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Sample records for bittersweet nightshade solanum

  1. Toxicity of nightshade berries (Solanum dulcamara) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, C S; Collins, J E

    1990-01-01

    Ripened nightshade berries (Solanum dulcamara) are among the most commonly reported plant ingestions in Minnesota. Because of the lack of adequate information regarding the toxic qualities of S. dulcamara berries, the ingestion of even small quantities by children is usually treated conservatively with syrup of ipecac. The toxicity of S. dulcamara berries was studied by gavaging mice with a preparation of lyophilized berries, ripened and unripened, collected at various times of the year. Mice receiving unripened fruit from early in the season had gastrointestinal tissue changes consistent with solanine toxicity. Animals dosed with unripened fruit from the latter part of the year showed behavioral signs suggestive of solanine toxicity, however gastrointestinal lesions were not observed. In no case did the ripened fruit produce behavioral or histologic toxicity. Aggressive treatment of children ingesting limited amounts of ripened S. dulcamara berries appears to be unnecessary.

  2. Rapid screening of toxic glycoalkaloids and micronutrients in edible nightshades (Solanum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available African indigenous vegetables (AIVs because of their nutrient density have the unique potential to reduce micronutrient deficiencies in sub-Saharan Africa, yet some may also contain anti-nutritive compounds. Vegetable nightshades from Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrum, Solanum scabrum and Solanum villosum are among the major AIVs used as a leafy vegetables and consumed regularly in many countries in sub-Sahara Africa. These under-recognized food crops have not been subjected to extensive studies for their nutritional and antinutritive factors. In this study, 15 entries of the vegetable nightshades were field-grown and the leaves which are the consumed product of commerce chemically profiled by LC/ESI-MS. Twenty-three flavones, eight saponins, and two glycoalkaloids along with a phenolic acid of chlorogenic acid were identified by MS and UV data. Anti-nutrient glycoalkaloids were quantified as total aglycones after acidic hydrolysis using MS detection and found to be within safe-consumption thresholds by comparison with the glycoalkaloid level in the globally consumed Solanum member eggplants. Edible nightshades were also found to be sources of β-carotene, vitamin E and total polyphenols and exhibited high antioxidant activity. Results of this study support that consumption of vegetable nightshades are safe from the presence of glycoalkaloids and thus, can contribute to the reduction of micronutrient deficiency in sub-Sahara Africa. Keywords: Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Carotene, Vitamin E, Antioxidant activity, Saponins, Solanum

  3. Efficient plant regeneration of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L., a medicinal plant

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    Arzu Ucar Turker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum dulcamara L. (bittersweet is a medicinal plant that has been used to treat skin diseases, warts, tumors, felons, arthritis, rheumatism, bronchial congestion, heart ailments, ulcerative colitis, eye inflammations, jaundice and pneumonia. A reliable in vitro culture protocol for bittersweet was established. Explants (leaf and petiole segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog minimal organics (MSMO medium with various plant growth regulator combinations. Leaf explants formed more shoots than petiole explants. Plant regeneration was observed through indirect organogenesis with both explants. Best shoot proliferation was obtained from leaf explants with 3 mg/l BA (benzyladenine and 0.5 mg/l IAA (indole-3-acetic acid. Regenerated shoots were transferred to rooting media containing different levels of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, NAA (naphthalene acetic acid or 2,4-D (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Most shoots developed roots on medium with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted explants were transferred to vermiculate in Magenta containers for acclimatization and after 2 weeks, they were planted in plastic pots containing potting soil and maintained in the plant growth room.

  4. Evaluation of the ability of black nightshade Solanum nigrum L. for phytoremediation of thallium-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Huang, Xuexia; Yao, Bo; Yuan, Xin; Ma, Jianhao; Guo, Shijia

    2015-08-01

    Thallium (Tl) pollution in agricultural areas can pose hidden danger to humans, as food consumption is the key exposure pathway of Tl. Owing to the extreme toxicity of Tl, removal of Tl from soil becomes necessary to minimize the Tl-related health effects. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective method to remove heavy metals from soil, but not all plants are appropriate for this purpose. Here, the ability of Solanum nigrum L., commonly known as black nightshade, to remediate Tl-contaminated soil was evaluated. The accumulation of Tl in different organs of S. nigrum was measured under both field and greenhouse conditions. Additionally, the growth and maximal quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) under different Tl concentrations (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg kg(-1)) were examined after 4-month pot culture. Under both field and greenhouse conditions, Tl accumulated in S. nigrum was positively correlated with Tl concentration in the soil. Thallium mostly accumulated in the root, and bioconcentration factor was greater than 1, indicating the good capability of S. nigrum to extract Tl. Nonetheless, the growth and Fv/Fm of S. nigrum were reduced at high Tl concentration (>10 mg kg(-1)). Given the good tolerance, fast growth, high accumulation, and global distribution, we propose that S. nigrum is a competent candidate to remediate moderately Tl-contaminated soil (<10 mg kg(-1)) without causing far-reaching ecological consequences.

  5. The whole chloroplast genome sequence of black nightshade plant (Solanum nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Seo, Young-Jin; So, Jai-Hyun; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2017-03-01

    In this study, complete chloroplast genome of Solanum nigrum, a wild relative of potato and tomato being important for its medicinal features, was sequenced. The genome size is 154 671 bp in length, with 40% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats, IRa and IRSb, were separated by a large single-copy region and a small single-copy region of 82 315 bp and 33 411 bp, respectively. The genome harbored 73 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes. The evolutionary relationships in our phylogenetic analysis revealed that S. nigrum is closer to S. tuberosum when compared with those of known relatives' species belonging to Solanum genus.

  6. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS) method including Diels–Alder derivatisation. Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 were found in the leaves of all plants after UVB-treatment. S. glaucophyllum had the highest content, 200ng vitamin D3/g dry weight and 31ng 25-hydroxy vitamin D3/g dry weight......Changes in vitamin D3 and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem......, and was the only plant that also contained 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 in both free (32ng/g dry weight) and glycosylated form (17ng/g dry weight)....

  7. Nightshade Prototype Experiments (Silverleaf)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Amy L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The Red Sage campaign is a series of subcritical dynamic plutonium experiments designed to measure ejecta. Nightshade, the first experiments in Red Sage scheduled for fiscal year 2019, will measure the amount of ejecta emission into vacuum from a double-­shocked plutonium surface. To address the major technical risks in Nightshade, a Level 2 milestone was developed for fiscal year 2016. Silverleaf, a series of four experiments, was executed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in July and August 2016 to demonstrate a prototype of the Nightshade package and to satisfy this Level 2 milestone. This report is documentation that Red Sage Level 2 milestone requirements were successfully met.

  8. Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W; Okorogbona, A O M

    2010-04-01

    Crop responses to different manures differs considerably, however, the factors responsible for it have not been conclusively elucidated. Consequently, this study examined the biomass response of Cucurbita maxima and Solanum retroflexum to application rates of chicken and kraal manures of cattle and goat, and soil factors related to salinity. The crops' biomass yield increased linearly with increase in application rates of kraal and chicken manures, but steeper in the latter. Results showed that significant decline in biomass yield in chicken manure at rates above 8.5 tons ha(-1) were not due to salinity. The crops' response to cattle and goat kraal manures was linear but polynomial (cubic) in layer chicken manure. It was concluded that the yield decline in chicken manure was due to other manure factors except salinity, probably toxicity effect of the manure fatty acids. Further research was however, recommended to elucidate this claim. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intercropping Induces Changes in Specific Secondary Metabolite Concentration in Ethiopian Kale (Brassica carinata and African Nightshade (Solanum scabrum under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard Ngwene

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping is widespread in small-holder farming systems in tropical regions and is also practiced in the cultivation of indigenous vegetables, to alleviate the multiple burdens of malnutrition. Due to interspecific competition and/or complementation between intercrops, intercropping may lead to changes in plants accumulation of minerals and secondary metabolites and hence, alter nutritional quality for consumers. Intercropping aims to intensify land productivity, while ensuring that nutritional quality is not compromised. This study aimed to investigate changes in minerals and secondary plant metabolites in intercropped Brassica carinata and Solanum scabrum, two important African indigenous vegetables, and evaluated the suitability of this combination for dryer areas. B. carinata and S. scabrum were grown for 6 weeks under controlled conditions in a greenhouse trial. Large rootboxes (8000 cm3 volume were specifically designed for this experiment. Each rootbox was planted with two plants, either of the same plant species (mono or one of each plant species (mixed. A quartz sand/soil substrate was used and fertilized adequately for optimal plant growth. During the last 4 weeks of the experiment, the plants were either supplied with optimal (65% WHC or low (30% WHC irrigation, to test the effect of a late-season drought. Intercropping increased total glucosinolate content in B. carinata, while maintaining biomass production and the contents of other health related minerals in both B. carinata and S. scabrum. Moreover, low irrigation led to an increase in carotene accumulation in both mono and intercropped S. scabrum, but not in B. carinata, while the majority of kaempferol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of both species were decreased by intercropping and drought treatment. This study indicates that some health-related phytochemicals can be modified by intercropping or late-season drought, but field validation of these results is

  10. Hairy nightshade is an alternative host of spongospora subterranea, the potato powdery scab pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structures, similar to galls developing on potato roots infected by the powdery scab pathogen S. subterranea, were observed on roots of hairy nightshades (Solanum physalifolium, formerly S. sarrachoides) collected from commercial potato fields in Washington State where populations of S. subterranea ...

  11. Role of Solanum dulcamara L. in Potato Late Blight Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golas, T.M.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Mariani, C.; Allefs, J.J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Four sites with naturally growing Solanum dulcamara were surveyed during 2006 and 2007 for the presence of late blight. Despite 2 years of observations, no late blight was detected among natural populations of bittersweet. Nevertheless, repeated infections occurred on few S. dulcamara plants from a

  12. Isolation and characterization of hydroxyproline-rich glycopeptide signals in black nightshade leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Gregory; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan; Chen, Yu-Chi; Barona, Guido; Yamaguchi, Yube; Ryan, Clarence A

    2009-07-01

    A gene encoding a preprohydroxyproline-rich systemin, SnpreproHypSys, was identified from the leaves of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), which is a member of a small gene family of at least three genes that have orthologs in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; NtpreproHypSys), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; SlpreproHypSys), petunia (Petunia hybrida; PhpreproHypSys), potato (Solanum tuberosum; PhpreproHypSys), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas; IbpreproHypSys). SnpreproHypSys was induced by wounding and by treatment with methyl jasmonate. The encoded precursor protein contained a signal sequence and was posttranslationally modified to produce three hydroxyproline-rich glycopeptide signals (HypSys peptides). The three HypSys peptides isolated from nightshade leaf extracts were called SnHypSys I (19 amino acids with six pentoses), SnHypSys II (20 amino acids with six pentoses), and SnHypSys III (20 amino acids with either six or nine pentoses) by their sequential appearance in SnpreproHypSys. The three SnHypSys peptides were synthesized and tested for their abilities to alkalinize suspension culture medium, with synthetic SnHypSys I demonstrating the highest activity. Synthetic SnHypSys I was capable of inducing alkalinization in other Solanaceae cell types (or species), indicating that structural conformations within the peptides are recognized by the different cells/species to initiate signal transduction pathways, apparently through recognition by homologous receptor(s). To further demonstrate the biological relevance of the SnHypSys peptides, the early defense gene lipoxygenase D was shown to be induced by all three synthetic peptides when supplied to excised nightshade plants.

  13. Management of Solanum elaeagnifolium in the Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (silverleaf nightshade, SOLEL) is a prominent invasive alien weed in many countries of the Mediterranean Basin since its introduction in the mid-20th century, originating from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It reproduces vegetatively and by seeds that...

  14. Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus): Spreading by fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    In many forest ecosystems, fire is critical in maintaining indigenous plant communities, but can either promote or arrest the spread of invasive species depending on their regeneration niche and resprouting ability. We examined the effects of cutting and burning treatments on the vegetative response (cover, stem density) and root resources of Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), a liana invasive to North America that was introduced from East Asia. Treatments were control, spring cut, spring burn, spring cut & burn, summer cut, fall cut, fall burn, fall cut & burn, and fall herbicide. Cover was reduced the greatest by herbicide and summer cutting treatments, but increased more in the second year on moraine soils than on sandy soils. Burning and cutting & burning combined resulted in a resprout density four times greater than stem density prior to treatment for stems <2.5 mm diameter than cutting alone. For stems, across all diameter classes, there was a more than 100% increase in stem density with burning and almost a 300% increase in stem density with cutting & burning in the spring. Density of resprouts and root-suckers, and survival increased with increasing stem size. While cutting of C. orbiculatus during the growing season (summer) reduced total nonstructural carbohydrates by 50% below early growing season levels and 75% below dormant season levels, burning did not significantly reduce total nonstructural carbohydrates. Thus, Oriental bittersweet is quite responsive to burning as a disturbance and resprouting and root-suckering creates additional opportunities for growth and attainment of the forest canopy. The positive response of Oriental bittersweet to burning has important implications for management of invasive lianas in fire-dependent forest landscapes.

  15. Silverleaf: An Experimental Series in Support of Nightshade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Amy L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-23

    In this series, a prototype package was designed and fielded to address a major technical risk of Nightshade: A comprehensive suite of drives and diagnostics must fit within a small space. In addition, this series satisfies a milestone for the project.

  16. Encroachment of oriental bittersweet into Pitcher’s thistle habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2012-01-01

    Common invasive species and rare endemic species can grow and interact at the ecotone between forested and non-forested dune habitats. To investigate these interactions, a comparison of the proximity and community associates of a sympatric invasive (Celastrus orbiculatus; oriental bittersweet) and native (C. scandens; American bittersweet) liana species to federally threatened Cirsium pitcheri (Pitcher's thistle) in the dunes habitats of Lake Michigan was conducted. Overall, the density of the invasive liana species was significantly greater in proximity to C. pitcheri than the native species. On the basis of composition, the three focal species occurred in both foredune and blowout habitats. The plant communities associated with the three focal species overlapped in ordination space, but there were significant differences in composition. The ability of C. orbiculatus to rapidly grow and change the ecological dynamics of invasion sites adds an additional threat to the successional habitats of C. pitcheri.

  17. Nostalgia: The bittersweet history of a psychological concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcho, Krystine Irene

    2013-08-01

    The concept of nostalgia has changed substantially both denotatively and connotatively over the span of its 300-year history. This article traces the evolution of the concept from its origins as a medical disease to its contemporary understanding as a psychological construct. The difficulty of tracing a construct through history is highlighted. Attention is paid to roles played first by the medical context, and then by the psychiatric, psychoanalytic, and psychological approaches. Emphasis is given to shifts in the designation of nostalgic valence from bitter to sweet to bittersweet, and the processes of semantic drift and depathologization are explored. Because the sense of nostalgia was constructed and reconstructed within social, cultural, and historical contexts, its meaning changed along with the words used to describe and connect it to other entities. Nostalgia's past illustrates the influence of language, social-cultural context, and discipline perspectives on how a construct is defined, researched, and applied. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  19. Hatch and Reproduction of Globodera tabacum tabacum in Response to Tobacco, Tomato, or Black Nightshade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamondia, J A

    1995-09-01

    The effects of broadleaf tobacco, tomato, and black nightshade on juvenile hatch and reproduction of Globodera tabacum tabacum were determined in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Root exudates from nightshade stimulated greater egg hatch than those from either 'Rutgers' tomato or '86-4' tobacco. Hatch was greater at higher proportions of root exudates for all three plant species. Root exudates from plants greater than 3 weeks old stimulated more hatch than younger plants. No regression relationships existed between plant age and nematode batch. In other experiments, hatch from eggs in cysts was higher for tomato and nightshade after 10 weeks in greenhouse pots compared to tobacco and bare soil. Numbers of second-stage juveniles in eggs in cysts produced from a previous generation on the same host were highest on nightshade and less on tomato and tobacco. Cysts of variable age recovered from field soil had increased hatch in both root exudates or water compared to recently produced cysts from plants in growth chambers. Globodera t. tabacum may be subject to both host and environmentally mediated diapause.

  20. Impacto da erva-moira na produção do tomateiro e ajuste de modelos matemáticos Impact of black nightshade on tomato plant production and mathematical model fitness

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    J.M Portugal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelos matemáticos são úteis para estimar o impacto das infestantes nas culturas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: elucidar a interação de Solanum nigrum (ervamoira ou maria-pretinha com o tomateiro no sistema de sementeira direta e transplantado; e avaliar o impacto de diferentes densidades de infestação e períodos de tempo de competição na quantidade de frutos do tomateiro. Entre os anos 1991 e 2001, foram conduzidos cinco experimentos em campo na região tomaticultora de Portugal. Os experimentos seguiram o método aditivo, mantendo-se constante a densidade da cultura, enquanto o número de ervas-moiras variou entre 0 e 6 plantas m-2. Outro fator avaliado foi o período de convivência da infestante na cultura, incluindo os períodos do transplante/semeadura e o início da floração até a colheita. Os resultados de perda de produção foram ajustados aos modelos linear e hiperbólico. O comportamento das perdas de produção nas densidades mais baixas de erva-moira é do tipo linear. A erva-moira é uma espécie muito competitiva em relação ao tomateiro tanto quando a cultura é semeada quanto quando é transplantada. As perdas de produção foram maiores quando a cultura foi semeada, em comparação com a transplantada.Mathematical models are useful for estimating the impact of weeds on crops. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the interaction of Solanum nigrum (black nightshade with tomato plants in direct and transplanted sowing and to evaluate the impact of different infestation densities and competition time periods on tomato plant production. Between 1991 and 2001, five field experiments were conducted in the tomato growing region of Portugal using the additive method, keeping crop density constant, while changing the number of weeds from 0 and 6 plants m-2. The weed and crop coexistence period was also evaluated, from transplantation/sowing to the beginning of flowering or until harvest. The tomato yield

  1. Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Ariane Renee

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation, Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography interrogates how pornography, from the 1930s to the present, functions as an essential site in the production of black female sexuality. Closely reading a diverse pool of primary pornographic visual materials, across print, moving image and the internet, such as photographs, magazines, trade magazines, videos, DVDs, and internet website viewings, I argue that pornograph...

  2. Rapid flooding-induced adventitious root development from preformed primordia in Solanum dulcamara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Thikra; Rieu, Ivo; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Derksen, Emiel B.; Mariani, Celestina; Visser, Eric J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Flooding is a common stress factor in both natural and agricultural systems, and affects plant growth by the slow diffusion rate of gases in water. This results in low oxygen concentrations in submerged tissues, and hence in a decreased respiration rate. Understanding the responses of plants to flooding is essential for the management of wetland ecosystems, and may benefit research to improve the flood tolerance of crop species. This study describes the response to partial submergence of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara). Bittersweet is a Eurasian species that grows both in dry habitats such as coastal dunes, and in wetlands, and therefore is a suitable model plant for studying responses to a variety of environmental stresses. A further advantage is that the species is closely related to flood-intolerant crops such as tomato and eggplant. The species constitutively develops dormant primordia on the stem, which we show to have a predetermined root identity. We investigated adventitious root growth from these primordia during flooding. The synchronized growth of roots from the primordia was detected after 2–3 days of flooding and was due to a combination of cell division and cell elongation. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the molecular response to flooding began within 2 h and included activation of hypoxia and ethylene signalling genes. Unexpectedly, these early changes in gene expression were very similar in primordia and adjacent stem tissue, suggesting that there is a dominant general response in tissues during early flooding. PMID:24790121

  3. Genetic characterization of hybridization between native and invasive bittersweet vines (Celastrus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, David N.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Ashley, Mary V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization associated with species introductions can accelerate the decline of native species. The main objective of this study was to determine if the decline of a North American liana (American bittersweet, Celastrus scandens) in the eastern portion of its range is related to hybridization with an introduced congener (oriental bittersweet, C. orbiculatus). We used newly characterized microsatellite loci, a maternally-inherited chloroplast DNA marker, and field observation to survey individuals across the USA to determine the prevalence of hybrids, their importance in the invasion of C. orbiculatus, and the predominant direction of hybridization. We found that only 8.4 % of non-native genotypes were hybrids (20 of 239), and these hybrids were geographically widespread. Hybrids showed reduced seed set (decline of >98 %) and small, likely inviable pollen. Genetic analysis of a maternally inherited chloroplast marker showed that all 20 identified hybrids came from C. scandens seed parents. The strong asymmetry in pollen flow that favors fecundity in introduced males has the potential to greatly accelerate the decline of native species by wasting limited female reproductive effort.

  4. Solanum (Solanaceae in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the 41 species, subspecies and cultivar groups in the genus Solanum L. (Solanaceae that occur in Uganda, about 30 are indigenous. In Uganda several members of the genus are utilised as food crops while others are put to medicinal and ornamental use. Some members are notorious weeds. A key to the species and descriptions of all Solanum species occurring in Uganda are provided.

  5. Efeito da densidade e proporção de plantas de tomate industrial e de maria-pretinha em competição Density and proportion effects of industrial tomato and nightshade plants under competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Hernandez

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de quantificar as interações competitivas e os índices de competitividade entre plantas de tomate industrial (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Heinz 9553 e maria-pretinha (Solanum americanum. Usou-se como método um experimento substitutivo, com densidade total de 40 plantas m-2 e 11 proporções, além das monoculturas em densidades, que variaram de 20 a 100 plantas m-2, em intervalos de 20 plantas, conduzidos no delineamento de blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados pelo método convencional de análise de experimentos substitutivos e pela produção recíproca total. A maria-pretinha mostrou ser um competidor mais agressivo que o tomate, sendo mais importante a competição interespecífica para a planta cultivada. Para a biomassa seca total, as duas espécies não competiram pelos mesmos fatores de crescimento. Já para a área foliar, as duas espécies se mostraram competidoras pelos mesmos fatores de crescimento, mostrando ser essa a característica mais sensível à interferência.This work aimed to quantify the competitive interactions and the competitiveness indexes among plants of industrial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Heinz 9553 and nightshade (Solanum americanum. The methodology used was a replacement series experiment with a total density of 40 plants m-2 and 11 proportions, besides the monocultures in densities varying from 20 to 100 plants m-2, in intervals of 20 plants, conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results were analyzed by the conventional method of analysis of replacement series experiment and for total reciprocal production. The nightshade plant was shown to be a more aggressive competitor than the tomato, with inter-specific competition being more important for the cultivated plant. For the dry aboveground biomasses, the two species did not compete for the same natural resources

  6. Potential economic pests of solanaceous crops: a new species of Solanum-feeding psyllid from Australia and first record from New Zealand of Acizzia solanicola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gary S; Kent, Deborah S

    2013-02-11

    Acizzia credoensis sp. n. is described from a single population on the native plant, Solanum lasiophyllum, from semi-arid Western Australia. The host range of Acizzia solanicola Kent & Taylor, initially recorded as damaging eggplant, S. melongena, in commercial crops and gardens and on wild tobacco bush, S. mauritianum in eastern Australia, is expanded to include the following Solanaceae: rock nightshade, S. petrophilum, cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana, and an undetermined species of angel's trumpet Brugmansia and Datura. New Zealand specimens of A. solanicola collected in early 2012 from S. mauritianum are the first record for this species from outside Australia, and possibly represent a very recent incursion. The potential for the solanaceous-inhabiting Psyllidae to vector Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, an economically important plant pathogen, on native Australian Solanaceae is discussed. The occurrence of A. credoensis and A. solanicola on native Australian Solanum supports the Australian origin for the solanaceous-inhabiting Acizzia psyllids.

  7. Optimalisation de l'extraction d'ADN génomique de la morelle jaune (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., une plante invasive des milieux cultivés en région méditerranéenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripoll, J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the genomic DNA extraction method of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., an invasive plant in the cultivated areas within the Mediterranean region. The geographical origin of an invasive plant in the cultivated area within the Mediterranean region, silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Solanaceae should be identified through the analysis of genetic similarities between native and introduced populations using microsatellite markers. Beforehand, an effective and less costly method for extracting genomic DNA from dehydrated and polysaccharide-rich leaves was investigated. The original Doyle's protocol based on the use of a cationic detergent, CTAB, was successfully optimized in order to extract high quality DNA (A260/280 ratio of 1.8; A260/230 ratio of 1.7 to 2. The DNA yields obtained with this new protocol were higher than those obtained with a commercial kit, although quality of the DNA extracted was comparable. The improvement of the protocol was further proven by the amplification of several microsatellite loci first developed in eggplant, Solanum melongena L.

  8. Solanum tuberosum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Key words: Table sugar, micro-propagation, single node cultures, Solanum tuberosum L. ... cited in all potato growing regions has been lack of high .... Generation. = Interval between subcultures (35 days). Table 2. Mean number of nodes per plantlet during the four generations of culture for the cultivars ...

  9. BITTERSWEET CULTURAL ACCEPTANCE AS A REPRESENTATION OF SKIN COLOUR DIFFERENTIATION IN TONI MORRISON‟S SHORT STORY SWEETNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ikhwan Rosyidi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the bittersweet cultural acceptance as Black and White colour skin recognition as a representation of skin colour differentiation in Toni Morrison‘s short story Sweetness. It applies to use descriptive-qualitative data. The material object analyzed is the study of Toni Morrison short story Sweetness published in New Yorker magazine (February 9, 2015. The formal object is the study of this short story seen from the bittersweet cultural acceptance as Black and White colour skin recognition as a representation of skin colour differentiation. Data are analyzed by applying Pierce‘s theory of Semiotics. The result will be the differentiation of people can be seen from the genetic skin differences, different usage of bible, public places, and salaries. These differentiations are iconic signs. The differences of public place entering allowances and holding a holy book as a main fundamental substance in marriage indicate the indexical sign as references towards the differentiation. Moreover, all of them become the symbolic bittersweet cultural acceptance as a representation of skin colour differentiation reflected on Toni Morrison‘s Short Story Sweetness.

  10. phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of solanum macranthum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR J.O. OLAYEMI

    Key words: Solanum macranthum, Solanaceae, antimicrobial activity, phytochemical screening. INTRODUCTION. Solanum species (family: Solanaceae) comprises of. 1,700 species which are commonly found in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. Solanum macranthum Dunal (Syn. Solanum wrightii Benth) or.

  11. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas…

  12. A phylogenetic framework for evolutionary study of the nightshades (Solanaceae): a dated 1000-tip tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkinen, Tiina; Bohs, Lynn; Olmstead, Richard G; Knapp, Sandra

    2013-09-30

    The Solanaceae is a plant family of great economic importance. Despite a wealth of phylogenetic work on individual clades and a deep knowledge of particular cultivated species such as tomato and potato, a robust evolutionary framework with a dated molecular phylogeny for the family is still lacking. Here we investigate molecular divergence times for Solanaceae using a densely-sampled species-level phylogeny. We also review the fossil record of the family to derive robust calibration points, and estimate a chronogram using an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock. Our densely-sampled phylogeny shows strong support for all previously identified clades of Solanaceae and strongly supported relationships between the major clades, particularly within Solanum. The Tomato clade is shown to be sister to section Petota, and the Regmandra clade is the first branching member of the Potato clade. The minimum age estimates for major splits within the family provided here correspond well with results from previous studies, indicating splits between tomato and potato around 8 Million years ago (Ma) with a 95% highest posterior density (HPD) 7-10 Ma, Solanum and Capsicum c. 19 Ma (95% HPD 17-21), and Solanum and Nicotiana c. 24 Ma (95% HPD 23-26). Our large time-calibrated phylogeny provides a significant step towards completing a fully sampled species-level phylogeny for Solanaceae, and provides age estimates for the whole family. The chronogram now includes 40% of known species and all but two monotypic genera, and is one of the best sampled angiosperm family phylogenies both in terms of taxon sampling and resolution published thus far. The increased resolution in the chronogram combined with the large increase in species sampling will provide much needed data for the examination of many biological questions using Solanaceae as a model system.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Solanum tomentosum | Aliero | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of Solanum tomentosum. ... Abstract. Acetone, methanol and water extracts from the leaves of Solanum tomentosum were investigated for their antimicrobial activities. ... None of the extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonae and Penicillium notatum.

  14. Metabolites of 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,6-dichlorobiphenyl in hairy root culture of black nightshade Solanum nigrum SNC-90

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Jan; Macek, Tomáš; Doubský, Jan; Macková, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2012), s. 383-388 ISSN 0045-6535 Grant - others:GA MŠMT(CZ) ME09024; GA ČR(CZ) GA525/09/1058 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : PCB * plant * GCxGC/TOFMS * phytoremediation * hydroxy- PCB * methoxy- PCB * hydroxy-methoxy- PCB Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2012

  15. Análise de crescimento e partição de assimilados em plantas de maria-pretinha submetidas a níveis de sombreamento Growth analysis and partitioning of assimilates in mary-nightshade plants submitted to shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Z Aumonde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Solanum americanum (maria-pretinha é considerada planta daninha; por possuir elevada habilidade competitiva e agressividade, ela reduz a produtividade dos cultivos. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e objetivou analisar o crescimento e a partição de assimilados em plantas de maria-pretinha submetidas a três níveis de sombreamento. As plantas foram coletadas em intervalos regulares de sete dias após o transplante até o final do ciclo, sendo determinada a massa seca e a área foliar. A partir dos dados primários, foi aplicada a análise de crescimento, sendo calculados a massa seca total (Wt, as taxas de produção de matéria seca (Ct, crescimento relativo (Rw e assimilatória líquída (Ea, o índice de área foliar (L, as razões de área foliar (Fa e massa foliar (Fw, a área foliar específica (Sa, a partição de matéria seca entre órgãos e o número de frutos. Plantas de maria-pretinha cresceram e se desenvolveram melhor sob condição intermediária de luz (65%, em que atingiram maior Wt, Ct, L, Fa, matéria seca de caule, matéria seca de fruto e maior número de frutos, enquanto a luz plena e a redução da luminosidade em nível acentuado, de maneira mais marcante, afetaram negativamente o crescimento e o desenvolvimento, o que possivelmente pode influenciar a habilidade competitiva da maria-pretinha.The species Solanum americanum (mary-nightshade is considered a weed whose highly competitive ability and aggressiveness reduce crop productivity. This work was conducted under greenhouse conditions aiming to analyze the growth and partitioning of assimilates in mary-nightshade plants subjected to three levels of shading. The plants were collected at regular intervals of seven days after transplantation until the end of the cycle, with dry mass and leaf area being determined. Based on primary data , growth analysis was carried out to calculate total dry matter production (Wt, dry matter production rates

  16. Induced mutagenesis as a breeding strategy for improvement of Solanaceous vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Masaharu; Ojiewo, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    The Solanaceae are a cosmopolitan family containing many essential vegetables and fruits such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), paprika, chillies, green and red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), jasmine nightshade (Solanum jasminoides Paxt.), winter cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum L.), and Cape gooseberry, ornamentals such as Petunia, Schizanthus, and Lycium species, and medicinal plants such as bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L.) and Solanum viarum Dun., both used as sources of corticosteroids. It also contains tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) - one of the most harmful yet economically important plants in the world - together with many other plants of both poisonous and medicinal value such as belladonna (Atropa belladona L.), stramonium (Datura stramonium L.), black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.), and African nightshade (Solanum villosum). Composed of approximately 90 genera and between 2000 and 3000 species, the family is widely distributed throughout the tropical and temperate regions of the world, with centers of diversity occurring in Central and South America, Australia, and Africa (EDMONDS 1978; SYMON 1981; D'ARCY 1991). Work to develop new varieties of improved solanaceous crops started more than 2 centuries ago. This paper reviews some of the recent developments in various aspects of varietal improvement of solanaceous vegetables through mutation breeding. Mutational work reported here includes the alteration of plant reproductive or vegetative growth and the development of locally adapted cultivars and popular breeding lines, or the induction of novel alleles. The potential for direct application of the mutants as new improved cultivars, their use in cross-breeding schemes, and their application in, for example, marker technology in genetic research are discussed. Specific examples of novel mutants developed in our laboratory that have the potential for application in improving solanaceous fruits

  17. The Influence of the Rebaudioside A Content of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) on the Determination of Sweetness Equivalence in Bittersweet Chocolates, Using the Time-Intensity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Bruna M; Ferreira, Janaína M M; Luccas, Valdecir; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-12-01

    The consumption of diet products has increased greatly in recent years. The objectives of the study were to develop a bittersweet chocolate added inulin and stevias with different rebaudioside A contents (60%, 80%, and 97%). Five chocolate samples were formulated with different sucrose concentrations to determine the ideal sucrose concentration for bittersweet chocolate. The use of just-about-right scale identified an ideal sucrose concentration of 47.5% (w/w). The sweetness equivalence in sugar-free bittersweet chocolates was determined by the time-intensity method by 14 selected and trained judges. The data collected during each session of sensory evaluation furnished the following parameters in relation to the sweet stimulus: Imax (maximum intensity recorded), Timax (time at which the maximum intensity was recorded), Area (area of time × intensity curve), and Ttot (total duration time of the stimulus). The time-intensity analysis indicated that the percentages of rebaudioside A did not interfere with the sweetness intensity of the sweetener stevia in bittersweet chocolate and there was no significant difference in the concentrations tested (0.16%, 0.22%, 0.27%) of each stevia, in relation to the parameters evaluated. In addition, the reduction in fat content did not alter the perception of the sweetness intensity of the samples. These results showed important information to research and development of chocolate products. Therefore, the use of the lowest stevia concentration tested (0.16%) is the most indicated for use, since this quantity was sufficient to reach the ideal sweetness of the product, so there was no point in adding more. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. "Positive technology" thereby takes the responsible role of a "digital coach," supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the "therapeutic interaction" mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article aims to deepen the discussion

  19. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Diefenbach

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the “therapeutic interaction” mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article

  20. Using NextRAD sequencing to infer movement of herbivores among host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhen; Epstein, Brendan; Kelley, Joanna L; Zheng, Qi; Bergland, Alan O; Castillo Carrillo, Carmen I; Jensen, Andrew S; Dahan, Jennifer; Karasev, Alexander V; Snyder, William E

    2017-01-01

    Herbivores often move among spatially interspersed host plants, tracking high-quality resources through space and time. This dispersal is of particular interest for vectors of plant pathogens. Existing molecular tools to track such movement have yielded important insights, but often provide insufficient genetic resolution to infer spread at finer spatiotemporal scales. Here, we explore the use of Nextera-tagmented reductively-amplified DNA (NextRAD) sequencing to infer movement of a highly-mobile winged insect, the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli), among host plants. The psyllid vectors the pathogen that causes zebra chip disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum), but understanding and managing the spread of this pathogen is limited by uncertainty about the insect's host plant(s) outside of the growing season. We identified 1,978 polymorphic loci among psyllids separated spatiotemporally on potato or in patches of bittersweet nightshade (S. dulcumara), a weedy plant proposed to be the source of potato-colonizing psyllids. A subset of the psyllids on potato exhibited genetic similarity to insects on nightshade, consistent with regular movement between these two host plants. However, a second subset of potato-collected psyllids was genetically distinct from those collected on bittersweet nightshade; this suggests that a currently unrecognized source, i.e., other nightshade patches or a third host-plant species, could be contributing to psyllid populations in potato. Oftentimes, dispersal of vectors of pathogens must be tracked at a fine scale in order to understand, predict, and manage disease spread. We demonstrate that emerging sequencing technologies that detect genome-wide SNPs of a vector can be used to infer such localized movement.

  1. Alteraciones morfo-histológicas en hojas de Solanum chenopodioides (Solanaceae, producidas por ácaros y dípteros minadores Morpho-histological alterations in leaves of Solanum chenopodioides (Solanaceae produced by mites and leaf miner diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana D Del V. Figueroa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solanum chenopodioides Lam., conocida como "hierba mora", es una hierba o subarbusto ampliamente distribuido en Argentina y otras zonas de Sudamérica y es una maleza sumamente tóxica para el ganado. Sus hojas tienen propiedades medicinales y son utilizadas como sedante y en oftalmología. Es frecuente el ataque de sus hojas por ácaros fitófagos y por insectos minadores. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la morfología y la anatomía de las hojas en plantas sanas e infestadas por ácaros (Tetranychidae, Tetranychus sp. y dípteros minadores de la hoja (Agromyzidae. Los resultados muestran que el ataque de ambos agentes reduce significativamente el volumen del tejido fotosintético por excelencia. Así, se compromete el crecimiento, y por lo tanto la supervivencia de la especie. Aún más, en caso de ser utilizada como especie medicinal se afecta la calidad del principio activo.Solanum chenopodioides Lam., known as "nightshade", is a herb or subshrub widely distributed in Argentina and another zones of South America, and is a weed highly toxic to livestock. Its leaves have medicinal properties and are used as a sedative and in ophthalmology. The attack of its leaves by phytophagous mites and leafminer insects is frequent. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and the anatomy of the leaves of both healthy and infested plants by Tetranychidae, Tetranychus sp. mites and Agromyzidae leafminer diptera. The results show that the attack of both agents significantly reduces the amount of photosynthetic tissue par excellence. Thus, growth is compromised, and therefore the survival of the species. Moreover, when used as medicinal species, the quality the active principle is affected.

  2. The Phytogeography of New Guinea Solanum (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symon, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Solanaceae, of which Solanum is the type species, comprise a southern hemisphere family. A general biogeographical introduction is given, with an account of plate tectonics and a discussion of Wallace’s Line and the geographic history of New Guinea. The widely accepted sections of Solanum are

  3. Utilizing wild relative ((Solanum viarum) as resistant source to shoot and fruit borer in brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    L.Pugalendhi, D.Veeraragavathatham, S.Natarjan and S. Praneetha

    2010-01-01

    Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.) has very important place in Indian curries and also in China, Japan and Southern Europianrecipies. High yield combined with good quality as well as resistance to shoot and fruit borer in a brinjal variety is the ultimateaim in the most of the brinjal breeding programme. Solanum viarum is closely related to Solanum melongena and both are crosscompatible. Therefore hybridization was undertaken in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with Solanum viarum to transfer th...

  4. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoko, Mkabwa L K; van Weerden, Gerard M; van Berg, Ronald G; Mariani, Celestina

    2012-01-01

    Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits.

  5. Solanum (Solanaceae) in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Z. R. Bukenya; J. B. Hall

    1988-01-01

    Of the 22 species, subspecies and varieties in the genus  Solanum L. (Solanaceae) that occur in Ghana, about 15 are indigenous. In Ghana serveral members of the genus are utilized as food crops while others are put to medicinal and ornamental use. Up-to-date and detailed descriptions for all the Solanum taxa occurring in Ghana and a key to the species are provided.

  6. [Stable transformation of Solanum rickii chloroplast DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, N A; Shakhovskiĭ, A M; Kuchuk, N V

    2005-01-01

    The biolistic method was used for genetic transformation of Solanum rickii chloroplasts with aadA gene encoding resistance to streptomycine and spectinomycine. Selective pressure was applied immediately after microbombardment to avoid appearance of mutant lines. The transplastomic Solanum rickii plants remained green during two years cultivation on the media supplemented with two antibiotics. There were no morphological differences between the transformed and the wild type plants.

  7. Períodos de interferência de maria-pretinha sobre tomateiro industrial Periods of nightshade interference in processing tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Hernandez

    2007-06-01

    ência, de 27 a 46 DAT.In order to evaluate the effects of nightshade coexistence on processing tomato yield, hybrid Heinz 9992, an experiment was carried out consisting of two sets of treatments: in the first set, the crop was kept weed free (60 thousands plants ha-1 from transplanting to 15; 30; 45; 60; 75; 90; 105 days and 120 (harvest days after transplanting (DAT; while in the second set, the crop was kept in competition with the nightshade from transplanting until the same DAT described for the set of treatments. A randomized block design trial, with three replications and four-row plots was used. Height, leaf area, and aerial part dry matter of nightshade was obtained out of 10-plant samples. Nightshade leaf area increased until 75 days of tomato coexistence (1,588 dm² plant-1; height until 60 days of coexistence (85 cm, and the leaf dry biomass until 120 days of coexistence (31.7 g plant-1. The highest (108.6 tons ha-1 or 87.6 % of total production and lowest (14.2 tons ha-1 or 59% ripe tomato yields were observed when the coexistence between tomato and nightshade occurred only in the first 15 days or in the whole crop cycle, respectively. In these treatments, the average ripe fruit weights were 58.7 and 38.0 g, respectively. Each cm² of increase in the nightshade leaf area caused a reduction of 0.04 tons ha-1 (R² = 0.90 on the ripe tomato yield; each cm of increase in the nightshade height reduced the ripe tomato yield in 0.82 tons ha-1 (R²=0.78; and each gram of increase in the nightshade aerial part dry matter reduced the ripe tomato yield in 2.84 tons ha-1 (R²=0.97. The period before interference, allowing up to 5% reduction in tomato yield, was 27 DAT; the total period for preventing interference was 46 DAT; and the critical period for preventing interference was between 27 and 46 DAT.

  8. A new tetraploid species of Solanum section Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Mariani, C.

    2012-01-01

    Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among

  9. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae from Peru and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M.Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S.Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S.Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M.Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given.

  10. Variations in Amylase and Invertase activities in Solanum species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum species (eggplants) are edible, highly valued constituents of the Nigerian food and indigenous medicines. In this study, the activities of enzymes involved in carbohydrate degradation such as amylase and invertase were evaluated in two Solanum species viz Solanum melongena (round and oval varieties) and ...

  11. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native sp...

  12. Effect of hesperidin and neohesperidin from bittersweet orange (Citrus aurantium var. bigaradia) peel on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia I; Mahmoud, Mona F; Wink, Michael; El-Shazly, Assem M

    2014-05-01

    Hesperidin and neohesperidin are the major flavanones isolated from bittersweet orange. It was recently reported that they have potent anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory models. In the present study, the effects of hesperidin and neohesperidin on indomethacin-induced ulcers in rats and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats with a single dose of indomethacin. The effects of pretreatment with hesperidin and neohesperidin were assessed in comparison with omeprazole as reference standard. Ulcer index, gene expression of gastric cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product, malondialdhyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in stomach were measured. Furthermore, gross and histopathological examination was performed. Our results indicated that both hesperidin and neohesperidin significantly aggravated gastric damage caused by indomethacin administration as evidenced by increased ulcer index and histopathological changes of stomach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkabwa L.K. Manoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place S. umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits.

  14. Narcosis and nightshade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Although this year marks the 150th anniversary of the discovery of modern surgical anaesthesia, surgery itself has a much longer history. It is well known that extracts from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, were used to dull the pain of surgery during ancient times but less well known that extracts from plants with sedative powers often accompanied them, producing primitive anaesthesia. Most of these sedative plants were members of a large botanical family, the Solanaceae. This paper describes some of them and discusses the ways in which they were administered. It also explains why, during the middle ages, these primitive techniques went out of use but how none the less they provided Shakespeare with the inspiration for some of his greatest plays. When the active principal of the Solanaceae was identified as scopolamine, it came to play a part in 20th century anaesthesia. The combination of omnopon and scopolamine lives on as a premedication, and the presence of poppy heads and mandrake roots on the arms of today's Association of Anaesthetists serves to remind us of the speciality's links with its past. Images p1630-a p1631-a p1631-b p1631-c p1632-a p1632-b PMID:8991015

  15. Blue nightshade poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Black nightshade poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Chemical and nutrient characterization of Solanum pseudocapsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of pharmaceutical and biodegradable industrial raw material is discussed. Key words: Solanum pseudocapsicum, berries, chemical composition, alkaloids nutrients. .... preservative and in the production of fabrics and plastics. Majority of the compounds identified in these berries are reported to have pharmacological and ...

  18. Preservation of Solanum pimpinellifolium genomic fragments in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CC 14 S2125ZAA, Zavalla (Santa Fe), Argentina. Abstract. Five recombinant inbred lines obtained from the F2 generation of an interspecific cross between cultivar, Caimanta (Cai,. Solanum lycopersicum) and wild accession, LA722 (P, S. pimpinellifolium) ...

  19. Preservation of Solanum pimpinellifolium genomic fragments in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five recombinant inbred lines obtained from the F2 generation of an interspecific cross between cultivar, Caimanta (Cai, Solanum lycopersicum) and wild accession, LA722 (P, S. pimpinellifolium) were crossed to obtain the second cycle hybrids (SCH). Eleven fruit quality traits were assessed in evaluating phenotypic ...

  20. Mechanism and control of Solanum lycocarpum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, L.V.A.; Silva, Da E.A.A.; Davide, A.C.; Mendes de Jesus, V.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Solanaceae seed morphology and physiology have been widely studied but mainly in domesticated crops. The present study aimed to compare the seed morphology and the physiology of germination of Solanum lycocarpum, an important species native to the Brazilian Cerrado, with two species with

  1. Phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of Solanum macranthum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of leaves, stem bark, roots and fruits of Solanum macranthum Dunal were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for the presence of plant secondary metabolites and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal studies respectively. The results of the preliminary investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, the ...

  2. Preservation of Solanum pimpinellifolium genomic fragments in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    483–505. Sociedad Española de Ciencias Hortícolas, Madrid,. Spain. Pratta G. R., Rodriguez G. R., Zorzoli R., Valle E. M. and Picardi. L. A. 2011 Phenotypic and molecular characterization of selected tomato recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Solanum lycopersicum × S. pimpinellifolium. J. Genet. 90, 229–237 ...

  3. Chemical constituents of Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Torres, Maria da conceicao M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the stem EtOH extract of S. buddleifolium resulted in the isolation of terpenoids, amides, lignans and a steroidal alkaloid. Based on HRMS, IR and 1 H and 13 C NMR data analysis, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified as: 13-hydroxysolavetivone, betulinic acid, N-trans-caffeoyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyldopamine, N-trans-p-cumaroyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyl- 3’-O-methoxydopamine, alangilignoside C, isolariciresinol, polistachiol, (+)-(8R,7’S,8’S)-3α-O-(β-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol, (-)-(8S,7’R,8’R)-3α-O-(β-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol and solamargine. The occurrence of terpenoids and amides is common in Solanum, unlike lignans which are rare. The isolated lignans described in this work are reported for the first time in the genus Solanum. (author)

  4. Molecular diversity among seven Solanum (eggplant and relatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven Solanum species (eggplants) were investigated for molecular diversity. Besides its widespread cultivation, nutritional and economic importance, its genome has not been extensively researched. 39 Solanum accessions, a landrace and tomato variety (LBR 48) were molecularly analyzed by simple sequence repeat ...

  5. Tumor formation in hybrids between Solanum lycopersicum and S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic tumors are neoplastic growths that arise spontaneously in particular genotypes in plants. In the present study, we observed the occurrence of tumors in interspecific hybrids between Solanum lycopersicum L. and Solanum habrochaites S. Knapp and D. M. Spooner. The hybridity of these plants was confirmed based ...

  6. A NOVEL GLYCOSIDIC STEROIDAL ALKALOID FROM SOLANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    isolated from Solanum species [5, 8, 9]. The 1H NMR indicated four characteristic steroidal aglycone methyls signals at δ 0.85 (3H, s),. 1.05 (3H, s), 0.98 (3H, d J = 6.6 Hz) and 1.18 (3H, d J = 7.3 Hz). A multiplet at δ 1.28 was due to methyls of two rhamnoses while a doublet (J = 4.8 Hz) at δ 5.36 was due to an olefinic proton ...

  7. Chemical constituents of Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn; Constituintes quimicos de Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Torres, Maria da conceicao M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L., E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Ondina, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Botanica

    2013-10-01

    The chemical investigation of the stem EtOH extract of S. buddleifolium resulted in the isolation of terpenoids, amides, lignans and a steroidal alkaloid. Based on HRMS, IR and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data analysis, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified as: 13-hydroxysolavetivone, betulinic acid, N-trans-caffeoyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyldopamine, N-trans-p-cumaroyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyl- 3'-O-methoxydopamine, alangilignoside C, isolariciresinol, polistachiol, (+)-(8R,7'S,8'S)-3{alpha}-O-({beta}-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol, (-)-(8S,7'R,8'R)-3{alpha}-O-({beta}-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol and solamargine. The occurrence of terpenoids and amides is common in Solanum, unlike lignans which are rare. The isolated lignans described in this work are reported for the first time in the genus Solanum. (author)

  8. Influence of spatial arrangements in maize/solanum potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum tuberosum L.) on the incidence of potato aphids and leafhoppers was conducted at Namulonge in Uganda during the two growing seasons of 1995. Three potato varieties and one maize variety were intercropped in six spatial ...

  9. Cardio Protective Effect of Solanum nigrum Linn. in Isoproterenol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardio Protective Effect of Solanum nigrum Linn. in Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rat. Sameer Amjad Shaik, Shivaprasad Huded, Asra Fathima, K.H. Preran, Syeda Juveriya Fathima, Farhath Khanum ...

  10. Effect of acaricidal activity of Solanum nigrum on Tetranychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of acaricidal activity of Solanum nigrum on Tetranychus urticae Koch under laboratory conditions. Stephanie Johana Numa Vergel, Lorena Rodríguez Coy, Daniel Rodríguez Caicedo, Ericsson Coy-Barrera ...

  11. Antiproliferative activity of cytotoxic tuber lectins from Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    tumor potential against experimentally induced Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice was evaluated. Twenty. (20) kDa chitin-binding lectins from Solanum tuberosum tubers, STL-S and STL-D were purified through.

  12. Een nieuwe variëteit van Solanum triflorum Nutt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1966-01-01

    A note on a new variety of Solanum triflorum Nutt., viz. var. dentatum Ooststr., found in 1938 near Nijmegen, prov. Gelderland. SANDWITH (2, p. 346) mentions a plant from Bristol, which is identical with this.

  13. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  14. Listado anotado de Solanum L. (Solanaceae) en el Perú

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Särkinen, Tiina; Baden, Maria; Gonzáles, Paúl

    2015-01-01

    The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 275 species of Solanum L., of which 252 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 73 Solanum species (29% of native...

  15. Karyotype analysis of three Solanum plants using combined PI-DAPI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... In this study, mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Solanum surattense Burm., Solanum lyratum Thunb. and Solanum photeinocarpum Nakam. were well prepared using an advanced chromosome preparation method. The chromosomes were distinguished by combined PI-DAPI (CPD) staining and double.

  16. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo de folhas de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Diniz Araújo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, espécies pertencentes à Solanum sect. Crinitum Child, com o objetivo de efetuar morfodiagnoses macroscópicas e microscópicas que possibilitem suas caracterizações. As três espécies são conhecidas popularmente como "jurubeba", fruta-de-lobo" e "lobeira" e usadas na medicina popular contra o diabetes e também para outros fins. Essas espécies compartilham vários caracteres morfológicos, dentre os quais se destacam o hábito arbustivo a arbóreo, o indumento velutino às vezes cerdoso, a corola é pentagonal-estrelada, roxa a púrpura, e o fruto globoso acima de 5 cm de diâmetro. Entretanto, apesar da grande semelhança morfológica entre as espécies estudadas, destacaram-se como parâmetros distintivos: a morfologia do pecíolo, a base do limbo, o indumento da face adaxial, a anatomia do mesofilo, os tipos de estômatos e a morfologia do bordo foliar.

  17. Two new South American species of Solanum section Crinitum (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Farruggia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles S. crinitum and S. lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to S. sycophanta but differs from the latter inprominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to S. sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador.

  18. The chloroform fraction of Solanum nigrum suppresses nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages through inhibition of p38, JNK and ERK1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee; Jeong, Ha-Deok; Choi, Ho-Young

    2011-01-01

    Solanum nigrum L., commonly known as black nightshade, is used worldwide for the treatment of skin and mucosal ulcers, liver cirrhosis and edema. We aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory active fraction of S. nigrum by serial extractions. S. nigrum was first extracted with methanol, then fractionated with chloroform and water. The effects of S. nigrum fractions, diosgenin and α-solanine on LPS/interferon-gamma-induced nitric oxide (NO) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), or LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse peritoneal macrophages were determined. Western blotting analysis was used to detect LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2. The chloroform fraction of S. nigrum was cytotoxic in a time and concentration dependent manner; however, the methanol and water fractions were not. The chloroform fraction reduced NO through inhibition of iNOS synthesis and inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 at the level of protein secretion; the methanol and water fractions showed a weak or no effect. The chloroform fraction also suppressed p38, JNK and ERK1/2. Diosgenin and α-solanine were cytotoxic at a high concentration. In particular, diosgenin was able to inhibit TNF-α and IL-6, but both compounds did not affect LPS-induced iNOS expression. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory compounds of S. nigrum exist preferentially in the nonpolar fraction, ruling out the possibility that diosgenin and α-solanine are the likely candidates. The inhibition of iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 by the chloroform fraction may be partly due to the suppression of p38, JNK and ERK1/2. Further study is required to identify the active compounds of S. nigrum.

  19. Resistance to Erwinia spp. in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allefs, S.

    1995-01-01

    Blackleg is a disease of potato, Solanum tuberosum , which is caused by the bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora ( Ecc ), E.c. subsp. atroseptica ( Eca ) or

  20. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated vegetatively. Breeding of potato is problematic and therefore induced mutation is an attractive means of improving the crop. In vitro culture systems, and especially the production of microtubers, are ideal for such ...

  1. Genetic diversity in Nigerian brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The taxonomy of Solanum melongena L., also known as brinjal eggplant, has remained difficult because previous studies to establish genetic relationships among taxa are mainly based on morphological features, which are insufficient to establish genetic affinities. In the present investigation, five highly polymorphic ...

  2. Antidiabetic activity of water extract of Solanum trilobatum (Linn.) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... changes in body weight, serum lipid profiles and liver glycogen levels assessed in the extract treated diabetic rats ... of medicine. Key words: Antidiabetic activity, alloxan monohydrate, Gliben clamide, rats, Solanum trilobatum. .... either six weighing 150 - 200 g bred in Animal Tissue Culture Lab,. Karpagam ...

  3. Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) : a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, B.G.H.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Solanumsisymbriifolium ,Globoderapallida ,Globoderarostochiensis ,

  4. Solanum cultivar responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in a sandy soil with a low available phosphorus to evaluate responsiveness of four Solanum aethiopicum cultivars to indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Results showed clear interaction between genetic variability of cultivars and fungal isolates on shoot biomass and on ...

  5. Efficient plant regeneration from leaf explants of Solanum americanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... A very efficient system for direct plant regeneration from in vitro–derived leaf explants of Solanum americanum was developed. S. americanum is a tropical plant with important medical properties. The in vitro procedure that was established consists of (i) induction of shoots from leaf tissue, (ii) elongation of.

  6. Control of whiteflies and aphids in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and aphid (Homoptera) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are economically important insect pests that are difficult to manage due to their resistance to a wide range of chemical pesticides. Field experiments were conducted to assess the effects of fermented plant ...

  7. Total lipid profile with aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. on the total lipid profile: total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) on hypercholesterolaemic rats. Total serum cholesterol ...

  8. Genetic Variability in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Genotypes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Late blight (Phytophthora infestans de Bary) is the most important and destructive disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L). The pathogen has the ability to rapidly evolve and overcome resistance genes, leading commercial potato varieties to succumb to it too soon. As a result, evaluation of commercial potato varieties for ...

  9. Functional genomics of Phytophthora infestans effectors and Solanum resistance genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Champouret, N.

    2010-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is nowadays the most important non-cereal food crop in the world. It is prone to huge annual losses due to late blight, the disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Modern management of late blight necessitates the use of multiple resistance (R)

  10. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BADO, Souleymane

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated ... Micro-tubers were found to be more resistant for in vitro mutation induction than in vitro cuttings. This study shows the ...... analysed by gene expression patterns. Ann. 1st. Super Sanita.

