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Sample records for bitterling rhodeus amarus

  1. Seasonal dynamics in population characteristics of European bitterling Rhodeus amarus in a small lowland river

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, Markéta; Reichard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2011), s. 227-239 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bitterling * annual life cycle * ecophysiology * gonado-somatic index * lipid content * somatic condition Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2011

  2. Sperm depletion as a consequence of increased sperm competition risk in the European bitterling, Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Pateman-Jones, C.; Zieba, G.; Przybylski, M.; Reichard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2009), s. 1227-1233 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * European bitterling * mating system * sexual conflict * sexual selection * sneaking * sperm competition * sperm economy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.890, year: 2009

  3. Reproduction mode of European Bitterling (Rhodeus amarus, Bloch, 1782) determined through rapid oocyte counts and size determination using digital imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, Markéta

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 5 (2012), s. 806-810 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA AV ČR KJB600930802 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bitterling * oocyte * size determibation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.902, year: 2012

  4. Parasite assemblages of European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), composition and effects of habitat type and host body size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dávidová, M.; Ondračková, Markéta; Jurajda, Pavel; Gelnar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 5 (2008), s. 1001-1011 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Parasite community * bitterling * Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008

  5. The role of the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus, Cyprinidae) in parasite accumulation and transmission in riverine ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dávidová, M.; Blažek, Radim; Trichkova, T.; Koutrakis, E.; Gaygusuz, Ö.; Ercan, E.; Ondračková, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2011), s. 377-387 ISSN 1386-2588 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930802; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : European bitterling * Freshwater habitat * Metazoan parasites * Parasite transmission * Intermediate host Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.365, year: 2011

  6. A sperm competition model for the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl; Reichard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 14 (2013), s. 1709-1730 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acheilognathinae * alternative mating tactics * mating system * sneaking * sperm competition * sperm motility Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2013

  7. The reproductive ecology of the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Reichard, Martin; Jurajda, Pavel; Przybylski, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 262, č. 2 (2004), s. 107-124 ISSN 0952-8369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Rhodeus sericeus * Acheilognathinae * reproduction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.889, year: 2004

  8. A comparison of the impact of direct and indirect benefits of mating decisions in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agbali, M.; Spence, R.; Reichard, Martin; Smith, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2012), s. 279-288 ISSN 1565-9801 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bitterling * direct selection * indirect selection * mate choice * oviposition * Rhodeus ocellatus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.444, year: 2012 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1560/IJEE.58.4.279

  9. Females solicit sneakers to improve fertilization success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus sericeus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Reichard, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 272, č. 1573 (2005), s. 1683-1688 ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : extra-pair copulations * bitterling * strategic ejaculation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.510, year: 2005

  10. Experimental evidence for parasite-induced over-winter mortality in juvenile Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michálková, Veronika; Ondračková, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 5 (2014), s. 1377-1388 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bitterling * Diplostomum pseudospathaceum * Metacercariae * Parasite infection * Trematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.658, year: 2014

  11. Mate choice for nonadditive genetic benefits correlate with MHC dissimilarity in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agbali, M.; Reichard, Martin; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Smith, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2010), s. 1683-1696 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Additive genetic benefit * female mate choice * genetic compatibility * good genes * mate choice * MHC * nonadditive genetic benefit * olfactory cues * Rhodeus ocellatus * sexual selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.659, year: 2010

  12. Male dominance, female mate choice and intersexual conflict in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Agbali, M.; Reichard, Martin; Konečná, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2009), s. 366-376 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : female mating preference * good genes * olfactory cues * mate choice * MHC * Rhodeus ocellatus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  13. Male coloration signals direct benefits in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl; Phillips, A.; Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 4 (2014), s. 335-341 ISSN 0378-1909 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Oviposition * Mate choice * Mating system * Nuptial coloration * Sexual selection * Spermatozoa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.570, year: 2014

  14. Personality traits, reproductive behaviour and alternative mating tactics in male European bitterling, Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řežucha, Radomil; Smith, C.; Reichard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 5 (2012), s. 531-553 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative reproductive behaviour * animal personality * boldness * behavioural syndrome * mating system * sperm competition * territorial males Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.661, year: 2012

  15. Spatial distribution of oviposition sites determines variance in the reproductive rate of European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Przybylski, M.; Reichard, Martin; Spence, R.; Smith, C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 11 (2007), s. 1403-1417 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mating system * opportunity for selection * oviposition * sexual selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2007

  16. Population and individual consequences of breeding resource availability in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, Markéta; Smith, C.; Reichard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 7 (2010), s. 1069-1079 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acheilognathinae * demography * recruitment * sexual selection * variation in reproductive success Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2010

  17. Detailed genetic structure of European bitterling populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bartáková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus is a small cyprinid fish whose populations declined markedly between 1950 and 1980. However, its range currently expands, partly due to human-assisted introductions. We determined the genetic variability and detailed spatial structure among bitterling populations in Central Europe and tested alternative hypotheses about colonization of this area. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci on a large sample of 688 individuals had been used to analyse genetic variability and population structure. Samples originated from 27 localities with emphasis on area of the Czech Republic where three major sea drainages (Black, Baltic, and Northern Sea meet. Highly variable level of intrapopulation genetic variability had generally been detected and a recent decrease in numbers (“bottleneck” had been indicated by genetic data among six populations. High level of interpopulation differentiation was identified even within the basins. There was a significant role of genetic drift and indications of low dispersal ability of R. amarus. Surprisingly, the Odra River was inhabited by two distinct populations without any genetic signatures of a secondary contact. Czech part of the Odra (Baltic basin was colonized from the Danubian refugium (similarly to adjacent Danubian basin rivers including the Morava, while Polish part of the Odra was genetically similar to the populations in the Vistula River (Baltic basin, that has been colonized by a different (Eastern phylogeographic lineage of R. amarus. Most Czech R. amarus populations were colonized from the Danubian refugium, suggesting potential for a human-mediated colonization of the Odra or Elbe Rivers by R. amarus. One Elbe basin population was genetically mixed from the two (Danubian and Eastern phylogeographic lineages. In general the Czech populations of R. amarus were genetically stable except for a single population which has probably been recently introduced. This research

  18. Reproductive behaviour of female rosy bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus in response to a female-biased operational sex ratio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liao, C.; Yu, D.; Chen, Y.; Reichard, Martin; Liu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2014), s. 755-768 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative reproductive behaviour * female aggression * operational sex ratio * bitterling Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.230, year: 2014

  19. Overwinter body condition, mortality and parasite infection in two size classes of 0+ year juvenile European bitterling Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, Kateřina; Ondračková, Markéta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2013), s. 555-568 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : energy reserves * parasite-induced mortality * size-dependent * young-of-the-year fish Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.734, year: 2013

