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Sample records for bittersweet celastrus scandens

  1. Mislabeling of an invasive vine (Celastrus orbiculatus) as a native congener (C. scandens) in horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, David N.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, N.B.; Hetrea, Christopher S.; Ashley, Mary V.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel; Hetrea, Christopher S.; Ashley, Mary V.

    2018-01-01

    The horticultural industry is an important source of invasive ornamental plant species, which is part of the motivation for an increased emphasis on using native alternatives. We were interested in the possibility that plants marketed in the midwestern United States as the native Celastrus scandens, or American bittersweet, were actually the difficult-to-distinguish invasive Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) or hybrids of the two species. We used nuclear microsatellite DNA loci to compare the genetic identities of 34 plants from 11 vendors with reference plants from wild populations of known species identity. We found that 18 samples (53%) were mislabeled, and 7 of the 11 vendors sold mislabeled plants. Mislabeled plants were more likely to be purchased through Internet or phone order shipments and were significantly less expensive than accurately labeled plants. Vendors marketed mislabeled plants under five different cultivar names, as well as unnamed strains. Additionally, the most common native cultivar, ‘Autumn Revolution,’ displays reproductive characteristics that diverge from the typical C. scandens, which could be of some concern. The lower price and abundance of mislabeled invasive plants introduces incentives for consumers to unknowingly contribute to the spread of C. orbiculatus. Revealing the potential sources of C. orbiculatus is critical for controlling further spread of the invasive vine and limiting its impact on C. scandens populations.

  2. Genetic characterization of hybridization between native and invasive bittersweet vines (Celastrus spp.)

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    Zaya, David N.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Ashley, Mary V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization associated with species introductions can accelerate the decline of native species. The main objective of this study was to determine if the decline of a North American liana (American bittersweet, Celastrus scandens) in the eastern portion of its range is related to hybridization with an introduced congener (oriental bittersweet, C. orbiculatus). We used newly characterized microsatellite loci, a maternally-inherited chloroplast DNA marker, and field observation to survey individuals across the USA to determine the prevalence of hybrids, their importance in the invasion of C. orbiculatus, and the predominant direction of hybridization. We found that only 8.4 % of non-native genotypes were hybrids (20 of 239), and these hybrids were geographically widespread. Hybrids showed reduced seed set (decline of >98 %) and small, likely inviable pollen. Genetic analysis of a maternally inherited chloroplast marker showed that all 20 identified hybrids came from C. scandens seed parents. The strong asymmetry in pollen flow that favors fecundity in introduced males has the potential to greatly accelerate the decline of native species by wasting limited female reproductive effort.

  3. Differential responses of invasive Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) and native C. scandens to changes in light quality.

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    Leicht, Stacey A; Silander, John A

    2006-07-01

    When plants are subjected to leaf canopy shade in forest understories or from neighboring plants, they not only experience reduced light quantity, but light quality in lowered red : far red light (R : FR). Growth and other developmental responses of plants in reduced R : FR can vary and are not consistent across species. We compared how an invasive liana, Celastrus orbiculatus, and its closely related native congener, C. scandens, responded to changes in the R : FR under controlled, simulated understory conditions. We measured a suite of morphological and growth attributes under control, neutral shading, and low R : FR light treatments. Celastrus orbiculatus showed an increase in height, aboveground biomass, and total leaf mass in reduced R : FR treatments as compared to the neutral shade, while C. scandens had increased stem diameter, single leaf area, and leaf mass to stem mass ratio. These differences provide a mechanistic understanding of the ability of C. orbiculatus to increase height and actively forage for light resources in forest understories, while C. scandens appears unable to forage for light and instead depends upon a light gap forming. The plastic growth response of C. orbiculatus in shaded conditions points to its success in forested habitats where C. scandens is largely absent.

  4. Susceptibility of eastern U.S. habitats to invasion of Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) following fire

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    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Grundel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Fire effects on invasive species are an important land management issue in areas subjected to prescribed fires as well as wildfires. These effects on invasive species can be manifested across life stages. The liana Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) is a widespread invader of eastern US habitats including those where fire management is in practice. This study examined if prescribed fire makes these habitats more susceptible to invasion of C. orbiculatus by seed at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Four treatments (control, litter removed, high and low intensity fire) were applied in six habitat types (sand savanna/woodland, sand prairie, moraine prairie, sand oak forest, beech-maple forest, and oak-hickory forest) and germinating seedlings were tracked over two growing seasons. Treatment did not have a significant effect on the germination, survival, or biomass of C. orbiculatus. However, habitat type did influence these responses mostly in the first growing season. Moraine prairie, beech-maple forest, and oak-hickory forests had the greatest peak percentage of germinants. Moraine prairie had significantly greater survival than oak forest and savanna habitats. Control plots with intact litter, and the moraine prairie habitat had the tallest seedlings at germination, while tallest final heights and greatest aboveground biomass were highest in oak forest. Thus, fire and litter removal did not increase the susceptibility of these habitats to germination and survival of C. orbiculatus. These results indicate that most eastern US habitats are vulnerable to invasion by this species via seed regardless of the level or type of disturbance to the litter layer.

  5. Encroachment of oriental bittersweet into Pitcher’s thistle habitat

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    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2012-01-01

    Common invasive species and rare endemic species can grow and interact at the ecotone between forested and non-forested dune habitats. To investigate these interactions, a comparison of the proximity and community associates of a sympatric invasive (Celastrus orbiculatus; oriental bittersweet) and native (C. scandens; American bittersweet) liana species to federally threatened Cirsium pitcheri (Pitcher's thistle) in the dunes habitats of Lake Michigan was conducted. Overall, the density of the invasive liana species was significantly greater in proximity to C. pitcheri than the native species. On the basis of composition, the three focal species occurred in both foredune and blowout habitats. The plant communities associated with the three focal species overlapped in ordination space, but there were significant differences in composition. The ability of C. orbiculatus to rapidly grow and change the ecological dynamics of invasion sites adds an additional threat to the successional habitats of C. pitcheri.

  6. Phylogeny of Celastrus L. (Celastraceae) inferred from two nuclear and three plastid markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xian-Yun; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2012-09-01

    This is the first comprehensive molecular investigation of the genus Celastrus L. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus were assessed based on sequences of two nuclear (ETS, ITS) and three plastid (psbA-trnH, rpl16 and trnL-F) regions using the Bayesian inference and the maximum parsimony methods. Our results show that Celastrus, together with Tripterygium, formed a maximal supported clade. Within the cluster, Celastrus is composed of a basal clade and a core Celastrus clade, and the latter is consisted of six subclades. Relationships among species are more influenced by latitude than continental distribution patterns. The cauline cyme and lunate seeds are distinct characters to one of the maximal supported subclades. Their close relationship, similar geographical pattern and habitat imply that C. flagellaris may be a potential invasive species threatening C. scandens in North America. Celastrus leiocarpus, C. oblanceifolius and C. rugosus are confirmed as synonyms of C. punctatus, C. aculeatus and C. glaucophyllus, respectively. Discordance between the molecular data and previous morphology-based subgeneric classifications are noted. More works are needed to clarify the relationship between Celastrus and Tripterygium and the species within Celastrus.

  7. Structural organization of Cobeae scandens Cav. nectaries

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    A.F. Likhanov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It has ascertained, that Cobea scandens Cav., which introducted in the National botanic garden of M.M. Grishka NAN of Ukraine, has secretory tissues, which develop and function normally. In anatomical structure of C. scandens nectaries five structure- functional areas were founded. In the cells of secretory area a lot of RNA and proteins were detected. Intrastaminal nectaries have many common morpho-anatomical features with stamens. It is support of M. Dawson opinion (see Takhtajan 1966 about staminal origin of C. scandens nectaries.

  8. Structural organization of Cobeae scandens Cav. nectaries

    OpenAIRE

    Mashkovska S.; Likhanov A.; Kliuvadenko A.

    2012-01-01

    It has ascertained, that Cobea scandens Cav., which introducted in the National botanic garden of M.M. Grishka NAN of Ukraine, has secretory tissues, which develop and function normally. In anatomical structure of C. scandens nectaries five structure- functional areas were founded. In the cells of secretory area a lot of RNA and proteins were detected. Intrastaminal nectaries have many common morpho-anatomical features with stamens. It is support of M. Dawson opinion (see Takhtajan 1966) abou...

  9. Nootropic activity of Celastrus paniculatus seed.

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    Bhanumathy, M; Harish, M S; Shivaprasad, H N; Sushma, G

    2010-03-01

    The effect of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. (Celastraceae) seed aqueous extract on learning and memory was studied using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance test (sodium nitrite induced amnesia rodent model). The aqueous seed extract was administered orally in two different doses to rats (350 and 1050 mg/kg) and to mice (500 and 1500 mg/kg). The results were compared to piracetam (100 mg/kg, p.o.) used as a standard drug. Chemical hypoxia was induced by subcutaneous administration of sodium nitrite (35 mg/kg), immediately after acquisition training. In elevated plus maze and sodium nitrite-induced amnesia model, Celastrus paniculatus extract has showed statistically significant improvement in memory process when compared to control. The estimation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in rat brain supports the plus maze and passive avoidance test by reducing acetylcholinesterase activity which helps in memory performance. The study reveals that the aqueous extract of Celastrus paniculatus seed has dose-dependent cholinergic activity, thereby improving memory performance. The mechanism by which Celastrus paniculatus enhances cognition may be due to increased acetylcholine level in rat brain.

  10. Celorbicol, isocelorbicol, and their esters: new sesquiterpenoids from Celastrus orbiculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.R. Jr. (Dept. of Agriculture, Peoria, IL); Miller, R.W.; Weisleder, D.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Eickman, N.; Clardy, J.

    1976-10-01

    Esters of two new sesquiterpenoid polyalcohols - celorbicol and isocelorbicol - have been isolated from Celastrus orbiculatus. Structures of the parent alcohols have been established by x-ray crystallography, and those of the derived esters have been assigned by NMR spectroscopy. These compounds are structurally related to other polyesters and ester alkaloids from the Celastraceae, all of which are based on the dihydroagarofuran ring system.

  11. [Chemical Constituents in hypoglycemic active fraction of Celastrus orbiculatus leaf].

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    Yu, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Ting-ting; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents in the hypoglycemic active fraction of Celastrus orbiculatus leaf. The constituents were separated and purified by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography, and their structures were elucidated by IR, MS and NMR. Seven compounds were isolated from the active fraction of Celastnrus orbiculatus, which identified as kaempferol( 1) ,quercetin(2), kaempferol-7-0-α-L-rhamnoside (3), kaempferol-3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnoside (4) , quercetin-3-0-β-D-glucoside(5), myricetrin(6) and kaempferol-3-0-rutinoside(7). Chemical constituents in the hypoglycemic active fraction of Celastrus orbiculatus leaf are reported for the first time,and compounds 5,6 and 7 are firstly obtained from this plant.

  12. Polimorfismo floral em Valeriana scandens L. (Valerianaceae Floral polymorphism in Valeriana scandens L. (Valerianaceae

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    Erica Duarte-Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram encontrados três morfos florais em Valeriana scandens L.: flor perfeita, flor pistilada 1 e flor pistilada 2. A perfeita possui corola maior que a dos demais morfos, com lobos reflexos na antese, giba proeminente e localizada na porção proximal do tubo floral; anteras maiores que as dos demais morfos, com pólen viável; estilete curto e estigma incluso, o menor ovário e saco embrionário estruturalmente normal, semelhante ao dos demais morfos. A pistilada 1 possui a giba menos proeminente, corola de tamanho intermediário em relação aos demais morfos, lobos radiais na antese; anteras pequenas, sem pólen e estilete longo e estigma exserto. A pistilada 2 possui lobos radiais na antese, anteras de comprimento semelhante às da perfeita, mas de menor largura, com pólen inviável; estilete mais curto, tal como o da flor perfeita, e estigma exserto, tal como o da flor pistilada 1. Nos três morfos, o nectário é formado por tricomas secretores unicelulares situados na epiderme da face interna da giba, e suas sementes são viáveis. As flores pistilada 2 e perfeita apresentam um septo que isola a giba do restante do tubo floral, formando uma câmara nectarífera. V. scandens L. é ginomonóica-ginodióica, expressão sexual inédita em Valerianaceae.Three floral morphs were found in Valeriana scandens L.: perfect, pistillate 1, and pistillate 2. In perfect flowers, the corolla is longer than in the other morphs, with reflexed lobes at anthesis and a prominent gibbus at the tube base; anthers are longer and contain viable pollen grains; the pistil has a short included style/stigma and the smallest ovary, but a structurally normal embryo sac similar to that of the other morphs. In pistillate 1 flowers, the corolla is intermediate in size, and has radially displayed lobes at anthesis, and a softly prominent gibbus; anthers are small and devoid of pollen; the pistil shows a long exerted style/stigma. In pistillate 2 flowers, the corolla

  13. Antifungal properties of pristimerin and celastrol isolated from Celastrus hypoleucus.

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    Luo, Du-Qiang; Wang, Hong; Tian, Xuan; Shao, Hong-Jun; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2005-01-01

    Pristimerin and celastrol isolated from the roots of Celastrus hypoleucus (Oliv) Warb f argutior Loes exhibited inhibitory effects against diverse phytopathogenic fungi. Pristimerin and celastrol were found to inhibit the mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Glomerella cingulata (Stonem) Spauld & Schrenk in vitro by 83.6 and 62.6%, respectively, at 10 microg ml(-1). Pristimerin showed good preventive effect (96.7% at 100 microg ml(-1)) and curative effect (66.5% at 100 microg ml(-1)) against wheat powdery mildew in vivo. For celastrol, the preventive and curative effects against wheat powdery mildew were 80.5 and 45.4%, respectively, at 100 microg ml(-1).

  14. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Derris scandens

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    Hidayat Hussain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Different fractions of root and stem of Derris scandens demonstrated good antibacterial (Escherichia coli, and Bacillus megaterium, antialgal (Chlorella fusca, and antifungal (Microbotryum violaceum activities. Phytochemical investigation resulted in isolation of scandenin, scandenin A, betulinic acid, lupeol, β-amyran-3-one, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol and ß-sitosterol glucopyranoside. Study showed that scandenin has strong antibacterial activity against B. megaterium and good antifungal and antialgal properties. Scandenin A showed good antibacterial, antifungal and antialgal properties.

  15. A new subspecies of Celastrus (Celastraceae from the Palni hills of South India

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    S. John Britto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Celastrus paniculatus Willd. ssp. angladeanus S.J. Britto, B. Mani and S. Thomas new subspecies from the Palni hills, Western Ghats of Tamilnadu, South India is described and illustrated. The new ssp. is similar to Celastrus paniculatus ssp. aggregatus but differs in flame-coloured branchlets, terminal, erect and stiff panicles exceeding leaves, prominent gibbous and oblique capsules, flowers polygamous but predominantly pistillate and 3-seeded capsules.

  16. Intoxication of goats by Plumbago scandens in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Medeiros, R M; Barbosa, R C; Lima, E F; Simões, S V; Riet-Correa, F

    2001-06-01

    In the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil, goat mortality occurred with the ingestion of Plumbago scandens. The fresh plant was then given experimentally to 4 goats at 5, 10, 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. Depression, anorexia, salivation with foamy saliva, bellowing, bruxism, humpbacked posture, bloat, ruminal atony, continuous lateral head movements, tachycardia, dyspnea and dark brown to black urine were observed in the goats given 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. The goats receiving 5 or 10 g/kg bw had less severe signs. The goat dosed with 25 g/kg bw died after 18-20 h. All others recovered in 3-9 d. At necropsy of the high dose goat, the main lesions were dark violet to black discoloration of the mucosa of the tongue, esophagus, reticulum and ventral sac of the rumen, and gelatinous edema in the visceral ruminal peritoneum. Histologically the reticulum and ventral rumen sac had diffuse epithelial necrosis and severe edema and neutrophilic infiltration of the submucosa. Separation of the ruminal epithelium from the submucosa was observed. Epithelial degeneration and necrosis was also seen in the omasum, esophagus and tongue. Reproduction of the disease with clinical signs similar to those observed by the farmer in the spontaneously affected goats suggests that the clinical mortality was caused by ingestion of Plumbago scandens.