  11. Evaluation of genetic stability in cryopreserved Solanum tuberosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, the genetic stability of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets of the cultivars Agria and Marphona stored under cryopreservation and non-cryopreservation conditions was studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Also, flow cytometric studies were performed to

  12. New Solanum species from Tanzanian coastal forests may already ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unusually long inflorescences with a dense covering of long straight prickles on the rachis distinguish S. ruvu from all other African species of spiny Solanum. Its likely affinities lie with another coastal forest species, S. zanzibarense, which exhibits a similar scandent habit, subentire leaves, thin stems, and prickles that ...

  13. Effects of aqueous extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. fruit on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted on the effect of the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. in hypercholesterolaemic rats. The plant material was Soxhlet-extracted with distilled water and the extract was concentrated in vacuo with a yield of 15.34 % /w. The extract was stored in a specimen bottle at room temperature ...

  14. Extraction and nutritional properties of Solanum nigrum L seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the aim of diversifying the lipids sources eaten by the African populations and those of Congo Brazzaville in particular, a physicochemical study of Solanum nigrum L seeds was carried out and three chemical methods (Soxhlet, Bligh and Dyer, and Folch) were used to extract the oil. The dry matter content of the seeds ...

  15. Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria Associated With Irish Potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 15 samples of spoilt Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were collected from five grocery shops in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria and were analysed for aerobic mesophilic bacterial load. The isolated aerobic mesophilic bacteria were phenotypically characterized by biochemical tests and their susceptibility to ...

  16. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  17. Spasmolytic Activity of the Aqueous Root Extract of Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum incanum L. (Solanaceae) is an annual herb that is used in the traditional medicine of Ethiopia for treating stomach and intestinal disorders. The spasmolytic activity of aqueous root extract of S. incanum was assessed on contractions of isolated guinea pig ileum, induced by acetylcholine, and compared with the ...

  18. Screening for Biological Activity of Solanum incanum and Conyza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolated Rabbit jejunum smooth muscle contraction assay was used to screen two Kenyan medicinal plants; Solanum incanum and Conyza sumatrensis used to treat/relieve constipation. Cold and Heat extraction methods were used to prepare the plant extracts from freshly collected root and stem barks of S. incanum ...

  19. Genetic diversity in Nigerian brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... from the Old World and an important vegetable in central, southern .... amplification was 10 µl containing 1.0 µl of 10x TAE buffer, 3 µl of ..... importance. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75(3):862-865. Hassan SMZ, Lester RN (1990). Crossability relationships and in vitro germination of F1 hybrids between Solanum ...

  20. Performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as natural coagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reports the performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as coagulant and disinfectant for water purification. The coagulation-flocculation experiment was carried out using a Phipps and Bird PB-700™ Jar Tester. Results show that coagulation depends on Fe(II) content and disinfectant on bioactive natural product ...

  1. Fruit Yield Responses of Eggplant ( Solanum melongena ) to Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in the experimental farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka in the period of September 2003. and February 2004 to determine the effect of different rates of poultry manure and NPK 15.15:15 fertilizer and their interaction on fruit yield of Solanum melongena. The study ...

  2. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemicals of Solanum trilobatum Linn.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, aqueous methanol and n-butanol extracts of aerial parts of Solanum trilobatum L. (Solanaceae) were tested for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. From the results, it was found that extracts from leaves, flowers, stem and fruits revealed antimicrobial activity against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria.

  3. Transformation of potato (Solanum tuberosum) using particle bombardment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, A.; Raemakers, K.; Visser, R.; Mooibroek, H.

    2001-01-01

    Internodes, leaves and tuber slices from potato (Solanum tuberosum), genotype 1024-2, were subjected to particle bombardment. Transient expression was optimized using the uidA and the luc reporter genes that encode #-glucuronidase (GUS) and luciferase, respectively. Stable transformation was

  4. Cytogenetic studies on some Nigerian species of Solanum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytogenetic studies to determine the chromosome number, structure and behaviour of some species of Solanum in Nigeria were carried out. Attempt was also made to induce polyploidy in the species. Comparative analysis of the cytological behaviour of the diploid and polyploid cytotypes was made. The studies show that ...

  5. Hypotensive Effects of Solanum Macrocarpum Linn. Fruit Extracts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the hypotensive activity of a commonly used fruit and food, Solanum macrocarpum, and the probable mechanism of action. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups of 6 animals each. The normotensive and salt-induced hypertensive rats were treated ...

  6. Critical Period for Weed Removal in Garden Egg (Solanum Incanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo during the 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons to determine the extent of yield loss due to weed infestation and the critical time for weed removal in garden egg (Solanum incanum). The experiment which was ...

  7. Inbreeding, heterosis, fertility, plasmon differentiation and Phytophthora resistance in Solanum verrucosum Schlechtd., and some interspecific crosses in Solanum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, M.M.F.

    1970-01-01

    Solanum verrucosum (2n = 24) is a self-compatible, highly fertile species. This conclusion is drawn from the results of studies on 21 various introductions of this species. In spite of self-compatibility and good male and female fertility, the species generally needs a pollinating agent to

  8. Phenetic analysis of medicinally important species of the genus solanum from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, Z.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Solanum is one of the largest and hyper diverse genera of the family Solanaceae. In Pakistan Solanum is represented by 15 species, of which 11 species have the medicinal properties. Taxonomically this is a complex genus because of the presence of number of hybrid and controversial taxonomic status of S. nigrum complex. In the present study numerical techniques were utilized to evaluate the taxonomic status of the genus Solanum. Cluster analysis was employed to work out the relationship among the taxa of the genus Solanum. The Euclidean distance measured similarity matrix and a dendrogram was constructed by using the complete linkage method. This analysis showed that all the species of genus Solanum can easily be divided into two groups at hundred percentage linkage distance. Co-relation of quantitative characters showed that floral characters had highly significant relationship with the stem characters, these characters plays a significant role in the identification of the species of the genus Solanum. (author)

  9. Ocorrência de flavonas, flavonóis e seus glicosídeos em espécies do gênero Solanum (Solanaceae Occurrence of flavones and flavonols aglycones and its glycosides in Solanum (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Maria Sarmento da Silva

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades several flavonoids of Solanum species have been isolated. This review describes the flavones, flavonols and their glycosides presently known as constituents of Solanum species.

  10. An explosive innovation: Phylogenetic relationships of Solanum section Gonatotrichum (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Stern

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum is one of the largest plant genera and exhibits a wide range of morphological diversity. Solanum section Gonatotrichum, the focus of this study, is unique within the genus because of its fruits that swell with turgor pressure and explosively dehisce to disperse the seeds. We infer phylogenetic relationships within section Gonatotrichum using DNA sequence data from two nuclear regions (ITS and the granule-bound starch synthase gene [GBSSI or waxy] and the chloroplast region trnT-F. The resulting phylogenetic trees support the monophyly of the section with the inclusion of S. lignescens, a species not previously thought to belong to the group due to the presence of stellate hairs. This inclusion of this species in section Gonatotrichum suggests that the simple, often geniculate hairs of species in the group may represent reduced stellate hairs. The presence of heterantherous flowers appears to be derived in the section, but this character is largely lost in S. parcistrigosum.

  11. Structure of elementary module of Solanum dulcamara L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Zhuravlyeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The structures (metamers of Solanum dulcamara at the level of elementary module have been studied. The features for identification of their variability have been ascertained. 44 variants of metamers are described. The characteristic is represented for such individual features as: the type of lateral organ (leaf of a middle formation and axillary structure (bud, shoot, serial complex; the degree of development of the generative organs; and the presence and type of roots.

  12. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae for Peru

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    Tiina Särkinen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native species are endemic to Peru. Additional 58 species occur only in small number of populations outside Peru, and these species are here labelled as near-endemics to highlight the role Peru playes in their future protection. Species diversity is observed to peak between 2500 – 3000 m elevation, but endemic species diversity is highest between 3000 – 3500 m elevation. Cajamarca has the highest number of endemic (29 spp. and total species (130 spp., even when considering the effect of area. Centers of endemic species diversity are observed in provinces of Cajamarca (Cajamarca, Huaraz and Carhuaz (Ancash, and Canta and Huarochirí (Lima. Secondary centres of endemism with high concentrations of both endemics and near-endemics are found in San Ignacio and Cutervo (Cajamarca, Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad, Oxapampa (Pasco, and Cusco (Cusco. Current diversity patterns are highly correlated with collection densities, and further collecting is needed across all areas, especially from Arequipa, Ayacucho, Puno, Ancash, Huánuco, Amazonas and Cajamarca, where high levels of species diversity and endemism are indicated but only a few collections of many species are known.

  13. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo de folhas de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae The pharmacobotanical comparative study of leaves of Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal and Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Diniz Araújo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, espécies pertencentes à Solanum sect. Crinitum Child, com o objetivo de efetuar morfodiagnoses macroscópicas e microscópicas que possibilitem suas caracterizações. As três espécies são conhecidas popularmente como "jurubeba", fruta-de-lobo" e "lobeira" e usadas na medicina popular contra o diabetes e também para outros fins. Essas espécies compartilham vários caracteres morfológicos, dentre os quais se destacam o hábito arbustivo a arbóreo, o indumento velutino às vezes cerdoso, a corola é pentagonal-estrelada, roxa a púrpura, e o fruto globoso acima de 5 cm de diâmetro. Entretanto, apesar da grande semelhança morfológica entre as espécies estudadas, destacaram-se como parâmetros distintivos: a morfologia do pecíolo, a base do limbo, o indumento da face adaxial, a anatomia do mesofilo, os tipos de estômatos e a morfologia do bordo foliar.In this work, a pharmacobotanical study of Solanum crinitum Lam., S. gomphodes Dunal and S. lycocarpum A. St-Hil., all belonging to the Solanum sect. Crinitum Child. has been realized with the objective of providing a macroscopical and microscopical morphodiagnosis for their characterizations. The three species are commonly named "jurubeba", "fruta-de-lobo" and "lobeira", and they are used in the folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes and others diseases. The three species studied share various morphological characters, like shrub and tree forms, the velutinous abaxial indument, the presence of bristles, the flower with stellate-pentagonal corollas ranging from violet to purple, and the fruit reaching up to 5 cm in diameter. The principal parameters to distinct the three species studied were the morphology of petiole and base of the blade leaf, the indument of adaxial surface, the anatomy of mesophyll, the types of stomata and the leaf margin.

  14. Notes on some insect galls associated with Solanum plants in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-12-18

    Dec 18, 1990 ... Four insect galls associated with indigenous Solanum plants are described and biological data on the gall- ... Mey (Scholtz 1978, 1984) appears to be the only ... Flower galls. Morphology. Hower galls were first found in the eastern Cape, where between 40--60% of Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & Jaeger.

  15. Steroidal glycoalkaloids in Solanum species : consequences for potato breeding and food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van W.M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Tuberiferous and nontuberiferous wild Solanum species are increasingly being used in potato breeding as a source of genes for disease and pest resistances and for other valuable characteristics. A disadvantage of Solanum species, from a consumers point

  16. Efeito de doses de adubo 4-14-8 na competição entre tomateiro e Solanum americanum em convivência intra e interespecífica Effect of fertilizer 4-14-8 doses on competition between tomato and Solanum americanum under intra- and inter-specific coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O tomateiro (Lycopersicum esculentum é uma das mais importantes hortaliças produzidas no mundo, porém sua produtividade pode ser reduzida em função da convivência com Solanum americanum (maria-pretinha. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da adubação na relação de interferência intra e interespecífica entre plantas de tomateiro e S. americanum. Duas plantas em condições de convivência intra e interespecífica, por espécie, foram plantadas em vasos e adubadas com 13, 18 e 24 g de 4-14-8 por vaso, sendo avaliadas características de crescimento de ambas as espécies aos 90 dias após o transplante das plantas. A adubação com 4-14-8 estimulou o desenvolvimento da área foliar e da massa seca de caules, folhas e frutos de S. americanum, além da área foliar e da massa seca de folhas e frutos do tomateiro. A convivência interespecífica proporcionou maior altura de plantas de S. americanum, bem como menor altura e massa seca de folhas e frutos do tomateiro. Houve interação dos fatores adubação e convivência somente para o tomateiro, sendo a altura e a massa seca de folhas da cultura influenciadas negativamente quando submetidas às maiores doses de adubo e à competição com S. americanum.Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum is one of the leading vegetable crops grown worldwide, but its productivity may be reduced due to coexistence with Solanum americanum (black nightshade. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of fertilization on intra- and inter-specific interference between tomato and S. americanum plants. Two plants in intra- and inter-specific coexistence conditions of both species were planted in pots and fertilized with 13, 18 and 24 g of 4-14-8 per pot to evaluate the growth characteristics of both species at 90 days after transplanting. The 4-14-8 fertilization stimulated the development of the leaf area and dry mass of stems, leaves and fruit of S. americanum, consequently and equally influencing the leaf

  17. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Sarkinen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes S. atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, S. nitidibaccatum Bitter, S. physalifolium Rusby, S. sarrachoides Sendtn. and S. tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated S. anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa.

  18. Physcio chemical analysis of browning inhibitors treated solanum turberosum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizai, M.N.K.; Abid, H.

    2008-01-01

    White potatoes (Solanum turberosum) were procured from agriculture Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar to use for the preparation of potato powder. The process involves sorting. Washing, peeling slicing, blanching, treating with poly phenol oxidase inhibitors, dehydration, grinding and packing. All these parameters used in process were standardized. Chemical analysis of fresh potato and potato powder were carried out. Microbiological examination, functional properties and storage life studies of the potato powder were also performed. The product prepared by drying in cabinet dryer at 55 C for 7 hours was off white colour potatoes chips which was grinded to make off white potato powder. The potato powder possessed taste and texture. (author)

  19. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Solanum commersonii and its application to chloroplast genotype in somatic hybrids with Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Hong, Su-Young; Cho, Ji-Hong; Im, Ju-Seong; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Yu, Yei-Soo; Park, Tae-Ho

    2016-10-01

    Chloroplast genome of Solanum commersonii and S olanum tuberosum were completely sequenced, and Indel markers were successfully applied to distinguish chlorotypes demonstrating the chloroplast genome was randomly distributed during protoplast fusion. Somatic hybridization has been widely employed for the introgression of resistance to several diseases from wild Solanum species to overcome sexual barriers in potato breeding. Solanum commersonii is a major resource used as a parent line in somatic hybridization to improve bacterial wilt resistance in interspecies transfer to cultivated potato (S. tuberosum). Here, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genomes of Lz3.2 (S. commersonii) and S. tuberosum (PT56), which were used to develop fusion products, then compared them with those of five members of the Solanaceae family, S. tuberosum, Capsicum annum, S. lycopersicum, S. bulbocastanum and S. nigrum and Coffea arabica as an out-group. We then developed Indel markers for application in chloroplast genotyping. The complete chloroplast genome of Lz3.2 is composed of 155,525 bp, which is larger than the PT56 genome with 155,296 bp. Gene content, order and orientation of the S. commersonii chloroplast genome were highly conserved with those of other Solanaceae species, and the phylogenetic tree revealed that S. commersonii is located within the same node of S. tuberosum. However, sequence alignment revealed nine Indels between S. commersonii and S. tuberosum in their chloroplast genomes, allowing two Indel markers to be developed. The markers could distinguish the two species and were successfully applied to chloroplast genotyping (chlorotype) in somatic hybrids and their progenies. The results obtained in this study confirmed the random distribution of the chloroplast genome during protoplast fusion and its maternal inheritance and can be applied to select proper plastid genotypes in potato breeding program.

  20. In vitro trypanocidal activity of solamargine and extracts from Solanum palinacanthum and Solanum lycocarpum of brazilian cerrado

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    RAQUEL R.D. MOREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was to evaluate the potential trypanocidal activity of crude ethanolic extract of the fruits of Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum lycocarpum and the glycoalcaloid, solamargine. S. palinacanthum and S. lycocarpum fruit powders were submitted to exhaustively extraction with 96% ethanol and solamargine were isolated from the extract of S. palinacanthum. Both extracts and solamargine were analysed for trypanocidal activity by using MTT colorimetric assay. Extracts of S. palinacanthum showed to be more active (IC50 = 175.9 µg.ml–1 than S. lycocarpum (IC50 = 194.7 µg.ml–1. Solamargine presented a strong activity (IC50 = 15.3 µg.ml–1, which can explain the better activity of the both extracts. Benznidazol (IC50 = 9.0 µg.ml–1 is the only drug used to treat Chagas' disease. These findings demonstrate for the first time that ethanol extracts obtained from both fruits of S. palinacanthum and S. lycocarpum and also solamargine have a potential anti-trypanosomal activity.

  1. Solanum watneyi, a new bush tomato species from the Northern Territory, Australia named for Mark Watney of the book and film "The Martian".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martine, Christopher T; Frawley, Emma S; Cantley, Jason T; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E

    2016-01-01

    A new species of andromonoecious Solanum from the Australian "bush tomato clade" of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum watneyi Martine & Frawley, sp. nov. is closely allied with Solanum eburneum, and is sympatric with it in parts of its range in the Northern Territory. The new species has been recognized as a variant of Solanum eburneum for decades, at times being referred to by local botanists as Solanum sp. "Bullita" because of its relative abundance in the vicinity of the Bullita Station area of Judbarra/Gregory National Park. Morphometric analyses show that Solanum watneyi differs statistically from Solanum eburneum in several key reproductive and vegetative characters and field observations suggest that the two sister species may represent a case of edaphic speciation. We provide morphometric evidence for the novelty of Solanum watneyi, a complete description, and cite specimens for both species.

  2. Endogenous pararetroviral sequences in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Margit Laimer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous pararetroviral sequences (EPRVs are a recently discovered class of repetitive sequences that is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. The potential contribution of EPRVs to plant pathogenicity or, conversely, to virus resistance is just beginning to be explored. Some members of the family Solanaceae are particularly rich in EPRVs. In previous work, EPRVs have been characterized molecularly in various species of Nicotiana including N.tabacum (tobacco and Solanum tuberosum (potato. Here we describe a family of EPRVs in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. and a wild relative (S.habrochaites. Results Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis revealed that tomato EPRVs (named LycEPRVs are most closely related to those in tobacco. The sequence similarity of LycEPRVs in S.lycopersicum and S.habrochaites indicates they are potentially derived from the same pararetrovirus. DNA blot analysis revealed a similar genomic organization in the two species, but also some independent excision or insertion events after species separation, or flanking sequence divergence. LycEPRVs share with the tobacco elements a disrupted genomic structure and frequent association with retrotransposons. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that copies of LycEPRV are dispersed on all chromosomes in predominantly heterochromatic regions. Methylation of LycEPRVs was detected in CHG and asymmetric CHH nucleotide groups. Although normally quiescent EPRVs can be reactivated and produce symptoms of infection in some Nicotiana interspecific hybrids, a similar pathogenicity of LycEPRVs could not be demonstrated in Solanum L. section Lycopersicon [Mill.] hybrids. Even in healthy plants, however, transcripts derived from multiple LycEPRV loci and short RNAs complementary to LycEPRVs were detected and were elevated upon infection with heterologous viruses encoding suppressors of PTGS. Conclusion The analysis of LycEPRVs provides further

  3. Two new non-spiny Solanum species from the Bolivian Andes (Morelloid Clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Sarkinen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new Bolivian species are described from the Morelloid clade of Solanum (section Solanum in the traditional sense. Solanum alliariifolium M.Nee & Särkinen, sp. nov. is found in montane forests between 1,900 and 3,200 m and is morphologically most similar to S. leptocaulon Van Heurck & Müll.Arg., also from montane forests in southern Peru and Bolivia. Solanum rhizomatum Särkinen & M.Nee, sp. nov. is found in seasonally dry forests and matorral vegetation in lower elevations between 1,300 and 2,900 m and is most similar to S. pygmaeum Cav., a species native to sub-tropical Argentina but introduced in subtropical and temperate areas worldwide.

  4. Expression of modified 7SL RNA gene in transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Lukáš; Matoušek, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2005), 371-380 ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : transgenic plants * Solanum tuberosum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  5. Biotransformation of 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)cyclopentanone by Solanum aviculare and Rheum palmatum plant cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, 3-4 (2014), s. 213-216 ISSN 1459-0255 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12162 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Solanum aviculare * Rheum palmatum * plant cell culture Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2012 http://world- food .net/biotransformation-of-2-4-methoxybenzylcyclopentanone-by-solanum-aviculare- and -rheum-palmatum-plant-cells/

  6. Comparative Genetics of Hybrid Incompatibility: Sterility in Two Solanum Species Crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Moyle, Leonie C.; Nakazato, Takuya

    2008-01-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid sterility can provide insight into the genetic and evolutionary origins of species barriers. We examine the genetics of hybrid incompatibility between two diploid plant species in the plant clade Solanum sect. Lycopersicon. Using a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) representing the wild species Solanum pennellii (formerly Lycopersicon pennellii) in the genetic background of the cultivated tomato S. lycopersicum (formerly L. esculentum), we found that hybrid pollen ...

  7. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The taxonomy of species belonging to Solanum section Solanum (sometimes referred to as the Solanum nigrum complex or black nightshades) is known to be difficult and has resulted in extensive synonymy. Yet, these species play a significant role in nutrition and food security, especially in developing countries.

  8. Supporting Formal and Informal Seed Systems for African Leafy Vegetables

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Fresh weight and leaf area measurements were taken of 12 varieties of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) and nightshade (Solanum spp.) each after field plots were...

  9. Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract and its influence on antioxidant system in black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings and mortality rate of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) adults.

  10. Six cultivars of Solanum macrocarpon (Solanaceae in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available The  Solanum macrocarpon complex (the cultivated egg plant has been studied in Ghana using morphological and experimental methods. Six cultivars belonging to the S.  macrocarpon complex have been recognized and described. The cultivars are  S. macrocarpon ‘Gboma’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Mankessim’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Akwaseho’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Kade’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Sarpeiman’ and  S. macrocarpon ‘Bui’. The very spiny, hairy plant traditionally called S. dasyphyllum is regarded as the wild ancestor from which the cultivars have been derived through a process of crop evolution. The variation within S. macrocarpon complex is attributable to genotypic differences and environmental factors.

  11. Bone changes caused by experimental Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Aguirre

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the bone changes observed after a daily oral administration of the calcinogenic plant Solanum malacoxylon (syn. S. glaucophyllum (Sm during 9 days. The Sm-poisoned rabbits had an increase of bone resorption in the endosteal surface of the cortical zone and also in the surface covered by osteoblasts of the primary and secondary spongiosa of the trabecular bone compartment. Moreover, the epiphyseal growth plates in long bones appeared narrower than in the control rabbits, with reduction of the proliferative and hyperthrophic chondrocyte zones. The electron microscopic study revealed a significant decrease of proteoglycans in the hyperthrophic chondrocyte zone evidenced by a significant reduction of rutenium red positive granules in the poisoned rabbit. Altogether, these data suggest that cell differentiation may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Sm-induced bone lesions.

  12. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  13. Toxicological, Antidiarrheal and Spasmolytic Activities of Solanum paniculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino-Neto, José; Pereira, Joedna C; Vasconcelos, Luiz H C; de Souza, Iara L L; Silva, Anne D S; Silva, Telma M G; Ramos, Natalia S M; Pessôa, Hilzeth L F; Silva, Tania M S; da Silva, Bagnólia A; de Cavalcante, Fabiana A

    2016-01-01

    Solanum paniculatum is popularly known as "jurubeba-verdadeira". In folk medicine, its roots, stems, and leaves are used as tonics, anti-inflammatories, carminatives, diuretics, and for gastrointestinal disorders. This species is listed in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and belongs to the "Relação Nacional de Plantas Medicinais de Interesse ao SUS". Based on folk medicine data of the Solanum genus, we decided to investigate whether the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts presents toxicological, antidiarrheal, and spasmolytic activities. The crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts did not produce in vitro or in vivo toxicity and showed dose-dependent antidiarrheal activity, inhibiting equipotently both the defecation frequency (ED50 = 340.3 ± 35.1 mg/kg) and liquid stool formation (ED50 = 370.1 ± 19.4 mg/kg) in mice. Conversely, the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts did not inhibit normal intestinal transit, even though it has shown a dose-dependent reduction of both the castor oil-induced intestinal transit (Emax = 36.9 ± 1.3 %, ED50 = 242.0 ± 8.6 mg/kg) and intestinal fluid content (Emax = 74.8 ± 2.4 %, ED50 = 328.9 ± 15.9 mg/kg). Additionally, the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts was approximately 2-fold more potent in antagonizing the phasic contractions induced with histamine (IC50 = 63.7 ± 3.5 µg/mL) than carbachol 10(-6) M (IC50 = 129.3 ± 14.1 µg/mL). Therefore, we concluded that the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts presents antidiarrheal activity in mice related to the inhibition of small intestinal motility and secretion as well as nonselective spasmolytic activity on the guinea pig ileum. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Distribution models and species discovery: the story of a new Solanum species from the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Peru is described here. Solanum pseudoamericanum Särkinen, Gonzáles & S.Knapp sp. nov. is a member of the Morelloid clade of Solanum, and is characterized by the combination of mostly forked inflorescences, flowers with small stamens 2.5 mm long including the filament, and strongly exerted styles with capitate stigmas. The species was first thought to be restricted to the seasonally dry tropical forests of southern Peru along the dry valleys of Río Pampas and Río Apurímac. Results from species distribution modelling (SDM) analysis with climatic predictors identified further potential suitable habitat areas in northern and central Peru. These areas were visited during field work in 2013. A total of 17 new populations across the predicted distribution were discovered using the model-based sampling method, and five further collections were identified amongst herbarium loans. Although still endemic to Peru, Solanum pseudoamericanum is now known from across northern, central and southern Peru. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of SDM for predicting new occurrences of rare plants, especially in the Andes where collection densities are still low in many areas and where many new species remain to be discovered. PMID:24399901

  15. Reduction of species in the wild potato Solanum section Petota series Longipedicellata : AFLP, RAPD and chloroplast SSR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den R.G.; Bryan, G.J.; Rio, del A.; Spooner, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    Species boundaries were assessed with three molecular markers [AFLPs, RAPDs and chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs)] for all six species of wild potatoes (Solanum section Petota) assigned to ser. Longipedicellata: Solanum fendleri, S. hjertingii, S. matehualae, S. papita, S. polytrichon and

  16. The inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and mapping of tuber skin colour loci using RFLPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.; Jacobs, J.M.E.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Stiekema, W.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Two existing genetic models for anthocyanin pigmentation are compared: the genetic model as proposed by Lunden (1937, 1960, 1974) for tetraploid potato Solanum tuberosum group Tuberosum and the model by Dodds & Long (1955, 1956) for diploid cultivated Solanum species. By crossing well defined

  17. Metabolic and molecular changes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum lines carrying different Solanum pennellii wild chromosomal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Rigano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Solanum lycopersicum represents an important dietary source of bioactive compounds including the antioxidants flavonoids and phenolic acids. We previously identified two genotypes (IL7-3 and IL12-4 carrying loci from the wild species Solanum pennellii, which increased antioxidants in the fruit. Successively, these lines were crossed and two genotypes carrying both introgressions at the homozygous condition (DHO88 and DHO88-SL were selected. The amount of total antioxidant compounds was increased in DHOs compared to both ILs and the control genotype M82. In order to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying the positive interaction between the two wild regions pyramided in DHO genotypes, detailed analyses of the metabolites accumulated in the fruit were carried out by colorimetric methods and LC/MS/MS. These analyses evidenced a lower content of flavonoids in DHOs and in ILs, compared to M82. By contrast, in the DHOs the relative content of phenolic acids increased, particularly the fraction of hexoses, thus evidencing a redirection of the phenylpropanoid flux towards the biosynthesis of phenolic acid glycosides in these genotypes. In addition, the line DHO88 exhibited a lower content of free phenolic acids compared to M82. Interestingly, the two DHOs analyzed differ in the size of the wild region on chromosome 12. Genes mapping in the introgression regions were further investigated. Several genes of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway were identified, such as one 4-coumarate:CoA ligase and two UDP-glycosyltransferases in the region 12-4 and one chalcone isomerase and one UDP-glycosyltransferase in the region 7-3. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrated a different expression of the detected genes in the ILs and in the DHOs compared to M82.These analyses, combined with biochemical analyses, suggested a central role of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase in redirecting the phenylpropanoid pathways towards the biosynthesis of phenolic acids in the

  18. Gall influence on flower production in solanum lycocarpum (solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malves, K.; Coelho, F.D.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if there is a negative influence on the flower production in Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae), due to the attack of gall inductor herbivores. 120 individuals were analyzed and compared as to the relation between presence and absence of galls and flower production. All flowers were collected from these individuals, so that the following characteristics could be compared: number of flowers, flower size (cm) and biomass (g) in plants with and without galls. Although these flowers are produced during the whole year, we found a greater number of flowers in plants without galls, being that plants without galls showed approximately four times more flowers than plants with galls. The flowers length in plants without galls was greater than flowers in plants with galls. The flower biomass of the individuals without galls was also higher than in individuals with galls. The results are pursuant to the hypothesis that producing galls demands a high energetic effort from these plants, resulting in nutrient allocation and decrease in flowers formation. (author)

  19. Physicochemical properties of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) hydrocolloid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannasin, Sri Puvanesvari; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is an underutilised fruit in Malaysia. The fruit, however, contains good proportions of soluble fibre, protein, starch, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Amongst the fruits, only tamarillo mesocarp contains both polar (anthocyanins) and non-polar (carotenoids) pigments. The ability to retain both polar and non-polar pigments in the mesocarp could be related to the unique properties of its hydrocolloids. To understand the pigment-hydrocolloid interaction in the fruit, information on the physicochemical characteristics of the hydrocolloids is required. Therefore, hydrocolloids from the anthocyanin-rich seed mucilage fraction of the tamarillo and its carotenoid-rich pulp fraction were extracted and characterised. Water and 1% citric acid were used to extract the seed mucilage hydrocolloid while 72% ethanol and 20mM HEPES buffer were used for pulp hydrocolloid extraction. Seed mucilage hydrocolloid was primarily composed of arabinogalactan protein-associated pectin whereas pulp hydrocolloid was composed of hemicellulosic polysaccharides with some naturally interacting proteins and neutral polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Marli T.F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Silva, Tania M.S. da; Alves, Cassia C.F.; Siston, Ana P.N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant' Anna, Carlos M.R., E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.b [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Benassi Neto, Mario; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->5)-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans-coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solamargine (13), 20-epi-solamargine (14) and solasonine (16) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the green fruits. The derivatives 3,5,7,4'-tretra-O-methyl-kaempferol (4), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-kaempferol (5), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-5-O-acetyl-kaempferol (6), the peracetyl-episolamargine (15) and peracetyl-solasonine (17) were prepared. The structures were established through the analysis of their spectral data. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data assignments of the new peracetyl derivatives of the alkaloids were made. (author)

  1. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, Marli T.F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Silva, Tania M.S. da; Alves, Cassia C.F.; Siston, Ana P.N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant'Anna, Carlos M.R.; Benassi Neto, Mario; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2010-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->5)-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans-coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solamargine (13), 20-epi-solamargine (14) and solasonine (16) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the green fruits. The derivatives 3,5,7,4'-tretra-O-methyl-kaempferol (4), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-kaempferol (5), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-5-O-acetyl-kaempferol (6), the peracetyl-episolamargine (15) and peracetyl-solasonine (17) were prepared. The structures were established through the analysis of their spectral data. The complete 1 H and 13 C NMR data assignments of the new peracetyl derivatives of the alkaloids were made. (author)

  2. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

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    Amanpour Raana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was prepared by maceration method. Initially, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of SE was qualitatively determined by disk diffusion test; then, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were qualitatively determined by micro-dilution method. Results: SE peel extract had antibacterial properties and its effect was more pronounced on gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus (0.62±0.00 mg/ml. The extract had antibacterial activity on gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, too (8.33±2.88 mg/ml. Conclusion: SE peel extract has antibacterial activity and its effect on gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than the investigated gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that SE peel constituent compounds be determined and to determine the exact mechanism of its antibacterial properties, and more comprehensive research be done to apply it, clinically.

  3. Solamargine production by a fungal endophyte of Solanum nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawary, S S; Mohammed, R; AbouZid, S F; Bakeer, W; Ebel, R; Sayed, A M; Rateb, M E

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to isolate, identify and characterize endophytes from Solanum nigrum L. as a new source of the cytotoxic steroidal alkaloid solamargine. Three endophytic fungi; SNFSt, SNFL and SNFF were isolated from S. nigrum and identified by molecular methods. Preliminary TLC screening showed a common metabolite between the plant and one of these fungi, SNFSt which was identified as Aspergillus flavus based on the phylogenetic analysis of its ITS sequence. Subsequent LC-HRESIMS analysis unambiguously established the identity of the compound based on its molecular formula and its characteristic MS(2) fragmentation pattern as solamargine. To ascertain its identity, fungal solamargine was isolated using preparative TLC and its structure was fully characterized using NMR spectroscopic techniques and high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis. Solamargine production could be followed and quantified for a total of 11 generations of this fungus with a titer of ~250-300 μg l(-1) . This study represents one of the first examples where host plant-derived compounds have been demonstrated to be steadily produced by an endophytic fungi in sizeable quantities. The production of solamargine (found in the host plant) by a cultivable fungal endophyte at a significant yield is a new observation. Further experiments such as media optimization, OSMAC (One Strain Many Compounds) or epigenetic modifiers could be applied to enhance the fungal solamargine production. The endophytic fungus SNFSt isolated from S. nigrum may be utilized for quantitative production of the potent cytotoxic metabolite solamargine. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Solanum paniculatum root extract reduces diarrhea in rats

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    Jonh A.B. Tenório

    Full Text Available Abstract Solanum paniculatum L., Solanaceae, locally known as "jurubeba", is widely used in Brazil for culinary purposes, and in folk medicine to treat of diverse disorder including gastric dysfunctions. In this study we investigated the antidiarrheal activity of S. paniculatum roots extract in rats at different concentrations (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o using different experimental models such as castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling and gastrointestinal motility, determined by in vivo experimental models. The major compound of root extract was characterized as chlorogenic acid based in the IR, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. All the extract doses achieved antidiarrheal potency, as indicated by reduced weight of feces in castor oil-induced diarrhea, decreased intestinal motility and significantly inhibited castor oil-induced enteropooling compared to the vehicle group. The highest dose (500 mg/kg produced greater anti-motility effect and better reduction of enteropooling, similar to the reference drug Loperamide (5 mg/kg. Extract from S. paniculatum L. roots had antidiarrheal activity, as shown by the lower weight of the feces as well as decrease in the accumulation of intestinal fluid and slower transit, justifying the traditional use of plant for diarrhea.

  5. Methods to overcome dormancy in tree tomato (Solanum betaceum seeds

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    Carlos Kosera Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tree tomato (Solanum betaceum is a poorly known species that has fruits with great economic potential, as it can be consumed in natura or industrialized. However, for reaching this potential, it is necessary the development of technologies for seedlings production. The propagation of this species is mainly done by seeds, but the seed germination process is usually slow, especially under stress conditions. This study aimed at verifying whether tree tomato seeds have dormancy and which is the best method to obtain fast and uniform germination. A completely randomized design was adopted in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement (methods to overcome dormancy x light, with four replications of 50 or 60 seeds, depending on the production cycle. The methods tested were cold stratification, hydropriming, priming with GA3 solution and control, with or without light. Seed germination and germination rate index, as well as the beginning and average time of germination, were also evaluated. The use of GA3 at a concentration of 100 mg L-1 or 300 mg L-1 is recommended to the germination of tree tomato seeds.

  6. Structure and histochemistry of medicinal species of Solanum

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    Laudineia J. Matias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies on native medicinal plants strengthen initiatives to preserve the environments where those species naturally occur, many of them already strongly menaced even before their potential to humankind is known. Root and stem barks, leaves, and pericarps samples of Solanum agrarium Sendtn., S. lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., S. palinacanthum Dunal, S. paniculatum L., and S. stipulaceum Roem. & Schult., species that occur in the Cerrado (Brazililan savanna were processed according to common light microscopy techniques for structural analysis, and histochemical tests were performed to locate and identify classes of chemical compounds. The distinctive features identified were low concentration of crystal sand in the root and stem, presence of terpene resin in the root, and absence of hypodermis in the leaf, in S. agrarium; bright spots (group of sclereids in the root, isobilateral mesophyll, thickened cell walls with hemicelluloses and strong aroma in the fruit, in S. lycocarpum; high concentration of crystal sand in the root and stem, oval-shaped limb, presence of isolated crystals in the exocarp, in S. palinacanthum; strong sclerification and rays with great height in the root and stem, in S. paniculatum; and accumulation of soluble protein in the root and stem, presence of conspicuous membranaceous stipules, absence of spiniform trichomes, in S. stipulaceum. This work identifies distinctive structural features, its ecological importance, and determines the distribution of secondary compounds associated with the medicinal properties reported for these species and contributes to the conservation of the natural environments where they occur.

  7. Leaf epidermal characters of Solanum sect. polytrichum (Solanaceae) as taxonomic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurit-Silva, Kiriaki; De Fátima Agra, Maria

    2011-12-01

    The morphological similarities among the species of Solanum are remarkable, and are often very difficult one clear distinction between them. This paper presents a comparative anatomical study of the leaf epidermis of five Brazilian species of Solanum sect. Polytrichum, carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. The leaf epidermis surfaces were investigated to evaluate their taxonomic significance to be used for separation and delimitation of the species of the section. As results, some micro-morphological characters of the leaf epidermis, such as density, distribution and type of stellate trichomes, and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and also the type and distribution of stomata proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation and delimitation of the species, and also may contribute as an additional support to the interspecific taxonomy and systematic of Solanum sect. Polytrichum. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  9. A new species of Solanum sect. Acanthophora (Solanaceae from Argentina and Brazil

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    Franco Chiarini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Solanum belonging to section Acanthophora (subgenus Leptostemonum from Argentina and Brazil is described. Solanum neei Chiarini & L.A.Mentz, sp. nov. is found in clearings of semideciduous forests and in secondary formations, from the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in Brazil to the Misiones province in Argentina. It is morphologically similar to S. incarceratum Ruiz & Pav. from Peru, Bolivia and Western-Central Brazil, differing mainly by its pedunculate inflorescences. A key to related species is provided, as well a photograph of the holotype, a distribution map and illustration.

  10. Iron-deficiency induces cadmium uptake and accumulation in Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng; Zhang, Pin; Niu, Zhixin

    2009-03-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising tool in removing pollutants from the environment or in rendering them harmless. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of iron-deficiency on the uptake of cadmium by Solanum nigrum L. Results showed that iron-deficiency induced cadmium uptake, biomass decrease and changes in pH and Eh in hydroponic culture. Under iron-deficiency status, the decrease in pH and the increase in Eh might result in higher cadmium availability. Bioconcentration and translocation factors indicated that iron-deficiency status affected cadmium accumulation and translocation in Solanum nigrum L.

  11. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

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    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  12. Identification of Loci Affecting Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Tomato Fruit of a Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum chmielewskii Introgression Line Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; Molthoff, Jos; Grandillo, Silvana; Viquez-Zamora, Marcela; de Vos, Ric; de Maagd, Ruud A; van Heusden, Sjaak; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2016-01-01

    Semi-polar metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids are very important health-related compounds in tomato. As a first step to identify genes responsible for the synthesis of semi-polar metabolites, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence the semi-polar metabolite content in red-ripe tomato fruit were identified, by characterizing fruits of a population of introgression lines (ILs) derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii . By analyzing fruits of plants grown at two different locations, we were able to identify robust metabolite QTLs for changes in phenylpropanoid glycoconjugation on chromosome 9, for accumulation of flavonol glycosides on chromosome 5, and for alkaloids on chromosome 7. To further characterize the QTLs we used a combination of genome sequencing, transcriptomics and targeted metabolomics to identify candidate key genes underlying the observed metabolic variation.

  13. Novel somatic hybrids (Solanum tuberosum L.+Solanum tarnii) and their fertile BC1 progenies express extreme resistance to potato virus Y and late blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Antonova, Olga; Schubert, Jörg; Nachtigall, Marion; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Solanum tarnii, a wild diploid, tuber-bearing Mexican species belonging to the series Pinnatisecta is highly resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY) and Colorado potato beetle and shows a strong hypersensitive reaction to Phytophthora infestans. Therefore, it could be a potential source of resistance to pathogens for potato breeders. S. tarnii (2n=2x=24) is reproductively isolated from tetraploid Solanum tuberosum and hence difficult to include in potato breeding programmes. In this study, interspecific somatic hybrids were produced for the first time by protoplast electrofusion of the cells of potato cv. Delikat (Solanum tuberosum L.) and Solanum tarnii. The hybrid nature of the regenerants was confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and by morphological analysis and flow cytometry. Selected somatic hybrids were successfully backcrossed with cv. Delikat. Parental lines, primary somatic hybrids and BC1 progeny were assessed for resistance to PVY by mechanical inoculation, grafting and exposure to viruliferous aphid vectors in the field, and resistance to late blight (P. infestans) by detached leaflet and whole tuber tests. The somatic hybrids showed no symptoms of viral infection and most of them displayed high levels of resistance to foliage blight. The BC1 progenies were highly resistant to PVY and a few were resistant to foliage blight. Selected hybrids and BC1 clones were evaluated in the field for tuber quality and tuber yield. Some BC1 clones produced yields of good quality tubers. The results confirm that both the resistance to PVY and to late blight of S. tarnii is expressed in somatic hybrids, and PVY resistance is transferred to BC1 progeny, whereas blight resistance is harder to transfer. Somatic hybridization again proved to be a valuable tool for producing pre-breeding material with increased genetic diversity.

  14. Kualitas Umbi Beberapa Klon Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Dataran Medium Untuk Keripik* [Tuber Quality of Some Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Clones of Medium Altitude Area for Chips Making

    OpenAIRE

    Asgar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Quality testing of several potato clones (Solanum tuberosum L.) planted at mid level area for potato chips. Objective of the research is to test the quality of clones/cultivars resulted from selection. Quality test of 8 selective clones was conducted from November 2010 to February 2011 in post-harvest laboratory of Research Institute for Vegetables Lembang. Research was arranged in randomized complete block design with 4 replications. Treatments consisted of 1) klon 395195.7, 2) klon 397073.7...

  15. Distribution models and species discovery: the story of a new Solanum species from the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Sarkinen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Peru is described here. Solanum pseudoamericanum Särkinen, Gonzáles & S.Knapp sp. nov. is a member of the Morelloid clade of Solanum, and is characterized by the combination of mostly forked inflorescences, flowers with small stamens 2.5 mm long including the filament, and strongly exerted styles with capitate stigmas. The species was first thought to be restricted to the seasonally dry tropical forests of southern Peru along the dry valleys of Río Pampas and Río Apurímac. Results from species distribution modelling (SDM analysis with climatic predictors identified further potential suitable habitat areas in northern and central Peru. These areas were visited during field work in 2013. A total of 17 new populations across the predicted distribution were discovered using the model-based sampling method, and five further collections were identified amongst herbarium loans. Although still endemic to Peru, S. pseudoamericanum is now known from across northern, central and southern Peru. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of SDM for predicting new occurrences of rare plants, especially in the Andes where collection densities are still low in many areas and where many new species remain to be discovered.

  16. Potato virus Y induced changes in the gene expression of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe-Novak, M.; Gruden, K.; Baebler, P.; Krecic-Stress, H.; Kovac, M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Ravnikar, M.

    2005-01-01

    The tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) causes potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease in sensitive potato cultivars. Gene expression in the disease response of the susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Igor was investigated at different times after infection, using

  17. New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...

  18. Steroidal glyco alkaloids and molluscicidal activity of Solanum asperum Rich. fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tania M.S.; Camara, Celso A.; Freire, Kristerson R.L.; Silva, Thiago G. da; Agra, Maria de F.; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata

    2008-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the alkaloidal extract of the green fruits of Solanum asperum afforded a new compound, solanandaine along with solasonine and solamargine. The total crude alkaloids as well as the isolated pure alkaloids exhibited significant molluscicidal activity. (author)

  19. Difference in volatile composition between the pericarp tissue and inner tissue of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have reported the volatile profiles in the whole fruit or pericarp tissue of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit; however, information is limited on the volatile composition in the inner tissue and its contribution to tomato aroma. For this, the pericarps and inner tissues of “Money...

  20. Taxonomy of Mexican and Central American Members of Solanum series Conicibaccata (sect. Petota).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Rivera-Pena, A.; Velguth, P.; Rio, del A.; Salas-Lopez, A.

    2001-01-01

    Members of Solanum series Conicibaccata in Mexico and Central America are very similar. All are tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48). Recent authors have recognized three or four species: S. agrimonifolium, S. woodsonii, S. longiconicum (sometimes included in the next), and S. oxycarpum. We had difficulty

  1. Quantitative resistance against Bemisia tabaci in Solanum pennellii : Genetics and metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oever-van den Elsen, Floor; Lucatti, Alejandro F.; van Heusden, Sjaak; Broekgaarden, Colette; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel; Vosman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious threat in tomato cultivation worldwide as all varieties grown today are highly susceptible to this devastating herbivorous insect. Many accessions of the tomato wild relative Solanum pennellii show a high resistance towards B. tabaci. A mapping approach was

  2. Antimicrobial activity of extracellular metabolites from antagonistic bacteria isolated from potato (Solanum phureja) crops

    OpenAIRE

    Sinar David Granada García; Antoni Rueda Lorza; Carlos Alberto Peláez

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms for biological control are capable of producing active compounds that inhibit the development of phytopathogens, constituting a promising tool toob tain active principles that could replace synthetic pesticides. This study evaluatedtheability of severalpotentialbiocontrol microorganismsto produce active extracellular metabolites. In vitro antagonistic capability of 50 bacterial isolates from rhizospheric soils of "criolla" potato (Solanum phureja) was tested through dual cultur...

  3. Organization, differential expression and methylation of rDNA in artificial Solanum allopolyploids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komarova, N.Y.; Grabe, T.; Huigen, D.J.; Hemleben, V.; Volkov, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Uniparental activity of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in interspecific hybrids is known as nucleolar dominance (ND). To see if difference in rDNA intergenic spacers (IGS) might be correlated with ND, we have used artificial Solanum allopolyploids and back-crossed lines. Combining fluorescence in situ

  4. GENE-REGULATION IN INTERTYPIC HETEROKARYONS OF SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM AND NICOTIANA-TABACUM TISSUE PROTOPLASTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKESTEREN, WJP; BIJMOLT, EW; TEMPELAAR, MJ

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter enzyme were evaluated in transgenic plants, protoplasts, and intertypic heterokaryons of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana tabacum. With GUS under control of the promoter of the cauliflower-mosaicvirus 35S RNA gene (CaMV), activities of the enzyme

  5. Field performance of Solanum sisymbriifolium, a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes. II. Root characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, B.G.H.; Vos, J.; Stomph, T.J.; Nieuwburg, van J.G.W.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2007-01-01

    Hatching of potato cyst nematodes is induced by root exudates of Solanaceae, such as Solanum sisymbriifolium, and is therefore related to root length distribution of this crop. A mathematical model was derived to relate the hatching potential to root length density (RLD). A series of field

  6. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, R.; Vries, R.S.M.; de Boer, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM

  7. The development of FISH tools for genetic, phylogenetic and breeding studies in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szinay, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis various fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technologies are described to support genome projects, plant breeding and phylogenetic analysis on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, 2n=24). Its genome is 980 Mb and only 30 % are single copy sequences, which are mostly found in the

  8. Resistance to alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic loss in many potato growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early bl...

  9. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  10. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasare, S.A.; Ducreux, L.J.M.; Morris, W.L.; Campbell, R.; Sharma, S.K.; Roumeliotis, E.; Kohlen, W.; Krol, van der A.R.; Bramley, P.M.; Roberts, A.G.; Fraser, P.D.; Taylor, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it

  11. Enzimatic Activation Against (Phytophthora Infestans Mont., de Bary) in Solanum Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is assumed that resistance of wild Solanum species to Phytophthora infestans is multigenic on the basis of the exposure of such species to a wide range of pathogenic races of the oomycete. In order to quantify some enzymatic reactions in the host plants to the attack of the pathogen, three resist...

  12. The genome of the stress tolerant wild tomato species solanum pennellii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum pennellii is a wild tomato species endemic to Andean regions in South America, where it has evolved to thrive in arid habitats1. It exhibits extreme stress tolerance and introgression lines (ILs) in which large genomic regions of cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum) are replaced with the corr...

  13. The Effect of Salinity on Solamargine and Solasonine Contents of Solanum incanum Plants Grown in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana S. Al Sinani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its traditional medicinal importance, Solanum incanum (thorn apple is also a rich source of important cytotoxic glycoalkaloids such as solamargine and solasonine. The effect of salinity stress on solamargine and solasonine production by Solanum incanum plants grown in soil has been investigated. Salinity stress has been applied by adding NaCl to the soil, in concentrations: 0.0 (control, 75, 150, and 225 mM for 8 weeks. HPTLC method was used for analysis of solamargine and solasonine in leaves, stem and roots. A positive correlation was observed between 150 mM NaCl salinity and production of solamargine and solasonine in leaves. In roots, solamargine content was not affected by NaCl treatment, whereas solasonine content increased with a short-term salinity treatment. However, salinity seems to reduce the production of solamargine and solasonine in the roots of Solanum incanum. The possibility of using NaCl as an efficient and economical elicitor of glycoalkaloid production in Solanum incanum plants is rejected on the basis of the results obtained.

  14. Crude protein electrophoresis of seeds of ten species of Solanum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of mature fruits of ten species of Solanum were collected from the gardens near the screen house, Botany Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Crude seed proteins were extracted from them and characterised using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Inter and intra specific ...

  15. Effects of boiling and oil or vinegar on pickled jurubeba (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fina

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... as polyphenols, carotenoids and polyamines, are present in variable concentrations. The plants of the genus. Solanum contain steroidal saponins, glycoalkaloids and flavonoids– secondary metabolites that are important for the natural defenses of plants (Ramos et al., 2012). An evaluation of some plants in ...

  16. Ecology, Impact and Potential Control of Solanum mauritianum in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitimana, J; Mutiso, F.M; Kipiapi, J.L; Sang, F.K

    2007-01-01

    Solanum mauritianum is considered as an invasive plant with unknown economic value, fast growing and aggressive gap colonizer associated with forest disturbance. It belongs to the family of Solanaceae and can grow to over 20 m in height. It is native to Southern America and threatens integrity of several natural forest in Western kenya. Surveys were undertaken in 1998 and 2005/2006 at mount Elgon and Kakamega forests to evaluate the species ecology, spread and impact on other tree species. Total enumeration of seedlings, saplings and mature individuals was done over two 1-ha-blocks in each forest. The total number of 0.1 ha plots sampled was 20 per forest in relatively lightly and heavily disturbed areas. The results the species the species relative dominance in Mount Elgon increased from 1.0% in 1998 to 48.9% in 2006, out competing the regeneration of other trees. For example at Labaa, the once dominant Diospyros abyssinica with 36% relative dominance in 1998 declined to 1.9% in 2006. This threat to the health of ecosystems is not yet noticeable in Kakamega forest where the weed relative stocking was 0.2%. A strong positive correlation (n=5, r s =0.9, p=0.95) between S. mauritianum established and charcoal burning still exists in Mount Elgon. Thorough literature review and field observations confirmed about the characteristics of s. mauritanium as weed. Proliferation strategies and opportunities underlying the successive invasion by weed have been reviewed and elements of an integrated, multidisciplinary effort to control the adverse impact of the weed in forest and outside forests identified. Measures to check the invasiveness of these species include include reducing forest gaps, monitoring it's reproductive biology to eliminate mother trees before seeding, educative campaigns to prevent local communities from domesticating this species on their farms, research programme on S. mauritianum to understand causes of it's competitive advantage over others and search

  17. Desarrollo de una genoteca de líneas de introgresión entre Solanum lycopersicum y Solanum pimpinellifolium utilizando herrramientas genomicas de alto rendimiento y detección de QTLs implicados en calidad de fruto.

    OpenAIRE

    BARRANTES SANTAMARIA, WALTER

    2014-01-01

    Barrantes Santamaria, W. (2014). Desarrollo de una genoteca de líneas de introgresión entre Solanum lycopersicum y Solanum pimpinellifolium utilizando herrramientas genomicas de alto rendimiento y detección de QTLs implicados en calidad de fruto [Tesis doctoral no publicada]. Universitat Politècnica de València. doi:10.4995/Thesis/10251/39102. Alfresco

  18. Thymic atrophy in cattle poisoned with Solanum glaucophyllum Atrofia do timo em bovinos intoxicados por Solanum glaucophyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Fontana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Solanum glaucophyllum (Sg [= S. malacoxylon] is a calcinogenic plant inducing "Enzootic Calcinosis" in cattle. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, its main toxic principle, regulates bone and calcium metabolism and also exerts immunomodulatory effects. Thymocyte precursors from bone marrow-derived progenitor cells differentiate into mature T-cells. Differentiation of most T lymphocytes is characterized not only by the variable expression of CD4/CD8 receptor molecules and increased surface density of the T cell antigen receptor, but also by changes in the glycosylation pattern of cell surface glycolipids or glycoproteins. Thymocytes exert a feedback influence on thymic non-lymphoid cells. Sg-induced modifications on cattle thymus T-lymphocytes and on non-lymphoid cells were analysed. Heifers were divided into 5 groups (control, intoxicated with Sg during 15, 30 or 60 days, and probably recovered group. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, lectinhistochemical and morphometric techniques were used to characterize different cell populations of the experimental heifers. Sg-poisoned heifers showed a progressive cortical atrophy that was characterized using the peanut agglutinin (PNA lectin that recognizes immature thymocytes. These animals also increased the amount of non-lymphoid cells per unit area detected with the Picrosirius technique, WGA and DBA lectins, and pancytokeratin and S-100 antibodies. The thymus atrophy found in intoxicated animals resembled that of the physiological aging process. A reversal effect on these changes was observed after suppression of the intoxication. These findings suggest that Sg-intoxication induces either directly, through the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 itself, or indirectly through the hypercalcemia, the observed alteration of the thymus.Solanum glaucophyllum (Sg [= S. malacoxylon] é uma planta calcinogênica que induz "Calcinose Enzoótica" em bovinos. O 1,25-dihidroxivitamina D3, seu principal agente tóxico, regula o

  19. Effects of recurrent irradiation and cross fertilization on improvement of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) and wild tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunoo, J.