  20. Range-wide population genetic structure of the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) based on microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Smith, C.; Konečný, Adam; Reichard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 21 (2010), s. 4708-4722 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930802; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : co-evolution * conservation * fish * intraspecific introduction * non-native populations Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.457, year: 2010

  1. Host-parasite interactions in sympatric and allopatric populations of European bitterling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francová, Kateřina; Ondračková, Markéta

    2011-09-01

    Susceptibility to parasite infection was examined in a field experiment for four populations of 0+ juvenile European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus): one sympatric to local parasite fauna, one allopatric, and two hybrid populations. Significantly higher parasite abundance was recorded in the allopatric bitterling population, suggesting a maladaptation of parasites to their sympatric host. Type of parasite life cycle played an important role in host-parasite interactions. While the abundance of allogenic species between populations was comparable, a significant difference was found in abundance of autogenic parasite species between fish populations, with the allopatric population more infected. These results correspond with a prediction of higher dispersion probability and higher gene flow among geographically distant populations of allogenic species as compared to autogenic species. Increased susceptibility to parasites that do not occur within the natural host's geographical distribution was found in the allopatric host, but only for autogenic species. A difference in infection susceptibility was detected among populations of early-hatched bitterling exposed to infection during a period of high parasite abundance and richness in the environment. Differences in parasite abundance and species diversity among populations diminished, however, with increasing time of exposure. No difference was found within late-hatched populations, probably due to a lower probability of infection in late-hatched cohorts.

  2. Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Ondračková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, C.; Bryja, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2009), s. 377-390 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : directional selection gradient * individual and population consequences of behavior * opportunity for selection * parentage analysis * sexual selection * reproductive effort Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  3. No evidence for host specialization or host-race formation in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), a fish that parasitizes freshwater mussels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Bryja, Josef; Polačik, Matej; Smith, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 17 (2011), s. 3631-3643 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930802; GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : coevolution * cuckoo * host–parasite relationship * speciation * symbiosis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2011

  4. Assessment of sperm competition by European bitterling, Rhodeus sericeus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Reichard, Martin; Jurajda, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2003), s. 206-213 ISSN 0340-5443 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Acheilognathinae * alternative mating tactics * ESS model Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2003

  5. A new species of Dactylogyrus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on an endangered freshwater fish, Rhodeus atremius atremius, endemic to Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    A new dactylogyrid monogenean Dactylogyrus bicorniculus sp. nov. is described from the gills of the kazetoge bitterling, Rhodeus atremius atremius (Jordan and Thompson, 1914), an endemic species in Japan, from Saga Prefecture, northern Kyūshū. D. bicorniculus sp. nov. resembles Dactylogyrus bicornis Malevitskaja, 1941 and Dactylogyrus lophogonus Zhang and Ji, 1980 because they have two common features, a large V-shaped ventral bar and well-developed second marginal hooks. However, the new species is distinguished from these congeners by a shorter penis and an accessory piece. A phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA shows that D. bicorniculus sp. nov. is a basal species with the T-shaped ventral bar in the genus. The new species has strict host-specificity to R. a. atremius, one of the endangered freshwater fishes in Japan, and may face the danger of co-extinction with its host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plecospondylic spinal column in the eel Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1956-01-01

    Several cases of deformities in the spinal column were described in fishes, viz. lordosis in the bitterling Rhodeus amarus) by ROTH (1922), in the minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) by ROTH (1922), in the pike (Esox lucius) by ROTH (1922) and PLEHN (1924); kyphosis in the toothcarps (Cyprinodontidae) by

  7. Sexual conflict, sexual selection and sperm competition in the spawning decisions of bitterling, Rhodeus sericeus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Douglas, A.; Jurajda, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2002), s. 433-439 ISSN 0340-5443 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Acheilognathinae * alternative mating tactics * mate choice Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.273, year: 2002

  8. Population consequences of behaviour in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus Cyprinidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Reichard, Martin; Douglas, A.; Jurajda, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2006), s. 139-145 ISSN 0906-6691 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : male-male competition * oviposition choice * population dynamics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.479, year: 2006

  9. A proximate cue for oviposition site choice in the bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Rippon, K.; Douglas, A.; Jurajda, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 7 (2001), s. 903-911 ISSN 0046-5070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : freshwater mussel * oxygen availability Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2001

  10. The effect of crowding and density on male mating behaviour in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Reichard, Martin; Smith, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 8 (2010), s. 1035-1050 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : density-dependence * mating system * sexual selection * sperm competition * territoriality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.480, year: 2010

  11. Male choice of mates and mating resources in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Reichard, Martin; Phillips, A.; Smith, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2013), s. 1199-1204 ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : body size * fecundity * male mate choice * mating system * oviposition * sperm competition * territoriality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2013

  12. Male-male interference competition decreases spawning rate in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Jurajda, Pavel; Smith, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2004), s. 34-41 ISSN 0340-5443 Grant - others:NATO/Royal Society(GB) fellowship; Royal Society(GB) Joint Project Grant Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * density dependence * operational sex ratio Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.180, year: 2004

  13. Genetic evidence reveals density-dependent mediated success of alternative mating behaviours in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Smith, C.; Jordan, W. C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2004), s. 1569-1578 ISSN 0962-1083 Grant - others:NATO/Royal Society(GB) fellowship; Royal Society(GB) Joint Project Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : fish * mating tactics * paternity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.375, year: 2004

  14. Effect of ethanolic leave extract of phyllantus amarus on carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peters

    (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphate (ALP) activities, and total ... and bladder problems, diabetes and intestinal ... studies, that the Phyllanthus amarus extracts (polar .... astragalin, ellagitannins like amarinic acid and.

  15. Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Aflatoxin B1 toxicity. Md. Sultan Ahmad * ... drugs. Phyllanthus amarus is one of them that have enormous medicinal potential. Aim: In these experiments, we ... it is used for its hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, analgesic.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Phyllanthus amarus on some human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-03-30

    Mar 30, 2014 ... International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Volume 3 Issue ... Background: Phyllanthus amarus is an economic plant grown in West. Africa that has ... pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli. P. mirabilis ...

