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Sample records for bitterling rhodeus amarus

  1. Molecular cytogenetic study of the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae).

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    Kirtiklis, Lech; Ocalewicz, Konrad; Wiechowska, Marzena; Boroń, Alicja; Hliwa, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The European bitterlings (Rhodeus amarus) from the Eastern locations were cytogenetically examined by conventional and molecular techniques. All analyzed individuals presented invariably the same chromosomal constitution of 2n = 48, with 8 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics + 20 subtelo-acrocentrics and C-banding positive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric regions in most of the chromosomes. Moreover, some of the chromosomes had short arms entirely built with heterochromatin. GC-rich Ag-NORs (nucleolus organizer regions) were located at the short arms of two submetacentric chromosomes, and the length polymorphism of these regions was found. Multiple location of 28S rDNA sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization signals was observed on the long and/or short arms of three submetacentric chromosomes including NOR regions and short arms of three to five acrocentric chromosomes in the studied fish. 5S rDNA sites were found on the short arms of two subtelocentric chromosomes, and telomeric repeats were localized at the ends of all chromosomes. Provided results have expanded our knowledge concerning genetic characteristics of the European bitterlings that may be profitable in the conservation programs of this endangered species.

  2. Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus).

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    Reichard, Martin; Ondracková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, Carl; Bryja, Josef

    2009-02-01

    The spatial distribution of breeding resources can have pronounced demographic and evolutionary consequences. We used 20 experimental groups of the bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), an annual fish with a promiscuous, resource-based mating system, and extended breeding season to investigate how the spatial distribution (clumped or regular) of bitterling oviposition sites (live freshwater mussels) affected offspring production, variation in reproductive success, and directional selection on phenotypic traits over their entire reproductive lifetime. We did not detect any effect of resource distribution on offspring production or variation in reproductive success among individual fish, although variation between replicates was higher with a clumped distribution. This finding is discussed with regard to the incidence of alternative mating behaviors (sneaking) within the limitations imposed by our experimental design. Breeding resource distribution had a significant effect on selection on male phenotypic traits. Stronger directional selection on traits associated with intrasexual competition for fertilizations, gonad mass (an indicator of sperm competition), and the extent of red, carotenoid-based pigment in the iris (an index of dominance status), was detected with a clumped resource distribution. With a regular resource distribution, a stronger positive selection on male body size was detected. We discuss the implications of our results for natural populations.

  3. Females solicit sneakers to improve fertilization success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus sericeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl; Reichard, Martin

    2005-08-22

    In most species there is greater variance in reproductive fitness among males than females. A consequence is the evolution of alternative male mating tactics, including sneaking behaviour whereby males attempt to mate with females courted by other males, which could undermine female choice. In bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus), fish that lay their eggs on the gills of living freshwater mussels, sneaking is common and successful. Here we show that female bitterling can significantly improve their fertility with an increase in the number of spawning partners. Females perform conspicuous behaviours associated with spawning more frequently close to sneakers, and spawn more eggs close to high-quality sneakers. This is the first time that females have been shown to engage in behaviour that increases the probability of sneaking, and raises the possibility of a sexual conflict over the number and source of ejaculates during spawning in this species.

  4. Detailed genetic structure of European bitterling populations in Central Europe

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    Veronika Bartáková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus is a small cyprinid fish whose populations declined markedly between 1950 and 1980. However, its range currently expands, partly due to human-assisted introductions. We determined the genetic variability and detailed spatial structure among bitterling populations in Central Europe and tested alternative hypotheses about colonization of this area. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci on a large sample of 688 individuals had been used to analyse genetic variability and population structure. Samples originated from 27 localities with emphasis on area of the Czech Republic where three major sea drainages (Black, Baltic, and Northern Sea meet. Highly variable level of intrapopulation genetic variability had generally been detected and a recent decrease in numbers (“bottleneck” had been indicated by genetic data among six populations. High level of interpopulation differentiation was identified even within the basins. There was a significant role of genetic drift and indications of low dispersal ability of R. amarus. Surprisingly, the Odra River was inhabited by two distinct populations without any genetic signatures of a secondary contact. Czech part of the Odra (Baltic basin was colonized from the Danubian refugium (similarly to adjacent Danubian basin rivers including the Morava, while Polish part of the Odra was genetically similar to the populations in the Vistula River (Baltic basin, that has been colonized by a different (Eastern phylogeographic lineage of R. amarus. Most Czech R. amarus populations were colonized from the Danubian refugium, suggesting potential for a human-mediated colonization of the Odra or Elbe Rivers by R. amarus. One Elbe basin population was genetically mixed from the two (Danubian and Eastern phylogeographic lineages. In general the Czech populations of R. amarus were genetically stable except for a single population which has probably been recently introduced. This research

  5. Molecular organization of 5S rDNA in bitterlings (Cyprinidae).

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    Fujiwara, Mika; Inafuku, Junya; Takeda, Akiko; Watanabe, Akiko; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kohno, Sei-Ichi; Kubota, Souichirou

    2009-04-01

    Molecular organization and nucleotide sequences of the 5S rRNA gene and NTS were investigated in freshwater fish, bitterlings (Acheilognathinae), including 10 species/subspecies of four genera, Acheilognathus, Pseudoperilampus, Rhodeus, and Tanakia, to understand the evolutionary trait of 5S rDNA arrays. Southern hybridization analysis revealed a general trend with tandem repeats of 5S rDNA in all the examined bitterlings. Sequence analysis demonstrated a conserved 120 bp sequence of the 5S rRNA gene and a short NTS of 56-67 bp with two distinct portions, a conserved (5'-flanking portion; at positions -1 to -38) and a variable part (3'-flanking portion), in 6 of 10 species/subspecies examined. The conserved NTS region was most likely an external promoter so far observed in various vertebrates, whereas the variable NTS region could be divided into two types due to its nucleotide polymorphisms. Molecular phylogeny using the 5S rRNA gene and NTS sequences suggested the occurrence of 5S rDNA duplication before speciation and a concerted evolution for the gene and conserved NTS regions, but a birth-and-death process to maintain the variable NTS region. Thus, the 5S rDNA in the examined bitterlings might have evolved under a mixed process of evolution.

  6. Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence.

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    Martin Reichard

    Full Text Available The role of genetic benefits in female mate choice remains a controversial aspect of sexual selection theory. In contrast to "good allele" models of sexual selection, "compatible allele" models of mate choice predict that females prefer mates with alleles complementary to their own rather than conferring additive effects. While correlative results suggest complementary genetic effects to be plausible, direct experimental evidence is scarce. A previous study on the Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus demonstrated a positive correlation between female mate choice, offspring growth and survival, and the functional dissimilarity between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC alleles of males and females. Here we directly tested whether females used cues associated with MHC genes to select genetically compatible males in an experimental framework. By sequentially pairing females with MHC similar and dissimilar males, based on a priori known MHC profiles, we showed that females discriminated between similar and dissimilar males and deposited significantly more eggs with MHC dissimilar males. Notably, the degree of dissimilarity was an important factor for female decision to mate, possibly indicating a potential threshold value of dissimilarity for decision making, or of an indirect effect of the MHC.

  7. A new species of Dactylogyrus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on an endangered freshwater fish, Rhodeus atremius atremius, endemic to Japan.

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    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    A new dactylogyrid monogenean Dactylogyrus bicorniculus sp. nov. is described from the gills of the kazetoge bitterling, Rhodeus atremius atremius (Jordan and Thompson, 1914), an endemic species in Japan, from Saga Prefecture, northern Kyūshū. D. bicorniculus sp. nov. resembles Dactylogyrus bicornis Malevitskaja, 1941 and Dactylogyrus lophogonus Zhang and Ji, 1980 because they have two common features, a large V-shaped ventral bar and well-developed second marginal hooks. However, the new species is distinguished from these congeners by a shorter penis and an accessory piece. A phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA shows that D. bicorniculus sp. nov. is a basal species with the T-shaped ventral bar in the genus. The new species has strict host-specificity to R. a. atremius, one of the endangered freshwater fishes in Japan, and may face the danger of co-extinction with its host.

  8. Plecospondylic spinal column in the eel Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1956-01-01

    Several cases of deformities in the spinal column were described in fishes, viz. lordosis in the bitterling Rhodeus amarus) by ROTH (1922), in the minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) by ROTH (1922), in the pike (Esox lucius) by ROTH (1922) and PLEHN (1924); kyphosis in the toothcarps (Cyprinodontidae) by

  9. Plecospondylic spinal column in the eel Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1956-01-01

    Several cases of deformities in the spinal column were described in fishes, viz. lordosis in the bitterling Rhodeus amarus) by ROTH (1922), in the minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) by ROTH (1922), in the pike (Esox lucius) by ROTH (1922) and PLEHN (1924); kyphosis in the toothcarps (Cyprinodontidae) by ROT

  10. Population-specific responses to an invasive species.

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    Reichard, Martin; Douda, Karel; Przybyłski, Mirosław; Popa, Oana P; Karbanová, Eva; Matasová, Klára; Rylková, Kateřina; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Smith, Carl

    2015-08-07

    Predicting the impacts of non-native species remains a challenge. As populations of a species are genetically and phenotypically variable, the impact of non-native species on local taxa could crucially depend on population-specific traits and adaptations of both native and non-native species. Bitterling fishes are brood parasites of unionid mussels and unionid mussels produce larvae that parasitize fishes. We used common garden experiments to measure three key elements in the bitterling-mussel association among two populations of an invasive mussel (Anodonta woodiana) and four populations of European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus). The impact of the invasive mussel varied between geographically distinct R. amarus lineages and between local populations within lineages. The capacity of parasitic larvae of the invasive mussel to exploit R. amarus was higher in a Danubian than in a Baltic R. amarus lineage and in allopatric than in sympatric R. amarus populations. Maladaptive oviposition by R. amarus into A. woodiana varied among populations, with significant population-specific consequences for R. amarus recruitment. We suggest that variation in coevolutionary states may predispose different populations to divergent responses. Given that coevolutionary relationships are ubiquitous, population-specific attributes of invasive and native populations may play a critical role in the outcome of invasion. We argue for a shift from a species-centred to population-centred perspective of the impacts of invasions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Subject and methods: In this experiment we have used in vitro human lymphocyte culture and in vivo bone ... Screening of compounds obtained from ... P. amarus treatment increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, like ...

  12. Evaluation of the antiamnesic effects of Phyllanthus amarus in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory. Phyllanhus amarus is commonly known as bhumi amla in India and is traditionally used since centuries in ayurveda medicine. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Phyllanhus amarus (PA) on cognitive functions and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Thre...

  13. DESIGN AND MICROBIAL SCREENING OF HERBAL OINTMENT OF Phyllanthus amarus

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    John A Avbunudiogb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Herbal medicines contribute in no small measure to health care the world over, especially for rural dwellers and developing countries. The extracts of Phyllanthus amarus have been reported to be medicinal. In this study, herbal ointment containing methanol extract of the aerial part of Phyllanthus amarus was formulated and evaluated for the pH and spreadability as well as its antimicrobial properties against some human pathogens: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergilus niger.Method: Pulverized dried leaves were extracted using methanol in ratio 1:4. Simple ointment BP was used as ointment base for dispersion of the plant extract. Parameters investigated include; spreadability, pH and zones of inhibition of extract and formulated ointment while chloramphenicol and fluconazole were used as controls.  The sensitivity of the organisms in ointment containing varying concentrations of the extract was also determined.Result: The pH of the ointment was 6.17 ± 0.9 and the spreadability was 120 ± 0.5. B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and staph aureus were susceptible to ointment containing 0.1% w/v and 0.15% w/v, while E. coli and A. niger were resistant. The organisms were all susceptible to the ointment containing 0.2% w/w P. amarus.Conclusion: P. amarus ointment has good antimicrobial properties and can be used for the treatment of wounds and skin infection caused by these organisms.

  14. Evaluation of the antiamnesic effects of Phyllanthus amarus in mice.

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    Hanumanthachar Joshi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory. Phyllanhus amarus is commonly known as bhumi amla in India and is traditionally used since centuries in ayurveda medicine. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Phyllanhus amarus (PA on cognitive functions and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. of aqueous extract of PA were administered for 8 successive days to both young and aged mice. PA (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores of young and older mice. PA also reversed successfully the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p. and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.. Interestingly, brain acetyl cholinesterase activity was also reduced. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity exhibited by PA in the present study. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to explore the therapeutic potential of PA in the management of patients with cognitive disorders.

  15. Evaluation of the antiamnesic effects of Phyllanthus amarus in mice

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    Hanumanthachar Joshi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory. Phyllanhus amarus is commonly known as bhumi amla in India and is traditionally used since centuries in ayurveda medicine. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Phyllanhus amarus (PA on cognitive functions and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. of aqueous extract of PA were administered for 8 successive days to both young and aged mice. PA (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores of young and older mice. PA also reversed successfully the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p. and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.. Interestingly, brain acetyl cholinesterase activity was also reduced. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity exhibited by PA in the present study. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to explore the therapeutic potential of PA in the management of patients with cognitive disorders.

  16. Final Critical Habitat for the Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus)

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) occur. The geographic extent...

  17. Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Crude Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus

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    Van Tang Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol (PAM extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40% and water activity (0.24 and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents per g dried extract, respectively than those of the P. amarus water (PAW extract. The antioxidant activity of PAM extract was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that of the PAW extract, PAM fractions, and phyllanthin (known as a major compound in the P. amarus. Higher cytotoxic activity of PAM extract based on MTT assay on different cell lines including MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas, HT29 (colon, A2780 (ovarian, H460 (lung, A431 (skin, Du145 (prostate, BE2-C (neuroblastoma, MCF-7 (breast, MCF-10A (normal breast, and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma was observed in comparison to the PAW extract and PAM fractions. The cytotoxic potential of the PAW extract (200 μg/mL, based on the CCK-8 assay on a pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaCaPa2 was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than those of gemcitabine (50 nM and a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark at 200 μg/mL (a commercial product, but was significantly higher than that of phyllanthin at 2 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results achieved from this study reveal that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs.

  18. Immobilization mediated enhancement of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin from Phyllanthus amarus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.S.Thakur; R.K.Agarwal; M.D.Kharya

    2012-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus plant is used in the traditional system of medicine as a hepatoprotective drug for which the major lignans phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin are responsible.So far,no significant work has been done on the culture of this plant.Realizing the hepatoprotective potential,the present investigation was undertaken.A cost effective process was developed for enhancing phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin utilizing the immobilization technique.HPTLC was used to compare the phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin contents in calcium alginate immobilized cells obtained from fresh grown plants and MS medium was supplemented with different abiotic elicitors,under aseptic conditions for the treatment with chitosan,copper sulphate,phenylalanine and silver nitrate solution to make the whole process commercially viable.It was revealed that silver nitrate and phenylalanine at low concentration enhances phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin yield as compared to control immobilized cell culture.The study revealed that an increase in the content of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin was elicitor concentration dependent and silver nitrate treatment gave a maximum yield of hepatoprotective bioactives as compared to the other abiotic elicitors used.