    2010-01-01

    Two separate experiments were conducted to determine the effects of recurrent irradiation and cross fertilization on the improvement of fruit quality and plant architecture of two tomato species (Solanum lycopersicon L.) and (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) in Ghana. In the first experiment, a variant line of the wild tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) (SP 300/30.4.2.4) previously obtained through irradiation with gamma rays at 300 Gy was re-irradiated with gamma rays at 150 Gy and 300 Gy using gamma irradiation. The second experiment involved hybridization of the same variant line (SP 300/30.4.2.4) with five cultivars of the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L). Progeny were assessed in both M1 and M2 generations for the first experiment but only at the F 2 generation for the second experiment. Significant variations were observed in number of days to first flowering and 50% fruiting. Fruit size increased from 1.36 g and 1.67 g to 1.77 g and 2.66 g in the M 1 and M 2 generations respectively following re-irradiation at 300 Gy. Three 150 Gy treated plants at the M 1 generation and two 300 Gy treated plants at the M 2 generations exhibited erect growth habit compared to the parental line (SP 300/30.4.2.4) which was sprawling. A variant line among the 300 Gy treated plants had a fused fruit of fruit weight of 3.57 g with four locules. Also, hybridization involving five cultivars of the cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicon L.) as female parents and the variant line (SP 300/30.4.2.4) generated variability in several traits including plant architecture, days to flowering and fruiting, fruit weight and number of seeds per fruit in the F 2 generation. Variations in style-length, number of locules, fruit shape and colour were also observed among the plants in the F 2 generation. Generally, significant improvements were obtained with respect to plant architecture (that is reduced plant height), earliness and fruit quality (that is fruit size and colour). Although no

  20. The genus Solanum (Solanaceae in southern Africa: subgenus Leptostemonum, the introduced sections Acanthophora and Torva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Welman

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the genus Solanum L. (Solanaceae, subgenus Leptostemonum (Dunal Bitter, section Acanthophora Dunal has four representatives in the Flora of southern Africa region (South Africa. Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia. Botswana, namely  S. aculeatissimum Jacq.. S. capsicoides Allioni. S. mammosum L. (cultivated only and S. viarum Dunal. Section  Ton a Nees has two representatives in southern Africa, namely S.  chnsotriclium Schltdl. (S.  hispidum auctt. non Pers. and S.  ton um Sw.; both are naturalized weeds.  Solanum capsicoides, S. viarum and S.  torvum have not been listed before for southern Africa. All are introduced species native to the New World. Descriptions, discussions, illustrations and distribution maps of the naturalized species are presented, as well as keys to the species of both sections.

  1. Hydroxycinnamic acids in cooked potato tubers from Solanum tuberosum group Phureja

    OpenAIRE

    Pi?eros?Ni?o, Clara; Narv?ez?Cuenca, Carlos?Eduardo; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C.; Mosquera, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hydroxycinnamic acids are phenolic compounds and are considered to have health promotion properties due to their antioxidant activity. Potato tubers of 113 genotypes of Solanum tuberosum group Phureja belonging to the Colombian Central Collection, landraces of potatoes, and commercial cultivars were evaluated for their hydroxycinnamic acids content. The composition of these compounds was analyzed using cooked tubers in two different agro?climatic conditions. The genotypes were analyz...

  2. Catalase inhibition accelerates dormancy release and sprouting in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Bajji; Mahmoud M’Hamdi; Frédéric Gastiny; Jorge A. Rojas-Beltran; Patrick du Jardin

    2007-01-01

    The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism in dormancy release and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers has been investigated using three complementary approaches. In the first approach, the evolution of the sprouting kinetics, H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities were examined during tuber storage. The most important changes occurred at the « bud/sprout » level. In particular, dormancy release was accompanied by a transient but remarkable increase in H2O2 c...

  3. Stability of Anthocyanins from Rubus glaucus and Solanum betaceum as affected by Temperature and Water Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Marcela Olaya; Maria Paola Castaño; Gloria Astrid Garzon Monroy

    2009-01-01

    The stability of sprayed-dried microencapsulated anthocyanins from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus) and Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum), as affected by storage time, water activity (Aw) and temperature was compared. The fruits were osmotically dehydrated with ethanol and the anthocyanin extract was microencapsulated with maltodextrin DE 20 by spray drying. Half life of the anthocyanins; changes in color, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of the powders, were analyzed during storage at two dif...

  4. Stability of Anthocyanins from Rubus glaucus and Solanum betaceum as affected by Temperature and Water Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Garzon Monroy Gloria Astrid; Castaño Maria Paola; Olaya Clara Marcela

    2009-01-01

    The stability of sprayed-dried microencapsulated anthocyanins from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus) and Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum), as affected by storage time, water activity (Aw) and temperature was compared. The fruits were osmotically dehydrated with ethanol and the anthocyanin extract was microencapsulated with maltodextrin DE 20 by spray drying. Half life o...

  5. Thermal control of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potato (solanum tuberosum l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Salami Olusola Abiodun; Popoola Omololu Olumide

    2007-01-01

    Thermal control effect on the incidence of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Solanum tuberosum (potato) was investigated in this study. Three cultivars of potato tuber whose local names are, Patiska, Mai Bawondoya and Nicola were used for the study. Five pathogenic fungi viz: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium redolens, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae associated with post harvest storage rot of root-tubers, were isolated from diseased potatoes. Among the three specie...

  6. Postharvest quality of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) stored under ambient condition

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva; Railene Hérica Carlos Rocha; Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão

    2011-01-01

    Cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is an important genetic resource that has been traditionally used for a variety of purposes, including food, medical and cosmetics applications. The objective of this study was evaluated the quality and the period of postharvest shelf life of cocona 'Mosquet", through the physical, chemical and physiological characterization of fruits stored under the ambient conditions. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested from an orchard, washed with tap water an...

  7. Induction and selection of lincomycin-resistant plants in Solanum melongena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadanandam, A.; Farooqui, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Cotyledon explants from axenic cultures of Solanum melongena were exposed to 1KR gamma rays and 0.1% ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS). Mutagenised were explants were implanted on shoot regeneration medium containing 100 mg 1 −1 limcomycin. Radiation treatment was efficient in inducing a high frequency of lincomcyn resistant shoots developing on cotyledon explants whereas EMS failed to induce antibiotic resistant shoots. The efficiency of irradiation in inducing lincomycin resistant adventitious shoots and kiloploid nature of chloroplast genome is discussed

  8. Physiological and Proteomic Analysis in Chloroplasts of Solanum lycopersicum L. under Silicon Efficiency and Salinity Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2014-01-01

    Tomato plants often grow in saline environments in Mediterranean countries where salt accumulation in the soil is a major abiotic stress that limits its productivity. However, silicon (Si) supplementation has been reported to improve tolerance against several forms of abiotic stress. The primary aim of our study was to investigate, using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches, salinity stress in chloroplasts of tomato under silicon supplementation. Tomato seedlings (Solanum lycope...

  9. Interspecific somatic hybrids between Solanum khasianum and S. aculeatissimum produced by electrofusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattmann, M; Gerick, E; Wenzel, G

    1994-01-01

    Mesophyll derived protoplasts of Solanum khasianum Clarke and S. aculeatissimum Jacq. were fused by electrofusion and resulted in interspecific hybrids. In total, 249 calluses were obtained from which more than 65% produced shoots. From the regenerated plantlets 45% could be identified as hybrids by chromosome counts (4x = 48) and esterase isozyme pattern. Most hybrids showing intermediate phenotypic characteristics, had a normal flower morphology with fertile pollen and produced fertile berries. More than 80% of the seeds germinated.

  10. Functional properties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch and its chemical modification by acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, G.; Martínez, P.; Velezmoro, C.

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important source of starch which is underused in Peru, as are mainly imported potato starch, for has not been achieved yet, industrialization starch extraction is a success. This study aimed to obtain, characterize and modify chemically by acetylation, starch of a commercial potato variety, Unique. Extraction was performed with water and chemical modification was performed by acetylation using acetic anhydride at different levels (% v/w starch): 5, 10 y 15...

  11. Species-specific identification from incomplete sampling: applying DNA barcodes to monitoring invasive solanum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling-through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application.

  12. A revision of the Solanum elaeagnifolium clade (Elaeagnifolium clade; subgenus Leptostemonum, Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Solanum elaeagnifolium clade (Elaeagnifolium clade contains five species of small, often rhizomatous, shrubs from deserts and dry forests in North and South America. Members of the clade were previously classified in sections Leprophora, Nycterium and Lathyrocarpum, and were not thought to be closely related. The group is sister to the species-rich monophyletic Old World clade of spiny solanums. The species of the group have an amphitropical distribution, with three species in Mexico and the southwestern United States and three species in Argentina. Solanum elaeagnifolium occurs in both North and South America, and is a noxious invasive weed in dry areas worldwide. Members of the group are highly variable morphologically, and this variability has led to much synonymy, particularly in the widespread S. elaeagnifolium. We here review the taxonomic history, morphology, relationships and ecology of these species and provide keys for their identification, descriptions, full synonymy (including designations of lectotypes and nomenclatural notes. Illustrations, distribution maps and preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species.

  13. Híbridos somáticos obtenidos por fusión de protoplastos entre Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum y la especie silvestre Solanum circaeifolium Bitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Espejo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de obtener híbridos somáticos interespecíficos, se fusionaron protoplastos de la especie tetraploide Solanum tuberosum y de la especie silvestre diploide Solanum circaeifolium utilizando polietilenglicol. Los productos de fusión fueron cultivados en el medio V-KM suplementado con albúmina de suero bovino. Las primeras divisiones celulares ocurrieron a los 3 a 4 días de cultivo. Después de la formación de colonias se observó una rápida proliferación de callos, a partir de los cuales se regeneraron 19 plantas. El análisis molecular usando RAPD, confirmó que los regenerantes presentaban segmentos de ADN de ambos parentales, sugiriendo su posible naturaleza de híbridos somáticos. Las observaciones del número de cromosomas indicaron que todos los híbridos fueron aneuploides. En condiciones de invernadero, los regenerantes derivados de la fusión de protoplastos, mostraron características morfológicas intermedias entre las líneas parentales. Este estudio muestra la producción de híbridos somáticos de papa con el método de fusión presentado.

  14. Sequential injection analysis with lab-at-valve (SI-LAV) for the determination of solasodine in Solanum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongchai, Wisanu; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2010-04-15

    The development of sequential injection analysis with lab-at-valve (LAV) semi-automated system on-line liquid-liquid extraction is demonstrated for spectrophotometric determination of solasodine in various Solanum species fruits. The main proposed is semi-automated extractive determination of solasodine using methyl orange as colorimetric reagent. After optimization of the system, sample, reagent and organic solvent were sequentially aspirated into an extraction coil connected to the center of a selection valve, where extraction took place by flow reversal. The aqueous and organic phases were separated in a lab-at-valve unit attracted to one of the ports of the selection valve. The absorption of ion-pair solasodine-methyl orange complex in the organic phase was measured spectrophotometrically at 420 nm. The method performances, including reproducibility, linearity, sensitivity and accuracy, were also evaluated. The proposed method is simple, reproducible and accurate. It was successfully applied to the determination of solasodine in Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq., Solanum violaceum Ortega., Solanum melongena Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. fruits in Solanaceae family. Results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by batch wise spectrophotometric method. It is also suitable and useful for determination of solasodine in other medicinal plants. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  16. The construction of a Solanum habrochaites LYC4 introgression line population and the identification of QTLs for resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers, H.J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Maris, P.C.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus has been identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as Solanum habrochaites LYC4. In a previous F-2 mapping study, three QTLs conferring resistance to B. cinerea (Rbcq1,

  17. RESISTENCIA AL PERFORADOR DEL FRUTO DEL TOMATE DERIVADA DE ESPECIES SILVESTRES DE Solanum spp. RESISTANCE TO TOMATO FRUIT BORER DERIVED FROM WILD SPECIES OF Solanum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Alirio Vallejo Cabrera

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la resistencia al pasador del fruto Neoleucinodes elegantalis en doce introducciones silvestres de Solanum sección Lycopersicum. Las introducciones PI 134417, PI134418 y PI 126449 Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum, las introducciones LA 1624 y LA2092 de S. habrochaites var. typicum y la introducción LA 444-1 de S. peruvianum, presentaron alta resistencia al pasador del fruto de tomate N. elegantalis. Se realizó la introgresión genética de la resistencia al pasador del fruto presente en la introducción PI 134418 de S. habrochaites var. glabratum hacia el cultivar Unapal - Maravilla de S. lycopersicum. Se encontró asociación positiva altamente significativa entre el daño causado por el insecto plaga y el peso del fruto; a medida que se recupera el peso del fruto del cultivar Unapal - Maravilla (padre recurrente, por sucesivos retrocruzamientos, se disminuye la resistencia al insecto plaga. Los tricomas y el número de frutos por racimo no afectaron la infestación y el daño de los frutos por parte del insecto; mientras que el peso de fruto si tuvo efecto importante ya que tiende a producir mayor daño a medida que se incrementa el peso de fruto. El método del retrocruzamiento fue efectivo para romper la asociación entre el peso de fruto y la resistencia al insecto. Se obtuvieron plantas recombinantes RC2 con resistencia al pasador del fruto y pesos de fruto entre 45,1 y 68,6g.Twelve wild introductions of Solanum section Lycopersicum were evaluated to determine their resistance to tomato fruit borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis. The introductions PI 134417, PI134418 and PI 126449 of Solanum habrochaites var. glabratum, the introduction LA 1624 and LA2092 of S. habrochaites var. typicum, and the introduction LA 444-1 of S. peruvianum, presented high resistance to the tomato fruit borer of tomato N. elegantalis. Genetic introgression of resistance to tomato fruit borer in the introduction PI 134418 S. habrochaites var. glabratum

  18. Antifungal glycoalkaloids, flavonoids and other chemical constituents of Solanum asperum Rich (Solanaceae); Glicoalcaloides antifugincos, flavonoides e outros constituintes quimicos de Solanum asperum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Uchoa, Daniel Esdras de A.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo, E-mail: opessoa@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Silva, Fernanda M. e; Theodoro, Phellipe N.E.T.; Espindola, Laila S. [Universidade de Brasilia (FCS/UnB), DF (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias da Saude

    2011-07-01

    Two glycoalkaloids: solamargine and solasonine; three flavonoids: tiliroside, 7-O-alpha-L-ramnopyranosyl-kaempferol and 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->6)-alpha-L-ramnopyranosyl ]-7-O-alpha-L-ramnopyranosyl-kaempferol, in addition to the tripeptide Leu-Ile-Val, the aminoacid proline and the eicosanoic acid were isolated from Solanum asperum (Solanaceae). The structures of all compounds were determined by interpretation of their spectra (IR, MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) and comparison with the literature data. All compounds, except the glycoalkaloids, are being reported for the first time for S. asperum. Solasonine showed strong activity (MIC < 0.24 mug/mL) against four filamentous fungi species of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. (author)

  19. Demographic Comparison of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Reared on Three Cultivars of Solanum melongena L. and a Wild Hostplant Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zai-Ling; Li, Chuan-Ren; Yuan, Jiang-Jiang; Li, Shi-Xiang; Wang, Xiang-Ping; Chi, Hsin

    2017-10-01

    Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) is a widespread pest found on many solanaceous vegetables. The development and fecundity of H. vigintioctopunctata were studied on three cultivars ('Zihong', 'Eyou', and 'Baijiao') of eggplant, Solanum melongena L., using the two-sex life table theory. These results were then compared with similar parameters from a wild alternate host, Solanum nigrum. Our results showed that there were no significant differences between the developmental times of the larval stages, pupae, oviposition period, adult longevity, and the fecundity of H. vigintioctopunctata reared on the three eggplant cultivars. The survival rates of H. vigintioctopunctata larvae reared on the three eggplant cultivars were higher than that on S. nigrum. The fecundity of H. vigintioctopunctata adults reared on S. nigrum (724.12 eggs), however, was significantly higher than on each of the three eggplant cultivars. The values for the intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) for H. vigintioctopunctata when reared on S. nigrum were 0.1225 d-1,1.1303 d-1, and 299.6 offspring, respectively. Each of these was significantly higher than comparable values when reared on the cultivar Eyou and Baijiao but were not different from those reared on the Zihong. Our results indicated that H. vigintioctopunctata is well adapted to all tested host plant cultivars and that S. nigrum is an important alternate wild hostplant that may potentially contribute to future outbreaks of H. vigintioctopunctata if not taken into consideration when planning an integrated control strategy against the pest. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Transcriptome of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Phytophthora infestans Revealed by DeepSAGE Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyetvai, Gabor; Sønderkær, Mads; Göbel, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker-assissted s......Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker...

  1. Caavuranamide, a novel steroidal alkaloid from the ripe fruits of Solanum caavurana Vell. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Nelissa Pacheco; Santos, Erica L.; Marques, Francisco A.; Maia, Beatriz H.L.N. Sales, E-mail: noronha@ufpr.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Costa, Emmanoel V. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Mikich, Sandra Bos [Laboratorio de Ecologia, Embrapa Florestas, Colombo, PR (Brazil); Braga, Raquel M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Delarmelina, Camila; Duarte, Marta C.T. [Divisao de Microbiologia, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas Biologicas e Agricolas (CPQBA), Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Duarte, Marta C.T.; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Souza, Vanessa H.S.; Carvalho, Joao E. de [Divisa de Farmacologia e Toxicologia, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas Biologicas e Agricolas (CPQBA), Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ripe fruits of Solanum caavurana Vell. (Solanaceae) afforded a novel steroidal alkaloid with spirosolane-type skeleton, named as caavuranamide, together with the alkaloids 4-tomatiden-3-one and 5{alpha}-tomatidan-3-one. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities for the ethanolic extract, sub-fractions obtained from partition and acid-base treatment were also evaluated. Caavuranamide showed antibacterial activity similar to the chloramphenicol positive control against Rhodococcus equi. (author)

  2. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  3. N-trans-feruloyltyramine and flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Solanum sordidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Mikie Kanada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the leaves of Solanum sordidum Sendtn., Solanaceae, resulted in the isolation and identification of sitosterol, stigmasterol, 3β-O-β-glycopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3β-O-β-glycopyranosyl sitosterol, kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6-α-glycopyranoside, rutin, and N-trans-feruloyltyramine. The structures of these compounds were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometric data and comparison with data in the literature. The evaluation of antioxidant activity showed an IC50 of 159.5 ppm for the chloroformic fraction and IC50 of 77.5 ppm for the hydromethanolic fraction.

  4. N-trans-feruloyltyramine and flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Solanum sordidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Mikie Kanada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the leaves of Solanum sordidum Sendtn., Solanaceae, resulted in the isolation and identification of sitosterol, stigmasterol, 3β-O-β-glycopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3β-O-β-glycopyranosyl sitosterol, kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6-α-glycopyranoside, rutin, and N-trans-feruloyltyramine. The structures of these compounds were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometric data and comparison with data in the literature. The evaluation of antioxidant activity showed an IC50 of 159.5 ppm for the chloroformic fraction and IC50 of 77.5 ppm for the hydromethanolic fraction.

  5. Physiological effect of fungicides on growth, productivity and post-harvest potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ãâdina Cristiane Pereira Lopes

    2011-01-01

    A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em ÃÂrea experimental do Departamento de Agronomia da UNICENTRO, em Guarapuava Ãââ PR. O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos aditivos dos fungicidas fluazinam e metiram + piraclostrobina no desenvolvimento vegetativo, produÃÂÃÂo e qualidade pÃÂs-colheita de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.). AlÃÂm de estabelecer uma metodologia para determinaÃÂÃÂo da ÃÂrea foliar da cultura baseada na estimativa por equaÃÂÃÂo de regressÃÂo pelo comprimento e largura das folhas. Considerou-...

  6. COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS AISLADOS DE LA ESPECIE Solanum validinervium (Solanaceae SECCION GEMINATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca Suárez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir del extracto etanólico de la parte aérea de la especie Solanum validinervium  se aisló el compuesto 2-(4’-hidroxifenil-etanol, las cumarinas esculetina e isoescopoletina y un nuevo glucósido de cumarina identificado como 1’-O-7-esculetina-4’-O-1’’-etilenglicol-β-D-glucopiranosa. Sus estructuras fueron elucidadas por medio de técnicas espectroscópicas (IR y RMN-1H, RMN-13C  en una y dos dimensiones.

  7. DETERMINACIÓN DE ALGUNOS METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS EN TRES MORFOTIPOS DE COCONA (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal)

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana E. Cardona J.; Luis E. Cuca S.; Jaime A. Barrera G.

    2011-01-01

    Se determinó la presencia y la estructura(mediante el uso de técnicas espectroscópicasy cromatográficas) de algunos metabolitossecundarios en tres morfotiposdel fruto de cocona (Solanum sessiliflorumDunal; Solanaceae) cultivados en eldepartamento del Guaviare. Se destacóla presencia de ácido p-cumárico, ácidop-hidroxidihidrocumárico, naringenina,salicilato de metilo, hidrocarburos decadena larga, ácidos grasos y sus ésteresmetílicos y etílicos. Algunos de estoscompuestos se acumulan únicament...

  8. Principales fitofagos de la cocona Solanum sessiliforum Dunal (Solanaceae) en la Amazonia peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, C.; Couturier, Guy; Anteparra, M.

    2011-01-01

    Fueron encontrados 14 insectos y 1 nemátodo fitófago asociado con la cocona Solanum sessiliforum Dunal en la Amazonía peruana en el curso de evaluaciones realizadas entre mayo del 2009 y junio del 2012. Neoleucinodes elegantalis, Epicauta pestífera, Chromacris peruviana, Corythaica cyathicollis y Melodogyne sp. son las especies de mayor importancia para el cultivo, por los niveles de daño y la frecuencia con que se presentan en las parcelas tradicionales. La información se complementa c...

  9. Timelapse scanning reveals spatial variation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root elongation rates during partial waterlogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Mckenzie, Blair M.

    2013-01-01

    by increasing elongation rates. Methods Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were grown in peat in root chambers (300×215× 6 mm) with a transparent front. Root chambers were maintained in flatbed scanners tilted at 30° to vertical and scanned every 3 h before, during and after waterlogging the lower layer...... decreased rapidly when waterlogged. Growth rates of the waterlogged roots decreased, while growth rates of roots above the waterlogged zone increased. In 24 h waterlogged roots new lateral root growth occurred in the lower layer of the root chamber when water was drained while after 5 day waterlogging new...

  10. AFLP analysis reveals a lack of phylogenetic structure within Solanum section Petota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vleeshouwers Vivianne GAA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secondary genepool of our modern cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. consists of a large number of tuber-bearing wild Solanum species under Solanum section Petota. One of the major taxonomic problems in section Petota is that the series classification (as put forward by Hawkes is problematic and the boundaries of some series are unclear. In addition, the classification has received only partial cladistic support in all molecular studies carried out to date. The aim of the present study is to describe the structure present in section Petota. When possible, at least 5 accessions from each available species and 5 individual plants per accession (totally approx. 5000 plants were genotyped using over 200 AFLP markers. This resulted in the largest dataset ever constructed for Solanum section Petota. The data obtained are used to evaluate the 21 series hypothesis put forward by Hawkes and the 4 clade hypothesis of Spooner and co-workers. Results We constructed a NJ tree for 4929 genotypes. For the other analyses, due to practical reasons, a condensed dataset was created consisting of one representative genotype from each available accession. We show a NJ jackknife and a MP jackknife tree. A large part of both trees consists of a polytomy. Some structure is still visible in both trees, supported by jackknife values above 69. We use these branches with >69 jackknife support in the NJ jackknife tree as a basis for informal species groups. The informal species groups recognized are: Mexican diploids, Acaulia, Iopetala, Longipedicellata, polyploid Conicibaccata, diploid Conicibaccata, Circaeifolia, diploid Piurana and tetraploid Piurana. Conclusion Most of the series that Hawkes and his predecessors designated can not be accepted as natural groups, based on our study. Neither do we find proof for the 4 clades proposed by Spooner and co-workers. A few species groups have high support and their inner structure displays also

  11. Interaction between root-knot nematodes and Solanum spp. : variation in pathogenicity, cytology, proteins and DNA = [De interactie tussen wortelknobbelnematoden en Solanum spp. : variatie in ziekteverwekkend vermogen, cytologie, eiwitten en DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van der J.G.

    1997-01-01


    This thesis describes genetic variation in the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne hapla, M. chitwoodi and M. fallax, particularly with respect to their pathogenicity on Solanum spp. Significant differences in virulence and

  12. TAI vacuolar invertase orthologs: the interspecific variability in tomato plants (Solanum section Lycopersicon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugina, M A; Shchennikova, A V; Kochieva, E Z

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying carbohydrate metabolism can promote the development of biotechnological advances in fruit plants. The flesh tomato fruit represents an ideal system for examining the role of sucrose cleavage enzymes in fruit development, and wild tomato species differing in storage sugars serve as an excellent research material for this purpose. Plant vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in the sink organs. In the present study, we identified complete gene sequences encoding the TAI vacuolar invertase in 11 wild and one cultivated tomato accessions of the Solanum section Lycopersicon. The average level of interspecific polymorphism in TAI genes was 8.58%; however, in the green-fruited tomatoes, the TAI genes contained 100 times more SNPs than those in the red-fruited accessions. The TAI proteins demonstrated 8% variability, whereas the red-fruited species had none. A TAI-based phylogenetic tree revealed two main clusters containing self-compatible and self-incompatible species, which concurs with the previous crossability-based division and demonstrates that the TAI genes reflect the evolutionary relationships between the red- and green-fruited tomatoes. Furthermore, we detected differential expression patterns of the TAI genes in the fruits of wild and cultivated tomatoes, which corresponded to sugar composition. The polymorphism analysis of the TAI acid invertases of Solanum section Lycopersicon species will contribute to the understanding of the genetic potential of TAI genes to impact tomato breeding through genetic engineering of the carbohydrate composition in the fruit.

  13. Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.; Abo zid, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against γ- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to γ-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

  14. Berinjela (Solanum melongena L.: mito ou realidade no combate as dislipidemias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição R. Gonçalves

    Full Text Available A dislipidemia é considerada um dos fatores de risco mais importantes para o desenvolvimento da doença arterial coronariana. Como resultado, tratamentos efetivos com fármacos foram desenvolvidos para combatê-la, porém, apresentam alto custo e efeitos colaterais. Considerando este fato, pacientes têm recorrido a tratamentos utilizando alimentos conhecidos científica e popularmente por possuírem efeito hipolipemiante. Várias pesquisas vêm sendo realizadas com esses alimentos como a berinjela no sentido de investigarem seus possíveis efeitos na redução dos lipídios sangüíneos. A berinjela (Solanum melongena L. tem sido alvo desses estudos devido a sua utilização popular para dietas de emagrecimento, por aumentar a eliminação de gorduras e combater o excesso de colesterol. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer uma revisão da literatura científica sobre a espécie Solanum melongena (berinjela da família Solanaceae, associado a redução de gorduras no organismo. Para este fim foram consultados vinte e cinco referências.

  15. Assessment of genetic variability of haploids extracted from tetraploid (2n = 4x = 48) Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolano, M R; Carputo, D; Li, J; Monti, L; Barone, A; Frusciante, L

    2004-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the genetic variability of haploids (2n = 2x = 24) extracted from tetraploid Solanum tuberosum through 4x x 2x crosses with Solanum phureja. Molecular and phenotypic analyses were performed to fingerprint the genotypes used and to evaluate their potential use in breeding programs. AFLP analysis revealed the presence of specific bands derived from the tetraploid seed parent S. phureja, as well as ex novo originated bands. On average, 210 bands were visualized per genotype, 149 (70%) of which were common to both parental genotypes. The percentage of S. tuberosum specific bands ranged from 25.1% to 18.6%, with an average of 22%. The fraction of genome coming from S. phureja ranged from 1.9% to 6.5%, with an average value of 4%. The percentage of ex novo bands varied from 1.9% to 9.0%. The presence of S. phureja DNA is very interesting because it indicated that S. phureja pollinator is involved in the mechanism of haploid formation. The characterization for resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and potato virus X (PVX) provided evidence that haploids may express traits that are lacking in the tetraploids they come from, which can be useful for both genetic studies and breeding purposes. It is noteworthy that genotypes combining resistance to both diseases and good pollen stainability were identified. Other possible breeding implications owing to the presence of S. phureja genome in the haploids analyzed are discussed.

  16. Mapping of loci from Solanum lycopersicoides conferring resistance or susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joel; Yu, Daozhan; Evans, Wendy; Gokirmak, Tufan; Chetelat, Roger T; Stotz, Henrik U

    2009-07-01

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, syn. Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to the necrotrophic ascomycete and causal agent of gray mold, Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to this fungal pathogen is elevated in wild relatives of tomato, including Solanum lycopersicoides. An introgression line population (IL) containing chromosomal segments of S. lycopersicoides within the background of tomato cv. VF36 was used to screen the genome for foliar resistance and susceptibility to B. cinerea. Based on this screen, putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, five for resistance and two for susceptibility. Four resistance QTL decreased infection frequency while the fifth reduced lesion diameter. One susceptibility QTL increased infection frequency whereas the other increased lesion diameter. Overlapping chromosomal segments provided strong evidence for partial resistance on chromosomes 1 and 9 and for elevated susceptibility on chromosome 11. Segregation analysis confirmed the major resistance QTL on the long arm of chromosome 1 and susceptibility on chromosome 11. Linkage of partial resistance to chromosome 9 could not be confirmed. The usefulness of these data for resistance breeding and for map-based cloning of foliar resistance to B. cinerea is discussed.

  17. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae. PMID:21054161

  18. Efficiency of Buzzing Bees in Fruit Set and Seed Set of Solanum violaceum in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. M. U. M. Wanigasekara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-pollinator interactions are often considered as tightly coevolved, mutualistic relationships. The present study aimed at determining the flower visiting bees of the vegetable crop, Solanum violaceum, and the efficiency of buzz pollination by bees on fruit and seed production in Sri Lanka. Seven bee species: Hoplonomia westwoodi, Amegilla comberi, Patellapis kaluterae, Xylocopa tenuiscapa, Apis dorsata, Trigona iridipennis, and Ceratina hieroglyphica visited the flowers of S. violaceum, and the first four species were buzzing bees. Buzzing bees were the first to visit Solanum flowers and were followed by nonbuzzing bees. Handling time of H. westwoodi and P. kaluterae varied with the availability of pollen in anthers that deplete with the age of flower and stayed longer at new flowers than at old flowers. Handling time of the larger buzzing bee, H. westwoodi, was higher than that of the smaller P. kaluterae. The fruit set, seed set, and seed germinability in flowers visited by buzzing bees were significantly higher than those of the flowers bagged to exclude pollinators.

  19. A 10-gene phylogeny of Solanum section Herpystichum (Solanaceae) and a comparison of phylogenetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Eric J; Farruggia, Frank T; Bohs, Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Solanum section Herpystichum is a lineage that comprises both widespread and very narrowly distributed species. This study investigates the phylogenetic relationships of sect. Herpystichum and evaluates several phylogenetic methods for analysis of multiple sequences. Sequence data from seven nuclear (ITS, GBSSI, and five COSII) and three plastid (psbA-trnH, trnT-trnF, and trnS-trnG) regions were concatenated and analyzed under maximum parsimony and Bayesian criteria. In addition, we used two analytical methods that take into account differences in topologies resulting from the analyses of the individual markers: Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees (BEST) and supertree analysis. The monophyletic Solanum sect. Herpystichum was resolved with moderate support in the concatenated maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses and the supertree analysis, and relationships within the section were well-resolved and strongly supported. The BEST topology, however, was poorly resolved. Also, because of how BEST deals with missing sequences, >25% of our accessions, including two species, had to be excluded from the analyses. Our results indicate a progenitor-descendent relationship with two species nested within the widespread S. evolvulifolium. Analytical methods that consider individual topologies are important for studies based on multiple molecular markers. On the basis of analyses in this study, BEST had the serious shortcoming that taxa with missing sequences must be removed from the analysis or they can produce spurious topologies. Supertree analysis provided a good alternative for our data by allowing the inclusion of all 10 species of sect. Herpystichum.

  20. Population structure and genetic diversity of native and invasive populations of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Zhao

    Full Text Available AIMS: We investigate native and introduced populations of Solanum rostratum, an annual, self-compatible plant that has been introduced around the globe. This study is the first to compare the genetic diversity of Solanum rostratum between native and introduced populations. We aim to (1 determine the level of genetic diversity across the studied regions; (2 explore the likely origins of invasive populations in China; and (3 investigate whether there is the evidence of multiple introductions into China. METHODS: We genotyped 329 individuals at 10 microsatellite loci to determine the levels of genetic diversity and to investigate population structure of native and introduced populations of S. rostratum. We studied five populations in each of three regions across two continents: Mexico, the U.S.A. and China. IMPORTANT FINDINGS: We found the highest genetic diversity among Mexican populations of S. rostratum. Genetic diversity was significantly lower in Chinese and U.S.A. populations, but we found no regional difference in inbreeding coefficients (F IS or population differentiation (F ST. Population structure analyses indicate that Chinese and U.S.A. populations are more closely related to each other than to sampled Mexican populations, revealing that introduced populations in China share an origin with the sampled U.S.A. populations. The distinctiveness between some introduced populations indicates multiple introductions of S. rostratum into China.

  1. Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis of its value chain in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Irish potato, food security, stakeholder analysis, sustainability indicators, Cool Farm Tool-Potato, yield gap, resource use efficiency, LINTUL-POTATO model, Zimbabwe. Oniward Svubure (2015). Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis

  2. Genetic transformation of Slovak cultivar of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): efficiency and the behavior of the transgene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravcikova, J.; Libantova, J.; Matusikova, I.; Libiakova, G.; Nap, J.P.H.; Mlynarova, L.

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) of selected Slovak cultivars (cvs.) and one breeding line were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In vitro-grown plants of cvs. Albina, Eta, Malvina, Vila and line 116/86 were tested for their ability to regenerate transgenic plants.

  3. Extensive Variation in Fried Chip Color and Tuber Composition in Cold-Stored Tubers of Wild Potato (Solanum) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum. To date, research in these areas excluded wild relatives of potato. This is the first assessment of cold-stored tuber c...

  4. Functional characterization of the powdery mildew susceptibility gene SmMLO1 in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracuto, Valentina; Appiano, Michela; Ricciardi, Luigi; Göl, Deniz; Visser, Richard G.F.; Bai, Yuling; Pavan, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most important vegetables among the Solanaceae and can be a host to fungal species causing powdery mildew (PM) disease. Specific homologs of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) gene family are PM susceptibility factors, as their loss of function results in a

  5. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Sergeant, K.; Dierick, J.F.; Oufir, M.; Wal, van der F.; America, A.H.P.; Renaut, J.; Hausman, J.F.; Jardin, du P.

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree) tuber

  6. Contribución al conocimiento de la "guinda" (Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. floración-fructificación

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    Martha Lucía Chaparro de Valencia

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution to the knowledge of flowering and fruiting of Solanum sisymbriifolium, based on a two-year observation on individual plants growing in two localities (Silvania, 1300 m.a.s.l. and Bogota, 2640 m.a.s.l., Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Ripening and senescence processes are succintly described.

  7. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  8. Auxin increases the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) root tips while inhibiting root growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanchenko, Maria G.; den Os, Desiree; Monshausen, Gabriele B.; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.; Bednarova, Andrea; Krishnan, Natraj

    2013-01-01

    The hormone auxin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate root elongation, but the interactions between the two pathways are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how auxin interacts with ROS in regulating root elongation in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Wild-type and

  9. Mapping and Cloning of Late Blight Resistance Genes from Solanum venturii Using an Interspecific Candidate Gene Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, M.; Foster, S.J.; Park, T.H.; Rietman, H.; Arkel, van G.; Jones, J.D.G.; Eck, van H.J.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most devastating diseases of potato. Resistance (R) genes from the wild species Solanum demissum have been used by breeders to generate late-blight-resistant cultivars but resistance was soon overcome by the pathogen. A more

  10. In vitro regeneration of solanum aethiopicum L. (scarlet eggplant), an african vegetable crop with potential ornamental value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful in vitro regeneration of plantlets was obtained from shoot tips of five Solanum aethiopicum (African eggplants) accessions evaluated in two media, M1 and M2. The M1 medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salt mixture supplemented with 20 g/L sucrose, 0.75 g/L MgCl2, and 2 g/L ...

  11. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  12. Fruit anatomy of species of Solanum sect. Torva (Solanaceae Anatomía del fruto en especies de Solanum sect. Torva (Solanaceae

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    Franco E. Chiarini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mature fruits of 10 South American species of Solanum sect. Torva were studied. Cross and longitudinal microtome sections, stained with astra blue/basic fuchsin, were made for microscopic examination. All species present an epidermis formed by a unistrate layer of small, isodiametric cells, with dense content and cellulosic walls. Immediately below, a hypodermis is always found, consisting of a well-defined layer of lignified cells with a single calcium oxalate crystal occupying the whole lumen of each cell. This is followed by one layer of cellulosic, isodiametric cells with dense cytoplasm and then several collenchymatous layers, sometimes with sclerified cell walls. The mesocarp comprises two zones histologically differentiated: an external one (formed by regular, vacuolated, medium-sized cells with small intercellular spaces, and an internal one, commonly juicy, and developing proliferations among the seeds. The fruits analyzed are alike, and despite some particularities, they can be classified as berries in the conventional sense. All the traits examined agree with the ornithochorous dispersal syndrome. The homogeneity in fruit traits may be due to shared habit, habitat and sexual system.Se estudiaron los frutos maduros de 10 especies sudamericanas de Solanum sect. Torva. Se examinaron en microscopio cortes microtómicos transversales y longitudinales teñidos con azul astral/fucsina básica. Todas las especies presentaron una epidermis unistrata de células pequeñas, isodiamétricas, de contenido denso y paredes celulósicas. Inmediatamente por debajo se encontró siempre una hipodermis, formada por una capa bien definida de células lignificadas con un cristal de oxalato de calcio en el lúmen de cada célula. A continuación se halló otra capa de celulas isodiamétricas, celulósicas, de contenido denso, y luego varias capas de colénquima, en ocasiones con paredes esclerificadas. El mesocarpo presentó dos zonas histologicamente

  13. Evaluation de l'efficacité de la Bacillus thuringiensis contre les larves et imagos de Andrector ruficornis sur les plants de Solanum tuberosum au Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Ouzounov, IS.; Omokolo, ND.; Ambang, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of the Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis on Larvae and Adults of Andrector ruficornis on Solanum tuberosum plants in Cameroon. The efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insecticide on the larvae and adults of A. ruficornis (a leaf eating pest) was investigated on Solanum tuberosum plants grown in the field. The results show that, one hour following the treatment of A. ruficornis with a 1.4 g/l suspension of Bacillus thuringiensis, larvae and adults are paralysed on the plan...

  14. Antifungal glycoalkaloids, flavonoids and other chemical constituents of Solanum asperum Rich (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Uchoa, Daniel Esdras de A.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Silva, Fernanda M. e; Theodoro, Phellipe N.E.T.; Espindola, Laila S.

    2011-01-01

    Two glycoalkaloids: solamargine and solasonine; three flavonoids: tiliroside, 7-O-alpha-L-ramnopyranosyl-kaempferol and 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->6)-alpha-L-ramnopyranosyl ]-7-O-alpha-L-ramnopyranosyl-kaempferol, in addition to the tripeptide Leu-Ile-Val, the aminoacid proline and the eicosanoic acid were isolated from Solanum asperum (Solanaceae). The structures of all compounds were determined by interpretation of their spectra (IR, MS, 1 H and 13 C NMR) and comparison with the literature data. All compounds, except the glycoalkaloids, are being reported for the first time for S. asperum. Solasonine showed strong activity (MIC < 0.24 mug/mL) against four filamentous fungi species of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. (author)

  15. Glicoalcaloides antifúngicos, flavonoides e outros constituintes químicos de Solanum asperum

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    Francisco das Chagas L. Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two glycoalkaloids: solamargine and solasonine; three flavonoids: tiliroside, 7-O-α-L-ramnopyranosyl-kaempferol and 3-O-[ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6-α-L-ramnopyranosyl]-7- O-α-L-ramnopyranosyl-kaempferol, in addition to the tripeptide Leu-Ile-Val, the aminoacid proline and the eicosanoic acid were isolated from Solanum asperum (Solanaceae. The structures of all compounds were determined by interpretation of their spectra (IR, MS, ¹H and 13C NMR and comparison with the literature data. All compounds, except the glycoalkaloids, are being reported for the first time for S. asperum. Solasonine showed strong activity (MIC < 0.24 μg/mL against four filamentous fungi species of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton.

  16. Morpho-histological analysis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. plants after treatment with juglone

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    Anna Milewska-Hendel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Juglone is a substance that limits plant growth and has a toxic effect on plant development. In this study, we analyzed the influence of juglone at two different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−4 M, which were applied to different parts of Solanum lycopersicum L. plants (root system, stem after decapitation, and surface of a younger leaf or after autografting for a short period of time (7 days, on the morphology and histology of stems. At a lower concentration, juglone had positive effects on plant growth, which resulted in an increase in interfascicular cambial cell divisions, faster development of a continuous cambium layer along the stem circumference, and development of fibers. Additionally, under the influence of juglone, the number of developing leaves increased and adventitious roots developed. The results are discussed based on the current literature concerning the reaction of plants to juglone and to stress conditions.

  17. Metabolic differences in ripening of Solanum lycopersicum ‘Ailsa Craig’ and three monogenic mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisken, Stephan; Earll, Mark; Baxter, Charles; Portwood, David; Ament, Zsuzsanna; Kende, Aniko; Hodgman, Charlie; Seymour, Graham; Smith, Rebecca; Fraser, Paul; Seymour, Mark; Salek, Reza M.; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Application of mass spectrometry enables the detection of metabolic differences between groups of related organisms. Differences in the metabolic fingerprints of wild-type Solanum lycopersicum and three monogenic mutants, ripening inhibitor (rin), non-ripening (nor) and Colourless non-ripening (Cnr), of tomato are captured with regard to ripening behaviour. A high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry system coupled to liquid chromatography produced a time series of the ripening behaviour at discrete intervals with a focus on changes post-anthesis. Internal standards and quality controls were used to ensure system stability. The raw data of the samples and reference compounds including study protocols have been deposited in the open metabolomics database MetaboLights via the metadata annotation tool Isatab to enable efficient re-use of the datasets, such as in metabolomics cross-study comparisons or data fusion exercises. PMID:25977786

  18. Chemical characterization of the pulp, peel and seeds of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal

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    Liliana SERNA-COCK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary The chemical characterization of the pulp, peel and seeds of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal was determined. In artisanal fruit processing, 26.3% of peel and 9.7% of seeds were obtained. The seeds showed a high potential for the development of value-added products because of their dry matter contents (23.46% as follows: carbohydrate (69.37% dry basis (d.b., nitrogen (3.18 g/100 g of seed d.b., K (0.023 g/100 g of seed d.b., Fe (0.0185 g/100 g of seed d.b. and dietary fiber (21.27 g/100 g of seed d.b.. The carbohydrate, dietary fibre and mineral contents of the pulp, peel and seeds also highlighted the agroindustrial potential of the fruit in that these constituents could be used to develop functional foods, food additives, preparations for functional diets and dietary supplements.

  19. DETERMINACIÓN DE ALGUNOS METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS EN TRES MORFOTIPOS DE COCONA (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal

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    Juliana E. Cardona J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la presencia y la estructura(mediante el uso de técnicas espectroscópicasy cromatográficas de algunos metabolitossecundarios en tres morfotiposdel fruto de cocona (Solanum sessiliflorumDunal; Solanaceae cultivados en eldepartamento del Guaviare. Se destacóla presencia de ácido p-cumárico, ácidop-hidroxidihidrocumárico, naringenina,salicilato de metilo, hidrocarburos decadena larga, ácidos grasos y sus ésteresmetílicos y etílicos. Algunos de estoscompuestos se acumulan únicamente enel epicarpio de la fruta. La comparaciónde metabolitos volátiles permitió establecerdiferencias químicas entre los tresmorfotipos de la fruta.

  20. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A GIS model of habitat suitability for Solanum conocarpum (Solanaceae) in St. John, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Matthew D.; Fleming, Jonathan P.; Monsegur, Omar A.; Vilella, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Solanum conocarpum (Solanaceae) (Marron Bacora) is a rare, dry-forest shrub endemic to the island of St. John, US Virgin Islands, considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Given its status as a species of conservation concern, we incorporated environmental characteristics of 3 observed populations and 5 additional known locations into a geographic information system (GIS) analysis to create a habitat-suitability model for the species on the island of St. John. Our model identified 1929.87 ha of highly suitable and moderately suitable habitat. Of these, 1161.20 ha (60.2%) occurred within the boundaries of Virgin Islands National Park. Our model provides spatial information on potential locations for future surveys and restoration sites for this endemic species of the US Virgin Islands.

  2. Alteration of heterostyly in Solanum melongena L. through gamma-radiation and hormonal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handique, A.K.; Sarma, A.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of seeds with 4 kR and 8 kR gamma radiation significantly altered heterostyly in Solanum melongena by way of reducing the frequency of short style (sterile) and enhancing the frequency of long style (fertile) flowers in the synthetic varieties. Both the concentrations of kinetin were highly effective in enhancing the proportion of long style flowers in all the cultivars; 40 ppm being more effective than 20 ppm. α-NAA at lower concentration was effective in only one local land race, whereas higher concentration (25 ppm) of α-NAA suppressed the frequency of long style and enhanced the frequency of short style flowers. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Growth and Production of Steroid Saponin in Solanum aculeatissimum During One Vegetation Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, T; Kikuta, S; Itimura, K; Nakashima, K; Matsubara, T

    1988-04-01

    SOLANUM ACULEATISSIMUM (Solanaceae) plants, which were cultivated in the open field, were harvested once a month from June 1985 to January 1986. The growth matter and content of steroid saponins, aculeatiside A and B which are precursors of steroid hormones in root, were then measured in order to examine their seasonal variations during one vegetation period. The aerial parts of the plants died of chill and frost in January. In November the dry weight of root reached the maximum, and the content of steroid saponins was more than 10% and showed a maximum. The yield of steroid saponins per plant was greatest in November. These results suggest that November is the appropriate time for harvest, and that S. ACULEATISSIMUM can be more useful than the DIOSCOREA species which is now used as a source plant of steroid hormones.

  4. Induced Resistance in Solanum lycopersicum by Algal Elicitor Extracted from Sargassum fusiforme

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    Layth Sbaihat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum production relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides, which is undesired by health- and environment-concerned consumers. Environment-friendly methods of controlling tomato diseases include agroecological practices, organic fungicides, and biological control. Plants’ resistance against pathogens is induced by applying agents called elicitors to the plants and would lead to disease prevention or reduced severity. We investigated the ability of a novel elicitor extracted from the brown sea algae (Sargassum fusiforme to elicit induced resistance in tomato. The studied elicitor induced hypersensitive cell death and O2- production in tomato tissues. It significantly reduced severities of late blight, grey mold, and powdery mildew of tomato. Taken together, our novel elicitor has not shown any direct antifungal activity against the studied pathogens, concluding that it is an elicitor of induced resistance.

  5. A viroid from Solanum pseudocapsicum closely related to the tomato apical stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, R L; Marinkovic, S; Sänger, H L

    1996-01-01

    A viroid was isolated from symptomless Solanum pseudocapsicum cultivar (cv) 'New Patterson' plants using the bidirectional PAGE method for analysis of small circular RNA molecules. The viroid was transmitted to tomato by mechanical inoculation. Infected tomato plants developed symptoms similar to those caused by potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). Cloning and sequencing revealed that the viroid from Solanum pseudocapsicum is closely related to the tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd). Therefore, the new viroid sequence variant has been named TASVd-S. The circular RNA of TASVd-S consists of 360 nucleotides which can potentially form a rod-like structure with a high degree of base-pairing like all the other known viroids. The nucleotide composition is 99 G, 72 A, 101 C and 88 U, corresponding to 200 G + C, 160 A + U with a GC content of 55.6%. In total 71% of the residues are base-paired and the basepaired residues consist of 73 G:C (57%), 43 A:U (34%) and 11 G:U (9%) base pairs. The most stable rod-like secondary structure of this viroid has 80 G:C, 39 A:U and 11 G:U base pairs with a minimum free energy of -147.5 kcal/mol (-616.6 kJ/mol). The sequence similarity of the left terminal (T1) domain of TASVd-S and the T1 domain of tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) is higher than the sequence similarity of these domains of TASVd-S and TASV-d.

  6. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

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    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L. en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98, el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  7. Análisis de crecimiento en siete variedades de papa (solanum tuberosum l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Borrego

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de crecimiento en siete variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.. Se evaluaron siete variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Norteña, Gigant, Mondial, Snowden, Alpha, Atlantic y Russett Burbank, bajo criterios de eficiencia y productividad del análisis de crecimiento (seis muestreos, cada 18 días en promedio, como la tasa de crecimiento del cultivo (TCC, tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR, tasa de crecimiento relativo foliar (TCRF, relación de área foliar (RAF, índice de area foliar (IAF y tasa de asimilación neta (TAN. Se encontraron diferencias (p≤0,01 para las variables en estudio (a excepción de la TAN, para las fuentes de variación de muestreos (seis a lo largo del ciclo siendo mayor la TCC en el cuarto muestreo con las variedades Norteña y Russett Burbank. La TCR fue mayor en Norteña, Russett Burbank y Alpha, habiendo un incremento considerable del quinto al sexto muestreo. En la RAF, los mejores genotipos fueron Atlantic y Snowden, mostrando Russett Burbank un pronunciado declive del quinto al sexto muestreo, por la senescencia del follaje. Por lo que respecta al IAF, los mejores genotipos fueron Norteña y Gigant, estableciéndose el máximo del cuarto al sexto muestreo, sin senescencia hasta ese muestreo. En la TAN, no se encontraron diferencias entre genotipos, mostrando superioridad la Norteña, siguiendo las otras cinco un patrón de comportamiento muy semejante

  8. Inbreeding depression in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae, a species with a plastic self-incompatibility response

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    Keser Lidewij H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solanum carolinense (horsenettle is a highly successful weed with a gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI system. Previous studies reveal that the strength of SI in S. carolinense is a plastic trait, associated with particular S-alleles. The importance of this variation in self-fertility on the ability of horsenettle to found and establish new populations will depend, to a large extent, on the magnitude of inbreeding depression. We performed a series of greenhouse and field experiments to determine the magnitude of inbreeding depression in S. carolinense, whether inbreeding depression varies by family, and whether the estimates of inbreeding depression vary under field and greenhouse conditions. We performed a series of controlled self- and cross-pollinations on 16 genets collected from a large population in Pennsylvania to obtain progeny with different levels of inbreeding. We grew the selfed and outcrossed progeny in the greenhouse and under field conditions and recorded various measures of growth and reproductive output. Results In the greenhouse study we found (1 a reduction in flower, fruit and seed production per fruit in inbred (selfed progeny when compared to outbred (outcrossed progeny; (2 a reduction in growth of resprouts obtained from rhizome cuttings of selfed progeny; and (3 an increase in the ability to self-fertilize in the selfed progeny. In the field, we found that (1 outcrossed progeny produced more leaves than their selfed siblings; (2 herbivory seems to add little to inbreeding depression; and (3 outcrossed plants grew faster and were able to set more fruits than selfed plants. Conclusion Solanum carolinense experiences low levels of inbreeding depression under greenhouse conditions and slightly more inbreeding depression under our field conditions. The combined effects of low levels of inbreeding depression and plasticity in the strength of SI suggest that the production of selfed progeny may play an

  9. Detailed mapping of a resistance locus against Fusarium wilt in cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Koji; Saito, Takeo; Negoro, Satomi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Ohyama, Akio; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    This is the first report on genetic mapping of a resistance locus against Fusarium wilt caused by the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae in cultivated eggplant. Fusarium wilt, caused by the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae, is a major soil-borne disease threatening stable production in eggplant (Solanum melongena). Although three eggplant germplasms, LS1934, LS174, and LS2436, are known to be highly resistant to the pathogen, their resistance loci have not been mapped. In this study, we performed quantitative trait locus analyses in F2:3 populations and detected a resistance locus, FM1, at the end of chromosome 2, with two alleles, Fm1(L) and Fm1(E), in the F2 populations LWF2 [LS1934 × WCGR112-8 (susceptible)] and EWF2 [EPL-1 (derived from LS174) × WCGR112-8], respectively. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by Fm1(L) derived from LS1934 was 75.0% [Logarithm of the odds (LOD) = 29.3], and that explained by Fm1(E) derived from EPL-1 was 92.2% (LOD = 65.8). Using backcrossed inbred lines, we mapped FM1 between two simple sequence repeat markers located ~4.881 cM apart from each other. Comparing the location of the above locus to those of previously reported ones, the resistance locus Rfo-sa1 from an eggplant ally (Solanum aethiopicum gr. Gilo) was mapped very close to FM1, whereas another resistance locus, from LS2436, was mapped to the middle of chromosome 4. This is the first report of mapping of a Fusarium resistance locus in cultivated eggplant. The availability of resistance-linked markers will enable the application of marker-assisted selection to overcome problems posed by self-incompatibility and introduction of negative traits because of linkage drag, and will lead to clear understanding of genetic mechanism of Fusarium resistance.

  10. SolRgene: an online database to explore disease resistance genes in tuber-bearing Solanum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Finkers, Richard; Budding, Dirk; Visser, Marcel; Jacobs, Mirjam M J; van Berloo, Ralph; Pel, Mathieu; Champouret, Nicolas; Bakker, Erin; Krenek, Pavel; Rietman, Hendrik; Huigen, DirkJan; Hoekstra, Roel; Goverse, Aska; Vosman, Ben; Jacobsen, Evert; Visser, Richard G F

    2011-08-18

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important food crop, but highly susceptible to many pathogens. The major threat to potato production is the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which causes the devastating late blight disease. Potato breeding makes use of germplasm from wild relatives (wild germplasm) to introduce resistances into cultivated potato. The Solanum section Petota comprises tuber-bearing species that are potential donors of new disease resistance genes. The aim of this study was to explore Solanum section Petota for resistance genes and generate a widely accessible resource that is useful for studying and implementing disease resistance in potato. The SolRgene database contains data on resistance to P. infestans and presence of R genes and R gene homologues in Solanum section Petota. We have explored Solanum section Petota for resistance to late blight in high throughput disease tests under various laboratory conditions and in field trials. From resistant wild germplasm, segregating populations were generated and assessed for the presence of resistance genes. All these data have been entered into the SolRgene database. To facilitate genetic and resistance gene evolution studies, phylogenetic data of the entire SolRgene collection are included, as well as a tool for generating phylogenetic trees of selected groups of germplasm. Data from resistance gene allele-mining studies are incorporated, which enables detection of R gene homologs in related germplasm. Using these resources, various resistance genes have been detected and some of these have been cloned, whereas others are in the cloning pipeline. All this information is stored in the online SolRgene database, which allows users to query resistance data, sequences, passport data of the accessions, and phylogenic classifications. Solanum section Petota forms the basis of the SolRgene database, which contains a collection of resistance data of an unprecedented size and

  11. Pólen 2n e mecanismos meióticos de formação em Solanum commersonii ssp 2n pollen and meiotic mechanisms of Formation in Solanum commersonii ssp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Gracielle Oliveira Tomé

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. e Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 - 1EBN não podem ser diretamente cruzadas com a batata cultivada de S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 -4 EBN em razão da barreira da ploidia e do número de equilíbrio do endosperma (EBN. No entanto, a produção de pólen não reduzido por S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 - 1EBN, permite o cruzamento desta com dihaplóides de batata e com as espécies diplóides S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. e S. chacoense Bitt., que possuem 2 EBN. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar o mecanismo meiótico e a freqüência dos grãos de pólen não reduzidos em cinco clones de Solanum commersonii ssp. Foram avaliados três clones de S. commersonii subsp. commersonii (SCC e dois de S. commersonii subsp. malmeanum (SCM. Nas avaliações, duzentos grãos de pólen viáveis foram corados (carmim acético 2% e mensurados, sendo considerados não reduzidos aqueles com o diâmetro igual ou superior a 25 µm. O clone Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC 100 produz 26.1% de polen não reduzido, por fusos fundidos e fusos paralelos, o qual pode ser utilizado em programas de melhoramento.Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. and Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 -1EBN cannot be directly crossed with the cultivated Solanum tuberosum subsp. Tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 - 4EBN species due to ploidy barriers and endosperm balance number (EBN. However, non-reduced pollen production by the wild species S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 -1EBN, allows the crossing of these species with dihaploids of potato and with the diploids species, S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. and S. chacoense Bitt., all with 2EBN. The aim of this work was to determine the meiotic mechanism and frequency of non-reduced pollen production of five clones of S. commersonii ssp. Three different clones of S. commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC and two of S

  12. Evaluación de dos tipos de esquejes para producción de tubérculo-semilla élite en cuatro variedades de papa Solanum phureja juz et buk y Solanum tuberosum

    OpenAIRE

    Caro Muñoz Marina; Moreno Rengifo Sidney Benhur; Marquinez Casas Xavier

    2004-01-01

    Esta investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos Vegetales del Instituto de Biotecnología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (IBUN) y en los invernaderos de la Facultad de Agronomía, Sede Bogotá. El propósito fue evaluar una metodología para propagación
    de plántulas y producción de tubérculo semilla élite en cuatro variedades de papa: Solanum tuberosum L. ssp andígena (Diacol-Capiro, ICA-Puracé y Parda Pastusa) y Solanum phureja Juz et Buk. (“Yema de huevo”...