  17. Clonal propagation of Phyllanthus amarus: A hepatoprotector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Janifer R.; Gnanam, Ramaswamy; Murugan, Muthiah P.; Pappachan, Anju

    2012-01-01

    Background: The micropropagation protocol for Phyllanthus amarus, an important medicinal herb used widely for the treatment of hepatitis in ethnomedicinal systems, was standardized with shoot tip and single node explants. Materials and Methods: The micropropagation was carried out for the hyperproducing ecotype (phyllanthin content 463.828 ppm; hypophyllanthin content: 75.469 ppm) collected from Aanaikatti, Coimbatore, and grown in mist chamber, CPMB, TNAU. For micropropagation studies, the leaves were trimmed off and the shoot tips (6 mm long) and nodal segments (single node) were used for initiation. Results: Shoot tips and single node explants gave a maximum of 6.00 and 7.00 multiple shoots per explant with Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) (1.0mg/L mg/L). Upon subculturing, a shoot length of around 7 cm with an average of eight internodes per shoot was observed after 20 days in the elongation medium supplemented with BAP (0.2 mg/Lmg/L) and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) (2.0 mg/L). Seven to ten adventitious roots developed when the elongated microshoots were cultured in half strength MS medium with Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) (2.0 mg/Lmg/L) and NAA (1.0 mg/L mg/L) in 15-20 days after transfer. The rooted shoots acclimatized successfully to field conditions. Conclusion: A method for successful micropropagation of the valuable medicinal plant was established which will provide a better source for continuous supply of plants for manufacturing drugs. PMID:22438668

  18. Effects of oral administration of Phyllanthus amarus leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histological findings indicated that the treated sections of the kidneys showed hypertrophy of blood vessels, mild-severe infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells and varying degrees of tubular necrosis when compared to the control sections. The findings indicated that the administration of Phyllanthus amarus extract has ...

  19. Effect of ethanolic leaves extract of phyllantus amarus on cisplatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats were sacrificed on days 7 and 14, blood samples were collected into heparinized sample bottles for biochemical investigation of sodium ion (Na+), potassium ion (K+), Chloride ion (Cl-), bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), creatinine and urea levels. Qualitative phytochemical screening of P.amarus was also carried out.

  20. Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of administration of Phyllanthus amarus commonly used for the treatment of jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, urogenital disease and wound on the superior colliculus of adult wistar rats was carefully studied. Rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200 g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A and B) ...

  1. The costs and benefits in an unusual symbiosis: experimental evidence that bitterling fish (Rhodeus sericeus) are parasites of unionid mussels in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Ondračková, Markéta; Przybylski, M.; Liu, H.; Smith, C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2006), s. 788-796 ISSN 1010-061X Grant - others:NSFC(CN) 30470237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * coevolution * glochidia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.970, year: 2006

  2. Evidence of host specificity and congruence between phylogenies of bitterling and freshwater mussels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, H.-Z.; Zhu, Y.-R.; Smith, C.; Reichard, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2006), s. 428-434 ISSN 1021-5506 Grant - others:NSFC(CN) 30470237; NSFC(CN) 40432003; Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CN) KZCX3-SW-126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bitterling * host specificity * coevolution * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.943, year: 2006 http://zoolstud.sinica.edu.tw/Journals/45.3/428.pdf

  3. Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Crude Extracts and Fractions from Phyllanthus amarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tang Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol (PAM extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40% and water activity (0.24 and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657.86 mg escin equivalents, 250.45 mg gallic acid equivalents, 274.73 mg rutin equivalents and 61.22 mg catechin equivalents per g dried extract, respectively than those of the P. amarus water (PAW extract. The antioxidant activity of PAM extract was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that of the PAW extract, PAM fractions, and phyllanthin (known as a major compound in the P. amarus. Higher cytotoxic activity of PAM extract based on MTT assay on different cell lines including MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas, HT29 (colon, A2780 (ovarian, H460 (lung, A431 (skin, Du145 (prostate, BE2-C (neuroblastoma, MCF-7 (breast, MCF-10A (normal breast, and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma was observed in comparison to the PAW extract and PAM fractions. The cytotoxic potential of the PAW extract (200 μg/mL, based on the CCK-8 assay on a pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaCaPa2 was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than those of gemcitabine (50 nM and a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark at 200 μg/mL (a commercial product, but was significantly higher than that of phyllanthin at 2 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results achieved from this study reveal that the PA extracts are a potential source for the development of natural antioxidant products and/or novel anticancer drugs.

  4. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect and inorganic constituents of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinee Wongnawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the -glucosidase inhibitory effect and determined the concentration of some inorganic constituents in P. amarus ash. Oral glucose and sucrose tolerance test were performed on normal mice. In vitro -glucosidase inhibitory activity was evaluated by using yeast a-glucosidase. The element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectroscopy. Single oral administration of P. amarus ash did not show antihyperglycemic effect after glucose administration, but decreased blood glucose level after sucrose administration. The ash showed -glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro with IC50 of 982 mg/mL. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Co in P. amarus ash were 35049.80±340.64, 3337.24±52.10, 1368.52±13.29, 90.81±1.34, 87.68±1.15, 18.28±0.22, 4.69±0.07, 1.07±0.15, 0.29±0.03, 0.20±0.04 and 0.10±0.02 mg/g, respectively. These results indicate that the antihyperglycemic effect of P. amarus ash might be partly due to the -glucosidase inhibitory activity of the inorganic constituents.

  5. Effects of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on risk factors for urinary calcium oxalate stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woottisin, Surachet; Hossain, Rayhan Zubair; Yachantha, Chatchai; Sriboonlue, Pote; Ogawa, Yoshihide; Saito, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the antilithic effect of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on known risk factors for calcium oxalate stones in rats. We divided 30 male Wistar rats into 5 equal groups. Controls were fed a standard diet and the remaining groups received a 3% glycolate diet for 4 weeks to induce hyperoxaluria. One glycolate fed group served as the untreated group and the others were given oral extracts of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa or Phyllanthus amarus at a dose of 3.5 mg daily. We collected 24-hour urine and blood samples. Kidneys were harvested for histological examination. We measured the renal tissue content of calcium and oxalate. The Hibiscus sabdariffa group showed significantly decreased serum oxalate and glycolate, and higher oxalate urinary excretion. The Phyllanthus amarus group showed significantly increased urinary citrate vs the untreated group. Histological examination revealed less CaOx crystal deposition in the kidneys of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus treated rats than in untreated rats. Those rats also had significantly lower renal tissue calcium content than untreated rats. All parameters in the Orthosiphon grandiflorus treated group were comparable to those in the untreated group. Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus decreased calcium crystal deposition in the kidneys. The antilithic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa may be related to decreased oxalate retention in the kidney and more excretion into urine while that of Phyllanthus amarus may depend on increased urinary citrate. In contrast, administering Orthosiphon grandiflorus had no antilithic effect. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Authenticity analyses of Phyllanthus amarus using barcoding coupled with HRM analysis to control its quality for medicinal plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; Chomdej, Siriwadee; Ongchai, Siriwan