  17. Nostalgia: The bittersweet history of a psychological concept.

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    Batcho, Krystine Irene

    2013-08-01

    The concept of nostalgia has changed substantially both denotatively and connotatively over the span of its 300-year history. This article traces the evolution of the concept from its origins as a medical disease to its contemporary understanding as a psychological construct. The difficulty of tracing a construct through history is highlighted. Attention is paid to roles played first by the medical context, and then by the psychiatric, psychoanalytic, and psychological approaches. Emphasis is given to shifts in the designation of nostalgic valence from bitter to sweet to bittersweet, and the processes of semantic drift and depathologization are explored. Because the sense of nostalgia was constructed and reconstructed within social, cultural, and historical contexts, its meaning changed along with the words used to describe and connect it to other entities. Nostalgia's past illustrates the influence of language, social-cultural context, and discipline perspectives on how a construct is defined, researched, and applied. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Effect of Ultrafine Pulverization of Senecio Scandens on Growth, Immune System and Faecal Microorganisms in Piglets

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    J Yue1, CQ Lu1, HY Lin1, XN Wang, JQ Zheng1, JJ Chen1* and R Gooneratne2*

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest in using naturally occurring compounds subjected to new technologies for enhancing pig nutrition to replace antibiotic usage in swine production. The effects of ultrafine pulverization on the size distribution, morphology of Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham., and the growth performance, serum immunity parameters and faecal microorganisms of piglets fed this powder were investigated. The size distribution and morphology of S. scandens were characterized by using a laser diffraction analyser and scanning electron microscopy respectively. Ninety Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire piglets (average body weight of 10.43kg were randomly assigned to six treatments with three pens of five pigs per treatment. Group 1 (Control piglets were fed the basal diet only. Groups 2 to 5 were fed with the basal diet supplemented with ultrafine powder (median diameter [d0.5] of 8.89μm of S. scandens at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2% of the basal diet, respectively, for 30 days. For group 6, 1.2% of ordinary S. scandens powder (d0.5=88.59μm was added to the basal diet. Both S. scandens ordinary and ultrafine powder increased piglet body weight and reduced the feed to gain ratio, but the performance of piglets fed the ultrafine powder was better. In groups 4 to 6, the number of Escherechia coli in faeces and the diarrhoeal incidence were significantly lower (P<0.05 and the serum IgA, IgG, IgM contents significantly higher (P<0.05. Feeding S. scandens ultrafine powder in the diet improved piglet performance and the diet supplemented with 0.9% of the ultrafine powder was the most effective.

  19. Effects of an invasive plant species, celastrus orbiculatus, on soil composition and processes

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    Leicht-Young, S. A.; O'Donnell, H.; Latimer, A.M.; Silander, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Celastrus orbiculatus is a non-native, invasive liana that was introduced to the United States in the 1860s and has spread rapidly throughout the Northeast Several attributes contribute to the invasiveness of C. orbiculatus, including tolerance to a wide range of light levels and habitat types. We compared soil characteristics in seven sets of adjacent, paired plots, spanning a range of habitats and soil types, with and without C. orbiculatus. The paired plots were similar other than the presence or absence of Celastrus. Plots with C. orbiculatus had significantly higher soil pH, potassium, calcium and magnesium levels. Furthermore, nitrogen mineralization and litter decomposition rates were higher in plots with C. orbiculatus. Phosphorus levels were not significantly different between the paired plots. The results of this study contribute to the growing body of research of the effects of invasive species on ecosystem processes.

  20. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, @iDerris scandens@@ (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, @iDerris scandens@@ Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  1. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  2. Fase sexual de los helechos Odontosoria schlechtendalii y Odontosoria scandens (Dennstaedtiaceae

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    Beatriz Granados

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de los estudios sobre morfogénesis de la fase sexual de Odontosoria schlechtendalii y O. scandens son presentados en este trabajo. En O. schechlechtendalii y O. scandens las esporas son triletes, no clorofílicas, carecen de perina, la exina es lisa, ligeramente granulada a retuculata y la germinación es tipo Vittaria. El patrón de desarrollo protálico es tipo Adiantum. Los gametófitos adultos son cordiforme espatulados, con la probable presencia de anteridiógenos en O. schlechtendalii, ambas especies son glabras. Los organos sexuales son del tipo común de los helechos leptosporangiados. Las primeras hojas aparecen a los 56-92 días de cultivo, cuyo pecíolo y lámina es angostamente dividida, con tricomas bifurcados y estomas anomocíticosThe results of morphogenesis studies of the sexual phase of Odontosoria schlechtendalii and O. scandens are presented in this paper. In O. schlechtendalii and O. scandens the spores are triletes, non-chlorophyllous, and germinación is of the Vittaria-type, devoid of perine, the exine is smoth and sometimes coarsely ridged to reticulate. The development pattern is of the Adiantum-type. The adult gametophyte is cordate-spathulate, with probable presence of anteridiogen in O. schlechtendalii, both species are glabrous. Sex organs are of the common type of the leptosporangiate ferns. The first leaves appeared after 56-92 days of culture, with petiole and plate divide narrow, trichomes bifurcate and stomate anomocytic

  3. Arthropod Pests and Predators Associated With Bittersweet Nightshade, a Noncrop Host of the Potato Psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

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    Castillo Carrillo, C I; Fu, Z; Jensen, A S; Snyder, W E

    2016-08-01

    Bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara L.) is a key noncrop host of the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli Šulc), proposed to be a source of the psyllids that colonize potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fields in the northwestern United States. Here, we describe the broader community of arthropod potato pests, and also predatory arthropods, found in bittersweet nightshade patches. Over 2 yr, we sampled arthropods in patches of this weed spanning the potato-growing region of eastern Washington State. The potato psyllid was the most abundant potato pest that we found, with reproduction of these herbivores recorded throughout much of the growing season where this was measured. Aphid, beetle, and thrips pests of potato also were collected on bittersweet nightshade. In addition to these herbivores, we found a diverse community of >40 predatory arthropod taxa. Spiders, primarily in the Families Dictynidae and Philodromidae, made up 70% of all generalist predator individuals collected. Other generalist predators included multiple species of predatory mites, bugs, and beetles. The coccinellid beetle Stethorus punctillum (Weise) was observed eating psyllid eggs, while the parasitoid wasp Tamarixia triozae (Burks) was observed parasitizing potato psyllid nymphs. Overall, our survey verified the role of bittersweet nightshade as a potato psyllid host, while suggesting that other potato pests also use these plants. At the same time, we found that bittersweet nightshade patches were associated with species-rich communities of natural enemies. Additional work is needed to directly demonstrate movement of pests, and perhaps also predators, from bittersweet nightshade to potato fields. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Estrategia de manejo de plagas en el cultivo del filodendro (PHILODENDRON scandens).

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    Odalis Corbea Suárez; Moisés Figueroa Hernández; Manuel Pérez Quintana

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron Estrategias de  Manejo de plagas que contribuyeron a la recuperación de la estética del Philodendron  scandens    en el Hotel Meliá Varadero. Se estimuló y protegió la presencia de biorreguladores  con  la reducción de la carga tóxica. Durante los años 2001 al 2004 se realizaron estudios de las características del ecosistema tales como la interacción de los factores bió...

  5. Efficient plant regeneration of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L., a medicinal plant

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    Arzu Ucar Turker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum dulcamara L. (bittersweet is a medicinal plant that has been used to treat skin diseases, warts, tumors, felons, arthritis, rheumatism, bronchial congestion, heart ailments, ulcerative colitis, eye inflammations, jaundice and pneumonia. A reliable in vitro culture protocol for bittersweet was established. Explants (leaf and petiole segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog minimal organics (MSMO medium with various plant growth regulator combinations. Leaf explants formed more shoots than petiole explants. Plant regeneration was observed through indirect organogenesis with both explants. Best shoot proliferation was obtained from leaf explants with 3 mg/l BA (benzyladenine and 0.5 mg/l IAA (indole-3-acetic acid. Regenerated shoots were transferred to rooting media containing different levels of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, NAA (naphthalene acetic acid or 2,4-D (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Most shoots developed roots on medium with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted explants were transferred to vermiculate in Magenta containers for acclimatization and after 2 weeks, they were planted in plastic pots containing potting soil and maintained in the plant growth room.

  6. In vitro Control of Anthracnose Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp caused by Colletotrichum destructivum with Cyathula prostrata L and Diodia scandens SW leaf extracts

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    Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that C. prostrata and D. scandens leaf extract have the potentials as veritable control agents of anthracnose disease of cowpea in Africa. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 29-36

  7. Chemical Diversity Investigation of Hepatotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Qianliguang (Senecio scandens and Related Species by UHPLC-QTOF-MS

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    Lin Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Qianliguang (Senecio scandens is a common Chinese medicinal herb. Qianliguang-containing herbal proprietary products are registered as over-the-counter remedies in China and exported to Western countries. The presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs has raised concerns about the safety of using Qianliguang and its products. The present study aims at investigation of different types of PAs present in Qianliguang collected from representative locations in China.

  8. Effect of different processing methods on antioxidant activity of underutilized legumes, Entada scandens seed kernel and Canavalia gladiata seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasipriya, Gopalakrishnan; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2012-08-01

    The present study is proposed to determine the antioxidant activity of raw and processed samples of underutilized legumes, Entada scandens seed kernel and Canavalia gladiata seeds. The indigenous processing methods like dry heating, autoclaving and soaking followed by autoclaving in different solutions (plain water, ash, sugar and sodium bicarbonate) were adopted to seed samples. All other processing methods than dry heat showed significant reduction in phenolics (2.9-63%), tannins (26-100%) and flavonoids (14-67%). However, in processed samples of E. scandens, the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity were increased, whereas, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS·(+)), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), metal chelating and superoxide anion scavenging activity were similar to unprocessed ones. In contrary, except dry heating in C. gladiata, all other processing methods significantly (Pprocessing methods in E. scandens and dry heating in C. gladiata would be a suitable method for adopting in domestic or industrial processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A genetically stable rooting protocol for propagating a threatened medicinal plant—Celastrus paniculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phulwaria, Mahendra; Rai, Manoj K.; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Kataria, Vinod; Shekhawat, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Celastrus paniculatus, belonging to the family Celastraceae, is an important medicinal plant of India. Owing to the ever-increasing demand from the pharmaceutical industry, the species is being overexploited, thereby threatening its stock in the wild. Poor seed viability coupled with low germination restricts its propagation through sexual means. Thus, alternative approaches such as in vitro techniques are highly desirable for large-scale propagation of this medicinally important plant. Nodal segments, obtained from a 12-year-old mature plant, were used as explants for multiple shoot induction. Shoot multiplication was achieved by repeated transfer of mother explants and subculturing of in vitro produced shoot clumps on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) alone or in combination with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)). The maximum number of shoots (47.75 ± 2.58) was observed on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0.5 mg L−1) and IAA (0.1 mg L−1). In vitro raised shoots were rooted under ex vitro conditions after treating them with indole-3-butyric acid (300 mg L−1) for 3 min. Over 95 % of plantlets acclimatized successfully. The genetic fidelity of the regenerated plants was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA. No polymorphism was detected in regenerated plants and the mother plant, revealing the genetic fidelity of the in vitro raised plantlets. The protocol discussed could be effectively employed for large-scale multiplication of C. paniculatus. Its commercial application could be realized for the large-scale multiplication and supply to the State Forest Department.

  10. 3-Ishwarone, a Rare Ishwarane Sesquiterpene from Peperomia scandens Ruiz & Pavon: Structural Elucidation through a Joint Experimental and Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. dos S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 3-Ishwarone, (1, a sesquiterpene with a rare ishwarane skeleton, was isolated from Peperomia scandens Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae. Its structure was unambiguously determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR and infrared analyses, as well as by comparative theoretical studies which involved calculations of 13C-NMR chemical shifts, using the Density Functional Theory (DFT with the mPW1PW91 hybrid functional and Pople’s 6-31G(d basis set, and of vibrational frequencies, using the B3LYP hybrid functional and triple ζ Dunning’s correlation consistent basis set (cc-pVTZ, of (1 and three of its possible diastereomers, compounds 2–4.

  11. The Influence of the Rebaudioside A Content of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) on the Determination of Sweetness Equivalence in Bittersweet Chocolates, Using the Time-Intensity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Bruna M; Ferreira, Janaína M M; Luccas, Valdecir; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-12-01

    The consumption of diet products has increased greatly in recent years. The objectives of the study were to develop a bittersweet chocolate added inulin and stevias with different rebaudioside A contents (60%, 80%, and 97%). Five chocolate samples were formulated with different sucrose concentrations to determine the ideal sucrose concentration for bittersweet chocolate. The use of just-about-right scale identified an ideal sucrose concentration of 47.5% (w/w). The sweetness equivalence in sugar-free bittersweet chocolates was determined by the time-intensity method by 14 selected and trained judges. The data collected during each session of sensory evaluation furnished the following parameters in relation to the sweet stimulus: Imax (maximum intensity recorded), Timax (time at which the maximum intensity was recorded), Area (area of time × intensity curve), and Ttot (total duration time of the stimulus). The time-intensity analysis indicated that the percentages of rebaudioside A did not interfere with the sweetness intensity of the sweetener stevia in bittersweet chocolate and there was no significant difference in the concentrations tested (0.16%, 0.22%, 0.27%) of each stevia, in relation to the parameters evaluated. In addition, the reduction in fat content did not alter the perception of the sweetness intensity of the samples. These results showed important information to research and development of chocolate products. Therefore, the use of the lowest stevia concentration tested (0.16%) is the most indicated for use, since this quantity was sufficient to reach the ideal sweetness of the product, so there was no point in adding more. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. "Positive technology" thereby takes the responsible role of a "digital coach," supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the "therapeutic interaction" mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article aims to deepen the discussion

  13. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Diefenbach

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the “therapeutic interaction” mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article

  14. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the “therapeutic interaction” mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article aims to deepen the

  15. Natural Areas Inventory 1981 (GREAT III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    lanuginosa 3 Campsis radicans Carpinus caroliniana Carya cordifonnis Carya illinoensis Carya laciniosa Carya ovalis 2. Carya ovata Carya ...texana Carya toraentosa Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens 2, Celtis laevigata ^Celtis occidentalis Celtis tenuifolia 3 Cephalanthus

  16. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  17. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  18. Rapid in vitro multiplication and restoration of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. sub sp. paniculatus (Celastraceae), a medicinal woody climber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, L G; Seeni, S

    2001-07-01

    Nodes, shoot tips, internodes and leaf bases (approximately 1.0 cm) excised from young vines of the flowering woody climber, Celastrus paniculatus WilId. sub. sp. paniculatus (Celastraceae) were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing agar (0.6%), sucrose (3%) and varied concentrations of 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and kinetin. All the explant types were regenerative and maximum number (3.6) and frequency (94%) of axillary shoot formation of (5.08 cm long) was recorded in the nodes cultured in BAP (1 mg L(-1)) after 6 weeks. Combinations of BAP (1 mg L(-1)) and indole-3-acetic acid/l-naphthalene acetic acid (0.01-1 mg L(-1); IAA/NAA) tested with nodes induced formation of less number (3 and 2.2) of shoots at same frequency (94%). All the explant types viz. node, shoot tip, internode and leaf base of in vitro derived shoots responded earlier and better in lower concentrations of BAP (0.5-2 mg L(-1)) with formation of 8, 3.1, 6.4 and 1.8 shoots respectively during the same period. In spite of the advanced and increased caulogenic responses, differences in cytokinin requirements between different explants observed during culture initiation still persisted with the nodes, shoot tips, internodes and petiole segments responding best at 0.5, 1 and 2 mg L(-1) BAP, respectively. The repeated reculture up to 10 cycles of the nodes from the shoot cultures each at 6-week intervals enabled multiplication and stocking of shoots without decline. Rooting of 3-7 cm shoot cuttings was induced in half-strength MS liquid medium containing IAA (1 mg L(-1)) with formation of 7.25 roots of 2.41 cm length within 6 weeks. Rooted plants were established at 84-96% rate in community pots without hardening, the least value (84%) being obtained with NAA- induced thick and calloid rooted plants. Four month old community potted plants were reintroduced into native forest habitats at 95% efficiency and 8 months after restoration, the plants were uniform in morphological, growth