  13. Phytohormone profiling in relation to osmotic adjustment in NaCl-treated plants of the halophyte tomato wild relative species Solanum chilense comparatively to the cultivated glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gharbi, E.; Martínez, J. L.; Benahmed, H.; Hichri, I.; Dobrev, Petre; Motyka, Václav; Quineta, M.; Lutts, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 258, MAY (2017), s. 77-89 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14649S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : antioxidant enzyme-activities * improves salinity tolerance * enhances salt tolerance * abscisic-acid * water- stress * na+-exclusion * accumulation * ethylene * growth * arabidopsis * Osmotic adjustment * Halophyte * Salinity * Solanum chilense * Hormone * Tomato Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  14. Amadurecimento de frutos de cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal tratados com Etefon Postharvest ripening of Ethephon-treated cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Stefanello

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum durante o amadurecimento após o tratamento com Etefon. Frutos das variedades Santa Luzia e Thais no estádio verde-maduro foram coletados, lavados e pulverizados até o completo molhamento com 1000 mg L-1 de Etefon e o controle com água. A cada três dias, durante 12 dias foram realizadas análises da firmeza do pericarpo, pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável (ATT, umidade e cinzas. Foi avaliada a liberação de C0(2 e etileno diariamente durante 12 dias, conjuntamente com a perda de matéria fresca e evolução da cor, a cada três dias, sempre no mesmo grupo de frutos. Foi empregado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e análise de regressão. Ocorreu perda de firmeza do pericarpo dos frutos com o tempo de armazenamento pós-colheita, com diminuição do pH, aumento da ATT e perda da matéria fresca. A aplicação de Etefon promoveu poucas mudanças na qualidade interna dos frutos, porém foi eficiente no desverdecimento da casca, o que pode ser verificado pelos menores valores do ângulo de cor e maiores da cromaticidade e luminosidade. O comportamento da respiração e produção de etileno aponta para um modelo de amadurecimento não climatérico.The objective of the present work was to evaluate postharvest quality of cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum fruits during ripening after Ethephon treatment. Fruits from the varieties Santa Luzia and Thais were harvested at green-mature stage, washed and sprayed until run off with Ethephon (0 e 1000 mg L-1. At every three days, during 12 days, the following analyses were performed: pericarp firmness, pH, total soluble solid content, total titratable acidity (ATT, water content and ashes. CO2 and ethylene production were evaluated daily for 12 days, together with the loss of fresh matter and color

  15. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. Pathogenity evaluation on Solanum quitoense Lam. Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a ‘tresbolillo’ a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.Presence of plant disease caused by pathogens on 42 clones of Solanum quitoense Lam. were evaluated in the north-western region of Popayán, Colombia. The seed of the clons were planted in plastic bags during three weeks and afterwards transplanted to the field. The statistical design

  16. GERMINACIÓN DEL POLEN DE BERENJENA (Solanum melongena L. EN CONDICIONES In Vitro In Vitro POLLEN GERMINATION OF EGGPLANT (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Araméndiz Tatis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se evaluó la viabilidad del polen de berenjena (Solanum melongena L. mediante el método de germinación in vitro. Botones florales de la variedad Lila criolla con características de pre-antesis fueron colectados de las 07:00 a las 08:00 horas. Los granos de polen fueron extraídos con un vibrador eléctrico y rehidratados en cámara húmeda durante dos horas a temperatura de 25 ºC. Posteriormente, para la germinación en condiciones in vitro, los granos fueron dispersados, utilizando un pincel, en un medio de cultivo constituido por 100 g de sacarosa (C12H22O11, 500 mg de nitrato de calcio [Ca (NO32 4H2O], 120 mg de sulfato de magnesio (MgSO4, 100 mg de nitrato de potasio (KNO3 y 120 mg de ácido bórico (H3BO3 disueltos en 1.000 mL de agua destilada. Seguidamente, se agregaron 10 g de agar y el pH fue ajustado a 6,0. El polen fresco fue incubado durante ocho horas con lecturas cada dos horas. Los resultados indican que el método es confiable para cuantificar la viabilidad de granos de polen, ya que después de ocho horas de incubación se logró un 79% de germinación, 0,50 mm de longitud del tubo polínico y 0,0532 mm de diámetro del mismo. Por lo tanto, el uso de polen con ocho horas de almacenamiento es favorable para la producción de semilla híbrida a través de la hibridación artificial, por haber registrado un aumento de germinación de 0,4942% con efecto cuadrático, por cada hora de incubación.Abstract: We assessed the viability of pollen of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. using in vitro germination method. The collection of flower buds in pre-anthesis of the Lila criolla variety was carried out in the morning from 07:00 to 08:00 hours. Pollen grains were extracted with an electric vibrator and rehydrated in a humid chamber for two hours at a temperature of 25 ºC. Subsequently, for germination in vitro, were dispersed, using a paintbrush, in a culture medium container 100 g of saccharose (C12H22O11, 500 mg of calcium

  17. Sequence-based SSR marker development and their application in defining the Introgressions of LA0716 (Solanum pennellii in the background of cv. M82 (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Long

    Full Text Available The introgression lines (ILs from cv. M82 (Solanum lycopersicum × LA0716 (S. pennellii have been proven to be exceptionally useful for genetic analysis and gene cloning. The introgressions were originally defined by RFLP markers at their development. The objectives of this study are to develop polymorphic SSR markers, and to re-define the DNA introgression from LA0716 in the ILs. Tomato sequence data was scanned by software to generate SSR markers. In total, 829 SSRs, which could be robustly amplified by PCR, were developed. Among them, 658 SSRs were dinucleotide repeats, 162 were trinucleotide repeats, and nine were tetranucleotide repeats. The 829 SSRs together with 96 published RFLPs were integrated into the physical linkage map of S. lycopersicum. Introgressions of DNA fragments from LA0716 were re-defined among the 75 ILs using the newly developed SSRs. A specific introgression of DNA fragment from LA0716 was identified in 72 ILs as described previously by RFLP, whereas the specific DNA introgression described previously were not detected in the ILs LA4035, LA4059 and LA4091. The physical location of each investigated DNA introgression was finely determined by SSR mapping. Among the 72 ILs, eight ILs showed a shorter and three ILs (IL3-2, IL12-3 and IL12-3-1 revealed a longer DNA introgression than that framed by RFLPs. Furthermore, 54 previously undefined segments were found in 21 ILs, ranging from 1 to 11 DNA introgressions per IL. Generally, the newly developed SSRs provide additional markers for genetic studies of tomatoes, and the fine definition of DNA introgressions from LA0716 would facilitate the use of the ILs for genetic analysis and gene cloning.

  18. Brilliant Green Dye Elimination from Water Using Psidium guajava Leaves and Solanum tuberosum Peels as Adsorbents in Environmentally Benign Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of Psidium guajava (Guava leaves and peels of Solanum tuberosum (Potato as biosorbents in removal of Brilliant Green (BG in batch mode. Surface analysis of biosorbents was done by FT-IR and quantitatively analyzed by Boehm titration. The removal of dye was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Isothermal modeling was studied by using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. Various isothermal parameters for adsorption of Brilliant Green such as qm=1.075 mg/g, 1.173 mg/g ΔG°=-3.397, and −2.397 KJ/mol were noted for Solanum tuberosum peels (PP and Psidium guajava leaves (GL, respectively. Similarly pH, moisture content, and various metals were quantitatively analyzed. Results showed that leaves of Psidium guajava were more effective for removal of Brilliant Green.

  19. Molluscicidal activity of Solanum elaeagnifolium seeds against Galba truncatula intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica: Identification of β-solamarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeh, Fatma; Feki, Houda; Koubaa, Imed; Hamed, Nejia; Damak, Mohamed; Ayadi, Ali; Hammami, Hayet; Mezghani-Jarraya, Raoudha

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of fascioliasis in many developing countries urges the search for simple, cheap, and effective substances. In this view, plants provide interesting molluscicidal activities thanks to the secondary metabolites they produce. The genus Solanum is known for its potent effect on vector snails. The molluscicidal activity of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Solanaceae) seeds against Galba truncatula Müll. (Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica L. (Fasciolidae), was evaluated. Solanum elaeagnifolium seeds were powdered and successively extracted using n-hexane, methylene chloride, acetone, and methanol, for 20 h each. After filtration, solvents were evaporated. An acid-base treatment was conducted on seed methanolic extract to isolate total alkaloids and β-solamarine. Total saponins fraction was obtained after successive macerations and evaporations. The molluscicidal activity was evaluated by subjecting snails, in groups of 10, for 48 h to 500 mL of extracts, fractions, and pure product aqueous solutions, each containing amounts, ranging from 1 to 50 mg of plant material in 5 mg increments. The methanolic extract of seeds, β-solamarine isolated for the first time from this plant and total saponins fraction showed very potent activities on snails, giving respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 1.18, 0.49, and 0.94 mg/L. Total alkaloids fraction obtained from the methanolic extract was less active giving an LC50 value of 14.67 mg/L. This study emphasizes that glycoalkaloids and saponins of Solanum elaeagnifolium are potent molluscicidal agents. Seed methanolic extract, β-solamarine, and total saponins fraction may be used as molluscicides.

  20. Effect of wounding and light exposure on sterol, glycoalkaloid, and calystegine levels in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. group Tuberosum)

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Usman

    2013-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are neurotoxic substances that are present in some members of the Solanaceae family, including crop species like potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and tomato. The SGA level in the potato tuber is a genetic trait, but certain environmental factors such as wounding and light exposure can increase SGA levels several-fold, which may render tubers unsuitable for human consumption. There is little information about SGA biosynthesis. The sterol cholesterol is commonly rega...

  1. Mechanitis polymnia casabranca and Ithomia lichyi lichyi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) damaging tree of Solanum granuloso-leprosum (Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares,Wagner de Souza; Pereira,Alexandre Igor de Azevedo; Mielke,Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Serrão,José Eduardo; Zanuncio,José Cola

    2014-01-01

    The Zona da Mata region is located in southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil with fauna and flora diversified, including herbivorous insects and Solanaceae plants. Ithomiinae caterpillars were observed damaging tree of Solanum granuloso-leprosum Dunal (Solanaceae), used for different purposes and abundant in secondary forest. The objective of this study was to identify defoliating caterpillars of S. granuloso-leprosum at the campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) in Viçosa, Minas Ger...

  2. Laju Tumbuh Tanaman dan Produksi Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Varietas Granola pada Pemberian Pupuk Organik Kascing dan Inokulasi Mikoriza Arbuskular

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhalisyah, Nurhalisyah

    2008-01-01

    The Crop Growth Rate and Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) of Granola Variety Under Applying Earthworms Castings and Inoculants of Arbuscular MycorrhizaeABSTRACT. This study intends to identify the crop growth rate and yield of potato at the application earthworms castings and inoculants arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM). Using randomized block design with dual factorial. First factor was the application the earthworm castings with four levels of treatment, that are 0, 100, 200, and 300 gram c...

  3. Application of UV/VIS spectrophotometry and multivariate analysis to characterization of the species of Solanum sect. Erythrotrichum CHILD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílio, Ionaldo José L D; Moura, Renata K P; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata; de Fátima Agra, Maria

    2012-06-01

    The UV/VIS spectral characteristics of the standardized extracts of the leaves of 22 Solanum species of the Leptostemonum clade were investigated in the presence of shift reagents with the aid of multivariate analysis, to obtain data in support of the interspecific and subsectional delimitation proposed for Solanum sect. Erythrotrichum. Of these species, 20 belong to the section Erythrotrichum, S. paniculatum is assigned to the section Torva, and S. robustum is not attributed to a defined section. The results indicated characteristic λ(max) (absorbance maxima) for each species as well as the presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids such as 5-hydroxy flavonols. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data obtained by UV/VIS analysis of the extracts or the extracts with the added shift reagents AlCl₃ and HCl showed a cophenetic correlation coefficient above 0.92 and the classification of the data into three groups. The principal-component analysis (PCA) revealed that the first three principal components accounted for over 98% of the total variance and showed results similar to those obtained by HCA. The present results supported the current proposal for interspecific delimitation of the studied species and partially supported the division of the section into two subsections. The UV/VIS spectral characteristics along with multivariate analysis appear to be a useful approach for distinguishing among species of the genus Solanum. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Analysis of genetic diversity and genome relationships of four eggplant species (Solanum melongena L) using RAPD markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo; Setyaningsih, M.

    2018-01-01

    Solanum melongena (eggplant) is one of the diversity of the Solanum family which is grown and widely spread in Indonesia and widely used by the community. This research explored the genetic diversity of four local Indonesian eggplant species namely leuca, tekokak, gelatik and kopek by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). The samples were obtained from Agricultural Technology Assessment Institute (BPTP) Bogor, Indonesia. The result of data observation was in the form of Solanum melongena plant’s DNA profile analyzed descriptively and quantitatively. 30 DNA bands (28 polymorphic and 2 monomorphic) were successfully scored by using four primers (OPF-01, OPF-02, OPF-03, and OPF-04). The Primers were used able to amplify all of the four eggplant samples. The result of PCR-RAPD visualization produces bands of 300-1500 bp. The result of cluster analysis showed the existence of three clusters (A, B, and C). Cluster A (coefficient of equal to 49%) consisted of a gelatik, cluster B (coefficient of 65% equilibrium) consisted of TPU (Kopek) and TK (Tekokak), and cluster C (55% equilibrium coefficient) consisted of LC (Leunca). These results indicated that the closest proximity is found in samples of TK (Tekokak) and TPU (Kopek).

  5. Caracterização morfológica das sementes e plântulas de seis espécies invasoras do gênero Solanum L Seed and seedling morphology of six weedy species of Solanum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Groth

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available As sementes do gênero Solarium L. são relativamente muito semelhantes, no entanto, a associação de características morfológicas externas da semente com as características anatômicas, como a forma do hilo, a textura e o tipo de esculturas da superfície do tegumento, bem como a forma do embrião curvo (circulado ou espiralado, são características da maior importância na identificação taxonómica à nível de espécie. São apresentadas ilustrações, chaves dicotômicas e descrições morfológicas do gênero Solarium e descrição detalhada das plántulas e das sementes de Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq., S. americanum Mill., S, ciliatum Lam., S. sisymbriifolium Lam., S. sordidum Sendt. e S. viarum Dunal. São apresentados, também, o nome vulgar, o tipo de reprodução e disseminação, as culturas nas quais é considerada invasora e as sementes agrícolas onde ocorre como "impureza".Morphological caracterization of the seeds and seedlings of six weed especies of the genus Solanum L. The seeds of the genus Solanum are very similar, however, the association of their external characteristics with the anatomical features, such as hilum shape, the texture and the type of the seed coat sculptures, as well as the curved (circulated or coiled shape of the embryo, are parameters of great importance in the taxonomical identification at the species level. It is are presented the morphological descriptions of the genus Solanum and a more detailed description of each studied species in terms of seed and seedling structures, including illustrations and taxonomical keys for the identification of Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq., S. americanum Mill., S. ciliatum Lam., S. sisymbriifolium Lam., S. sordidum Sendt. e S. viarum Dunal. There are also indications of the common names, the type of reproduction and dispersion, the crops in which the species is considered as a weed and the agricultural seeds in which it is found as a weed seed.

  6. The protein translocation systems in plants - composition and variability on the example of Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Puneet; Simm, Stefan; Blaumeiser, Andreas; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Mirus, Oliver; Schleiff, Enrico

    2013-03-18

    Protein translocation across membranes is a central process in all cells. In the past decades the molecular composition of the translocation systems in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts have been established based on the analysis of model organisms. Today, these results have to be transferred to other plant species. We bioinformatically determined the inventory of putative translocation factors in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by orthologue search and domain architecture analyses. In addition, we investigated the diversity of such systems by comparing our findings to the model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and 12 other plant species. The literature search end up in a total of 130 translocation components in yeast and A. thaliana, which are either experimentally confirmed or homologous to experimentally confirmed factors. From our bioinformatic analysis (PGAP and OrthoMCL), we identified (co-)orthologues in plants, which in combination yielded 148 and 143 orthologues in A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, respectively. Interestingly, we traced 82% overlap in findings from both approaches though we did not find any orthologues for 27% of the factors by either procedure. In turn, 29% of the factors displayed the presence of more than one (co-)orthologue in tomato. Moreover, our analysis revealed that the genomic composition of the translocation machineries in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens resemble more to higher plants than to single celled green algae. The monocots (Z. mays and O. sativa) follow more or less a similar conservation pattern for encoding the translocon components. In contrast, a diverse pattern was observed in different eudicots. The orthologue search shows in most cases a clear conservation of components of the translocation pathways/machineries. Only the Get-dependent integration of tail-anchored proteins seems to be distinct. Further, the complexity of the

  7. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  8. Respuesta del lulo La Selva (Solanum quitoense x Solanum hirtum a la aplicación de fermentados aeróbicos tipo bocashi y fertilizante químico Response of the lulo fruit cv. La Selva (Solanum quitoense x Solanum hirtum at the aerobic organic and inorganic fertilizer applications

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    Víctor Hugo Ramírez-Builes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo derivado de cenizas volcánicas bien drenado y de alta fertilidad del municipio Ansermanuevo (zona cafetera de Colombia, en el cultivo de lulo (Solanum quitoense x S. hirtum se evaluaron tres fuentes orgánicas tipo bocashi, provenientes de los procesos de fermentación de pulpa de café, lombricompuesto y gallinaza y un tratamiento con fertilizante químico (10-30-10 más un testigo absoluto sin aplicación de fertilizantes. Se empleó un diseño experimental en bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones, cada repetición estuvo constituida por 58 plantas. Las aplicaciones de materiales orgánicos mejoraron las características del suelo, estabilizando el pH, aumentando la capacidad de intercambio catiónico y la materia orgánica. En términos generales, el tratamiento de mejor desempeño fue el bocashi de gallinaza, con un promedio de cuajamiento de fruto de 38.3% y un mayor rendimiento (4.7 t/ha. Los bocashis de lombricompuesto y pulpa de café no fueron estadísticamente diferentes al tratamiento químico y todos los tratamientos fueron distintos (P In this study four fertilization treatments in lulo crop (Solanum quitoense x S.hirtum were evaluated, three organic with several manure sources like coffee skin , earthworm residues and chicken manure, and a four treatment consisted of inorganic fertilizer with a composition of 10-30-30 ( N,P,K and a control without fertilizer applications. A complete block random design with three replications was used and each replication with 58 plants. The organic fertilization increase the soil pH, cation exchange capacity and soil organic matter. The best treatment was the aerobic fermented, based on chicken manure with a fruit yield average of 4731 kg .ha-1, the rest of the organic treatments did no showed statistical differences with the inorganic fertilization and all were statistical different with the control without fertilizer applications, which showed a good crop response to the

  9. Evaluation of hybrids of So/anum po/yadenium Greenm for white worm resistance in potatoe (Premmotripes voraxHustoche. Evaluación de híbridos de Solanum polyadenium Greenm. Para resistencia al gusano blanco de la papa (Premnotrypes vorax Hustache

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    Trillos G. Ofelia

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Four Solanum polyadenlum crossed with Solanum berthanltil, Solanum chacoense and Solanum phureja were evaluated for resistance to the Andean potato weevil (Premnotrypes vorax Hustache. From the set of 397 hybrids avaluated six (1,52%
    were selected for resistance. For other agronomical and biochemical characteristics the most promising hybrids were the 12 th, the 14 th and the 15 th from the second family (498096.1-Solanum polyadenlium x Solanum phureja. The type of resistance found was antibiosis which affects both the development and the reproduction of the insect.Enel presente trabajo se evaluó el grado de resistencia
    al gusano blanco de la Papa (Premnotrypes voraxHustache de los hibrldos obtenidos mediante el cruzamiento de la especie Solanum polyadenium con las especies Solanum berthanltil, Solanum chacoense y Solanum phureja. De un total de 397 hibridos evaluados, se seleccionaron seis (1.5% por su alto nivel de resistencia al gusano blanco. Porotras caracteristicas agronómicas y bioquimicas, se consideraron como losmás importantesen un programa de mejoramiento a los hibridos 12; 14 y 15 de la Familia 2 (498096.1 - hibrido de Solanum polyadenlum x Amarilla Perú - Solanum phureja. El mecanismo de resistencia observado es del tipo antibiosis, el cual afecta la supervivencia, desarrollo y reproducción del insecto.

  10. The absorption spectra of natural dyes and their suitability as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyzes the suitability of organic dyes (hibiscus, Solanum nigrum, beetroot and eggplant) that are locally available in East Africa for low-budget dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The natural dyes were extracted in different ways, where the nightshade berries and eggplant were simply crushed and sieved to ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bursić, V. Vol 31, No 2 (2017) - Articles Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract and its influence on antioxidant system in black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings and mortality rate of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) adults. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1726- ...

  12. Preliminary Feasibility Report (Stage 2), Review of Reports on Lorain Harbor, Ohio. Volume 2. Appendices. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    bulrush Scirpus fluviatilis Reed canary grass Phalaris urundinacea Blue joint grass Calamogrostis canadensis Jewelweed Impatiens capensis Meadow...emergents: Swamp rose mallow Hibiscus palustris Nettle Urtica sp. Nightshade Solanum dulcamara Hedge bindweed Convolvulus sepium Peppermint Mentha arvensis...Staghorn sumac Rhus coppallina Tree of heaven Ailanthus altissima Wild grape Vitas sp. Honeysuckle Lonicera sp. Elderberry Sambucus canadensis Hawthorn

  13. Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulators for Use in Grounds Maintenance at Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Milkweed - Asciep/as spp. Mimosa - Albizziajulibrissin Nightshade - Solanum spp. Oxeye daisy - Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Prostrate spurge - Euphorbia ...lanatus C. Broadleaf Weed Species: 1-5% Birdf oat Tefoil - Lotus corniculatus Black-eyed Susan - Rudbeckia hirta L. Black Medic - Medicago lupulina

  14. In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of Boerhavia elegans and Solanum surattense

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    Khodakarim Nastaran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to identify new anti-malarial drug targets for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy, due to the increasing problem of drug resistance to malaria parasites. In the present study, the aim was to discover novel, effective plant-based extracts for the activity against malaria. Methods Ten plants found in Iran were selected by ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants. The crude ethanolic extracts were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum: K1 (chloroquine-resistant strain and CY27 (chloroquine-sensitive strain, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH assay. The anti-plasmodial activity of the extracts was also assessed in the 4-day suppressive anti-malarial assay in mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain. Crude ethanolic extracts showed good anti-plasmodial activity were further fractionated by partitioning in water and dichloromethane. Results Of 10 plant species assayed, three species: Boerhavia elegans (Choisy, Solanum surattense (Burm.f. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw. showed promising anti-plasmodial activity in vitro (IC50 ≤ 50 μg/ml and in vivo with no toxicity. The dichloromethane fraction of three extracts revealed stronger anti-plasmodial activity than the total extracts. Conclusion Anti-plasmodial activities of extracts of B. elegans and S. surattense are reported for the first time.

  15. In-vitro antiviral activity of Solanum nigrum against Hepatitis C Virus

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    Rehman Sidra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C is a major health problem causes liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. The current treatment of standard interferon in combination with ribavirin, has limited benefits due to emergence of resistant mutations during long-term treatment, adverse side effects and high cost. Hence, there is a need for the development of more effective, less toxic antiviral agents. Results The present study was designed to search anti-HCV plants from different areas of Pakistan. Ten medicinal plants were collected and tested for anti-HCV activity by infecting the liver cells with HCV 3a innoculum. Methanol and chloroform extracts of Solanum nigrum (SN seeds exhibited 37% and more than 50% inhibition of HCV respectively at non toxic concentration. Moreover, antiviral effect of SN seeds extract was also analyzed against HCV NS3 protease by transfecting HCV NS3 protease plasmid into liver cells. The results demonstrated that chloroform extract of SN decreased the expression or function of HCV NS3 protease in a dose- dependent manner and GAPDH remained constant. Conclusion These results suggest that SN extract contains potential antiviral agents against HCV and combination of SN extract with interferon will be better option to treat chronic HCV.

  16. Colonization of roots of cultivated Solanum lycopersicum by dark septate and other ascomycetous endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocio; Grosch, Rita; Franken, Philipp; Rexer, Karl-Heinz; Kost, Gerhard; Restrepo, Silvia; de Garcia, Maria Caridad Cepero; Maximova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots from four different crop sites in Colombia were surface sterilized and 51 fungal isolates were obtained and conserved for further analysis. Based on microscopical observations and growth characteristics, 20 fungal isolates corresponded to genus Fusarium, six presented asexual conidia different from Fusarium, eight were sterile mycelia, seven of which had dark septate hyphae and 17 did not continue to grow on plates after being recovered from conservation. Growth on different media, detailed morphological characterization and ITS region sequencing of the six sporulating and eight sterile isolates revealed that they belonged to different orders of Ascomycota and that the sterile dark septate endophytes did not correspond to the well known Phialocephala group. Interactions of nine isolates with tomato plantlets were assessed in vitro. No effect on shoot development was revealed, but three isolates caused brown spots in roots. Colonization patterns as analyzed by confocal microscopy differed among the isolates and ranged from epidermal to cortical penetration. Altogether 11 new isolates from root endophytic fungi were obtained, seven of which showed features of dark septate endophytes. Four known morphotypes were represented by five isolates, while six isolates belonged to five morphotypes of putative new unknown species.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Mechanism of the Green Fruit Extract of Solanum integrifolium Poir.

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    Lisu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The green fruit of Solanum integrifolium Poir. has been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic remedy in Taiwanese aboriginal medicine. The goal of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of the green fruit extract of S. integrifolium. A bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure was developed to identify the active partition fraction. The methanol fraction (ME, with the highest phenolic content, exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect against LPS-mediated nitric oxide (NO release and cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages. ME also significantly downregulated the expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL3/MIP1α. Moreover, ME significantly upregulated HO-1 expression and stimulated the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. Pretreatment of cells with the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin and MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated ME’s inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production. Taken together, this is the first study to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of green fruit extract of S. integrifolium and its activity may be mediated by the upregulation of HO-1 expression and activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  18. Infra-red thermography for high throughput field phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum.

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    Ankush Prashar

    Full Text Available The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions.

  19. Irrigation of Solanum lycopersicum L. with magnetically treated water increases antioxidant properties of its tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, A E Ferrer; Leite, G O; Rocha, J B T

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant effects of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) have been studied and an association between dietary intake of tomatoes and lowered risk of cancer, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases has been suggested. Here we used magnetically treated water (MTW; 0.03-0.15 T), which promotes better germination and productivity in tomatoes, and we investigated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic (10-400 μg/ml) extracts of S. lycopersicum as potential antioxidant against 10 μM Fe(II)-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) in liver and brain homogenates from rats. The ethanolic extracts from magnetically treated plants were more effective than aqueous extracts in preventing TBARS formation in brain and liver. The protective effects of ethanolic extract can be associated with antioxidants (polyphenols and flavonoids), lycopene and other lipophilic components found in the extract. In effect, magnetically treated plants had higher content of polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds than nontreated plants and they can be a better source of antioxidants than nontreated plants. Consequently, MTW can be used to produce functional foods with high contents of antioxidant components and may have better beneficial health effects than traditionally produced foods.

  20. Chitosans of different molecular weight enhance potato (Solanum tuberosum L. yield in a field trial

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    Alejandro B. Falcón-Rodríguez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical features of chitosan affect its biological activity on plants. In this work, the influence of chitosan molecular mass in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. yields was investigated. By using chitosan polymers of high (CH-1 and low (CH-2 molecular weight and a hydrolysed chitosan derivative (CHH, two experiments were performed under field conditions to determine the effect of these polymers on yields of two potato varieties, ‘Call White’ and ‘Santana’. For this purpose, the foliar spray of low doses of the derivatives at three cultivation moments was performed and several yield variables were determined at crop harvest. All three chitosan compounds increased the performance variables determined respect to the control, depending on the variable, the dose employed and the mass of the derivative evaluated. In most variables determined, the two lowest doses (200 and 325 mg/ha provoked the highest increments above control. Chitosans also affected distribution of mass per tuber size, particularly; in ‘Santana’ variety the two lowest doses enhanced the commercial tuber sizes. Among the polymers, CH-1 caused the greatest increases in performance, while, compared to the polymer, CHH provoked higher yields. In conclusion, foliar application at low doses of high molecular weight and hydrolysed chitosan enhanced potato yield between 15-30%.

  1. Responses of grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersioconL.) to abiotic stresses in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Abdulaziz; Hejazi, Ahmad; Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul

    2017-09-01

    Quantity and quality of irrigation water are considered the most imperative limiting factors for plant production in arid environment. Adoptions of strategies can minimize crop water consumption while nonexistent yield reduction is considered challenge for scholars especially in arid environment. Grafting is regarded as a promising tool to avoid or reduce yield loss caused by abiotic stresses. Tomato ( Solanum lycopersium Mill.), commercial cultivar Faridah was grafted on Unifort rootstock and grown under regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) (100%, 80% and 60% ETc), using two types of irrigation water, fresh (EC = 0.86 dS/m) and brackish (EC = 3.52 dS/m). The effects of grafting and RDI on water use efficiency, vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality were investigated. Plant vegetative growth was reduced under water and salinity stresses. Grafting the plant significantly improves the vegetative growth under both conditions. The results showed that crop yield, Ca +2 and K + were considerably increased in grafted tomato compared to non-grafted plants under water and salinity stresses. Grafted tomato plants accumulated less Na + and Cl - , especially under high levels of salinity compared to non-grafted plants. Grafting tomato plants showed a slight decrease on the fruit quality traits such as vitamin C, titratable acidity (TA) and total soluble solids (TSS). This study confirmed that grafted tomato plants can mitigate undesirable impact of salt stress on growth and fruit quality.

  2. Oxidative stress and antioxidative mechanisms in tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.) plants sprayed with different pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiztekin, M.; Kaya, C.

    2015-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted to appraise the influence of exogenously applied pesticides such as abamectin, thiamethoxam, pyriproxyfen and acetamiprid on oxidative defence system and some key physiological attributes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Each of these pesticides was applied in three doses (recommended dose, twice and three times higher than the recommended dose). Higher doses of pesticides sprayed to the plants resulted in marked increase in leaf free proline content and electrolyte leakage, but in a decrease in shoot dry matter, chl a, chl b and chl a+b in tomato plants as compared to those plants not sprayed with pesticides. These reductions were greater in tomato plants sprayed with highest doses of thiamethoxam (144 mg L-1), whereas the reverse was true for proline content and electrolyte leakage. The foliar application of pesticides at the highest levels caused enhanced accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in most cases, and these being greater in treatment of foliar application of thiamethoxam at the highest level. The highest doses of pesticides promoted the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in most cases. The results clearly indicate that application of pesticides at higher doses than recommended doses provoked both oxidative and antioxidative systems in tomato plants. (author)

  3. Protective effects of steroidal alkaloids isolated from Solanum paniculatum L. against mitomycin cytotoxic and genotoxic actions

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    PABLINE M. VIEIRA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solanum paniculatum L. is a plant species widespread throughout tropical America, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado region. It is used in Brazil for culinary purposes and in folk medicine to treat liver and gastric dysfunctions, as well as hangovers. Previous studies with S. paniculatum ethanolic leaf extract or ethanolic fruit extract demonstrated that they have no genotoxic activity neither in mice nor in bacterial strains, although their cytotoxicity and antigenotoxicity were demonstrated in higher doses. In order to assess the possible compounds responsible for the activities observed, we fractionated the ethanolic fruit extract of S. paniculatum, characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectra, and evaluated two fractions containing steroidal alkaloids against mitomycin C (MMC using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Swiss mice were orally treated with different concentrations (25, 50, or 100 mg.kg−1 of each fraction simultaneously with a single intraperitonial dose of MMC (4 mg.kg−1. Antigenotoxicity was evaluated by using the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE, whereas anticytotoxicity was assessed by the polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE. Our results demonstrated that steroidal alkaloids isolated from S. paniculatum strongly protected cells against MMC aneugenic and/or clastogenic activities as well as modulated MMC cytotoxic action.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of extracellular metabolites from antagonistic bacteria isolated from potato (Solanum phureja crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinar David Granada García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms for biological control are capable of producing active compounds that inhibit the development of phytopathogens, constituting a promising tool toob tain active principles that could replace synthetic pesticides. This study evaluatedtheability of severalpotentialbiocontrol microorganismsto produce active extracellular metabolites. In vitro antagonistic capability of 50 bacterial isolates from rhizospheric soils of "criolla" potato (Solanum phureja was tested through dual culture in this plant with different plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Isolates that showed significantly higher antagonistic activity were fermented in liquid media and crude extracts from the supernatants had their biological activities assessed by optical density techniques. Inhibitory effecton tested pathogens was observed for concentrations between 0.5% and 1% of crude extracts. There was a correlation between the antimicrobial activity of extracts and the use of nutrient-rich media in bacteria fermentation. Using a bioguided method, a peptidic compound, active against Fusarium oxysporum, was obtained from the 7ANT04 strain (Pyrobaculum sp.. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography coupled to mass detector evidenced an 11-amino acid compound. Bioinformatic software using raw mass data confirmed the presence of a cyclic peptide conformed by 11 mostly non-standard amino acids.

  5. Invasion of Solanum tuberosum L. by Aspergillus terreus: a microscopic and proteomics insight on pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Roy, Pranab; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Singh, Mohendro Wakambam; Chandradev, Sharma K; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-06-10

    Aspergillus terreus is one of the most harmful filamentous fungal pathogen of humans, animals and plants. Recently, researchers have discovered that A. terreus can cause foliar blight disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). We used light and scanning electron microscopy, and performed proteomics analysis in an attempt to dissect the invasion process of A. terreus in this important crop. Microscopic study revealed that invasion of leaf tissue is marked by rapid germination of A. terreus phialidic conidia (PC) by 4 h after inoculation. By 8 h after inoculation, primary germ tubes from PC differentiated into irregular protuberance, often displayed stomata atropism, and failed to penetrate via the epidermal cells. Colonization of leaf tissues was associated with high rate of production of accessory conidia (AC). These analyses showed the occurrence of a unique opposing pattern of AC, tissue-specific and produced on melanized colonizing hyphae during the infection of leaf tissue. A significant proteome change hallmarked by differential expression of class I patatin, lipoxygenase, catalase-peroxidase complex, and cysteine proteinase inhibitor were observed during tuber colonization. These proteins are often involved in signal transduction pathways and crosstalk in pathogenic responses. A. terreus abundantly produced AC and multipolar germinating PC to invade potato leaf tissue. Additionally, A. terreus differentially induced enzymes in potato tuber during colonization which facilitates rapid disease development.

  6. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. "Longshu No. 3") plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  7. Stability of Anthocyanins from Rubus glaucus and Solanum betaceum as affected by Temperature and Water Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Marcela Olaya

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The stability of sprayed-dried microencapsulated anthocyanins from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus and Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum, as affected by storage time, water activity (Aw and temperature was compared. The fruits were osmotically dehydrated with ethanol and the anthocyanin extract was microencapsulated with maltodextrin DE 20 by spray drying. Half life of the anthocyanins; changes in color, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of the powders, were analyzed during storage at two different temperatures (25 °C and 40 °C and two Aw levels (0.20 and 0.35. A decrease in monomeric anthocyanin was observed in both samples. The half life of the Andes berry pigments ranged between 11 and 32 days while the half life of the tamarillo pigments ranged between 9 and 21 days. A darkening effect occurred in both samples as a result of storage time.  The antioxidant activity decreased while the phenolic content increased with time. Antioxidant activity of Andes berry samples was highly correlated with anthocyanin content and total phenolic content while the antioxidant activity of tamarillo samples was highly correlated with total phenolic content. These results would be useful in developing applications for spray-dried anthocyanin as powdered food-grade colorants.

  8. Herbal Plant Synthesis of Antibacterial Silver Nanoparticles by Solanum trilobatum and Its Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vanaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis method of nanomaterials is rapidly growing in the nanotechnology field; it replaces the use of toxic chemicals and time consumption. In this present investigation we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by using the leaf extract of medicinally valuable plant Solanum trilobatum. The influence of physical and chemical parameters on the silver nanoparticle fabrication such as incubation time, silver nitrate concentration, pH, and temperature is also studied in this present context. The green synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The SEM and TEM confirm the synthesis of spherical shape of nanocrystalline particles with the size range of 2–10 nm. FTIR reveals that the carboxyl and amine groups may be involved in the reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles was done by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic bacteria. The green synthesized silver nanoparticles can be used in the field of medicine, due to their high antibacterial activity.

  9. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. “Longshu No. 3”) plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  10. Identification and QTL mapping of whitefly resistance components in Solanum galapagense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Syarifin; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Hidayati, Nurul; Supena, Ence Darmo Jaya; Mumm, Roland; de Vos, Ric C H; Visser, Richard G F; Vosman, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Solanum galapagense is closely related to the cultivated tomato and can show a very good resistance towards whitefly. A segregating population resulting from a cross between the cultivated tomato and a whitefly resistant S. galapagense was created and used for mapping whitefly resistance and related traits, which made it possible to study the genetic basis of the resistance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for adult survival co-localized with type IV trichome characteristics (presence, density, gland longevity and gland size). A major QTL (Wf-1) was found for adult survival and trichome characters on Chromosome 2. This QTL explained 54.1 % of the variation in adult survival and 81.5 % of the occurrence of type IV trichomes. A minor QTL (Wf-2) for adult survival and trichome characters was identified on Chromosome 9. The major QTL was confirmed in F3 populations. Comprehensive metabolomics, based on GCMS profiling, revealed that 16 metabolites segregating in the F2 mapping population were associated with Wf-1 and/or Wf-2. Analysis of the 10 most resistant and susceptible F2 genotypes by LCMS showed that several acyl sugars were present in significantly higher concentration in the whitefly resistant genotypes, suggesting a role for these components in the resistance as well. Our results show that whitefly resistance in S. galapagense seems to inherit relatively simple compared to whitefly resistance from other sources and this offers great prospects for resistance breeding as well as elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of the resistance.

  11. Respiratory behavior of turning stage mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. under closed system at different temperature

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    Ranjeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiration rate and respiratory quotient of mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. ‘Himsona’ fruits harvested at the turning stage were determined under closed system at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 °C (ambient temperatures. The rate of respiration was higher at the start of the experiment and gradually declined as the storage period prolonged, before becoming almost constant. The steady-state respiration rate for CO2 evolution were observed to be 14.35, 15.04,19.95, 21.7 and 20.3 ml/kg-h at 10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C, respectively. The RQ values for tomato varied from 0.55 to 1.10 with time under the experimental conditions. The respiration rate at steady state based on carbon dioxide evolution and oxygen consumption in closed condition decreased by about 46 % and 73 %, respectively relative to initial respiration rate values at normal air atmosphere. The results suggest that the respiration rate of tomato increased with temperature and decrease with storage time.

  12. Antifungal activity of Vegetal extracts against fungal pathogens of Solanum lycopersicum L

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    Dianella Iglesias Rodrígue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum lycopersicum L. is often attacked by fungal pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum Schlee, Alternaria solani Sor, Passarola fulva (Cooke U. Braun and Crous, Botritys cinerea Pers, Rhizoctonia solani Khün and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. The phytosanitary control of these diseases is commonly executed by synthetic fungicides that increase the production cost and cause intense problems to the environment and damage human health. It is necessary to find new cheaper alternatives and with low environmental impact like vegetal extracts. In this research, a review about the use of vegetal extracts against tomato pathogens was made, focusing on the tested vegetal specie, the way to determine the antifungal activity and the evaluated fungus. The bibliographic research covered the period 2003-2013 and it was consulted 54 articles of journals indexed in specialized databases of international and Latin American acceptance. The most evaluated vegetal extracts by the investigators were those related to the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss and Allium sativum L., the most studied fungus was R. solani. In the majority of cases, the antifungal activity was only determined in vitro conditions

  13. Robust regeneration protocol for the Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Solanum tuberosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bilal, M.; Hussain, J.; Shah, M. M.; Hassan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant genetic transformation requires robust regeneration system. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as cytokinins (CKs) play a pivotal role in organogenesis; however, CKs are the most expensive PGRs. In the current study, an efficient yet economical protocol for regeneration of potato plant was developed. Stem inter-nodal and leaf explants were cultured on different regeneration media supplemented with varying concentration of different CKs such as kinetin and zeatin. Murashige- Skoog media added with zeatin (1, 1.5 mg/L) was designated as RZ1, RZ1.5, respectively or kinetin (1.5, 2 mg/L) was designated as RK1.5 and RK2, respectively, however, concentrations of other hormones such as NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) and GA3 (Gibberellic acid A3) were kept same. RZ1 and RZ1.5 gave significantly better Results as compared to RK-type media in all aspects studied such as callus initiation, days to first shoot emergence, number of shoots per explants. RZ1 medium was then selected as regeneration media for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato plants with cyanobacterial phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene, which provided multiple putative transformants on selection media. The transformants were further confirmed through PCR. The current protocol is found to be cost effective and efficient for the regeneration of Solanum tuberosum and can be successfully implied for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (author)

  14. Resistance to Alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B N; Jansky, S H

    2012-02-01

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic loss in many potato-growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early blight resistant clone of the diploid wild species S. raphanifolium was crossed as a male to a haploid (2n=2x) of cultivated potato. Hybrids were backcrossed to both parents. Eight families were created and evaluated for early blight resistance in the field. Families created by backcrossing to the wild species parent exhibited significantly lower relative area under the disease progress curve means than those from backcrossing to the cultivated parent, leading to the conclusion that S. raphanifolium contributes genes for early blight resistance. The mechanism of resistance in S. raphanifolium is unique because A. solani could not be recovered from lesions. Clones were identified with high levels of resistance and adaptation to the photoperiod of a temperate production region.

  15. Metabolic Biosynthesis of Potato (Solanum tuberosum l.) Antioxidants and Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, Christie; Nassar, Atef M K; Kubow, Stan; Li, Xiu-Qing; Donnelly, Danielle J

    2016-10-25

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is common, affordable, readily stored, easily prepared for consumption, and nutritious. For these reasons, potato has become one of the top five crops consumed worldwide. Consequently, it is important to understand its contribution to both our daily and long-term health. Potato is one of the most important sources of antioxidants in the human diet. As such, it supports the antioxidant defense network in our bodies that reduces cellular and tissue toxicities that result from free radical-induced protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and DNA damage. In this way, potato antioxidants may reduce the risk for cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and even radiation damage. A better understanding of these components of potato is needed by the food industry, health professionals, and consumers. This review provides referenced summaries of all of the antioxidant groups present in potato tubers and updated schematics including genetic regulation for the major antioxidant biosynthesis pathways. This review complements current knowledge on the role of potato in human health. We hope it will provide impetus toward breeding efforts to develop cultivars with increased antioxidant capacity as 'functional foods' and encourage potato consumers and processors to work toward preservation of antioxidant capacity in cooked potato and potato products.

  16. Glycoalkaloid profile in potato haploids derived from solanum tuberosum-S. bulbocastanum somatic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carputo, Domenico; Savarese, Salvatore; Andolfi, Anna; Aversano, Riccardo; Cimmino, Alessio; Frusciante, Luigi; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GA) that may affect either human health or biotic stress resistance. Therefore, GA composition must be a major criterion in the evaluation of breeding products when species genomes are merged and/or manipulated. This work reports the results of GA analysis performed on unique haploid (2n=2x=24) plants obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=48) Solanum bulbocastanum-S. tuberosum hybrids through in vitro anther culture. Glycoalkaloids were extracted from tubers and analyzed by HPLC. Haploids generally showed the occurrence of parental GA. However, in several cases loss of parental GA and gain of new GA lacking in the parents was observed. It may be hypothesized that new GA profiles of our haploids is the result of either genetic recombination or combinatorial biochemistry events. To highlight differences between haploids and parents, soluble proteins and antioxidant activities were also determined. Both were always higher in haploids compared to their parents. The nature of the newly formed GAs will be further investigated, because they may represent new metabolites that can be used against pest and diseases, or are useful for human health.

  17. Proteomic evaluation of wound-healing processes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Inês; Pinheiro, Carla; Paiva, Jorge A P; Planchon, Sébastien; Sergeant, Kjell; Renaut, Jenny; Graça, José A; Costa, Gonçalo; Coelho, Ana V; Ricardo, Cândido P Pinto

    2009-09-01

    Proteins from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber slices, related to the wound-healing process, were separated by 2-DE and identified by an MS analysis in MS and MS/MS mode. Slicing triggered differentiation processes that lead to changes in metabolism, activation of defence and cell-wall reinforcement. Proteins related to storage, cell growth and division, cell structure, signal transduction, energy production, disease/defence mechanisms and secondary metabolism were detected. Image analysis of the 2-DE gels revealed a time-dependent change in the complexity of the polypeptide patterns. By microscopic observation the polyalyphatic domain of suberin was clearly visible by D4, indicating that a closing layer (primary suberisation) was formed by then. A PCA of the six sampling dates revealed two time phases, D0-D2 and D4-D8, with a border position between D2 and D4. Moreover, a PCA of differentially expressed proteins indicated the existence of a succession of proteomic events leading to wound-periderm reconstruction. Some late-expressed proteins (D6-D8), including a suberisation-associated anionic peroxidase, have also been identified in the native periderm. Despite this, protein patterns of D8 slices and native periderm were still different, suggesting that the processes of wound-periderm formation are extended in time and not fully equivalent. The information presented in this study gives clues for further work on wound healing-periderm formation processes.

  18. The effect of a sublethal concentration of Solanum nigrum on some antioxidants in Biomphalaria arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daihan, Sooad; Kaggwa, J S N; El-Ansary, Afaf K

    2010-04-01

    Schistosomisis is endemic in many rural areas of developing countries. The life cycle of schistosomes is complex with two hosts, an intermediate snail host and a definitive human host. Biomphalaria arabica is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. One method of controlling the disease is to break the life cycle at the intermediate host snail stage using molluscicides. Snails kill schistosomes by a mechanism involving production of reactive oxygen species. In this study malondialdehyde (MDA), and the antioxidants glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GP(x)) were determined in tissue homogenates of B. arabica treated with sublethal concentration (LC25) of the plant molluscicide Solanum nigrum. MDA, GSH and CAT were significantly increased in molluscicide-treated snails compared to controls (p < 0.000). GP(x) was decreased in treated snails. It therefore appears that a sublethal concentration of S. nigrum increases both ability of snail tissue to generate cytotoxic ROS and antioxidants for protection of the tissue against the cytotoxicity. The increase in the level of ROS would decrease snail- schistosome compatibility.

  19. Structure of a galactoarabinoglucuronoxylan from tamarillo (Solanum betaceum), a tropical exotic fruit, and its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Georgia Erdmann; Hamm, Leticia Alencar; Baggio, Cristiane H; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Iacomini, Marcello; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C

    2013-11-01

    Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) is a tropical exotic fruit whose polysaccharides were extracted from the ripe pulp. After various purification steps, homogeneous fractions (designated PTW, STK-1000R and PF) were analyzed by sugar composition, HPSEC, methylation and NMR spectroscopy analysis. The results showed that the fraction PTW consisted of a linear arabinan with (1→5)-linked α-l-arabinofuranosyl units. Fractions designated as STK-1000R and PF contained galactoarabinoglucuronoxylans, with (1→4)-linked β-d-Xylp residues in the backbone, carrying branches exclusively at O-2. The polysaccharide in STK-1000R is less branched than that in the PF fraction (∼20.0% and 36.5%, respectively), with side-chains formed by (1→5)-linked α-l-Araf residues and (1→4)-linked α-d-GlcpA residues and with non-reducing end units formed by α-l-Araf, β-Arap, β-d-Galp, α-d-GlcpA and 4-O-Me-α-d-GlcpA. Intraperitoneal administration of the STK-1000R fraction in mice significantly reduced the number of abdominal constrictions induced by 0.6% acetic acid and the inflammatory phase of nociception induced by 2.5% formalin, indicating that that fraction has an antinociceptive effect on inflammatory pain models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure of an arabinogalactan from the edible tropical fruit tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) and its antinociceptive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Georgia Erdmann; Corso, Claudia Rita; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Iacomini, Marcello; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C

    2015-02-13

    A structural characterization of polysaccharides obtained by aqueous extraction of ripe pulp of the edible exotic tropical fruit named tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) was carried out. After fractionation by freeze-thaw and α-amylase treatments, a fraction containing a mixture of highly-methoxylated homogalacturonan and of arabinogalactan was obtained. A degree of methylesterification (DE) of 71% and a degree of acetylation (DA) of 1.3% was determined by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and spectrophotometric quantification, respectively. A type I arabinogalactan was purified via Fehling precipitation and ultrafiltration through 50 kDa (cut-off) membrane. Its chemical structure was performed by sugar composition, HPSEC, methylation, carboxy-reduction and (13)C NMR spectroscopy analysis. Intraperitoneal administration of the arabinogalactan did not reduce the nociception induced by intraplantar injection of 2.5% formalin in mice, but significantly reduced the number of abdominal constrictions induced by 0.6% acetic acid, indicating that fraction has an antinociceptive effect on the visceral inflammatory pain model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seasonal dynamics and management of whitefly ( Bemesia tabaci Genn. in tomato ( Solanum esculentum Mill.

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    Devinder Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies on seasonal dynamics of white fly (Bemesia tabaci on tomato (Solanum esculentum var. Pusa Ruby revealed that it appeared first during the 13th and reached maximum during 21st standard meteorological week. A positive correlation between adult population and abiotic factors viz. temperature (maximum and minimum and sunshine hours was observed, whereas humidity (maximum and minimum and rainfall showed a negative correlation with it. Taken together, the key weather parameters studied, caused 89.00 per cent variation in whitefly population (R2 value. Combination of carbofuran (soil application + imidacloprid (seed treatment + imidacloprid (foliar application proved significantly superior and caused maximum reduction in whitefly population followed by imidacloprid (seed treatment + thiomethoxam (spray, imidacloprid (seed treatment + imidacloprid (spray, imidacloprid (seed treatment + dimetheoate (spray, carbofuran (soil application + malathion (spray, and imidacloprid (seed treatment + yellow sticky traps. The highest cost benefit ratio of 1:25.04 was recorded in case of carbofuran (soil application + imidacloprid (seed treatment + imidacloprid (foliar application followed by 1:22.38 for imidacloprid (seed treatment + thiomethoxam (spray ; 1:21.81 for imidacloprid (seed treatment + imidacloprid (spray; 1:19.27 imidacloprid (seed treatment + dimetheoate (spray; 1:19.48 carbofuran (soil application + malathion (spray, and 1:8.33 for imidacloprid (seed treatment + yellow sticky traps. The soil application of carbofuran + seed treatment with imidacloprid and three foliar sprays of imidacloprid at fortnight interval starting 40 days after transplanting is found effective and is advised for whitefly management in susceptible tomato cultivars.

  2. Enhanced bioremediation of lead-contaminated soil by Solanum nigrum L. with Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Cao, Xiufeng; Li, Min; Zhang, Xu; Li, Xinxin; Cui, Zhaojie

    2017-04-01

    Strain selected from mine tailings in Anshan for Pb bioremediation was characterized at the genetic level by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Results revealed that the strain belongs to Mucor circinelloides. Bioremediation of lead-contaminated soil was conducted using Solanum nigrum L. combined with M. circinelloides. The removal efficacy was in the order microbial/phytoremediation > phytoremediation > microbial remediation > control. The bioremediation rates were 58.6, 47.2, and 40.2% in microbial/phytoremediation, microbial remediation, and phytoremediation groups, respectively. Inoculating soil with M. circinelloides enhanced Pb removal and S. nigrum L. growth. The bioaccumulation factor (BF, 1.43), enrichment factor (EF, 1.56), and translocation factor (TF, 1.35) were higher than unit, suggesting an efficient ability of S. nigrum L. in Pb bioremediation. Soil fertility was increased after bioremediation according to change in enzyme activities. The results indicated that inoculating S. nigrum L. with M. circinelloides enhanced its efficiency for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Pb.

  3. Bacillus effect on the germination and growth of tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.

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    Teresa Cabra Cendales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to solubilize phosphate and to produce indole compounds Indole Acetic Acid type, was evaluated in 15 strains isolated from castor bean lignocellulosic residues (Ricinus communis. To determine the solubilizing activity of phosphates a qualitative test by using Pikovskaya culture medium was employed and for the evaluation of the production of indole compounds (IAA a Salkowsky colorimetric analysis technique was applied. Among the microorganisms tested, the Bacillus pumilus GIBI 206 demonstrated capacity to solubilize phosphates and Bacillus subtilis GIBI 200 showed of capacity to solubilize phosphates and to produce Indoleacetic Acid (IAA. To determine the effect of the Bacillus subtilis strain on germination and growth promotion, tomato seeds (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Santa Clara’ were inoculated; the inoculation of the seeds along with the microorganism revealed statistically significant differences, during the germination stage compared to the control treatment. Nevertheless, it revealed a positive influence on the development of tomato plants, originating a significant increase on the mass and length of its stem and root. The results of this research offer the possibility of using the Bacillus subtilis as a growth promoter in tomato seedlings and in the formulation of bio-products.

  4. Iron uptake system mediates nitrate-facilitated cadmium accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bing Fang; Du, Shao Ting; Lu, Kai Xing; Liu, Wen Jing; Lin, Xian Yong; Jin, Chong Wei

    2012-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) management is a promising agronomic strategy to minimize cadmium (Cd) contamination in crops. However, it is unclear how N affects Cd uptake by plants. Wild-type and iron uptake-inefficient tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant (T3238fer) plants were grown in pH-buffered hydroponic culture to investigate the direct effect of N-form on Cd uptake. Wild-type plants fed NO₃⁻ accumulated more Cd than plants fed NH₄⁺. Iron uptake and LeIRT1 expression in roots were also greater in plants fed NO₃⁻. However, in mutant T3238fer which loses FER function, LeIRT1 expression in roots was almost completely terminated, and the difference between NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ treatments vanished. As a result, the N-form had no effect on Cd uptake in this mutant. Furthermore, suppression of LeIRT1 expression by NO synthesis inhibition with either tungstate or L-NAME, also substantially inhibited Cd uptake in roots, and the difference between N-form treatments was diminished. Considering all of these findings, it was concluded that the up-regulation of the Fe uptake system was responsible for NO₃⁻-facilitated Cd accumulation in plants.