    2015-11-15

    The Phyllanthus genus, a plant used in traditional Thai medicine, has according to several pharmacopeias hepatoprotective properties. Not only is the anatomical morphology of these species relatively similar but they also share the Thai common names Look-Tai-Bai (ลูกใต้ใบ) and Yah-Tai-Bai (หญ้าใต้ใบ), which might cause confusion for laypersons. This study attempted to develop a method for accurate identification of Phyllanthus species, especially Phyllanthus amarus, and to detect contaminants in P. amarus products by using DNA barcoding coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis (bar-HRM). Two plastid loci (rbcL and trnL) were chosen for DNA barcoding to generate a suitable primer for distinguishing Phyllanthus species by HRM analysis. The five species of Phyllanthus were subjected to amplification for testing the specificity and discrimination power of the designed primers derived from rbcL and trnL regions. Sensitivity of the method (DNA barcoding conjugated with HRM) to detect adulterant in P. amarus samples was evaluated. The commercial P. amarus products obtained from a local market were authenticated. The primer pair derived from trnL DNA barcoding (PhylltrnL) had more specificity and power of discrimination for Phyllanthus species than that derived from rbcL DNA barcoding (PhyllrbcL). The result showed that Tm of P. amarus, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus airy-shawii, and Phyllanthus virgatus was 74.3±0.08, 73.04±0.07, 73.36±0.05, 72.21±0.06, 72.77±0.15°C, respectively. This method proved to be a very sensitive tool that can be used for rapid detection of contamination as low as 1% of other Phyllanthus species in P. amarus admixtures. All commercial products of P. amarus obtained from a local market in Thailand were found to contain pure raw materials of P. amarus without any substitution or contamination. Our results indicated that the use of DNA barcoding coupled with HRM was an

  7. Nanosuspension of Phyllanthus amarus extract for improving oral bioavailability and prevention of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Shanti Bhushan; Pandey, Himanshu; Pandey, Avinash C

    2013-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) is commonly used for traditional Indian medicine and as dietary adjuncts for the treatment of numerous physiological disorders including hepatic disorders. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as lignans and flavonoids, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of P. amarus (PAE) and its nanoparticles (PAN) on paracetamol induced acute liver toxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats. An oral dose of PAE at 125 and 250 mg kg −1 and PAN at 25 and 50 mg kg −1 showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P −1 PAN was effectively better than 125 mg kg −1 PAE (P < 0.001), and an oral dose of PAN that is five times less than PAE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other poorly water soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage. (paper)

  8. The protective potential and possible mechanism of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. aqueous extract on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apichat Muso

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective potential of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. was studied on paracetamolinduced hepatotoxicity in rats by measuring the levels of serum transaminase (SGOT and SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin, as well as by histopathological examination of the liver. Furthermore, the hepatoprotective mechanisms were investigated by determining the amount of paracetamol and its metabolites (glucuronide, sulfate, cysteine and mercapturic acid conjugates in urine and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time to indicate the inhibition on cytochrome P450. The involvement of glutathione was evaluated by determining hepatic reduced glutathione. Its radical scavenging activity, iron chelating activity and total phenolic content were also determined. P. amarus aqueous extracts (0.8, 1.6 or 3.2 g/kg were orally administered twice daily for 7 days prior, for 2 days after, or for 7 days prior and followed by 2 days after a single oral dose of paracetamol (3 g/kg. The results showed that the extract at the doses of 1.6 and 3.2 g/kg decreased the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by the decrease in SGOT, SGPT, bilirubin and histopathological score while the ALP did not change. Moreover, it is suggested that the hepatoprotective mechanism of this plant was related neither to the inhibition on cytochrome P450, nor to the induction on sulfate and/or glucuronide conjugation pathways of paracetamol, but partly due to the protective effect on the depletion of hepatic reduced glutathione and also its antioxidant activity, especially the radical scavenging and iron chelating activity, which might be related to the high polyphenolic contents. These results support the value of P. amarus, which has been used in Thai folk medicine for the treatment of liver diseases.

  9. Streptomyces phyllanthi sp. nov., isolated from the stem of Phyllanthus amarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klykleung, Nattaporn; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-10-01

    The novel endophytic actinomycete strain PA1-07T was isolated from the stem of Phyllanthus amarus. The strain displayed the consistent characteristics of members of the genus Streptomyces. The strain produced short spiral spore chains on aerial mycelia. It grew at pH 5-9, at 40 °C and with a maximum of 5 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose and ribose in the whole-cell hydrolysate. The major cellular menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), while the major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The polar lipids were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and four unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 71 mol%. The strain showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces curacoi JCM 4219T (98.77 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain PA1-07T and S. curacoi JCM 4219T were lower than 70 %, the cut-off level for assigning strains to the same species. On the basis of these phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, the strain could be distinguished from closely related species of the genus Streptomyces and thus represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces phyllanthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PA1-07T (=JCM 30865T=KCTC 39785T=TISTR 2346T).

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Standardized Extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and Their Marker Compounds on Phagocytic Activity of Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuandani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The standardized methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria, collected from Malaysia and Indonesia, and their isolated chemical markers, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin, were evaluated for their effects on the chemotaxis, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. All the plant extracts strongly inhibited the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs with the Malaysian P. amarus showing the strongest inhibitory activity (IC50 value, 1.1 µg/mL. There was moderate inhibition by the extracts of the bacteria engulfment by the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus exhibiting the highest inhibition (50.8% of phagocytizing cells. The Malaysian P. amarus and P. urinaria showed strong reactive oxygen species (ROS inhibitory activity, with both extracts exhibiting IC50 value of 0.7 µg/mL. Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin exhibited relatively strong activity against PMNs chemotaxis, with IC50 values slightly lower than that of ibuprofen (1.4 µg/mL. Phyllanthin exhibited strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst with an IC50 value comparable to that of aspirin (1.9 µg/mL. Phyllanthin exhibited strong engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1% for neutrophils and monocytes, respectively. The strong inhibitory activity of the extracts was due to the presence of high amounts of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin although other constituents may also contribute.

  11. Beneficial Effects of Phyllanthus amarus Against High Fructose Diet Induced Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putakala, Mallaiah; Gujjala, Sudhakara; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2017-11-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a characteristic feature of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that the high-fructose consumption is a potential and important factor responsible for the rising incidence of IR. The present study investigates the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PAAE) on IR and oxidative stress in high-fructose (HF) fed male Wistar rats. HF diet (66% of fructose) and PAAE (200 mg/kg body weight/day) were given concurrently to the rats for a period of 60 days. Fructose-fed rats showed weight gain, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia (P diet significantly ameliorated all these alterations. Regarding hepatic antioxidant status, higher lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, lower reduced glutathione levels and lower activities of enzymatic antioxidants, and the histopathological changes like mild to severe distortion of the normal architecture as well as the prominence and widening of the liver sinusoids observed in the HF diet-fed rats were significantly prevented by PAAE treatment. These findings indicate that PAAE is beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity and attenuating metabolic syndrome and hepatic oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats.

