascherpa, A.; Vecchi, C. [Stazione Sperimentale per i Combustibili, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)

    1996-05-01

    In the present work a simple method is proposed to determine, at the same time, the nature of the polymer, the composition of polymer/bitumen blends and the origin of the bitumen. The procedure is based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In a few minutes and without any sample manipulation, a simple NMR proton spectrum reveals the presence and the nature of the polymer in road bitumens modified with different contents of SBS, SIS, EVA. EMA. The detection limits are function of the instrument used and the nature of the polymer. NMR data have been compared with those obtained by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) which is a less expensive technique than NMR, but does not allow can easy identification of the polymer. When the polymer concentration in the mixture is very low (1-2%), the difference between know and calculated values increases: better results can be obtained analysing the n-pentane insolubles, where the whole amount of the modifier is observed.

  17. Application of thermal analysis in characterization of bitumen%热分析技术在沥青表征中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉广; 侯焕娣; 董明; 权奕

    2013-01-01

    介绍了近些年来国内外热分析技术在沥青分析中的应用进展.首先阐述了热分析技术在沥青产品的相态与结构、硬化过程、低温抗裂能力、老化、热稳定性、流变性等六方面的应用,最后展望了热分析技术在沥青表征方面的应用前景.%The progress of thermal analysis technique on characterization of bitumen in recent years was introduced.The analysis of the phase behavior and structure,hardening process,low temperature cracking resistance capacity,aging,thermal stability and rheology property of bitumen by thermal analysis technique,are focused in this study.The development prospects of thermal analysis technique in characterization of bitumen are proposed as well.

  18. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  19. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  20. Degradation of Microbes for the Crude Oil Contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Production and storage-transportation of crude oil can not only give rise to soil pollution but also destroy ecological environment. Degradation of microbes for oily soil was studied with the instnunent, Geofina Hydrocarbon Meter (GHM), by experimental analysis qualitatively and quantitatively in the paper. Analytical result showed that the crude oil could be considerably degraded by eating-oil microbes in oily soil and the number of eating-oil microbes increased while the working hours of oil-well risi...

  1. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  2. Synthetic biology and genetic causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Gry; Parkkinen, Veli-Pekka

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology research is often described in terms of programming cells through the introduction of synthetic genes. Genetic material is seemingly attributed with a high level of causal responsibility. We discuss genetic causation in synthetic biology and distinguish three gene concepts differing in their assumptions of genetic control. We argue that synthetic biology generally employs a difference-making approach to establishing genetic causes, and that this approach does not commit to a specific notion of genetic program or genetic control. Still, we suggest that a strong program concept of genetic material can be used as a successful heuristic in certain areas of synthetic biology. Its application requires control of causal context, and may stand in need of a modular decomposition of the target system. We relate different modularity concepts to the discussion of genetic causation and point to possible advantages of and important limitations to seeking modularity in synthetic biology systems.

  3. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana

    2016-03-01

    As the world's oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  4. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL DEGRADING BACILLUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhavan Sepahi, I. Dejban Golpasha, M. Emami, A. M. Nakhoda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, application of microorganisms for removing crude oil pollution from contaminated sites as bioremediation studies, was considered by scientists because other methods such as surfactant washing and incineration lead to production of more toxic compounds and they are non-economic. Fifteen crude oil degrading bacillus spp. were isolated from contaminated sites. Two isolated showed best growth in liquid media with 1-3% (v/v crude oil and mineral salt medium, then studied for enzymatic activities on tested media. The results showed maximal increase in optical densities and total viable count concomitant with decrease in pH on fifth day of experimental period for bacillus S6. Typical generation time on mineral salt with 1% crude oil is varying between 18-20h, 25-26h respectively for bacillus S6 and S35. Total protein was monitored at determined time intervals as biodegradation indices. Increasing of protein concentration during the incubation period reveals that isolated bacillus can degrade crude oil and increase microbial biomass. These bacillus spp. reduced surface tension from 60 (mN/m to 31 and 38 (mN/m, It means that these bacillus spp. can produce sufficient surfactant and have good potential of emulsification capacity. The results demonstrated that these bacillus spp. can utilize crude oil as a carbon and energy source.