  19. ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN AZASERINE INDUCED PANCREATIC CANCER OF WISTAR RATS

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    Ankit Prajapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from transformed cells arising in tissues forming the pancreas. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is adeno-carcinoma. The present experiment was carried out to study histopathological changes occur in pancreas in different groups of azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats with and without the treatment of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Phyllanthus amarus at different doses. Histopathological examination of pancreas of untreated group of rats showed hyperplasia of pancreatic duct, necrosis, fatty changes, haemorrhages between pancreatic cells. The rats treated with Phyllanthus amarus extracts showed no pathological lesions.

  20. Cytotoxic Lignan from the Non-Transformed Root Culture of Phyllanthus amarus

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    Barbara Sparzak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new lignan from the non-transformed root in vitro cultures of Phyllanthus amarus was isolated. The structure of the compound was established on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR, as well as mass spectrometry data, as 7'-oxocubebin dimethylether (1,4-bis(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl-2,3-bis(methoxymethylbutan-1-on. The non-transformed root cultures of P. amarus showed to be a selective source of this compound. The lignan revealed strong cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell line with an IC50 value of 3.8 µg/mL.

  1. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect and inorganic constituents of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. ash

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    Malinee Wongnawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the -glucosidase inhibitory effect and determined the concentration of some inorganic constituents in P. amarus ash. Oral glucose and sucrose tolerance test were performed on normal mice. In vitro -glucosidase inhibitory activity was evaluated by using yeast a-glucosidase. The element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectroscopy. Single oral administration of P. amarus ash did not show antihyperglycemic effect after glucose administration, but decreased blood glucose level after sucrose administration. The ash showed -glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro with IC50 of 982 mg/mL. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Co in P. amarus ash were 35049.80±340.64, 3337.24±52.10, 1368.52±13.29, 90.81±1.34, 87.68±1.15, 18.28±0.22, 4.69±0.07, 1.07±0.15, 0.29±0.03, 0.20±0.04 and 0.10±0.02 mg/g, respectively. These results indicate that the antihyperglycemic effect of P. amarus ash might be partly due to the -glucosidase inhibitory activity of the inorganic constituents.

  2. Determination of antimicrobial potentialities of different solvent extracts of the medicinal plant: Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn.

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    Antara Sen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial efficiency of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn., medicinal plants (leaf extracts, was examined using Methanol, Ethanol, Petroleum ether. and water, as solvents and tested against eight human pathogens like Bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Fungi: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxisporum, and Rhizopus stolonifer, using the agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration. All the plants showed significant activity against all pathogens, but the alcoholic extract of P. amarus showed the maximum zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration against all the microorganisms. The minimum zone of inhibition and comparatively greater inhibitory concentration were determined in petroleum ether, and the aqueous extract of P. amarus showed less antimicrobial activity against all the experimental strains. The alcoholic extracts of these plants could be a possible source of obtaining new and effective herbal medicines to treat infections, hence, it justified the ethnic use of P. amarus against various infectious diseases.

  3. Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in vitro studies against Aflatoxin B1 toxicity

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    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Ameliorating potential of P. amarus was dose and duration dependant. These extracts significantly reduced the mutagenicity and genotoxicity that were produced due to AFB1 treatment both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and characterization of phenolic constituents of Phyllanthus amarus root.

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    Maity, Soumya; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad Shekhar; Sharma, Arun; Adhikari, Soumyakanti; Mazumder, Santasree

    2013-04-10

    The antioxidant property of the 70% aqueous ethanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus roots and its ether-soluble, ethyl acetate-soluble, and aqueous fractions were investigated by various in vitro assays. The root extracts showed higher DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging and reducing power activity. Among all the samples, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction demonstrated highest radical scavenging activity and total phenolics content. Twenty-eight different phenolic compounds were identified by LCMS/MS analysis of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. The majority of the compounds were found to exist as their glycosides, and many of these were gallic acid derivatives. Free epicatechin and gallic acid were also identified in the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. The present investigation suggested that P. amarus root is a potent antioxidant and can be used for the prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress.

  5. ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN AZASERINE INDUCED PANCREATIC CANCER OF WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Ankit Prajapati; Sunant Raval; TapanVaria

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from transformed cells arising in tissues forming the pancreas. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is adeno-carcinoma. The present experiment was carried out to study histopathological changes occur in pancreas in different groups of azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats with and without the treatment of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Phyllanthus amarus at different doses. Histopathological examination of ...

  6. Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on serum biochemical changes in azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, Ankit S.; Raval, Sunant K; Suprita Sinha; Varia, Tapan N.; Mashiyava, Parimal H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on serum biochemical changes in azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Pancreatic cancer was developed in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of azaserine (cancer inducer) for 21 days at the concentration of 5 mg/kg body weight. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were given to rats of different groups as per protocol. Results: The results data revealed that o...

  7. Nanosuspension of Phyllanthus amarus extract for improving oral bioavailability and prevention of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Bhushan Mishra, Shanti; Pandey, Himanshu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2013-09-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) is commonly used for traditional Indian medicine and as dietary adjuncts for the treatment of numerous physiological disorders including hepatic disorders. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as lignans and flavonoids, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of P. amarus (PAE) and its nanoparticles (PAN) on paracetamol induced acute liver toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. An oral dose of PAE at 125 and 250 mg kg-1 and PAN at 25 and 50 mg kg-1 showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other poorly water soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  8. Authenticity analyses of Phyllanthus amarus using barcoding coupled with HRM analysis to control its quality for medicinal plant product.

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    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; Chomdej, Siriwadee; Ongchai, Siriwan

    2015-11-15

    The Phyllanthus genus, a plant used in traditional Thai medicine, has according to several pharmacopeias hepatoprotective properties. Not only is the anatomical morphology of these species relatively similar but they also share the Thai common names Look-Tai-Bai (ลูกใต้ใบ) and Yah-Tai-Bai (หญ้าใต้ใบ), which might cause confusion for laypersons. This study attempted to develop a method for accurate identification of Phyllanthus species, especially Phyllanthus amarus, and to detect contaminants in P. amarus products by using DNA barcoding coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis (bar-HRM). Two plastid loci (rbcL and trnL) were chosen for DNA barcoding to generate a suitable primer for distinguishing Phyllanthus species by HRM analysis. The five species of Phyllanthus were subjected to amplification for testing the specificity and discrimination power of the designed primers derived from rbcL and trnL regions. Sensitivity of the method (DNA barcoding conjugated with HRM) to detect adulterant in P. amarus samples was evaluated. The commercial P. amarus products obtained from a local market were authenticated. The primer pair derived from trnL DNA barcoding (PhylltrnL) had more specificity and power of discrimination for Phyllanthus species than that derived from rbcL DNA barcoding (PhyllrbcL). The result showed that Tm of P. amarus, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus airy-shawii, and Phyllanthus virgatus was 74.3±0.08, 73.04±0.07, 73.36±0.05, 72.21±0.06, 72.77±0.15°C, respectively. This method proved to be a very sensitive tool that can be used for rapid detection of contamination as low as 1% of other Phyllanthus species in P. amarus admixtures. All commercial products of P. amarus obtained from a local market in Thailand were found to contain pure raw materials of P. amarus without any substitution or contamination. Our results indicated that the use of DNA barcoding coupled with HRM was an

  9. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY POTENTIAL OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN LABEO ROHITA INFECTED WITH AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA: HAEMATOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

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    T.Annalakshmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreak of disease is an important limiting factor in aquaculture. Incorporation of herbal immunostimulants in diet is one of the widely followed methods to improve the general resistance in fish. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the Immunostimulatory potential of the medicinal herb Phyllanthus amarus in fish. The experiment was carried out in two sets. In experiment-I, one group of Labeo rohita was fed with control diet (‘C’ diet and the other group was fed with Phyllanthus amarus incorporated diet (‘P’ diet for 14 days and the haematological parameters were analysed on 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day of the experiment. Significant increase in Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC, Haemoglobin (Hb g%, Total Leucocyte Count (TLC, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils were observed in ‘P’ diet fed fishes with increase in the duration of the experiment. As there is positive response in the first experiment hence experiment-II was carried out. In experiment-II, One group of Labeo rohita were fed with ‘C’ diet and other group received ‘P’ diet for 14 days, post-infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and haematological parameters were analyzed on 1st, 3rd, 7th & 14th days after infection. Significant increase in TEC, Hb, TLC, lymphocytes and a steady population of monocytes and neutrophils were observed in ‘P’ diet fed fishes. On the other hand basophils and eosinophil count exhibited a fluctuating trend. Thus dietary incorporation of Phyllanthus amarus helps to improve the general health and resistance of the fish.

  10. Antimicrobial effects of Piper guineense 'Uziza' and Phyllantus amarus 'Ebe-benizo' on Candida albicans and Streptococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigbo, R N; Igwe, D I

    2007-12-01

    Two pathogens were employed, Streptococcus faecalis and Candida albicans for the study of the antimicrobial effects of Piper guineense and Phyllantus amarus using agar-well diffusion and disc-diffusion methods. Phytochemical screening of ethanol, cold and hot water extracts detected the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and phlobatannins. Antimicrobial effect of the plant extracts showed that the organic solvent and aqueous solvents of P. amarus were inhibitory to S. faecalis while the extracts of Phyllantus amarus were not inhibitory to Candida albicans. Agar-well determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values ranged between 3.125 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml while the disc diffusion determined MIC values ranged between 6.25 mg/ml and 25.0 mg/ml. The agar-well determined MIC values for the ethanolic P. amarus extracts (3.12 mg/ml) were lower than the corresponding disc-diffusion MIC determined values (6.25 mg/ml-25.00 mg/ml). Bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic effect varied with, solvent type of extract, concentration of the plant extract and the method of the test adopted. The active components of the plant have no antifungal effect on the tested yeast (Candida albicans). These findings are discussed in relation to plant chemicals as a means of disease control and also to the problem of microbial resistance to synthetic drugs.

  11. Nanoemulsified ethanolic extract of Pyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn ameliorates CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, V; Sridhar, R; Goparaju, A; Reddy, P Neelakanta; Murthy, P Balakrishna

    2012-11-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (PA) is commonly used in traditional medicine for hepatoprotectivity. The major limitation is that, treatment requires a large quantity of herbal extract for a longer duration. Aim of the present study was to encapsulate ethanolic plant extract for sustained release of constituents in intestine and facilitate maximum absorption. The efficacy was compared for the hepatoprotective activity of nanoencapsulated ethanolic extract of P. amarus (NPA) and PA in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxic male rats. Based on total phenol content (TPC), the loading efficiency of nanocapsules was 89% (pH 7.0) and optimum concentration was 2:18 (mg/mL) for plant extract: olive oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a spherical morphology, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) identified mean particle diameter as 213 nm and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that the phytoconstituents were stable. An oral dose of NPA (20 mg/kg body wt.) showed a better hepatoprotective activity than PA (100 mg/kg body wt.) and also repeated dose oral toxicity proved to be safe. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat biopsy examinations. In conclusion, the nanoemulsification method may be applied for poor water-soluble ethanolic herbal extracts to reduce the dosage and time.

  12. Evaluation of Inhibitory Effect of the Plant Phyllanthus amarus Against Dermatophytic Fungi Microsporum gypseum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANURAG AGRAWAL; SHALINI SRIVASTAVA; J. N. SRIVASTAVA; M. M. SRIVASAVA

    2004-01-01

    The antifungal activity of various solvent extracts (such as ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol) of the plant Phyllanthus amarus against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum was observed. Method Antifungal bioassay in terms of reduction in weight, colony diameter and sporulation of the target fungal colony was carried out using Broth Dilution method. Results Root part of the plant, extracted in various organic solvents did not show any noticeable antifungal activity. The percentage inhibition observed in different solvent extracts of aerial part was found as reduction in weight: chloroform [50.3%], ethyl acetate [27.7%] and ethyl alcohol [12.1%], reduction in colony diameter: chloroform [53.4%], ethyl acetate [31.4%] and ethyl alcohol [15.0%] and reduction in sporulation: maximum inhibition in chloroform extract, at test concentration of 4000 ppm at incubation period of 8 days. Conclusion Chloroform fraction of the aerial part of the plant P. amarus shows significant inhibitory effect against dermatophytic fungi M. gypseum and requires chemical characterization for its bioactive principle.

  13. In vitro antibacterial efficacy of crude ethanolic leaf extract and alkaloidal fractions of phyllanthus amarus on URO-pathogens

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    Olajide Joseph Akinjogunla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemistry and in vitro antibacterial efficacy of crude ethanolic leaf extract and alkaloidal fractions of Phyllanthus amarus on the Gram positive (Streptococcus sp, Staphylococcus aureus; Coagulase negative Staphylococcus sp and Enterococcus faecalis and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sp.; Serratia marcescens; Klebsiella sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from mid stream urine were carried out using standard microbiological and disc diffusion techniques. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic leaf extracts of P. amarus revealed the presence of phyto-constituents such as alkaloids (+++, tannins (+++, saponins (++, flavonoids (++, cardiac glycoside (+, free anthraquinones (++, deoxy-Sugar test (+ and phlobatanins (+, while combined anthraquinones was not detected. The results showed that P. amarus extracts exhibited varying degrees of inhibitory effects against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated from urine samples. Highest mean zones of inhibition (14.3+1.0 mm and activity index (0.97 were obtained at 40.0mgml-1 among the Gram positive bacteria, while the highest mean zones of inhibition (14.5 + 0.5mm and activity index (1.12 at 40.0mgml-1 were obtained among the Gram negative. The results also showed that Coagulase negative Staphylococcus sp (CS03 was not sensitive to both 20.0mg/ml-1 of crude extracts of P. amarus and alkaloidal fractions. Among the Gram negative, Enterobacter sp (ES03 was not sensitive to 20.0mg/ml-1 of crude extracts of P. amarus, alkaloidal fractions and Streptomycin. Therefore, there is a need to consider the use of this potent ethanolic leaf extracts and the alkaloids for developing synthetic drugs against uro-pathogens.