  12. NEW DESIGN FOR AIRLIFT PUMP USED IN FISH CULTURE TANKS WITH THE ENDANGERED RIO GRANDE SILVERY MINNOW (Hybognathus amarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Hutson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an airlift pump used to produce a circular flow in a fish culture tank that does not attach to the tank. The design produces an airlift pump that does not swing back and forth or float upwards while in use. It is easy to build, inexpensive, and can be quickly installed and removed so that it does not interfere with sampling or harvest. The airlift pump was evaluated during a 30-d survival trial with the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus in 2.44-m-diameter circular tanks (3,666 l. Because the fish is endangered, all new culture units must be evaluated in a survival trial. To be able to use a new 15-tank system, survival had to be evaluated in a random representation of three tanks. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which regulates all activities with this endangered species, decided that permitted take (maximum permitted mortality was 60% for the survival trial; consequently, survival >40% in each tank would be considered successful. Two airlift pumps were placed in each tank. The two airlift pumps moved a mean±SD of 33.697±5.563 l/min; this produced total tank turnovers through the airlift pumps of 110.65±16.93 min. Water velocities were measured at nine locations in the tanks. Water velocities were 0.0-0.04 m/sec. Dissolved oxygen concentration never went below 6.30 mg/l. The airlift pumps operated flawlessly and required no maintenance. They produced water velocities preferred by the fish and helped keep dissolved oxygen concentration above the permitted minimum (5 mg/l. The airlift pumps will be used in future fish culture activities in these and other tanks. Survival in the three tanks was 78%, 94% and 96%; overall survival was 89.3%. Because take (10.7% was under the permitted level (60%, the trial was successful.

  13. Effects of parental number and duration of the breeding period on the effective population size and genetic diversity of a captive population of the endangered Tokyo bitterling Tanakia tanago (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity is one of the chief concerns in the captive breeding of endangered species. Using microsatellite and mtDNA markers, we examined the effects of two key variables (parental number and duration of breeding period) on effective population size (N(e) ) and genetic diversity of offspring in an experimental breeding program for the endangered Tokyo bitterling, Tanakia tanago. Average heterozygosity and number of alleles of offspring estimated from microsatellite data increased with parental number in a breeding aquarium, and exhibited higher values for a long breeding period treatment (9 weeks) compared with a short breeding period (3 weeks). Haplotype diversity in mtDNA of offspring decreased with the reduction in parental number, and this tendency was greater for the short breeding period treatment. Genetic estimates of N(e) obtained with two single-sample estimation methods were consistently higher for the long breeding period treatment with the same number of parental fish. Average N(e) /N ratios were ranged from 0.5 to 1.4, and were high especially in the long breeding period with small and medium parental number treatments. Our results suggest that the spawning intervals of females and alternative mating behaviors of males influence the effective size and genetic diversity of offspring in bitterling. To maintain the genetic diversity of captive T. tanago, we recommend that captive breeding programs should be conducted for a sufficiently long period with an optimal level of parental density, as well as using an adequate number of parents. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. On-site evaluation of the suitability of a wetted instream habitat in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, for the Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Two in-situ exposure studies were conducted with the federally-listed endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus). One-year-old adults were exposed in cages deployed at three sites in the Middle Rio Grande, N. Mex., for 4 days to assess survival and for 26 days to evaluate survival, growth, overall health, and whole-body elemental composition. The test sites were located on the Pueblo of Isleta in the (1) main channel of the Middle Rio Grande, (2) 240-Wasteway irrigation return drain, and (3) wetted instream habitat created below the outfall of the 240-Wasteway irrigation return drain. During the cage exposures, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and turbidity were monitored continuously (15-minute intervals) and common constituents, nutrients, carbons, metals, and pesticides were measured at discrete intervals. In both studies, there were statistical differences in several water-quality parameters among sites; and except for turbidity, these differences were small and were not considered to be biologically significant. The cages used in the 4-day exposure study were ineffective at preventing access to the fish by predators, and survival was highly variable (20 percent to 90 percent) across sites. In the 26-day chronic exposure study, weight and condition factor of caged-exposed fish at all sites were significantly lower than those at test initiation. After 26 days of exposure, there were no significant differences in survival, total length, weight, or condition factor of fish across sites, but absolute weight loss and relative reduction in condition factor were significantly greater in fish at the wetted instream habitat site compared to those at the Middle Rio Grande site. There were no statistical differences in health assessment indices, mesenteric fat indices, or prevalence of abnormalities in cage-exposed fish among sites. Cage-exposed fish had higher health assessment indices and prevalence of fin anomalies and a lower mesenteric

  15. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. III. Effect of fish preservation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 3 (2018), s. 213-224 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : flounder Paralichthys-olivaceus * Neoheterobothrium-hirame * community structure * infection levels * Baltic sea * Odontobutidae * ectoparasites * Perciformes * collection * ecology * Parasite community * Preservation methods * Perca fluviatilis * Rhodeus amarus * Methodology * Parasitological examination Subject RIV: GL - Fish ing OBOR OECD: Fish ery Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  16. ED-XRF spectrometry-based comparative inorganic profile of leaf-derived in vitro calli and in vivo leaf samples of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn.--a hepatoprotective herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, P; Behera, P R; Thirunavoukkarasu, M; Chand, P K

    2011-03-01

    The Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) set-up incorporating a molybdenum secondary exciter was used for quantitative determination of major and minor elements in leaves of in vivo grown medicinal herb Phyllanthus amarus vis-á-vis its leaf-derived in vitro callus culture. The elements such as K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb were identified, quantified and compared between both the sources. Experimental results revealed that, compared to the naturally grown herb, in vitro leaf-derived callus cultures were more efficient in accumulating inorganic elements, especially trace elements, which are essential for growth and development and more importantly for prevention and cure of diseases. This investigation on a medicinal plant species is the first of its kind to have used the ED-XRF technique to demonstrate a comparative account of the elemental profile of in vitro callus cultures with their in vivo donor in order to explore the possibility of exploiting the former as a viable alternative and a renewable source of phytochemicals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ED-XRF spectrometry-based comparative inorganic profile of leaf-derived in vitro calli and in vivo leaf samples of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn.-a hepatoprotective herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, P., E-mail: pranati_nayak_23@yahoo.co.i [Plant Tissue and Cell Culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, (C.S.I.R., Govt. of India), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Behera, P.R., E-mail: priyaranjan2004@gmail.co [Plant Tissue and Cell Culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, (C.S.I.R., Govt. of India), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Thirunavoukkarasu, M., E-mail: mtarasu@yahoo.co [Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, (C.S.I.R., Govt. of India), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Chand, P.K., E-mail: pkchanduubot@rediffmail.co [Plant Tissue and Cell Culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India)