  5. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... of SA imaging. Due to the complete data set, it is possible to have both dynamic transmit and receive focusing to improve contrast and resolution. It is also possible to improve penetration depth by employing codes during ultrasound transmission. Data sets for vector flow imaging can be acquired using...... short imaging sequences, whereby both the correct velocity magnitude and angle can be estimated. A number of examples of both phantom and in-vivo SA images will be presented measured by the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS to demonstrate the many benefits of SA imaging....

  6. Variation and Synthetic Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, C; Massey, N; Miller, Corey; Karaali, Orhan; Massey, Noel

    1997-01-01

    We describe the approach to linguistic variation taken by the Motorola speech synthesizer. A pan-dialectal pronunciation dictionary is described, which serves as the training data for a neural network based letter-to-sound converter. Subsequent to dictionary retrieval or letter-to-sound generation, pronunciations are submitted a neural network based postlexical module. The postlexical module has been trained on aligned dictionary pronunciations and hand-labeled narrow phonetic transcriptions. This architecture permits the learning of individual postlexical variation, and can be retrained for each speaker whose voice is being modeled for synthesis. Learning variation in this way can result in greater naturalness for the synthetic speech that is produced by the system.

  7. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B....... The method is investigated using simulations and through measurements using both phased array and convex array transducers. The images all show an improved contrast compared to images without compounding, and by construction, imaging using an improved frame rate is possible. Using a phased array transducer...... and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging...

  8. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  9. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  10. Investigation on water-assisted solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sands%水辅助溶剂法提取油砂中的沥青

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红强; 丁明山; 胡斌; 任嗣利

    2014-01-01

    开发了一种水辅助溶剂法从油砂中提取沥青的技术。该方法通过在油砂固相与有机溶剂间介入水层提取油砂中的沥青。以内蒙古扎赉特旗油砂矿为研究对象,考察了温度、剂砂质量比、提取时间、甲苯在复合溶剂中的含量及溶剂的种类与性质对沥青回收率高低的影响,结果表明:最佳提取条件为提取温度50℃,剂砂质量比1∶1,提取时间25min。沥青回收率与提取溶剂的性质紧密相关,水层介入有效降低了固体微粒组分在有机相中的含量,且便于后续的有机相与泥砂相的分离。通过对各种溶剂提取的沥青进行组分分析,发现各种溶剂对沥青提取能力的差异性源于溶剂的化学组成和结构不同。本文相关研究结果对溶剂法提取油砂中沥青技术及溶剂种类的选择具有指导作用。%Water-assisted solvent extraction processes (WASEPs) were developed by introducing a water layer between the oil sands and solvent to extract bitumen. The function of the introduced water layer in the WASEPs is to effectively reduce the fine solids content in the solvent phase and make it easy to separate bitumen solution from solids. Effects of the solvent type on bitumen recovery were investigated and the extraction conditions were optimized. The results showed that bitumen recovery was closely related to the solvent compositions and chemical structure. The optimal extraction condition was stirring at 50℃ for 25 minutes using a ratio of oil sands to solvent at 1∶1(wt/wt). The reason of different extraction abilities for various solvents was revealed by analyzing the component of extracted bitumen. It may be useful to guide the solvent extraction processes and solvent selection.

  11. Technology and Development Trends of China's Viscous Crude Surface Production Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Chengwu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Main Technical Characteristics Technique of viscous crude gathering, transportation and treatment approaches the international level (1) Diluent oil-blended gathering and transportation process, an original creation of China, plays an important and guarantee role in increasing viscous crude output,especially in the viscous crude fields with dilute crude resources nearby.

  12. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  13. Engineering Ecosystems and Synthetic Ecologies#

    OpenAIRE

    Mee, Michael T.; Wang, Harris H.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial ecosystems play an important role in nature. Engineering these systems for industrial, medical, or biotechnological purposes are important pursuits for synthetic biologists and biological engineers moving forward. Here, we provide a review of recent progress in engineering natural and synthetic microbial ecosystems. We highlight important forward engineering design principles, theoretical and quantitative models, new experimental and manipulation tools, and possible applications of ...