  14. Sequencing, de novo assembly, functional annotation and analysis of Phyllanthus amarus leaf transcriptome using the Illumina platform

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    Aparupa eBose Mazumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn., a widely distributed annual medicinal herb has a long history of use in the traditional system of medicine for over 2000 years. However, the lack of genomic data for P. amarus, a non-model organism hinders research at the molecular level. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing technology has been employed to enhance better understanding of this herb and provide comprehensive genomic information for future work. Here P. amarus leaf transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina Miseq platform. We assembled 85,927 non-redundant unitranscript sequences with an average length of 1548 bp, from 18,060,997 raw reads. Sequence similarity analyses and annotation of these unitranscripts were performed against databases like green plants non-redundant (nr protein database, Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG, PlnTFDB, KEGG databases. As a result, 69,394 GO terms, 583 enzyme codes, 134 KEGG maps and 59 Transcription Factor families were generated. Functional and comparative analyses of assembled unitranscripts were also performed with the most closely related species like Populus trichocarpa and Ricinus communis using TRAPID. KEGG analysis showed that a number of assembled unitranscripts were involved in secondary metabolites, mainly phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, terpenoids, alkaloids and lignan biosynthetic pathways that have significant medicinal attributes. Further, Fragments Per Kilobase of transcript per Million mapped reads (FPKM values of the identified secondary metabolite pathway genes were determined and Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR of few of these genes were performed to validate the de novo assembled leaf transcriptome dataset. In addition 65,273 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were also identified. To the best of our knowledge this is the first transcriptomic dataset of P. amarus till date. Our study provides the largest genetic resource that will lead to drug development and

  15. Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats

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    Ilangkovan M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Menaga Ilangkovan, Ibrahim Jantan, Mohamed Ahmed Mesaik, Syed Nasir Abbas BukhariDrug and Herbal Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05. Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A–stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01, there was a significant decrease in the (% expression of CD4+ and CD8+ in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T

  16. The antiplasmodial effect of the extracts and formulated capsules of Phyllanthus amarus onPlasmodium yoelii infection in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tolulope O Ajala; Cecilia I Igwilo; Ibrahim A Oreagba; Oluwatoyin A Odeku

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antiplasmodial activity of the extracts ofPhyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) onPlasmodium yoelii (P. yoelii) (a resistant malaria parasite strain used in animal studies) infection in mice.Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the whole plant of Phyllanthus amarus was administered to Swiss albino mice at doses of200 mg/kg/day,400 mg/kg/day,800 mg/kg/day and1 600 mg/kg/day and the prophylactic and chemotherapeutic effect of the extracts againstP. yoelii infection in mice was investigated and compared with those of standard antimalaria drugs used in the treatment of malaria parasite infection. Acute toxicity test was carried out in mice to determine the safety of the plant extract when administered orally. Results: The results showed that the extracts demonstrated a dose-dependent prophylactic and chemotherapeutic activity with the aqueous extracts showing slightly higher effect than the ethanol extract. The antiplasmodial effects of the extracts were comparable to the standard prophylactic and chemotherapeutic drugs used in chloroquine resistantPlasmodium infection although the activity depended on the dose of the extract administered. The extracts showed prophylactic effect by significantly delaying the onset of infection with the suppression of79%at a dose of 1 600mg/kg/day.Conclusions: The results obtained indicate that the extracts of the whole plant ofP. amaruspossess repository and chemotherapeutic effects against resistant strains ofP. yoelii in Swiss albino mice. The findings justify the use of the extract ofP. amarus in traditional medicine practice, for the treatment of malaria infections.

  17. Molecular and Functional Analyses of the Fast Skeletal Myosin Light Chain2 Gene of the Korean Oily Bitterling, Acheilognathus koreensis

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    Hyun Kook Cho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We identified and characterized the primary structure of the Korean oily bitterling Acheilognathus koreensis fast skeletal myosin light chain 2 (Akmlc2f, gene. Encoded by seven exons spanning 3955 bp, the deduced 168-amino acid AkMLC2f polypeptide contained an EF-hand calcium-binding motif and showed strong homology (80%–98% with the MLC2 proteins of Ictalurus punctatus and other species, including mammals. Akmlc2f mRNA was highly enriched in skeletal muscles, and was detectable in other tissues. The upstream regions of Akmlc2f included a TATA box, one copy of a putative MEF-2 binding site and several putative C/EBPβ binding sites. The functional activity of the promoter region of Akmlc2f was examined using luciferase and red fluorescent protein reporters. The Akmlc2f promoter-driven reporter expressions were detected and increased by the C/EBPβ transcription factor in HEK293T cells. The activity of the promoter of Akmlc2f was also confirmed in the developing zebrafish embryo. Although the detailed mechanism underlying the expression of Akmlc2f remains unknown, these results suggest the muscle-specific expression of Akmlc2f transcript and the functional activation of Akmlc2f promoter by C/EBPβ.

  18. Natural habitats uncovered? – Genetic structure of known and newly found localities of the endangered bitterling Pseudorhodeus tanago (Cyprinidae

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    Kenji Saitoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Overuse of natural resources by humans is a major threat to biodiversity. Overuse often involves species of economic or esthetic value, and fish are a typical example for a group that is exploited both for economic reasons (for human consumption and for esthetic reasons (e.g. by aquarists. Pseudorhodeus tanago (Tanaka, 1909 (formerly known as Tanakia tanago is a small colorful but legally protected (fishing, keeping and transfer are banned bitterling fish distributed around Tokyo, Japan. Whereas it is critically endangered and more and more habitat loss has occurred, at least four stocks have been newly found during the last decade. To explore whether emergence of these newly found habitats is a consequence of incomplete survey, we genotyped mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence of P. tanago from 17 localities and an illegal home aquarium. Populations known by the past extensive survey (13 localities showed geographically structured population genetic characteristics. Population-specific haplotypes were common indicating past divergence and bottleneck events. Four (north, {center + west}, south_1, south_2 or five (north, center, west, south_1, south_2 geographic groups were detectable as for these known localities. On the other hand, newly found stocks were polymorphic and showed identical haplotypes from distant known localities. If we assume historical basis of distribution and genetic characteristics of these newly found stocks, it must be a series of unlikely geological events and haplotype sorting. We discuss potential issues posed by these questionable stocks.

  19. [Response of fine root decomposition to simulated nitrogen deposition in Pleioblastus amarus plantation, rainy area of West China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-Hua; Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Hu, Hong-Ling; Hu, Ting-Xing; Zhang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    As an important contributor to carbon (C) flux in the global C cycle, fine root litter decomposition in forests has the potential to be affected by the elevated nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. From November 2007 to January 2013, a field experiment involving monthly simulated deposition of N in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation was conducted in the Rainy Area of West China. Four levels of nitrogen deposition were included as control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), low nitrogen (5 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), medium nitrogen (15 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)) and high nitrogen (30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)). After 3 years of simulated N deposition experiment (January 2011) , a two-year fine root decomposition experiment was conducted in the simulated N deposition plots using litterbag method, under monthly experimental N deposition. The decomposition rates of fine roots were fast first and then slow. Mass loss of fine roots in the first year of decomposition was up to 60%, and the change of the remaining mass was very slow in the second year. The time of 50% and 95% mass loss of fine roots was 1.20 and 5.17 years, respectively, under the conditions of no addition N input. In general, decomposition rates were underestimated using negative exponential model. Simulated N deposition significantly inhibited the decomposition of fine roots. The remaining mass in the high nitrogen treatment was 51.0% higher than that in the control, after two years of decomposition. Simulated N deposition increased C, P and K contents in the remaining mass of litter. Compared with the control, soil pH decreased significantly in the medium and high nitrogen treatments, soil organic C, total N, ammonium and nitrate contents and fine root biomass of P. amarus increased significantly in the high nitrogen treatment after simulated N deposition for 4. 5 years. Key words: nitrogen deposition; fine root decomposition; Pleioblastus amarus.

  20. The protective potential and possible mechanism of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. aqueous extract on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Apichat Muso

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective potential of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. was studied on paracetamolinduced hepatotoxicity in rats by measuring the levels of serum transaminase (SGOT and SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin, as well as by histopathological examination of the liver. Furthermore, the hepatoprotective mechanisms were investigated by determining the amount of paracetamol and its metabolites (glucuronide, sulfate, cysteine and mercapturic acid conjugates in urine and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time to indicate the inhibition on cytochrome P450. The involvement of glutathione was evaluated by determining hepatic reduced glutathione. Its radical scavenging activity, iron chelating activity and total phenolic content were also determined. P. amarus aqueous extracts (0.8, 1.6 or 3.2 g/kg were orally administered twice daily for 7 days prior, for 2 days after, or for 7 days prior and followed by 2 days after a single oral dose of paracetamol (3 g/kg. The results showed that the extract at the doses of 1.6 and 3.2 g/kg decreased the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by the decrease in SGOT, SGPT, bilirubin and histopathological score while the ALP did not change. Moreover, it is suggested that the hepatoprotective mechanism of this plant was related neither to the inhibition on cytochrome P450, nor to the induction on sulfate and/or glucuronide conjugation pathways of paracetamol, but partly due to the protective effect on the depletion of hepatic reduced glutathione and also its antioxidant activity, especially the radical scavenging and iron chelating activity, which might be related to the high polyphenolic contents. These results support the value of P. amarus, which has been used in Thai folk medicine for the treatment of liver diseases.

  1. Antioxidant effect of Phyllanthus amarus after moderate-intensity exercise in sedentary males: a randomized crossover (double-blind) study

    OpenAIRE

    Roengrit, Thapanee; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Prasertsri, Piyapong; Kanpetta, Yupaporn; Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Leelayuwat, Naruemon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We aimed to evaluate the effects of Phyllanthus amarus (PA) on oxidative stress and damage, inflammation, and soreness in muscle after a single session of moderate-intensity exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve men randomly participated in 2, three-day phases with a one-week washout period. On the first day, participants consumed two capsules of PA or placebo control (CTL) before 20 min of cycling. They then consumed four capsules on the same day after exercise and six capsules/d...

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Standardized Extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and Their Marker Compounds on Phagocytic Activity of Human Neutrophils

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    Yuandani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The standardized methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria, collected from Malaysia and Indonesia, and their isolated chemical markers, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin, were evaluated for their effects on the chemotaxis, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. All the plant extracts strongly inhibited the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs with the Malaysian P. amarus showing the strongest inhibitory activity (IC50 value, 1.1 µg/mL. There was moderate inhibition by the extracts of the bacteria engulfment by the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus exhibiting the highest inhibition (50.8% of phagocytizing cells. The Malaysian P. amarus and P. urinaria showed strong reactive oxygen species (ROS inhibitory activity, with both extracts exhibiting IC50 value of 0.7 µg/mL. Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin exhibited relatively strong activity against PMNs chemotaxis, with IC50 values slightly lower than that of ibuprofen (1.4 µg/mL. Phyllanthin exhibited strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst with an IC50 value comparable to that of aspirin (1.9 µg/mL. Phyllanthin exhibited strong engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1% for neutrophils and monocytes, respectively. The strong inhibitory activity of the extracts was due to the presence of high amounts of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin although other constituents may also contribute.

  3. Pain Modulation by Lignans (Phyllanthin and Hypophyllanthin) and Tannin (Corilagin) Rich Extracts of Phyllanthus amarus in Carrageenan-induced Thermal and Mechanical Chronic Muscle Hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopade, Atul R; Sayyad, F J

    2015-08-01

    The current study was aimed at evaluating the antihyperalgesic effects of lignans (phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin) and tannin (corilagin) rich three standardized extracts of Phyllanthus amarus in a model of chronic musculoskeletal inflammatory pain. Three percent carrageenan injected in the gastrocnemius muscle produced hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli ipsilaterally, which spreads to the contralateral side within 7 to 9 days. To investigate the effects on chronic thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity, three extracts of P. amarus in three doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) were administered to animals intraperitoneally from 14th day to 22nd day after intramuscular injection of carrageenan. It was observed that intraperitoneal administrations of Phyllanthus extracts showed antihyperalgesic activity, as they elevated thermal and mechanical threshold, which was supported by histopathological observations along with reduction in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration. In conclusion, we strongly suggest that the observed antihyperalgesic and antiinflammatory effects of P. amarus in current pain model are mediated via spinal or supraspinal neuronal mechanisms, mainly by inhibition of PGE2. Modulation of chronic muscular inflammation may be due to presence of phytoconstituents like phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, and corilagin, which offers a promising means for treatment of chronic muscle pain.

  4. Fish fauna of the lower reaches of the River Drava and surrounding marshland habitats near Donji Miholjac (Eastern Croatia

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    Marko Ćaleta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field research of ichthyofauna of the lower reaches of the River Drava near Donji Miholjac was made during 2006 using fishing nets and electrofisher. Additional data was collected from the local anglers to present all caught species in this area. Sampling was conducted on all types of water habitats including side arms, artificial channels, backwater arms and the main river channel. A total of 44 fish species were reported. Six species were documented from the catch of local anglers. The family Cyprinidae is represented by 24 species, Percidae by 4, Cobitidae by 3, Gobiidae and Centrarchidae by 2, while the remaining families were represented by 1 species. The most abundant species in this part of the River Drava is roach (Rutilus rutilus. The largest part of total biomass belongs to bream (Abramis brama. Other important species according to abundance in the examined area are: bitterling (Rhodeus amarus, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus. According to the ichthyofauna composition, the explored area is classified as a typical bream zone which is characteristic for the lower part of the river.

  5. NEW DESIGN FOR AIRLIFT PUMP USED IN FISH CULTURE TANKS WITH THE ENDANGERED RIO GRANDE SILVERY MINNOW (Hybognathus amarus

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    Alison M. Hutson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an airlift pump used to produce a circular flow in a fish culture tank that does not attach to the tank. The design produces an airlift pump that does not swing back and forth or float upwards while in use. It is easy to build, inexpensive, and can be quickly installed and removed so that it does not interfere with sampling or harvest. The airlift pump was evaluated during a 30-d survival trial with the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus in 2.44-m-diameter circular tanks (3,666 l. Because the fish is endangered, all new culture units must be evaluated in a survival trial. To be able to use a new 15-tank system, survival had to be evaluated in a random representation of three tanks. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which regulates all activities with this endangered species, decided that permitted take (maximum permitted mortality was 60% for the survival trial; consequently, survival >40% in each tank would be considered successful. Two airlift pumps were placed in each tank. The two airlift pumps moved a mean±SD of 33.697±5.563 l/min; this produced total tank turnovers through the airlift pumps of 110.65±16.93 min. Water velocities were measured at nine locations in the tanks. Water velocities were 0.0-0.04 m/sec. Dissolved oxygen concentration never went below 6.30 mg/l. The airlift pumps operated flawlessly and required no maintenance. They produced water velocities preferred by the fish and helped keep dissolved oxygen concentration above the permitted minimum (5 mg/l. The airlift pumps will be used in future fish culture activities in these and other tanks. Survival in the three tanks was 78%, 94% and 96%; overall survival was 89.3%. Because take (10.7% was under the permitted level (60%, the trial was successful.