    2011-03-15

    The Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) set-up incorporating a molybdenum secondary exciter was used for quantitative determination of major and minor elements in leaves of in vivo grown medicinal herb Phyllanthus amarus vis-a-vis its leaf-derived in vitro callus culture. The elements such as K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb were identified, quantified and compared between both the sources. Experimental results revealed that, compared to the naturally grown herb, in vitro leaf-derived callus cultures were more efficient in accumulating inorganic elements, especially trace elements, which are essential for growth and development and more importantly for prevention and cure of diseases. This investigation on a medicinal plant species is the first of its kind to have used the ED-XRF technique to demonstrate a comparative account of the elemental profile of in vitro callus cultures with their in vivo donor in order to explore the possibility of exploiting the former as a viable alternative and a renewable source of phytochemicals.

  18. The lateral line receptor array of cyprinids from different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke; Bleckmann, Horst; Mogdans, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    The lateral line system of teleost fishes consists of an array of superficial and canal neuromasts (CN). Number and distribution of neuromasts and the morphology of the lateral line canals vary across species. We investigated the morphology of the lateral line system in four diurnal European cyprinids, the limnophilic bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus), the indifferent gudgeon (Gobio gobio), and ide (Leuciscus idus), and the rheophilic minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). All fish had lateral line canals on head and trunk. The total number of both, CN and superficial neuromasts (SN), was comparable in minnow and ide but was greater than in gudgeon and bitterling. The ratio of SNs to CNs for the head was comparable in minnow and bitterling but was greater in gudgeon and ide. The SN-to-CN ratio for the trunk was greatest in bitterling. Polarization of hair cells in CNs was in the direction of the canal. Polarization of hair cells in SNs depended on body area. In cephalic SNs, hair cell polarization was dorso-ventral or rostro-caudal. In trunk SNs, it was rostro-caudal on lateral line scales and dorso-ventral on other trunk scales. On the caudal fin, hair cell polarization was rostro-caudal. The data show that, in the four species studied here, number, distribution, and orientation of CNs and SNs cannot be unequivocally related to habitat. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The function of multiple ejaculations in bitterling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, A.; Warren, M.; Rouchet, Romain; Reichard, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 9 (2014), s. 1819-1829 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0048 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : competition * fish * behaviour Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.232, year: 2014

  20. The function of multiple ejaculations in bitterling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl; Warren, M.; Rouchet, Romain; Reichard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 9 (2014), s. 1819-1829 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acheilognathinae * alternative mating tactics * fertilization * mating system * sneaking * sperm competition * territoriality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.232, year: 2014

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Acheilognathidae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinoidea) as revealed from evidence of both nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequence variation: evidence for necessary taxonomic revision in the family and the identification of cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Li, Fan; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Morosawa, Takahiro; Kim, Sungmin; Koo, Hyeyoung; Kim, Won; Lee, Jae-Seong; He, Shunping; Smith, Carl; Reichard, Martin; Miya, Masaki; Sado, Tetsuya; Uehara, Kazuhiko; Lavoué, Sébastien; Chen, Wei-Jen; Mayden, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    Bitterlings are relatively small cypriniform species and extremely interesting evolutionarily due to their unusual reproductive behaviors and their coevolutionary relationships with freshwater mussels. As a group, they have attracted a great deal of attention in biological studies. Understanding the origin and evolution of their mating system demands a well-corroborated hypothesis of their evolutionary relationships. In this study, we provide the most comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of species relationships of the group based on partitioned maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods using DNA sequence variation of nuclear and mitochondrial genes on 41 species, several subspecies and three undescribed species. Our findings support the monophyly of the Acheilognathidae. Two of the three currently recognized genera are not monophyletic and the family can be subdivided into six clades. These clades are further regarded as genera based on both their phylogenetic relationships and a reappraisal of morphological characters. We present a revised classification for the Acheilognathidae with five genera/lineages: Rhodeus, Acheilognathus (new constitution), Tanakia (new constitution), Paratanakia gen. nov., and Pseudorhodeus gen. nov. and an unnamed clade containing five species currently referred to as "Acheilognathus". Gene trees of several bitterling species indicate that the taxa are not monophyletic. This result highlights a potentially dramatic underestimation of species diversity in this family. Using our new phylogenetic framework, we discuss the evolution of the Acheilognathidae relative to classification, taxonomy and biogeography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Spence, R.; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Smith, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2012), e40780 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : major histocompatibility complex * mate choice * sexual selection * good genes * reproductive success * compatible genes * polymorphism * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  3. Phytochemical Analysis of the Leaves of Phyllanthus amarus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tv.v22i1.4547 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  4. Antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous extract of phyllantus amarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) suppression of P berghei parasites via a repository action. This effect was comparable to the effects of pyrimethamine a standard repository agent. In established infection, the extract at all doses administered, was found to significantly ...

  5. Proposing a Technical Solution for Restoring Longitudinal Connectivity in the Brădeni/Retiş Accumulation Area on Hârtibaciu River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu Răzvan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fish fauna of the Hârtibaciu River has experienced a disrupted connectivity due to the hydrotechnical works and the Brădeni/Retiş Dam located across the Hârtibaciu watercourse being one of this significant obstacles. The newly proposed constructed wetlands can improve the habitat quality for the fish species of conservative interest sampled in the Brădeni/Retiş Dam proximity Rhodeus amarus, and can increase the individuals’ number of this population. Also can benefit the local populations of Phoxinus phoxinus and Gobio obtusirostris. Using gravitational force and also the underground layout, a proposed technical solution gives maximum safety regarding the water supply for the newly proposed to be created wetlands.