  14. Holographically Correcting Synthetic Aperture Aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Malacara (20:105-148). The synthetic aperture was aligned in accordance with the synthetic-aperture alignment technique of Gill (8:61-64). The...1987. 20. Malacara , Daniel, ed. Optical Shop Testing. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978. 21. Marciniak, Capt Michael. Tutorial Presentation of mV

  15. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  16. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  17. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the uni

  18. Recent advances in synthetic biosafety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Anna J.; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetically engineered organisms hold promise for a broad range of medical, environmental, and industrial applications. Organisms can potentially be designed, for example, for the inexpensive and environmentally benign synthesis of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals, for the cleanup of environmental pollutants, and potentially even for biomedical applications such as the targeting of specific diseases or tissues. However, the use of synthetically engineered organisms comes with several reasonable safety concerns, one of which is that the organisms or their genes could escape their intended habitats and cause environmental disruption. Here we review key recent developments in this emerging field of synthetic biocontainment and discuss further developments that might be necessary for the widespread use of synthetic organisms. Specifically, we discuss the history and modern development of three strategies for the containment of synthetic microbes: addiction to an exogenously supplied ligand; self-killing outside of a designated environment; and self-destroying encoded DNA circuitry outside of a designated environment. PMID:27635235

  19. Ecotoxicology of synthetic pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maund, S J; Campbell, P J; Giddings, J M; Hamer, M J; Henry, K; Pilling, E D; Warinton, J S; Wheeler, J R

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the ecotoxicology of the synthetic pyrethroids (SPs). SPs are potent, broad-spectrum insecticides. Their effects on a wide range of nontarget species have been broadly studied, and there is an extensive database available to evaluate their effects. SPs are highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates in the laboratory, but effects in the field are mitigated by rapid dissipation and degradation. Due to their highly lipophilic nature, SPs partition extensively into sediments. Recent studies have shown that toxicity in sediment can be predicted on the basis of equilibrium partitioning, and whilst other factors can influence this, organic carbon content is a key determining variable. At present for SPs, there is no clear evidence for adverse population-relevant effects with an underlying endocrine mode of action. SPs have been studied intensively in aquatic field studies, and their effects under field conditions are mitigated from those measured in the laboratory by their rapid dissipation and degradation. Studies with a range of test systems have shown consistent aquatic field endpoints across a variety of geographies and trophic states. SPs are also highly toxic to bees and other nontarget arthropods in the laboratory. These effects are mitigated in the field through repellency and dissipation of residues, and recovery from any adverse effects tends to be rapid.

  20. Study on Mechanism for Pricing of Chinese Crudes and Recommendations on Improvement of Pricing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jingfang

    2001-01-01

    @@ Crude oil is the most important basic energy in the world nowadays and is closely connected with the development of national economy, consolidation of national defense and the living standard of the people. Changes in crude price can have a decisive impact on a nation's political and economic situation. Hence the government of every country sticks great importance to control over crude oil resources and adjustment of crude price to assure the stabilization of its domestic crude oil market.

  1. Characterization of water-in-crude oil emulsions in oil spill response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions occurs when crude oils are spilled into sea. The water-in-crude oil emulsionssignificantly change the properties of the spilled crude oils and in turn influence the choices made relating to oil spill countermeasures. Thewater-in-crude oil emulsions were characterized using various techniques in this study. The environmental scanning electron microscopyobservation of water droplets in the emulsions is also presented. It is a powerful tool in emulsion observations.