  6. Cardioprotective effect of Phyllanthus amarus against high fructose diet induced myocardial and aortic stress in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putakala, Mallaiah; Gujjala, Sudhakara; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Bongu, Sasi Bhusana Rao; Chintakunta, Nagaraju; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2017-09-19

    Increased number of population with heart stroke/attack is attributed to sedentary lifestyle and consumption of high-sugar diets, especially fructose. The objective of this study is to investigate the cardio-protective activity of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PAAE) against high-fructose (HF) diet induced cardiac damage in Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into five groups of six animals each: Control (C), Control treated with PAAE (C+PAAE), High fructose diet fed (F), High fructose diet fed treated with PAAE (F+PAAE) and High fructose diet fed treated with Pioglitazone (F+Pio). PAAE was orally administered at a dosage of 200mg/kg body weight/day to C+PAAE and F+PAAE group rats for 60days. Pioglitazone (10mg/kg body weight/day) was used to compare the efficacy of PAAE. After 60days, heart and aorta samples were collected for biochemical and histological analysis. Co-administration of PAAE along with HF-diet for 60days prevented the increase in levels of cardiac and aortic lipids i.e., total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol and free fatty acids and decreased phospholipids. Further, enhanced activities of cardiac aldose reductase (15.3%) and sorbital dehydrogenase (6.9%) and decreased activity of creatine kinase (35.6%) in group-F were also prevented by PAAE treatment with the recovery of 126% for AR, 122% for SDH and 118% for CK. PAAE treatment showed protection from HF-diet induced increase in stress markers (LPO and PO), decreased non-enzymatic (GSH and Vit-C) and enzymatic (GR, GPx, GST, SOD, and CAT) antioxidants in the heart and aorta. Histopathological examination of the heart and aorta indicated that PAAE/Pio treatment reduced fat deposition and necrosis. The present study clearly indicates the cardio protection efficacy of PAAE against HF-diet induced oxidative stress in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Densidade de plantio e época de colheita no crescimento, produção e teor de filantina em Phyllanthus amarus

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Chrystian Iezid Maia e [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    O estudo foi realizado com a espécie Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonning. (Euphorbiaceae) também conhecido por “quebra-pedra”. Evidências científicas demonstram sua ação terapêutica contra a hepatite B, Aids e cálculos renais dentre outras. Atualmente a matéria, planta seca, é obtida via extrativismo com qualidade farmacológica e sanitária incerta. A ação contra cálculos renais é atribuída aos metabólitos presente no extrato aquoso das folhas, já a atividade antiviral é atribuída por algu...

  8. Patch Characteristics of Pleioblastus Amarus + H. compressa Restoration Mode and Interference Analysis%竹+草植被恢复模式斑块特点及其干扰分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学权

    2012-01-01

    苦竹+牛鞭草退耕种植5年后,苦竹与牛鞭草呈斑块分布状态.调查分析表明:牛鞭草中的苦竹斑块受人为影响较大,表现出斑块数量、斑块密度和边界密度均大于苦竹林中的牛鞭草斑块,斑块分维数则小于苦竹林中的牛鞭草斑块;而苦竹林中牛鞭草的生长受苦竹林所围成的斑块分维数、边界密度的增大和面积的减小影响逐渐消失;苦竹林中有牛鞭草分布的最小斑块面积在2.4~6.2m2之间,具体需视斑块分维数和边界密度大小而定.本调查分析在一定程度上可为现实的竹斑块、草斑块的经营管理布局提供参考.%Mter 5 years' growth of farmland planting for pleioblastus amarus + H. compressa,they take on patch distribution status. The investigated results show that pleioblastus amarus patches are greater influ- enced by human impact, of whose patch number, patch density as well as boundary density are all bigger than H. compressa patch in pleioblastus amarus jungle, while fractal dimension is smaller than that of grass patch in pleioblastus anaarus jungle. H. compressa in pleioblastus amarus jungle gradually disappear influ- enced by gradual increase of patch fractal dimension, boundary density and its decrease of area. The area of the smallest patch of the grass in pleioblastus amarus jungle is from 2.4m2 to 6.2m2 and the specific area depends on the specific patch fractal dimension and boundary density. This investigation is just a prelimi- nary discuss, which made a certain foundation for realization of operation, management and layout of the two to a certain extent.

  9. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on the fine root characteristics and soil respiration in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in rainy area of West China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-hua; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; He, Yuan-yang; Tian, Xiang-yu; Xiao, Yin-long

    2010-10-01

    Fine root is critical in the belowground carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystem. Aimed to understand the effects of nitrogen (N) deposition on the fine root characteristics and soil respiration in Pleioblastus amarus plantation, a two-year field experiment was conducted in the Rainy Area of West China. Four treatments with different levels of N deposition were installed, i. e., CK (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), low N (5 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), medium N (15 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), and high N (30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)). There were great differences in the biomass and element contents of Nitrogen deposition increased the biomass of deposition. The annual soil respiration rate in treatments CK, low N, medium N, and high N was (5.85 +/- 0.43), (6.48 +/- 0.71), (6.84 +/- 0.57), and (7.62 +/- 0.55) t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively, indicating that N deposition had obvious promotion effects on soil respiration. There were significant linear relationships between the annual soil respiration rate and the biomass and N content of deposition increased the fine root biomass and promoted the root metabolism, and stimulated the rhizospheric soil respiration rate via promoting microbial activities.

  10. Tree Growth and Litter Decomposition in a Mixed Plantation of Chinese Fir and Pleioblastus amarus%杉木苦竹混交林生长效应与凋落物分解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连华萍

    2014-01-01

    Tree growth,litter production and decomposition of a multi-storey mixed stand of Chinese fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata) and Pleioblastus amarus,developed from thinning a 10-year-old pure Chinese fir stand and retaining understorey species P.amarus, were studied in this article.Treatment SJK ( thinning a pure Chinese fir stand to density 900 stems· hm-2 and retaining understorey species P.amarus to density 6000 stems· hm-2 ) could develop obvious multi -storey crown,it was in favor of cultivating Chinese fir big-diameter timber , provided extra bamboo products and improved tree growth.Multi-storey mixed stand of Chinese fir and P.amarus had good stand structure ,higher litter production and decomposition rate of P.amarus,and litter mixture had a positive effect on decomposition rate of Chinese fir litter.Turnover time of P.amarus and Chinese fir leaf litter in treatment SJK were 2.27 a and 3.86 a,respectively ,and the former was 580 d shorter than the latter.Turnover time of Chinese fir leaf litter in pure plantation (unthinned,current density 2075~2110 stems· hm-2) was 4.94 a,394 d longer than that in the mixed stand with treatment SJK.%分析10年生杉木林经间伐后留养苦竹形成的混交复层林的生长效应及凋落物数量及分解状况。结果表明:SJK处理(杉木林进行间伐,保留杉木密度900株· hm-2,留养苦竹,满园后,保留苦竹6000株· hm-2)能够形成层次明显的复层林分,既有利于杉木培育大径材,又可以收获苦竹竹产品,具有较高的生长效应。杉木苦竹混交复层林,不仅苦竹凋落物量大,分解快,而且形成的林分结构,凋落物混合状态,有利于杉木凋落物的分解。 SJK处理中凋落物周转期:苦竹2.27 a,杉木3.86 a,苦竹凋落物周转期比杉木短580 d;杉木纯林(杉木林不间伐,现存密度2075~2110株· hm-2)凋落物周转期为4.94 a,比SJK处理中杉木凋落物周转期长394 d。

  11. Clinostomum complanatum (Trematoda: Clinostomatidae) in five new fish hosts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aohagi, Y; Shibahara, T; Machida, N; Yamaga, Y; Kagota, K

    1992-07-01

    Metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum were found in six species of natural freshwater fishes collected at Koyama Pond in Tottori City of Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Five of these fish species are reported here as new records for second intermediate hosts of C. complanatum in Japan: the silver crucian carp (Carassius gibelio langsdorfi), the deepbodied crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), the carp (Cyprinus carpio), the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) and the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocelatus).

  12. Population consequences of reproductive decisions.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, C; Reynolds, J.D.; Sutherland, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Behaviour can be a key component of animal population ecology yet the population consequences of behavioural decisions are poorly understood. We conducted a behavioural and demographic study of the bitterling Rhodeus sericeus, a freshwater fish that spawns in live unionid mussels. We used a population model incorporating game theory decisions and measurements of demographic parameters in order to provide predictions of population size among 13 populations of this fish. Our model predicted tha...

  13. Densidade de plantio e idade de colheita de quebra-pedra [Phyllanthus amarus (Schumach. & Thonning genótipo Unicamp-CPQBA 14] na produtividade de filantina Density of planting and age of Phillanthus amarus genotype UNICAMP/CPQBA-14 on the productivity of phyllanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Maia-Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da densidade de plantio e da idade de Phyllanthus amarus CPQBA-14, sobre o teor e produtividade de filantina. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 6, com cinco repetições, envolvendo 4 tratamentos de densidade de plantio (400.000 pl ha -1; 200.000 pl ha -1; 100.000 pl ha -1 e 66.667,68 pl ha -1 com 6 colheitas (30, 45, 60, 75, 90 e 105 dias após o transplante (DAT. Os dados foram submetidos a Análise de Variâncias e Regressão (P > 0.001. Para o teor de Filantina, foram observados efeitos significativos e independentes dos tratamentos de idade da planta na colheita e densidade de plantio. O teor de filantina aumentou linearmente com a idade da planta, atingindo o máximo aos 105 DAT, com teor de 11,52 g Kg-1. O adensamento populacional estimado que proporcionou máximo teor de filantina (8,66 g kg-1 foi de 299.860 pl ha-1. A produtividade de filantina apresentou interação significativa entre densidade de plantio e idade da planta na colheita. Observou-se que ao longo do crescimento da planta, os tratamentos com 200 e 400.000 pl ha -1 apresentaram as maiores produtividades de filantina (39,3 e 37,8 kg ha-1 aos 97,12 e 95,17 DAT, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o espaçamento apropriado para o melhor arranjo espacial de cultivo é de 299.860 pl ha-1 para as produtividades de 3.974,19 Kg (massa de matéria seca foliar x 0,00866 kg (teor de filantina = 34,416 kg ha-1 de filantina, com colheita programada aos 97 DAT.The effect of planting density and age of Phyllanthus amarus- genotype CPQBA-14, on the content and productivity of phyllanthin were evaluated. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme 4 x 6, with five replicates, consisting of 4 treatments of planting density (400.000 pl ha-1; 200.000 pl ha-1; 100.000 pl ha-1 and 66667.68 pl ha-1 with six ages of plants (30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 days after transplanting (DAT. Data were subjected to analysis of

  14. ED-XRF spectrometry-based comparative inorganic profile of leaf-derived in vitro calli and in vivo leaf samples of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn.--a hepatoprotective herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, P; Behera, P R; Thirunavoukkarasu, M; Chand, P K

    2011-03-01

    The Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) set-up incorporating a molybdenum secondary exciter was used for quantitative determination of major and minor elements in leaves of in vivo grown medicinal herb Phyllanthus amarus vis-á-vis its leaf-derived in vitro callus culture. The elements such as K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb were identified, quantified and compared between both the sources. Experimental results revealed that, compared to the naturally grown herb, in vitro leaf-derived callus cultures were more efficient in accumulating inorganic elements, especially trace elements, which are essential for growth and development and more importantly for prevention and cure of diseases. This investigation on a medicinal plant species is the first of its kind to have used the ED-XRF technique to demonstrate a comparative account of the elemental profile of in vitro callus cultures with their in vivo donor in order to explore the possibility of exploiting the former as a viable alternative and a renewable source of phytochemicals.

  15. Length–Weight Relationships for Freshwater Fish Species in Küçük Menderes River Basin, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Korkmaz

    2015-10-01

    Specimens of ten species belonging to three families were analyzed. The exponent b in the length-weight relationship ‘W=a(TLb’ ranged from 2.54 to 3.52. The length-weight relationships for Barbus pergamonensis, Carassius carassius, Carassius gibelio, Chondrostoma holmwoodii, Cyprinus carpio, Gambusia affinis, Perca fluviatilis, Petroleuciscus smyrnaeus, Squalius kosswigi and Rhodeus amarus were given in this study. Information of length–weight relationships will be useful for researchers especially in conservation.

  16. 蜀南苦竹林生态系统碳储量与碳汇能力估测%Estimating the Carbon Stock and Carbon Sequestration of the Pleioblastus amarus Forest Ecosystem in Southern of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申贵仓; 张旭东; 张雷; 高升华; 张蕊; 朱维双; 唐森强

    2013-01-01

    科学准确的碳计量是评价森林减缓大气CO2浓度增加、应对气候变化能力的关键,而竹林特殊的生物学与生态学特性使得竹林碳汇计量较其他森林生态系统更为复杂.采用生物量法研究蜀南苦竹林生态系统的碳密度、碳储量及其空间分配格局,并对苦竹林生态系统碳汇能力进行估算.结果表明:1)立竹平均含碳率为450.792 g·kg-1,不同龄级苦竹各器官含碳率差异不显著.土壤有机碳含量为19.410 g·kg-1,不同土层差异极显著;2)苦竹林生态系统总碳储量为156.823 t·hm-2,其中土壤碳库是最大的碳库,为132.568 t·hm-2,占总碳储量的84.53%,枯落物碳库为最小的碳库(4.823 t·hm-2),只占总碳储量的3.08%;3)苦竹立竹碳储量为19.432 t·hm-2,占总碳储量12.39%,其中近半(49.13%)贮藏于竹秆中.竹秆、竹枝、竹叶3部分地上碳储量总计达13.346 t·hm-2,占立竹总碳储量的68.68%,地上部分碳储量为地下部分碳储量的2.19倍;4)苦竹林生态系统植被层年固碳量为8.262 t·hm-2,相当于每年固定30.294 t·hm-2CO2,固碳能力强于毛竹.%Scientific and accurate estimation of the forest carbon sequestration is the key to evaluate forest functions of mitigating CO2 concentration in atmosphere and responding to climate change, however the special biological and ecological characters of bamboo greatly increased the difficulty in accounting the carbon sequestration. The biometric approach was used to estimate the carbon density, storage and spatial distribution pattern of the Pleioblastus amarus Forest Ecosystem in Southern Sichuan Province, as well as the annual carbon sink. The results showed; 1) There was not significant difference in carbon density between various ages and organs in stumpage bamboo, and the mean value was 450.792 g·kg-1 . The mean soil carbon density was 19.410 g·kg-1 , however there were extremely significant differences in the density between various

  17. Population consequences of reproductive decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; Reynolds, J D; Sutherland, W J

    2000-07-07

    Behaviour can be a key component of animal population ecology yet the population consequences of behavioural decisions are poorly understood. We conducted a behavioural and demographic study of the bitterling Rhodeus sericeus, a freshwater fish that spawns in live unionid mussels. We used a population model incorporating game theory decisions and measurements of demographic parameters in order to provide predictions of population size among 13 populations of this fish. Our model predicted that the observed behavioural spawning decisions, while maximizing individual fitness, cause a significant 6% reduction in population size compared with randomly distributed spawnings. We discuss our findings in the context of the population consequences of adaptive behaviour.