  19. Preparative isolation of alkaloids from Dactylicapnos scandens using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography by changing the length of the separation column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Dong, Hongjing; Yang, Bin; Liu, Dahui; Duan, Wenjuan; Huang, Luqi

    2011-12-01

    pH-Zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied for the preparative separation of alkaloids from Dactylicapnos scandens. The two-phase solvent system was composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v), where 20 mM of triethylamine (TEA) was added to the upper phase as a retainer and 5 mM of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the aqueous phase as an eluter. In this experiment, the apparatus with an adjustable length of the separation column was used for the separation of alkaloids from D. scandens and the resolution of the compounds can be remarkably improved by increasing the length of the separation column. As a result, 70 mg protopin, 30 mg (+) corydine, 120 mg (+) isocorydine and 40 mg (+) glaucine were obtained from 1.0 g of the crude extracts and each with 99.2%, 96.5%, 99.3%, 99.5% purity as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by positive ESI-MS and (1)H NMR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of growth performance, serum biochemistry and haematological parameters on broiler birds fed with raw and processed samples of Entada scandens, Canavalia gladiata and Canavalia ensiformis seed meal as an alternative protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasipriya, Gopalakrishnan; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2013-03-01

    The experiment was carried out to investigate the inclusion of underutilised legumes, Entada scandens, Canavalia gladiata and Canavalia ensiformis, seed meal in soybean-based diet in broilers. The utilisation of these wild legumes is limited by the presence of antinutrient compounds. Processing methods like soaking followed by autoclaving in sodium bicarbonate solution in E. scandens and C. gladiata and soaking followed by autoclaving in ash solution in C. ensiformis were adopted. The proximate composition of raw and processed samples of E. scandens, C. gladiata and C. ensiformis were determined. The protein content was enhanced in processed sample of E. scandens (46 %) and C. ensiformis (16 %). This processing method had reduced the maximum number of antinutrients such as tannins (10-100 %), trypsin inhibitor activity (99 %), chymotrypsin inhibitor activity (72-100 %), canavanine (60-62 %), amylase inhibitor activity (73-100 %), saponins (78-92 %), phytic acid (19-40 %) and lectins. Hence, the raw samples at 15 % and processed samples at 15 and 30 % were replaced with soybean protein in commercial broiler diet respectively. Birds fed with 30 % processed samples of E. scandens, C. gladiata and C. ensiformis showed significantly similar results of growth performance, carcass characteristics, organ weight, haematological parameters and serum biochemical parameters (cholesterol, protein, bilirubin, albumin, globulin and liver and kidney function parameters) without any adverse effects after 42 days of supplementation. The proper utilisation of these underutilised legumes may act as an alternative protein ingredient in poultry diets.

  1. Aspartame, a bittersweet pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Moreno; Vivarelli, Fabio; Sapone, Andrea; Canistro, Donatella

    2017-12-07

    For the first time, the aspartame case shows how a corporation decided to ban an artificial ingredient in the wake of public opinion notwithstanding the regulatory assurance claims that it is safe. PepsiCo Inc. made an unprecedented decision most likely based on life-span carcinogenicity bioassay studies from the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the Ramazzini Institute (CMCRC/RI), which provide consistent evidence of aspartame's carcinogenicity in rodents. Although CMCRC/RI experiments have been criticized for not complying with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines, the newly launched aspartame-free soft drink may not be an isolated case. In the light of vinyl chloride-, formaldehyde- or benzene-associated carcinogenicity discovered for the first time by CMCRC/RI in the same way, it seems the guidelines need to be re-evaluated to avoid the credibility of international regulatory agencies being compromised by consumer opinion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A Bittersweet Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders; Korsager, Ellen Mølgaard; Heller, Michael

    2018-01-01

    ” to capture the historically contingent downside potentially associated with corporate heritage brands. We use the Danish consumer-cooperative COOP as an exemplary corporate heritage brand whose heritage has become historically balanced at the threshold between asset and liability. Based on a longitudinal......In this article, we call for increased focus on the historicity of corporate heritage brands, emphasizing that perceptions of the past in the present do change as time goes by. Building on the idea of corporate brand historicity, we introduce the notion of “Negative Heritage Brand Equity...... analysis of COOP’s heritage, we demonstrate how the entwinement of the company’s corporate heritage brand and Danish culture and identity worked to the benefit of COOP in some historical epochs but have become increasingly misaligned with its political and cultural-economic environment since the 1980s...

  3. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Estudio bromatológico y de digestibilidad in-situ dela gramínea chusque (Chusquea scandens K a diferentes edades de corte .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dueñas-Tamayo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El  chusque  es un planta que hace parte de  los sistemas silvopastoriles naturales en el  trópico alto y, por ende, es aprovechada como alimento para los animales que pastan en dichos sistemas; no obstante, esta planta no cuenta con ningún reporte científico  que  indique  el  valor  y  los  aportes nutricionales que brinda a  los  rumiantes que  la consumen.  Con  esta  investigación  se  logró determinar  la  calidad  nutricional  del  chusque (Chusquea scandens, KUNTH por medio de un análisis bromatológico, digestibilidad aparente de la materia seca,  egradabilidad  in  situ  de  la proteína  (P,  fibra en detergente neutro  (FDN,  fibra en detergente acido  (FDA, contenido celular  (CC, complejo  lignina-celulosa  (CLC ý cenizas (C, a diferentes edades de corte del rebrote  (30, 45 y 60 días. Se empleó como testigo positivo (forraje de buena calidad alfalfa cortada a una edad de rebrote de 25 días y como  testigo negativo (forraje de mala calidad el kikuyo de más de 120 días. La unidad experimental estuvo constituida por dos muestreos con periodos de incubación en rumen de 96, 72, 48, 24, 12 y 0 h. Luego de  la realización del  trabajo  de  campo  y  de  las  pruebas  de laboratorio,  los  resultados  determinaron que  el chusque presenta un alto contenido de P, pero éste no es asimilable por efecto del complejo lignina-celulosa que  se encuentra elevado en  las muestras estudiadas. De  igual manera se encontró que el chusque  tiene un alto grado de FDN-FDA, además es  un  alimento  con  alto  contenido  celular transformándolo en un forraje energético.

  5. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine - an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Lindsay M. Smith; Douglas J. Levey

    2001-01-01

    Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculutus Thunb.) is a non-indigenous, invasive woody vine in North America that proliferates in disturbed open sites. Unlike most invasive species, C. orbiculatus exhibits a `sit and wait' strategy by establishing and persisting indefinitely in undisturbed, closed canopy forest and...

  6. The Bittersweet Task of Running a Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Running a grant program for the first time can feel overwhelming. The work is time-consuming, requires attention to many details, and is accompanied by pressure from applicants who are desperate for money and prompt decisions. This article presents a list of all of the factors educators have to consider. From establishing a timeline and drafting…

  7. Bittersweet Findings: Round Cups Fail to Induce Sweeter Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casparus J. A. Machiels

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of literature demonstrates that consumers associate visual information with specific gustatory elements. This phenomenon is better known as cross-modal correspondence. A specific correspondence that has received attention of late is the one between round forms and sweet taste. Research indicates that roundness (as opposed to angularity is consistently associated with an increased sweetness perception. Focusing on two different cup forms (round versus angular, two studies tested this association for a butter milk drink and a mate-based soft drink. Results, however, were not able to corroborate the frequently suggested correspondence effect, but a correspondence was found between the angular cup and a more bitter taste for the soft drink. These results are discussed in light of previous findings matching sweetness with roundness and bitterness with angularity, hopefully aiding researchers in this field in conducting future experiments.

  8. Are temperate mature forests buffered from invasive lianas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    Mature and old-growth forests are often thought to be buffered against invasive species due to low levels of light and infrequent disturbance. Lianas (woody vines) and other climbing plants are also known to exhibit lower densities in older forests. As part of a larger survey of the lianas of the southern Lake Michigan region in mature and old-growth forests, the level of infestation by invasive lianas was evaluated. The only invasive liana detected in these surveys was Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. (Celastraceae). Although this species had only attached to trees and reached the canopy in a few instances, it was present in 30% of transects surveyed, mostly as a component of the ground layer. Transects with C. orbiculatus had higher levels of soil potassium and higher liana richness than transects without. In contrast, transects with the native C. scandens had higher pH, sand content, and soil magnesium and lower organic matter compared to transects where it was absent. Celastrus orbiculatus appears to be a generalist liana since it often occurs with native lianas. Celastrus orbiculatus poses a substantial threat to mature forests as it will persist in the understory until a canopy gap or other disturbance provides the light and supports necessary for it to ascend to the canopy and damage tree species. As a result, these forests should be monitored by land managers so that C. orbiculatus eradication can occur while invasions are at low densities and restricted to the ground layer.

  9. Innovations in Teaching Race and Class Inequality: "Bittersweet Candy" and "The Vanishing Dollar"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Roxanna

    2009-01-01

    Instructors teaching students about social inequality, especially sexism and racism, often face some degree of student resistance. Opposition is particularly strong when students are from a white, middle to upper class background. As Haddad and Lieberman (2002) remark, "Students from privileged backgrounds lack personal experience with structures…

  10. A bittersweet story: the true nature of the laurel of the Oracle of Delphi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harissis, Haralampos V

    2014-01-01

    It is known from ancient sources that "laurel," identified with sweet bay, was used at the ancient Greek oracle of Delphi. The Pythia, the priestess who spoke the prophecies, purportedly used laurel as a means to inspire her divine frenzy. However, the clinical symptoms of the Pythia, as described in ancient sources, cannot be attributed to the use of sweet bay, which is harmless. A review of contemporary toxicological literature indicates that it is oleander that causes symptoms similar to those of the Pythia, while a closer examination of ancient literary texts indicates that oleander was often included under the generic term laurel. It is therefore likely that it was oleander, not sweet bay, that the Pythia used before the oracular procedure. This explanation could also shed light on other ancient accounts regarding the alleged spirit and chasm of Delphi, accounts that have been the subject of intense debate and interdisciplinary research for the last hundred years.

  11. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg

    between 200 to 300 mu g.ml sup(-1), whereas, the bacterial inhibition zone around the disc containing about 600-800 mu g of extract ranged between 1-5 mm. The results suggest that the crude extract of the plant is nontoxic and possesses both antibacterial...

  12. Bittersweet: Real-Time, Dynamic Changes in Blood Glucose Levels during an Acute Ozone Exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    In humans and rats, acute exposures to ozone have been shown to activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes to induce multi-organ metabolic alterations including impaired glucose homeostasis. These findings have largely been gleaned from on...

  13. Some bitter-sweet reflections on the Ottawa Charter commemoration cake: a personal discourse from an Ottawa rocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Bosse

    2011-12-01

    The Ottawa Charter both gave health promotion a solid framework and health promoters an identity. Yet, health promotion has far from reached its potential in being internalized in public health politics. Advocacy for health is one of the core missions for health promotion and the 25-year celebration of the Ottawa Charter offers a free ride, instead of being a missed opportunity. WHO has not met the expectations in taking advantage of the momentum and outcomes from the long series of global health promotion conferences. The series represents a lifeline for health promotion. Concepts like healthy public policy, supportive environments, social determinants, health and human rights, whole of government, globalization and others have been elaborated and framed in a health promoting context. The downside is that the footprints have not been bold, in particular not internationally. An upside is the development of research and science, underscored by a rapid development of scientific journals, textbooks, academic institutions and posts. A question arising is whether practise and policy making are left behind, since implementation on a grand scale still is lacking? Further and future efforts must be devoted to explore the processes and art of policy making. There is a need for more narratives and more health promoters involving themselves in policy making and politics. Health promotion is as relevant for the twenty-first century as ever. The challenges and opportunities are evident; the increasing global burden of non-communicable diseases, ageing populations, harmful use of alcohol, social determinants and fair societies improved governance and more. Health promotion can add value and WHO can step up its engagement.

  14. Molecular Insights into the Potential Insecticidal Interaction of β-Dihydroagarofuran Derivatives with the H Subunit of V-ATPase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielu Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Celangulin V (CV, one of dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters isolated from Chinese bittersweet (Celastrus angulatus Maxim, is famous natural botanical insecticide. Decades of research suggests that is displays excellent insecticidal activity against some insects, such as Mythimna separata Walker. Recently, it has been validated that the H subunit of V-ATPase is one of the target proteins of the insecticidal dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters. As a continuation of the development of new pesticides from these natural products, a series of β-dihydroagarofuran derivatives have been designed and synthesized. The compound JW-3, an insecticidal derivative of CV with a p-fluorobenzyl group, exhibits higher insecticidal activity than CV. In this study, the potential inhibitory effect aused by the interaction of JW-3 with the H subunit of V-ATPase c was verified by confirmatory experiments at the molecular level. Both spectroscopic techniques and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements showed the binding of JW-3 to the subunit H of V-ATPase was specific and spontaneous. In addition, the possible mechanism of action of the compound was discussed. Docking results indicated compound JW-3 could bind well in ‘the interdomain cleft’ of the V-ATPase subunit H by the hydrogen bonding and make conformation of the ligand–protein complex become more stable. All results are the further validations of the hypothesis, that the target protein of insecticidal dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters and their β-dihydroagarofuran derivatives is the subunit H of V-ATPase. The results also provide new ideas for developing pesticides acting on V-ATPase of insects.

  15. The prioritisation of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU No. 1143/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven alien plant species, pre-identified by horizon scanning exercises were prioritised for pest risk analysis (PRA using a modified version of the EPPO Prioritisation Process designed to be compliant with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. In Stage 1, species were categorised into one of four lists – a Residual List, EU List of Minor Concern, EU Observation List and the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants. Only those species included in the latter proceeded to the risk management stage where their priority for PRA was assessed. Due to medium or high spread potential coupled with high impacts twenty-two species were included in the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants and proceeded to Stage 2. Four species (Ambrosia trifida, Egeria densa, Fallopia baldschuanica and Oxalis pes-caprae were assigned to the EU Observation List due to moderate or low impacts. Albizia lebbeck, Clematis terniflora, Euonymus japonicus, Lonicera morrowii, Prunus campanulata and Rubus rosifolius were assigned to the residual list due to a current lack of information on impacts. Similarly, Cornus sericea and Hydrilla verticillata were assigned to the Residual List due to unclear taxonomy and uncertainty in native status, respectively. Chromolaena odorata, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Sphagneticola trilobata were assigned to the Residual List as it is unlikely they will establish in the Union under current climatic conditions. In the risk management stage, Euonymus fortunei, Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii were considered a low priority for PRA as they do not exhibit invasive tendencies despite being widely cultivated in the EU over several decades. Nineteen species were identified as having a high priority for a PRA (Acacia dealbata, Ambrosia confertiflora, Andropogon virginicus, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cortaderia jubata, Ehrharta calycina, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hakea sericea, Humulus scandens, Hygrophila polysperma

  16. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for help. Bittersweet More Videos from Veterans Health Administration Embedded YouTube video: https://www.youtube.com/v/ ... the Scenes see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Be There: Help Save a Life see more ...

  17. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out for help. Bittersweet More Videos from Veterans Health Administration Embedded YouTube video: https://www.youtube.com/ ... Behind the Scenes see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Be There: Help Save a Life see ...

  18. Distribution and Biosynthesis of Iridoid Glucosides in the Loasaceae Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Veronica

    In order to make a more precise inventory of iridoid glucosides from Loasaceae family 13 species belonging to 7 genera (Eucnide bartonioides, E. grandiflora, Gronovia scandens, Fuertesia domingensis, Loasa parviflora, L. tricolor, L. urens, L. speciosa, Klaphrotia mentzeloides, Cajophora cernua, ...

  19. Inventaire et caractérisation des plantes médicinales utilisées en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2016 ... respectively by trees and shrubs with 29.81% and 27.88%. Sarcochores and Slerochores ..... rotundifolia. Diodia cf. scandens. ... Ficus exasperata. Desmodium adscendens. Feuilles 4,26 Panaris. Sinusite. Splénomégalie.