  2. [Synthesis of biodiesel from crude oil by immobilized lipase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junkui; Lu, Jike; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Deng, Li

    2009-06-01

    We used immobilized lipase from Candida sp. 99-125 to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from crude oil and methanol. We studied the effects of phospholipids on activity of immobilized lipase, reaction velocity, stability of immobilized lipase and the stability of immobilized lipase in crude and refined oil. Results showed that the activity of the lipase immersed in petroleum ether with 1% phospholipids dropped more quickly than the lipase in petroleum ether without phospholipids. When soybean oil was used without phospholipids as material, the FAMEs yield of 15 min was 26.2%, whereas the yield decreased to 12.4% when there were 5% phospholipids in the soybean oil. However when the phospholipids content was below 1%, the stability of the lipase did not change obviously. The lipase was stable when used to catalyze crude soybean oil and crude jatropha oil, after 10 cycles the FAMEs yield was still above 70%. This lipase showed great potential for industrial production of biodiesel from crude oil.

  3. CRUDE OIL PRICE FORECASTING WITH TEI@I METHODOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shouyang; YU Lean; K.K.LAI

    2005-01-01

    The difficulty in crude oil price forecasting,due to inherent complexity,has attracted much attention of academic researchers and business practitioners.Various methods have been tried to solve the problem of forecasting crude oil prices.However,all of the existing models of prediction can not meet practical needs.Very recently,Wang and Yu proposed a new methodology for handling complex systems-TEI@I methodology by means of a systematic integration of text mining,econometrics and intelligent techniques.Within the framework of TEI@I methodology,econometrical models are used to model the linear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,main trends) while nonlinear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,error terms) are modelled by using artificial neural network (ANN) models.In addition,the impact of irregular and infrequent future events on crude oil price is explored using web-based text mining (WTM) and rule-based expert systems (RES) techniques.Thus,a fully novel nonlinear integrated forecasting approach with error correction and judgmental adjustment is formulated to improve prediction performance within the framework of the TEI@I methodology.The proposed methodology and the novel forecasting approach are illustrated via an example.

  4. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  5. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  6. LDHs 对 SBS 沥青流变性能及微观结构的影响%Effect of LDHs on the Rheological Properties and Microstructure of SBS Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    采用 LDHs 改性剂对 SBS 沥青进行改性,制备 LDHs/SBS 改性沥青,并对其流变性能和微观结构进行研究,探讨 LDHs 对 SBS 沥青性能的影响。试验结果表明,LDHs 的加入使沥青的复合模量增大,相位角减小;通过 X-ray 射线衍射、红外光谱及光学显微镜分析可知 LDHs 只是分散在 SBS 沥青中,没有发生化学反应或形成插层结构。%This paper aimed at manufacturing LDHs modified SBS bitumen,and researched the properties and mi-crostructure of LDHs/SBS modified bitumen,explored the influences of LDHs on the modified bitumen.The results indicated that the complex modulus of LDHs/SBS modified bitumen increased,while the phase angle decreased with the introduction of LDHs.Meanwhile,seen through the X-ray diffraction,optical microscope and infrared spectrome-ter,the structure of LDHs was dispersed in the SBS bitumen instead of intercalation.

  7. Spicing thing up: Synthetic cannabinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. Objectives The availability, acute subjective effects—including self-reports posted on Erowid—laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Results Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike THC, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid-receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. Conclusions There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug-detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available. PMID:23836028

  8. Synthetic biology and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K K

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task.

  9. Biodiesel production in crude oil contaminated environment using Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Mohammadi Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad; Movafeghi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Biodiesel is a valuable alternative to fossil fuels and many countries choose biodiesel as an unconventional energy source. A large number of investigations have been done on microalgae as a source of oil production. In recent years, wastewater pollutions have caused many ecological problems, and therefore, wastewater phycoremediation has attracted the international attention. This paper studied the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a crude oil polluted environment for biodiesel production. Intended concentrations were 10 and 20gperliter (crude oil/water) at two times. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was improved in wastewater and the maximum amount of dry mass and oil was produced at the highest concentration of crude oil (0.41g and 0.15g/l, respectively). In addition, dry mass and oil yield of the microalga were significantly enhanced by increasing the experiment duration.