  18. Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... loping countries depends on some form of traditional and herbal medicines since ancient ... Herbal medicines are widely perceived by the public as being natural, healthful and ..... Kualalumpu, Malaysia. Nagy A, Krusel W, ...

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of Acheilognathidae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinoidea) as revealed from evidence of both nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequence variation: evidence for necessary taxonomic revision in the family and the identification of cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Li, Fan; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Morosawa, Takahiro; Kim, Sungmin; Koo, Hyeyoung; Kim, Won; Lee, Jae-Seong; He, Shunping; Smith, Carl; Reichard, Martin; Miya, Masaki; Sado, Tetsuya; Uehara, Kazuhiko; Lavoué, Sébastien; Chen, Wei-Jen; Mayden, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    Bitterlings are relatively small cypriniform species and extremely interesting evolutionarily due to their unusual reproductive behaviors and their coevolutionary relationships with freshwater mussels. As a group, they have attracted a great deal of attention in biological studies. Understanding the origin and evolution of their mating system demands a well-corroborated hypothesis of their evolutionary relationships. In this study, we provide the most comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of species relationships of the group based on partitioned maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods using DNA sequence variation of nuclear and mitochondrial genes on 41 species, several subspecies and three undescribed species. Our findings support the monophyly of the Acheilognathidae. Two of the three currently recognized genera are not monophyletic and the family can be subdivided into six clades. These clades are further regarded as genera based on both their phylogenetic relationships and a reappraisal of morphological characters. We present a revised classification for the Acheilognathidae with five genera/lineages: Rhodeus, Acheilognathus (new constitution), Tanakia (new constitution), Paratanakia gen. nov., and Pseudorhodeus gen. nov. and an unnamed clade containing five species currently referred to as "Acheilognathus". Gene trees of several bitterling species indicate that the taxa are not monophyletic. This result highlights a potentially dramatic underestimation of species diversity in this family. Using our new phylogenetic framework, we discuss the evolution of the Acheilognathidae relative to classification, taxonomy and biogeography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proposing a Technical Solution for Restoring Longitudinal Connectivity in the Brădeni/Retiş Accumulation Area on Hârtibaciu River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu Răzvan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fish fauna of the Hârtibaciu River has experienced a disrupted connectivity due to the hydrotechnical works and the Brădeni/Retiş Dam located across the Hârtibaciu watercourse being one of this significant obstacles. The newly proposed constructed wetlands can improve the habitat quality for the fish species of conservative interest sampled in the Brădeni/Retiş Dam proximity Rhodeus amarus, and can increase the individuals’ number of this population. Also can benefit the local populations of Phoxinus phoxinus and Gobio obtusirostris. Using gravitational force and also the underground layout, a proposed technical solution gives maximum safety regarding the water supply for the newly proposed to be created wetlands.

  1. Digesting or swimming? Integration of the postprandial metabolism, behavior and locomotion in a frequently foraging fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Li-Juan; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2017-02-01

    Fish that are active foragers usually perform routine activities while digesting their food; thus, their postprandial swimming capacity and related behavior adjustments might be ecologically important. To test whether digestion affect swimming performance and the relationships of digestion with metabolism and behavior in an active forager, we investigated the postprandial metabolic response, spontaneous swimming activities, critical swimming speed (Ucrit), and fast-start escape performance of both fasted and digesting (3h after feeding to satiation) juvenile rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Feeding to satiation elicited a 50% increase in the oxygen consumption rate, which peaked at 3h after feeding and returned to the prefeeding state after another 3h. However, approximately 50% and 90% of individuals resumed feeding behavior at 2 and 3h postfeeding, respectively, although the meal size varied substantially. Digestion showed no effect on either steady swimming performance as suggested by the Ucrit or unsteady swimming performance indicated by the maximum linear velocity in fast-start escape movement. However, digesting fish showed more spontaneous activity as indicated by the longer total distance traveled, mainly through an increased percentage of time spent moving (PTM). A further analysis found that fasting individuals with high swimming speed were more inclined to increase their PTM during digestive processes. The present study suggests that as an active forager With a small meal size and hence limited postprandial physiological and morphological changes, the swimming performance of rose bitterling is maintained during digestion, which might be crucial for its active foraging mode and anti-predation strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PREY SELECTIVITY IN WELS (Silurus glanis AND AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Adamek

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.

  3. Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl; Philips, André; Reichard, Martin

    2015-06-22

    The ability to attract mates, acquire resources for reproduction, and successfully outcompete rivals for fertilizations may make demands on cognitive traits--the mechanisms by which an animal acquires, processes, stores and acts upon information from its environment. Consequently, cognitive traits potentially undergo sexual selection in some mating systems. We investigated the role of cognitive traits on the reproductive performance of male rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), a freshwater fish with a complex mating system and alternative mating tactics. We quantified the learning accuracy of males and females in a spatial learning task and scored them for learning accuracy. Males were subsequently allowed to play the roles of a guarder and a sneaker in competitive mating trials, with reproductive success measured using paternity analysis. We detected a significant interaction between male mating role and learning accuracy on reproductive success, with the best-performing males in maze trials showing greater reproductive success in a sneaker role than as a guarder. Using a cross-classified breeding design, learning accuracy was demonstrated to be heritable, with significant additive maternal and paternal effects. Our results imply that male cognitive traits may undergo intra-sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. NEW DATA ON ICHTHYOFAUNA OF RIVER ČESMA (CENTRAL CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Jelić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the period between April and October 2006 we conducted extensive research on ichthyofauna of river Česma in order to extent the knowledge of the freshwater fish fauna of Bjelovar–Bilogora county (central Croatia. We confirmed the presence of 25 fish species sorted in 8 families. Most numerous family was Cyprinidae with 16 species and Percidae with 3, while the remaining 6 families were represented by only one species. According to the proportion in the total individual number, the most abundant were Gobio obtusirostris (13.8%, Rutilus rutilus (12.4%, Rhodeus amarus (11.8% and Carassius gibelio (11.3%. In the terms of total fish weight (ichthyomass, highest represented was Carassius gibelio (49.5%, followed by Silurus glanis (6.1%, Squalius cephalus (5.4%, Ameiurus melas (4.7% and Leuciscus idus (4.1%. As there are no previously published data, all 25 species have been recorded for the first time for the river Česma basin, while Leuciscus idus and Phoxinus phoxinus have also been recorded for the first time in Bjelovar–Bilogora county

  5. Pleioblastus amarus: A Treasure of Bamboo Shoots%蔓委陵菜的生态习性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保东; 王晓楠

    2003-01-01

    @@ 蔓委陵菜Potentilla flagellaria Willd. ex Schlecht为蔷薇科(Rosaceae)多年生草本植物,广泛分布于我国东北、华北和西北的干旱地区.嫩苗可以食用,成草是牛羊的上等饲料.据笔者初步调查,蔓委陵菜还是抗旱护坡、养护生荒地的优良草种.

  6. RARE COMPONENT OF THE FISH FAUNA OF THE 'SULINSKY' NATIONAL LANDSCAPE RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ja. Rudik-Leuska

    2014-06-01

    authorities should focus attention on their protection and restoration of abundance. Keywords: Sulinsky Reserve, Sula Bay, conservation lists, sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L., Crucian carp (Carassius carassius L., Common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus L., Wels catfish (Silurus glanis L., Asp (Aspius aspius L., Bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus Pall., Spined loach (Cobitis taenia L..

  7. Glucose tolerance test and some biochemical effect of Phyllanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... ... that the aqueous extract of P. amarus has hepatic cell function enhancement .... other organs like the heart, brain, kidney and skeletal muscle. ALT is more .... Effect of vitamine E and C on exercise induced oxidative stress.

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MS), and nuclear ... generally disposed of as waste; thus, how to ... a rotary evaporator to yield a solid residue. The ...... Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, China; 1999; ... Two new compounds from the cry leaves of Pleioblastus amarus.

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 191 ... Vol 20, No 1 (2009), Investigating the Use of Crude Atili Oil for ... Extract of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum. and Thonn), Abstract PDF ... Vol 29 (2015), Potentials of Microalgae Biodiesel Production in Nigeria, Abstract PDF.

  10. In-vivo andex-vivo inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake:A scope for antihyperglycemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Viviyan Therasa; T Thirumalai; N Tamilselvan; E David

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study hypoglycemic effect ofPhyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) leaf extract and its glucose uptake inhibition effect in rat small intestineex-vivo andin vivo models.Methods:Hypoglycemic studies were carried out in glucose loaded and streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabeticalbino rats.Blood glucose levels were estimated atI,III andIV hour time intervals after administration of aqueous leaf extract ofP. amarus.The study on the effect of plant extract on intestinal glucose absorption in rat was carried out using everted gut sacs.Results:The blood glucose levels were significantly depleted in the animals administered with aqueous leaf extract ofP. amarus(250 mg/kg body weight).Incubation of the rat everted intestinal sacs with the aqueous leaf extract ofP. amarus resulted in the inhibition of glucose transport across the intestinal membrane.Conclusions:The kinetic studies on the glucose transport inhibition across the intestinal membrane by the plant extract was a non competitive type of inhibition of the intestinal glucose transporter protein(GLUT2 andSGLT1) revealing the probable mechanism of hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous leaf extract ofP. amarus.

  11. Notes on Citrullus spp. And Acanthosicyos naudinianus-pollen morphology and interspecific hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. mucosospermus (Fu...

  12. In-vivo and ex-vivo inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake: A scope for antihyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Viviyan Therasa

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The kinetic studies on the glucose transport inhibition across the intestinal membrane by the plant extract was a non competitive type of inhibition of the intestinal glucose transporter protein (GLUT2 and SGLT1 revealing the probable mechanism of hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous leaf extract of P. amarus .

  13. Screening selected Vietnamese plants used to treat diabetes for PTP1B inhibitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Thi Dieu Binh; Staerk, D; Jäger, A K

    2016-01-01

    -scale HPLC, and this showed that ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of R. mucronata and K. candel contained high levels of tannins, and were therefore not investigated further. Ethyl acetate extracts of N. mirabilis, P. amarus, P. urinaria, L. octavalvis, E. hirta, S. cumini, F. racemosa, P. ducle, C...

  14. 1040-IJBCS-Article-Geneviève Etornam A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2Applied Radiation Biology Centre, Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic ... ethanol) were prepared from dried powdered samples of these plants. .... Milestone microwave Labstation (ETHOS. 900) and ..... record of P. amarus being used as a vegetable, ... Assessment of the hepatic effects,.

  15. In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of coastal medicinal plants along Palk Strait against Plasmodium falciparum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Jacob Inbaneson; Sundaram Ravikumar; Palavesam Suganthi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera), Acalypha indica (A. indica), Jatropha glandulifera (J. glandulifera) and Phyllanthusamarus (P. amarus). Methods: The A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were collected along Palk Strait and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 μg/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodiumfalciparum. The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. Results:Of the selected plants species parts, the stem extract of A. indica showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50= 43.81μg/mL) followed by stem extract of J. glandulifera (IC50= 49.14μg/mL). The stem extract of A. aspera, leaf and root extracts of A. indica, leaf, root and seed extracts of J.glandulifera and leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus showed IC 50 values between 50 and 100 μg/mL. Statistical analysis revealed that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of all the tested plant extracts. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. Conclusions: The ethanolic stem extracts of P. amarus and J. glandulifera possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs.

  16. Clonorchis sinensis: life cycle, intermediate hosts, transmission to man and geographical distribution in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D W

    1984-01-01

    The snail host of Clonorchis sinensis in Korea is referred to as Parafossarulus manchouricus, but it has been recorded also as Bulimus striatulus japonicus in literature published up to late 1950. The specific name of the snail was corrected such that Bulimus striatulus of China, Japan, and Korea should be incorporated in the species of P. manchouricus. In general, the snail exists in limited areas of the rivers Han, Kum, Mankyung, Naktong, and Yeongsan, and the infestation of the snail with the cercaria of C. sinensis is very low. In recent years, ten species of small fresh-water fish are known as second intermediate hosts of the fluke. Of these, the southern top-mouthed minnow, Pseudorasbora parva, was most heavily infected. The striped shiner, Pungtungia herzi, Korean shiner, Gnathopogon atromaculatus, gudgeon, Pseudogobio esocinus, oily shiner, Sarcocheilichthys sinensis, and Korean barbel, Hemibarbus labeo, were infected intermediately. Whereas, the flat bitterling, Paracheilognathus rhombea, oily bitterling, Acheilognathus limbata, and Korean rose bitterling, Acanthorhodeus taenianalis were infected with a few cysts. No infections were found in the pale chub, Zacco platypus, crussian carp, Carassius carassius, and carp, Cyprinus carpio. Most Koreans are usually infected by eating slices of raw fresh-water fish coated with hot bean paste. Raw fish is a common accompaniment in drinking the rice wine "Marcgulee" in rural communities and a health food for males. Numerous epidemiological studies revealed that the prevalence rate for the fluke among the residents in the vicinity of rivers is higher than those in the areas far from the rivers. The rate is higher among males than females and increases with age.

  17. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callería District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

    2005-06-03

    Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml).

  18. High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF) Enhanced Laser and Range Operations. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-16

    riparian woodlands in the eastern boundary of the upper Rio Grande River drainage, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains located north of WSMR and...Action Status Scientific Name Common Name State Federal Fish Hybognathus amarus Rio Grande silvery minnow E E Birds and Mammals Coccyzus amedcanus...outside of the ROI. The federal and state endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow is primarily located in the Rio Grande River and its river reaches and

  19. 东苕溪中下游内河航运对鱼类群落的影响%Effect of Inland Navigation on Fish Community in the Middle-lower Reaches of East Tiaoxi River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亮亮; 李建华; 鹿野雄一; 佐藤辰郎; 吴志强

    2013-01-01

    通过野外现场调查,研究东苕溪中下游内河航运对鱼类多样性的影响.逐步回归分析结果显示,水体的浊度与船舶航运频率呈显著正相关;浊度与8种小型鱼类-彩鱊(Acheilognathus imberbis)、越南鱊(Acheilognathus tonkinensis)、方氏鳑皱(Rhodeus fangi)、中华鳑皱(Rhodeus sinensis)、高体鳑皱(Rhodeus ocellatus)、(督)(Hemiculter leucisculus)、食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)、子陵吻虾虎鱼(Rhinogobius giurinus)个体数呈显著负相关性(P<0.05);浊度与6种个体略大的鱼类-翘嘴鲌(Cuher alburnus)、红鳍鲌(Chanodichthys erythropterus)、油(蟹)(Hemiculter lucidus)、鲫(Carassius auratus)、麦穗鱼(Pseudorasbora parva)和间下鱵(Hyporhamphus intermedius)个体数负相关,但无显著性差异(P>0,05).广义线性模型显示,物种丰度和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数与水体浊度及人工护岸呈显著负相关;物种个体数与水体浊度、人工护岸结构及水深呈显著负相关(P<0.05).浊度与鱼类体重关系的回归模型显示,浊度与平均体重和最小体重呈显著正相关(P<0.05),而浊度与最大体重无显著相关性(P>0.05).研究表明,东苕溪中下游的内河航运可导致水体浊度增大,进而危害鱼类,其中对小型鱼类或幼鱼的危害更大.