  20. In vitro Anti-Gastric Tumor Activities and Possible Mechanisms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanisms of Action of Paederosidic Acid from Paederia scandens (Lour) ... After treatment with PA, obvious condensation of the nucleus was observed in fluorescence photomicrographs ..... gastric cancer: Molecular pathways and ongoing investigations. ... cisplatin for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy and reduced ...

  1. Application of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing To Discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Associated with English Watercourses and Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-01-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

  2. Peculiarities of inflorescences morphogenesis in model representatives of the Celastraceae R.Br. in context of molecular phylogenetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Savinov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of laying and forming of inflorescences for model representatives of the Celastraceae are studied. Specific characters in rhythm development of generative elements for different taxa are determined. Morphological markers, which are coincided completely with molecular characters, are determined. They are evidenced on closely relation between next taxa: Celastrus and Tripterygium, Salacia and Sarawakodendron, Salacia and Brexia.

  3. Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce. Copnall, James 2017. London, Hurst Publishers, 317 pp. ISBN 978-184804-830-9. Reviewed by Nicodemus Minde*. Having served as the BBC Sudan correspondent from 2009 to 2012, James. Copnall has compiled an insightful account of the bitter-sweet split of the.

  4. Role of Solanum dulcamara L. in Potato Late Blight Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golas, T.M.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Mariani, C.; Allefs, J.J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Four sites with naturally growing Solanum dulcamara were surveyed during 2006 and 2007 for the presence of late blight. Despite 2 years of observations, no late blight was detected among natural populations of bittersweet. Nevertheless, repeated infections occurred on few S. dulcamara plants from a

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stebek, E. Vol 1, No 1 (2007) - Articles WTO accession in the Ethiopian context: a bittersweet paradox. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1998-9881. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  6. Holiday Plants with Toxic Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrina N. Evens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima, English holly (Ilex aquifolium, American holly (Ilex opaca,bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara, Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum, Americanmistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum, and European mistletoe (Viscum album.

  7. A new species of Coelospermum (Rubiaceae) from New Caledonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Affinis C. monticoli Baillon ex Guill. sed vulgo fruticosa foliis crassis, plerumque retusis vel emarginatis, calycibus brevibus. – Frutex ad 3 m altus, raro scandens ad 7 m altus. Stipulae 1,3- 4,1 mm longae. Folia 2 ad nodos. Petiolus 3-31 mm longus. Lamina 2,3-15 cm longa, 1-7 cm lata, oblonga

  8. A new species of Combretum from East Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exell, A.W.

    1954-01-01

    Combretum kostermansii Exell, sp. nov. Frutex scandens, ramulis primo fulvo-pilosis et tomentellis demum sparse pilosis, atro-rubris. Folia opposita breviter petiolata, petiolo 1—3 mm longo, piloso, lamina chartacea, ovata vel oblongo-ovata, basi cordata, apice acuminata, 2—7 X 1.8—3.6 cm, supra

  9. A new Fagraea (Loganiaceae) from Celebes, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    Frutex scandens, 3 m altus. Folia petiolata; petiolus 1.5 — 2.25 cm longus, gracilis, exauriculatus; squama axillae pro majore parte libera, bilobata ad rotundata, usque ad 3.5 mm alta; lamina 13.5 — 22 cm longa, 4 — 6.5 cm lata, oblonga vel lanceolata, coriacea; basis anguste cuneata; margo

  10. Florae Malesianae Precursores II. The Convolvulaceae of Malaysia IX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1953-01-01

    Erycibe beccariana Hoogl. sp. nov. — Frutex scandens, ramulis junioribus sparsim stellato-hirsutis, adultioribus glabrescentibus cortice rimis longitudinalibus fisso. Folia elliptica ad elliptico-oblonga, 9—13 X 4— 71/2 cm, apice breviter acuminata, basi rotundata vel minute cordata, supra glabra,

  11. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del País Vasco, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIZPURU, I., APERRIBAY, J.A., ASEGINOLAZA, C., GARIN, F., VIVANT, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cuscuta scandens Brot. subsp. cesatiana (BERTOL. Soó, Fallopia sachalinensis (FRIEDERICH SCHMIDT PETROP. Ronse Decraene, Galium debile Desv., Geum hispidum Fries y Myosurus minimus L.; se combina, además, Apium graveolens L. subsp. butronensis (D. GOMEZ and G. MONTSERRAT I. AIZPURU, stat. nov.

  12. GC-MS Analysis of Insecticidal Essential Oil of Aerial Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of P. scandens was carried out using Clavenger apparatus in order to obtain the volatile oils. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analyses (HP-5MS column) of the essential oil were performed and its composition determined. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil ...

  13. A revision of Levieria (Monimiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipson, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Seven species are recognized, of which two ( L. scandens and L. orientalis) are described as new. Six species are reduced to synonymy (L. parvifolia A. C. Smith; L. rudolfii Perkins; L. schlechteri Perkins; L. urophylla Perkins; L. laxiflora Perkins; L. forbesii Perkins). All species occur in New

  14. (948) Proposal to conserve 4662a Tontelea (Celastraceae) with a conserved type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Aublet based Tontelea and its only named species, T. scandens, on material he collected in French Guiana, illustrated as pl. 10 in the original publication. Aublet’s specimens are incorporated in the herbarium of J. J. Rousseau (now located in the Paris Herbarium in herbier Denaiffe) and also in the

  15. Management of Maritime Communities for Threatened and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    S) mulletbush (B. halimifolia) (S) American barberry (Berchemia scandens) (L) Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) (L) winged sumac...include coastal red cedar {Juniperus silicicola), red bay ( Persea borbonia), live oak (Quercus virginiana) and cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto; Stalter...scattered pines. The canopy is composed of live oak, slash pine, myrtle oak (Quercus myrtifolia), American olive (Osmanthus americanus), Chapman’s oak

  16. Anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides extracted from Senecio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from the root of Senecio scandens Buch,-Ham. (PRS) and evaluate its anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) applied with a Box-Behnken design (BBD, three levels and three factors) was employed to ...

  17. ALL THE SINGLE DOGGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙佳慧

    2015-01-01

    November 11,or 11-11,chosen for its four lonely numbers,is China’s bittersweet'Single’s Day'(光棍儿节).Since it has become a national festival of commercialism,you can enjoy big discounts at almost every mall and online sales platform in a spree of careless spending.However,when you are indulging in this carnival of shopping,you may find a familiar melody floating in

  18. Personal Affairs: Child Development Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-15

    compete in the local labor market . Installations may not use the high cost range to compensate for inadequate funding with appropriated funds. Higher...for quarters or living quarters allowance (BAQ/LQA) soldiers or civilians would receive if they lived off post or fair market value for on–post quarters...Kernels), Arrowhead, Avocado (leaves), Azaleas, Betel Nut Palm, Bittersweet, Bleeding Heart, Buckeye, Buttercups, Caladium, Calla Lily, Castor Bean, Cat

  19. A new methodology for the preparation of 1 mm film for TEM analysis of austenitic steels irradiated with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bublikova, P.; Rosnecky, V.; Srba, V.; Michalicka, J.

    2014-01-01

    The methodology describes the process of manufacturing 1 mm steel sheets by the method of handling the tensile samples, cutting the samples after the tensile test in the tapered part of the neck by manipulators in a shielded environment of bittersweet chamber, grinding of active samples in glove boxes, cutting out sheets with 1 mm diameter with a special punch and the final electrolytic polishing of 1 mm films for TEM analysis of radiation defects in the transparent area of the film. (authors)

  20. To nostalgize: mixing memory with affect and desire

    OpenAIRE

    Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Routledge, Clay; Arndt, Jamie; Hepper, Erica G.; Zhou, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    Nostalgia is a self-conscious, bittersweet but predominantly positive and fundamentally social emotion. It arises from fond memories mixed with yearning about one's childhood, close relationships, or atypically positive events, and it entails a redemption trajectory. It is triggered by a variety of external stimuli or internal states, is prevalent, is universal, and is experienced across ages. Nostalgia serves a self-oriented function (by raising self-positivity and facilitating perceptions o...

  1. Diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, West Sumatra and its acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve is a conservation area in West Sumatra Province, which contains high diversity of plants including Araliaceae. Araliaceae mostly consist of attractive plants which have potentiallity as ornamental plants. The aim of this research is to record the diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve. The result of the study indicates that there are, species of Araliaceae found in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, which are : Arthrophyllum diversifolium, Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. farinosa, S. lucescens, S. scandens, Schefflera sp., and Trevesia beccarii, in which Bogor Botanic Garden collected 6 species of them, i.e.: Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. scandens, Schefflera sp. Most of the collections are successfully acclimated in the gardens.

  2. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea formed callus and roots, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pelargonium grandiflorum, P. peltatum, P. radula, Coleus shirensis and Magnolia soulangeana produced callus, Philodendron scandens, Rhododendron smirnovii, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Coprosma baueri, Cestrum purpureum and Solanum rantonnetii did not exhibit any regeneration reactions.

  3. Determination of the nature of Gnetum africanum Welw. leaf proteins by spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodi, O.; Mbemba, F.; Yandju, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    The plant biological material of our study consisted of Gnetum africanum leaves (wild vegetable) collected from five different countryside sites, namely Kananga, Kikwit, Mai-Ndombe, Mbandaka and Kisangani. Determining the nature of Gnetum africanum leaf proteins has shown they would be classified in the group of albumins as they absorb at U.V. wavelengths between 270 and 278 nm, like the absorption of the egg white and yellow albumin as that of a legume (Psophocarpus scandens) albumins.

  4. Dna c-values of 20 invasive alien species and 3 native species in south china

    OpenAIRE

    Gong Ni; Wang Yu-Tao; Björn Lars Olof; Li Shao-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated fields and forests in South China are experiencing serious damage due to invasive alien plants. We investigated the relation between DNA C-values and invasiveness. The DNA C-values of 23 species ranged from 0.39 pg to 3.37 pg. Herbs, perennials and native species had higher mean DNA C-values than shrubs, annuals and invasive alien species. DNA C-values decreased with increasing invasiveness. Paederia scandens, a harmful native species, has the lo...

  5. Nostalgia and the emotional tone and content of song lyrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcho, Krystine Irene

    2007-01-01

    Emotion and topic were manipulated in original song lyrics. Participants completed Batcho's and Holbrook's nostalgia surveys and rated 6 sets of lyrics for happiness, sadness, anger, nostalgia, meaning, liking, and relevance. Nostalgic lyrics were characterized by bittersweet reverie, loss of the past, identity, and meaning. Contrary to theories linking nostalgia to pathology, participants who scored high on Batcho's measure of personal nostalgia preferred happy lyrics, found them more meaningful, and related more closely to them. Consistent with theories relating nostalgia to social connectedness, high-nostalgia respondents preferred other-directed to solitary themes. Historical nostalgia was associated with relating more closely to sad lyrics.

  6. Safety assessment of food and herbal products containing hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids: interlaboratory consistency and the importance of N-oxide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Colegate, Steven M; Edgar, John A

    2008-01-01

    Two recent mass spectrometry-based reports concerning Senecio scandens yielded remarkably dissimilar pyrrolizidine alkaloid constituents. In both studies, and in a related analysis of Senecio scandens and Tussilago farfara using micellar electrokinetic chromatography, the presence of hazardous N-oxides of the alkaloids was either not considered or was inadequately considered. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of the methodologies used in these, and similar, studies in assessing the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content and the safety of food, food supplements and medicines for human use. To highlight essential analytical requirements for confident assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-related safety of food and herbal products for human use. Direct infusion-ESI MS and HPLC-ESI MS were used to analyse samples derived from liquid-liquid partitioning experiments and from strong cation exchange, solid-phase extraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides. A simple solvent partitioning experiment using pure senecionine and senecionine-N-oxide, two constituents reported in one of the mass spectrometry-based studies of S. scandens, clearly demonstrated the inadequacy of the reported method to detect and quantitate hazardous pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide components. A preliminary LCMS analysis of commercially-prepared extracts of comfrey roots (Symphytum officinale and S. uplandicum s. l.) was used as a model to highlight the analytical importance of N-oxides in the safety assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing medicinal herbs. This study highlighted significant differences in the reported identification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the same plant species, and clearly demonstrated the inadequacy of some procedures to include N-oxides in the assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-related safety of food and herbal products.

  7. Titration of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by a tissue microculture assay: some applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloncik, S; Chagnon, A

    1980-01-01

    A simple tissue microculture technique was developed for the titration of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) from Euxoa scandens. The procedure was similar to the 50% tissue culture infectious dose assay, but a single infected cell, detected by the presence of cytoplasmic polyhedra, was scored rather than the degeneration of cell monolayers. The filtration of CPV suspensions resulted in decreased virus titers under certain conditions. This microculture assay was used to determine the effect of cell disruption methods on virus yields. Sonication of infected cells was more efficient than freeze-thawing for the recovery of nonoccluded virus.

  8. Dna c-values of 20 invasive alien species and 3 native species in south china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated fields and forests in South China are experiencing serious damage due to invasive alien plants. We investigated the relation between DNA C-values and invasiveness. The DNA C-values of 23 species ranged from 0.39 pg to 3.37 pg. Herbs, perennials and native species had higher mean DNA C-values than shrubs, annuals and invasive alien species. DNA C-values decreased with increasing invasiveness. Paederia scandens, a harmful native species, has the lowest DNA C-value among the perennials, indicating that native species with low nuclear content may also possess an invasive potential.

  9. Perception of bitterness, sweetness and liking of different genotypes of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M; Gawthrop, F; Michelmore, R W; Wagstaff, C; Methven, L

    2016-04-15

    Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable, consumed across the world, containing bitter sesquiterpenoid lactone (SL) compounds that may negatively affect consumer acceptance and consumption. We assessed liking of samples with differing absolute abundance and different ratios of bitter:sweet compounds by analysing recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from an interspecific lettuce mapping population derived from a cross between a wild (L. serriola acc. UC96US23) and domesticated lettuce (L. sativa, cv. Salinas). We found that the ratio of bitter:sweet compounds was a key determinant of bitterness perception and liking. We were able to demonstrate that SLs, such as 8-deoxylactucin-15-sulphate, contribute most strongly to bitterness perception, whilst 15-p-hydroxylphenylacetyllactucin-8-sulphate does not contribute to bitter taste. Glucose was the sugar most highly correlated with sweetness perception. There is a genetic basis to the biochemical composition of lettuce. This information will be useful in lettuce breeding programmes in order to produce leaves with more favourable taste profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. POTENCY OF THE INDONESIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subeki Subeki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian traditional herbal medicine has been practiced for many centuries in Indonesia to treat malaria diseases. Although modern medicine is becoming increasingly important, herbal medicine is still very popular. In order to select raw material for preparation of safety herbal medicines, forty five medicinal plants have been tested for acute toxicity in mouse at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. The extracts of Asclepias curassavica leave, Alstonia scholaris leave, Decospermum fruticosum leave, Elaocarpus petiolatus bark, Elaocarpus parvifolius bark, Eurycoma longifolia root, Garcinia rigida bark, Nephelium lappaceum bark, Pentaspodan motleyi leave, Picrasma javanica leave, Phyllanthus niruri whole, Quassia indica leave, Syzygium pycnanthum bark, Tetrasera scandens leave, Cratoxylum glaucum bark, Sandoricum emarginatum bark, Mallotus paniculatus leave, Microcos ovatolanceolata bark, Poikilospermum suaveolens leave, Fibraurea chloroleuea leave, Tetrasera scandens root, and Timonius billitonensis bark showed toxicity with mortality level of 20-100%. The remaining 32 plant extracts were not toxic at dose tested. The toxic plant species should be considered in the preparation of herbal medicines. Of the safety extracts were tested for their antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in vivo at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. Extract of Carica papaya leave was most active than other plant extracts with parasitemia 1.13%, while control showed 17.21%. More research is needed to scientifically prove efficacy and to identity antimalarial constituents in the plant extracts. Key words: Indonesian medicinal plant, jamu, toxicity, antimalarial activity, Plasmodium berghei.