  5. Adaptation to low temperatures in the wild tomato species Solanum chilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, Tetyana; Böndel, Katharina B; Kumpfmüller, Gabriele; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Molecular adaptation to abiotic stresses in plants is a complex process based mainly on the modifications of gene transcriptional activity and the alteration of protein-protein interactions. We used a combination of population genetic, comparative transcriptomic and plant physiology approaches to investigate the mechanisms of adaptation to low temperatures in Solanum chilense populations distributed along Andean altitudinal gradients. We found that plants from all populations have high chilling tolerance, which does not correlate with temperatures in their native habitats. In contrast, tolerance to freezing shows a significant association with altitude and temperature variables. We also observed the differences in expression patterns of cold-response genes between plants from high- and low-altitude populations. These results suggest that genetic adaptations to low temperatures evolved in high-altitude populations of S. chilense. At the transcriptional level, these adaptations may include high levels of constitutive expression of the genes encoding ICE1, the key transcription factor of the cold signalling pathway, and chloroplast ω-3 fatty acid desaturase FAD7. At the sequence level, a signature of selection associated with the adaptation to high altitudes was detected at the C-terminal part of ICE1 encoding the ACT regulatory domain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Inhibition of Penicillium digitatum by a crude extract from Solanum nigrum leaves

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    Musto, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous crude extract from Solanum nigrum lyophilized leaves was evaluated for its phytochemical composition and antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum, the causative agent of green mold of citrus fruit. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of some bioactive substances such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, etc. The extract showed a remarkable inhibition zone against the pathogen in agar well diffusion assays carried out in Petri plates. Storage of the extract at 4 °C for 60 days had no effect on its in vitro antifungal activity. Further, the extract was tested for its in vivo (preventive- and curative treatments antifungal activity on lemons wound-inoculated with P. digitatum. An important preventive antifungal effect was observed after 7 days of storage (100% of inhibition, although this activity decreased after 14 and 21 days (85.71 and 57.14% of inhibition, respectively. A slight curative antifungal activity was observed only after 7 days of storage (14.29% of inhibition. Preliminary findings from this study may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the lemon fruits from postharvest fungal diseases.

  7. Gold Nanomaterial Uptake from Soil Is Not Increased by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Jonathan D; Kirby, Jason K; McLaughlin, Mike J; Cavagnaro, Timothy; Bertsch, Paul M

    2016-04-13

    Bioaccumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) by plants has been demonstrated in numerous studies over the past 5-10 years. However, the overwhelming majority of these studies were conducted using hydroponic systems and the degree to which the addition of the biological and chemical components present in the soil might fundamentally alter the potential of plant bioaccumulation of ENMs is unclear. Here, we used two genotypes of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), reduced mycorrhizal colonization ( rmc ), a mutant which does not allow arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization, and its progenitor, 76R, to examine how colonization by AMF alters trends of gold ENM bioaccumulation from a natural soil. Gold was taken up and bioaccumulated by plants of both genotypes. Gold concentrations were significantly higher in the rmc treatment although this was likely attributable to the large differences in biomass between the 76R and rmc plants. Regardless, there was little evidence that AMF played a significant role in trafficking Au ENMs into the plants. Furthermore, despite very low NH₄NO₃ extractable Au concentrations, Au accumulated at the root-soil interface. Although this observation would seem to suggest that ENMs may have potential to influence this particularly biologically active and important soil compartment, we observed no evidence of this here, as the 76R plants developed a robust AMF symbiosis despite accumulation of Au ENMs at the rhizoplane.

  8. Spectral Libraries for SWATH-MS Assays for Drosophila melanogaster and Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Bertrand; Korona, Dagmara; Mata, Clara I; Parsons, Harriet T; Deery, Michael J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Russell, Steven; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative proteomics methods have emerged as powerful tools for measuring protein expression changes at the proteome level. Using MS-based approaches, it is now possible to routinely quantify thousands of proteins. However, prefractionation of the samples at the protein or peptide level is usually necessary to go deep into the proteome, increasing both MS analysis time and technical variability. Recently, a new MS acquisition method named SWATH is introduced with the potential to provide good coverage of the proteome as well as a good measurement precision without prior sample fractionation. In contrast to shotgun-based MS however, a library containing experimental acquired spectra is necessary for the bioinformatics analysis of SWATH data. In this study, spectral libraries for two widely used models are built to study crop ripening or animal embryogenesis, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. The spectral libraries comprise fragments for 5197 and 6040 proteins for S. lycopersicum and D. melanogaster, respectively, and allow reproducible quantification for thousands of peptides per MS analysis. The spectral libraries and all MS data are available in the MassIVE repository with the dataset identifiers MSV000081074 and MSV000081075 and the PRIDE repository with the dataset identifiers PXD006493 and PXD006495. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Mobilization of storage materials during light-induced germination of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Jagiełło-Flasińska, Dominika; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Hermanowicz, Paweł; Appenroth, Klaus-J; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of storage materials in germinating tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds and to determine whether it is regulated by light via phytochromes. Wild type, single and multiple phytochrome A, B1 and B2 mutants were investigated. Imbibed seeds were briefly irradiated with far-red or far-red followed by red light, and germinated in darkness. Triacylglycerols and starch were quantified using biochemical assays in germinating seeds and seedlings during the first 5 days of growth. To investigate the process of fat-carbohydrate transformation, the activity of the glyoxylate cycle was assessed. Our results confirm the role of phytochrome in the control of tomato seed germination. Phytochromes A and B2 were shown to play specific roles, acting antagonistically in far-red light. While the breakdown of triacylglycerols proceeded independently of light, phytochrome control was visible in the next stages of the lipid-carbohydrate transformation. The key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, were regulated by phytochrome(s). This was reflected in a greater increase of starch content during seedling growth in response to additional red light treatment. This study is the first attempt to build a comprehensive image of storage material metabolism regulation by light in germinating dicotyledonous seeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ivanesa G M; Silva, Edvane B; Amaral, Ademir J; Machado, Erilane C L; Silva, Josenilda M

    2016-06-07

    This work evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the potato cultivar Ágata (Solanum tuberosum L.), including budding and deterioration, with the end goal of increasing shelf life. For this, four groups of samples were harvested at the maturation stage. Three of them were separately exposed to a Co-60 source, receiving respective doses of 0.10, 0.15 and 2.00 kGy, while the non-irradiated group was kept as a control. All samples were stored for 35 days at 24 °C (± 2) and at 39% relative humidity. The following aspects were evaluated: budding, rot, loss of weight, texture, flesh color, moisture, external and internal appearance, aroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, protein, starch and glucose. The results indicated that 0.15 kGy was the most effective dose to reduce sprouting and post-harvest losses, under the conditions studied.

  11. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. after irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANESA G.M. SOARES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the potato cultivar Ágata (Solanum tuberosum L., including budding and deterioration, with the end goal of increasing shelf life. For this, four groups of samples were harvested at the maturation stage. Three of them were separately exposed to a Co-60 source, receiving respective doses of 0.10, 0.15 and 2.00 kGy, while the non-irradiated group was kept as a control. All samples were stored for 35 days at 24 °C (± 2 and at 39% relative humidity. The following aspects were evaluated: budding, rot, loss of weight, texture, flesh color, moisture, external and internal appearance, aroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, protein, starch and glucose. The results indicated that 0.15 kGy was the most effective dose to reduce sprouting and post-harvest losses, under the conditions studied.

  12. The genome sequence of the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium provides insights into salinity tolerance

    KAUST Repository

    Razali, Rozaimi

    2017-11-14

    Solanum pimpinellifolium, a wild relative of cultivated tomato, offers a wealth of breeding potential for several desirable traits such as tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we report the genome and annotation of S. pimpinellifolium LA0480. The LA0480 genome size (811 Mb) and the number of annotated genes (25,970) are within the range observed for other sequenced tomato species. We developed and utilized the Dragon Eukaryotic Analyses Platform (DEAP) to functionally annotate the LA0480 protein-coding genes. Additionally, we used DEAP to compare protein function between S. pimpinellifolium and cultivated tomato. Our data suggest enrichment in genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Moreover, we present phenotypic data from one field experiment that demonstrate a greater salinity tolerance for fruit- and yield-related traits in S. pimpinellifolium compared with cultivated tomato. To understand the genomic basis for these differences in S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum, we analyzed 15 genes that have previously been shown to mediate salinity tolerance in plants. We show that S. pimpinellifolium has a higher copy number of the inositol-3-phosphate synthase and phosphatase genes, which are both key enzymes in the production of inositol and its derivatives. Moreover, our analysis indicates that changes occurring in the inositol phosphate pathway may contribute to the observed higher salinity tolerance in LA0480. Altogether, our work provides essential resources to understand and unlock the genetic and breeding potential of S. pimpinellifolium, and to discover the genomic basis underlying its environmental robustness.

  13. Infra-red Thermography for High Throughput Field Phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashar, Ankush; Yildiz, Jane; McNicol, James W.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Jones, Hamlyn G.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions. PMID:23762433

  14. Diversity, distribution and dynamics of full-length Copia and Gypsy LTR retroelements in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Kozaczek, Melisa Eliana; Rosli, Hernán Guillermo; Andino, Natalia Pilar; Sanchez-Puerta, Maria Virginia

    2017-10-01

    Transposable elements are the most abundant components of plant genomes and can dramatically induce genetic changes and impact genome evolution. In the recently sequenced genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the estimated fraction of elements corresponding to retrotransposons is nearly 62%. Given that tomato is one of the most important vegetable crop cultivated and consumed worldwide, understanding retrotransposon dynamics can provide insight into its evolution and domestication processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide in silico search of full-length LTR retroelements in the tomato nuclear genome and annotated 736 full-length Gypsy and Copia retroelements. The dispersion level across the 12 chromosomes, the diversity and tissue-specific expression of those elements were estimated. Phylogenetic analysis based on the retrotranscriptase region revealed the presence of 12 major lineages of LTR retroelements in the tomato genome. We identified 97 families, of which 77 and 20 belong to the superfamilies Copia and Gypsy, respectively. Each retroelement family was characterized according to their element size, relative frequencies and insertion time. These analyses represent a valuable resource for comparative genomics within the Solanaceae, transposon-tagging and for the design of cultivar-specific molecular markers in tomato.

  15. Hydroxycinnamic acids in cooked potato tubers fromSolanum tuberosumgroup Phureja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros-Niño, Clara; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C; Mosquera, Teresa

    2017-05-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids are phenolic compounds and are considered to have health promotion properties due to their antioxidant activity. Potato tubers of 113 genotypes of Solanum tuberosum group Phureja belonging to the Colombian Central Collection, landraces of potatoes, and commercial cultivars were evaluated for their hydroxycinnamic acids content. The composition of these compounds was analyzed using cooked tubers in two different agro-climatic conditions. The genotypes were analyzed for chlorogenic acid, neo -chlorogenic acid, crypto -chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Chlorogenic acid was the major representative and varied between 0.77 to 7.98 g kg -1  DW (dry weight) followed by crypto -chlorogenic acid (from 0.09 to 1.50 g kg -1  DW). Under moorland agro-climatic conditions even though the chlorogenic acid levels increased with respect to flatland agro-climatic conditions, the related isomer neo -chlorogenic acid decreased as compared to flatland conditions. The correlation between chlorogenic acid with the isomers, and with caffeic acid was positive. This study demonstrated that there is a wide variation in hydroxycinnamic acids contents in the germplasm studied, which can be exploited in breeding programs to contribute to human health.

  16. Comparison of Nutrient Content in Fruit of Commercial Cultivars of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.

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    Ayaz Faik Ahmet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is one of the most popular common major vegetable crops worldwide. This study evaluated the nutritional content of seven commercial eggplant fruits in terms of fatty acid, mineral, sugar, organic acid, amino acid and polyamine contents. The most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid (range, 39.14-53.81%, ave. 45%, and the most abundant mineral was K (range, 1556.2-3171.6 mg/kg fw, ave. 2331.9. The major organic acid was malic acid (range, 129.87-387.01 mg/g fw, ave. 157.49, and the major sugar was fructose (range, 1242.81- 1379.77 mg/100 g fw, ave. 1350.88. The major polyamine was putrescine (11.54 and 25.70 nmol/g fw, ave. 17.86, and the major amino acid was glutamine (148.4 and 298.75 mg/100 g fw, ave. 219.74. Overall, taking into account the export potential of eggplants, these results may contribute to further studies aiming to improve other nutrient-rich varieties of eggplant in breeding programs.

  17. ANALYTICAL APPROACH OF THE VOLATILE FRACTION OF Solanum quitoense BY HS-SPME/GC-MS

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    EDUARDO CORPAS IGUARÁN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The species of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense, predominant in Colombia, is a promising fruit for both national and international market due to its flavor and nutritional characteristics, which generated the interest to know the volatile composition of its pulp. After adjusting, the chromatographic conditions necessary to analyze volatile fraction of this fruit, the effect of the temperature and time of adsorption was measured through the headspace - solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS, on the area of volatile compounds of S. quitoense, by applying the experimental design of a factor. The descriptive analysis suggested that the adsorption at 60°C and 30 minutes promoted optimal recovery of volatiles as well as internal standard (1-Octanol, with recovery of 99,66% at 60ºC, while the non-parametric test Kruskal-Wallis showed statistical differences in the effect of time (P= 0,018, but not of the temperature adsorption (P= 0,058 upon the volatiles compounds area. A predominance of esters (48,98%, aldehydes (18,37%, and alcohols (14,29% was observed and also were found compounds of greatest area such as 3-hexen-1-ol acetate, acetic acid methyl ester, and acetic acid hexyl ester. These metabolites determine the characteristic aroma from lulo pulp and influence the consumer preference.

  18. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils by using Solanum nigrum: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Zia Ur; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Ok, Yong Sik; Ishaque, Wajid; Saifullah; Nawaz, Muhammad Farrakh; Akmal, Fatima; Waqar, Maqsooda

    2017-09-01

    Heavy metals are among the major environmental pollutants and the accumulation of these metals in soils is of great concern in agricultural production due to the toxic effects on crop growth and food quality. Phytoremediation is a promising technique which is being considered as an alternative and low-cost technology for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Solanum nigrum is widely studied for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils owing to its ability for metal uptake and tolerance. S. nigrum can tolerate excess amount of certain metals through different mechanism including enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and metal deposition in non-active parts of the plant. An overview of heavy metal uptake and tolerance in S. nigrum is given. Both endophytic and soil microorganisms can play a role in enhancing metal tolerance in S. nigrum. Additionally, optimization of soil management practices and exogenous application of amendments can also be used to enhance metal uptake and tolerance in this plant. The main objective of the present review is to highlight and discuss the recent progresses in using S. nigrum for remediation of metal contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Oliveira, Rui S.; Samardjieva, Kalina A.; Pissarra, Jose; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.; Castro, Paula M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622 mg Zn kg -1 . The presence of both Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Zn by S. nigrum (up to 83 and 49% higher Zn accumulation, respectively). The main deposits of the metal were found in the intercellular spaces and in the cell walls of the root tissues, as revealed by autometallography, with the inoculation with different AMF species causing no differences in the location of Zn accumulation. These findings indicate that S. nigrum inoculated with selected heavy metal tolerant AMF presents extracting and accumulating capacities, constituting a potentially suitable remediation method for Zn polluted soils. - Zn accumulation by S. nigrum is enhanced by AMF and the metal storage in the tissues at the root level occurs mainly in the cell walls and in the intercellular spaces

  20. Purification and Partial Characterization of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Invertase and Its Endogenous Proteinaceous Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Whitaker, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Invertase plays an important role in the hydrolysis of sucrose in higher plants, especially in the storage organs. In potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers, and in some other plant tissues, the enzyme seems to be controlled by interaction with an endogenous proteinaceous inhibitor. An acid invertase from potato tubers (variety russet) was purified 1560-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity by consecutive use of concanvalin A-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography, Sephadex G-150 chromatography, and DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography. The enzyme contained 10.9% carbohydrate, had an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 by gel filtration, and was composed of two identical molecular weight subunits (Mr 30,000). The enzyme had a Km for sucrose of 16 millimolar at pH 4.70 and was most stable and had maximum activity around pH 5. The endogenous inhibitor was purified 610-fold to homogeneity by consecutive treatment at pH 1 to 1.5 at 37°C for 1 hour, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, Sephadex G-100 chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex G-50-120 chromatography, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The inhibitor appears to be a single polypeptide (Mr 17,000) without glyco groups. The purified inhibitor was stable over the pH range of 2 to 7 when incubated at 37°C for 1 hour. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667287

  1. Characteristics of the Inhibition of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Invertase by an Endogenous Proteinaceous Inhibitor in Potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Whitaker, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Effect of several parameters on inhibition of potato (Solanum tuberosum) invertase by its endogenous proteinaceous inhibitor was determined using homogeneous preparations of both proteins. The inhibitor and invertase formed an inactive complex with an observed association rate constant at pH 4.70 and 37°C of 8.82 × 102 per molar per second and a dissociation rate constant of 3.3 × 10−3 per minute. The inhibitor appeared to bind to invertase in more than one step. Initial interaction (measured by loss of invertase activity) was rapid, relatively weak, readily reversible (Ki of 2 × 10−6 molar) and noncompetitive with substrate at pH 4.70. Initial interaction was probably followed by isomerization to a tighter (Ki of 6.23 × 10−8 molar) complex, which dissociated slowly with a half-time of 3.5 hour. Interaction between enzyme and inhibitor appeared to be of ionic character and essentially pH independent between pH 3.5 and 7.4. PMID:16667286

  2. Postharvest quality of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal stored under ambient condition

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    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal is an important genetic resource that has been traditionally used for a variety of purposes, including food, medical and cosmetics applications. The objective of this study was evaluated the quality and the period of postharvest shelf life of cocona 'Mosquet", through the physical, chemical and physiological characterization of fruits stored under the ambient conditions. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested from an orchard, washed with tap water and soaked in a solution of the fungicide Prochloraz (49.5 g/100 L of water for 5 minutes. After air drying, the fruits were packed in plastic containers and stored at 24 ± 2 ºC and relative humidity 60 ± 5% for 15 days. The fruits developed a respiratory climacteric respiratory patern and remained fit for consumption up to day 6 of storage, that is, without visual symptoms of loss of water and firmness. At this stage, the fruits showed firmness of 117,42 kPa, soluble solids of 6.62º Brix and citric acid of 1.22 %.

  3. Intraspecific competition facilitates the evolution of tolerance to insect damage in the perennial plant Solanum carolinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, David W; Halpern, Stacey L; Barrows, Kahaili; Underwood, Nora

    2012-12-01

    Tolerance to herbivory (the degree to which plants maintain fitness after damage) is a key component of plant defense, so understanding how natural selection and evolutionary constraints act on tolerance traits is important to general theories of plant-herbivore interactions. These factors may be affected by plant competition, which often interacts with damage to influence trait expression and fitness. However, few studies have manipulated competitor density to examine the evolutionary effects of competition on tolerance. In this study, we tested whether intraspecific competition affects four aspects of the evolution of tolerance to herbivory in the perennial plant Solanum carolinense: phenotypic expression, expression of genetic variation, the adaptive value of tolerance, and costs of tolerance. We manipulated insect damage and intraspecific competition for clonal lines of S. carolinense in a greenhouse experiment, and measured tolerance in terms of sexual and asexual fitness components. Compared to plants growing at low density, plants growing at high density had greater expression of and genetic variation in tolerance, and experienced greater fitness benefits from tolerance when damaged. Tolerance was not costly for plants growing at either density, and only plants growing at low density benefited from tolerance when undamaged, perhaps due to greater intrinsic growth rates of more tolerant genotypes. These results suggest that competition is likely to facilitate the evolution of tolerance in S. carolinense, and perhaps in other plants that regularly experience competition, while spatio-temporal variation in density may maintain genetic variation in tolerance.

  4. Inbreeding depression in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae under field conditions and implications for mating system evolution.

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    Rupesh R Kariyat

    Full Text Available The clonal weed Solanum carolinense exhibits plasticity in the strength of its self-incompatibility (SI system and suffers low levels of inbreeding depression (δ in the greenhouse. We planted one inbred and one outbred plant from each of eight maternal plants in a ring (replicated twice and monitored clonal growth, herbivory, and reproduction over two years. Per ramet δ was estimated to be 0.63 in year one and 0.79 in year two, and outbred plants produced 2.5 times more ramets than inbred plants in the spring of year two. Inbred plants also suffered more herbivore damage than outbred plants in both fields, suggesting that inbreeding compromises herbivore resistance. Total per genet δ was 0.85 over the two years, indicating that S. carolinense is unlikely to become completely self-compatible, and suggesting that plasticity in the SI system is part of a stable mixed-mating system permitting self-fertilization when cross pollen limits seed production.

  5. Responses of grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersiocon L. to abiotic stresses in Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulaziz Al-Harbi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantity and quality of irrigation water are considered the most imperative limiting factors for plant production in arid environment. Adoptions of strategies can minimize crop water consumption while nonexistent yield reduction is considered challenge for scholars especially in arid environment. Grafting is regarded as a promising tool to avoid or reduce yield loss caused by abiotic stresses. Tomato (Solanum lycopersium Mill., commercial cultivar Faridah was grafted on Unifort rootstock and grown under regulated deficit irrigation (RDI (100%, 80% and 60% ETc, using two types of irrigation water, fresh (EC = 0.86 dS/m and brackish (EC = 3.52 dS/m. The effects of grafting and RDI on water use efficiency, vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality were investigated. Plant vegetative growth was reduced under water and salinity stresses. Grafting the plant significantly improves the vegetative growth under both conditions. The results showed that crop yield, Ca+2 and K+ were considerably increased in grafted tomato compared to non-grafted plants under water and salinity stresses. Grafted tomato plants accumulated less Na+ and Cl−, especially under high levels of salinity compared to non-grafted plants. Grafting tomato plants showed a slight decrease on the fruit quality traits such as vitamin C, titratable acidity (TA and total soluble solids (TSS. This study confirmed that grafted tomato plants can mitigate undesirable impact of salt stress on growth and fruit quality.

  6. Conserved miRNAs and Their Response to Salt Stress in Wild Eggplant Solanum linnaeanum Roots

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    Yong Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Solanaceae family includes some important vegetable crops, and they often suffer from salinity stress. Some miRNAs have been identified to regulate gene expression in plant response to salt stress; however, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in Solanaceae species. To identify salt-responsive miRNAs, high-throughput sequencing was used to sequence libraries constructed from roots of the salt tolerant species, Solanum linnaeanum, treated with and without NaCl. The sequencing identified 98 conserved miRNAs corresponding to 37 families, and some of these miRNAs and their expression were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Under the salt stress, 11 of the miRNAs were down-regulated, and 3 of the miRNAs were up-regulated. Potential targets of the salt-responsive miRNAs were predicted to be involved in diverse cellular processes in plants. This investigation provides valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs in S. linnaeanum, and would be useful for developing strategies for the genetic improvement of the Solanaceae crops.

  7. Activity of pectic enzymes involved in the ripening process of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

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    Rodríguez Nieto Jeimmy Marcela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the ripening process of the lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. physicochemical changes are produced by pectics enzymes as Polygalacturonase (PG, Pectinesterase (PE and Pectateliase (PL that acting on pectics substrates of plant tissue, being responsible of the physiological alteration of cells and tissues that results in the fruit softening and the beginning of the premature senescence period. This research explores the foundations of the softening enzymes behavior of lulo epicarp for the activity measurement of PL, PG and PE of fruit´s epicarp and determining their relationship with the softening process during the ripening and senescence process of fruits through follow up of the enzyme expression, the ripening index and instrumental hardness during the lulo fruit ripening under three storage treatments: 1 Control (18° C, 57 days, 2 Refrigeration (18° C, 1 day; 4° C, 14 days; 18° C, 42 days and 3 Pre-cooling heat shock (27° C, 1 day; 4° C, 14 days; 18° C, 42 days found that the enzymes expression and softening is reduced by heat treatment, compared with the control group; however, the cold storage inhibit the fruit softening process but chilling injuries was produced, while heat shock, in addition to inhibiting the enzymes expression, inhibited the fruit softening process and protect against chilling injuries prolonging the shelf life in 10 days, showing that it´s the best post-harvest treatment for this type of fruit.

  8. Conditioning and aversion to toxic Solanum bonariense ("naranjillo" leaves in calves

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    Paul Ruiz-Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Solanum bonariense is a perennial poisonous shrub that induces cerebellar cortical degeneration when eaten by cattle. The aim of this research was to outline a protocol to induce a conditioned aversion to this plant. During the pre-conditioning period ten calves (126±12kg BW were maintained at half of their normal energy intake with lucerne hay and water ad libitum, to stimulate consumption of S. bonariense. Every two days they were offered 100g ofS. bonariense leaves for 5 minutes. Calves began eating the target plant on day 10 and consumed all the plant material on day 12. The conditioning period began after each calf consumed the entire amount of S. bonariense for three consecutive sessions. Five animals were randomly selected for conditioning, and after ingestion ofS. bonariense they were dosed by oral gavage with lithium chloride (LiCl at 200mg kg-1 BW (treated group, while the other five received a similar volume of water by oral gavage (control group. After 2 doses of LiCl the treated group ate no S. bonariense while the control group consumed the entire 100g. We confirmed that LiCl is a powerful tool to induce conditioned aversions against S. bonariense in calves, which persists for at least 3 months.

  9. Short-Term Water Deficit Changes Cuticular Sterol Profile in the Eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliński, Łukasz P; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Crop irrigation uses a majority of a total world water supply, at the same time displaying low efficiency. As the expected, future water requirements are higher than the current ones; there is a risk of a growing deficit of water for the agricultural use. Hence, there is an arising need for better understanding the effects of water deprivation on the crop plants. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a vegetable crop cultivated in arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Because of its high water demands, the eggplant is a convenient model organism for studies concerning the effects of water deficit on the plant growth. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of short-term water deficit on eggplant leaf cuticular waxes and total sterols. Water deprivation did not affect the amount and composition of aliphatic components of cuticular waxes. Significant decrease in the total cuticular sterols and the increase in cuticular cholesterol were observed as an effect of water deficit. In contrast, some of the free internal sterols were more abundant in water-deprived plants. The possible importance of these observations, including increased biosynthesis of defensive compounds and the need to maintain the cell membrane stability, was discussed. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Genome-wide identification and characterization of Dof transcription factors in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.

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    Qingzhen Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is an important vegetable cultivated in Asia, Africa and southern Europe and, following tomato and pepper, ranks as the third most important solanaceous vegetable crop. The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger family is a group of plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The genes in the Dof family have been identified and analysed in many plant species, but the information remains lacking for eggplant. In the present study, we identified 29 SmeDof members from the eggplant genome database, which were classifed into nine subgroups. The phylogeny, gene structure, conserved motifs and homologous genes of SmeDof genes were comprehensively investigated. Subsequently, we analysed the expression patterns of SmeDof genes in six different eggplant subspecies. The results provide novel insights into the family of SmeDof genes and will promote the understanding of the structure and function of Dof genes in eggplant, and the role of Dof expression during stress.

  11. Genome-wide identification and characterization of Dof transcription factors in eggplant (Solanum melongenaL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingzhen; Wang, Wuhong; Hu, Tianhua; Hu, Haijiao; Mao, Weihai; Zhu, Qinmei; Bao, Chonglai

    2018-01-01

    Eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.) is an important vegetable cultivated in Asia, Africa and southern Europe and, following tomato and pepper, ranks as the third most important solanaceous vegetable crop. The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) family is a group of plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The genes in the Dof family have been identified and analysed in many plant species, but the information remains lacking for eggplant. In the present study, we identified 29 SmeDof members from the eggplant genome database, which were classifed into nine subgroups. The phylogeny, gene structure, conserved motifs and homologous genes of SmeDof genes were comprehensively investigated. Subsequently, we analysed the expression patterns of SmeDof genes in six different eggplant subspecies. The results provide novel insights into the family of SmeDof genes and will promote the understanding of the structure and function of Dof genes in eggplant, and the role of Dof expression during stress.

  12. Phenetic relationships of nine varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) based on morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Topik; Barlian, Andri; Kusdianti, R.; Kirana, Rinda

    2017-05-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Solanaceae) is an important commodity in Indonesia as one of the main crop after rice. Recently some new varieties have been released, but their relationship have not been studied yet. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship among nine varieties of potatoes. Phenetic analysis was conducted using 27 morphological character states, which was derived from stems, leaves, and tubers. The character states observed were scored, and further analyzed based on Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) method. The results showed a high diversity of morphological character states, of which 20 states were significantly different across the varieties. Phenogram indicated that the nine varieties of potato were classified into three main groups. While the first group was consisted of varieties of Cipanas, Granola, Atlantic, and Repita, the second group was housed of Manohara and GM 05. The third group was composed of Margahayu, Mb 17, and Maglia. This pattern of relationships can be used as one of the basis in the process of crossbreeding to assemble the new varieties. The crossbreeding will be better if it is made between distantly related varieties.

  13. Functional and Preliminary Characterisation of Hydrocolloid from Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Puree

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    Kharidah Muhammad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocolloid from tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. puree was extracted using water and characterised for the first time. Proximate compositions of the extracted hydrocolloid were also determined. Functional characteristics such as water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability, foaming capacity and stability of the hydrocolloid were evaluated in comparison to that of commercial hydrocolloids. Its functional groups and degree of esterification were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. Monosaccharide profiling was done using reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Screening of various fruits for high hydrocolloid yield after water extraction resulted in tamarillo giving the highest yield. The yield on dry weight basis was 8.30%. The hydrocolloid constituted of 0.83% starch, 21.18% protein and 66.48% dietary fibre with 49.47% degree of esterification and the monosaccharides identified were mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose. Higher oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity and emulsion stability compared to commercial hydrocolloids propose its possible application as a food emulsifier and bile acid binder. Foaming capacity of 32.19% and good foam stabilisation (79.36% of initial foam volume after 2 h of foam formation suggest its promising application in frothy beverages and other foam based food products. These findings suggest that water-extracted tamarillo hydrocolloid can be utilised as an alternative to low methoxyl pectin.

  14. A highly divergent isolate of tomato blistering mosaic virus from Solanum violaefolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blawid, Rosana; Hayashi, Evelyn Anly Ishikawa; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Kitajima, Elliot W; Nagata, Tatsuya

    2016-04-01

    The complete genome of a tymovirus infecting Solanum violaefolium was sequenced. The genome comprised 6284 nt, with a 5'-UTR of 137 nt and a comparatively longer 3'-UTR of 121 nt. Sequence analysis confirmed three ORFs encoding a movement protein, a polyprotein, and a coat protein (CP). The isolate was considered to be the Tomato blistering mosaic virus (ToBMV) based on a CP amino acid sequence identity of 95.3 %. The nucleotide sequence of the complete genome of the S. violaefolium isolate, however, differed markedly from the other two reported ToBMV isolates, with identities of 76.6 and 76.3 %, below one of the demarcation criteria of the genus Tymovirus (overall genome identity of 80 %). No recombination signals were detected in the genome of this isolate. The high identity of the CP amino acid sequence and similar host responses suggest that the S. violaefolium isolate belongs to the same species as the Tomato blistering mosaic virus. The sequence analysis of this ToBMV isolate thus suggests that the demarcation criterion of 80 % overall genome sequence identity in the genus Tymovirus may require revision.

  15. New Bioflavonoids from Solanum nigrum L. by Anticholinesterase and Anti-tyrosinase Activities-guided Fractionation

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    Temine Sabudak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available T wo new biflavonoids, (8-hydroxy-3'-β-D-galactosyl-isoflavone-2'-8''-(4'''-hydroxy-flavone-biflavone (2; 2',3',5-trihydroxy-5''-methoxy-3''-O- α-glucosyl-3-4'"-O-biflavone (3 and along with apigenin (1 and quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside (4 were isolated by activity guided fractionation from the whole plant of Solanum nigrum L.. The structures were established on the basis of UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and HRESI-MS spectroscopic methods. The anticholinesterase activity was performed against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase – the chief enzymes of Alzheimers’ disease – using the Ellman method. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity was performed according to L -DOPA method. Since the ethyl acetate (IC 50: 90.6±0.3 µg/mL and n-butanol (IC 50: 140.6±1.7 µg/mL extracts exhibited good butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, both were fractionated and the active fractions were used for isolation of the compounds. These both extracts were also exhibited better tyrosinase inhibitory activity (IC 50: 76.0±0.6, and 156.8±1.9 µg/mL, respectively. Tested enzyme inhibitory activities of S. nigrum were presented in this study for the first time.

  16. Extraction Optimization and Antioxidant Properties of African Eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon Leaf Polyphenols

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    A. A. Famuwagun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the yield, total phenolic content (TPC, and total antioxidant activities (TAA of polyphenol concentrates extracted from Solanum macrocarpon leaves was studied using response surface methodology. The process variables investigated included extraction temperature (30, 50, and 70°C, extraction time (2, 4, and 6 h, and dried leaf powder : water ratio (1 : 10, 1 : 20, and 1 : 30 w/v. Box–Behnken design resulted in 15 experimental runs. The results showed the following optimum extraction conditions: temperature, 49.05°C; extraction time, 243 min; leaf powder : water ratio, 1 : 22 w/v. The optimized extraction conditions gave polyphenol concentrate yield, TPC, and TAA values of 24.94%, 421.09 mg GAE/g, and 23.81 mg AAE/g, respectively. Results of the in vitro antioxidant activities of the polyphenol concentrate showed 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate, metal chelating ability, and ferric reducing ability values of 76.78%, 80.22%, and 56.46 mg AAE/g, respectively. The study concludes that the experimental values compared closely with the predicted values, which indicates suitability of the model employed for polyphenol extraction optimization from dried S. macrocarpon leaves.

  17. Plant nutritional status modulates glutamine synthetase levels in ripe tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpeci, Telma E; Marro, Martin L; Bortolotti, Santiago; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

    2007-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening implies that chloroplastic proteins are degraded and new proteins are synthesized. Supplementary nutrition is frequently required when tomato plants begin to fruit and continues until the end of the plant's life cycle. Ammonium assimilation is crucial in these fruit maturation and ripening processes. Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), the main ammonium-fixing enzyme in plants, could not be detected in red fruits of several tomato varieties when growing under standard nutrition. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nutritional status on the ammonium assimilation capacity of ripe tomato (cv. Micro-Tom) fruit. For this purpose, GS expression and protein profiles were followed in mature green and red fruits harvested from plants grown under standard or supplemented nutrition. Under standard nutrient regime (weekly supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution) GS activity was found in chloroplasts (GS2) of mature green fruits, but it was not detected either in the chromoplasts or in the cytosol of red fruits. When plants were shifted to a supplemented nutritional regime (daily supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution), GS was found in red fruits. Also, cytosolic transcripts (gs1) preferentially accumulated in red fruits under high nutrition. These results indicate that mature green Micro-Tom fruits assimilate ammonia through GS2 under standard nutrition, while ripe red fruits accumulate GS1 under high nutrition, probably in order to assimilate the extra N-compounds made available through supplemented nutrition.

  18. Antiurolithiatic Effects of Solanum xanthocarpum Fruit Extract on Ethylene-Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pk; Patel, Ma; Saralai, Mg; Gandhi, Tr

    2012-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract in ethylene-glycol-induced urolithiasis in the male Wistar rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in male Wistar rats by adding ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water for 28 days. Animals were divided into six groups, each containing six viz. Vehicle control, model control, S. xanthocarpum methanol extract in different doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o., Cystone (750 mg/kg, p.o.) served as a standard. Hyperoxaluria as well as an increase in the excretion of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and decrease in citrate and magnesium in urine, impairment of renal function and oxidative imbalance in kidney were observed in the calculi-induced group. Treatment with S. xanthocarpum decreases hyperoxaluria, calcium, and uric acid, improves renal function, and also produces antioxidant effects. Crystalluria was characterized by excretion calcium oxalate (CaOX) crystals, which were enormous in the lithogenic group but smaller in the drug-treated group. The histology showed that the calculi-induced group had a large deposition of CaOX crystals in kidney while the treated group had trivial and fewer deposits. The result indicates the antiurolithiatic activity of S. xanthocarpum mediated possibly by CaOX crystal inhibition, diuretic, antioxidant and maintaining balance between stone promoter and inhibitor constituents, and this study rationalized its medicinal use in urolithiasis.

  19. Anthocyanin accumulation and molecular analysis of anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli; Chu, Guihua; Huang, Cheng; Tian, Shibing; Zhao, Zhiping; Chen, Guoping

    2014-04-02

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an edible fruit vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide. The purple eggplant is more eye-catching and popular for the health-promoting anthocyanins contained in the fruit skin. Two kinds of anthocyanin were separated and identified from purple cultivar (Zi Chang) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in eggplant, the transcripts of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in the fruit skin and the flesh of the purple cultivar and the white cultivar (Bai Xue). Compared with the other tissues, SmMYB1 and all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes except PAL were dramatically upregulated in the fruit skin of the purple cultivar. Overexpression of SmMYB1 activated abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the regenerating shoots of eggplant. These results prove that transcriptional activation of SmMYB1 accounts for constitutive upregulation of most anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the onset of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar.

  20. A novel glucosyltransferase involved in steroid saponin biosynthesis in Solanum aculeatissimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Atsuko; Nakajima, Chiharu; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Ikenaga, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2005-01-01

    Steroidal saponins are widely distributed in many plant species. Their diverse structures have resulted in a wide range of applications, including drug and medicine production. It has been suggested that the nature of the non-saccharide and oligosaccharide portions of the saponin molecule both contribute to the properties of individual saponins. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence, chemical structure, and varying pharmaceutical activities of steroidal saponins, their biosynthesis pathway is poorly understood. Glycosylation is thought to be the final step in steroidal saponin biosynthesis and it is thought to be involved in regulating the biological activities of saponins. Isolation of the glycosyltransferases that catalyze the transfer of sugar molecules to steroidal compounds will help to clarify the mechanisms that produce diverse saponins and control their activities in plants. In this study, we obtained three cDNAs encoding putative glycosyltransferases from Solanum aculeatissimum. One of the three, SaGT4A showed UDP-glucosyltransferase activity. This is the first cloned glucosyltransferase involved in steroidal saponin biosynthesis. SaGT4A catalyzes the 3-O-glucosylation of steroidal sapogenins, such as diosgenin, nuatigenin, and tigogenin. This enzyme also glucosylates steroidal alkaloids, such as solanidine, solasodine, and tomatidine. Gene expression analysis revealed that the accumulation of SaGT4A transcripts showed a unique response to wounding stress indicating the involvement of SaGT4A in plant defense system.

  1. Growth and steroidal saponin production in hairy root cultures of Solanum aculeatissimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, T; Oyama, T; Muranaka, T

    1995-04-01

    Hairy root cultures of Solanum aculeatissimum were established by trans-formation using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834. Root growth and production of steroidal saponin were investigated under various culture conditions. Transformed roots grew better in Gamborg's B5 medium containing 3 % sucrose under continuous light than in the dark. Also, the roots turned light green when cultured under continuous light. Green hairy roots produced aculeatiside A (6.71mg ·) L(-1) and aculeatiside B (6.39mg · L(-1)) after 8 weeks of culture, while no steroidal saponin was detected in hairy roots cultured in the dark. Of the three culture media tested, Gamborg's B5 medium was superior for growth and steroidal saponin production. Growth and steroidal saponin production were enhanced when 100μg · L(-1) auxin except for 2,4-D was added to the medium. The addition of 2,4-D inhibited growth. Production of steroidal saponin was highest with NAA. Transformed roots used in this experiment were confirmed that hairy roots examined contain both TL-DNA and TR-DNA region of Ri plasmid by PCR amplification analysis of DNA.

  2. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2010-01-01

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with herbicides (cloransulam, dicamba, glyphosate, imazapyr, primsulfuron, sulfometuron, or tribenuron) at simulated drift levels [effective concentrations producing a 25% potato tuber fresh weight (EC25) of 0.00038, 0.0016, and 0.0021 x f.a.r. of 1,124, 52, and 9 g active ingredient hectare(-1) (g a.i. HA(-1)), respectively. Primisulfuron, dicamba, and cloransulam also significantly reduced tuber fresh weight, but with higher EC25 values of 0.011, 0.07, and 0.010 to 0.2 x f.a.r. of 40, 558, and 18 g a.i. HA(-1), respectively. Glyphosate had little effect on tuber fresh weight, with a significant reduction in only one experiment. Sulfometuron reduced tuber fresh weight at an EC25 value lower than the EC25 values for shoot dry weight or plant height. For other herbicides, the reduction in tuber fresh weight occurred within the range of EC25 values for other responses. Although additional experiments are required to develop further a phytotoxicity test, these results indicated that tuber production in young potato plants (harvested approximately 42 DAE) may be an effective assay for below-ground asexual reproductive responses to herbicides, especially acetolactate synthase inhibitors.

  3. Analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of parental and hybrid clones of pepino (Solanum muricatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Prohens, Jaime; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando

    2004-09-08

    The volatile constituents of 10 clones (4 parents with different flavors and 6 hybrids from selected crossings among these parents) of pepino fruit (Solanum muricatum) were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odor-contributing volatiles (OCVs) were detected by GC-olfactometry-MS analyses and included 24 esters (acetates, 3-methylbutanoates, and 3-methylbut-2-enoates), 7 aldehydes (especially hexenals and nonenals), 6 ketones, 9 alcohols, 3 lactones, 2 terpenes, beta-damascenone, and mesifurane. Among these compounds, 17, of which 5 had not been reported previously in pepino, were found to contribute significantly to pepino aroma. OCVs can be assigned to three groups according to their odor quality: fruity fresh (acetates and prenol), green vegetable (C6 and C9 aldehydes), and exotic (lactones, mesifuran, and beta-damascenone). Quantitative and qualitative differences between clones for these compounds are clearly related to differences in their overall flavor impression. The positive value found for the hybrid-midparent regression coefficient for volatile composition indicates that an important fraction of the variation observed is inheritable, which has important implications in breeding for improving aroma. Significant and positive correlations were found between OCVs having common precursors or related pathways.

  4. Foliar application of ascorbic acid mitigates sodium chloride induced stress in eggplant (solanum melongena l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S.; Hamayun, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current work was designed to test the effect of sodium chloride on germination, seedling establishment, vegetative growth, yield, chemical contents and ionic composition of eggplant. The consequences of foliar application of ascorbic acid (AA) on mitigation of adverse effects of sodium chloride were also tested. The seeds of Solanum melongena were germinated using NaCl (60 mM, 100 mM) and ascorbic acid (100 and 200 mM). High levels of salinity significantly affected the seed germination and seedling fresh and dry weights. Plants grown under salinity stress with foliar application of ascorbic acid showed significant increase in germination percentage and seedlings growth as compare to control plants. Sodium chloride stress showed adverse effects on plant height, root length, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass, total chlorophyll, carbohydrates and proteins as compared to untreated plants. The relative water content, electrolyte leakage were increased and Na+ and K+ ions balance was disturbed in different plant parts. Ascorbic acid (100 and 200ppm) enhanced all the growth parameters affected adversely by sodium chloride stress. (author)

  5. Farmer's Knowledge of Horticultural Traits and Participatory Selection of African Eggplant Varieties (Solanum aethiopicum in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Participatory selection was conducted in 2008 through 2009 to identify farmers' preference for species and horticultural traits that may constitute future breeding objectives. Vegetable farmers were selected from Moshi and Arusha regions, test population comprised twenty-six accessions from four Solanum species (eggplant and relatives. Purposive sampling was used to select the farming communities with high African eggplant production activities; a multistage random sampling procedure was adopted to select farmers from three regions for participatory meeting. The focus group discussion sessions identified fruit shape, taste, earliness, medicinal properties, marketability and resistance to diseases as farmers' preferred traits in S. aethiopicum; taste and marketability for S. melongena, taste and medicinal properties among S. macrocarpon and S. anguivi. Fruits characterized by cream colour at commercial harvest are most preferred compared to green, to a lesser extent is purple. Interestingly high fruits per plant, fruits per cluster and fruit cluster per plant best described S. anguivi. Fruit yield was superior in Db3 (S. aethiopicum Gilo group, top five accessions for organoleptic properties are Db3, Ab2, MM 1619, S00052 and MM 1086. Characters indicated above may constitute breeding objectives and population identified may serve as pollen parents for development of new varieties in african eggplant. Intraspecific hybridization within S. aethiopicum Gilo cultigroup, hybridization among Gilo and Shum cultigroups and interspecific hybridization between S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi may evolve new population aimed at improving fruit yield.

  6. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets to gradient saline stress

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    Hui-Juan eGao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. ‘Longshu No. 3’ plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl with two consequent observations (two and six weeks, respectively. The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1 the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2 cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3 mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4 leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5 leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD increased significantly, and (6 leaf malondialdehyde (MDA content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  7. Estimating yellow potato (Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk.) solar radiation interception in three Colombian localities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabezas, M; Corchuelo, G

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were simultaneously carried out in three Colombian localities (Firavitoba, Carmen de Carupa y Bogotá) to measure and compare photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception patterns in Solanum phureja. Three random complete block design planting densities (8,33, 4.17 and 2.67 plants/m 2 ) were evaluated, having four replicates and an experimental unit consisting of five four-metre-long rows or planting lines. Overall PAR, reflected PAR, transmitted PAR and absorbed PAR were determined. The Monsie and Saeky model was used for establishing the PAR k extinction coefficient in canopies. Results revealed statistically significant differences within localities and plant densities, but not for LAI interaction. There was a higher overall incidence of radiation in those localities situated at high altitudes. PAR distribution was similar in high and low stratum in all cases, proving that plant architecture allows a suitable distribution of PAR within the canopy. The k extinction coefficient was mainly affected by leaf development. Values ranged from 0.39 to 0.61. It was revealed that plants may become quickly saturated above 2,800 m a.s.l. due to effects of luminescence, thus inducing stressful conditions interfering with leaf development and therefore distribution of tuber photo- assimilation, so affecting agronomic yield. (author) [es

  8. Reaction of genotypes of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. to Meloidogyne spp. under field conditions

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    Claudia Salazar-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, root-knot nematodes Meloidog yne spp. are considered as one of the main constraints in lulo crop production . These nematodes can cause root damage resulting in low production. The aim of this study was to evaluate under field conditions the reaction of 16 genotypes of lulo, Solanum quitoense Lam. (Solanaceae, of the Castilla variety and the species S. hirtum Vahl., previously selected in a greenhouse experiment and categorized as moderately resistant and resistant to the attack by Meloidog yne sp. A chemical treatment and a control treatment, the latter based on the most susceptible genotype in greenhouse experiments were also included. The experiment was conducted in a lulo grove naturally infested with root-knot nematodes under a randomized complete block design with three replications and nine plants per experimental unit. The response variables were incidence, severity and yield. The incidence was higher than 80 % in all cases, but the severity varied because of their genetic condition; BR03 and BR01 being genotypes with lower rates of severity, with values of 1.0 % and 0.8 %, respectively. The yield analysis of variance showed significant differences, indicating that genotypes SQBR01 and SQLF04, reached the highest values with 4.77 and 4.74 t/ha in a total of three harvests.

  9. Morphology and biomass variations in root system of young tomato plants (Solanum sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Gil, Marta A.; Fernández, Ana Fita; Ruiz Sánchez, María del C.; Bolarín Jiménez, María del C.

    2016-01-01

    The scarce exploitation of genotypic variability present in plant roots is an attractive breeding choice with regard to abiotic stresses and supports the objective of this work, which is to identify genotypic variation in root system traits of tomato genotypes (Solanum sp.). Thus, five tomato genotypes were studied: the commercial hybrid cultivar Jaguar (S. lycopersicum), Pera, Volgogradiskij and PE-47 entry (S. pennellii), which were collected in Peru, and the interspecific hybrid PeraxPE-47. Plants were grown in hydroponics for 26 days since germination; their roots were extracted and images were digitalized on scanner to evaluate total length, average diameter, the projected area and root length, following the categories per diameter of the whole root system through software Win Rhizo Pro 2003. The dry mass of roots and aerial parts was also recorded. Results indicated that genotypes differed in morphology, length according to diameter, root system spatial configuration and biomass, mainly with respect to the wild salinity resistant species PE-47. The interspecific hybrid PxPE-47 could be used as a rootstock to increase salt tolerance of susceptible cultivars. (author)

  10. Effect on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. of different doses of organic fertilizer bocashi under agroecological conditions

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    Ana Boudet Antomarchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The research work was carried out in areas of the Agricultural Production Cooperative "Carlos Bastida Argüello" in Cauto Cristo municipality of Cuban province of Granma in the period between November 2013 and February 2014, on a fluvisol soil at a plantation distance of 0.90 x 0.30 m, in order to evaluate the effect of different doses of organic manure bocashi on the productive response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. variety "Vyta". The treatments consisted of the application of three doses of manure "bocashi" and a control without application. A randomized complete block design with three repetitions was used and the evaluated variables were: the yield and its components (number of bunches per plant, number of fruits per plant, mass of fruits per plant, polar and equatorial diameter of the fruit and mesocarp thickness. The data obtained were submitted to a variance analysis of double classification with the use of SPSS version 22. In case of significant differences between treatments a Tukey test was performed for comparison of means. The results showed that treatment with application of organic manure had a positive influence on the yield and majority of yield components values. The yields values were higher in the three doses of organic manure than in the control treatment and yield increased with the increase of dosage of organic manure.

  11. Gold Nanomaterial Uptake from Soil Is Not Increased by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato

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    Jonathan D. Judy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs by plants has been demonstrated in numerous studies over the past 5–10 years. However, the overwhelming majority of these studies were conducted using hydroponic systems and the degree to which the addition of the biological and chemical components present in the soil might fundamentally alter the potential of plant bioaccumulation of ENMs is unclear. Here, we used two genotypes of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato, reduced mycorrhizal colonization (rmc, a mutant which does not allow arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization, and its progenitor, 76R, to examine how colonization by AMF alters trends of gold ENM bioaccumulation from a natural soil. Gold was taken up and bioaccumulated by plants of both genotypes. Gold concentrations were significantly higher in the rmc treatment although this was likely attributable to the large differences in biomass between the 76R and rmc plants. Regardless, there was little evidence that AMF played a significant role in trafficking Au ENMs into the plants. Furthermore, despite very low NH4NO3 extractable Au concentrations, Au accumulated at the root-soil interface. Although this observation would seem to suggest that ENMs may have potential to influence this particularly biologically active and important soil compartment, we observed no evidence of this here, as the 76R plants developed a robust AMF symbiosis despite accumulation of Au ENMs at the rhizoplane.

  12. O-GlcNAc: a bittersweet switch in liver

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    Kaisi eZhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The liver is a vital organ responsible for maintaining nutrient homeostasis. After a meal, insulin stimulates glycogen and lipid synthesis in the liver; in the fasted state, glucagon induces gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis, which produce glucose and ketone bodies for other tissues to use as energy sources. These metabolic changes involve spatiotemporally coordinated signaling cascades. O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc modification has been recognized as a nutrient sensor and regulatory molecular switch. This review highlights mechanistic insights into spatiotemporal regulation of liver metabolism by O-GlcNAc modification and discusses its pathophysiological implications in insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and fibrosis.

  13. The bittersweet taste of tubulo-interstitial glycans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, Ditmer T.; Daha, Mohamed R.; van den Born, Jacob

    Recently, interesting work was published by Farrar et al. [1] showing the interaction of fucosylated glycoproteins on stressed tubular epithelial cells with collectin-11 leading to complement activation via the lectin route of complement. This elegant work stimulated us to evaluate the dark side

  14. Evaluación genotóxica del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal, cocona en células germinales del ratón

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt B., José E.; Instituto de Medicina Tradicional IMET - EsSALUD.; Ríos, Felipe; Instituto de Medicina Tradicional IMET-EsSALUD.; Gorriti G., Arilmí; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Córdova R., Augusta; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Novoa C., Edgar; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica UNAP.; López A., Doris L.; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica UNAP.; Bicerra F., José L.; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica UNAP.; Cruz F., Armando; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica UNAP.

    2014-01-01

    The genotoxic potential of the aquosus extract lyophilized of fruits solanum sessiliflorum Dunal, by means of methad head anomaly of spermatozoid rnouse was evaluated. A total of 21 albino mice male of the cepa Balb/c-53 were used. Tree group experimentals with 7 animals for group: solanum sessiliflorum Dunal to dose 2000mg/kg, ciclofosfamide to dose 50 mg/kg (positive control) and saline solution 0.9 % (negative control) were established. The aquosus extract and saline solution were adminis...

  15. Growth and yield of Solanum khasianum in Pinus roxburghii forest based silvi-medicinal system in mid hills of Indian Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Sanwal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background In mid hills of Western Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh India, growth, yield and economics of Solanum khasianum as a potential medicinal herb under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine plantation has been studied for two consecutive years to assess the performance of Solanum khasianum in undercanopy of Pinus roxburghii for developing Solanum khasianum and Pinus roxburghii based innovative silvi-medicinal system. Methods Growth parameters such as plant height, number of branches per plant and leaf area index followed by yield were estimated after Solanum khasianum was grown on three topographical aspects as; Northern, North - western and Western at a spacing of 45 cm × 45 cm, followed by three tillage depths as; minimum (0 cm, medium (up to 10 cm and deep tillage (up to 15 cm, in open and below canopy conditions treatment. The study was conducted to explore the possibility of using Solanum khasianum based silvi-medicinal system to utilize the below canopy of Chir pine forest for enhancing the productivity of forests besides the conservation of the medicinal herb. Results The growth parameters such as plant height, number of branches per plant and leaf area index were non-significantly affected by topographical aspects and tillage practices, both below canopy and open conditions except fresh weight and dry weight of berries during harvesting stage. The maximum yield (0.61 t∙ha−1 was observed on Western aspect in open conditions as compared to below canopy of Chir pine. The highest gross returns were observed for the crop cultivated on Western aspect under deep tillage in open conditions than other aspect and tillage combinations. However the positive net returns from the crops raised in below canopy of Chir pine indicates its possible economic viability under agroforestry system as the gross returns was higher than the cost of cultivation. Conclusion Solanum khasianum when grown in below canopy of Pinus roxburghii, its growth and yield

  16. The Effect of Shoot/Root Competition of Black night shade (Solanum nigrum on Growth and Seed Yield of Mung Bean (Vigna radiate L.

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    M Goldani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the competition effects of Solanum nigrum on Vigna radiate yield, an additive experiment was conducts at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad experimental Greenhouse. The type of design was completely randomized block. Treatments included three density of Solanum nigrum (2, 4, and 6 plants m-2 and three types of competition (root, shoot and both of them planted at constant density of Vigna radiate plus weed free check in each block. The results indicated that competitions had significant effects (P

  17. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Delaplace, Pierre; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sergeant, Kjell; Dierick, Jean-Fran?ois; Oufir, Mouhssin; van der Wal, Froukje; America, Antoine H. P.; Renaut, Jenny; Hausman, Jean-Fran?ois; du Jardin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. D?sir?e) tuber ageing. An increase in the physiological age index (PAI) value from 0.14 to 0.83 occurred during storage at 4??C over 270?d. Using this reference frame, a proteomic approach was followed based on two-dim...

  18. The Solanum lycopersicum WRKY3 Transcription Factor SlWRKY3 Is Involved in Salt Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hichri, I.; Muhovski, Y.; Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre; Gharbi, E.; Franco-Zorrilla, J.M.; Lopez-Vidriero, I.; Solano, R.; Clippe, A.; Errachid, A.; Motyka, Václav; Lutts, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, JUL 31 (2017), č. článku 1343. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14649S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : agrobacterium-mediated transformation * transgenic arabidopsis plants * dna-binding * salinity tolerance * defense responses * drought tolerance * abiotic stresses * water-stress * genes * tobacco * Solanum lycopersicum * SlWRKY3 * transcription factor * salinity tolerance * plant physiology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  19. Análisis de la tendencia del consumo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) fresca en México.