  20. Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of ethyl acetate, butanol, and petroleum ether extracts of five species of Euphorbiaceae plants, Jatropha curcas, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia tirucalli, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed low larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract. The LC50 value of petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas, P. tithymaloides, P. amarus, E. hirta, and E. tirucalli were 8.79, 55.26, 90.92, 272.36, and 4.25 ppm, respectively, against A. aegypti and 11.34, 76.61, 113.40, 424.94, and 5.52 ppm, respectively, against C quinquefasciatus. Of the various ratios tested, the petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas and E. tirucalli were observed to be more efficient than the other plant extracts. It is, therefore, suggested that E. tirucalli can be applied as an ideal potential larvicide against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the dengue vector, A. aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  1. Los pishtacos: degolladores degollados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available LES PISHTACOS : ÉGORGEURS ÉGORGÉS. A partir de douze récits de la sierra centrale du Pérou, nous analysons les multiples représentations du Pishtaco. Il est significatif que dans cette région, ces personnages maléfiques soient toujours vaincus par les taureaux (représentation des Amarus, par les chiens et par les paysans pauvres qui utilisent diverses astuces. Nous faisons une étude comparative avec d’autres régions du pays à propos du cycle de la graisse et des méthodes permettant la délivrance. En résumé, le Pishtaco est un personnage fascinant qui synthétise un ensemble de symboles et de traditions hispaniques et andines. Tomando como base doce relatos de la sierra central del Perú, se analiza las múltiples representaciones del Pishtaco. Particularmente significativo resulta el hecho de que en esta zona estos personajes malignos son siempre derrotados. Sus vencedores son los toros (metamorfosis de los Amarus, los perros y campesinos pobres que se valen del ají, del chuño y otras tretas jocosas. En cuanto al ciclo de la grasa y las contraconjuras, se hacen referencias comparativas con otras áreas geográficas del país En suma, el Pishtaco es un personaje fascinante y sintetiza una serie de símbolos y tradiciones hispano andinas. THE PISHTACOS: THE SLAUGHTERS SLAUGHTED. On the base of twelve narrations from the central sierra of Peru, we analyze the multiples representations of the Pishtaco. The fact that in this region these malefic entities are always beaten by bulls (representations of amarus by dogs and by poor peasants using different artfulness. About the grease cycle and the means of delivery reference are made to other areas of the country. Resuming, the pishtaco is a fascinating entity syntheting a whole lot of symbols and spanish traditions.

  2. Estudo fitoquímico e bioensaio toxicológico frente a larvas de Artemia salina Leach. de três espécies medicinais do gênero Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. NASCIMENTO

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico e a toxicidade de três espécies do gênero Phyllanthus (P. niruri, P. amarus e P. tenellus, coletadas em diferentes localidades do estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. Os extratos brutos das três espécies foram submetidos a testes convencionais por cromatografia em camada delgada analítica para verificação das classes de metabólitos presentes, e testados frente a larvas de Artemia salina para obtenção das concentrações letais médias (CL50. Os testes fitoquímicos demonstraram a presença de flavonóides, saponinas, terpenos, naftoquinonas, alcalóides, antraquinonas, lignanas e taninos. As três espécies de Phyllanthus apresentaram variações na composição fitoquímica e na toxicidade frente a A. salina. Dependendo do local de coleta, os valores de CL50 variaram de 404,43 ± 49,64 µg/mL a 770,84 ± 51,78 µg/mL para P. niruri, 837,65 ± 61,45 µg/mL a 1075,89 ± 70,72 µg/mL para P. amarus e 534,60 ± 46,83 µg/mL a 1003,62 ± 65,15 µg/mL para P. tenellus. Palavras-chave: Phyllanthus niruri; Phyllanthus amarus,/i>; Phyllanthus tenellus; análise fitoquímica preliminar; bioensaio toxicológico; CL50

  3. Larvicidal and repellent activity of medicinal plant extracts from Eastern Ghats of South India against malaria and filariasis vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal and repellent activities of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts ofAcacia concinna (A. concinna),Cassia siamea(C. siamea),Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum),Cuminum cyminum(C. cyminum),Lantana camara (L. camara),Nelumbo nucifera (N. nucifera)Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus),Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) andTrachyspermum ammi(T. ammi) againstAnopheles stephensi(An. stephensi) andCulex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus).Methods:The larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts were tested against early fourth-instar larvae of malaria and filariasis vectors. The mortality was observed 24 h and48 h after treatment, data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 andLC90) to kill50 and 90per cent of the treated larvae of the tested species. The repellent efficacy was determined against two mosquito species at five concentrations (31.25, 62.50, 125.00, 250.00, and 500.00 ppm) under the laboratory conditions.Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after24h and 48h of exposure; however, the highest activity was observed after24h in the leaf methanol extract ofN. nucifera, seed ethyl acetate and methanol extract ofP. nigrumagainst the larvae of An. stephensi(LC50 =34.76, 24.54 and30.20 ppm) and againstCx. quinquefasciatus (LC50= 37.49, 43.94 and57.39ppm), respectively. The toxic effect of leaf methanol extract ofC. siamea, seed methanol extract ofC. cyminum, leaf ethyl acetate extract ofN. nucifera, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract ofP. amarusand seed methanol extract ofT. ammiwere showed100% mortality againstAn. stephensi andCx. quinquefasciatus after48 h exposer. The maximum repellent activity was observed at500 ppm in methanol extracts ofN. nucifera, ethyl acetate and methanol extract ofP. nigrum and methanol extract ofT. ammi and the mean complete protection time ranged from30 to150 min with the different extracts tested. Conclusions:These results suggest that the leaf and seed

  4. ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS MUTATIONAL EFFECT IN BIOCONTROL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Shenpagam N.*, D. Kanchana Devi ** and Sinduja G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the endophytic actinomycetes were collected from three medicinal plants Azadiracta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus amarus. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated using different media like Starch casein agar, Starch casein nitrate agar, Actinomycetes isolation agar and Soyabean agar, while it showed more colonies in Starch casein agar. The endophytic actinomycetes were stained and biochemical tests were performed. Antimicrobial compound was purified from the filtrate by ethanol extraction method. Antagonistic activities of endophytic actinomycetes isolates were tested against bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi Rhizopus. For the selected isolates antibiotic resistance was checked using various antibiotic discs like Amoxycillin, Penicillin, Rifampicin and Ampicillin. The strains which showed efficient antibacterial activity were selected to study the effect of mutation by physical and chemical method. In this study, UV mutated endophytic actinomycetes increase antibiotic production than non-mutated endophytic Actinomycetes, whereas in chemical mutation it does not increase the antibiotic production.

  5. Decomposition of Different Litter Fractions in a Subtropical Bamboo Ecosystem as Affected by Experimental Nitrogen Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Li-Hua; HU Hong-Ling; HU Ting-Xing; ZHANG Jian; LIU Li; LI Ren-Hong; DAI Hong-Zhong; LUO Shou-Hua

    2011-01-01

    As an important component of the global carbon (C) budget,litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems is greatly affected by the increasing nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally.We hypothesized that different litter fractions derived from a single tree species may respond to N deposition differently depending on the quality of the litter substrate.To test the hypothesis,a two-year field experiment was conducted using the litterbag method in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in the rainy region of Southwest China.Four N treatment levels were applied:control (no N added),low-N (50 kg N ha-1 year-1),medium-N (150 kg N ha-1 year-1),and high-N (300 kg N ha-1 year-1).We observed different patterns of mass loss for the three P.amarus litter fractions (leaves,sheaths,and twigs) of varying substrate quality in the control plots.There were two decomposition stages with different decay rates (fast rate in early stages and slow rate in the later stages) for leaves and sheaths,while we did not observe a slower phase for the decay of twigs during the 2-year study period.The annual decomposition rate (k) of twigs was significantly lower than that of leaves or sheaths.Addition of N slowed the decomposition of leaves and twigs in the later stages of decomposition by inhibiting the decay of lignin and cellulose,while addition of N did not affect the mass loss of sheaths during the study period.In the decomposition of all three litter fractions,experimental N deposition reduced the net N accumulation in the early stages and also decreased the net N release in the later stages.The results of this study suggest that litter substrate quality may be an important factor affecting litter decomposition in a bamboo ecosystem affected by N deposition.

  6. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of Eastern Asian Cyprinidae (Pisces: Cypriniformes) inferred from cytochrome b sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Shunping; LIU; Huanzhang; CHEN; Yiyu; Masayuki; Kuwah

    2004-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of 54 species, including 18 newly sequenced, were analyzed to infer the phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae in East Asia. Phylogenetic trees were generated using various tree-building methods, including Neighbor-joining (NJ), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods, with Myxocyprinus asiaticus (family Catostomidae) as the designated outgroup. The results from NJ and ML methods were mostly similar, supporting some existing subfamilies within Cyprinidae as monophyletic, such as Cultrinae, Xenocyprinae and Gobioninae (including Gobiobotinae). However, genera within the subfamily "Danioninae" did not form a monophyletic group. The subfamily Leuciscinae was divided into two unrelated groups: the "Leuciscinae" in East Asia forming as a monophyletic group together with Cultrinae and Xenocyprinae, while the Leuciscinae in Europe, Siberia, and North America as another monophyletic group. The monophyly of subfamily Cyprininae sensu Howes was supported by NJ and ML trees and is basal in the tree. The position of Acheilognathinae, a widely accepted monophyletic group represented by Rhodeus sericeus, was not resolved.

  7. Drinking induced by angiotensin II in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Uemura, H; Takei, Y; Itatsu, N; Ozawa, M; Ichinohe, K

    1983-02-01

    Among 20 species of freshwater fishes examined, Pseudorasbora parva, Rhodeus ocellatus, Cobitis anguillicaudatus, Carassius auratus, Oryzias latipes, Gambusia affinis, and Gyrinocheilus anymonieri were found to drink water like seawater fishes, while 13 remaining species did not drink. For fish species found exclusively in fresh water, angiotensin II (AII) treatment did not induce drinking. In contrast, those freshwater fishes which survive in estuarine brackish water (Leuciscus hakonensis, C. carassius, Parasilurus asotus, G. affinis, Chaenogobius annularis, Tridentiger obscurus, and G. anymonieri responded to AII by drinking. Furthermore, some freshwater fishes which survive either in hypertonic water (C. auratus) or in sea water (Anguilla japonica and O. latipes) also responded to AII by drinking. Of 17 seawater fishes examined, Eptatretus burgeri, Triakis scyllia, and Heterodontus japonicus failed to drink water, and for Trachurus japonicus, Platichthys bicoloratus, and Glossogobius giuris fasciatopunctatus, water intake was minor (similar to freshwater fishes). The 11 remaining seawater fishes drank water. AII did not induce drinking in fishes living exclusively in sea water. However, seawater fishes which survive either in tide pools (Chasmichthys dolichognathus gulosus) or in brackish water (Sillago japonica, Mugil cephalus, G. giuris fasciatopunctatus) responded to AII by drinking. P. bicoloratus, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, and Fugu niphobles were exceptional, in that they survive in brackish water, but did not respond to AII. Although some exceptions exist, it is generally concluded that a drinking response to AII is characteristic of fishes which encounter water more hypertonic than that in which they typically reside. Accordingly, a drinking mechanism induced by AII may be a compensatory emergency reaction to dehydration stress.

  8. [Fauna of monogeneans (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) of gudgeons (Gobioninae, Cyprinidae). 1. Composition, structure, and characteristics of distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasev, P I

    2008-01-01

    , for example sticklebacks, bitterlings, chars, spined loaches, etc. Species of the family Diplozoidae parasitizing gudgeons may invade also many species from other fish taxa.

  9. Spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblages in a subtropical small stream of the Huangshan Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhi YAN,Shan HE, Ling CHU, Xiuying XIANG, Yanju JIA, Juan TAO, Yifeng CHEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblages were investigated seasonally from May 2007 to February 2008 across 11 study sites in a subtropical small stream, the Puxi Stream, of the Huangshan Mountain. Along the longitudinal gradient from headwater to downstream, fish species richness and abundance increased gradually, but then decreased significantly at the lower reaches. The highest species richness and abundance were observed in August and the lowest in February. Based on analysis of similarities (ANOSIM, fish assemblages were significantly different in spatial variation but not in temporal variation. Although differences were observed both among sites and among stream orders, the lower R value in order-variation suggested stream order was not the optimal factor explaining the spatial variation of fish assemblages. In addition, dam construction did not significantly alter fish assemblages in the sites adjacent to and immediately downstream to dams. Using cluster analysis and non-metric Multi Dimensional Scaling analysis (NMS, assemblages were separated into three groups at a Bray-Curtis similarity value of 42%: the upper, middle and lower groups. Following analysis of similarity percentages of species contributions (SIMPER, shifts in occurrence or abundance of S. curriculus, Z. platypus, R. bitterling and A. fasciatus contributed most to the differences amongst the three groups. Standard Deviation Redundancy Analysis (RDA suggested that habitat structure (such as elevation, substrate, and flow velocity contributed to the spatial and temporal pattern of fish assemblages in the Puxi Stream. In conclusion, the fish assemblages in Puxi Stream presented significant spatial but not temporal variation. Human disturbance has perhaps induced the decrease in species diversity in the lower reaches. However, no significant change was observed for fish assemblages in sites far from and immediately downstream from low-head dams [Current Zoology 56 (6

  10. Comparison of the Antioxidant Capacity of an Important Hepatoprotective Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there has been an increased interest globally to identify antioxidant compounds that are pharmacologically potent and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine and the food industry. As plants produce significant amount of antioxidants to prevent the oxidative stress caused by photons and oxygen, they represent a potential source of new compounds with antioxidant activity. Commonly used medicinal plant extracts with standardized content of polyphenols were investigated for their antioxidant activity (AA. In the present paper ten plants (Picrorrhiza kurroa, Tephrosia purpurea, Terminalia arjuna, Tinospora cordifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Azadirachta indica, Apium graveolens, Swertia chirata, Phyllanthus amarus, and Aloe vera and their possible constituents responsible for its antioxidant property were compared by reducing power, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity method. The plants described contain antioxidant principles that can explain and justify their use in traditional medicine (Hepatoprotective in the past as well as the present. These results suggest that AA determination is of interest for a comparative evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential, but it needs to be combined with in vivo data for adequate assessment of the antioxidant capacity of medicinal plant extracts.