  11. Biodiversity Status, Distribution and Use Pattern of Some Ethno-Medicinal Plants

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    Priti KUMARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosion of plant biodiversity is a matter of global concern. Due to unawareness the building blocks of entire ecosystems are disappearing. Some medicinal plants like Taxus baccata Linn., Thymus serpyllum Linn., Coleus forskohli Will., Oroxylum indicum Linn., Valeriana hardwickii Wall., Malaxis acuminata D.Don, Habenaria edgeworthii Hook. f.ex.Collett., Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm., Dioscorea deltodea Wall., Gloriosa superba Linn., Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. and Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., Thalictrum foliolosum DC., Berberis aristata DC., Baliospermum montanum Will., Bergenia ciliata (Haworth Sternb., Clerodendrum serratum Linn., Valeriana jatamansii Jones, Celastrus paniculatus Will., Habenaria intermedeia D. Don, and Curculigo orchioides Gaerth are reached on the border of extinction. The 2008 IUCN Red List shows that the number of threatened plant species is increasing gradually (IUCN 2008. Therefore, there is an immediate need for conservation steps to be taken up along with promotion of conservation of medicinal plants.

  12. Distinct sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from in Salvadoran and Peruvian Celastraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, Oliver; Núñez, Marvin J; Perestelo, Nayra R; Reyes, Carolina P; Torres-Romero, David; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2017-10-01

    As part of a bioprospecting program aimed at the discovery of undescribed natural products from Salvadoran and Peruvian flora, the phytochemical investigations of four Celastraceae species, Celastrus vulcanicola, Maytenus segoviarum, Maytenus jeslkii, and Maytenus cuzcoina, were performed. The current study reports the isolation and structural characterization of five previously undescribed macrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids, named vulcanicoline-A, cuzcoinine, vulcanicoline-B, jelskiine, and vulcanicoline-C, along with sixteen known alkaloids. The structures of the alkaloids were established by spectrometric and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, including COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY experiments. The absolute configurations of alkaloids were proposed based on optical rotation sign, and biogenetic considerations. This study represents the first phytochemical analysis of Maytenus segoviarum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Separation of Binding Protein of Celangulin V from the Midgut of Mythimna separata Walker by Affinity Chromatography

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    Lina Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Celangulin V, an insecticidal compound isolated from the root bark of Chinese bittersweet, can affect the digestive system of insects. However, the mechanism of how Celangulin V induces a series of symptoms is still unknown. In this study, affinity chromatography was conducted through coupling of Celangulin V-6-aminoacetic acid ester to the CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. SDS-PAGE was used to analyze the collected fraction eluted by Celangulin V. Eight binding proteins (Zinc finger protein, Thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, SUMO E3 ligase RanBP2, Transmembrane protein 1, Actin, APN and V-ATPase were obtained and identified by LC/Q-TOF-MS from the midgut of Mythimna separata larvae. The potential of these proteins to serve as target proteins involved in the insecticidal activity of Celangulin V is discussed.

  14. COMPARATIVE HAEMOSTATIC EFFICACY OF SUCCULENT LEAF EXTRACTS AND LATEX OF SOME WOUND HEALING PLANTS ON FRESH WOUND OF RABBIT

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicinal report of haemostatic activity of six medicinal plants was validated by a study of the effect of succulent leaf extract of plant parts on the punch wound of rabbit for the first time. It was found that the succulent leave extracts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke, Barleria lupulina Lindl., Blumea lacera Dc., Croton bonplandianum Baill, Glinus lotoides Lin. and Mikania scandens (L Willd. can induce haemostasis in fresh wounds as compared to automatic haemostasis (120.00 ±2.91 seconds. The fresh leave extract of Mikania scandens took 25.00 ±1.87 seconds for haemostatic activity. Artemisia nilagirica (35.00 ± 1.50 seconds, Barleria lupulina (30.00 ±2.34 seconds, Blumea lacera (38.00 ±1.87 seconds, Glinus lotoides (35.00 ±2.29 seconds are having better action than Croton bonplandianum (leaf extract, which took 40.00 ±2.69 seconds time for haemostasis. The latex collected from the wounded small branches of living Croton bonplandianum plant is having highest efficacy in causing haemostasis (10.00 ±1.22 seconds, better than the positive control of Tincture Ferric per Chloride (13.00 ±2.54 seconds. The dermal toxicity study reveals that the application of the fresh plant extract on the skin of rat failed to produce any detrimental effect. The plant extracts collected from succulent plant leaves and particularly the latex collected from the living Croton bonplandianum Baill. plant can be used as haemostatic agents.

  15. Caracterización palinológica de la familia Celastraceae para Colombia

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    Bogotá A. R. Giovanni

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización palinológica de especies de los siete géneros de Celastraceae con área de distribución en Colombia permitió establecer de manera general el comportamiento estenopalinológico de la misma; los granos de polen son mónadas, isopolares, radiosimétricas; oblados esferoidales o suboblados; tricolporados con exina semitectada microreticulada o reticulada (58%. Las endoaberturas son lalongadas en el 92 % de los casos, la disminución en el espesor de la exina cerca a los colpos es común para casi todos los taxones examinados. Excepciones a este patrón se encuentran en Maytenus longipes pro lado esferoidal; Celastrus colombianus endoaberturas lolongadas; Gymnosp oria gentryi; Zinowiewia australis y Crossopetalum panamense que presentan costilla. Maytenus novogranatensis y Goupia glabra tienen exina tectada perforada, en las especies de Perrottetia la exina es tectada foveolada o fosulada. Perrotttetia y Goupia son los géneros mas disímiles al interior de la familia, condición que igualmente se presenta en la morfología macroscópica. Las características polínicas de Goupia refuerzan la opción de separarla de Celastraceae para estructurar la familia Goupiaceae.The palinological characterization of species of the seven genus of Celastraceae with distribution in Colombia allowed us to establish, in a general way, its stenopalynological behavior; the pollen grains are monads, isopolares radially symmetric; oblate spheroidal or suboblate; tricolporate, with semitectate exine, reticulate or microreticulate in 58%. The endoapertures are lalongate in 92% ofthe cases, the decrease in the exine thickness near the colpus is common to all the taxa. Some exceptions are found in Maytenus longipes prolate spheroidal; Celastrus colombianus lolongate endoapertures; Gymnosporia gentryi, Zinowiewia australis and Crossopetalum panamense costa. Maytenus novogranatensis and Goupia glabra have tectate exine, foveolate o fosulate. Perrottetia

  16. Insight into the Mode of Action of Celangulin V on the Transmembrane Potential of Midgut Cells in Lepidopteran Larvae

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    Yingying Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Celangulin V (CV is the main insecticidal constituent of Celastrus angulatus. The V-ATPase H subunit of the midgut cells of lepidopteran larvae is the putative target protein of CV. Here, we compared the effects of CV on the midgut membrane potentials of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae with those of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis and with those of inactive CV-MIA, a synthetic derivative of CV. We investigated the changes in the apical membrane potentials (Vam and basolateral membrane potentials (Vbm of the midguts of sixth-instar larvae force-fed with the test toxins. We also measured the Vam and Vbm of larval midguts that were directly incubated with the test toxins. Similar to the effect of Cry1Ab, the Vam of CV-treated midguts rapidly decayed over time in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, CV-MIA did not influence Vam. Meanwhile, the Vam of A. ipsilon larval midguts directly incubated with CV decayed less than that of M. separata larval midguts, whereas that of larvae force-fed with CV did not significantly change. Similar to Cry1Ab, CV did not affect the Vbm of isolated midguts. CV significantly inhibited V-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, CV initially inhibits V-ATPase in the apical membrane and affects intracellular pH, homeostasis, and nutrient transport mechanisms in lepidopteran midgut cells.

  17. Classifying Taiwan Lianas with Radiating Plates of Xylem

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    Sheng-Zehn Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiating plates of xylem are a lianas cambium variation, of which, 22 families have this feature. This study investigates 15 liana species representing nine families with radiating plates of xylem structures. The features of the transverse section and epidermis in fresh liana samples are documented, including shapes and colors of xylem and phloem, ray width and numbers, and skin morphology. Experimental results indicated that the shape of phloem fibers in Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. hancei is gradually tapered and flame-like, which is in contrast with the other characteristics of this type, including those classified as rays. Both inner and outer cylinders of vascular bundles are found in Piper kwashoense, and the irregularly inner cylinder persists yet gradually diminishes. Red crystals are numerous in the cortex of Celastrus kusanoi. Aristolochia shimadai and A. zollingeriana develop a combination of two cambium variants, radiating plates of xylem and a lobed xylem. The shape of phloem in Stauntonia obovatifoliola is square or truncate, and its rays are numerous. Meanwhile, that of Neoalsomitra integrifolia is blunt and its rays are fewer. As for the features of a stem surface within the same family, Cyclea ochiaiana is brownish in color and has a deep vertical depression with lenticels, Pericampylus glaucus is greenish in color with a vertical shallow depression. Within the same genus, Aristolochia shimadai develops lenticels, which are not in A. zollingeriana; although the periderm developed in Clematis grata is a ring bark and tears easily, that of Clematis tamura is thick and soft.

  18. An evaluation of the RNase H inhibitory effects of Vietnamese medicinal plant extracts and natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bui Huu; Nhut, Nguyen Duy; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Quang, Tran Hong; Thanh Ngan, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Luyen, Bui Thi; Huong, Tran Thu; Wilson, Jennifer; Beutler, John A; Ban, Ninh Khac; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-10-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe pandemic disease especially prevalent in poor and developing countries. Thus, developing specific, potent antiviral drugs that restrain infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a major cause of AIDS, remains an urgent priority. This study evaluated 32 extracts and 23 compounds from Vietnamese medicinal plants for their inhibitory effects against HIV-1 ribonuclease H (RNase H) and their role in reversing the cytopathic effects of HIV. The plants were air-dried and extracted in different solvent systems to produce plant extracts. Natural compounds were obtained as previously published. Samples were screened for RNase H inhibition followed by a cytopathic assay. Data were analyzed using the Microsoft Excel. At 50 μg/mL, 11 plant extracts and five compounds inhibited over 90% of RNase H enzymatic activity. Methanol extracts from Phyllanthus reticulatus and Aglaia aphanamixis leaves inhibited RNase H activity by 99 and 98%, respectively, whereas four extracts showed modest protection against the cytopathic effects of HIV. The screening results demonstrated that the butanol (BuOH) extract of Celastrus orbiculata leaves, methanol (MeOH) extracts of Glycosmis stenocarpa stems, Eurya ciliata leaves, and especially P. reticulatus leaves showed potential RNase H inhibition and protection against the viral cytopathic effects of HIV-1. Further chemical investigations should be carried out to find the active components of these extracts and compounds as potential anti-HIV drug candidates.

  19. Effects of Plants and Isolates of Celastraceae Family on Cancer Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Seyed, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of crude drugs of natural origin as sources of new effective anticancer agents continues to be important due to the lack of effective anticancer drugs currently used in practice which are generally accompanied with adverse effects at different levels of severity. The aim of this concise review is to gather existing literature on anticancer potential of extracts and compounds isolated from Celastraceae species. This review covers six genera (Maytenus, Tripterygium, Hippocratea, Gymnosporia, Celastrus and Austroplenckia) belonging to this family and their 33 isolates. Studies carried out by using different cell lines have shown remarkable indication of anticancer activity, however, only a restricted number of studies have been reported using in vivo tumor models. Some of the compounds, such as triptolide, celastrol and demethylzeylasteral from T. wilfordii, have been extensively studied on their mechanisms of action due to their potent activity on various cancer cell lines. Such promising lead compounds should generate considerable interest among scientists to improve their therapeutic potential with fewer side effects by molecular modification.

  20. [Characterization of High Andean forest edges and implications for their ecological restoration (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Alba Lucía; Vargas Ríos, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    The growth of a forest patch through colonization of the adjacent matrix is mostly determined by the particular characteristics of the edge zone. Knowing how these characteristics are related to a specific edge type and how they influence the regeneration process, is important for High Andean forest edges restoration. This study aimed to characterize three types of High Andean forest edge in Cogua Forest Reserve (Colombia): 1) edge of Chusquea scandens, 2) "paramizado", and 3) old edge, characterized for being in a later successional state. Two forest patches were chosen for each edge type and 13 criteria were analyzed; these were of topographic order, micro-environmental order, vegetation structure and species composition. In each patch the vegetation was evaluated by means of two 60 m transects perpendicular to the edge and along the matrix-edge-interior of the forest gradient. All woody plant species were identified and counted to determine their abundance. Environmental variables (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and light radiation) were measured in one of the transects. Three of the 13 criteria were of little importance in shaping the type of edge habitat (slope, patch shape and area). The others were closely related with the micro-environmental conditions and in turn with the vegetation structure and composition; this relationship confers particular characteristics to each edge type. The microclimate and floristic edge limits coincided; edges extend between 10 and 20 m into the forest depending on the edge type. The paramizado edge has the smallest environmental self-regulation capacity and is more exposed to fluctuations of the studied variables, because of its greatest exposition to the wind action and loss of the tallest trees (between 10 and 15 m) which regulate the understorey microclimate. This low environmental buffer capacity prevents the establishing of mature forest species (for example, Schefflera sp. and Oreopanax bogotensis

  1. Caracterización del indumento de nueve especies de Loasaceae de Venezuela Indument characterization of nine Loasaceae species from Venezuela

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    Eliana Noguera-Savelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracterizó el indumento observado en diferentes órganos de 9 especies de Loasaceae presentes en Venezuela, precisando su ubicación en la planta a fin de establecer una posible importancia taxonómica. Este estudio se efectuó tanto al microscopio óptico como al microscopio electrónico de barrido. El indumento está constituido por 2 clases de apéndices epidérmicos: tricomas y emergencias. Los tricomas se clasificaron en tricomas eglandulares uni-y multicelulares y tricomas glandulares multicelulares. Los tricomas cónicos y gloquidiados uncinados son comunes en todas las especies estudiadas. Nasa resultó el género con la mayor diversidad de tricomas. Se registra por primera vez la presencia de tricomas dendríticos, exclusivamente en Nasa venezuelensis. Las hojas y ovarios son los órganos que mayor variedad de apéndices mostraron. Gronovia scandens fue la única especie con emergencias, restringidas a los tallos. La morfología del indumento es un carácter de valor diagnóstico a nivel de subfamilia, lo cual se evidencia en la clave.In this work the epidermal indumentum observed in different organs of 9 species of Loasaceae from Venezuela were characterized, emphasizing their type and location on the plant to establish their possible taxonomic significance. The indumentum was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Two classes of indumentum were observed: trichomes and emergences. The trichomes were classified as uni- and multicellular, non-glandular trichomes, and multicellular glandular trichomes. The conical and uncinate glochidiate trichomes were common in all the species studied. Nasa was the genus with the greatest trichomes diversity. The occurrence of dendritic trichomes is reported for the first time, exclusively in Nasa venezuelensis. Leaves and ovaries are the organs with the greatest variety of appendices. Gronovia scandens is the only species with emergences, which are restricted to

  2. Successional study for the restoration at Carpatos forest reserve in Guasca, Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantillo Higuera Edgard Ernesto; Lozada Silva Alberto; Pinzon Gonzalez Julian