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh Sánchez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Actualmente los productores mexicanos de papa fresca (Solanum tuberosum L.) sostienen que un aumento en el consumo per cápita sería la solución a los problemas relacionados con el mercado del tubérculo. Con la finalidad de conocer la tendencia del consumo de papa fresca en el largo plazo, se formuló y estimó un modelo de ecuaciones simultáneas compuesto de dos ecuaciones de oferta, una de demanda, cuatro ecuaciones de precios y dos identidades; el modelo fue estimado por el método de mínimo...

  20. Effect of irradiation on shelf - life and quality characteristics of two (2) solanum species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riverson, N. M

    2013-07-01

    Garden eggs (solanum spp) are grown as a commercial crop for domestic consumption and also for export. In addition to major production challenges such as limited shelf-life, poor post-harvest handling and the lack of quality standards, garden eggs are prone to infection by pest and diseases at all stages of growth. This theses provides information on the effect of gamma radiation doses (1 - 3kGy) on the shelf life and some quality characteristics of three varieties of garden eggs Solanum aethiopicum GH 8772 and aethiopicum GH 8773, and aethiopicum torvum under two packaging conditions. Quality attributes of colour, firmness, and wrinkleness were assessed using a nine-point hedonic scale in decreasing order of acceptability. The numbers of rotten fruits were recorded on weekly basis throughout the storage period of four weeks. The physiochemical properties (moisture content, weight loss and pH) were determined by standard methods. The microbiological quality was assessed by estimating the population of aerobic mesophiles and yeast and moulds using the methods of serial dilution and pour plating. The three varieties of garden eggs used in the study responded differently to gamma radiation and storage. Salannum torvum showed discolouration and subsequent fungal spoilage in the first week of storage after irradiation under both unpackaged and packaged conditions; howbeit the unirradiated had acceptable scores (>4.33) in terms of colour, firmness, and wrinkleness throughout the storage period. At the end of the storage period samples of S. torvum had lower values in terms of moisture (26.78%), weight loss (9.3 g) and pH (2.9) under unpackaged condition, but high vitamin C content of 14.83 mg/100g. Samples S. torvum under packaged conditions had higher values in terms of colour, firmness, and wrinkleness as well as pH and vitamin C. However the effect of packaging was not significant with respect to the quality attributes and physiochemical properties. Decline in colour

  1. Expression of LHC Genes and their Relation to Photo-Oxidative Stress Tolerance Tolerance in Solanum lycopersicum L. and Solanum chilense (Dunal Reiche Expresión de Genes LHC y su Relación con la Tolerancia al Estrés Foto-Oxidativo en Solanum lycopersicum L. y Solanum chilense (Dunal Reiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chilian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous exposition to low temperature and high light radiation cause photoinhibition of photosynthetic apparatus, affecting the productivity and geographical distribution of agricultural crops. In several Solanaceous species, tolerance to low temperature stress in combination with high light has been associated with some stimulation in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, which involved reorganization in light-harvesting complex (LHC proteins. To study photosynthetic performance in Solanum lycopersicum L. and S. chilense (Dunal Reiche, and to investigate transcriptional regulation of genes encoding LHC proteins and their involvement in the NPQ, plants of both species were exposed to low temperature (4 °C and high light radiation (1300 /La exposición simultánea a las bajas temperaturas y alta intensidad lumínica causa la foto-inhibición del aparato fotosintético, fenómeno que afecta la productividad y la distribución geográfica de los cultivos. En varias especies de solanáceas, la tolerancia a este tipo de estrés se ha asociado con un cierto estímulo en el apagamiento no fotoquímico (NPQ, lo que implica una reorganización en las proteínas pertenecientes a los complejos colectores de luz (LHC. Para evaluar el rendimiento fotosintético de Solanum lycopersicum L. y S. chilense (Dunal Reiche y evaluar la regulación transcripcional de genes que codifican para proteínas del LHC y su participación en el NPQ, plantas de ambas especies fueron expuestas a 4 °C y 1300 pmol m-2 s-1 y se realizaron evaluaciones sobre la peroxidación lipídica, la eficiencia fotosintética y los cambios en los pigmentos del ciclo de las xantófilas. Al utilizar el exceso de energía de excitación en el proceso fotoquímico, según lo indicado por los parámetros qP y ETR, los resultados indican que S. chilense posee una mayor tolerancia a la foto-inhibición que S. lycopersicum. La contribución de las proteínas LHC no estaría relacionada con disipar

  2. North-South Colonization Associated with Local Adaptation of the Wild Tomato Species Solanum chilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böndel, Katharina B; Lainer, Hilde; Nosenko, Tetyana; Mboup, Mamadou; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    After colonization population sizes may vary across the species range depending on environmental conditions and following colonizations. An interesting question is whether local adaptation occurs more frequently in large ancestral populations or in small derived populations. A higher number of new mutations and a lower effect of genetic drift should favor selection in large populations, whereas small derived populations may require an initial local adaptation event to facilitate the colonization of new habitats. Wild tomatoes are native to a broad range of different habitats characterized by variable abiotic conditions in South America, and represent an ideal system to study this interplay between demography and natural selection. Population genetic analyses and statistical inference of past demography were conducted on pooled-sequencing data from 30 genes (8,080 single nucleotide polymorphisms) from an extensive sampling of 23 Solanum chilense populations over Chile and Peru. We reveal first a north-south colonization associated with relaxed purifying selection in the south as shown by a decrease of genetic variation and an increasing proportion of nonsynonymous polymorphism from north to south, and population substructure with at least four genetic groups. Second, we uncover a dual picture of adaptation consisting of 1) a decreasing proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions from north to south suggesting that adaptation is favored in large populations, whereas 2) signatures of local adaptation predominantly occur in the smaller populations from the marginal ranges in the south. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Assessment of the processing profile of six “creole potato” genotypes (Solanum tuberosum Phureja Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Jesús Elías

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Six diploid potato (“creole potato”, Solanum tuberosum PhurejaGroup genotypes were grown at the localities of Soacha, Duitama and Mosquera (Colombia and were assessed for their suitability for industrial processing using Individual Quick Freezing (IQF as pickled and dehydrated (flakes potatoes. The following variables were assessed: Percentage of defective tubers, dry weight, specific gravity, “eye” depth, skin type, shape, appearance, color, aroma, flavor and texture. Cultivar Criolla Colombia and clone 98-71.26 showed the best behavior for precooking processing. The best characteristics for IQF and pickling corresponded to tubers with yellow colored peel, round shape, shallow “eyes”, 16 to 20.5% dry weight, 2.5 to 3.5 cm diameter and less than 0.1% reducing sugars. For dehydrated flakes the tubers with 21-25% dry weight, large size and reducing sugars below 0.1% exhibited the best processing behavior. In addition, it was observed that the cultivar’s environmental conditions affect tuber quality and processing type to be performed.

  4. Profiles of the biosynthesis and metabolism of pyridine nucleotides in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Riko; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    As part of a research program on nucleotide metabolism in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.), profiles of pyridine (nicotinamide) metabolism were examined based on the in situ metabolic fate of radio-labelled precursors and the in vitro activities of enzymes. In potato tubers, [(3)H]quinolinic acid, which is an intermediate of de novo pyridine nucleotide synthesis, and [(14)C]nicotinamide, a catabolite of NAD, were utilised for pyridine nucleotide synthesis. The in situ tracer experiments and in vitro enzyme assays suggest the operation of multiple pyridine nucleotide cycles. In addition to the previously proposed cycle consisting of seven metabolites, we found a new cycle that includes newly discovered nicotinamide riboside deaminase which is also functional in potato tubers. This cycle bypasses nicotinamide and nicotinic acid; it is NAD --> nicotinamide mononucleotide --> nicotinamide riboside --> nicotinic acid riboside --> nicotinic acid mononucleotide --> nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide --> NAD. Degradation of the pyridine ring was extremely low in potato tubers. Nicotinic acid glucoside is formed from nicotinic acid in potato tubers. Comparative studies of [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid metabolism indicate that nicotinic acid is converted to nicotinic acid glucoside in all organs of potato plants. Trigonelline synthesis from [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid was also found. Conversion was greater in green parts of plants, such as leaves and stem, than in underground parts of potato plants. Nicotinic acid utilised for the biosynthesis of these conjugates seems to be derived not only from the pyridine nucleotide cycle, but also from the de novo synthesis of nicotinic acid mononucleotide.

  5. The timing of molecular and morphological changes underlying reproductive transitions in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosters, S L; Jewell, C P; Sherman, N A; Einterz, F; Blackman, B K; Moyle, L C

    2014-04-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from genetic self-incompatibility to self-compatibility are well documented, but the evolution of other reproductive trait changes that accompany shifts in reproductive strategy (mating system) remains comparatively under-investigated. A notable exception is the transition from exserted styles to styles with recessed positions relative to the anthers in wild tomatoes (Solanum Section Lycopersicon). This phenotypic change has been previously attributed to a specific mutation in the promoter of a gene that influences style length (style2.1); however, whether this specific regulatory mutation arose concurrently with the transition from long to short styles, and whether it is causally responsible for this phenotypic transition, has been poorly investigated across this group. To address this gap, we assessed 74 accessions (populations) from 13 species for quantitative genetic variation in floral and reproductive traits as well as the presence/absence of deletions at two different locations (StyleD1 and StyleD2) within the regulatory region upstream of style2.1. We confirmed that the putatively causal deletion variant (a 450-bp deletion at StyleD1) arose within self-compatible lineages. However, the variation and history of both StyleD1 and StyleD2 was more complex than previously inferred. In particular, although StyleD1 was statistically associated with differences in style length and stigma exsertion across all species, we found no evidence for this association within two species polymorphic for the StyleD1 mutation. We conclude that the previous association detected between phenotypic and molecular differences is most likely due to a phylogenetic association rather than a causal mechanistic relationship. Phenotypic variation in style length must therefore be due to other unexamined linked variants in the style2.1 regulatory region. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Organ-dependent oxylipin signature in leaves and roots of salinized tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Ghars, Mohamed Ali; Frettinger, Patrick; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Lutts, Stanley; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; du Jardin, Patrick; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2012-07-15

    Oxylipins have been extensively studied in plant defense mechanisms or as signal molecules. Depending on the stress origin (e.g. wounding, insect, pathogen), and also on the plant species or organ, a specific oxylipin signature can be generated. Salt stress is frequently associated with secondary stress such as oxidative damage. Little is known about the damage caused to lipids under salt stress conditions, especially with respect to oxylipins. In order to determine if an organ-specific oxylipin signature could be observed during salt stress, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Money Maker) plants were submitted to salt stress (100 mM of NaCl) for a 30-d period. A complete oxylipin profiling and LOX related-gene expression measurement were achieved in leaves and roots. As expected, salt stress provoked premature senescence in leaves, as revealed by a decrease in photosystem II efficiency (F(v)/F(m) ratio) and sodium accumulation in leaves. In roots, a significant decrease in several oxylipins (9- and 13-hydro(pero)xy linole(n)ic acids, keto and divinyl ether derivatives) was initiated at day 5 and intensified at day 21 after salt treatment, whereas jasmonic acid content increased. In leaves, the main changes in oxylipins were observed later (at day 30), with an increase in some 9- and 13-hydro(pero)xy linole(n)ic acids and a decrease in some keto-derivatives and in jasmonic acid. Oxylipin enantiomeric characterization revealed that almost all compounds were formed enzymatically, and therefore a massive auto-oxidation of lipids that can be encountered in abscission processes can be excluded here. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of Anthocyanin Composition and Functional Analysis of an Anthocyanin Activator in Solanum nigrum Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoli; Chu, Zhaohui; Ren, Mingxing; Jia, Ru; Zhao, Changbao; Fei, Dan; Su, Hao; Fan, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Xiaotian; Li, Yang; Wang, Yingzi; Ding, Xinhua

    2017-05-25

    Solanum nigrum fruits have been conventionally used in beverages due to their nutritional substances such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, sugars, polyphenols, and anthocyanins. The characterization of components and regulatory mechanism of anthocyanins in S. nigrum fruits have rarely been reported. In this study, we determined that the peel and flesh of S. nigrum fruits shared similar HPLC profiles but different contents and total antioxidant activities for anthocyanins. After an efficient purification method, mainly including extraction with pH 1.0 distilled water and then desorption with pH 1.0 95% ethanol after a DM-130 resin adsorption step to obtain more pure anthocyanin extracts, the purity of anthocyanins extracted from S. nigrum fruits reached 56.1%. Moreover, eight anthocyanins from S. nigrum fruit were identified with HPLC-MS/MS for the first time. A typical R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, SnMYB , was also cloned for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR from S. nigrum. Moreover, the contents of anthocyanins were shown to correlate well ( r = 0.93) with the expression levels of SnMYB gene during the fruit's developmental stages. Most significantly, SnMYB gene successfully produced high anthocyanin content (1.03 mg/g) when SnMYB gene was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves. Taken together, S. nigrum fruits are a promising resource for anthocyanin extraction, and SnMYB gene is an activator that positively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in S. nigrum.

  8. A two-year field study of phytoremediation using Solanum nigrum L. in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Puhui; Song, Yufang; Jiang, Yongji; Tang, Xiwang; Tong, Yan'an; Gao, Pengcheng; Han, Wenshe

    2016-09-01

    A two-year in-situ phytoremediation trial was launched in Shenyang Zhangshi (Sewage) Irrigation Area (SZIA). The phytoremediation efficiency of Solanum nigrum L. was determined, by both monitoring the change of soil Cadmium level in the upper 20 cm of soil, and calculating the plant uptake of soil Cd. After two years experimental, by monitoring the soil Cd concentrations, The Cd concentrations decreased on average from 2.75 mg kg(-1)to 2.45 mg kg(-1) in the first year and from 2.33 mg kg(-1) to 1.53 mg kg(-1) in the second year, amounting to a decrease by a factor of 10.6% in the first year and 12% in the second year. After two years phytoremediation by S. nigrum, Cd concentrations of the seven experimental plots with S. nigrum growth decreased from 2.75 mg kg(-1) to 1.53 mg kg(-1), a decrease by a factor of 24.9%. And the soil Cd concentration decreased only 2.1% and 1.7% in the bared experimental plot. And the calculating of Cd uptake by S. nigrum shown that, the plants uptake 4.46% and 5.18% of the total soil Cd in 2008 and 2009, while the soil Cd concentrations decreased by a factor of 10.6% in 2008 and 12.1% in 2009.

  9. Application time of nitrogen fertilizer 15N by a potato crop (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Urquiaga, S.

    1987-01-01

    This study was performed at the ''San Jorge'' experimental farm of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Bogota, Colombia. The study was performed to investigate the effect of timing of application of nitrogen fertilizer on the productivity of, and the efficiency of utilization of 15 N-labelled fertilizer by, a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.), cv. Tequendama. The crop was fertilized with 100, 200 and 100 Kg/ha -1 of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O respectively. The N fertilizers were either added as 15 N labelled urea (2.955 at.% 15 N excess) or as labelled ammonium sulphate (2.071 at.% 15 N excess). In all treatments with nitrogen, a total of 100 Kg N ha -1 was added, but the nitrogen was added either in two or three split doses (only one dose being labelled with 15 N) at the following times: at planting, 35 days after emergence (DAE) and/or 60 DAE. It was found that: a) Nitrogen fertilization increased tuber production from 24 to 43 t/ha -1 ; b) The tubers constituted approximately 80% of total plant dry matter and 70% of the total nitrogen and fertilizer N accumulated by the plant; c) The fertilizer use efficiency varied between 49 and 68%, and the highest efficiency occurred when the nitrogen was split in three doses; d) The urea and ammonium sulphate gave similar results in all parameters evaluated; e) When the total nitrogen difference method was applied to interpretation of the results the fertilizer use efficiency was overestimated by 15 to 30%

  10. Population structure and genetic differentiation associated with breeding history and selection in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S-C; Robbins, M D; Van Deynze, A; Michel, A P; Francis, D M

    2011-06-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has undergone intensive selection during and following domestication. We investigated population structure and genetic differentiation within a collection of 70 tomato lines representing contemporary (processing and fresh-market) varieties, vintage varieties and landraces. The model-based Bayesian clustering software, STRUCTURE, was used to detect subpopulations. Six independent analyses were conducted using all marker data (173 markers) and five subsets of markers based on marker type (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, simple sequence repeats and insertion/deletions) and location (exon and intron sequences) within genes. All of these analyses consistently separated four groups predefined by market niche and age into distinct subpopulations. Furthermore, we detected at least two subpopulations within the processing varieties. These subpopulations correspond to historical patterns of breeding conducted for specific production environments. We found no subpopulation within fresh-market varieties, vintage varieties and landraces when using all marker data. High levels of admixture were shown in several varieties representing a transition in the demarcation between processing and fresh-market breeding. The genetic clustering detected by using the STRUCTURE software was confirmed by two statistics, pairwise F(st) (θ) and Nei's standard genetic distance. We also identified a total of 19 loci under positive selection between processing, fresh-market and vintage germplasm by using an F(st)-outlier method based on the deviation from the expected distribution of F(st) and heterozygosity. The markers and genome locations we identified are consistent with known patterns of selection and linkage to traits that differentiate the market classes. These results demonstrate how human selection through breeding has shaped genetic variation within cultivated tomato.

  11. Karakteristik Edible Film dari Pati Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L. dengan Penambahan Gliserol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsiah Sjamsiah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible film is a thin layer that serve as the packaging or upholstery as well as food that can be eaten with a product. It is packaged and can be degraded by nature. Potato starch can be used as raw material in manufacturing edible film, in which the addition of glycerol is needed as a plasticizer that function to improve the elasticity of the edible film. The goal of the research is to know the influence of glycerol concentration variation against the characteristics of edible film of starch potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. the parameters examined in this study i.e the physical test that includes a test of strong thickness, tensile test and present enlargement, test the solubility and organoleptic. To help figure out the data obtained in the real effect or not, is done using the SPSS Analysis Variant 1 direction or one-way ANOVA. Characteristics of edible film from potato starch with addition of glycerol with a concentration of 20%, 30% and 40% (v/v to the value of the thickness of consecutive 0,058 mm, 0,062 mm and 0,071mm. The value of the tensile strengh i.e 0,75 N/mm2, 0,69 N/mm2 and 0,35 N/mm2. The value obtained by elongation percent 4,96%, 9,04% and 9,51% where as the value of solubility is obtained that is 19%, 21,4% and 34,6%. Application of edible films from potato starch as the packaging on candy jelly can be acceptedas alternative packaging material for food.

  12. Defense mechanisms of Solanum tuberosum L. in response to attack by plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiatti, Vera A D; Dalmas, Fernando R; Astarita, Leandro V

    2009-01-01

    The natural resistance of plants to disease is based not only on preformed mechanisms, but also on induced mechanisms. The defense mechanisms present in resistant plants may also be found in susceptible ones. This study attempted to analyze the metabolic alterations in plants of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agata that were inoculated with the incompatible plant-pathogenic bacteria X. axonopodis and R. solanacearum, and the compatible bacterium E. carotovora. Levels of total phenolic compounds, including the flavonoid group, and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) were evaluated. Bacteria compatibility was evaluated by means of infiltration of tubers. The defense response was evaluated in the leaves of the potato plants. Leaves were inoculated depending on their number and location on the stem. Multiple-leaf inoculation was carried out on basal, intermediate, and apical leaves, and single inoculations on intermediate leaves. Leaves inoculated with X. axonopodis and with R. solanacearum showed hypersensitive responses within 24 hours post-inoculation, whereas leaves inoculated with E. carotovora showed disease symptoms. Therefore, the R. solanacearum isolate used in the experiments did not exhibit virulence to this potato cultivar. Regardless of the bacterial treatments, the basal leaves showed higher PPO and POX activities and lower levels of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, compared to the apical leaves. However, basal and intermediate leaves inoculated with R. solanacearum and X. axonopodis showed increases in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid levels. In general, multiple-leaf inoculation showed the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, whereas the single inoculations resulted in the highest increase in PPO activity. The POX activity showed no significant difference between single- and multiple-leaf inoculations. Plants inoculated with E. carotovora showed no significant increase in defense mechanisms

  13. A Predictive Degree Day Model for the Development of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Infesting Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, O M; Michels, G J; Pierson, E A; Heinz, K M

    2015-08-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.' Zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of B. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. Lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant B. cockerelli populations in south Texas and Mexico. To initiate the development of an integrated approach of controlling B. cockerelli, we used constant temperature studies, nonlinear and linear modeling, and field sampling data to determine and validate the degree day parameters for development of B. cockerelli infesting potato. Degree day model predictions for three different B. cockerelli life stages were tested against data collected from pesticide-free plots. The model was most accurate at predicting egg-to-egg and nymph-to-nymph peaks, with less accuracy in predicting adult-to-adult peaks. It is impractical to predict first occurrence of B. cockerelli in potato plantings as adults are present as soon cotyledons break through the soil. Therefore, we suggest integrating the degree day model into current B. cockerelli management practices using a two-phase method. Phase 1 occurs from potato planting through to the first peak in a B. cockerelli field population, which is managed using current practices. Phase 2 begins with the first B. cockerelli population peak and the degree day model is initiated to predict the subsequent population peaks, thus providing growers a tool to proactively manage this pest. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Benzothiadiazole (BTH) activates sterol pathway and affects vitamin D3 metabolism in Solanum malacoxylon cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlini, Nedda; Iriti, Marcello; Daghetti, Anna; Faoro, Franco; Ruggiero, Antonietta; Bernasconi, Silvana

    2011-11-01

    Benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), a particularly efficient inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), was developed as an immunizing agent to sensitize various crop species against pathogen infections. Recent works highlighted its activating effect on different metabolic pathways, concerning both primary and secondary metabolites. In this study, we investigated the effect of BTH treatment on sterol levels and vitamin D(3) metabolism in Solanum malacoxylon cultures. Calli of S. malacoxylon were incubated in Gamborg B5 liquid medium alone or added with 50 μM BTH for different times (one, two or three cycles of light). Histocytochemical investigations performed on our experimental system using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) for hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) detection and phloroglucinol for lignin staining showed that BTH causes H(2)O(2) accumulation and lignin deposition in treated calli. Gas chromatographic analysis of principal cell membrane sterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol) showed that BTH transiently increases their cellular levels. Callus cultures were found to contain also cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, the putative precursor of vitamin D(3), and the hydroxylated metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. BTH treatment enhanced 7-dehydrocholesterol while reduced cholesterol. HPLC analysis of sample extracts showed that BTH does not affect the cell content of vitamin D(3), though results of ELISA tests highlighted that this elicitor moderately enhances the levels of 25(OH)D(3) and 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) metabolites. In conclusion, BTH treatment not only causes cell wall strengthening, a typical plant defence response, as just described in other experimental models, but in the same time increases the cellular level of the main sterols and 7-dehydrocholesterol.

  15. Catalase inhibition accelerates dormancy release and sprouting in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Bajji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 metabolism in dormancy release and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers has been investigated using three complementary approaches. In the first approach, the evolution of the sprouting kinetics, H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities were examined during tuber storage. The most important changes occurred at the « bud/sprout » level. In particular, dormancy release was accompanied by a transient but remarkable increase in H2O2 content. In the second approach, the effect of a catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6 inhibitor (thiourea or of exogenous H2O2 application on tuber sprouting behaviour was assessed. Both treatments resulted in a reduction of the dormancy period and in rapid and synchronised sprouting of the treated tubers when compared to the control as well as in increased sprout number per tuber. In the third approach, the effect of CAT inhibition on potato tuber dormancy and sprouting was evaluated using the transgenic technology. Plants partially repressed in their CAT activity were produced and, once again, CAT inhibition resulted in acceleration of the sprouting kinetics and in increased sprout number of the transgenic tubers compared to those from the wild type. It thus appears that tuber dormancy and sprouting can be controlled in potato by the manipulation of H2O2 metabolism via the inhibition of CAT activity. The possible mechanisms whereby CAT inhibitors or H2O2 overcome dormancy and promote sprouting in the potato tuber are discussed in relation to what is known in other plant models (seeds and fruit tree buds.

  16. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinse Jaarsma

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+ shoot distribution index (SDI for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+ points to a role of stem Na(+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1 gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+ transport to the leaves.

  17. Defense mechanisms of Solanum tuberosum L. in response to attack by plant-pathogenic bacteria

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    VERA A D POIATTI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural resistance of plants to disease is based not only on preformed mechanisms, but also on induced mechanisms. The defense mechanisms present in resistant plants may also be found in susceptible ones. This study attempted to analyze the metabolic alterations in plants of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agata that were inoculated with the incompatible plant-pathogenic bacteria X. axonopodis and R. solanacearum, and the compatible bacterium E. carotovora. Levels of total phenolic compounds, including the flavonoid group, and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POX were evaluated. Bacteria compatibility was evaluated by means of infiltration of tubers. The defense response was evaluated in the leaves of the potato plants. Leaves were inoculated depending on their number and location on the stem. Multiple-leaf inoculation was carried out on basal, intermediate, and apical leaves, and single inoculations on intermediate leaves. Leaves inoculated with X. axonopodis and with R. solanacearum showed hypersensitive responses within 24 hours post-inoculation, whereas leaves inoculated with E. carotovora showed disease symptoms. Therefore, the R. solanacearum isolate used in the experiments did not exhibit virulence to this potato cultivar. Regardless of the bacterial treatments, the basal leaves showed higher PPO and POX activities and lower levels of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, compared to the apical leaves. However, basal and intermediate leaves inoculated with R. solanacearum and X. axonopodis showed increases in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid levels. In general, multiple-leaf inoculation showed the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, whereas the single inoculations resulted in the highest increase in PPO activity. The POX activity showed no significant difference between single- and multiple-leaf inoculations. Plants inoculated with E. carotovora showed no significant increase in

  18. Comparativo de rendimiento de cuatro ecotipos de Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal, en la localidad de Zungarococha, Iquitos

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    Angelo F. Samanamud Curto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de producción de cocona, conocer un ecotipo de buen rendimiento de frutos por planta es de mucha utilidad porque permite establecer un ecotipo ideal para iniciar un proyecto comercial. Se planteó el siguiente objetivo: Determinar cuál o cuáles de los cuatro ecotipos de Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal presentan los mayores rendimientos de frutos, en  la localidad de Zungarococha. Se utilizó el Diseño de Bloque Completo al Azar, con 4 tratamientos (04 ecotipos de cocona y 4 repeticiones. Las variables que se estudiaron fueron: rendimiento de fruto (Tm/Ha, rendimiento de fruto (g/planta, peso de fruto (g/fruto, número de frutos/planta, largo de fruto (cm/fruto, diámetro de fruto (cm/fruto, altura de planta (m/planta, y diámetro de tallo (cm/planta. Se pudo observar que, para rendimiento de fruto, los ecotipos de fruto grande A y D son los que generaron mayor rendimiento (16,32 y 13,11 tm/ha respectivamente en comparación con los ecotipos de frutos chicos B y C (8,54 y 6,64 Tm/Ha respectivamente, mostrando diferencias altamente significativas, muy a pesar de que estos últimos producen gran cantidad de frutos por planta (27,71 y 28,04 frutos para C y B respectivamente contrastando con ecotipos de fruto grande (11,68 y 9,21 frutos para A y D respectivamente, siendo estas diferencias altamente significativas. De acuerdo a estos resultados, se concluye, que para rendimiento por unidad por superficie, los ecotipos con mayores rendimientos con un menor número de frutos por planta en las  condiciones agroecológicas donde se trabajó fueron los ecotipos A y D.

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) heterostylous pistil development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yikui; Liu, Ake; Li, Wenjia; Jiang, Yaqing; Song, Shiwei; Li, Yan; Chen, Riyuan

    2017-01-01

    Heterostyly is a common floral polymorphism, but the proteomic basis of this trait is still largely unexplored. In this study, self- and cross-pollination of L-morph and S-morph flowers and comparison of embryo sac development in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) suggested that lower fruit set from S-morph flowers results from stigma-pollen incompatibility. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying heterostyly development, we conducted isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis of eggplant pistils for L- and S-morph flowers. A total of 5,259 distinct proteins were identified during heterostyly development. Compared S-morph flowers with L-morph, we discovered 57 and 184 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) during flower development and maturity, respectively. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions were used for nine genes to verify DEPs from the iTRAQ approach. During flower development, DEPs were mainly involved in morphogenesis, biosynthetic processes, and metabolic pathways. At flower maturity, DEPs primarily participated in biosynthetic processes, metabolic pathways, and the formation of ribosomes and proteasomes. Additionally, some proteins associated with senescence and programmed cell death were found to be upregulated in S-morph pistils, which may lead to the lower fruit set in S-morph flowers. Although the exact roles of these related proteins are not yet known, this was the first attempt to use an iTRAQ approach to analyze proteomes of heterostylous eggplant flowers, and these results will provide insights into biochemical events taking place during the development of heterostyly.

  20. Use of red pigment extracted from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) peels as natural antioxidant and colorant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to extract of red pigment from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) peels by using ethanol ( 70%) acidified with 1.5N HCl ( 85:15 v/v). In addition to study the effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy on total phenolic compounds, total antioxidant activity and total anthocyanins of red pigment extracted from eggplant peels and the effect of using non-irradiated pigment as food colorants on the sensory attributes of food items used. The results illustrated that the non-irradiated red pigment extracted from eggplant peel samples had a higher content of total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanins and exhibited high antioxidant activities compared with irradiated samples. Thus, based on these results, the effect ph values ( 1 and 10) and heat treatment ( 50 and 100°C) on color stability and on retention anthocyanins, respectively in samples of non-irradiated red pigment extracted from eggplant peel samples were investigated. Furthermore, the results showed that the concentration of color changes with the values of ph, where he was more concentrated at low values of ph. Also, the results exhibited retain the red pigment extracted from the eggplant peels high concentrations of authenticity after heat treatment at different temperatures and for different periods. Moreover, the results of sensory evaluation obvious that the natural red pigment extracted from eggplant peels could be blended with meat products beef sausage, some fruit juices such as strawberry, red grape and pomegranate to substitute the losses that may occur in the anthocyanins during heat treatments as pasteurization. Therefore, this study suggested that the red pigment extracted from eggplant can be used as natural food additives to increase antioxidant activity and colorant in many foods as an alternative to synthetic dyes that are harmful to health effects.

  1. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN NUTRIENT ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS ACCUMULATION AND YIELD OF SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM

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    Adekunle Ajayi ADELUSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated photosynthetic pigment accumulation and yield of Solanum lycopersicum so as to ascertain the maximum concentration of nitrogen needed for optimum production. Seeds of S. lycopersicum tagged with VG-TH-017 were firstly raised in nursery bed. At the end of 28th day after sowing, the seedlings with uniform height were transplanted into experimental pots with 4 seedlings per pot under greenhouse. All the experimental pots were 40 in total, 4 levels of nitrogen (KNO3 and NH4NO3 treatment (n, N, 5N, 10N with 10 replicates. All the plants in the four treatments received 200ml of distilled water at 6a.m. in the morning every day. At 6p.m. in the evening, 100 ml of the differential treatments were applied. The photosynthetic pigments were determined spectrophotometrically. The number of flowers and fruits per plant per pot were counted and recorded. The fruit lengths and fruit diameters in each treatment were determined with the use of a Vernier Caliper. The fruits biomass were also determined. The 10N-plants and 5N-plants had leaves with deep-green colouration indicating an increase in chlorophyll content as well as an increase in the photosynthetic capacity. The highest number of flowers and early flowering discovered in 10N-plants and 5N-plants. The best yield was obtained in the treatments for the 5N-plants in which the concentration of nitrogen in the nutrient solution had been increased to a factor of 5. It is therefore suggested that when the seeds of tomato plants VG-TH-017 are to be grown, the 5N treatment is the most suitable level of application.

  2. MEKANISME KETAHANAN KENTANG (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM TERHADAP NEMATODA SISTA KUNING (GLOBODERA ROSTOCHIENSIS

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    Dewi Fitriyanti, Mulyadi, dan Christanti Sumardiyono .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance mechanism of potato (Solanum tuberosum to golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis.  The research was conducted from June 2005 to May 2006 in Kepuhharjo, Cangkringan, Sleman, Yogyakarta. The aims of the research were to find the resistance status of 20 potato varieties, role of  chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid  in the resistance mechanism and histopathological differences between resistant and susceptible potato varieties to  G. rostochiensis. The results showed that two varieties were resistant to G. rostochiensis, i.e, Hertha and Manohara.  Thirteen varieties were moderately resistant, i.e; No.30, No.44, No. 5, No.19, Batang Hitam, Agria,  Desiree, Berolina, Atlantik, No.095, Cipanas, FLS and Colombus, and five varieties were susceptible, i.e; Kikondo, Granola, Erika, LBR, and Fries. The presence of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in Hertha (resistant variety and in Granola (susceptible variety were analized by TLC. In Hertha chlorogenic acid was detected at 4, 5, and 6 days after inoculation (DAI, whereas in Granola it was detected at 1 and 6 DAI. It was assumed that the presence of chlorogenic acid for 3 successively week in Hertha, caused it more resistant than Granola.  Cell lignification inhibited                       G. rostochiensis grow well inside the root tissue of Hertha, whereas in Granola only a few cell was lignified as indicated by less absorption of red colour (safranin in infected areas. Caffeic acid was not detected either in uninoculated or inoculated of both potato varieties.  It indicated that caffeic acid might not be naturally present in Hertha and Granola and nematode infection could not stimulate the production of this compound.

  3. Physiological and proteomic analysis in chloroplasts of Solanum lycopersicum L. under silicon efficiency and salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2014-11-26

    Tomato plants often grow in saline environments in Mediterranean countries where salt accumulation in the soil is a major abiotic stress that limits its productivity. However, silicon (Si) supplementation has been reported to improve tolerance against several forms of abiotic stress. The primary aim of our study was to investigate, using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches, salinity stress in chloroplasts of tomato under silicon supplementation. Tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were grown in nutrient media in the presence or absence of NaCl and supplemented with silicon for 5 days. Salinity stress caused oxidative damage, followed by a decrease in silicon concentrations in the leaves of the tomato plants. However, supplementation with silicon had an overall protective effect against this stress. The major physiological parameters measured in our studies including total chlorophyll and carotenoid content were largely decreased under salinity stress, but were recovered in the presence of silicon. Insufficient levels of net-photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were also largely improved by silicon supplementation. Proteomics analysis of chloroplasts analyzed by 2D-BN-PAGE (second-dimensional blue native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis) revealed a high sensitivity of multiprotein complex proteins (MCPs) such as photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII) to the presence of saline. A significant reduction in cytochrome b6/f and the ATP-synthase complex was also alleviated by silicon during salinity stress, while the complex forms of light harvesting complex trimers and monomers (LHCs) were rapidly up-regulated. Our results suggest that silicon plays an important role in moderating damage to chloroplasts and their metabolism in saline environments. We therefore hypothesize that tomato plants have a greater capacity for tolerating saline stress through the improvement of photosynthetic metabolism and chloroplast proteome expression

  4. Physiological and Proteomic Analysis in Chloroplasts of Solanum lycopersicum L. under Silicon Efficiency and Salinity Stress

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    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants often grow in saline environments in Mediterranean countries where salt accumulation in the soil is a major abiotic stress that limits its productivity. However, silicon (Si supplementation has been reported to improve tolerance against several forms of abiotic stress. The primary aim of our study was to investigate, using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches, salinity stress in chloroplasts of tomato under silicon supplementation. Tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L. were grown in nutrient media in the presence or absence of NaCl and supplemented with silicon for 5 days. Salinity stress caused oxidative damage, followed by a decrease in silicon concentrations in the leaves of the tomato plants. However, supplementation with silicon had an overall protective effect against this stress. The major physiological parameters measured in our studies including total chlorophyll and carotenoid content were largely decreased under salinity stress, but were recovered in the presence of silicon. Insufficient levels of net-photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were also largely improved by silicon supplementation. Proteomics analysis of chloroplasts analyzed by 2D-BN-PAGE (second-dimensional blue native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed a high sensitivity of multiprotein complex proteins (MCPs such as photosystems I (PSI and II (PSII to the presence of saline. A significant reduction in cytochrome b6/f and the ATP-synthase complex was also alleviated by silicon during salinity stress, while the complex forms of light harvesting complex trimers and monomers (LHCs were rapidly up-regulated. Our results suggest that silicon plays an important role in moderating damage to chloroplasts and their metabolism in saline environments. We therefore hypothesize that tomato plants have a greater capacity for tolerating saline stress through the improvement of photosynthetic metabolism and chloroplast proteome

  5. Effect of Inoculation with Glomus versiforme on Cadmium Accumulation, Antioxidant Activities and Phytochelatins of Solanum photeinocarpum.

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    Shi-Yun Tan

    Full Text Available The plant growth, phosphate acquisition, Cd translocation, phytochelatins (PCs production and antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione (GSH, ascorbate (ASA and malonaldehyde (MDA] were investigated in Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum photeinocarpum inoculated with Glomus versiforme BGC GD01C (Gv in Cd-added soils (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg Cd kg-1 soil. Mycorrhizal colonization rates were generally high (from 77% to 94%, and hardly affected by Cd. Gv colonization significantly enhanced P acquisition, growth and total Cd uptakes in both shoots and roots of S. photeinocarpum at all Cd levels. Meanwhile, Gv symbiosis significantly increased Cd concentration in the roots, and decreased Cd concentration in the shoots at all Cd levels, which indicates that Gv could promote phytostabilization by enhancing Cd accumulation in the roots to inhibit its translocation to shoots and the "dilution effects" linked to an increase in plant dry matter yield and a reduced Cd partitioning to shoots. Moreover, the improvement of CAT, POD and APX activities in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants infers that Gv symbiosis helped S. photeinocarpum to relieve oxidative damage to biomolecules in Cd-contaminated soil. The evident decline of MDA content in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants indicates that Gv symbiosis evidently improved antioxidant activities, and the enhancement of PCs production in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants suggests that Gv-inoculated plant may be more efficient to relieve Cd phytotoxicity. Therefore, the possible mechanisms of Cd phytotoxicity alleviation by Gv can be concluded as the decline of Cd concentration in the shoots and the improvement of P acquisition, PCs production and activities of CAT, POD, APX in mycorrhizal plants.

  6. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

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    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a ‘tresbolillo’ a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.

  7. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (solanum L. Section petota.

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    Nora P Castañeda-Álvarez

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives have a long history of use in potato breeding, particularly for pest and disease resistance, and are expected to be increasingly used in the search for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Their current and future use in crop improvement depends on their availability in ex situ germplasm collections. As these plants are impacted in the wild by habitat destruction and climate change, actions to ensure their conservation ex situ become ever more urgent. We analyzed the state of ex situ conservation of 73 of the closest wild relatives of potato (Solanum section Petota with the aim of establishing priorities for further collecting to fill important gaps in germplasm collections. A total of 32 species (43.8%, were assigned high priority for further collecting due to severe gaps in their ex situ collections. Such gaps are most pronounced in the geographic center of diversity of the wild relatives in Peru. A total of 20 and 18 species were assessed as medium and low priority for further collecting, respectively, with only three species determined to be sufficiently represented currently. Priorities for further collecting include: (i species completely lacking representation in germplasm collections; (ii other high priority taxa, with geographic emphasis on the center of species diversity; (iii medium priority species. Such collecting efforts combined with further emphasis on improving ex situ conservation technologies and methods, performing genotypic and phenotypic characterization of wild relative diversity, monitoring wild populations in situ, and making conserved wild relatives and their associated data accessible to the global research community, represent key steps in ensuring the long-term availability of the wild genetic resources of this important crop.

  8. Expression of an osmotin-like protein from Solanum nigrum confers drought tolerance in transgenic soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ricardo Luís Mayer; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Bredemeier, Christian; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; de Brito, Giovani Greigh; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Bertagnolli, Paulo Fernando; de Sá, Maria Eugênia Lisei; Campos, Magnólia de Araújo; de Amorim, Regina Maria Santos; Beneventi, Magda Aparecida; Margis, Rogério; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2014-12-10

    Drought is by far the most important environmental factor contributing to yield losses in crops, including soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. To address this problem, a gene that encodes an osmotin-like protein isolated from Solanum nigrum var. americanum (SnOLP) driven by the UBQ3 promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana was transferred into the soybean genome by particle bombardment. Two independently transformed soybean lines expressing SnOLP were produced. Segregation analyses indicated single-locus insertions for both lines. qPCR analysis suggested a single insertion of SnOLP in the genomes of both transgenic lines, but one copy of the hpt gene was inserted in the first line and two in the second line. Transgenic plants exhibited no remarkable phenotypic alterations in the seven analyzed generations. When subjected to water deficit, transgenic plants performed better than the control ones. Leaf physiological measurements revealed that transgenic soybean plants maintained higher leaf water potential at predawn, higher net CO2 assimilation rate, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration rate than non-transgenic plants. Grain production and 100-grain weight were affected by water supply. Decrease in grain productivity and 100-grain weight were observed for both transgenic and non-transgenic plants under water deficit; however, it was more pronounced for non-transgenic plants. Moreover, transgenic lines showed significantly higher 100-grain weight than non-transgenic plants under water shortage. This is the first report showing that expression of SnOLP in transgenic soybeans improved physiological responses and yield components of plants when subjected to water deficit, highlighting the potential of this gene for biotechnological applications.

  9. Expression of thymosin alpha1 concatemer in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhui; Wang, Aoxue; Zhao, Lingxia; Shen, Guoan; Cui, Lijie; Tang, Kexuan

    2009-04-01

    Talpha1 (thymosin alpha1), an immune booster, plays an important role in the maturation, differentiation and function of T-cells. It can also activate the production of cytokines in dendritic cells. Talpha1 is one of two thymosin proteins that have potential future clinical applications. In order to express Talpha1 protein in plants, we designed and synthesized the Talpha1 gene according to the plant codon usage bias and created a novel 4 x Talpha1 concatemer (four copies of the Talpha1 gene arranged end-to-end in tandem, designated 4 x Talpha1). Subsequently, a plant binary expression vector, PG-pRD12-4 x Talpha1, was constructed and introduced into tomato via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Through selection, 54 regenerated tomato plants resistant to kanamycin were obtained, and four transgenic tomato plants were further confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis showed that the 4 x Talpha1 gene was transcribed specifically in tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum)] fruits. ELISA analysis showed that the content of the 4 x Talpha1 protein reached a maximum of 6.098 microg/g fresh weight in mature tomato fruit. Western-blot analysis further confirmed the expression of 4xTalpha1 protein in transgenic tomato fruits. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay showed the 4 x Talpha1 protein derived from transgenic tomatoes exhibited bioactivity that can stimulate the proliferation of mice splenic lymphocytes in vitro, and the specific activity of Talpha1 protein from the artificial system was higher than that from the synthetic Escherichia coli system. This study is the first to report successful expression of bioactive Talpha1 in plants, and also it will provide the basis for further development of the plant system to produce Talpha1.

  10. In vitro regeneration of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum, Solanaceae) cultivars for commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuelter, A R; Grunvald, A K; Amaral, A T; da Luz, C L; Luz, C L; Gonçalves, L M; Stefanello, S; Scapim, C A

    2009-08-11

    Cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a solanaceous shrub native to the Amazon region that produces an edible fruit. This species has numerous advantages, particularly a high nutritional value and productivity. However, due to irregular germination and rapid loss of seed viability, there are few plantations for production on a large scale. Development of alternative propagation strategies is essential for the production of homogeneous seedlings of genotypes with superior agronomic performance. We developed techniques for in vitro regeneration of the cocona varieties Santa Luzia and Thaís for large-scale production of healthy plantlets. Twenty days after seeding, seedling segments germinated in vitro were used as explant sources. Three successive experiments were performed: one to test the effect of the explant source and combinations of two growth regulators, auxin (indole acetic acid, IAA) and kinetin (KIN), on the morphogenetic response; another to investigate the effect of the combination of growth regulators on the morphogenetic response of hypocotyl segments, and another to evaluate how sucrose concentration affects the development of adventitious shoots. The best shoot induction was obtained using hypocotyl segments and stem apices, while rhizogenesis was greatest in leaves with a petiole. The number of adventitious shoots per explant on hypocotyl segments increased with 10 and 20 mg/L KIN, combined with 0.02 mg/L IAA in the variety Santa Luzia. Sucrose combined with these growth regulator levels increased the average number of calli; these were optimally produced when 45 g/L sucrose and 0.01 mg/L IAA + 20 mg/L KIN were applied. Only sucrose concentration influenced shoot proliferation in the two S. sessiliflorum varieties, with a maximum at 17.5 g/L.

  11. Effectiveness of Neutral Electrolyzed Water on Incidence of Fungal Rot on Tomato Fruits ( Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-López, Alfonso; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Gerardo

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the effect of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) on the incidence of rot on tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum , Galactomyces geotrichum , and Alternaria sp. at sites with lesions. The inoculated fruits were treated with NEW at 10, 30, and 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine, with copper oxychloride fungicide, and with sterile distilled water (control) for 3, 5, and 10 min. In the experiment with F. oxysporum , 50 to 80% of the control fruits and 50 to 60% of the fruits treated with the fungicide exhibited symptoms of rot at the inoculated sites. The lowest incidence recorded was 30% for fruits treated with NEW at 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine with an immersion time of 5 min. In the experiment with G. geotrichum , incidence of rot on control fruits was 70 to 90%, and for treatment with fungicide rot incidence was 50 to 90%. NEW at 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine significantly reduced incidence of symptomatic fruit: only 30% of the inoculated fruits washed for 5 min had damage from rot. In the experiment with Alternaria sp., 60 to 90% of the fruits in the control group and 60 to 70% of the fruits in the fungicide group were symptomatic. The lowest incidence was recorded for the treatment in which the fruits were submerged in NEW with 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine for 3 min. In this group, 40 to 50% of the fruits exhibited symptoms of rot. These results were obtained 8 days after inoculation. NEW, with 60 mg liter -1 active chlorine, significantly reduced incidence of rot symptoms on fruits inoculated with one of the experimental fungi relative to the control (P ≤ 0.05). NEW at 60 mg liter -1 is effective in the control of fungal rot in tomatoes.

  12. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S. M.; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na+ shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na+ points to a role of stem Na+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na+ transport to the leaves. PMID:23533673

  13. Divergence in the enzymatic activities of a tomato and Solanum pennellii alcohol acyltransferase impacts fruit volatile ester composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Charles; Kamiyoshihara, Yusuke; Lam, Nghi B; Richard, Théo; Taylor, Mark G; Tieman, Denise M; Klee, Harry J

    2015-01-01

    Tomato fruits accumulate a diverse set of volatiles including multiple esters. The content of ester volatiles is relatively low in tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and far more abundant in the closely related species Solanum pennellii. There are also qualitative variations in ester content between the two species. We have previously shown that high expression of a non-specific esterase is critical for the low overall ester content of S. lycopersicum fruit relative to S. pennellii fruit. Here, we show that qualitative differences in ester composition are the consequence of divergence in enzymatic activity of a ripening-related alcohol acyltransferase (AAT1). The S. pennellii AAT1 is more efficient than the tomato AAT1 for all the alcohols tested. The two enzymes have differences in their substrate preferences that explain the variations observed in the volatiles. The results illustrate how two related species have evolved to precisely adjust their volatile content by modulating the balance of the synthesis and degradation of esters. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Salicylic acid is involved in the Nb-mediated defense responses to Potato virus X in Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gerardo; Gerhardt, Nadia; Siciliano, Florencia; Vojnov, Adrián; Malcuit, Isabelle; Marano, María Rosa

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the role of salicylic acid (SA) in Nb-mediated hypersensitive resistance to Potato virus X (PVX) avirulent strain ROTH1 in Solanum tuberosum, we have constructed SA-deficient transgenic potato plant lines by overexpressing the bacterial enzyme salicylate hydroxylase (NahG), which degrades SA. Evaluation of these transgenic lines revealed hydrogen peroxide accumulation and spontaneous lesion formation in an age- and light-dependent manner. In concordance, NahG potato plants were more sensitive to treatment with methyl viologen, a reactive oxygen species-generating compound. In addition, when challenged with PVX ROTH1, NahG transgenic lines showed a decreased disease-resistance response to infection and were unable to induce systemic acquired resistance. However, the avirulent viral effector, the PVX 25-kDa protein, does induce expression of the pathogenesis-related gene PR-1a in NahG potato plants. Taken together, our data indicate that SA is involved in local and systemic defense responses mediated by the Nb gene in Solanum tuberosum. This is the first report to show that basal levels of SA correlate with hypersensitive resistance to PVX.

  15. Molluscicidal activity of various solvent extracts from Solanum nigrum var. villosum L. aerial parts against Galba truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molluscicidal activity of Solanum nigrum var. villosum (morelle velue extracts and their fractions were tested against the mollusca gastropoda Galba truncatula intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. The results indicated that the hydro-methanol (MeOH-H2O immature fruit extract possess the highest molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 3.96 mg/L against Galba truncatula compared with other tested compounds. After acido-basic treatment, the methanolic extract fraction isolated from the immature fruits and the richest in alkaloids was the most toxic (LC50 = 1.65 mg/L. The fractions richest in saponosides obtained from the hydromethanolic and methanolic extracts of immature fruits showed interesting molluscicidal activities (LC50 = 6.15 mg/L and LC50 = 7.91 mg/L, respectively. The observed molluscicide activity could be attributed to the presence of alkaloids or saponosides. So, the immature fruits of Solanum nigrum var. villosum could be substrates of choice for molluscicide activity. In addition, total alkaloids and saponosides present in this plant deserve further investigations in order to identify the active principles and demonstrate their activities on mollusks in their natural habitat. According to the World Health Organization’s guidelines on screening for plant molluscicides, use of these fractions may add to the arsenal of methods to control snail transmitting fasciolosis in tropical and Third World countries where fasciolosis is a common disease.

  16. Molluscicidal activity of various solvent extracts from Solanum nigrum var. villosum L. aerial parts against Galba truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, H; Mezghani-Jarraya, R; Damak, M; Ayadi, A

    2011-02-01

    Molluscicidal activity of Solanum nigrum var. villosum (morelle velue) extracts and their fractions were tested against the mollusca gastropoda Galba truncatula intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. The results indicated that the hydro-methanol (MeOH-H2O) immature fruit extract possess the highest molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 3.96 mg/L) against Galba truncatula compared with other tested compounds. After acido-basic treatment, the methanolic extract fraction isolated from the immature fruits and the richest in alkaloids was the most toxic (LC50 = 1.65 mg/L). The fractions richest in saponosides obtained from the hydromethanolic and methanolic extracts of immature fruits showed interesting molluscicidal activities (LC50 = 6.15 mg/L and LC50 = 7.91 mg/L, respectively). The observed molluscicide activity could be attributed to the presence of alkaloids or saponosides. So, the immature fruits of Solanum nigrum var. villosum could be substrates of choice for molluscicide activity. In addition, total alkaloids and saponosides present in this plant deserve further investigations in order to identify the active principles and demonstrate their activities on mollusks in their natural habitat. According to the World Health Organization's guidelines on screening for plant molluscicides, use of these fractions may add to the arsenal of methods to control snail transmitting fasciolosis in tropical and Third World countries where fasciolosis is a common disease.

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF COMPOUNDS OF PEPTIDE NATURE CONTAINED IN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BRASSICA NAPUS SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM AND TETRAGONIA TETRAGONIOIDES LEAVES

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    Tereza Neubauerová

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of infections caused by pathogenic bacteria is still harder. Due to increasing number of microbial species resistant against so far invented antibiotics. This presents great problem for public health. One of the potential solutions seems to be antimicrobial peptides. Those peptides are synthetized in all organisms as a part of innate immunity with rapid mode of antimicrobial action. Lot of them have been isolated from bacteria, plants, insects and mammals as well. Our project was aimed on finding such peptides in plant extracts, respectively in leaves of Brassica napus (canola, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato and Tetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach. We used several separation techniques to obtain fractions containing compounds of peptide nature with hydrophobic character. Antimicrobial activity of these fractions was tested against several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Mass spectrometry analysis of antimicrobial active fractions proved presence of low molecular peptides with molecular masses 1.9 - 4.9 kDa and a partial amino acid sequence in hydrophobic part of Tetragonia extract. In hydrophilic fraction of the Solanum extract with proved antibacterial activity two patogenesis-related proteins with antifungal activity NP24 and TPM-1 were detected.

  18. Recombinant lines for less-spininess in steroid-bearing Solanum viarum using induced mutants as parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, R.; Nanda Kumar, D.; Subhas Chander, M.

    1988-01-01

    In the domestication of the wild, spinous and steroid-bearing Solanum viarum (syn. S. khasianum var. chatterjeeanum) induced mutations play a major role. The development of Glaxo and BARC mutants catalysed commercial cultivation of this species for its berries containing solasodine, used in steroid industries. The commercially more popular Glaxo mutant population consists predominantly of plants that are totally free of spines in aerial parts except lamina where few straight spines develop. The BARC mutant still possesses spines on aerial parts including the persistent calyx. However, the laminary spines of the BARC mutant are curved and vestigial. Comparative studies on morphology, growth behaviour and agronomic characters of the two mutants, their wild progenitor and their hybrid progenies showed that the three types differ only for spine character. In F 2 generation of a cross involving the Glaxo and BARC mutants, a double mutant recombinant was recovered. The recombinant is devoid of spines in aerial parts like its Glaxo mutant parent, but possesses laminary curved vestigial spines like the BARC parent. The spine characters of the recombinant are inherited double recessive. Three advanced lines of this recombinant type (IIHR 2n - 1,2 and 3) were tested in replicated trials 1985 and 1986. They showed parity in berry yield and solasodine content with the Glaxo mutant and three promising lines evolved elsewhere viz. 'RRL (Bhuhaneswar) Y-14', 'RRL (Jorhat)' and 'Pusa'. The results indicate gainful use of induced mutants in hybridization leading to development of superior less-spiny lines of steroid bearing Solanum viarum

  19. Bee Diversity and Solanum didymum (Solanaceae Flower–Visitor Network in an Atlantic Forest Fragment in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Lando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s Atlantic Forest biome is currently undergoing forest loss due to repeated episodes of devastation. In this biome, bees perform the most frequent pollination system. Over the last decade, network analysis has been extensively applied to the study of plant–pollinator interactions, as it provides a consistent view of the structure of plant–pollinator interactions. The aim of this study was to use palynological studies to obtain an understanding of the relationship between floral visitor bees and the pioneer plant S. didymum in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest, and also learn about the other plants that interact to form this network. Five hundred bees were collected from 32 species distributed into five families: Andrenidae, Apidae, Colletidae, Megachilidae, and Halictidae. The interaction network consisted of 21 bee species and 35 pollen types. The Solanum-type bee species with the highest number of interactions were Anthrenoides sp. 1, Augochlora sp. 2, and Augochloropsis notophos, representing 71.78% of their interactions. Augochloropsis notophos and Augochlora sp. 2 were the only common species in the flowers of S. didymum. Given the results of our study, we conclude that Solanum is an important source of pollen grains for several native bee species, mainly for the solitary species that are more diverse in the south of Brazil. Moreover, our results indicate that bees from the families Halictidae (A. notophos, Augochlora and Andrenidae (Anthrenoides are the pollinators of S. didymum.