  11. Vegetation diversity of wild Chinese alligator(Alligator sinensis ) habitats%野生扬子鳄栖息地植被多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周守标; 秦卫华; 江红星; 吴孝兵; 吴陆生; 汪恒英; 邵民

    2004-01-01

    2003年6~7月,采用样方法,对野生扬子鳄在安徽省南陵县、泾县、广德县、郎溪县和宣城地区等5县市的22个栖息地的植被进行了野外实地调查,并对植物种类作了详细的记录和分析.结果发现,野生扬子鳄栖息地植被均属于次生性植被,共有维管束植物92科294种;苦竹(Pteioblastus amarus)灌丛广泛分布于每个栖息地;22个调查点的植被多样性存在一定的差异.同时还初步分析了野生扬子鳄与栖息地植被多样性之间的关系,为野生扬子鳄的保护提供植物生态学基础资料.

  12. A BRIEF ON DIABETIC, AND ANTIDIABETIC PLANTS FOUND IN EASTERN UTTARPRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISHRA JHANSEE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included.

  13. Why urban citizens in developing countries use traditional medicines: the case of suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde; Carvalheiro, Luísa G

    2013-01-01

    The use of traditional medicines (TMs) among urban populations in developing countries and factors underlying people's decision to use TMs are poorly documented. We interviewed 270 adults in Paramaribo, Suriname, using a stratified random household sample, semistructured questionnaires, and multivariate analysis. Respondents mentioned 144 medicinal plant species, most frequently Gossypium barbadense, Phyllanthus amarus, and Quassia amara. 66% had used TMs in the previous year, especially people who suffered from cold, fever, hypertension, headache, uterus, and urinary tract problems. At least 22% combined herbs with prescription medicine. The strongest explanatory variables were health status, (transfer of) plant knowledge, and health status combined with plant knowledge. Other predictive variables included religion, marital status, attitude of medical personnel, religious opinion on TMs, and number of children per household. Age, gender, nationality, rural background, education, employment, income, insurance, and opinion of government or doctors had no influence. People's main motivation to use TMs was their familiarity with herbs. Given the frequent use of self-collected, home-prepared herbal medicine and the fact that illness and traditional knowledge predict plant use rather than poverty or a limited access to modern health care, the potential risks and benefits of TMs should be put prominently on the national public health agenda.

  14. Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Salazar-Aguilar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography (CC, identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions. Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC50 1.85 µg·mL−1, but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC50 30.04 µg·mL−1. Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL−1. Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents.

  15. Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Aguilar, Sandra; Ruiz-Posadas, Lucero Del Mar; Cadena-Iñiguez, Jorge; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Itzen; Rivera-Martínez, Ana Rocío; Aguirre-Medina, Juan Francisco

    2017-07-25

    The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography (CC), identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions). Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC50 1.85 µg·mL(-1)), but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC50 30.04 µg·mL(-1)). Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL(-1). Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents.

  16. Suppression of ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways by four Phyllanthus species inhibits metastasis of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau H. Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapies remain far from ideal due to drug resistance; therefore, novel chemotherapeutic agents with higher effectiveness are crucial. The extracts of four Phyllanthus species, namely Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus watsonii, and Phyllanthus amarus, were shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit metastasis of breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7. The main objective of this study was to determine the pathways utilized by these four Phyllanthus species to exert anti-metastatic activities. A cancer 10-pathway reporter was used to investigate the pathways affected by the four Phyllanthus species. Results indicated that these Phyllanthus species suppressed breast carcinoma metastasis and proliferation by suppressing matrix metalloprotein 2 and 9 expression via inhibition of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK pathway. Additionally, inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α in the hypoxia pathway caused reduced vascular endothelial growth factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, resulting in anti-angiogenic effects and eventually anti-metastasis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified numerous proteins suppressed by these Phyllanthus species, including invasion proteins, anti-apoptotic protein, protein-synthesis proteins, angiogenic and mobility proteins, and various glycolytic enzymes. Our results indicated that ERK and hypoxia pathways are the most likely targets of the four Phyllanthus species for the inhibition of MCF-7 metastasis.

  17. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents.

  18. Mesohabitats, fish assemblage composition, and mesohabitat use of the Rio Grande silvery minnow over a range of seasonal flow regimes in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte, in and near Big Bend National Park, Texas, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, J. Bruce; Braun, Christopher L.; Pearson, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010–11, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluated the physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition of mapped river mesohabitats at four sites on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (hereinafter Rio Grande) in and near Big Bend National Park, Texas. The four sites used for the river habitat study were colocated with sites where the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has implemented an experimental reintroduction of the Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus), a federally listed endangered species, into part of the historical range of this species. The four sites from upstream to downstream are USGS station 08374340 Rio Grande at Contrabando Canyon near Lajitas, Tex. (hereinafter the Contrabando site), USGS station 290956103363600 Rio Grande at Santa Elena Canyon, Big Bend National Park, Tex. (hereinafter the Santa Elena site), USGS station 291046102573900 Rio Grande near Ranger Station at Rio Grande Village, Tex. (hereinafter the Rio Grande Village site), and USGS station 292354102491100 Rio Grande above Stillwell Crossing near Big Bend National Park, Tex. (hereinafter the Stillwell Crossing site).

  19. IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Softwood (End)%IAWA针叶树材显微特征一览表(续完)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜笑梅; 殷亚方; 刘晓丽; 侯新毅

    2005-01-01

    交叉场的纹孔个数(仅指早材管胞).96.每个交叉场纹孔个数方法:早材部分测定,至少测定25个(或更多)。如松属赤松组和乔松组,松科及叶状枝属(叶状枝科)和罗汉松科的个别属,如Lagarostrobos,Marmao,Microstrobos,Sundacarpus(Podocarpus)amarus,每个交叉场一般有1个纹孔;扁柏、柳杉、杉木和红豆杉等属一般有2个纹孔;北美红杉、落羽杉(柏科)、榧属(红豆杉科)、松属西黄松组和Sula组(加纳利松、地中海松、白皮松、长叶松)通常有3~4个纹孔;松属火炬松组(松科)、贝壳杉和南洋杉属(南洋杉科)通常有4个或以上纹孔。

  20. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS FROM BAMBOO FOR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-qunCao; Yong-deYue; Zhen-huaPeng; Ri-maoHua; FengTang

    2004-01-01

    The extracts from 7 species of bamboo were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens pallens. At the tested concentration, the extracts of selected bamboo had different degree of toxic effects on the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. Among them,the extracts of Pleioblastus juxianensis, Brachystachyum albostriatum, Phyllostachys platyglossa and Pleioblastus amarus were found to be effective with LC50values at 24h of 30.65mg/L,53.94mg/L, 41.21 mg/L and 54.49 mg/L respectively, against Culex pipiens pallens larvae. The extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis by Soxhlet method showed stronger activity than the extract obtained by interval-shaking, the LC50 of which were 30.65 mg/L and 48.34 mg/L, respectively.The diethyl ether extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis exhibited better larvicidal activity than the methanol extract and the petroleum ether extract. The results would help to provide the basis for the study of environment acceptable pesticide for mosquito control, and also help to comprehensively utilize the source of bamboo.

  1. Why Urban Citizens in Developing Countries Use Traditional Medicines: The Case of Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinde van Andel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of traditional medicines (TMs among urban populations in developing countries and factors underlying people’s decision to use TMs are poorly documented. We interviewed 270 adults in Paramaribo, Suriname, using a stratified random household sample, semistructured questionnaires, and multivariate analysis. Respondents mentioned 144 medicinal plant species, most frequently Gossypium barbadense, Phyllanthus amarus, and Quassia amara. 66% had used TMs in the previous year, especially people who suffered from cold, fever, hypertension, headache, uterus, and urinary tract problems. At least 22% combined herbs with prescription medicine. The strongest explanatory variables were health status, (transfer of plant knowledge, and health status combined with plant knowledge. Other predictive variables included religion, marital status, attitude of medical personnel, religious opinion on TMs, and number of children per household. Age, gender, nationality, rural background, education, employment, income, insurance, and opinion of government or doctors had no influence. People’s main motivation to use TMs was their familiarity with herbs. Given the frequent use of self-collected, home-prepared herbal medicine and the fact that illness and traditional knowledge predict plant use rather than poverty or a limited access to modern health care, the potential risks and benefits of TMs should be put prominently on the national public health agenda.

  2. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasim Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action.

  3. Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

  4. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  5. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [ICTP Fellow on sabbatical leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O.R.; Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [lstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported{sup 1}. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  6. 不同竹种竹叶提取物制备及其抗氧化活性比较研究%Preparation and comparative analysis of antioxidant activity of bamboo leaf extracts from different varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 岳永德; 郭雪峰; 汤锋; 王进; 姚曦; 孙嘏

    2012-01-01

    Phyllostachys heterocycla, Pleioblastus amaru, Bambusa tuldoides, Bambusa chungii, Bambusa textilis, Chimonocalamus Hsueh and Indocalamus tessellates were used to extract bamboo-leaf-flavonoids by the heat reflux method and purified by AB-8 macroporous absorption resin. The extractions were separated and structurally identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The bamboo leaf extracts were assayed based on DPPH radical scavenging capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, superoxide anion free radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power with TBHQ (tert-butyl hydroquinone) as the positive control. The results showed that the yield of extracts from Pleioblastus amarus was maximum, up to 3.60%-3.70%; the amount of orientin and isoorientin in Chimonocalamus Hsueh was maximum, up to 2.523 0%-2.532 6%; the amount of vitexin in Pleioblastus amarus was maximum, up to 0.887 0%-0.889 6%; the amount of isovitexin in Bambusa textilis was maximum, up to 2.223 l%-2.226 1%. Chimonocalamus Hsueh revealed the strongest scavenging capacity against DPPH, and the IC50 value was 30.50 mg·L-1; Indocalamus tessellates revealed the strongest scavenging capacity against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion free radical, and the IC50 values were 339.32 mg·L-1 and 324.87 mg·L-1, respectively.%以毛竹、苦竹、香竹、箬竹、粉单竹、青杆竹和青皮竹7个竹种竹叶为材料,采用热回流法提取,大孔树脂法分离纯化,对得到竹叶提取物测定其得率和主要黄酮成分的含量,进而探讨竹叶提取物的抗氧化活性,为竹叶提取物在食品和化妆品领域的应用提供科学依据.结果表明,苦竹叶提取物得率最高,为3.60%~3.70%;香竹叶提取物中所含的荭草苷和异荭草苷量最高,为2.5230%~2.5326%,苦竹叶提取物中所含的牡荆苷量最高,为0.8870%~0.8896%,青杆竹叶提取物中所含的异牡荆苷量最高,为2.2231%~2.2261%;竹叶提取物具有较强的自

  7. 竹提取物对淡色库蚊Culex pipiens pallens幼虫的活性评价%EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS FROM BAMBOO FOR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操海群; 岳永德; 彭镇华; 花日茂; 汤锋

    2004-01-01

    报道了竹提取物对淡色库蚊Culex pipiens pallens幼虫的毒杀作用.研究结果表明,巨县苦竹(Pleioblastusjuxianensis)、白纹短穗竹(Brachystachyum albostriatum)、灰水竹(Phyllostachysplatyglossa)和苦竹(Pleioblastus amarus)提取物对淡色库蚊幼虫的24h致死中浓度(LC50)分别为30.65 mg/L、53.94 mg/L、41.21 mg/L、54.49 mg/L.巨县苦竹索氏抽提物对淡色库蚊幼虫的毒杀作用明显强于间歇振荡提取物,前者对淡色库蚊幼虫的LC50为30.65 mg/L,95%置信限27.12~34.63 mg/L;后者的LC50为48.34 mg/L,95%置信限为40.37~59.62 mg/L.巨县苦竹乙醚浸提物对淡色库蚊幼虫的毒杀作用效果显著,125mg/L浓度时12h校正死亡率为56.67%,24h后达92.90%;石油醚浸提物及甲醇浸提物对淡色库蚊幼虫的毒杀作用则不明显,24h校正死亡率均不超过40%.研究结果将有助于综合利用竹类资源,开发新型环境友好农药.%The extracts from 7 species of bamboo were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens pallens. At the tested concentration, the extracts of selected bamboo had different degree of toxic effects on the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. Among them,the extracts of Pleioblastus juxianensis, Brachystachyum albostriatum, Phyllostachys platyglossa and Pleioblastus amarus were found to be effective with LC50values at 24h of 30.65 mg/L,53.94 mg/L, 41.21 mg/L and 54.49 mg/L respectively, against Culex pipiens pallens larvae. The extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis by Soxhlet method showed stronger activity than the extract obtained by interval-shaking, the LC50 of which were 30.65 mg/L and 48.34 mg/L, respectively.The diethyl ether extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis exhibited better larvicidal activity than the methanol extract and the petroleum ether extract. The results would help to provide the basis for the study of environment acceptable pesticide for mosquito control, and also help to comprehensively utilize the source of

  8. 低头坝养鱼对上下游局域栖息地和鱼类群落时空格局的影响%Low-head-dam fish culture effects on spatial-temporal patterns of local habitat and fish assemblages in the upstream and downstream of rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万安; 张晓可; 谢枫; 韩旭; 邓洁; 钟明; 李宁; 安树青

    2016-01-01

    河流鱼类的群落特征会随栖息地环境的变化而发生变化.为了解鱼类群落对低头坝养鱼的响应程度,2013-2014年共6次调查了乌龙河(长江下游支流)两个可涉水河段样点(上游坝和下游坝)的环境因子、鱼类多样性及其群落结构.共采集到5目10科21属24种鱼类,以鲤形目鲤科最多,占总数的58.3%.通过解析时空动态变化与局域栖息地条件对鱼类群落的影响,发现季节因素对鱼类群落结构无显著影响,而鱼类群落所在空间位置(上游坝,下游坝)对群落结构差异具有较显著影响,其中上游中华鳑鲏(Rhodeus sinensis)、鳘(Hemiculter leucisculus)、棒花鱼(Abbottina rivularis)、大鳍鱊(Acheilognathus macropterus),下游食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)的多度决定了这种差异;而3个栖息地变量(溶解氧浓度、电导率和流速)均对鱼类群落特征具有显著性影响.栖息地环境差异对河流上、下游鱼类群落的影响较大,具体体现在下游样点鱼类的捕获重量、捕获数量、密度、多样性明显下降,推测利用低头坝养鱼是造成这些现象的重要原因.