  10. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  11. Northwest Australia's Saladin crude assayed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1993-10-18

    High-quality Saladin crude oil from offshore Western Australia has been assayed. The 48.2[degree] API, 0.02 wt % sulfur crude's characteristics--determined in 1990--are presented here for the first time. The estimated 30--40 million bbl field, south of Barrow Island, is produced from two platforms in 58 ft of water in block TP 3. Production began in late 1989 from three platforms with three wells each and from two wells drilled directionally from Thevenard Island. The paper lists data on the following properties: API gravity, density, sulfur content, pour point, flash point, viscosity, salinity, heat of combustion, ash content, asphaltene content, wax content, and metal content for the whole crude and various fractions.

  12. Colombian coal liquefaction and its coprocessing with Venezuelan crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.; Nagaishi, H. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Ishiguro, H. [Nippon Kokan K.K. Kawasaki (JP)] (and others)

    1999-09-01

    Titiribi coal from Colombia shows an excellent reactivity to liquefaction and coprocessing. Anthracene oil was excellent as a vehicle oil to facilitate the liquefaction reaction during the initial stage at 400{sup o}C. In the case of coprocessing with Morichal crude oil and red-mud/sulfur catalyst, the maximum conversion of Titiribi coal was ca. 79 wt% daf at 400{sup o}C and ca. 93 wt% daf at 450{sup o}C. The hydrogen consumption in the presence of Morichal crude oil is lower than that in the presence of anthracene oil. It is considered to be the effect of hydrogen sulfide and the hydrogen donor ability of Morichal crude oil. (author)

  13. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...... on the bare surfaces, surfaces with an adsorbed oil layer, and surfaces after being exposed to aqueous salt solutions. This showed that the silica surface became more hydrophobic after oil adsorption, while the wettability of the calcium carbonate surface was not significantly changed by adsorption of an oil...... layer. A surface energy component analysis based on the acid base theory showed that oil adsorption on the surfaces depends upon apolar, acidic, and basic oil components of the crude oil and that the adsorbed oil components differ for adsorption to silica and calcium carbonate. Desorption of the crude...

  14. Simultaneous optimization of heat-integrated crude oil distillation systems☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqing Luo; Liwen Wang; He Wang; Xigang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil distil ation is important in refining industry. Operating variables of distil ation process have a critical ef-fect on product output value and energy consumption. However, the objectives of minimum energy consumption and maximum product output value do not coordinate with each other and do not lead to the maximum eco-nomic benefit of a refinery. In this paper, a systematic optimization approach is proposed for the maximum an-nual economic benefit of an existing crude oil distil ation system, considering product output value and energy consumption simultaneously. A shortcut model in Aspen Plus is used to describe the crude oil distillation and the pinch analysis is adopted to identify the target of energy recovery. The optimization is a nonlinear program-ming problem and solved by stochastic algorithm of particle warm optimization.

  15. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Synthetic biology: advancing biological frontiers by building synthetic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  17. Assessment of crude oil biodegradation in arctic seashore sediments: effects of temperature, salinity, and crude oil concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Schiewer, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The expected increase in offshore oil exploration and production in the Arctic may lead to crude oil spills along arctic shorelines. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of bioremediation to treat such spills, oil spill bioremediation in arctic sediments was simulated in laboratory microcosms containing beach sediments from Barrow (Alaska), spiked with North Slope Crude, and incubated at varying temperatures and salinities. Biodegradation was measured via respiration rates (CO2 production); volatilization was quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) analysis of hydrocarbons sorbed to activated carbon, and hydrocarbons remaining in the sediment were quantified by GC/flame ionization detector (FID). Higher temperature leads to increased biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, while the release of volatile organic compounds was similar at both temperatures. Increased salinity had a small positive impact on crude oil removal. At higher crude oil dosages, volatilization increased, however CO2 production did not. While only a small percentage of crude oil was completely biodegraded, a larger percentage was volatilized within 6-9 weeks.

  18. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  19. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  20. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially......) popular responsesto them succeed, and whether the objections are ultimately persuasive.2. Given that synthetic biology is a new technology, there is a certain degree of uncertainty about its ultimate effects, and many perceive the technology as risky. I discuss two common approaches in risk regulation...