  20. AFLP and DNA sequence variation in an Andean domesticate, pepino (Solanum muricatum, Solanaceae): implications for evolution and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca, José M; Prohens, Jaime; Anderson, Gregory J; Zuriaga, Elena; Cañizares, Joaquín; Nuez, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    The pepino (Solanum muricatum) is a vegetatively propagated, domesticated native of the Andes, where it grows with wild relatives. We used AFLPs and a 1-kb sequence of the 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase gene to study variation of 27 accessions of S. muricatum and 35 collections of 10 species of wild relatives (Solanum section Basarthrum). A total of 298 AFLP fragments and 29 DNA sequence haplotypes were detected. Cluster and principal coordinate analyses and other genetic parameters estimated from both types of markers, show that S. muricatum is closely related to the species from one of the series (Caripensia) of section Basarthrum and that >90% of the variation of the cultigen is also represented in that series. Pepino is highly diverse, either because it is not monophyletic or it has been subjected to regular introgression with wild species, or both. Although a continuous distribution of the genetic variation occurred within the cultivated species, three genetic clusters were recognized. Cluster 1 is mostly centered in Ecuador, cluster 2 in Ecuador and Peru, and cluster 3 in Colombia and Ecuador. Cluster 3 also includes all modern cultivars studied. These results and other evidence suggest that northern Ecuador/southern Colombia is the main center of pepino diversity and the center of origin. The high genetic variation of this cultigen indicates that domestication does not always produce a genetic bottleneck.

  1. Uncovering tomato quantitative trait loci and candidate genes for fruit cuticular lipid composition using the Solanum pennellii introgression line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Levy-Samoha, Dorit; Malitsky, Sergey; Monforte, Antonio J; Orzaez, Diego; Aharoni, Asaph; Granell, Antonio

    2017-05-17

    The cuticle is a specialized cell wall layer that covers the outermost surface of the epidermal cells and has important implications for fruit permeability and pathogen susceptibility. In order to decipher the genetic control of tomato fruit cuticle composition, an introgression line (IL) population derived from a biparental cross between Solanum pennellii (LA0716) and the Solanum lycopersicum cultivar M82 was used to build a first map of associated quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A total of 24 cuticular waxes and 26 cutin monomers were determined. They showed changes associated with 18 genomic regions distributed in nine chromosomes affecting 19 ILs. Out of the five main fruit cuticular components described for the wild species S. pennellii, three of them were associated with IL3.4, IL12.1, and IL7.4.1, causing an increase in n-alkanes (≥C30), a decrease in amyrin content, and a decrease in cuticle thickness of ~50%, respectively. Moreover, we also found a QTL associated with increased levels of amyrins in IL3.4. In addition, we propose some candidate genes on the basis of their differential gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphism variability between the introgressed and the recurrent alleles, which will be the subjects of further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Application of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing To Discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Associated with English Watercourses and Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-01-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

  3. Optimization of productivity and quality of irrigated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) by smallholder farmers in the Central Rift Valley area of Oromia, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemechis, Ambecha O.

    2017-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a vegetable crop with high potential to contribute to poverty reduction via increased income and food security. It is widely grown by smallholders, has high productivity and its demand is increasing. Ethiopia produced about 30,700 Mg of tomatoes on 5,027 ha

  4. Alteration of the genomic composition of Solanum nigrum (+) potato backcross derivatives by somatic hybridisation: selection of fusion hybrids by DNA measurements and GISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsman, K.; Gavrilenko, T.; Bergervoet, M.; Huigen, D.J.; Tjin Wong Joe, A.; Jacobsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Fusion experiments were performed with a first (BC1-6738) and a second (BC2-9017) generation backcross hybrid of 6x Solanum nigrum (+) 2x potato somatic hybrids with potato cultivars. Because no progeny was obtained from the BC2 genotypes, alternative approaches were sought to overcome the sexual

  5. Evolutionary meta-analysis of solanaceous resistance gene and solanum resistance gene analog sequences and a practical framework for cross-species comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirin, Edmund A; Mann, Harpartap; Meyer, Rachel S; Traini, Alessandra; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Litt, Amy; Bradeen, James M

    2012-05-01

    Cross-species comparative genomics approaches have been employed to map and clone many important disease resistance (R) genes from Solanum species-especially wild relatives of potato and tomato. These efforts will increase with the recent release of potato genome sequence and the impending release of tomato genome sequence. Most R genes belong to the prominent nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class and conserved NBS-LRR protein motifs enable survey of the R gene space of a plant genome by generation of resistance gene analogs (RGA), polymerase chain reaction fragments derived from R genes. We generated a collection of 97 RGA from the disease-resistant wild potato S. bulbocastanum, complementing smaller collections from other Solanum species. To further comparative genomics approaches, we combined all known Solanum RGA and cloned solanaceous NBS-LRR gene sequences, nearly 800 sequences in total, into a single meta-analysis. We defined R gene diversity bins that reflect both evolutionary relationships and DNA cross-hybridization results. The resulting framework is amendable and expandable, providing the research community with a common vocabulary for present and future study of R gene lineages. Through a series of sequence and hybridization experiments, we demonstrate that all tested R gene lineages are of ancient origin, are shared between Solanum species, and can be successfully accessed via comparative genomics approaches.

  6. The population structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico suggests genetic differentiation between populations from cultivated potato and wild Solanum spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Grünwald, N.J.; Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Lozoya-Saldaña, H.; Fry, W.E.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected front cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xedinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and

  7. An investigation to evaluate the analgesic and central nervous system depressant activities of Solanum nigrum (Linn. in Homoeopathic potencies in experimental animal models

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    Echur Natarajan Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In Homoeopathy, Solanum nigrum is clinically used in the treatment of ergotism, meningitis, irritation during dentition and some of the symptoms of neurological disorders but its Central Nervous System (CNS potential has not been explored experimentally yet. Therefore, a preliminary study was conducted with an objective to evaluate the analgesic and CNS depressant effects of homoeopathic potencies of S. nigrum in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Wistar albino rats using a hot plate, ice plate and Randall-Selitto assay for analgesic; rota-rod and open field test for CNS depressant activities. The different potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C of Solanum nigrum were administered orally (0.5 ml/rat/day for 30 days and response was assessed after 30 minutes of drug administration on 10 th , 20 th and 30 th day. Results: The result shows that all the four potencies of Solanum nigrum has increased the latency time required to raise and lick the paws for thermal sensation on hot plate test and for cold sensation on ice plate test and also increased the degree of threshold pressure to mechanically induced pain on Randall-Selitto assay but depressed the motor coordination and locomotor activities. Conclusion: The result obtained from this preliminary study suggests that homoeopathic preparation of Solanum nigrum in different potencies possess analgesic and CNS depressant activities. Further detailed investigations are required for its possible human use.

  8. The identification of a gene (Cwp1), silenced during Solanum evolution, which causes cuticle microfissuring and dehydration when expressed in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovav, Ran; Chehanovsky, Noam; Moy, Michal; Jetter, Reinhard; Schaffer, Arthur A

    2007-11-01

    One of the most intriguing phenomena of fleshy fruit is the ability to maintain high water content at maturity, even following harvest. This is accomplished by a fruit cuticle that is highly impermeable to water diffusion. In this paper, we report on a novel genotype of tomato, developed via introgression from the wild species Solanum habrochaites, which is characterized by microfissuring of the fruit cuticle and dehydration of the mature fruit. The microfissure/dehydration phenotype is inherited as a single gene, termed Cwp1 (cuticular water permeability). The gene was fine mapped, and its identity was determined by map-based cloning and differential expression analysis in near-isogenic lines. Causality of the Cwp1 gene was shown by the heterologous transgenic expression of the gene in the cultivated tomato, which caused a microfissured fruit cuticle leading to dehydrated fruit. Cwp1 encodes for a protein of unidentified function in the DUF833 domain family. The gene is expressed in the fruit epidermis of the dehydrating genotype harbouring the wild-species introgression, but not in the cultivated tomato. It is expressed only in the primitive green-fruited wild tomato species, but is not expressed in the cultivated Solanum lycopersicum and the closely related Solanum cheesmaniae and Solanum pimpinellifolium, indicating a pre-adaptive role for Cwp1 silencing in the evolution and domestication of the cultivated tomato.

  9. Domestication process of two Solanum section Lasiocarpa species among Amerindians in the Upper Orinoco, Venezuela, with special focus on Piaroa Indians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Marcucci, R.; Tornadore, N.; Paoletti, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Two semi-cultivated Solanum species (S. sessiliflorum Dunal and S. stramonifolium Jacq.) are utilized by the Amazonian Indians of the Upper Orinoco Basin in Venezuela. The manner in which they have become partially domesticated by the Piaroas and other native tribes of this rain forest region is

  10. Plastid trnF pseudogenes are present in Jaltomata, the sister genus of Solanum (Solanaceae): molecular evolution of tandemly repeated structural mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poczai, Péter; Hyvönen, Jaakko

    2013-11-01

    Extensive gene duplication arranged in a tandem array is rare in the plastome of embryophytes. Interestingly, we found pseudogene copies of the trnF gene in the genus Jaltomata, the sister genus of Solanum where such gene duplication has been previously reported. In each Jaltomata sequence available we found two pseudogene copies in close 5'-proximity to the original functional gene. The size of each pseudogene copy ranged between 17 and 48 bp and the anticodon domain was identified as the most conserved element. A common ATT(G)n motif is particularly interesting and its modifications were found to border the 3' of the duplicated regions. Other motifs were partial residues, or entire parts of the T- and D-domains, and both domains proved to be variable in length among the pseudogenes identified. The residues of the 3' and 5' acceptor stem were not found among the copies. We further compared the newly discovered copies of Jaltomata with those ones previously described from Solanum and inferred phylogenetic relationships of the copies aligned. The evolution of Solanum copies, in contrast to Jaltomata, is hard to explain as resulting only in parsimonious changes since reticulate evolutionary patterns were detected among the copies. The dynamic evolutionary patterns of Solanum might be explained by possible inter- or intrachromosomal recombination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sucrose and Starch Content Negatively Correlates with PSII Maximum Quantum Efficiency in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Exposed to Abnormal Light/Dark Cycles and Continuous Light"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Carreno Quintero, N.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Millenaar, Frank F.; Ieperen, van W.

    2017-01-01

    Light is most important to plants as it fuels photosynthesis and provides clues about the environment. If provided in unnatural long photoperiods, however, it can be harmful and even lethal. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), for example, develops mottled chlorosis and necrosis when exposed to

  12. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Sect. Petota (Wild and Cultivated Potatoes) are Drastically Altered as a Result of PBI-Funded Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1990, the latest comprehensive taxonomic monograph of Solanum section Petota Dumort recognized 232 species partitioned into 21 series. PBI-sponsored research has drastically altered knowledge of their species boundaries and interrelationships. The series contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraplo...

  13. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers-Tomczak, A.M.; Bakker, E.H.; Boer, de J.M.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.; Achenbach, U.; Golas, T.M.; Suryaningrat, S.; Smant, G.; Bakker, J.; Goverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a

  14. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the world’s most important vegetable crop and central to global food security. Cultivated potato is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Numerous wild potato species serve as a resource for introgress...

  15. Optimization of productivity and quality of irrigated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) by smallholder farmers in the Central Rift Valley area of Oromia, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemechis, Ambecha O.

    2017-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a vegetable crop with high potential to contribute to poverty reduction via increased income and food security. It is widely grown by smallholders, has high productivity and its demand is increasing. Ethiopia produced about 30,700 Mg of tomatoes on

  16. The Population Structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico Suggests Genetic Differentiation Between Populations from Cultivated Potato and Wild Solanum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flier, Wilbert G; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Kroon, Laurens P N M; Sturbaum, Anne K; van den Bosch, Trudy B M; Garay-Serrano, Edith; Lozoya-Saldaña, Hector; Fry, William E; Turkensteen, Lod J

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected from cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xendinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) multi-locus fingerprint genotype. Isolate samples were monomorphic for mtDNA haplotype because all isolates tested were of the Ia haplotype. A total of 158 multilocus AFLP genotypes were identified among the 170 P. infestans isolates included in this study. P. infestans populations sampled in the Toluca Valley in 1997 were highly variable and almost every single isolate represented a unique genotype based on the analysis of 165 AFLP marker loci. Populations of P. infestans collected from the commercial potato-growing region in the valley, the subsistence potato production area along the slopes of the Nevado de Toluca, and the native Solanum spp. on the forested slopes of the volcano showed a high degree of genetic diversity. The number of polymorphic loci varied from 20.0 to 62.4% for isolates collected from the field station and wild Solanum spp. On average, 81.8% (135) of the AFLP loci were polymorphic. Hetero-zygosity varied between 7.7 and 19.4%. Significant differentiation was found at the population level between strains originating from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum spp. (P = 0.001 to 0.022). Private alleles were observed in individual isolates collected from all three populations, with numbers of unique dominant alleles varying from 9 to 16 for isolates collected from commercial potato crops and native Solanum spp., respectively. Four AFLP markers were exclusively found present in isolates collected from S. demissum. Indirect estimation of gene flow between populations indicated restricted gene flow between both P. infestans populations from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum hosts. There was no evidence

  17. Genomic profiling of exogenous abscisic acid-responsive microRNAs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Yang; Wang, Yan; Tao, Xiang; Fan, Yan-Fen; Dai, Ya; Yang, Hong; Ma, Xin-Rong

    2016-06-03

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in various biological pathways and stress responses as negative regulators at the posttranscriptional level. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key signaling molecule that mediates plant stress response by activating many stress-related genes. Although some miRNAs in plants are previously identified to respond to ABA, a comprehensive profile of ABA-responsive miRNAs has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identified miRNAs responding to exogenous application of ABA, and their predicted target genes in the model plant organism tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Deep sequencing of small RNAs from ABA-treated and untreated tomatoes revealed that miRNAs can be up- or down-regulated upon treatment with ABA. A total of 1067 miRNAs were detected (including 365 known and 702 candidate novel miRNAs), of those, 416 miRNAs which had an abundance over two TPM (transcripts per million) were selected for differential expression analysis. We identified 269 (180 known and 89 novel) miRNAs that respond to exogenous ABA treatment with a change in expression level of |log2FC|≥0.25. 136 of these miRNAs (90 known and 46 novel) were expressed at significantly different levels |log2FC|≥1 between treatments. Furthermore, stem-loop RT-PCR was applied to validate the RNA-seq data. Target prediction and analysis of the corresponding ABA-responsive transcriptome data uncovered that differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in condition stress and pathogen resistance, growth and development. Among them, approximately 90 miRNAs were predicted to target transcription factors and pathogen resistance genes. Some miRNAs had functional overlap in biotic and abiotic stress. Most of these miRNAs were down-regulated following exposure to exogenous ABA, while their related target genes were inversely up-regulated, which is consistent with their negative regulatory role in gene expression. Exogenous ABA application influences the composition and expression level of tomato mi

  18. Evaluación del contenido de antioxidantes en introducciones de tomate tipo cereza (Solanum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ceballos-Aguirre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La mayor diversidad genética de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. se encuentra en especies silvestres, con variabilidad en características de calidad del fruto como sabor, aroma, coloración, y contenidos de licopeno y b-caroteno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el contenido de antioxidantes (licopeno, b-caroteno y vitamina C en frutos de tomate tipo cereza de 30 introducciones silvestres existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira. El estudio de campo se realizó en la granja Montelindo de la Universidad de Caldas; temperatura promedio de 22.8 °C; a 1010 m.s.n.m.; 2200 mm de precipitación pluvial anual y una humedad relativa de 76%. El diseño experimental fue látice rectangular, con 30 tratamientos (introducciones y un testigo comercial (Sweet million, con cuatro repeticiones por tratamiento y cinco plantas en cada una de ellas como unidad experimental. Las variables evaluadas fueron licopeno, b-caroteno, vitamina C y acidez del fruto, determinadas por espectrofotometría y titulación por cambio de color y pH. adicionalmente se evaluó la producción de frutos. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando pruebas de varianza y prueba de medias por Duncan, con el programa SAS (SAS Institute Cary N.C. Finalmente se aplicó un índice de selección ponderado con base en las variables licopeno, b-caroteno y vitamina C, con aplicación de una presión de selección de 17%. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 para las variables evaluadas. El mayor contenido de licopeno se halló en la introducción LA1455 con 0.32 µg/ml, el de b-caroteno en la introducción LA2076 (0.095 µg/ml, y el de vitamina C en el testigo comercial (Sweet million (85 mg/100 g. El índice de selección mostró como introducciones promisorias: IAC 445, LA2076, LA2710, LA2845, y LA1546, lo cual indica que existe diversidad fenotípica entre las introducciones evaluadas para las variables licopeno, b

  19. Uptake of Plutonium-238 into Solanum tuberosum L. (potato plants) in presence of complexing agent EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawussi, Frank; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Mühr-Ebert, Elena L; Schneider, Stephanie; Bister, Stefan; Walther, Clemens

    2017-11-01

    Bioavailability and plant uptake of radionuclides depend on various factors. Transfer into different plant parts depends on chemical and physical processes, which need to be known for realistic ingestion dose modelling when these plants are used for food. Within the scope of the present work, the plutonium uptake by potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) was investigated in hydroponic solution of low concentration [Pu] = 10 -9  mol L -1 . Particular attention was paid to the speciation of radionuclides in the solution which was modelled by the speciation code PHREEQC. The speciation, the solubility and therefore the plant availability of radionuclides mainly depend on the pH value and the redox potential of the solution. During the contamination period, the redox potential did not change significantly. In contrast, the pH value showed characteristic changes depending on exudates excreted by the plants. Plant roots took up high amounts of plutonium (37%-50% of the added total amount). In addition to the uptake into the roots, the radionuclides can also adsorb to the exterior root surface. The solution-to-plant transfer factor showed values between 0.03 and 0.80 (Bq kg -1 / Bq L -1 ) for the potato tubers. By addition of the complexing agent EDTA (10 -4  mol L-1), the plutonium uptake from solution increased by 58% in tubers and by 155% in shoots/leaves. The results showed that excreted substances by plants affect bioavailability of radionuclides at low concentration, on the one hand. On the other hand, the uptake of plutonium by roots and the accumulation in different plant parts can lead to non-negligible ingestion doses, even at low concentration. We are aware of the limited transferability of data obtained in hydroponic solutions to plants growing in soil. However, the aim of this study is twofold: First we want to investigate the influence of Pu speciation on plant uptake in a rather well defined system which can be modelled using available thermodynamic data

  20. Efectos del compost y lombriabono sobre el crecimiento y rendimiento de berenjena Solanum melongena L.

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    José Cantero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La berenjena se cultiva de manera convencional en la región Caribe colombiana, con una alta demanda de insumos agrícolas. No se reporta aún la implementación del manejo ecológico del cultivo para mejorar la competitividad de este sistema de producción. Ante esta problemática, se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización con abonos orgánicos sobre el crecimiento y rendimiento del cultivo de la berenjena Solanum melongena L. en el valle medio del río Sinú. El experimento se realizó en el primer semestre de 2013 en el área experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas de la Universidad de Córdoba, con diseño de bloques completos aleatorizados con seis tratamientos: lombriabono, compost, lixiviado de humus de lombriz, mezcla (lombriabono, compost y lixiviado de humus de lombriz, fertilización convencional con nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio (NPK y testigo (sin fertilización y tres repeticiones. Se evaluaron las características días a floración y a cosecha, altura de planta, diámetro del tallo, área foliar, número de frutos por planta, peso de fruto, firmeza de fruto y rendimiento. El Análisis de Varianza mostró diferencias significativas en días a floración, encontrándose que las plantas fertilizadas con lombriabono fueron más precoces. No se observaron diferencias significativas en días a cosecha, altura de planta, diámetro de tallo, área foliar, número de frutos por planta, peso de fruto y rendimiento. La fertilización convencional con NPK y el compost registraron las mayores tasas mínimas de retorno marginal, por lo que el uso del compost es una buena alternativa de fertilización sostenible.

  1. Alterações reprodutivas em ratos machos expostos perinatalmente aos frutos da Solanum lycocarpum

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    Aline Schwarz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ratas prenhes foram tratadas do dia 06 da gestação (GD 06 ao dia 07 pós-natal (PND 07 com frutos verdes secos e moídos da Solanum lycocarpum (10% na ração. Após nascimento das ninhadas, foi avaliado na prole masculina adulta aos 60 e 90 dias de vida, o número de espermátides e a produção espermática diária nos testículos e o tempo de trânsito espermático no epidídimo. A exposição não foi capaz de promover alterações na produção espermática diária (DSP e no número de espermátides produzidas pelo testículo dos ratos expostos aos frutos verdes da S. lycocarpum durante a gestação e início da lactação. Não foram observadas alterações no tempo de trânsito espermático na cabeça do epidídimo, porém, foi constatado menor número de espermatozóides no corpo/cauda do epidídimo nos machos experimentais com 90 dias de vida, provavelmente resultante do menor tempo de trânsito espermático observado no corpo/cauda do epidídimo aos PND 90. Estes dados sugerem que a exposição de ratos aos frutos verdes da S. lycocarpum durante a gestação e início da lactação, não foi suficiente para promover alterações na produção mas sim no trânsito espermático, indicando possível alteração no eixo hormônio liberador das gonadotrofinas hipotálamo-hipófise-gônada

  2. Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum villosum berry extract against the dengue vector Stegomyia aegypti

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    Chandra Goutam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Although several plants have been reported for mosquitocidal activity, only a few botanicals have moved from the laboratory to field use, because they are poorly characterized, in most cases active principals are not determined and most of the works are restricted to preliminary screening. Solanum villosum is a common weed distributed in many parts of India with medicinal properties, but the larvicidal activity of this plant has not been reported so far. Methods Aqueous and polar/non-polar solvent extract of fresh, mature, green berries of S. villosum was tested against Stegomyia aegypti, a common vector of dengue fever. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform:methanol extract was performed to search for the active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined (log probit analysis and compared with Malathion. The chemical nature of the active substance was also evaluated following ultraviolet-visual (UV-Vis and infrared (IR analysis. Results In a 72 hour bioassay experiment with the aqueous extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 0.5% extract. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (p p Y was positively correlated with the period of exposure (X and the log probit analysis (95% confidence level recorded lowest value (5.97 ppm at 72 hours of exposure. Phytochemical analysis of the chlororm:methanol extract reported the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals. Two toxic compounds were detected having Rf = 0.82 (70% and 73.33% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively and Rf = 0.95 (40% and 50% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively. IR analysis provided preliminary information about the steroidal nature of the active ingredient. Conclusion S. villosum offers promise as

  3. Extraction of pectic enzymes from of Lulo (Solanum quitoense lam) involved in softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Nieto, Jeimmy Marcela; Restrepo Sanchez, Luz Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The main problem of post-harvest deterioration of Lulo (Solanum quitoense lam) is the softening is the main problem of post-harvest deterioration of Lulo that is generated mainly by the activity of pectic enzymes, which attack the structural network of the cell wall. this research was based on finding the best conditions structural cell wall network for extraction and measurement of enzyme activity pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) and pectato liasa (PL); tools needed to study the further role of these enzymes in the deterioration of pectatelyase fruit softening, due to various metabolic changes. It was found that the first two enzymes can be extracted simultaneously with 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 0.06 m NaCl and 60 minutes of extraction, ratio 1:2 (plant material: extraction buffer), pectatelyase extracted with 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 20 mm cysteine and 30 minutes of extraction, ratio 1:3. for quantification of pectinesterase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes at 42 Celsius degrade, 2500 μl of crude enzyme extract (EE) in 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, to 0.15 m NaCl and 1.6% citrus pectin as (CP) substrate with apparent km values of 3.78% CP and vmax 17.95 mol h+/min, mg prot. for the quantification of pectinesterase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes to 42 Celsius degrade 2500 μl of crude enzyme extract (EE) in 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 0.15 m NaCl and 1.6% citrus pectin as substrate with apparent km values of 3.78% CP and 17.95 μ vmax mol h+/min Mg prot. for the quantification of polygalacturonase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes to 37 Celsius degrade 30 μl (EE) in 200 mm acetate buffer pH 4.5, 0.25 m NaCl and 1.0% of APG as substrate, with apparent km values 0.141% of APG and vmax 28.46 nkat/s mg prot. for the quantification of the pectatelyase activity is necessary to incubate 2 minutes to 17 Celsius degrade, 100 μl (EE) in buffer tris: HCl pH 8.5, 50 mm 4 mm CaCl2 and 0.1% PGA as substrate, with

  4. Biosynthesis of the diterpenoid lycosantalonol via nerylneryl diphosphate in Solanum lycopersicum.

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    Yuki Matsuba

    Full Text Available We recently reported that three genes involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenes in trichomes, a cis-prenyltransferase named neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1 and two terpene synthases (TPS19 and TPS20, are present in close proximity to each other at the tip of chromosome 8 in the genome of the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. This terpene gene "cluster" also contains a second cis-prenyltransferase gene (CPT2, three other TPS genes, including TPS21, and the cytochrome P450-oxidoreductase gene CYP71BN1. CPT2 encodes a neryneryl diphosphate synthase. Co-expression in E. coli of CPT2 and TPS21 led to the formation of the diterpene lycosantalene, and co-expression in E. coli of CPT2, TPS21 and CYP71BN1 led to the formation of lycosantalonol, an oxidation product of lycosantalene. Here we show that maximal expression of all three genes occurs in the petiolule part of the leaf, but little expression of these genes occurs in the trichomes present on the petiolules. While lycosantalene or lycosantalonol cannot be detected in the petiolules of wild-type plants (or anywhere else in the plant, lycosantalene and lycosantalonol are detected in petiolules of transgenic tomato plants expressing CPT2 under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter. These results suggest that lycosantalene and lycosantalonol are produced in the petiolules and perhaps in other tissues of wild-type plants, but that low rate of synthesis, controlled by the rate-limiting enzyme CPT2, results in product levels that are too low for detection under our current methodology. It is also possible that these compounds are further modified in the plant. The involvement of CPT2, TPS21 and CYP71BN1 in a diterpenoid biosynthetic pathway outside the trichomes, together with the involvement of other genes in the cluster in the synthesis of monoterpenes in trichomes, indicates that this cluster is further evolving into "sub-clusters" with unique biochemical, and likely physiological, roles.

  5. Biosynthesis of the diterpenoid lycosantalonol via nerylneryl diphosphate in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Yuki; Zi, Jiachen; Jones, A Daniel; Peters, Reuben J; Pichersky, Eran

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that three genes involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenes in trichomes, a cis-prenyltransferase named neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1) and two terpene synthases (TPS19 and TPS20), are present in close proximity to each other at the tip of chromosome 8 in the genome of the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). This terpene gene "cluster" also contains a second cis-prenyltransferase gene (CPT2), three other TPS genes, including TPS21, and the cytochrome P450-oxidoreductase gene CYP71BN1. CPT2 encodes a neryneryl diphosphate synthase. Co-expression in E. coli of CPT2 and TPS21 led to the formation of the diterpene lycosantalene, and co-expression in E. coli of CPT2, TPS21 and CYP71BN1 led to the formation of lycosantalonol, an oxidation product of lycosantalene. Here we show that maximal expression of all three genes occurs in the petiolule part of the leaf, but little expression of these genes occurs in the trichomes present on the petiolules. While lycosantalene or lycosantalonol cannot be detected in the petiolules of wild-type plants (or anywhere else in the plant), lycosantalene and lycosantalonol are detected in petiolules of transgenic tomato plants expressing CPT2 under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter. These results suggest that lycosantalene and lycosantalonol are produced in the petiolules and perhaps in other tissues of wild-type plants, but that low rate of synthesis, controlled by the rate-limiting enzyme CPT2, results in product levels that are too low for detection under our current methodology. It is also possible that these compounds are further modified in the plant. The involvement of CPT2, TPS21 and CYP71BN1 in a diterpenoid biosynthetic pathway outside the trichomes, together with the involvement of other genes in the cluster in the synthesis of monoterpenes in trichomes, indicates that this cluster is further evolving into "sub-clusters" with unique biochemical, and likely physiological, roles.

  6. A clarified position for solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme in the evolutionary history of tomatoes (solanaceae

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    Causse Mathilde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural phenotypic variability present in the germplasm of cultivated plants can be linked to molecular polymorphisms using association genetics. However it is necessary to consider the genetic structure of the germplasm used to avoid false association. The knowledge of genetic structure of plant populations can help in inferring plant evolutionary history. In this context, we genotyped 360 wild, feral and cultivated accessions with 20 simple sequence repeat markers and investigated the extent and structure of the genetic variation. The study focused on the red fruited tomato clade involved in the domestication of tomato and confirmed the admixture status of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme. We used a nested sample strategy to set-up core collection maximizing the genetic diversity with a minimum of individuals. Results Molecular diversity was considerably lower in S. lycopersicum i.e. the domesticated form. Model-based analysis showed that the 144 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions were structured into two groups: one close to the domesticated group and one resulting from the admixture of the S. lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium genomes. SSR genotyping also indicates that domesticated and wild tomatoes have evolved as a species complex with intensive level of hybridization. We compiled genotypic and phenotypic data to identify sub-samples of 8, 24, 32 and 64 cherry tomato accessions that captured most of the genetic and morphological diversity present in the entire S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme collection. Conclusion The extent and structure of allelic variation is discussed in relation to historical events like domestication and modern selection. The potential use of the admixed group of S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme for association genetics studies is also discussed. Nested core collections sampled to represent tomato diversity will be useful in diversity studies. Molecular and

  7. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  8. Target proteins reprogrammed by As and As + Si treatments in Solanum lycopersicum L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmiroli, Marta; Mussi, Francesca; Imperiale, Davide; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2017-11-21

    Arsenic is an important contaminant of many arable soils worldwide, while silicon, one of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust, interacts with As in the context of plant metabolism. As toxicity results largely from its stimulation of reactive oxygen species, and it is believed that Si can mitigate this process through reduction of the level of oxidative stress. Experiments targeting the proteomic impact of exposure to As and Si have to date largely focused on analyses of root, shoot and seed of a range of mainly non-solanaceous species, thus it remains unclear whether oxidative stress is the most important manifestation of As toxicity in Solanum lycopersicum fruit which during ripening go through drastic physiological and molecular readjustments. The role of Si also needs to be re-evaluated. A comparison was drawn between the proteomic responses to As and As + Si treatments of the fruit of two tomato cultivars (cvs. Aragon and Gladis) known to contrast for their ability to take up these elements and to translocate them into fruits. Treatments were applied at the beginning of the red ripening stage, and the fruit proteomes were captured after a 14 day period of exposure. For each cultivar, a set of differentially abundant fruit proteins (from non-treated and treated plants) were isolated by 2DGE and identified using mass spectrometry. In the fruit of cv. Aragon, the As treatment reprogrammed proteins largely involved in transcription regulation (growth- regulating factor 9-like), and cell structure (actin-51), while in the cv. Gladis, the majority of differentially expressed proteins were associated with protein ubiquitination and proteolysis (E3 ubiquitin protein, and hormones (1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylase). The present experiments were intended to establish whether Si supplementation can be used to reverse the proteomic disturbance induced by the As treatment; this reprogram was only partial and more effective in the fruit of cv. Gladis than

  9. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

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    Montes Rojas Consuelo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a 'tresbolillo' a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.

  10. Effect of irradiation on the shelf life and nutritional quality of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon L.) powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuobi-Yeboah, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycoersicon L.) is a major horticultural crop with an estimated global production of over 153 million metric tons. It is the most important fruit vegetable and the second most widely cultivated crop in the world after potato, with a total production of about 141 million tons. In 2009, the average total yield in Ghana was 7.5 Mt ha -1 compared to the achievable yield of 15.0 Mt ha -1 . The tomato industry in Ghana for the past decade has been bedevilled by a myriad of problems of which post-havest losses range between 30% and 70% in the major season of production, hence a study was conducted into the preservation of S. lycoersicon L. through drying and packaging to reduce post-havest losses. Two drying methods comprising of solar and freeze drying were employed for three varieties of tomato which are cultivated locally. The methods were compared to determine the more efficient for the three varieties used for the study and the impact of drying and radiation on some physio-chemical properties, microbial load as well as shelf-life of the samples. Evaluation of the packaging material for the dried samples was also carried out. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation at 0 kGy, 1 kGy, 2kGy, 3 kGy. The parameters determined included moisture content, pH, titratable acidity; total soluble solids carotenoids, lycopene, lutein and beta carotene. Microbial analysis carried out included total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count, total coliform count and moulds and yeast using standard methods. Data were analysed using ANOVA. Storage had significant effect (p 00.05) the moisture content, total soluble solids of Akoma variety irrespective of the drying method used. However gamma irradiation had a significant effect (p<0.05) effect on pH, colour, total aerobic mesophilic counts, total coliforms, moulds and yeast, total carotenoid content, lutein and beta carotene. Storage had significant (p<0.05) effect on the colour, total carotenoid content, and lycopene of

  11. Estudio preliminar sobre micorriza versículo – Arbuscular (MVA en lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam

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    Sieverding Ewald

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se determinó el carácter (obligado o facultativo de la asociación micorrícica y se evaluó la eficiencia de nueve cepas de micorriza en dos tipos de oxisoles con fertilidad baja y moderada y en presencia de tres niveles de fósforo (0,50 Y 100 kg/ha. El lulo es una especie micotrófica facultativa, ya que con adecuados niveles de fósforo asimilable en el suelo su desarrollo no depende de la asociación micorrícica, mientras que con bajos niveles sucede lo contrario. En general, la inoculación con MVA incrementó el desarrollo del lulo tanto en semilleros como en plántulas. Los mejores aislamientos de MVA fueron una mezcla de Acaulospora spp y Glomus sp y Entrophospora colombiana. En general, la efectividad de la MVA incrementó con niveles bajos y medios de fósforo y se deprimió con el nivel alto, El desarrollo del lulo y la efectividad de la micorriza fue mayor en la localidad más cálida (1050 m, 24°C y 60 % HR que en la más templada (2100 m, 14°C Y 80 % HR.A preliminary study to determine the character (obligate or facultative of the mycorrhizal association in, "naranjilla" (Solanum quitoense L. and an evaluation of nine mycorrhiza stock, was carried out at Palmira (1050 m, 24°C and R.H. of 60 % and Jamundí (2100 m, 14°C and R.H. of 80 %. The trial was held on two oxyzole having a lowand moderate fertility, with 3 levels of phosphorus (0,50 Y 100 kq/ha. The "naranjilla" is a facultative mycotrophic specie. In general, the inoculation with MVA fungi, increased the development of the "naranjilla" in seed beds as well as transplanted seed lings. The effectivity of MVA was dependent on the fungus specie, its origin, the phosphorus levels in the soil and the weather of both Iocalities. The development of the "naranjilla" and the effectivity of the mycorrhiza was superior at the locality (14°C. In general, the isolations which showed the best behavior were a mixture of Acaulospora spp and Glomus sp, and

  12. Alterações no SNC e morfometria cerebelar de bovinos intoxicados experimentalmente por Solanum paniculatum

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    Rafael O. Rego

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies de Solanum causam intoxicações em ruminantes caracterizadas clinicamente por desordens cerebelares e microscopicamente como doença do depósito lisossomal. Não há lesões de necropsia específicas e microscopicamente ocorrem vacuolização e perda de neurônios de Purkinje. Por ser Solanum paniculatum a espécie de ocorrência na região Nordeste, sendo responsável pelos surtos de intoxicação espontânea descrito no Estado de Pernambuco foi realizado um delineamento experimental para caracterizar o quadro clínico-patológico da intoxicação. Foram usados cinco bovinos, sendo quatro no grupo experimental (GE e um animal no controle (GC, de seis meses de idade, sem raça definida, com peso de 120 Kg, mantidos em baias durante cinco meses na Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns/UFRPE. Os animais receberam a planta, colhida nas propriedades em que ocorreram os surtos naturais, na dosagem de 5g/kg/PV/dia da planta dessecada misturada na ração por ingestão natural. Semanalmente realizou-se o Head Raising Test para determinar os sinais cerebelares e quando positivo os animais foram submetidos à colheita de sangue e do líquido céfalo-raquidiano e em seguida foi feito à eutanásia. O SNC e a rete mirabile foram fixados em formol a 10% tamponado, processados rotineiramente e corados pela hematoxilina e eosina para avaliação histopatológica. Foi realizada análise morfométrica das lesões cerebelares. Para avaliação dos resultados laboratoriais utilizou-se análise descritiva e em relação à morfometria, empregou-se o teste T de Student (p<0.05 na contagem de células de Purkinje e para a espessura da camada molecular do cerebelo o teste de Mann Whitney, com nível de 5% de significância. Três animais apresentaram sinais de intoxicação com tempo em média de 90 dias e um com 155 dias. Os sinais clínicos observados foram ataques convulsivos transitórios, e distúrbios do equilíbrio. Na necropsia não foram

  13. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

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    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo

  14. Evaluación de la fertilidad masculina en 81 genotipos de la colección colombiana de Solanum phureja Male Fertility evaluation of 81 genotipes from the Colombian Colection of Solanum phureja

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    Guarin Sandra

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available 81 genotipos de la Colección Colombiana de Solanum phureja, Juz. et Buk. se sembraron para evaluar su fertilidad y la duración de la viabilidad del polen. Las flores se colectaron y se dejaron secar al aire durante 48 horas, luego se extrajo el polen y se guardó en nevera a 7°C. Cada cinco días, se evaluó la fertilidad por el método de germinación "in vitro» y cada 15 días por el método de tinción. Según los resultados, seis genotipos de la colección son estériles y, en general, los genotipos presentan baja fertilidad (menor 20%. El método más adecuado para la estimación de la fertilidad del polen en el tiempo fue la germinación in vitro. Bajo las condiciones de almacenamiento, el polen de la mayoría de los genotipos evaluados tiene un período corto de viabilidad.81 genotypes of the Colombian Collection of Solanum phureja were grown in the field to evaluate fertility and duration of pollen viability. Flowers were Collected and air-dried for 48 hours, then pollen was extracted and kept at 7°C. Fertility was evaluated by the in vitro germination method every five days, and by the stain method every 15 days. Six genotypes of the collection are sterile and, in general, the genotypes have low fertility (less than 20%. The most adequate method to estimate pollen fertility was in vitre germination. Under the storage conditions, the pollen of most genotypes evaluated had a short period of viability.

  15. Effects of yeast extract and methyl jasmonate on the enhancement of solasodine biosynthesis in cell cultures of Solanum hainanense Hance

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    NGUYEN HOANG LOC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of the elicitors methyl jasmonate (MeJA and yeast extract (YE on the growth and solasodine production of Solanum hainanense cells were investigated. The results showed that various concentrations of MeJA (50-250 µM and YE (1-4 g/L have different eliciting influences. The increase of solasodine content induced by the elicitation of 3 g/L of YE and 50 µM of MeJA at the beginning of cell culture was about 1.9- and 1.3-fold, respectively, as compared with that of the non-elicitated cells. In general, YE (biotic elicitor was more effective in enhancing solasodine production than MeJA (abiotic elicitor.

  16. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  17. Expression of an isoflavone reductase-like gene enhanced by pollen tube growth in pistils of Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldik, G J; Ruiter, R K; Colla, P H; van Herpen, M M; Schrauwen, J A; Wullems, G J

    1997-03-01

    Successful sexual reproduction relies on gene products delivered by the pistil to create an environment suitable for pollen tube growth. These compounds are either produced before pollination or formed during the interactions between pistil and pollen tubes. Here we describe the pollination-enhanced expression of the cp100 gene in pistils of Solanum tuberosum. Temporal analysis of gene expression revealed an enhanced expression already one hour after pollination and lasts more than 72 h. Increase in expression also occurred after touching the stigma and was not restricted to the site of touch but spread into the style. The predicted CP100 protein shows similarity to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but belongs to a family of IFR-like NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases present in various plant species.

  18. Cardiovascular effects induced by the aqueous fraction of the ethanol extract of the stem of Solanum stipulaceum in rats

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    E.A.N. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects induced by the aqueous fraction of the ethanol extract of the stem (AFS of Solanum stipulaceum Roem. & Schult were studied in rats. In non-anesthetized rats, AFS injections produced significant and dosedependent hypotension associated with increase in heart rate. In isolated rat superior mesenteric rings, AFS was able to antagonize the contractions induced by phenylephrine and KCl. The vasorelaxant activity of AFS was not inhibited by either removal of vascular endothelium, L-NAME, atropine or indomethacine. In isolated rat atrial preparations, AFS produced concentration-related negative inotropic and chronotropic responses. These results suggest that the hypotensive effect of AFS is due to a peripheral vasodilation, which can not be attributed to the participation of vascular endothelium. Finally, AFS acts directly on the heart decreasing contractility and heart rate.

  19. Physalin H from Solanum nigrum as an Hh signaling inhibitor blocks GLI1–DNA-complex formation

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    Midori A. Arai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling plays an important role in embryonic development, cell maintenance and cell proliferation. Moreover, Hh signaling contributes to the growth of cancer cells. Physalins are highly oxidized natural products with a complex structure. Physalins (1–7 were isolated from Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae collected in Bangladesh by using our cell-based assay. The isolated physalins included the previously reported Hh inhibitors 5 and 6. Compounds 1 and 4 showed strong inhibition of GLI1 transcriptional activity, and exhibited cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines with an aberrant activation of Hh signaling. Compound 1 inhibited the production of the Hh-related proteins patched (PTCH and BCL2. Analysis of the structures of different physalins showed that the left part of the physalins was important for Hh inhibitory activity. Interestingly, physalin H (1 disrupted GLI1 binding to its DNA binding domain, while the weak inhibitor physalin G (2 did not show inhibition of GLI1-DNA complex formation.

  20. Mosquitocidal properties of Solanum trilobatum L. (Solanaceae) leaf extracts against three important human vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, Selvaraj; Elumalai, Kuppusamy; Jeyasankar, Alagarmalai

    2013-11-01

    To determine the larvicidal and pupicidal activites of Solanum trilobatum (S. trilobatum) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). The larvicidal and pupucidal was determined at five different concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm. Percentage of larval mortality was assessed after 48 h. Methanol extracts of S. trilobatum was found to be more susceptible against the larvae of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi at 250 ppm with a LC50 value of 125.43, 127.77 and 116.64 ppm respectively. Leaf methanol extracts of S. trilobatum also exhibited pupicidal and adult emergence properties. These results suggested that the leaf extracts of S. trilobatum showed potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Ae. Aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. DEVELOPMENT VEGETATIVE, PRODUCTIVITY AND GAS EXCHANGE OF SOLANUM SESSILIFLORUM DUNAL GROWN IN PROTECTED ENVIRONMENT AND THE FIELD

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    A. R. Zeist

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal is still very limited, mainly due to lack of technical information about the culture, creating a necessity to obtain knowledge about the adaptation and phenology, thus, improve the technological management. In the context of this information, the present study aimed to assess gas exchange and vegetative growth parameters and productivity cubiu in greenhouse and field. To run the experiment cultured cubiu in the external environment (field and in a protected environment (en-vegetation, evaluating parameters of vegetative (stem diameter, plant height, and canopy volume, productivity (number of commercial and non-commercial fruits, and total production of commercial and non-commercial fruit, gas exchange and SPAD index. Through the results it was found that performing the cultivation of cubiu the field are obtained better photosynthetic performance and water use efficiency (USA and greater vegetative development and production of marketable fruits

  2. Tissue Damage, Temperature, and pH Induced by Different Electrode Arrays on Potato Pieces (Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Maraelys Morales González

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems of electrochemical therapy is the design and selection of suitable electrode array for cancer. The aim is to determine how two-dimensional spatial patterns of tissue damage, temperature, and pH induced in pieces of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., var. Mondial depend on electrode array with circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic shape. The results show the similarity between the shapes of spatial patterns of tissue damage and electric field intensity, which, like temperature and pH take the same shape of electrode array. The adequate selection of suitable electrodes array requires an integrated analysis that involves, in a unified way, relevant information about the electrochemical process, which is essential to perform more efficiently way the therapeutic planning and the personalized therapy for patients with a cancerous tumor.

  3. Linkage mapping of candidate genes for induce resistance and growth promotion by trichoderma koningiopsis (th003) in tomato solanum lycopersicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbaqueba, Jaime; Cotes, Alba Marina; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2011-01-01

    Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is a mechanism by which plants enhance defenses against any stress condition. ISR and growth promotion are enhanced when tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is inoculated with several strains of Trichoderma ssp. this study aims to genetically map tomato candidate genes involved in ISR and growth promotion induced by the Colombian native isolate Trichoderma koningiopsis th003. Forty-nine candidate genes previously identified on tomato plants treated with th003 and T. hamatum T382 strains were evaluated for polymorphisms and 16 of them were integrated on the highly saturated genetic linkage map named TOMATO EXPEN 2000. The location of six unigenes was similar to the location of resistance gene analogs (RGAS), defense related ests and resistance QTLs previously reported, suggesting new possible candidates for these quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions. The candidate gene-markers may be used for future ISR or growth promotion assisted selection in tomato.

  4. Enhanced Bacterial Wilt Resistance in Potato Through Expression of Arabidopsis EFR and Introgression of Quantitative Resistance from Solanum commersonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Federico; Schvartzman, Claudia; Murchio, Sara; Ferreira, Virginia; Siri, Maria I; Galván, Guillermo A; Smoker, Matthew; Stransfeld, Lena; Zipfel, Cyril; Vilaró, Francisco L; Dalla-Rizza, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is responsible for substantial losses in cultivated potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) crops worldwide. Resistance genes have been identified in wild species; however, introduction of these through classical breeding has achieved only partial resistance, which has been linked to poor agronomic performance. The Arabidopsis thaliana (At) pattern recognition receptor elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) recognizes the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern EF-Tu (and its derived peptide elf18) to confer anti-bacterial immunity. Previous work has shown that transfer of AtEFR into tomato confers increased resistance to R. solanacearum . Here, we evaluated whether the transgenic expression of AtEFR would similarly increase BW resistance in a commercial potato line (INIA Iporá), as well as in a breeding potato line (09509.6) in which quantitative resistance has been introgressed from the wild potato relative Solanum commersonii. Resistance to R. solanacearum was evaluated by damaged root inoculation under controlled conditions. Both INIA Iporá and 09509.6 potato lines expressing AtEFR showed greater resistance to R. solanacearum , with no detectable bacteria in tubers evaluated by multiplex-PCR and plate counting. Notably, AtEFR expression and the introgression of quantitative resistance from S. commersonii had a significant additive effect in 09509.6-AtEFR lines. These results show that the combination of heterologous expression of AtEFR with quantitative resistance introgressed from wild relatives is a promising strategy to develop BW resistance in potato.

  5. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the β-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin.

  6. Characterization of the multiple resistance traits of somatic hybrids between Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. and two commercial potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Nachtigall, Marion; Schubert, Jörg; Hammann, Thilo; Antonova, Olga; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific somatic hybrids between commercial cultivars of potato Solanum tuberosum L. Agave and Delikat and the wild diploid species Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. (cph) were produced by protoplast electrofusion. The hybrid nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by flow cytometry, simple sequence repeat (SSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellite-anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) markers and morphological analysis. Somatic hybrids were assessed for their resistance to Colorado potato beetle (CPB) using a laboratory bioassay, to Potato virus Y (PVY) by mechanical inoculation and field trials, and foliage blight in a greenhouse and by field trials. Twenty-four and 26 somatic hybrids of cph + cv. Agave or cph + cv. Delikat, respectively, showed no symptoms of infection with PVY, of which 3 and 12, respectively, were also resistant to foliage blight. One hybrid of cph + Agave performed best in CPB and PVY resistance tests. Of the somatic hybrids that were evaluated for their morphology and tuber yield in the field for 3 years, four did not differ significantly in tuber yield from the parental and standard cultivars. Progeny of hybrids was obtained by pollinating them with pollen from a cultivar, selfing or cross-pollination. The results confirm that protoplast electrofusion can be used to transfer the CPB, PVY and late blight resistance of cph into somatic hybrids. These resistant somatic hybrids can be used in pre-breeding studies, molecular characterization and for increasing the genetic diversity available for potato breeding by marker-assisted combinatorial introgression into the potato gene pool.

  7. The Solanum tuberosum KST1 partial promoter as a tool for guard cell expression in multiple plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gilor; Lugassi, Nitsan; Belausov, Eduard; Wolf, Dalia; Khamaisi, Belal; Brandsma, Danja; Kottapalli, Jayaram; Fidel, Lena; Ben-Zvi, Batsheva; Egbaria, Aiman; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Zheng, Chuanlin; Or, Etti; Distelfeld, Assaf; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2017-05-17

    To date, guard cell promoters have been examined in only a few species, primarily annual dicots. A partial segment of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) KST1 promoter (KST1 partial promoter, KST1ppro) has previously been shown to confer guard cell expression in potato, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), citrus [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis×Poncirus trifoliata)], and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we describe an extensive analysis of the expression pattern of KST1ppro in eight (previously reported, as well as new) species from five different angiosperm families, including the Solanaceae and the Cucurbitaceae, Arabidopsis, the monocot barley (Hordeum vulgare), and two perennial species: grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and citrus. Using confocal imaging and three-dimensional movies, we demonstrate that KST1ppro drives guard cell expression in all of these species, making it the first dicot-originated guard cell promoter shown to be active in a monocot and the first promoter reported to confer guard cell expression in barley and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The results presented here indicate that KST1ppro can be used to drive constitutive guard cell expression in monocots and dicots and in both annual and perennial plants. In addition, we show that the KST1ppro is active in guard cells shortly after the symmetric division of the guard mother cell and generates stable expression in mature guard cells. This allows us to follow the spatial and temporal distribution of stomata in cotyledons and true leaves. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Enhanced Bacterial Wilt Resistance in Potato Through Expression of Arabidopsis EFR and Introgression of Quantitative Resistance from Solanum commersonii

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    Federico Boschi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt (BW caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is responsible for substantial losses in cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum crops worldwide. Resistance genes have been identified in wild species; however, introduction of these through classical breeding has achieved only partial resistance, which has been linked to poor agronomic performance. The Arabidopsis thaliana (At pattern recognition receptor elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu receptor (EFR recognizes the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern EF-Tu (and its derived peptide elf18 to confer anti-bacterial immunity. Previous work has shown that transfer of AtEFR into tomato confers increased resistance to R. solanacearum. Here, we evaluated whether the transgenic expression of AtEFR would similarly increase BW resistance in a commercial potato line (INIA Iporá, as well as in a breeding potato line (09509.6 in which quantitative resistance has been introgressed from the wild potato relative Solanum commersonii. Resistance to R. solanacearum was evaluated by damaged root inoculation under controlled conditions. Both INIA Iporá and 09509.6 potato lines expressing AtEFR showed greater resistance to R. solanacearum, with no detectable bacteria in tubers evaluated by multiplex-PCR and plate counting. Notably, AtEFR expression and the introgression of quantitative resistance from S. commersonii had a significant additive effect in 09509.6-AtEFR lines. These results show that the combination of heterologous expression of AtEFR with quantitative resistance introgressed from wild relatives is a promising strategy to develop BW resistance in potato.

  9. Leaf cuticular n-alkanes as markers in the chemotaxonomy of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliński, L P; Szafranek, J; Stepnowski, P

    2011-11-01

    The complex of species formed by eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild and weedy relatives (mainly S. incanum L. and S. insanum L.) is characterised by an extreme morphological divergence that is not always associated with genetic variation. The taxonomy of so-called 'spiny Solanum' species (subgenus Leptostemonum) is therefore extremely unclear. Cultivated eggplant lacks resistance to pests that frequently occur among the wild forms and species. As these wild plants are a potential gene pool for improvement of eggplant cultivars, knowledge of the characteristics of taxonomic relations between plants of different origin is crucial. We suggest using the leaf cuticular n-alkane chain length distribution pattern as an alternative taxonomic marker for eggplant and related species. The results are in good agreement with current knowledge of the systematics of these plants; at the same time, the method developed here is useful for verifying plant identification based on morphological traits. Analysis of 13 eggplant cultivars, five accessions of S. incanum and two lines of S. macrocarpon enabled the intraspecific variation within eggplant to be assessed as low. There was wide variability among S. incanum accessions, probably because plants described as S. incanum are members of a number of different species. Some Asian accessions (sometimes described as S. insanum) were found to be almost identical to S. melongena, while a truly wild African S. incanum plant showed extensive similarity. The usefulness of the chemotaxonomic approach in dealing with the S. melongena-S. incanum complex is discussed. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. First record on the use of leaves of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae and fruits of Emmotum nitens (Icacinacea by Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Brazilian Cerrado Primeiro registro do uso de folhas de Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae e de frutos de Emmotum nitens (Icacinacea por Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During May, June and July of 2004, the feeding habits of Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 were investigated. Each morning food remains (dry oral pellets, seeds, feces and partly eaten foods were collected in two day roosts sites located inside the main building at Embrapa Cerrados. Fruits of Emmotum nitens (Benth. Miers (1852 and leaves of Solanum lycocarpum S. Hil. (1833 were items consumed by P. lineatus. Independent of plant and bat distribution area, the use of Solanum leaves by P. lineatus appears to be common.Durante os meses de maio, junho e julho de 2004, os hábitos alimentares de Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram investigados. Toda manhã os restos alimentares (pelotas de matéria seca, sementes, fezes e itens parcialmente comidos foram coletados em dois abrigos diurnos localizados dentro das dependências da Embrapa Cerrados. Além de frutos de Emmotum nitens (Benth. Miers (1852, folhas de Solanum lycocarpum S. Hil. (1833 foram consumidas por P. lineatus. Independentemente da área de distribuição, da planta ou do morcego, o uso de folhas de espécies do gênero Solanum por P. lineatus parece ser comum.

  11. Larvicidal activity of the methanol extract and fractions of the green fruits of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae against the vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Thamer Matias Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The larvicidal activity of Solanum lycocarpum against Culex quinquefasciatus is unknown. Methods We evaluated the larvicidal activity of extracts of the green fruits of Solanum lycocarpum against third and fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Results Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions showed the greatest larvicidal effect at 200mg/L (83.3% and 86.7%, respectively. The methanol and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanolic fractions demonstrated larvicidal effects against C. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 126.24, 75.13, 83.15, and 207.05mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Thus, when considering new drugs with larvicidal activity from natural products, S. lycocarpum fruits may be good candidate sources.

  12. The effects of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.) pollen grains

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Flavio; Soria, Norman; Oleas, Abrahan; Rueda, Darwin; Manjunatha, Bangeppagari; Kundapur, Rajesh R.; Maddela, Naga Raju; Rajeswari, Bugude

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of application of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of pollen grains of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). The study was performed at Patate, Tungurahua province, Ecuador and was divided into two phases. Phase one dedicated to the study of morphology, viability, and identification of nutrient solution for better germination of pollen grains and phase two for the analysis of the e...

  13. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Wild Eggplant Solanum aculeatissimum NBS-LRR Gene, Involved in Plant Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Zhou; Jun Liu; Shengyou Bao; Yan Yang; Yong Zhuang

    2018-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., cause considerable damage in eggplant production. Transferring of resistance genes from wild relatives would be valuable for the continued improvement of eggplant. Solanum aculeatissimum, a wild relative of eggplant possessing resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, is potentially useful for genetically enhancing eggplant. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance gene, design...

  14. The genus Solanum (Solanaceae) in southern Africa: subgenus Leptostemonum, the introduced sections Acanthophora and Torva

    OpenAIRE

    W. G. Welman

    2003-01-01

    In the genus Solanum L. (Solanaceae), subgenus Leptostemonum (Dunal) Bitter, section Acanthophora Dunal has four representatives in the Flora of southern Africa region (South Africa. Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia. Botswana), namely  S. aculeatissimum Jacq.. S. capsicoides Allioni. S. mammosum L. (cultivated only) and S. viarum Dunal. Section  Ton a Nees has two representatives in southern Africa, namely S.  chnsotriclium Schltdl. (S.  hispidum auctt. non Pers.) and S.  ton um Sw.; both are natu...