  9. Genetic diversity and the biogeographical process ,of Acheilognathus macropterus revealed by sequence variations of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yurong; LIU Huanzhang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, thirty-six individuals of Acheilognathus macropterus were collected from the Heilongjiang River,the Yangtze River,and the Nandujiang River.Partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene region (636 base pair) was sequenced to these samples and 22 haplotypes were found.With A.chankaensis and A.tokinensis as outgroups,their relationships were analyzed.The p-distances were calculated with Mega software and a molecular phyiogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method.The proportions of main morphological characters were compared as well.P-distances showed that the genetic differences in A.macropterus samples were far smaller than those between these samples and the outgroups.The molecular phylogenetic tree shows that samples with barbels and those without barbels were intermingled.There was no distinctive difference in proportions of morphological characteristics among them.These results suggested that samples with barbels and those without barbels (formally identified as A.taenianalis) are the same species;A.taenianalis is synonymous with A.macropterus.The thirtysix individuals were grouped into five clades and the positions of the samples in the clades were correspondingly grouped within their geographical distributions.Among the five clades,clades 1 and 5 included samples from the Heilongjiang River and Nandujiang River respectively.The samples from the Yangtze River scattered into clades 2,3,and 4.There were distinctive genetic differences (> 5%)among them.Interestingly,the distributions of the 21 samples in these three clades were not correlated to their geographical distributions.It is postulated that these genetic differences were due to the bitterlings' mating choice mechanism,the prozygotic isolation.The genetic differences between the fish from Nandujiang River and those from the mainland indicated that they were separated early.However,the small genetic differences among the samples and the positions of the fish from the

  10. Nitrogen distribution and cycling through water flows in a subtropical bamboo forest under high level of atmospheric deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hua Tu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hydrological cycle is an important way of transportation and reallocation of reactive nitrogen (N in forest ecosystems. However, under a high level of atmospheric N deposition, the N distribution and cycling through water flows in forest ecosystems especially in bamboo ecosystems are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate N fluxes through water flows in a Pleioblastus amarus bamboo forest, event rainfall/snowfall (precipitation, PP, throughfall (TF, stemflow (SF, surface runoff (SR, forest floor leachate (FFL, soil water at the depth of 40 cm (SW1 and 100 cm (SW2 were collected and measured through the whole year of 2009. Nitrogen distribution in different pools in this ecosystem was also measured. Mean N pools in vegetation and soil (0-1 m were 351.7 and 7752.8 kg ha(-1. Open field nitrogen deposition at the study site was 113.8 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, which was one of the highest in the world. N-NH4(+, N-NO3(- and dissolved organic N (DON accounted for 54%, 22% and 24% of total wet N deposition. Net canopy accumulated of N occurred with N-NO3(- and DON but not N-NH4(+. The flux of total dissolved N (TDN to the forest floor was greater than that in open field precipitation by 17.7 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, due to capture of dry and cloudwater deposition net of canopy uptake. There were significant negative exponential relationships between monthly water flow depths and monthly mean TDN concentrations in PP, TF, SR, FFL and SW1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The open field nitrogen deposition through precipitation is very high over the world, which is the main way of reactive N input in this bamboo ecosystem. The water exchange and N consume mainly occurred in the litter floor layer and topsoil layer, where most of fine roots of bamboo distributed.

  11. Dioscin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses A549 lung cancer migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Won-Chul; Kim, Hyunhee; Kim, Young-Joo; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, In Ho; Lee, Ki Heon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ko, Hyeonseok

    2017-08-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important cellular process, occurs during cancer development and progression, has a crucial role in metastasis by enhancing the motility of tumor cells. Dioscin is a polyphenolic component isolated from Phyllanthus amarus, which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-fungal, and anti-viral activities. However, the possible role of dioscin in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the suppressive effect of dioscin on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) is known to induce EMT in a number of cancer cell types and promote lung adenocarcinoma migration and invasion. To verify the inhibitory role of dioscin in lung cancer migration and invasion, we investigated the use of dioscin as inhibitors of TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Here, we found that dioscin prominently increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and expression of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and Snail during the TGF-β1-induced EMT. In addition, dioscin inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increase in cell migration and invasion of A549 lung cancer cells. Also, dioscin remarkably inhibited TGF-β1-regulated activation of MMP-2/9, Smad2, and p38. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that dioscin suppresses lung cancer migration, and invasion in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β1-induced EMT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Adebajo, A. C.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  13. A comparative study of alpha amylase inhibitory activities of common anti-diabetic plants at Kharagpur 1 block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dineshkumar B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on the increase and needs to be addressed appropriately. In this study area, herbal remedies are considered convenient for management of Type 2 diabetes with postprandial hyperglycemia due to their traditional acceptability and availability, low costs, lesser side effects. Comparative evaluation of alpha amylase inhibitory activities of selected plants extracts. Kharagpur is situated in the Midnapur West district of West Bengal in India. In this district, diabetes prevalence is comparatively high. Ten common plants in IIT Kharagpur 1 Block namely, Acalypha indica, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Musa sapientum, Mangifera indica, Murraya, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus and Tinospora cordifolia were tested for their alpha amylase inhibitory activities to establish anti-diabetic potentials. The plant extracts were prepared sequentially with petroleum ether, hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous. The extracts obtained were subjected to in vitro alpha amylase inhibitory assay using starch azure as a substrate and porcine pancreatic amylase as the enzyme. Statistical difference and linear regression analysis were performed by using Graphpad prism 5 statistical software. Ethanol extracts of Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica and petroleum ether extract of Murraya koenigii (at a concentrations 10-100μg/ml showed maximum percentage inhibition on alpha amylase activity with an IC 50 value of 37.86 ± 0.32μg/ml, 62.99 ± 1.20μg/ml and 59.0 ± 0.51μg/ml respectively when compared with acarbose (IC 50 value 83.33 ± 0.75μg/ml. The results showing that Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica and Murraya koenigii might be effective in lowering post prandial hyperglycemia.

  14. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); ICTP Fellow on Sabbatical Leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O.R. [Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  15. Physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition at site and mesohabitat scales over a range of streamflows in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, winter 2011-12, summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Porter, Michael D.; Moring, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In winter 2011–12 and summer 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque District and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service New Mexico Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office in Albuquerque, New Mexico, evaluated the physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition of available mesohabitats over a range of streamflows at 15 sites on the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico. The fish assemblage of the Middle Rio Grande includes several minnow species adapted to hydrologically variable but seasonably predictable rivers, including theHybognathus amarus (Rio Grande silvery minnow), a federally listed endangered species. Gaining a better understanding of habitat usage by the Rio Grande silvery minnow was the impetus for studying physical characteristics and fish assemblages in the Middle Rio Grande during different streamflow conditions. Data were collected at all 15 sites during winter 2011–12 (moderate streamflow), and a subset was collected at the 13 most downstream sites in summer 2012 (low streamflow). Sites were grouped into four river reaches separated by diversion dams listed in downstream order (names of the diversion dams are followed by short names of the sites nearest each dam in parentheses, listed in downstream order): (1) Cochiti (Peña Blanca), (2) Angostura (Bernalillo, La Orilla, Barelas, Los Padillas), (3) Isleta (Los Lunas I, Los Lunas II, Abeytas, La Joya, Rio Salado), and (4) San Acacia (Lemitar, Arroyo del Tajo, San Pedro, Bosque del Apache I, and Bosque del Apache II). Stream habitat was mapped in the field by using a geographic information system in conjunction with a Global Positioning System. Fish assemblage composition was determined during both streamflow regimes, and fish were collected by seining in each mesohabitat where physical characteristic data (depth, velocity, dominant substrate type and size, and percent embeddedness) and water-quality properties (temperature

  16. Arsenic accumulation in native plants of West Bengal, India: prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Mishra, Aradhana; Kumar, Amit; Dave, Richa; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Shukla, Mridul Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental and food chain contaminant and class I, non-threshold carcinogen. Plants accumulate As due to ionic mimicry that is of importance as a measure of phytoremediation but of concern due to the use of plants in alternative medicine. The present study investigated As accumulation in native plants including some medicinal plants, from three districts [Chinsurah (Hoogly), Porbosthali (Bardhman), and Birnagar (Nadia)] of West Bengal, India, having a history of As pollution. A site-specific response was observed for Specific Arsenic Uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1) dw) in total number of 13 (8 aquatic and 5 terrestrial) collected plants. SAU was higher in aquatic plants (5-60 mg kg(-1) dw) than in terrestrial species (4-19 mg kg(-1) dw). The level of As was lower in medicinal plants (MPs) than in non-medicinal plants, however it was still beyond the WHO permissible limit (1 mg kg(-1) dw). The concentration of other elements (Cu, Zn, Se, and Pb) was found to be within prescribed limits in medicinal plants (MP). Among the aquatic plants, Marsilea showed the highest SAU (avg. 45 mg kg(-1) dw), however, transfer factor (TF) of As was the maximum in Centella asiatica (MP, avg. 1). Among the terrestrial plants, the maximum SAU and TF were demonstrated by Alternanthera ficoidea (avg. 15) and Phyllanthus amarus (MP, avg. 1.27), respectively. In conclusion, the direct use of MP or their by products for humans should not be practiced without proper regulation. In other way, one fern species (Marsilea) and some aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus difformis) might be suitable candidates for As phytoremediation of paddy fields.

  17. Apparent Digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein of 11 Kinds of Fresh Ingredients in Blue Foxes%蓝狐对11种鲜饲料原料中干物质和粗蛋白质表观消化率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟丽; 李光玉; 刘凤华; 鲍坤; 钟伟; 常忠娟; 刘佰阳

    2011-01-01

    To measure the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of different in gredients for blue foxes, one hundred and twenty healthy male blue foxes in replacement period with similar body weight and age, were selected and randomly divided into 12 groups of 10 each. The ingredients with bet ter palatability (trash fish, chicken carcasses, egg, beef, and chicken) were measured the digestibility of DM and CP in blue foxes by the method of feeding directly, while the ingredients with common palatability (bitter ling, silver carp, chicken giblets, chicken liver, cow liver and yellow croaker) were measured by a difference method. The results showed that; 1) The apparent digestibility of DM in ingredients measured by the method of feeding directly had a significant difference (P 0.05), and the apparent digestibility of DM in trash fish, chicken carcasses, egg in the shell, beef and chicken were 84.39% , 87.24% , 61.14% , 94.64% and 88.12% , respectively; the ap parent digestibility of CP in those feedstuffs were 94.60% , 91.19% , 91.24% , 97.25% and 96. 69% , re spectively. 2) The apparent digestibility of DM and CP in ingredients measured by the difference method had a significant difference (P <0. 05), and the apparent digestibility of DM in bitterling, silver carp, chicken gib lets, cow liver, chicken liver and yellow croaker were 70.39% , 59.82% , 71.63% , 70. 56% , 79.17% and 75. 27% , respectively; the apparent digestibility of CP in those feedstuffs were 83. 06% , 77.28% , 89.88% , 68. 26% , 75. 58% , 69.13% and 94.60% , respectively. In conclusion, blue foxes have good digestive abili ty to the experimental ingredients, and the trash fish, chicken carcasses, egg, beef, chicken, bitterling and chicken giblets are of high quality protein ingredients for blue foxes. Moreover, for silver carp, chicken liver, cow liver and yellow croaker, their proper supplemental proportions in diets of blue foxes depend on their palat ability , nutrients

  18. Research on Biomassof Bamboo Forestin Changning County%长宁县竹林生物量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹明勇; 张峰; 刘立斌

    2016-01-01

    wastriennial > biennial > annual .The abovegroundbiomass rank of the organs of the Pleioblastus amaruswasrod >branch > leaf ,and the age distribution of Pleioblastus amarusbiomass wastriennial > biennial > annual .2 .The optimal models of the unit biomass of the bamboo forests are selected .Phyllostachys edulis :W = 0 .581 * (AD2)0 .617 ;Pleio‐blastus amarus :W = - 5 .548 + 2 .032 * D + 0 .544 * A ;Bambusa rigida :W = - 1 .845 + 0 .723 * D + 0 .478 * A .

  19. Effects of Freezing Rain and Snow Disaster on the Plant Diversity in the Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%雨雪冰冻灾害干扰对亚热带常绿阔叶林植物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘足根; 袁小兰; 钟梁; 李铭书

    2014-01-01

    or reduced under forest,and species increasing inluded Adinandra millettii,vine plants and Mallotusapelta Muell,and disappearing species included Buxus sinica,Dendranthema lavandulifolium, and Pleioblastus amarus.The quantity of Dicranopteris linearis and Cymbopogon citratus increased much.From the beginning of2011,the canopy density of forest recovered to the level before freezing rain and snow disaster.

  20. Temporal Distribution Patterns of Fish Community Structure and Species Composition in the Panzhihua Section of the Jinsha River%金沙江干流攀枝花江段鱼类种类组成和群落结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志; 唐会元; 朱迪; 高少波; 徐薇; 万力; 龚昱田; 乔晔

    2014-01-01

    reaches of the Jinsha River.Investigations were made on the fish catches from the main stream of the Jinsha River (from Yalong River estuary to Geliping town in Panzhihua city) from 2009 to 2012.Three sample sites (Geliping,Qingxiangping and Yalong River estuary)were selected and 156 fish catches,collected mainly by gillnets and hooks,were examined.Fish samples were identified according to The Fish ofSichuan and other literature resources and full length,body length and body weight were measured for each individual.The data was then used to analyze temporal patterns of species composition and fish community struc-ture.A total of 60 fish species,belonging to 3 orders,10 families and 37 genera were identified during the four year study period and the number of fish species decreased each year.Cluster analysis (CA)showed that fish spe-cies composition could be divided into two groups:Group I (2009-2010)and Group II (201 1 -2012),but one-way analysis of similarity (one-way ANOSIM)indicated no significant difference between Group I and Group II (R=1,p=33.3% >0.05).The biodiversity analysis of fish community showed that Margalef richness index (R),Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H)and Pielou evenness index (E)all decreased after 2010.The analy-sis on the temporal distribution of fish community by CA showed that fish community structure was also divided into two groups:Group I (2009-2010)and Group II (2011 -2012)and,again,one-way ANOSIMindicated no sig-nificant difference between Group I and Group II (R=0.92,P=27.6%>0.05).Similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER)indicated that fish species with declining populations over the four years were primarily the Cobitidae species that prefer running water,and the species that grow to a relatively large size and are adapted to cold water. Species that increased in abundance were mainly two species of Gobioninae that also prefer running water and two other small size species(Ctenogobius giurinus,Rhodeus sinensis)adapted to slow or static