    2009-01-01

    Based on floristic and structural characterization, four stages of secondary succession were analyzed within a matrix of vegetation that had been disrupted (185 ha) at Carpatos Forest Reserve. This reserve is located in the foothills of Colombian's Eastern Mountain Range (Cordillera Oriental), among 2600 and 3000 meters above sea level, and it is aimed at making a contribution to prepare a restoration protocol. In flat, wet areas, vegetation represented by grassland whit Rubus floribundum y Pteridium aquilinum, grows up to 0.7 m height on average. It is characterized by Pteridium aquilinum, which holds an average of 1638 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of four species with the same number of genera and families bushes of Solanum inopinum and Chusquea scandens, less than 3 m height, were dominated by Chusquea scandens, with an estimated average of 638 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of four species and the same number of genera and families. In areas of steeper slopes and lower humidity more structured vegetation grows. This forests in recovery dominated by Miconia theaezans y Myrsine coriacea, which contains two types of vegetation: Hedyosmum crenatum y Myrsine coriacea, which are dominated by a shrub layer no taller than 5 m, with Myrsine coriacea as its most important species, and an estimated average of 1742 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of 18 species, 16 genera and 13 families, and Weinmannia pinnata y Miconia theaezans, represented by Myrsine coriacea, Miconia theaezans and Weinmannia pinnata as important species, which held an estimated average of 1833 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of 14 species, 12 genera and 11 families. Myrsine coriacea, Miconia theaezans, Weinmannia pinnata and Hedyosmun crenatum are regarded as the most suitable to start reproductive, adaptive and developing silvicultural protocols. Management analysis suggests that there is a correlation between higher clay content and the secondary-succession initial-state communities

  3. Typification of Solanum (Solanaceae species described by Martín de Sessé y Lacasta and José Mariano Mociño

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    Knapp, Sandra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectotypes, neotypes or epitypes are confirmed or designated here for 16 of the 22 names coined by Martín Sessé y Lacasta and José Mariano Mociño that were described as members of the large genus Solanum (Solanaceae: Solanum bifidum, S. cordovense, S. declinatum, S. dichotomum, S. diphyllum, S. lanceifolium, S. lanceolatum, S. lineatum (both homonyms, S. longifolium, S. mexicanum, S. nutans, S. sarmentosum, S. scandens, S. tlacotalpense and S. uniflorum. A brief introduction assesses the importance of the Sessé & Mociño expedition (the Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva España to the botany of their time, and identifies difficulties in identifying and neotypifying or lectotypifying names coined by them. More than half of the names coined by Sessé and Mociño have no material associated with them. The currently accepted name for each taxon is given, and taxa of uncertain status are indicated. Each typification is accompanied by a discussion of the reasoning behind the choice of specimen, and all newly designated types are illustrated.Se confirman o designan los lectótipos, neótipos o epítipos de 16 de los 22 nombres acuñados por Martín de Sessé y Lacasta y José Mariano Mociño que o bien fueron descritos dentro del género Solanum (Solanaceae o son actualmente reconocidos como parte del mismo: Solanum bifidum, S. cordovense, S. declinatum, S. dichotomum, S. diphyllum, S. lanceifolium, S. lanceolatum, S. lineatum (ambos homónimos, S. longifolium, S. mexicanum, S. nutans, S. sarmentosum, S. scandens, S. tlacotalpense y S. uniflorum. Se incluye una breve introducción explicando la importancia de la Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva España (expedición de Sessé y Mociño para la botánica de su tiempo, así como las dificultades que entraña neotipificar o lectotipificar los nombres acuñados por éllos. Se incluye el nombre aceptado para cada taxon cuando es posible y cada tipificación se acompaña de una discusión explicando

  4. Systemic nickel: the contribution made by stainless-steel cooking utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, G N; Packirisamy, S

    1995-04-01

    An extensive programme of cooking operations, using household recipes, has shown that, apart from aberrant values associated with new pans on first use, the contribution made by 19 Cr/9 Ni stainless-steel cooking utensils to nickel in the diet is negligible. The amount of nickel (0 to 8 micrograms) derived from the utensils in standard portions of various "aggressive" foodstuffs tested was less than that to be found occurring in 1 square of a bitter-sweet chocolate bar. New pans, if first used with acid fruits, can show a greater pick-up of nickel, which, in the worst case observed, amounted to approximately 1/5 of the normal daily intake for the average person (ca. 200 micrograms). This situation does not recur in subsequent usage, even after the pan has been cleaned by abrasion. A higher rate of nickel release was observed in new pans on first use from 4 manufacturers located in different countries and appears to be a general phenomenon. This could provide a possible explanation for the high pick-up of nickel by acid fruits reported in 1 instance in the literature.

  5. Examination of the Potential for Adaptive Chirality of the Nitrogen Chiral Center in Aza-Aspartame

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    Samir H. Bouayad-Gervais

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the α-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors.

  6. Lead Discovery for Alzheimer’s Disease Related Target Protein RbAp48 from Traditional Chinese Medicine

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    Hung-Jin Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency or loss of function of Retinoblastoma-associated proteins (RbAp48 is related with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and AD disease is associated with age-related memory loss. During normal function, RbAp48 forms a complex with the peptide FOG-1 (friend of GATA-1 and has a role in gene transcription, but an unstable complex may affect the function of RbAp48. This study utilizes the world’s largest traditional Chinese medicine (TCM database and virtual screening to provide potential compounds for RbAp48 binding. A molecular dynamics (MD simulation was employed to understand the variations after protein-ligand interaction. FOG1 was found to exhibit low stability after RbAp48 binding; the peptide displayed significant movement from the initial docking position, a phenomenon which matched the docking results. The protein structure of the other TCM candidates was not variable during MD simulation and had a greater stable affinity for RbAp48 binding than FOG1. Our results reveal that the protein structure does not affect ligand binding, and the top three TCM candidates Bittersweet alkaloid II, Eicosandioic acid, and Perivine might resolve the instability of the RbAp48-FOG1 complex and thus be used in AD therapy.

  7. MILLS B. LANE, JR. AND ENTERPRISE IN A NEW SOUTH

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    Randall L. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  8. What do love and jealousy taste like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Qin; Tong, Eddie M W; Tan, Deborah H; Koh, Alethea H Q

    2013-12-01

    Metaphorical expressions linking love and jealousy to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes are common in normal language use and suggest that these emotions may influence perceptual taste judgments. Hence, we investigated whether the phenomenological experiences of love and jealousy are embodied in the taste sensations of sweetness, sourness, and bitterness. Studies 1A and 1B validated that these metaphors are widely endorsed. In three subsequent studies, participants induced to feel love rated a variety of tastants (sweet-sour candy, bitter-sweet chocolates, and distilled water) as sweeter than those who were induced to feel jealous, neutral, or happy. However, those induced to feel jealous did not differ from those induced to feel happy or neutral on bitter and sour ratings. These findings imply that emotions can influence basic perceptual judgments, but metaphors that refer to the body do not necessarily influence perceptual judgments the way they imply. We further suggest that future research in metaphoric social cognition and metaphor theory may benefit from investigating how such metaphors could have originated.

  9. Extrafloral nectar secretion from wounds of Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortzing, Tobias; Calf, Onno W; Böhlke, Marlene; Schwachtje, Jens; Kopka, Joachim; Geuß, Daniel; Kosanke, Susanne; van Dam, Nicole M; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-04-25

    Plants usually close wounds rapidly to prevent infections and the loss of valuable resources such as assimilates(1). However, herbivore-inflicted wounds on the bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara appear not to close completely and produce sugary wound secretions visible as droplets. Many plants across the plant kingdom secrete sugary nectar from extrafloral nectaries(2) to attract natural enemies of herbivores for indirect defence(3,4). As ants forage on wound edges of S. dulcamara in the field, we hypothesized that wound secretions are a form of extrafloral nectar (EFN). We show that, unlike EFN from known nectaries, wound secretions are neither associated with any specific structure nor restricted to certain locations. However, similar to EFN, they are jasmonate-inducible and the plant controls their chemical composition. Wound secretions are attractive for ants, and application of wound secretion mimics increases ant attraction and reduces herbivory on S. dulcamara plants in a natural population. In greenhouse experiments, we reveal that ants can defend S. dulcamara from two of its native herbivores, slugs and flea beetle larvae. Since nectar is defined by its ecological function as a sugary secretion involved in interactions with animals(5), such 'plant bleeding' could be a primitive mode of nectar secretion exemplifying an evolutionary origin of structured extrafloral nectaries.

  10. Examination of the potential for adaptive chirality of the nitrogen chiral center in aza-aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayad-Gervais, Samir H; Lubell, William D

    2013-11-28

    The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the α-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors.

  11. Work right to right work: An automythology of chronic illness and work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasingham, Lavanya

    2018-03-01

    Objectives Chronic illness is known to disrupt and redirect the usual course of work trajectories. This article aims to portray the longitudinal course of negotiating work after multiple sclerosis. Methods Using therapy and personal journals to reconstruct memories and experience, an autoethnography is produced and narrated within Campbell's "Hero's Journey" automythology framework. Results The narrative highlights the intrasubjectivity of illness meaning-the changing internal meaning-making and external behavior and decision-making dynamics. The journey of being inhibited to "Work Right", to "Looking for the Right" and ultimately, finding "Right Work" is charted; portrayed as a bittersweet maneuver to achieve work-illness equilibrium. Discussion This journey traverses a spectrum of negative coping-the exhibition of deviant work behaviors, disengagement and depression; to recalibration and renewal; culminating in living the "new normal", and finding moral and meaningful work engagements. Life trajectories with chronic illness are often skewed and redirected; but longitudinal narratives of normalization and coping also highlight the pursuits to secure and maintain a life of meaning and value.

  12. Listening to music can influence hedonic and sensory perceptions of gelati.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantono, Kevin; Hamid, Nazimah; Shepherd, Daniel; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Grazioli, Gianpaolo; Carr, B Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The dominant taste sensations of three different types of chocolate gelati (milk chocolate, dark chocolate, and bittersweet chocolate) were determined using forty five trained panellists exposed to a silent reference condition and three music samples differing in hedonic ratings. The temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method was used to measure temporal taste perceptions. The emotional states of panellists were measured after each gelati-music pairing using a scale specifically developed for this study. The TDS difference curves showed significant differences between gelati samples and music conditions (p music were played, while bitterness was more dominant for disliked music. A joint Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) further explained the variability in sensory and emotion data. The first and second dimensions explained 78% of the variance, with the first dimension separating liked and disliked music and the second dimension separating liked music and silence. Gelati samples consumed while listening to liked and neutral music had positive scores, and were separated from those consumed under the disliked music condition along the first dimension. Liked music and disliked music were further correlated with positive and negative emotions respectively. Findings indicate that listening to music influenced the hedonic and sensory impressions of the gelati. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mytnik-Ejsmont

    Full Text Available Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided.

  14. REVISIÓN TAXONÓMICA DE LOASACEAE EN VENEZUELA

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    Noguera Eliana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Loasaceae no ha sido estudiada taxonómicamente en Venezuela, por tal razón se realizó una revisión taxonómica que permitió reconocer las especies presentes en el país y los principales caracteres de importancia taxonómica para su reconocimiento. Se examinaron 102 especímenes de Loasaceae depositados en herbarios nacionales e internacionales. En Venezuela, Loasaceae está representada por tres subfamilias (Gronovioideae, Loasoideae y Mentzelioideae, cuatros géneros (Gronovia, Klaprothia, Nasa y Mentzelia y nueve especies (Gronovia scandens L., Klaprothia fasciculata (C. Presl Poston, K. mentzelioides Kunth, Nasa lindeniana (Urb. & Gilg Weigend, N. venezuelensis (Steyerm. Weigend, N. perijensis (Weigend Weigend, N. triphylla (Juss. Weigend subsp. papaverifolia (Kunth Weigend, Mentzelia aspera L., M scabra subsp. chilensis (Gay Weigend. Se proporcionan claves para las especies presentes en el país, descripciones, ejemplares examinados, sinónimos, ilustraciones, datos de distribución geográfica y ecología, y breves comentarios morfológicos. El indumento y la ornamentación de la cubierta seminal son los principales caracteres de valor taxonómico para distinguir las especies de Loasaceae venezolanas.

  15. Medicinal and Environmental Indicator Species of Utricularia from Montane Forest of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Noorma Wati; Chew, Ming Yee

    2012-01-01

    The carnivorous Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) is a small herb of multifarious wet habitats worldwide. Eleven of the 14 Peninsular Malaysian species range into the mountains. Distribution, disturbance adaptability and collection frequency were used to formulate their commonness category. Common (U. aurea, U. bifida, and U. minutissima) and fairly common (U. gibba and U. uliginosa) species are mostly lowland plants that ascend to open montane microhabitats, while the fairly common (U. striatula), narrow-range (U. caerulea pink form and U. involvens), rare (U. furcellata and U. scandens), and endemic (U. vitellina) species are restricted to mountainous sites. Common species that colonise dystrophic to oligotrophic man-made sites in late succession could serve as predictors for general health and recovery of wet habitats. Rarer species are often locally abundant, their niches situated around pristine forest edges. When in decline, they indicate the beginning of problems affecting the forest. Utricularia is reportedly nutritious, mildly astringent, and diuretic. Preadapted to nutrient-poor, waterlogged soils, U. bifida is suitable as an alternative for small-scale herb cultivation on low pH, wet poor soils usually deemed not suitable for any crops. PMID:22619629

  16. Estimation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of radiocesium in 99 wild plant species grown in arable lands 1 year after the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Jun; Enomoto, Takashi; Yamada, Masao; Ono, Toshiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Sonoda, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    One year after the deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant (A formal name is Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station) in March 2011, radiocesium (¹³⁴Cs, ¹³⁷Cs) concentrations ([Cs]) were comprehensively investigated in the wild plants of 99 species most of which were annual or summer green perennial herbs and started to grow from April 2012 at the heavily contaminated fields of paddy (three study sites) and upland (one study site) in Fukushima Prefecture. The survey was conducted three times (April, July and October) in the year. In each site, soils (soil cores of 5-cm depth) and plants (aerial shoots) were collected for determination of [Cs] on a dry weight basis, and then the transfer factor (TF) of radiocesium from soil to plant ([Cs]plant/[Cs]soil) was estimated in each species. The [Cs] values of both soils and plants largely varied. However, some species exhibited relatively high TF values (more than 0.4) (e.g., Athyrium yokoscense, Dryopteris tokyoensis, and Cyperus brevifolius), while others exhibited almost negligible values (less than 0.01) (e.g., Salix miyabeana, Humulus scandens, and Elymus tsukushiensis). In addition, judging from the 11 species grown in both paddy and upland fields, TF values were generally higher in the paddy fields. The estimation of phytoextraction efficiency of soil radiocesium by weed communities in the paddy fields suggests that the weed community is not a practical candidate for phytoremediation technique.

  17. Polygonaceae da cadeia do espinhaço, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Efigênia de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da família Polygonaceae é parte do projeto "Estudos de flora e fauna na Cadeia do Espinhaço, Bahia, Brasil". Neste trabalho a área de estudo foi ampliada, abrangendo também as espécies da Cadeia do Espinhaço do Estado de Minas Gerais. A família está representada na área por cinco gêneros, com os respectivos números de espécies: Coccoloba (14: C. acrostichoides, C. alagoensis, C. alnifolia, C. brasiliensis, C. cereifera, C. fastigiata, C. lucidula, C. ochreolata, C. pipericarpa, C. salicifolia, C. scandens, C. schwackeana, C. striata e C. warmingii, Polygonum (6: P. acuminatum, P. ferrugineum, P. hispidum, P. hydropiperoides, P. meisnerianum e P. punctatum, Rumex (1: R. crispus, Ruprechtia (1: R. apetala e Triplaris (1: T. gardneriana. São apresentadas chaves para os gêneros e espécies, bem como descrições, ilustrações, comentários sobre a distribuição geográfica, fenologia e variabilidade para todos os táxons.