  15. Caracterización Citogenética de Cinco Genotipos de Papa Criolla, Solanum phureja (Juz. et Buk. Cytogenetic Characterization of Five "Criolla" Potato Genotypes, Solanum phureja (Juz. et Buk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiani Melissa Gómez Pulgarín

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El cultivo de la papa ocupa el cuarto lugar en el mundo en importancia después del arroz, trigo y maíz. La papa criolla (Solanum phureja posee características valiosas desde el punto de vista culinario y nutricional, por su alto contenido de vitaminas, minerales, fibra y calidad de proteína. Colombia es un centro de diversidad y origen de papas criollas, lo que representa un enorme potencial de recurso genético para el fitomejoramiento. En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia se conserva el banco de germoplasma de papas criollas de Colombia. El estudio de los cariotipos es importante para entender las bases genéticas que apoyan los cruces que se realizan en los programas de mejoramiento. A pesar de la importancia de este recurso, la caracterización de los cariotipos de las accesiones no ha sido realizada completamente. En este estudio se caracterizaron dos materiales de la colección de S. phureja y tres provenientes de la F1 del cruce de un genotipo resistente y otro susceptible a la enfermedad conocida como gota de la papa. El análisis comparativo permitió identificar diferencias en la morfología celular, dos niveles de ploidía (diploide y triploide, con dos variaciones aneugénicas (hipodiploide y trisomía doble y cuatro números cromosómicos (18, 24, 26 y 36 para los cinco genotipos evaluados.Abstract. Potato crop is forth in importance worldwide after rice, wheat, and corn. Diploid potato cv. Criolla (Solanum phureja shows highly desired culinary and nutritional characteristics, such as vitamins, minerals, fiber and protein quality. Colombia is a diversity and origin center of diploid potatoes cv. Criolla, which represents an enormous genetic resource potential for plant breeding. At Universidad Nacional de Colombia the potato "criollas" germplasm bank is mantained. Karyotype analysis is important for understanding genetic basis of plant breeding. Despite the importance of this resource karyotype analysis of this

  16. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA MORFOLOGÍA FLORAL DE DOS CULTIVARES DE BERENJENA (Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae FLORAL MORPHOLOGY CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO CULTIVARS OF EGGPLANT (Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Araméndiz Tatis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La berenjena es una especie perteneciente al género Solanum, de gran importancia en la horticultura del Caribe colombiano. El estudio tuvo como objetivo describir la morfología floral de dos cultivares de berenjena “Long Purple” y “Criolla Lila”, que tienen origen geográfico diferente, utilizando para ello, una muestra aleatoria de 100 cojines florales por cultivar. Se estimaron la media, rango, varianza, desviación estándar, coeficiente de variación y se aplicó la prueba t, para determinar diferencias entre los dos cultivares. Los resultados indicaron que el cultivar “Long Purple”, presenta flores distílicas, en tanto que en el “Criollo Lila” se observó la presencia de tristilia. El potencial de producción de frutos, fue del 76,5% y 57,52%, para el “Criollo Lila” y “Long Purple”, respectivamente. Las flores brevistílicas en ambos cultivares, incrementan la aptitud masculina y por ende un desbalance entre las flores con funcionamiento masculino y hermafrodita.The eggplant is a specie of genus Solanum, of great importance in horticulture of colombian Caribbean region. The objective of study was to describe the floral morphology of two cultivars of eggplant “Long Purple” and “Lilac land race”, which have different geographic origin. We used a random sample of 100 floral cushions for cultivar. The mean, range, variance, standard deviation, variation coefficient were estimated. The t-test was applied to determine differences between two cultivars. The results indicated that genotype ‘Long Purple’, showed distylics flowers, while in the “Lilac land race” was observed the presence of tristylics flowers. The potential for production of fruit was 76.50% and 57.52% for the “Lilac land race” and “Long Purple”, respectively. Brevistylics flowers in the two cultivars, increased male fitness and thus produced a nonbalance on functioning between male and hermaphrodite flowers.

  17. Requerimiento hídrico de la berenjena Solanum melongena L. bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez V. Carlos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar los requerimientos hídricos de dos genotipos de berenjena Solanum melongena L. bajo riego por goteo en el valle del Sinú medio, en época seca. El estudio se hizo en el Centro de Investigación Turipaná, de Corpoica, ubicado en Cereté, Córdoba, en un suelo clasificado como eutropet. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con un arreglo factorial de parcelas divididas, con dos genotipos de berenjena (Morada y Lila gris bajo cinco dosis de riego 1, 2, 4, 6 y 8 l∙planta -1∙día-1. Los resultados  demostraron que los genotipos de berenjena morada y lila gris se comportaron similarmente, sin presentar diferencias significativas. Hubo diferencias altamente significativas en las variables altura de planta, diámetro del tallo y rendimiento. El tratamiento de riego de 8 l∙planta

  18. Efforts towards domestication of wild tomato (solanum pimpinellifolium L.) using mutation and in vitro culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartey, E. K.

    2010-06-01

    Wild tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) is an under-exploited and undomesticated species which possesses a number of economically important traits. The fruit contains about forty (40) times as much lycopene as common tomatoes and is a store house of essential elements and vitamins. However, its tiny fruits (which weigh 1.6 g as compared to 72.0 g in domesticated tomato), coupled with indeterminate growth habit hinder its domestication. The main objective of the study was to induce mutations, through gamma radiation of seeds, as a first step towards creating variability towards selection for improved fruit size and determinate plant growth habit. Following a radiosensitivity test, LD 50 was determined at 300 Gy, based on 50% reduction in seedling height. Seeds irradiated at 150 Gy, 300 Gy and 450 Gy, were later nursed in the nursery and the seedlings transplanted in the field alongside seedlings from un-irradiated seeds, serving as control. M 2 plants were generated by sowing seeds from fruits harvested from the first four branches of M 1 plants. Selection in the M 2 generation was based on plant architecture, fruit weight and colour. Seeds from these variants were sown to generate M 3 plants. Twelve plants (i.e. 5 'dwarf' and 7 'semi-dwarf') were selected for modified plant architecture, 14 for improved fruit characteristics (2.51 - 3.02 g) and 6 for fruit colour (2 yellow-fruited, 1 light red-fruited, and 3 deep red-fruited variants). Fruits of variant lines selected for fruit colour were analysed for lycopene content, total solids, total soluble solids, pH and total antioxidant properties. Elemental composition of the fruits was also determined through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Fruits of variant line X-I*4(9) (deep red fruits) recorded higher lycopene contents of 146.1 mg/kg on fresh weight basis and 156.7 mg/kg on dry weight basis compared to 136 mg/kg and 152 mg/kg respectively for the control. They also recorded higher total

  19. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  20. Stem Cuttings as a Quick In Vitro Screening Method of Sodium Chloride Tolerance in Potato (Solanum) Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhag, A. Z.; Mix-Wagnar, G.; Elbassam, N.; Horst, W.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to find how far in vitro explants stem cuttings technique could be suitable for quick screening of NaCl tolerance solanum genotypes and to identify some aspects of their NaCl tolerance. Fifteen solanum genotypes were tested on four NaCl concentrations both in vitro and in vivo, two-node stem cuttings of in vitro produced explants were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts supplemented with four NaCl concentrations (0,40,80 and 120 mM) for six weeks in vitro. The other part of the in vitro grown explants were transplanted in Kick- Brauck- Manns pots containing sandy loam soil supplemented also with four NaCl concentration (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 NaCl, w/w) and grown further either for eight weeks or till harvest in a green house. Both experiments were in a completely randomized design with four replicates. The main stem length, shoot dry matter and tuber yield as well as mineral element (Na''+, K + , Ca''2''+ and Cl''-) were measured. The growth of all genotypes was affected by increasing of NaCl. There was a close correlation between growth response (length of explant main stem) in vitro and shoot dry matter and tuber yield in vivo (r=0.81** for dry matter and 0.72** for tuber yield. Na''+ and Cl''- concentrations in shoots wee inversely correlated with the vegetative growth (r=-0.73** for both in vitro and r=-0.89** and r=-0.88** in vivo, respectively). The genotypes showed varied ability to reduce the transport of Na''+ and Cl''- to the shoots, where by NaCl tolerant genotypes showed lower content of both elements than the sensitive ones. K''+ and Ca''2''+ concentrations were decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. The responses for mineral element (Na''+ and Cl - ) accumulation or restriction of explants in vitro and intact plants in vivo were also closely correlated (r=0.79** and 0.71**, respectively) especially at the medium NaCl concentrations (80 mM and 0.2% NaCl). The similar response of the explant and the intact plant

  1. Efecto antioxidante y citoprotector del Solanum tuberosum (papa en la mucosa gástrica de animales de experimentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sandoval-Vegas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Existen alternativas terapéuticas con productos naturales oriundos usados de manera empírica en la población. Tal es el caso del zumo de papa (Solanum tuberosum usado para problemas de mucosa gástrica. Objetivos: Evaluar la capacidad antioxidante y el efecto citoprotector a la mucosa gástrica del zumo de papa (Solanum tuberosum. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Materiales biológicos: Solanum tuberosum, variedad Tomasa y ratas albinas machos. Métodos: Se administró vía oral post ayuno las fracciones de sobrenadante y sedimento del zumo de Solanum tuberosum. Una hora después se administró alcohol como injuria de mucosa gástrica. Por laparotomía abdominal se obtuvo el tejido gástrico. Se midió en la mucosa gástrica el estrés oxidativo por lipoperoxidación, la formación de moco por alcian blue y la protección midiendo la extensión del área lacerada en imagen digitalizada. Principales medidas de resultados: Capacidad antioxidante y efecto citoprotector a la mucosa gástrica. Resultados: El sobrenadante de la dosis 5 mL/ kg produjo mayor protección al estrés oxidativo; el precipitado en dosis 5 mL/kg presentó mayor producción de moco, sin superar al control. El precipitado 20 mL/kg produjo mayor citoprotección (73,8%. Conclusión: La fracción sobrenadante del zumo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum posee actividad de defensa antioxidante y la fracción del sedimento, mayor actividad citoprotectora de la mucosa gástrica.

  2. Study on infestation levels and spatial distributions of Amaranthus blitoides, Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum in corn field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    elmira mohamad vand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For increasing the effectiveness of weed management and more understanding of weed population dynamics, spatial distribution needs to more attentions. Infestation levels and spatial distributions of Amaranthus blitoides, Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum were studied in four 10x30 m corn fields. N-fertilizer was applied in two method of whole application at the time of corn planting (T1 and T2 and equal split application at the time of corn planting and at six-leaf stage (T3 and T4. One of either fields with the same method of N-fertilizer application, received herbicide too (T1 and T3. Weeds Samples were taken four times at the intersection of 2.5m square grids with 23days interval. The first sample was taken June 24, before top-dressing and herbicide application in related plots. For studying weed spatial distribution, the parameters of appropriate semivariogram model were calculated and weed contour maps were constructed by using kriging. The weed semivariograms fitted spherical and exponential models, over four sampling times and fields and spatial autocorrelation during growing season, was moderate to strong. In early growing season, Amaranthus blitoides was the dominant weed species in all fields, but lower density was recorded for Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum. At the first sampling time, mean density of A. blitoides and S. nigrum in fields with split application of N-fertilizer was respectively more- and less than fields with whole application of N-fertilizer. In the case of C. album an evident difference wasn’t observed. Herbicide application in related plots considerably reduced the density of three mentioned species; however density never became zero. In the majority of cases the lack of herbicide application causes to increase in population density at the second sampling time. Spatial structure was observed in all three species and study on contour maps confirmed the existence of patches that the density was high in their

  3. Plant population structure and insect herbivory on Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae in southern Brazil: a support to biological control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Mari Barboza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae, a native Brazilian shrub, has become naturalized and invasive in several countries. In South Africa, where invasions are severe, herbivorous insects that attack S. mauritianum in its native area have been considered for introduction as biological control agents. To assess the action of such herbivores on the plant, studies were carried out on a population of S. mauritianum in an area undergoing regeneration in southern Brazil. An analysis of the structure of that population was performed, as well as of herbivory by insects, in particular of Anthonomus (Curculionidae. The population structure showed an "inverted J" pattern in diameter classes, but not in height classes. Individual plants showed an aggregate distribution. The damage caused by Anthonomus did not amount to the loss of a large leaf area, but since it was inflicted on young leaves and in a large proportion, could lead to the survival decrease.Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae, um arbusto endêmico do sul do Brasil, naturalizou-se e tornou-se invasor em vários países do mundo. Na África do Sul, onde as invasões são severas, insetos fitófagos associados à planta no país de origem têm sido considerados para introdução como agentes de controle biológico. Para avaliar a ação de tais insetos no ambiente natural, foram conduzidos estudos em uma população de S. mauritianum em uma área em regeneração no sul do Brasil. Foi realizada análise da estrutura populacional, bem como da herbivoria causada por insetos, em particular para uma espécie do gênero Anthonomus (Curculionidae, para subsidiar o trabalho sobre controle biológico. A estrutura da população mostrou um padrão "J invertido" nas classes de diâmetro, mas não nas classes de altura; a distribuição espacial dos indivíduos era agregada. O dano causado por Anthonomus sp. não refletiu na perda real de grande área foliar. No entanto, uma vez que foi detectada uma

  4. Caracterización química del aceite y harina residual de solanum sisymbriifolium lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiese, B.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds from Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam harvested at Olavarría (Buenos Aires, Argentine were defatted with hexane and the raw oil obtained with a yield of 20,6 % dry basis. The physicochemical characteristics of crude oil were: refractive index: 1,4610 (at 25ºC, iodine value: 112,8; saponification index: 170,0; unsaponifiable matter: 14,0 % and free fatty acid content: 2,4 (mg KOH/g. The fatty acid composition of seed oil was studied by gas-liquid chromatography. Major fatty acids of seed oil were: linoleic (52,3%, oleic (23,4 % and palmitic acid (16,4 %. The residual seed meal contained moderate level of crude protein (14,75%, dry basis, low level of available lysine (2,25 g/16gN and high content of crude fiber (51,5%, dry basis. Total and phytic acid phosphorous, calcium, ash, sugar and polysaccharides contents are reported.Semillas de Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam cosechadas en Olavarría (prov. de Buenos Aires, Argentina se trataron con hexano (soxhlet obteniéndose el aceite crudo (rendimiento:20,6% y la harina residual de extracción. Las características fisicoquímicas del aceite crudo fueron: Índice de refracción: 1.4610 (a 25ºC; Índice de iodo: 112,8; Índice de saponificación: 170,0; Insaponificable: 14,0%, Índice de acidez: 2,4 (mgKOH/g. Se determinó la composición acídica del aceite por cromatografía gas-líquido. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios fueron: ácido linoleico (52,3%, ácido oleico (23,4% y ácido palmítico (16,4%. La harina residual de extracción contenía una moderada proporción de proteína cruda (14,75% b.s, baja proporción de lisina disponible (2,25 g/16gN y un alto contenido de fibra cruda (51,5 %b.s. Se informan valores de fósforo total y de ácido fítico, cenizas, calcio e hidratos de carbono.

  5. Respuesta del lulo La Selva (Solanum quitoense x Solanum hirtum a la aplicación de fermentados aeróbicos tipo bocashi y fertilizante químico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Ramírez-Builes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo derivado de cenizas volcánicas bien drenado y de alta fertilidad del municipio Ansermanuevo (zona cafetera de Colombia, en el cultivo de lulo (Solanum quitoense x S. hirtum se evaluaron tres fuentes orgánicas tipo bocashi, provenientes de los procesos de fermentación de pulpa de café, lombricompuesto y gallinaza y un tratamiento con fertilizante químico (10-30-10 más un testigo absoluto sin aplicación de fertilizantes. Se empleó un diseño experimental en bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones, cada repetición estuvo constituida por 58 plantas. Las aplicaciones de materiales orgánicos mejoraron las características del suelo, estabilizando el pH, aumentando la capacidad de intercambio catiónico y la materia orgánica. En términos generales, el tratamiento de mejor desempeño fue el bocashi de gallinaza, con un promedio de cuajamiento de fruto de 38.3% y un mayor rendimiento (4.7 t/ha. Los bocashis de lombricompuesto y pulpa de café no fueron estadísticamente diferentes al tratamiento químico y todos los tratamientos fueron distintos (P < 0.05 al testigo, lo que demuestra la buena respuesta del cultivo de lulo a las aplicaciones de fuentes orgánicas.

  6. Leaf Anatomy and Photochemical Behaviour of Solanum lycopersicum L. Plants from Seeds Irradiated with Low-LET Ionising Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. De Micco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants can be exposed to ionising radiation not only in Space but also on Earth, due to specific technological applications or after nuclear disasters. The response of plants to ionising radiation depends on radiation quality/quantity and/or plant characteristics. In this paper, we analyse some growth traits, leaf anatomy, and ecophysiological features of plants of Solanum lycopersicum L. “Microtom” grown from seeds irradiated with increasing doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 20, 50, and 100 Gy. Both juvenile and compound leaves from plants developed from irradiated and control seeds were analysed through light and epifluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis allowed quantifying anatomical parameters to detect the occurrence of signs of structural damage. Fluorescence parameters and total photosynthetic pigment content were analysed to evaluate the functioning of the photosynthetic machinery. Radiation did not affect percentage and rate of seed germination. Plants from irradiated seeds accomplished the crop cycle and showed a more compact habitus. Dose-depended tendencies of variations occurred in phenolic content, while other leaf anatomical parameters did not show distinct trends after irradiation. The sporadic perturbations of leaf structure, observed during the vegetative phase, after high levels of radiation were not so severe as to induce any significant alterations in photosynthetic efficiency.

  7. Measurement and modelling of ABA signalling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during partial root-zone drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fulai; Song, Ri; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    model predicting [X-ABA] in the PRD plants ([X-ABA](PRD)) was developed. Assuming that a constant [X-ABA] of 115 nM (similar to that found in the FI plants) originated from the wet roots; the simulation results indicated that irrigation should be shifted between the two sides when Psi(soil-dry) had......The objective of this study was to develop a simple mechanistic model to predict the magnitude of ABA signalling ([X-ABA]) of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) exposed to partial root-zone drying (PRD). Potatoes were grown in pots in a glasshouse with the roots split equally between two soil columns....... At tuber initiation stage, plants were subjected to three irrigation treatments: (1) both soil columns were fully irrigated (FI) daily to a volumetric soil water content (theta) of 18.0%; (2) PRD, in which one soil column was irrigated daily to 18.0% while the other was allowed to dry, and the irrigation...

  8. Application of indoxacarb for managing shoot and fruit borer of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimandir, Jayakrishnan; Gopal, Madhuban

    2009-03-01

    Indoxacarb was applied at 75 and 150 g a.i. ha(-1) for two years to an eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) crop grown in the field plots in order to evaluate its efficacy for management of the lepidopteron pest, shoot and fruit borer. The residues of the insecticide were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean initial deposits of indoxacarb on eggplant fruits were found to be 2.60-2.634 mg kg(-1) and 3.64-3.68 mg kg(-1) from the two rates of applications, respectively. They declined with time and reached to non-detectable (indoxacarb was found to be by washing with a mixture of alkali and potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) thereby resulting in the removal of 67.5% and 59.2 % residues for 5 and 10 microg g(-1) spiking doses, respectively. Major products formed on reaction of indoxacarb with alkali were identified by electron spray ionization chromatography/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). The per cent reduction on the weight and number basis of treated eggplant plots were compared to those observed in control plots to demonstrate the effectiveness of indoxacarb treatment on shoot and fruit borer population.

  9. The expression of a recombinant glycolate dehydrogenase polyprotein in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plastids strongly enhances photosynthesis and tuber yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölke, Greta; Houdelet, Marcel; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    We have increased the productivity and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) by developing a novel method to enhance photosynthetic carbon fixation based on expression of a polyprotein (DEFp) comprising all three subunits (D, E and F) of Escherichia coli glycolate dehydrogenase (GlcDH). The engineered polyprotein retained the functionality of the native GlcDH complex when expressed in E. coli and was able to complement mutants deficient for the D, E and F subunits. Transgenic plants accumulated DEFp in the plastids, and the recombinant protein was active in planta, reducing photorespiration and improving CO2 uptake with a significant impact on carbon metabolism. Transgenic lines with the highest DEFp levels and GlcDH activity produced significantly higher levels of glucose (5.8-fold), fructose (3.8-fold), sucrose (1.6-fold) and transitory starch (threefold), resulting in a substantial increase in shoot and leaf biomass. The higher carbohydrate levels produced in potato leaves were utilized by the sink capacity of the tubers, increasing the tuber yield by 2.3-fold. This novel approach therefore has the potential to increase the biomass and yield of diverse crops. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Solanum lycopersicum WRKY3 Transcription Factor SlWRKY3 Is Involved in Salt Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imène Hichri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity threatens productivity of economically important crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. WRKY transcription factors appear, from a growing body of knowledge, as important regulators of abiotic stresses tolerance. Tomato SlWRKY3 is a nuclear protein binding to the consensus CGTTGACC/T W box. SlWRKY3 is preferentially expressed in aged organs, and is rapidly induced by NaCl, KCl, and drought. In addition, SlWRKY3 responds to salicylic acid, and 35S::SlWRKY3 tomatoes showed under salt treatment reduced contents of salicylic acid. In tomato, overexpression of SlWRKY3 impacted multiple aspects of salinity tolerance. Indeed, salinized (125 mM NaCl, 20 days 35S::SlWRKY3 tomato plants displayed reduced oxidative stress and proline contents compared to WT. Physiological parameters related to plant growth (shoot and root biomass and photosynthesis (stomatal conductance and chlorophyll a content were retained in transgenic plants, together with lower Na+ contents in leaves, and higher accumulation of K+ and Ca2+. Microarray analysis confirmed that many stress-related genes were already up-regulated in transgenic tomatoes under optimal conditions of growth, including genes coding for antioxidant enzymes, ion and water transporters, or plant defense proteins. Together, these results indicate that SlWRKY3 is an important regulator of salinity tolerance in tomato.

  11. Comparative proteomics of tuber induction, development and maturation reveal the complexity of tuberization process in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Gupta, Sonika; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2008-09-01

    Tuberization in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) is a developmental process that serves a double function, as a storage organ and as a vegetative propagation system. It is a multistep, complex process and the underlying mechanisms governing these overlapping steps are not fully understood. To understand the molecular basis of tuberization in potato, a comparative proteomic approach has been applied to monitor differentially expressed proteins at different development stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The differentially displayed proteomes revealed 219 protein spots that change their intensities more than 2.5-fold. The LC-ES-MS/MS analyses led to the identification of 97 differentially regulated proteins that include predicted and novel tuber-specific proteins. Nonhierarchical clustering revealed coexpression patterns of functionally similar proteins. The expression of reactive oxygen species catabolizing enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase, were induced by more than 2-fold indicating their possible role during the developmental transition from stolons into tubers. We demonstrate that nearly 100 proteins, some presumably associated with tuber cell differentiation, regulate diverse functions like protein biogenesis and storage, bioenergy and metabolism, and cell defense and rescue impinge on the complexity of tuber development in potato.

  12. Speeding up the discovery of unknown plants: a case study of Solanum (Solanaceae endemics from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Lacerda Giacomin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil holds one of the richest floras in the world, what makes it challenging to document its entirety. Recent estimates point that the richer the area, the more undescribed plant species it might hold, and therefore Brazil is among the areas that might have a representative number of plant species to be discovered. In this study we present an application of Species Distribution Predictive Models not exhaustively discussed in literature: to accelerate plant species discovery. We used MaxEnt algorithm in order to help finding new populations of narrowly distributed Solanum species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We applied the Model-Based Search approach to species and a clade as a whole and it enabled us to find new presence points to rare species, and guided us to an unexpected area that actually held a new species. The use of SDPMs allied with biological and evolutionary knowledge of species or clades can be helpful to accelerate discoveries in rich but poorly known areas.

  13. Inorganic phosphorus along with biofertilizers improves profitability and sustainability in soybean (Glycine max–potato (Solanum tuberosum cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Munda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to assess role of phosphorus (P fertilization on economics, energy efficiency, P use indices and soil P balance in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril]–potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cropping system during 2008–09 and 2009–10. Treatments in soybean as main plots consisted of two sources and two levels of phosphorus with or without biofertilizers [phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, PSB and arbuscular mycorrhizae, AM]. Three levels of P were applied to potato as subplots. System productivity was calculated in terms of soybean equivalent yield and found to be better with biofertilizers treated plots. When applied in combination with biofertilizers, 50% recommended dose of P (RDP as diammonium phosphate (DAP recorded B:C ratio at par with 100% RDP. Direct application of 100% RDP to potato resulted in significantly higher returns, enhancing the net returns. Application of biofertilizers alone increased the energy use efficiency over no biofertilizer application. Irrespective of source (DAP or rock phosphate treatments with biofertilizers had improved P use indices and apparent soil P balance even at 50% RDP. This indicates the role of biofertilizers in P solubilization and making it available to plant. Biofertilizers application can help cutting down the fertilizer P application in soybean–potato cropping system without any considerable reduction in yield and economic returns. Keywords: AM, B:C ratio, P use indices, PSB, Rock phosphate, Agronomic use efficiency

  14. Nutrient uptake of the criolla potato (Solanum phureja var. Galeras for the determination of critical nutritional levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Torres B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the nutrient uptake of the criolla potato (Solanum phureja var. Galeras, the critical nutritional levels were determined on a farm in the Carrizal district of the municipality of Granada (Cundinamarca. Five fertilizing treatments were used: 0 fertilization (control, commercial control (CC, proposed recommendation + 50% (PR + 50%, proposed recommendation (PR, proposed recommendation - 50% (PR - 50%; organized with a random complete block design with three repetitions and repeated measurements over time; in each one, the material and nutrient absorption were evaluated in four phonological stages; in which the harvest, yield and profitability were measured. It was observed that the dry material increased rapidly until 113 days after planting (dap and was higher in treatments CC and PR + 50% with 8,818 and 7,743 kg ha-1 , respectively. The statistical analysis showed that the elements: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu and B did not present significant differences over time after 77 dap in treatments CC and PR + 50%. There were no significant differences in yield for treatments CC and PR + 50% but there were significant differences between these treatments and the others. The economic analysis showed that treatment CC had the highest profitability, confirming this as the critical level for the Galeras variety in Granada (Cundinamarca.

  15. Preferential colonization of Solanum tuberosum L. roots by the fungus Glomus intraradices in arable soil of a potato farming area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Patrizia; van Tuinen, Diederik; Copetta, Andrea; Chatagnier, Odile; Berta, Graziella; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Lingua, Guido

    2008-09-01

    The symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has been shown to affect both the diversity and productivity of agricultural communities. In this study, we characterized the AM fungal communities of Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) roots and of the bulk soil in two nearby areas of northern Italy, in order to verify if land use practices had selected any particular AM fungus with specificity to potato plants. The AM fungal large-subunit (LSU) rRNA genes were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. One hundred eighty-three LSU rRNA sequences were analyzed, and eight monophyletic ribotypes, belonging to Glomus groups A and B, were identified. AM fungal communities differed between bulk soil and potato roots, as one AM fungal ribotype, corresponding to Glomus intraradices, was much more frequent in potato roots than in soils (accounting for more than 90% of sequences from potato samples and less than 10% of sequences from soil samples). A semiquantitative heminested PCR with specific primers was used to confirm and quantify the AM fungal abundance observed by cloning. Overall results concerning the biodiversity of AM fungal communities in roots and in bulk soils from the two studied areas suggested that potato roots were preferentially colonized by one AM fungal species, G. intraradices.

  16. Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene affects photosynthesis and chlorophyll content in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Priscilla P; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Fani, Fabiola; Lazzara, Luigi; Cosi, Elena; Melani, Lorenzo; Mauro, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    Insertion of Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene into plant genome affects plant development, hormone balance and defence. However, beside the current research, the overall transcriptional response and gene expression of rolB as a modulator in plant is unknown. Transformed rolB tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Tondino has been used to investigate the differential expression profile. Tomato is a well-known model organism both at the genetic and molecular level, and one of the most important commercial food crops in the world. Through the construction and characterization of a cDNA subtracted library, we have investigated the differential gene expression between transgenic clones of rolB and control tomato and have evaluated genes specifically transcribed in transgenic rolB plants. Among the selected genes, five genes encoding for chlorophyll a/b binding protein, carbonic anhydrase, cytochrome b 6 /f complex Fe-S subunit, potassium efflux antiporter 3, and chloroplast small heat-shock protein, all involved in chloroplast function, were identified. Measurement of photosynthesis efficiency by the level of three different photosynthetic parameters (F v /F m , rETR, NPQ) showed rolB significant increase in non-photochemical quenching and a, b chlorophyll content. Our results point to highlight the role of rolB on plant fitness by improving photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Histopathology of Andean Potato (Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group) varieties parasitized by the false root-knot nematode, Nacobbus aberrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordable, M Del C; Andrade, A J; Doucet, M E; Lax, P

    2018-02-01

    Landraces of the Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group are abundant and diverse. They are a valuable genetic resource possessing resistance to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses. In the Andean region, populations of the false root-knot nematode Nacobbus aberrans became specialized to infect native potatoes, being one of the major limiting factors affecting this crop. A better understanding of the host plant-parasite interactions is important in order to select tolerant or resistant plants to be included in management programs. Despite the close of association of N. aberrans with potato, and the great diversity of the S. tuberosum Andigenum group, few histopathological studies have been conducted. The aim of this work was to analyze histological alterations induced by different Argentine populations of the nematode in naturally infested roots of four Andean potato varieties (Collareja, Negra Imilla, Ojo de Señorita and Colorada). All the varieties showed hyperplastic tissue in the central zone of galls, where syncytia developed in close association with the nematode female. Syncytia were composed of modified hyperplastic tissue and parenchyma xylem cells. The results showed differences among varieties in their response to nematode populations, with Ojo de Señorita and Negra Imilla being the most susceptible ones. This study is the first describing histopathological alterations induced by N. aberrans in susceptible Andean potato landraces.

  18. UV-C treatment on physiological response of potato (Solanum tuberosumL.) during low temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Xie, Yajing; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Shuzhen; Xie, Xinfang; Guan, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    The storage of potato tuber ( Solanum tuberosum L.) at low temperatures minimizes sprouting and disease but can cause cold-induced sweetening (CIS), which leads to the production of the cancerogenic substance acrylamide during the frying processing. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of UV-C treatment on CIS in cold stored potato tuber. 'Atlantic' potatoes were treated with UV-C for an hour and then stored at 4 °C up to 28 days. The UV-C treatment significantly prevented the increase of malondialdehyde content (an indicator of the prevention of oxidative injury) in potato cells during storage. The accumulation of reducing sugars, particularly fructose and glucose, was significantly reduced by UV-C treatment possibly due to the regulation of the gene cascade, sucrose phosphate synthase , invertase inhibitor 1/3 , and invertase 1 in potato tuber, which were observed to be differently expressed between treated and untreated potatoes during low temperature storage. In summary, UV-C treatment prevented the existence of oxidative injury in potato cells, thus, lowered the amount of reducing sugar accumulation during low temperature storage of potato tubers.

  19. Comparison between Proteome and Transcriptome Response in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Leaves Following Potato Virus Y (PVY) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stare, Tjaša; Stare, Katja; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Gruden, Kristina

    2017-07-06

    Plant diseases caused by viral infection are affecting all major crops. Being an obligate intracellular organisms, chemical control of these pathogens is so far not applied in the field except to control the insect vectors of the viruses. Understanding of molecular responses of plant immunity is therefore economically important, guiding the enforcement of crop resistance. To disentangle complex regulatory mechanisms of the plant immune responses, understanding system as a whole is a must. However, integrating data from different molecular analysis (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, smallRNA regulation etc.) is not straightforward. We evaluated the response of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) following the infection with potato virus Y (PVY). The response has been analyzed on two molecular levels, with microarray transcriptome analysis and mass spectroscopy-based proteomics. Within this report, we performed detailed analysis of the results on both levels and compared two different approaches for analysis of proteomic data (spectral count versus MaxQuant). To link the data on different molecular levels, each protein was mapped to the corresponding potato transcript according to StNIB paralogue grouping. Only 33% of the proteins mapped to microarray probes in a one-to-one relation and additionally many showed discordance in detected levels of proteins with corresponding transcripts. We discussed functional importance of true biological differences between both levels and showed that the reason for the discordance between transcript and protein abundance lies partly in complexity and structure of biological regulation of proteome and transcriptome and partly in technical issues contributing to it.

  20. StPOTHR1, a NDR1/HIN1-like gene in Solanum tuberosum, enhances resistance against Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiansi; Tian, Zhendong; Jiang, Rui; Zheng, Xueao; Xie, Conghua; Liu, Jun

    2018-02-19

    A family of NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes that shows homology to the nonrace-specific disease resistance (NDR1) and the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) harpin-induced (HIN1) genes is reported to be involved in defense. However, little information about NHL genes is available for the potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here, we report that the expression of StPOTHR1, a member of the NHL gene family, is associated with resistance in potato against Phytophthora infestans, and is specifically induced in inoculation sites. Overexpression of StPOTHR1 enhances resistance against P. infestans via restricting rapid pathogen proliferation. Further, suppression of StPOTHR1 does not compromise R-mediated cell death. Subcellular localization and posttranscription modifications (PTMs) analysis reveals that StPOTHR1 is localized in plasma membrane (PM) and undergoes multiple PTMs. Moreover, StPOTHR1 interacts with NbMKK5L, a component of the MAP kinase signaling cascade. Taken together, our results suggest that the PM-localized StPOTHR1 contributes to potato immunity against P. infestans and may be associated with the MAP kinase signaling cascade. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) F2 population segregation for improving shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendra, K N; Ramanjini Gowda, P H

    2013-02-27

    Breeding for better quality fruits is a major focus for tomatoes, which are continuously subjected to post-harvest losses. Several methods have been used to improve the fruit shelf life of tomatoes, including the use of ripening gene mutants of Solanum lycopersicum. We developed extended shelf-life tomato hybrids with better quality fruits using ripening mutants. Nine tomato crosses were developed using 3 fruit ripening gene mutants of S. lycopersicum [alcobaca (alc), non-ripening, and ripening inhibitor] and 3 agronomically superior Indian cultivars ('Sankranti', 'Vaibhav', and 'Pusaruby') with short shelf life. The hybrid progenies developed from alc x 'Vaibhav' had the highest extended shelf life (up to 40 days) compared with that of other varieties and hybrids. Further, the F(2) progenies of alc x 'Vaibhav' were evaluated for fruit quality traits and yield parameters. A wide range of genetic variability was observed in shelf life (5-106 days) and fruit firmness (0.55-10.65 lbs/cm(2)). The potential polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers underlying shelf life traits were identified in an F(2) mapping population. The marker association with fruit quality traits and yield was confirmed with single-marker analysis and composite interval mapping. The genetic parameters analyzed in the parents and F(1) and F(2) populations indicated that the cross between the cultivar 'Vaibhav' and ripening gene mutant alc yielded fruit with long shelf life and good quality.

  2. Effects of auxins on the production of steroidal alkaloids in rapidly proliferating tissue and cell cultures of Solanum lyratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Io; Chao, Chi-Hsein; Lu, Mei-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Solanum lyratum, a rare species, is used to treat cancer, tumours and warts. Plant cell and tissue culture of S. lyratum, producing steroidal alkaloids, could be useful supplements to natural sources. To study the production of solanine, solanidine and solasodine by adding auxin-type phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to cell and callus cultures of S. lyratum. Methanolic extracts were made from callus and cell cultures of S. lyratumand and analysed using RP C₁₈ HPLC with UV detection. 2,4-D-induced calli from roots led to a significant enhancement in solanine production with a value of 4.13 mg/g dry weight (DW). The maximal solanidine and solasodine levels of 6.26 and 7.69 mg/g DW were respectively obtained with IBA- and IAA-treated S. lyratum cells at concentrations of 1 and 5 mg/L. Auxins were found to be useful phytohormones for the production of steroidal alkaloids. The callus and cell culture system developed is simple and can hence be a method of production of steroidal alkaloids in S. lyratum and other Solanaceae species. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Enhancing Brassinosteroid Signaling via Overexpression of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum SlBRI1 Improves Major Agronomic Traits

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    Shuming Nie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses through the receptor, Brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1, which perceives BRs and initiates BR signaling. There is considerable potential agricultural value in regulating BR signaling in crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressing the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum BRI1 gene, SlBRI1, on major agronomic traits, such as seed germination, vegetative growth, fruit ethylene production, carotenoid accumulation, yield, and quality attributes. SlBRI1 overexpression enhanced the endogenous BR signaling intensity thereby increasing the seed germination rate, lateral root number, hypocotyl length, CO2 assimilation, plant height, and flower size. The transgenic plants also showed an increase in fruit yield and fruit number per plant, although the mean weight of individual fruit was reduced, compared with wild type. SlBRI1 overexpression also promoted fruit ripening and ethylene production, and caused an increase in levels of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, and soluble sugars during fruit ripening. An increased BR signaling intensity mediated by SlBRI1 overexpression was therefore positively correlated with carotenoid accumulation and fruit nutritional quality. Our results indicate that enhancing BR signaling by overexpression of SlBRI1 in tomato has the potential to improve multiple major agronomic traits.

  4. Analyzing the effect of decreasing cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase on Solanum tuberosum hairy root cells using a kinetic-metabolic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valancin, Alexandre; Srinivasan, Balasubrahmanyan; Rivoal, Jean; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2013-03-01

    A kinetic-metabolic model of Solanum tuberosum hairy roots is presented in the interest of understanding the effect on the plant cell metabolism of a 90% decrease in cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase (cTPI, EC 5.3.1.1) expression by antisense RNA. The model considers major metabolic pathways including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle, as well as anabolic reactions leading to lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids, and structural hexoses synthesis. Measurements were taken from shake flask cultures for six extracellular nutrients (sucrose, fructose, glucose, ammonia, nitrate, and inorganic phosphate) and 15 intracellular compounds including sugar phosphates (G6P, F6P, R5P, E4P) and organic acids (PYR, aKG, SUCC, FUM, MAL) and the six nutrients. From model simulations and experimental data it can be noted that plant cell metabolism redistributes metabolic fluxes to compensate for the cTPI decrease, leading to modifications in metabolites levels. Antisense roots showed increased exchanges between the pentose phosphate pathway and the glycolysis, an increased oxygen uptake and growth rate. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of cadmium toxicity on nitrogen metabolism in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a newly found cadmium hyperaccumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Zhou Qixing; Ding Lingling; Sun Yuebing

    2008-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators are ideal plant species used for phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A full understanding of metal tolerance mechanisms of hyperaccumulators will facilitate enhancing their phytoremediation efficiency. However, how Cd affects N metabolism and which role plays the response of N metabolism to Cd toxicity in the tolerance of hyperaccumulators are still unknown. To clarify these questions, this study investigated the effects of various soil Cd levels on the concentrations of N forms and the activity of key enzymes involved in N metabolism in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. The results showed that its growth and all N metabolism indicators were normal at low Cd exposure (≤12 mg kg -1 ). At 24 mg Cd kg -1 soil, nitrate assimilation indicators (nitrate concentration and activity of nitrate reductase) were reduced significantly, whereas most ammonia assimilation indicators (ammonium concentration and activity of glutamine synthetase) remained normal. However, when exposed to a higher Cd level (48 mg kg -1 ), growth and most N metabolism indicators were reduced significantly. Therefore, N metabolism in leaves of S. nigrum could be tolerant of Cd toxicity to a certain extent (soil Cd concentration ≤12 mg kg -1 ), and this might be involved in the Cd-tolerance of this Cd-hyperaccumulator

  6. EXPRESIÓN GUS EN EXPLANTES DE Solanum phureja (Juz. et. Buk Var. Criolla Colombia, TRANSFORMADOS CON Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN DARÍO BARRERO-FARFÁN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La expresión transitoria y estable del gen gusA-intron en explantes internodales de papa criolla variedad Criolla Colombia cocultivados con Agrobacterium tumefaciens es reportada. Con el fin de determinar la susceptibilidad de esta variedad a la transformación mediada por A. tumefaciens, explantes internodales de Solanum phureja fueron infectados con la cepa LBA4404 de A. tumefaciens que contiene el plásmido pCAMBIA2301. Este plásmido contiene el gen ntpII que confiere resistencia a kanamicina y el gen reportero gusA-intron. La selección de los explantes potencialmente transgénicos fue realizada en medios con kanamicina. La eficiencia de transformación estable y transitoria fue calculada con base en la actividad GUS (ß-glucuronidasa, detectada por el ensayo histoquímico X-gluc. La expresión transitoria y estable del gen gusA-intron fue observada en células del explante más bien que en tejidos completos. Estos resultados demuestran que la papa criolla (S. phureja Juz. et. Buk variedad Criolla Colombia es susceptible a la infección por A. tumefaciens.

  7. A cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase is involved in the salvage of extracellular ATP in Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Fernie, Alisdair R; Zauber, Henrik; Wucke, Cornelia; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) has recently been demonstrated to play a crucial role in plant development and growth. To investigate the fate of eATP within the apoplast, we used intact potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber slices as an experimental system enabling access to the apoplast without interference of cytosolic contamination. (i) Incubation of intact tuber slices with ATP led to the formation of ADP, AMP, adenosine, adenine and ribose, indicating operation of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase. (ii) Measurement of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase activities in fractionated tuber tissue confirmed the apoplastic localization for apyrase and phosphatase in potato and led to the identification of a novel cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase activity. (iii) When intact tuber slices were incubated with saturating concentrations of adenosine, the conversion of adenosine into adenine was much higher than adenosine import into the cell, suggesting a potential bypass of adenosine import. Consistent with this, import of radiolabeled adenine into tuber slices was inhibited when ATP, ADP or AMP were added to the slices. (iv) In wild-type plants, apyrase and adenosine nucleosidase activities were found to be co-regulated, indicating functional linkage of these enzymes in a shared pathway. (v) Moreover, adenosine nucleosidase activity was reduced in transgenic lines with strongly reduced apoplastic apyrase activity. When taken together, these results suggest that a complete ATP salvage pathway is present in the apoplast of plant cells.

  8. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of plants regenerated from non-cryopreserved and cryopreserved wild Solanum lycopersicum mill. Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, B; Cejas, I; Engelmann, F; Carputo, D; Aversano, R; Scarano, M T; Yanes, E; Martinez-Montero, M; Lorenzo, J C

    2014-01-01

    Before cryopreservation is routinely used, its effect on the trueness-to-type of the regenerated plant material needs to be evaluated. In this work, we studied the effect of seed cryopreservation on the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of wild Solanum lycopersicum Mill. plants. Thirty-five morphological traits of plants regenerated from cryopreserved seeds were compared to those measured on plants regenerated from non-cryopreserved seeds. No statistically significant differences were observed between cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved samples, either in the first or in the second generation post-liquid nitrogen exposure. However, at the molecular level, the genetic analyses performed on the second generation plants germinated from control and cryopreserved seeds using 14 nuclear Simple Sequences Repeats (SSR) markers uncovered some changes in microsatellite length between control and cryopreserved samples. These results confirm at the botanical phenotype level the effectiveness of seed cryostorage for conservation and regeneration of true-to-type S. lycopersicum plants. Further experiments are required to clarify potential phenotypic effects of the changes observed in the DNA.

  9. Transcriptome analysis reveals regulatory networks underlying differential susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in response to nitrogen availability in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eVega

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the main limiting nutrients for plant growth and crop yield. It is well documented that changes in nitrate availability, the main N source found in agricultural soils, influences a myriad of developmental programs and processes including the plant defense response. Indeed, many agronomical reports indicate that the plant N nutritional status influences their ability to respond effectively when challenged by different pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in N-modulation of plant susceptibility to pathogens are poorly characterized. In this work, we show that Solanum lycopersicum defense response to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is affected by plant N availability, with higher susceptibility in nitrate-limiting conditions. Global gene expression responses of tomato against B. cinerea under contrasting nitrate conditions reveals that plant primary metabolism is affected by the fungal infection regardless of N regimes. This result suggests that differential susceptibility to pathogen attack under contrasting N conditions is not only explained by a metabolic alteration. We used a systems biology approach to identify the transcriptional regulatory network implicated in plant response to the fungus infection under contrasting nitrate conditions. Interestingly, hub genes in this network are known key transcription factors involved in ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling. This result positions these hormones as key integrators of nitrate and defense against B. cinerea in tomato plants. Our results provide insights into potential crosstalk mechanisms between necrotrophic defense response and N status in plants.

  10. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Carotenoids and Lycopenes Chemistry; Metabolism, Absorption, Nutrition, and Allied Health Claims--A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Rashida; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Pasha, Imran; Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most essential herbaceous plants that have been probed against various life sight related disorders owing to array of phytochemicals. It is important source of vitamin C, potassium, folic acid, and carotenoids, such as lycopene. Carotenoids are the pigments synthesized during fruit ripening and responsible for the final red color of the tomato. Consumption of tomato and tomato-based products contribute to the absorption of carotenoids and lycopenes in human serum. Lycopene is chemically acyclic carotene with 11 conjugated double bonds, normally in transconfiguration while isomerization occur in blood plasma for its better absorption. It has ability for adenosine deaminase inhibition that plays important role in the regression of tumor. Tomato also contain other active compounds, namely, neoxanthin, lutein, α-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, cyclolycopene, and β-carotene 5, 6-epoxide. These components provide synergistic effect against various threats but still need further attention of the researchers. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the potential of tomato against variety of metabolic syndromes. Latest research highlights the relationship between consuming tomato and its products with reduced risk of various maladies like obesity, hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic attributes, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer insurgences. Moreover, tomato and its bioactive components hold potential to become effective modules in diet-based regimens; however, integrated research and meta-analysis are still required to enhance meticulousness.

  11. Effects of fruit maturity stages and seed extraction time on the seed quality of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takač Adam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is a vegetable from Solanaceae family and its fruit is used in human consumption. It is produced from seedlings in the Republic of Serbia and quantity of seed used for seedlings depends on germination and 1000 seed mass, and ranges from 250 to 350 g ha-1. The aim of this paper was to determine effect of fruit maturity stages and storage duration of harvested fruit on eggplant seed quality. Seed was extracted from technologically mature, semi-mature and botanically mature fruit. Germination energy, germination and 1000 seed mass were tested after seed extraction. Part of harvested fruit was stored for 10 and 20 days, after which seed was extracted and the same seed qualities were tested. It was determined that seed from technologically mature fruit had germination around 25%. In semi-mature fruit, germination abruptly increased from 2% (seed extracted after harvest to 88% (seed extracted 20 days after harvest. Seed obtained from botanically mature fruit had maximum germination after storing for 20 days after harvest and amounted to 99%. In all tested variants, 1000 seed mass increased with storage life, and it reached 5.48 g in botanically mature fruit.

  12. "You Say Tomato, I Say Solanum Lycopersicum Containing Beta-ionone and Phenylacetaldehyde": an Analysis of Connecticut's GMO Labeling Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunziato, Travis

    2014-01-01

    "You Say Tomato, I Say Solanum Lycopersicum Containing Beta-ionone and Phenylacetaldehyde" discusses the importance of requiring labels on products that contain genetically modified organisms, focusing on Connecticut's GMO Labeling statutes, as it is they are the first of their kind in the nation. The article will compare Connecticut's law to the legislation found in Australia, highlighting the positive aspects of Connecticut's bill and identifying its key weaknesses, namely the "trigger clause" found in the statute. Part I will provide an overview of Genetic Modification and provide a brief history of Biotechnology. It will also provide a brief overview of the federal regulatory framework in biotechnology, as well as evaluate the United States Food and Drug Association's role of regulating genetic modification. Part I will conclude by discussing how the American public has shown that labeling GMOs is important, and something that should occur. Part II of this article will explore Connecticut's recent legislation requiring labels on products that contain GMOs. Part III will explore Australia's legislation requiring labels on products containing GMOs, comparing Australia's law to Connecticut's legislation.

  13. Occurrence of Colombian datura virus in Brugmansia hybrids, Physalis peruviana L. and Solanum muricatum Ait. in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, P; Palkovics, L

    2005-01-01

    Colombian datura virus (CDV) has been found to infect angel trumpets (Brugmansia spp.) frequently and cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) and pepino (Solanum muricatum) sporadically in Hungary. A CDV BRG/H isolate was characterized. It had flexuous thread-like virions of about 750 x 12 nm in size. Host range and symptomathological studies revealed its great similarity to authentic CDV isolates. Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and lines resistant to Potato virus Y (PVYN) either genically or transgenically proved highly susceptible to the BRG/H isolate. Tomato (L. esculentum cvs.) was systemically susceptible to this isolate, but some lines of Lycopersicon hirsutum and L. peruvianum turned out to be resistant. Browallia demissa, Ipomoea purpurea, N. megalosiphon and S. scabrum were demonstrated as new experimental hosts of CDV. The BRG/ H isolate proved to be transmissible by the aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. in a non-persistent manner. Potyvirus-specific coat protein (CP) gene sequences of about 1700 bp from angel trumpet, cape gooseberry and pepino plants were amplified by RT-PCR. The cloned BRG/H CP gene showed a 99.12-99.31% identity with other CDV isolates. CDV has been found for the first time to infect naturally cape gooseberry and pepino. Since the botanical genus name of original hosts of CDV has changed from Datura to Brugmansia, we propose to change the virus name from CDV to Angel trumpet mosaic virus (ATMV).

  14. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharoon Griffin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude “waste” plant materials for specific practical applications, especially—but not exclusively—in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure.

  15. Influence of farmyard manure on the utilization of labelled phosphorus and sulphur by brinjal (Solanum Melongena L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Pratap; Ghosh, G.

    2002-01-01

    Influence of FYM, phosphorus and sulphur application on dry matter yield, fertilizer phosphorus and sulphur uptake and their utilization by brinjal (Solanum Melongena L.) fruits and leaves were studied by a pot culture experiment in a Typic ustocrept soil of IARI farm. Two levels if FYM, viz., 0 and 25 t ha -1 four levels of phosphorus viz., 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 and three levels of sulphur viz., 0, 15 and 30 kg ha -1 were applied in all possible combinations. Maximum dry weight of fruits and leaves was reported due to combined application of 15 kg S ha -1 level. 60 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 with FYM. Combined effect of FYM with lower level of P (30 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 ) and 30 kg ha -1 level of S gave higher per cent utilization of applied P by fruits and leaves. On the other hand combined effect of FYM with lower dose of S (15 kg ha -1 ) and 60 kg ha -1 level of P 2 O 5 gave higher per cent utilization of applied S by brinjal. (author)

  16. Comparative effects of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on nitrogen uptake in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huiqun; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2009-01-01

    The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) as compared with deficit irrigation (DI) and full irrigation (FI) on nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were investigated. Potato plants were grown in split-root pots and were exposed to FI, PRD, and DI treatments...... at tuber bulking stage. Just before onset of the irrigation treatment, each plant received 0.6 g N (in the form of urea) with 5% of which was 15N-labeled. After 4 weeks of irrigation treatments (i.e., one drying/wetting cycles completed in the PRD treatment), the plants were harvested and plant dry mass...... and N content were determined. The results showed that although the plant dry mass was not affected by the irrigation treatments, due to a reduced water use by the plant, both the PRD and DI treatments significantly increased crop water use efficiency. Compared with the FI and DI plants, PRD plants had...

  17. Pengaruh Kerapatan Tanaman terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Benih Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L. Generasi Satu (G1 Varietas Granola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deden Fatchullah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in Experimental Research Station of Indonesian Institute for Vegetable Research (IIVR at Cikole, Lembang city, West Bandung in September to December 2015. The research area was located in 1250 m above sea level with the type of soil is Andosol, and type of climate is B (Wet. The objective of this experiment was to find out the effect of plant spacing on the growth and the quality of potato seed (Solanum tuberosum L. var granola of the first generation (G1. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design (RBD with a single factor. The treatment was 4 types of plant spacing: A1 (5 cm x 5 cm, A2 (6 cm x 6 cm, A3 (7 cm x 7 cm and A4 (8 cm x 8 cm. The result showed that the plant spacing was significantly affecting on plant height and plant canopy at 21 days after planting (DAP, and percentage of germination at 63 DAP. It was determined that A1 plant spacing (5cm x 5cm provide the highest plant (15.11 cm and highest plant canopy (10.40 cm at 21 DAP, and A4 plant spacing (8cm x 8cm present the highest of a percentage of germination (27,34%.

  18. Physiochemical screening and performance calculation of steroidal saponins from three provenances of Solanum quitoense var. septentrionale Naranjillo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechas, Henry; Sanchez, Laura; Silva, Jairo

    2008-01-01

    This research includes the study of aerial parts (fruits) of lulo de monte (Solanum quitoense var. Septentrionale).The main objective of this research was to determine the secondary metabolites and especially the presence and quantity of alkaloidal saponins, which are common in the Solanaceae family. These substances are used as precursors for the manufacture of several steroid-type drugs, hormones and anti-inflammatories. The study was conducted with species of three different origins and three different maturing stages gathered in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia between 2.400 and 2.600 meters above sea level during the period from March to June. Sapogenins were extracted, isolated and purified through various techniques used for this purpose. The presence of saponins was proved through physical and chemical analysis, and the structural elucidation through NMR and IR spectroscopic techniques. The presence of hecogenin in green fruits from the three sources was determined. This molecular structure corresponds to a non-steroidal sapogenin reported in this species.

  19. Pollination deficit in open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Scaramussa Deprá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70% of world’s crops benefit from biotic pollination, and bees are their main pollinators. Despite the fact that some of these insects have been broadly studied, understanding the interactions between plant crops and their pollinators with a local scale approach is necessary when aiming to apply proper protective and management measures to pollinators and their respective crops. In this context, we analyzed the pollination status of open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., regarding fruit-set, visitation rate and the quality of fruits. We recorded the formation of fruits through spontaneous self-pollination and open-pollination, and the occurrence of pollinators in 24 areas of open-field tomato crops. We performed experiments of apomixis, spontaneous self-pollination, manual cross pollination and supplemental cross pollination (simulating the pollinator behavior in a greenhouse. The fruit quality was evaluated according to circumference, weight, volume and number of seeds. Higher production of fruits after open-pollination compared to spontaneous self-pollination indicates the importance of pollinators to increment productivity of S. lycopersicum in the study area. The circumference and the number of seeds from tomatoes of the greenhouse plantation did not differ between spontaneous self-pollination and the manual cross pollination. In the open-field crops the number of seeds was higher for fruits resulting from open-pollination. Our results indicate that the importance of bees is mainly related to the increase in fruit production, thus incrementing the productivity of tomato crops.

  20. Histopathology of Andean Potato (Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group varieties parasitized by the false root-knot nematode, Nacobbus aberrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. del C. Tordable

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Landraces of the Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group are abundant and diverse. They are a valuable genetic resource possessing resistance to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses. In the Andean region, populations of the false root-knot nematode Nacobbus aberrans became specialized to infect native potatoes, being one of the major limiting factors affecting this crop. A better understanding of the host plant-parasite interactions is important in order to select tolerant or resistant plants to be included in management programs. Despite the close of association of N. aberrans with potato, and the great diversity of the S. tuberosum Andigenum group, few histopathological studies have been conducted. The aim of this work was to analyze histological alterations induced by different Argentine populations of the nematode in naturally infested roots of four Andean potato varieties (Collareja, Negra Imilla, Ojo de Señorita and Colorada. All the varieties showed hyperplastic tissue in the central zone of galls, where syncytia developed in close association with the nematode female. Syncytia were composed of modified hyperplastic tissue and parenchyma xylem cells. The results showed differences among varieties in their response to nematode populations, with Ojo de Señorita and Negra Imilla being the most susceptible ones. This study is the first describing histopathological alterations induced by N. aberrans in susceptible Andean potato landraces.