  6. Monogenean Parasites on the Gills of Some Fish Species from Lakes Sapanca and Durusu, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Soylu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sapanca ve Durusu Göllerindeki bazı balık türlerinin solungaçlarındaki Monogenean parazitler. Sapanca ve Durusu göllerindeki 11 balık türü; Silurus glanis, Esox lucius, Rutilus rutilus, Vimba vimba, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Abramis brama, Tinca tinca, Cyprinus carpio, Rhodeus sericeus amarus, Chalcalburnus chalcoides, Rutilus frisii’den Monogenean parazitler çalışıldı. Dactylogyrus, Silurodiscoides, Tetraonchus ve Paradiplozoon genuslarına ait 19 monogenoid türü; Dactylogyrus sphyrna, D. vistulae, D. phoxini, D. difformis, D. difformoides, D. chalcalburni, D. bicornis D. nybelini, D. frisii, D. crucifer, D. cornu, D.cornoides, D. extensus, D. macracanthus, D. izjumovae, Silurodiscoides siluri, S.vistulensis, Tetraonchus monenteron ve Paradiplozoon sp. bulundu. D.bicornis, D.nybelini ve D.izjumovae Türkiye için yeni kayıtlardır

  7. Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl; Philips, André; Reichard, Martin

    2015-06-22

    The ability to attract mates, acquire resources for reproduction, and successfully outcompete rivals for fertilizations may make demands on cognitive traits--the mechanisms by which an animal acquires, processes, stores and acts upon information from its environment. Consequently, cognitive traits potentially undergo sexual selection in some mating systems. We investigated the role of cognitive traits on the reproductive performance of male rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), a freshwater fish with a complex mating system and alternative mating tactics. We quantified the learning accuracy of males and females in a spatial learning task and scored them for learning accuracy. Males were subsequently allowed to play the roles of a guarder and a sneaker in competitive mating trials, with reproductive success measured using paternity analysis. We detected a significant interaction between male mating role and learning accuracy on reproductive success, with the best-performing males in maze trials showing greater reproductive success in a sneaker role than as a guarder. Using a cross-classified breeding design, learning accuracy was demonstrated to be heritable, with significant additive maternal and paternal effects. Our results imply that male cognitive traits may undergo intra-sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. The co-evolutionary relationship between bitterling fishes and freshwater mussels: insights from interspecific comparisons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Liu, H.; Smith, C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2007), s. 239-259 ISSN 1522-0613 Grant - others:NSFC(CN) 30470237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * co-evolution * egg ejection * host-parasite relationship * mutualism * oviposition Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.409, year: 2007

  9. A possible evolutionary lag in the relationship between freshwater mussels and European bitterling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Przybylski, M.; Kaniewska, P.; Liu, H.; Smith, C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2007), s. 709-725 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Grant - others:NSFC(CN) 30470237; PSCSR(PL) 2P04F 01529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : coevolution * oviposition choice * host ejection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.404, year: 2007 http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01333.x

  10. Host-parasite interactions in sympatric and allopatric populations of European bitterling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, Kateřina; Ondračková, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2011), s. 801-808 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930802; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : local adaptation * Trematodes * similarity * patterns * genetics * ecology * fishes * size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011

  11. Deceptive female oviposition behaviour elicits male ejaculation in the European bitterling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, H.; Reichard, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 6 (2007), s. 1841-1846 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Grant - others:The Leverhulme Trust(GB) NSFC 30470237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mating tactics * pre-oviposition ejaculation * signal evolution * sneaking sperm competition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.404, year: 2007 http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01624.x

  12. Bayesian inference supports the host selection hypothesis in explaining adaptive host specificity by European bitterling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 2 (2017), s. 379-389 ISSN 0029-8549 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Brood parasite * Host–parasite co-evolution * Oviposition * Spawning site * Superparasitism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.130, year: 2016

  13. Avoidance of host resistance in the oviposition-site preferences of rose bitterling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rouchet, Romain; Smith, Carl; Liu, H.; Methling, Caroline; Douda, K.; Yu, D.; Tang, Q.; Reichard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2017), s. 769-783 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Brood parasitism * Coevolutionary dynamic * Egg ejection * Host selection * Oviposition choice * Parasite specialisation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 1.818, year: 2016

  14. 75 FR 7625 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Rio Grande Silvery Minnow (Hybognathus amarus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... modification of its habitat due to dewatering and diversion of water, water impoundment, and modification of... thorough knowledge of the Rio Grande silvery minnow's life history, ecology, and behavior, and the current...

  15. Variation in male reproductive traits among three bitterling fishes (Acheilognathinae: Cyprinidae) in relation to the mating system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pateman-Jones, C.; Rasotto, M. B.; Reichard, Martin; Liao, C.; Liu, H.; Zieba, G.; Smith, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3 (2011), s. 622-632 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : reproduction * sperm competition * sperm depletion * sperm economy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.193, year: 2011

  16. An invasive species reverses the roles in a host–parasite relationship between bitterling fish and unionid mussels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Vrtílek, Milan; Douda, K.; Smith, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2012), s. 601-604 ISSN 1744-9561 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : species interaction * coevolution * interspecific relationship * parasitism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.348, year: 2012

  17. An indirect effect of biological invasions: the effect of zebra mussel fouling on parasitisation of unionid mussels by bitterling fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrtílek, Milan; Reichard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 696, č. 1 (2012), s. 205-214 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Non-native species * Coevolution * Invasional meltdown * Host-parasite relationship * Aquatic ecosystems Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.985, year: 2012

  18. RARE COMPONENT OF THE FISH FAUNA OF THE 'SULINSKY' NATIONAL LANDSCAPE RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ja. Rudik-Leuska

    2014-06-01

    authorities should focus attention on their protection and restoration of abundance. Keywords: Sulinsky Reserve, Sula Bay, conservation lists, sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L., Crucian carp (Carassius carassius L., Common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus L., Wels catfish (Silurus glanis L., Asp (Aspius aspius L., Bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus Pall., Spined loach (Cobitis taenia L..

  19. Across Siberia and over Europe: Phylogenetic relationship of the freshwater fish genus Rhodeus in Europe and the phylogenetic position of R. sericeus from the River Amur.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Bogutskaya, N. G.; Freyhof, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 40, 3 (2006), s. 856-865 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600450508; GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Acheilognatinae * biogeography * freshwater fishes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.528, year: 2006

  20. No effect of recent sympatry with invasive zebra mussel on the oviposition decisions and reproductive success of the bitterling fish, a brood parasite of unionid mussels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartáková, Veronika; Reichard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 794, č. 1 (2017), s. 153-166 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ecological naivety * Population consequences * Rapid adaptation * Unio * Unionida Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  1. Some Central Nervous System Effects of the aqueous Extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Phyllanthus amarus is used in Southern Nigeria to treat variety of diseases including epilepsy. The aqueous extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus was investigated for some central nervous system effects. Two animals models (maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion), were used ...

  2. The Phytochemical constituents and the effects of methanol extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: The effects of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus on the ... use of the aerial part of this plant by traditional medicine practitioners to increase/improve libido and reproductive ... The crude drug was extracted.