  18. Does stronger pollen competition improve offspring fitness when pollen load does not vary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, Christophe; Hennet, Lauriane; Bolstad, Geir H; Albertsen, Elena; Opedal, Øystein H; Ekrem, Runa K; Armbruster, W Scott

    2016-03-01

    Competition among pollen grains from a single donor is expected to increase the quality of the offspring produced because of the recessive deleterious alleles expressed during pollen-tube growth. However, evidence for such an effect is inconclusive; a large number of studies suffer from confounding variation in pollen competition with variation in pollen load. In this study, we tested the effect of pollen competition on offspring performance independently of pollen-load variation. We compared seed mass and early seedling performance in Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) between crosses in which variation in pollen competition was achieved, without variation in pollen load, by manipulating the dispersion of pollen grains on the stigmas. Despite a large sample size (211 crosses on 20 maternal plants), we failed to find an effect of pollen competition on seed characteristics or early seedling performance. Paternal effects were always limited, and pollen competition never reduced the within-father (residual) variance. These results suggest that limited within-donor variation in genetic quality of pollen grains reduces the potential benefits of pollen competition in the study population. The lack of paternal effects on early sporophyte performance further suggests that benefits of pollen competition among pollen from multiple donors should be limited as well, and it raises questions about the significance of pollen competition as a mechanism of sexual selection. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Friedelane-type triterpenoids as selective anti-inflammatory agents by regulation of differential signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar-Lorenzo, Andrea, E-mail: avillar@iib.uam.es [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols (IIBm) (CSIC/UAM), C/ Arturo Duperier 4, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERdem), ISCIII, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Ardiles, Alejandro E., E-mail: ale_csic@gmail.com [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica Antonio González, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avenida Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Arturo Prat, Casilla 121, Iquique 1110939 (Chile); Arroba, Ana I., E-mail: aarroba@iib.uam.es [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols (IIBm) (CSIC/UAM), C/ Arturo Duperier 4, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERdem), ISCIII, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique, E-mail: enheji@gmail.com [Tumor Immunology Laboratory (IdiPAZ), 28029 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERres), ISCIII, 28029 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2016-12-15

    A series of 31 pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from the root barks of Celastrus vulcanicola and Maytenus jelskii were tested for cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exhibited significant inhibition of LPS-induced NO release at 50 and 25 μM concentrations, respectively, and decreased mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the molecular level, C18 neither inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) nor nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Instead, C18 enhanced and prolonged nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased the expression of its target genes including hemeoxigenase 1 (HO1). C25 efficiently inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, without affecting NFκB or Nrf2 signaling pathways. Both compounds reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β (IL1β) proform, reflecting their ability to target the inflammasome. C25 also counteracted LPS effects on iNOS expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in Bv-2 microglial cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of both compounds was also assessed in human macrophages. Our results suggest that triterpenoids C18 and C25 possess anti-inflammatory effects, which may be therapeutically relevant for diseases linked to inflammation. - Highlights: • Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exert anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. • C18 enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased HO1 expression. • C25 inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, members of the MAPKs family. • C25 reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β. • C18 and C25 may be therapeutic agents for diseases linked to inflammation.

  20. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi of Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, central China: herbophilia and indifference to fruits and mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Kang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants and fungi in Han (i.e. Chinese nationality villages in central China, including famine plants used in the respondents' childhood. A valley adjacent to the extremely species-rich temperate forest vegetation of the Taibai Nature Reserve was chosen. Eighty-two people from 5 villages took part in the study. Altogether, 159 wild food plant species and 13 fungi folk taxa were mentioned by informants. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high (24.8; median – 21.5. An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables (mean – 17, me- dian – 14.5, a few wild fruits (mean – 5.9 and median – 6 and very few fungi (mean – 1.9, median – 1, which they had eaten. Over 50% of respondents mentioned gathering the young shoots or leaves of Celastrus orbiculatus, Staphylea bumalda and S. holocapra, Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pimpinella sp., Amaranthus spp., Matteucia struthiopteris, Allium spp., Cardamine macrophylla and Chenopodium album. Only one species of fruits (Schisandra sphenanthera and none of the mushrooms were mentioned by over half of the respondents. Although very diverse, it can be noted that the use of wild vegetables has decreased compared to the second half of the 20th century, as informants listed several plants which they had stopped using (e.g. Abelia engleriana due to the availability of cultivated vegetables and other foodstuffs. On the other hand, the collection of the most well-known wild vegetables is maintained by selling them to tourists visiting agritourist farms, and restaurants.

  1. Attenuation of quorum-sensing-dependent virulence factors and biofilm formation by medicinal plants against antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    P. Sankar Ganesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa use small signaling molecules such as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs, which play an important role in release virulence factors and toxin for further establishment of host infection. Thus, involving with the QS system would provide alternative ways of preventing the pathogenicity. In the present study, totally six medicinal plants (Terminalia bellerica, Celastrus paniculatus, Kingiodendron pinnatum, Schleichera oleosa, Melastoma malabathricum, Garcinia gummi-gutta were screened for anti-QS activity using biomonitor strain of Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472. The primary screening of antimicrobial activity of all the plant extracts have inhibited the growth of tested bacterial species. Of these at the sub-minimum inhibitory concentration the methanol extract of T. bellerica (0.0625–0.5 mg/ml has significantly inhibited violacein production (20.07–66.22% in C. violaceum (CV12472. Consequently, the extract of T. bellerica has reduced the production of pyocyanin, exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the reduction of biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains when treated with T. bellerica. GC–MS analysis showed the active compounds inhibited the production of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. The results suggest the possible use of this T. bellerica as an anti-QS and anti-biofilm agent to control Pseudomonas infection. Interference of QS provides an important means for the inhibition of bacterial virulence and thus aids in treatment strategies.

  2. Friedelane-type triterpenoids as selective anti-inflammatory agents by regulation of differential signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar-Lorenzo, Andrea; Ardiles, Alejandro E.; Arroba, Ana I.; Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    A series of 31 pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from the root barks of Celastrus vulcanicola and Maytenus jelskii were tested for cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exhibited significant inhibition of LPS-induced NO release at 50 and 25 μM concentrations, respectively, and decreased mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the molecular level, C18 neither inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) nor nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Instead, C18 enhanced and prolonged nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased the expression of its target genes including hemeoxigenase 1 (HO1). C25 efficiently inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, without affecting NFκB or Nrf2 signaling pathways. Both compounds reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β (IL1β) proform, reflecting their ability to target the inflammasome. C25 also counteracted LPS effects on iNOS expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in Bv-2 microglial cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of both compounds was also assessed in human macrophages. Our results suggest that triterpenoids C18 and C25 possess anti-inflammatory effects, which may be therapeutically relevant for diseases linked to inflammation. - Highlights: • Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exert anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. • C18 enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased HO1 expression. • C25 inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, members of the MAPKs family. • C25 reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β. • C18 and C25 may be therapeutic agents for diseases linked to inflammation.

  3. The far East in the Poetry of Rosa Romojaro

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    Yanghongyi Ou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article pays attention, in the first place, to the new conditions which provide a wide reception of the East Asian literature in the western area. Coming up next, in this context, a study of the poetries of Rosa Romojaro has been carried out, from the key points and compared motives, especially with the Chinese lyrical poetries and its tradition. After presenting the creative work of Rosa Romojaro, one of the most outstanding Spanish poets nowadays, standing on the point of view of a Chinese original critic, fundamental motives are given in advance in the chosen texts, and constantly linking with the Asian canon: so as the nature, and the degree of the symbolic subtlety in the writing of the poet according to the eastern point of view; the feeling of “Hen”, which contains the emotion of bittersweet and also associates with the passage of time; the essence of the poems and every word of hers, which is fulfilled with sentiments; the symbolism of the moon and its metaphorical reflections of the nocturne; the great motive of voyage and motions, and attached to them, the hope and the seasons, the fall; the adventure of  discovery within the heart of the known places and the purity driven by her glance; the synesthetic evocations; and, lastly, the relationship of her poems with the vital prolongation, making up every poem of Rosa Romojaro in a center of expressivity shared with universal motives which look up to the tradition and the modernity.  

  4. Vindicating capital: heroes and villains in A Lion's Trail

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    Havard Ovesen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2011n61p073 This paper analyses François Verster’s A Lion’s Trail (2002, a documentary about the late musician Solomon Linda andhis hit song, Mbube. Linda died a pauper, despite the fact that his composition became one of the most commerciallysuccessful songs in the history of popular music. Considering the potentially substantial financial benefits due to SolomonLinda’s daughters as heirs to his intellectual property rights, the story of Mbube can easily be read as having a happy, ifsomewhat bittersweet, ending. This ending is remarkably similar to the grand narrative of the new and democraticSouth Africa; in the end, justice was served, although not everybody was around to enjoy it. Such readings, however,obscure certain aspects of the new South African realities. The power structures that enable the continuation of huge socioeconomicdisparities are still in place. We contend that the film’s characertisationof protagonists and antagonists in its narrative as well as the closure that is provided by the actions of Gallo allow viewers to overlook some key problems thatpersist in dominant assumptions about intellectual property, the ill-treatment of countless other black musicians during apartheid, as well as racialised class inequalities that persistnearly two decades after apartheid. The paper will commence with a brief description of Linda’s career in order to set the scene for our analysis of Verster’s documentary. This analysiswill be informed by insights into intellectual property; we will then relate these insights to a discussion of South Africa’sadoption of neo-liberal economic policies. In essence, we argue that, much like the country’s implementation of neoliberalstrategies like Black Economic Empowerment (BEE, the assumptions inherentin A Lion’s Trail about intellectual property vindicate capital and, by implication, the racialised classdivide in post-apartheid South Africa.

  5. On the relationship between positive and negative affect: Their correlation and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeff T; Hershfield, Hal E; Stastny, Bradley J; Hester, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Induced mutagenesis as a breeding strategy for improvement of Solanaceous vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Masaharu; Ojiewo, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    The Solanaceae are a cosmopolitan family containing many essential vegetables and fruits such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), paprika, chillies, green and red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), jasmine nightshade (Solanum jasminoides Paxt.), winter cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum L.), and Cape gooseberry, ornamentals such as Petunia, Schizanthus, and Lycium species, and medicinal plants such as bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L.) and Solanum viarum Dun., both used as sources of corticosteroids. It also contains tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) - one of the most harmful yet economically important plants in the world - together with many other plants of both poisonous and medicinal value such as belladonna (Atropa belladona L.), stramonium (Datura stramonium L.), black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.), and African nightshade (Solanum villosum). Composed of approximately 90 genera and between 2000 and 3000 species, the family is widely distributed throughout the tropical and temperate regions of the world, with centers of diversity occurring in Central and South America, Australia, and Africa (EDMONDS 1978; SYMON 1981; D'ARCY 1991). Work to develop new varieties of improved solanaceous crops started more than 2 centuries ago. This paper reviews some of the recent developments in various aspects of varietal improvement of solanaceous vegetables through mutation breeding. Mutational work reported here includes the alteration of plant reproductive or vegetative growth and the development of locally adapted cultivars and popular breeding lines, or the induction of novel alleles. The potential for direct application of the mutants as new improved cultivars, their use in cross-breeding schemes, and their application in, for example, marker technology in genetic research are discussed. Specific examples of novel mutants developed in our laboratory that have the potential for application in improving solanaceous fruits

  7. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangjang Sumpam

    2011-10-01

    religious scripts in Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies.

  8. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper) were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies. PMID:21995750

  9. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra; Tangjang, Sumpam; Mandal, Subhash C

    2011-10-14

    (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper) were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies.

  10. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür for flowering host plants.

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    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  11. Etude de l'exploitation et du marché des produits forestiers non ligneux à Kinshasa

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    Biloso, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of Non Woody Forest Products Exploitation and Market in Kinshasa. In spite of the considerable number of ethnobotanic studies carried out in many regions of the Democratic Republic of Congo, almost no information is available on the exploitation and commerce of the wild products (non woody forest products, "produits forestiers non ligneux" – PFNL of the Congolese provinces in general and the urban province of Kinshasa in particular. Nevertheless, these products are largely used and marketed. Therefore, direct observations in situ, and socio-economic and ethnoecologic investigations (including interviews were organized in the urban province of Kinshasa to analyse various aspects of consumption of these wild products. The purpose of these investigations was to collect information regarding the use and the marketing of PFNL products by the populations living in the zones surrounding the urban area. The analysis of the various types of exploitation and use of the PFNL has shown twelve categories of PFNL use: energy, food, construction of music instruments, saw mill applications, drink, drugs, dye, packing, construction of baskets, textile fabrication, construction and ornamentation. The majority of these PFNL originate not only from the secondary forests and from forest galleries, but from shrubby savannas and the marshes as well. The exploitations and uses of the PFNL vary rather largely with the level of income, the purchasing power, the attachment with food practices and with local traditions. The various levels of semi-monthly income by owner of the PFNL are estimated for the following plants which were used as vegetables: Gnetum africanum Welw., (275.0 $; Pteridium aquilinium Hieron. (166.7 $; Dracaena camerooniana Baker. (75.5 $; Dioscorea praehensilis (Benth. (71.0 $; Psophocarpus scandens (Endl. Verdc. (58.7 $. The average income resulting from the firewood sale was estimated at 80 $ per month and per person, for a group of 25 owners

  12. Quantitative analysis of total retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fang; Wang Changhong; Xiong Aizhen; Wang Wan; Yang Li; Branford-White, Christopher J.; Wang Zhengtao; Bligh, S.W. Annie

    2007-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are alkaloids which typically contain a necine (7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolizidine) base unit, and they can be found in one third of the higher plants around the world. They are hepatotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic and pose a threat to human health and safety. A specific, quick and sensitive method is therefore needed to detect and quantify the PAs sometimes in trace amount in herbs, tea or food products. Based on high performance liquid chromatography with prior derivatization of the alkaloids using o-chloranil and Ehrlich's reagent, we report an improved method for quantitative analysis of the total amount of retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids (RET-PAs) in a plant extract. The total quantitation of RET-PAs is achieved because of a common colored retronecine marker, a 7-ethoxy-1-ethoxylmethyl retronecine derivative, is produced with all the different RET-PAs during the derivatization reaction. The chemical identity of the common retronecine marker was characterized on-line by positive mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The limit of detection using the improved method is 0.26 nmol mL -1 and the limit of quantitation is 0.79 nmol mL -1 . The advantages of this method are much enhanced sensitivity in detection and quantitation, and, no restriction on the choice of RET-PA as a calibration standard. Application of the developed method to the quantitation of total RET esters-type PAs in Senecio scandens from different regions of China is also reported

  13. Field observations of climbing behavior and seed predation by adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a lowland area of the temperate zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2010-10-01

    Granivory is a specialized food habit in the predominantly carnivorous beetle family Carabidae. Most studies of carabid granivory have been conducted under laboratory conditions; thus, our knowledge of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the field is insufficient. I conducted field observations of climbing behavior and seed predation by adult carabids in a lowland area of eastern Japan, from early October to late November in 2008. This is the first systematic field observation of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the temperate zone. In total, 176 carabid individuals of 11 species were observed, with 108 individuals feeding on plant seeds/flowers. Each carabid species was primarily observed feeding on a particular plant species. Frequently observed combinations were: Amara gigantea Motschulsky on Humulus scandens (Loureiro) Merrill (Moraceae) seed, Amara lucens Baliani on Artemisia indica Willdenow (Asteraceae) flower, and Amara macronota (Solsky) and Harpalus (Pseudoophonus) spp. on Digitaria ciliaris (Retzius) Koeler (Poaceae) seed. In all but one species, the sex ratio of individuals observed feeding was female-biased. In Am. gigantea and Am. macronota, a larger proportion of females than males ate seeds. In the three Amara species, copulations on plants, with the female feeding on its seeds/flowers, were often observed. These observations may indicate that, whereas females climb onto plants to feed on seeds, males climb to seek females for copulation rather than forage. Because granivorous carabids play important roles as weed-control agents in temperate agro-ecosystems, the present results would provide valuable basic information for future studies on this subject.

  14. Quantitative analysis of total retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant by high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fang; Wang Changhong; Xiong Aizhen; Wang Wan; Yang Li [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai 201203 (China); Branford-White, Christopher J. [Institute for Health Research and Policy, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB (United Kingdom); Wang Zhengtao [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai 201203 (China); School of Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038 (China)], E-mail: wangzt@shutcm.edu.cn; Bligh, S.W. Annie [Institute for Health Research and Policy, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.bligh@londonmet.ac.uk

    2007-12-12

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are alkaloids which typically contain a necine (7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolizidine) base unit, and they can be found in one third of the higher plants around the world. They are hepatotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic and pose a threat to human health and safety. A specific, quick and sensitive method is therefore needed to detect and quantify the PAs sometimes in trace amount in herbs, tea or food products. Based on high performance liquid chromatography with prior derivatization of the alkaloids using o-chloranil and Ehrlich's reagent, we report an improved method for quantitative analysis of the total amount of retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids (RET-PAs) in a plant extract. The total quantitation of RET-PAs is achieved because of a common colored retronecine marker, a 7-ethoxy-1-ethoxylmethyl retronecine derivative, is produced with all the different RET-PAs during the derivatization reaction. The chemical identity of the common retronecine marker was characterized on-line by positive mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The limit of detection using the improved method is 0.26 nmol mL{sup -1} and the limit of quantitation is 0.79 nmol mL{sup -1}. The advantages of this method are much enhanced sensitivity in detection and quantitation, and, no restriction on the choice of RET-PA as a calibration standard. Application of the developed method to the quantitation of total RET esters-type PAs in Senecio scandens from different regions of China is also reported.

  15. Atributos vitales de especies leñosas en bordes de bosque altoandino de la Reserva Forestal de Cogua (Colombia

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    Alba Lucía Montenegro

    2008-06-01

    Andean edge forest were studied. Two forest patches were chosen for each of the three edge types: Chusquea scandens edge, "paramune" and old-edge; the name of the latter was given because of its advanced successional state. in each patch, the vegetation was evaluated in two 60 m transects perpendicular to the edge and along the matrix-edge-interior gradient of the forest. All woody species were identified and counted to determine their abundance. A total of nine species were chosen as representative of High Andean forest edges in the reserve, because of their high abundance in this environment, their presence in both patches of each edge type and their ability to colonize the adjacent matrix. Each species was evaluated using 20 vital attributes of individual, leaf, and reproductive traits. Six species groups were found through a Correspondence Analysis. However, all nine species have high variation and plasticity levels for the attributes, even inside the groups. This trend suggests that while they are not clearly differentiated functional groups, they probably are representing different strategies within a single functional group of great plasticity. Tibouchina grossa and Pentacalia Pulchella are found in all edge and matrix types; the other species are found in all edge types, except by Gaiadendron punctatum and Weinmannia tomentosa, absent in the Chusquea scandens edge. All nine species are important elements in the restoration of forest edges, mainly where they are more abundant, evidencing their success in the particular conditions of an edge type. Miconia ligustrina and M. squamulosa are the most relevant species in the Chusquea scandens edge and matrix; while G. punctatum, P. pulchella, W. tomentosa, W. balbisiana and especially Macleania rupestris, are more important in the paramune edge and matrix; Hedyosmum bonplandianum is more important in the edge than in the matrix regeneration, while T. grossa is the most successful edge and matrix regeneration species

  16. Caracterización de bordes de bosque altoandino e implicaciones para la restauración ecológica en la Reserva Forestal de Cogua (Colombia

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    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron tres tipos de borde de bosque altoandino: borde de Chusquea scandens, paramizado y antiguo; este último denominado así por presentar un estado sucesional más avanzado. Se seleccionaron dos parches de bosque por cada tipo de borde, para analizar 13 criterios entre fisiográficos, microclimáticos, estructura y composición de la vegetación. Tres de los criterios (pendiente, forma y área del parche son poco determinantes del tipo de hábitat de borde, los demás están estrechamente relacionados con las condiciones del microambiente y éste a su vez con la estructura y composición de la vegetación, confiriendo características particulares a cada hábitat de borde. El borde paramizado muestra la menor capacidad de autorregulación ambiental estando más expuesto a la fluctuación en estas variables, debido a su exposición directa a la acción del viento y a la pérdida de los estratos arbóreos más altos (entre 10 y 15 m, por lo que requiere la mayor intervención para su restauración. El borde de chusque es el más resguardado al actuar esta especie como una barrera protectora, que sin embargo debe ser controlada para promover la expansión del bosque como habita en el borde antiguo, el cual presenta una capacidad reguladora intermedia entre los otros dos.Characterization of High Andean forest edges and implications for their ecological restoration (Colombia. The growth of a forest patch through colonization of the adjacent matrix is mostly determined by the particular characteristics of the edge zone. Knowing how these characteristics are related to a specific edge type and how they influence the regeneration process, is important for High Andean forest edges restoration. This study aimed to characterize three types of High Andean forest edge in Cogua Forest Reserve (Colombia: 1 edge of Chusquea scandens, 2 "paramizado", and 3 old edge, characterized for being in a later successional state. Two forest patches were

  17. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds

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    Sujogya Kumar Panda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial

  18. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-03-14

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  19. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2017 year in review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2018-02-08

    The Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program was involved in a number of notable events during 2017, many concerning our personnel. Dr. Barry Grand left his position as Leader of the Alabama Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit to become the Cooperative Units Program Supervisor for the South, replacing Dr. Kevin Whalen who took over as Supervisor for the West. We welcomed Dr. Sarah Converse who left the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to become Leader of the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. Dr. Amanda Rosenberger joined the Tennessee Cooperative Fishery Research Unit as Assistant Leader, transferring from the Missouri Cooperative Unit. Dr. Scott Carleton left his position as Assistant Unit Leader in New Mexico to become Chief of the Region 2 Migratory Bird Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.We said farewell to many colleagues who retired. Their departure is bittersweet as we wish them health, happiness, and wellness in retirement. We will miss their companionship and the extraordinary contributions they have made to the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program and conservation.The Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program has a record high number of vacant scientist positions due to a combination of retirements and base funding short-falls. These issues are affecting our ability to meet cooperator needs. Yet, we remain highly productive. For example, this year we released a report (https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1427) containing abstracts of nearly 600 of our research projects, covering thematic areas ranging from advanced technologies to wildlife diseases. We provided highly competent, trained scientists and natural resource managers for our cooperators’ workforce. We delivered technical training and guidance to professional practitioners. We provided critical information to cooperators for decisions on species status assessments and management of species of greatest conservation need

  20. Moving On (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Well, here we are with another full volume published. I have watched this journal grow from an idea to a sustainable, reputable journal with readers and contributors from all over the world. It has grown from a small editorial group to a collection of peer reviewers, Evidence Summary writers, copyeditors, etc., that is eighty-four strong (and counting. I have wavered between wondering whether promoting evidence based librarianship is akin to flogging a dead horse to feeling secure in knowing that we are making a difference. Being involved with this journal has made me look at what I do in a different light and I now approach decisions and change with what I refer to as “structured flexibility”. Following the EBL framework is the structured part, and when it works, it works well. But we all know that there is not always an answer in the literature nor is there a guarantee that implemented evidence based change will work similarly in different environments. That’s where the flexibility comes in.Three years as Editor-in-Chief has been a challenging, enjoyable, time-consuming, and fascinating learning experience. It has provided me with numerous opportunities in terms of speaking engagements, workshop offerings, and valuable discussion and discourse. It has also provided me with research and project ideas that I have had to place on the back burner until a time when I have enough hours in the day. Recognizing that adding additional hours to the day is, well, impossible, I have decided to stepdown from my editorial role to pursue other activities. This was a bittersweet decision, but a necessary one. I am pleased to announce that Denise Koufogiannakis will be taking on the role of Editor-in-Chief for the next term. Denise, as many of you know, has also been involved with this journal since its inception and, after a brief period of reduced involvement, has eagerly stepped up to the plate. This journal would not be what it is today without

  1. MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL NOTES 2

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    A.J.G.H KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    . ele-gantissima Kosterm., B. lanatella Kosterm., Persea pomifera Kosterm., Ocotea scandens Kosterm. and Actinodaphne auricolor Kosterm,

  2. Diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community

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    Ran Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both composition and aggregation patterns of species in a community are the outcome of community self-organizing. In this paper we conducted analysis on species diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community, Zhuhai, China. According to the sampling survey, in total of 47 plant species, belonging to 16 families, were found. Compositae had 10 species (21.3%, seconded by Gramineae (9 species, 19.1%, Leguminosae (6 species, 12.8%, Cyperaceae (4 species, 8.5%, and Malvaceae (3 species, 6.4%. The results revealed that the means of aggregation indices Iδ, I and m*/m were 21.71, 15.71 and 19.89 respectively and thus individuals of most of plant species strongly followed aggregative distribution. Iwao analysis indicated that both individuals of all species and clumps of all individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution. Taylor's power law indicated that individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution and aggregation intensity strengthened as the increase of mean density. We held that the strong aggregation intensity of a species has been resulted from the strong adaptation ability to the environment, the strong interspecific competition ability and the earlier establishment of the species. Fitting goodness of the mean, I, Iδ, m*/m with probability distributions demonstrated that the mean (density, I, Iδ, and m*/m over all species followed Weibull distribution rather than normal distribution. Lophatherum gracile, Paederia scandens (Lour. Merr., Eleusine indica, and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. were mostly aggregative, and Oxalis sp., Eleocharis plantagineiformis, Vernonia cinerea (L. Less., and Sapium sebiferum (L. Roxb, were mostly uniform in the spatial distribution. Importance values (IV showed that Cynodon dactylon was the most important species, seconded by Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Cajanus scarabaeoides (L. Benth., Paspalum scrobiculatum L., and Rhynchelytrum repens. Oxalis

  3. Aflatoxin B1-producing Aspergillus in sun-dried medicinal plant materials

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    Chinaputi, A.

    2001-10-01

    scanning electron microscope.Using the ELISA technique, all medicinal plants sampled showed aflatoxin B1. , with the highest contamination being found in Cassia garrettiana at 1,101.8 ppb, Caesalpinia sappan 655.9 ppb, Cassia siamea 583.0 ppb and Smilax ferox 572.5 ppb. Only 16 kinds ofmedicinal plant had levels of aflatoxin B1. lower than WHO guidelines (20 ppb specifically Smilax japonica, Derris scandens, Myristica fragrans, Piper spp., Curcuma zedoaria, Zingiber purpureum, Piper retrofractum, Elettaria cardamomum, Curcuma longa, Imperata cyhindrica, Rhinacathus nasutus, Kaempferia pulchra, Foeniculum vulgare, Diospyros decandra, Boesenbergia pandurata and Alyxia reinwardtiiplease contact auther via e-mail: ssiripor@ratree.psu.ac.th or rdo-sjst@group.psu.ac.th

  4. Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China

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    Shen Shicai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7% were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%, followed by roots (22.2%. The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc. Lipech. (UV = 0.67, Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67, Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63, Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62, Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60, and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60. Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species, heat, fever, colds (11 plant species, retained afterbirth (11 plant species, and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species. Many Nu villagers

  5. Frugivoria por aves em Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae em ambientes antropizados na região de Sorocaba–SP. Frugivory by birds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae at anthropic environment in Sorocaba–SP region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Francine LAMBERTI

    2012-12-01

    dispersed seeds isn’t enough. Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae, species native from Brazil, is popularlyknown as pitangueira. It has globular and grooved fruits, showing bright colors from orange to red or black, with fleshy and bittersweet pulp, usually with one or two seeds. The present study aimed to characterize the bird species that consume E. uniflora fruits in two environments in Sorocaba region, São Paulo state. The study was held with six individuals of E. uniflora, three located in Sorocaba urban area, a highly anthropized environment, and three in Araçoiaba daSerra urban area, a less anthropized city. The avifauna was sampled through the focal observation method, considering its richness, relative abundance, visit frequency, behavior and diversity. The phenological pattern of E. uniflora was also described, as well as the number of produced fruits. During 116 hours of focal observation, 185 birds consuming the fruits were registered.They belong to the Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Turdidae, and Vireonidae families. The obtainedresults indicate that less anthropized areas, with more trees and near natural forest fragments as in Araçoiaba city, show more richness, abundance and diversity of birds consumingE. uniflora fruits, when compared with more anthropized urban areas like those of Sorocaba.

  6. Rising CO2 widens the transpiration-photosynthesis optimality space

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2016-04-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic biochemistry, typically expressed by the temperature-adjusted maximum rates of carboxylation (V cmax) and electron transport (Jmax), are key traits in land ecosystem models. Contrary to the many approaches available for simulating gs responses, the biochemical parameters V cmax and Jmax are often treated as static traits in ecosystem models. However, observational evidence indicates that V cmax and Jmax respond to persistent changes in atmospheric CO2. Hence, ecosystem models may be improved by incorporating coordinated responses of photosynthetic biochemistry and gs to atmospheric CO2. Recently, Prentice et al. (2014) proposed an optimality framework (referred to as the Prentice framework from here on) to predict relationships between V cmax and gs based on Fick's law, Rubisco-limited photosynthesis and the carbon costs of transpiration and photosynthesis. Here we show that this framework is, in principle, suited to predict CO2-induced changes in the V cmax -gs relationships. The framework predicts an increase in the V cmax:gs-ratio with higher atmospheric CO2, whereby the slope of this relationship is determined by the carbon costs of transpiration and photosynthesis. For our empirical analyses we consider that the carbon cost of transpiration is positively related to the plant's Huber value (sapwood area/leaf area), while the carbon cost of photosynthesis is positively related to the maintenance cost of the photosynthetic proteins. We empirically tested the predicted effect of CO2 on the V cmax:gs-ratio in two genotypes of Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet) that were grown from seeds to maturity under 200, 400 and 800 ppm CO2 in walk-in growth chambers with tight control on light, temperature and humidity. Seeds of the two Solanum genotypes were obtained from two distinct natural populations; one adapted to well-drained sandy soil (the 'dry' genotype) and one adapted to poorly-drained clayey soil (the 'wet' genotype

  7. The in planta transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: conserved physiological and virulence strategies during bacterial wilt of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jonathan M; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

    2012-01-01

    farmers, with major economic and human consequences. It is also a model for the many destructive microbes that colonize the water-conducting plant xylem tissue, which is low in nutrients and oxygen. We extracted bacteria from infected tomato plants and globally identified the biological functions that R. solanacearum expresses during plant pathogenesis. This revealed the unexpected presence of sucrose in tomato xylem fluid and the pathogen's dependence on host sucrose for virulence on tomato, potato, and the common weed bittersweet nightshade. Further, R. solanacearum was highly responsive to the plant environment, expressing several metabolic and virulence functions quite differently in the plant than in pure culture. These results reinforce the utility of studying pathogens in interaction with hosts and suggest that selecting for reduced sucrose levels could generate wilt-resistant crops.

  8. Potencial nutritivo de frutos de pitangão (Eugenia neonitida, Sobral Nutritive potential of pitangão (Eugenia neonitida, Sobral fruits and seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vilar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia neonitida, Sobral (Myrtaceae ocorre naturalmente nas restingas dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, possui hábito arbustivo e pode alcançar até 2,5m de altura. Floresce entre os meses de outubro e novembro, frutificando de novembro a janeiro. Seus frutos, popularmente chamados de "Pitangão", são oblongos, e durante o processo de amadurecimento sua cor evolui do verde até o amarelo vivo quando maduro. Apresentam sabor agridoce e exalam fragrância agradável, tornando-os amplamente apreciados pela população local. Determinações analíticas revelaram que 100g de polpa deste fruto contêm alto teor de umidade (93,2% e baixo valor calórico, 54,21 kcal, oriundo de 3,21 ± 0,25g de lipídeos, 2,2 ± 0,86g de proteínas, 0,55 ± 0,03 g de carboidratos, além de 6g de sólidos solúveis e alta concentração de minerais, com destaque para o sódio, 480,8mg.100g-1 de polpa do fruto. A acidez total é de 1,38 ± 0,03g de NaOH.100g-1, o pH é 2,85 e a concentração de ácido ascórbico é de 17,86 ± 0,06mg.100g-1. O valor de beta-caroteno é de 60 ± 0,04 mg.100g-1. Comparando-se a polpa do pitangão com a da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L., foram constatados maiores valores nutricionais para a primeira. O pitangão pode ser uma ótima fonte de macro e micronutrientes para alimentação humana, embora ainda não seja cultivada nem comercializada.Eugenia neonitida, Sobral (Myrtaceae occurs naturally in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. Generally, it is a shrub, but it can reach up to 2,5m of height. It blooms from August to November and fructifies from October to December. Their fruits, popularly called "Pitangão", are oblong and during the maturation process the fruit color turns from green to bright yellow when ripe. They present a bittersweet taste and a pleasant fragrance, what makes much appreciated by local population. Analytical determinations revealed that 100g of pulp possess high concentration of