  3. 166 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae,. Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. These effects were compared with those of ampicillin, gentamicin and pefloxacin. Phytochemical analysis showed ...

  4. Evaluation of antifungal efficacy of some plant extracts on Curvularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JUDITH

    growth of C. lunata (P ≤ 0.05). At all concentrations, P. amarus is most efficacious of all the plants extracts; this was followed by extract of T. diversifolia and M. lucida. Extract of G. sepium was the least effective of all the plant extracts against C. lunata. P. amarus is most efficient in the control of leaf spot of maize caused by ...

  5. Sex differences in the responses to oviposition site cues by a fish revealed by tests with an artificial host

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Phillips, A.; Reichard, Martin; Smith, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, April (2017), s. 187-194 ISSN 0003-3472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : maternal effect * mussel * oviposition site cue * reproduction * Rhodeus * sexual conflict Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Behavioral sciences biology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  6. Antibacterial efficacies of some plant extracts against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of farmed catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Ekanem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases are responsible for mortalities of some farmed catfish in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to investigate the efficacies of extracts of some plants against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of Heterobranchus longifilis. Ethanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus, Allium sativum, Artemisia annua, Citrus limon, Moringa oleifera, Allium cepa and Azadirachta indica were tested against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of H. longifilis by disc diffusion assay. Extracts of P. amarus, A. sativum, A. annua and C. limon were significantly (P<0.05 more sensitive to A. hydrophila and P. flourescens than M. oleifera, A. cepa and A. indica which were effective against P. flourescens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the extracts were 25mg/ml for P. amarus and A. annua; 25 and 100mg/ml for C. lemon and A. cepa respectively and 50mg/ml for A. indica.  Alkaloid was demonstrated in all plants except A. annua by qualitative methods. Moderate amount (++ of cardiac glycosides was demonstrated in A. sativum, M. oleifera and P. amarus. Saponin (+++ was present in M. oleifera and A. indica while, tannin (++ was present in M. oleifera, P. amarus and A. indica respectively. Phlobatanins and Anthraquinones (++ were present in P. amarus and M. oleifera respectively.  Extracts of aforementioned plants have potentials as therapy against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of farmed catfish.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of Acheilognathidae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinoidea) as revealed from evidence of both nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequence variation: Evidence for necessary taxonomic revision in the family and the identification of cryptic species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chang, H.-C.; Li, F.; Shao, K.-T.; Lin, Y.-S.; Morosawa, T.; Kim, S.; Koo, H.; Kim, W.; Lee, J.-S.; He, S.; Smith, Carl; Reichard, Martin; Miya, M.; Sado, T.; Uehara, K.; Lavoué, S.; Chen, W.-J.; Mayden, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 81, December (2014), s. 182-194 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acheilognathinae * Cyprinidae * Cryptic species * Nuclear loci * Cytochrome b * European bitterling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.916, year: 2014

  8. Hořavka duhová – z parazita hostitel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2013), s. 298-300 ISSN 0044-4812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.35.0026 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bitterling * parasite Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://ziva.avcr.cz/2013-6/horavka-duhova-z-parazita-hostitel.html

  9. The role of local adaptation in shaping fish-mussel coevolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douda, Karel; Liu, Huan-Zhang; Yu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    impact on the persistence of local populations. Bivalves of the order Unionida (freshwater mussels) are a functionally important but declining group of affiliate species, which are dependent on freshwater fish to host their parasitic larvae. The role of local adaptations and host fish resistance......1. The survival of affiliate (dependent) species in a changing environment is determined by the interactions between the affiliate species and their available hosts. However, the patterns of spatial and temporal changes in host compatibility are often unknown despite host shifts having direct...... associated bitterling fishes was low in its native range (with ancient sympatry). In areas of recent sympatry (non-native S.woodiana range in Europe), S.woodiana glochidia were demonstrated to readily parasitise local, evolutionarily naive bitterling species at high density.4. The results of a population...

  10. Alimba et al (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    There was significant (p<0.05) increase in erythrocytes, haemoglobin ... for its anti-hemorrhoid and anti-inflammatory properties (Afolabi et al., 2008), ... genome instability which may lead to genetic related diseases ... membrane, behavioral pattern, morbidity and mortality. ..... extracts of Phyllanthus amarus in mice and rats.

  11. Modifications in sperm quality of Wister Albino Rats by Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of a well known herb, Phyllanthus amarus on the sperm characteristics in male albino rats was studied. This was an investigation of the age-long claim by the locales in the rural communities in the southern states of Nigeria where this plant is consumed religiously that it affects sperm quality, hence sexual potency ...

  12. Modifications in sperm quality of Wister Albino Rats by Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    to the experimental animals for 14 days. Epidydymal ... that the claim that P. amarus affects sexual potency in man may be true. Further ... This study was thus conducted to investigate the modifications, and the extent to which this claim is true.

  13. Notes on Citrullus spp.: Pollen morphology, C values, and interspecific hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. mucosospermus (Fu...

  14. Screening selected Vietnamese plants used to treat diabetes for PTP1B inhibitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Thi Dieu Binh; Staerk, D; Jäger, A K

    2016-01-01

    -scale HPLC, and this showed that ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of R. mucronata and K. candel contained high levels of tannins, and were therefore not investigated further. Ethyl acetate extracts of N. mirabilis, P. amarus, P. urinaria, L. octavalvis, E. hirta, S. cumini, F. racemosa, P. ducle, C...

  15. Pharmacological evidences for antiamnesic potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phyllanhus amarus (PAs) is commonly known as Bhumi amla and is traditionally used since centuries in ayurveda. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of PAs on cognitive functions and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. PAs (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) produced a dose- dependent improvement in ...

  16. Schum & Thonn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    ABSTRACT. The chemical composition of the leave extracts of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum and Thonn) of the family Euphorbiaceae from Nigeria was analyzed by GC-MS. The extracts were also examined for their potential to inhibit the growth of clinical isolates following standard procedure. The major compounds ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antihyperglycemic activity of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum & Thonn) in rats. Abstract · Vol 16, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effet anti-ulcereux de l'extrait hydroalcoolique D'ecorce de tronc et de racine de Ficus polita vahl. (Moraceae) Abstract · Vol 17, No 2 (2015) - Articles Effect of Spirulina platensis powder on metabolic syndrome ...

  18. Preliminary Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of phyllantus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The whole plant of phyllantus amarus Linn (Euphorbiaceae) has wide traditional uses for jaundice, gonorrhoea, frequent menstruation, chronic dysentery and diabetes. Aqueous and methanol extracts were tested against 8 human pathogenic bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and tube macro-dilution techniques.

  19. Eating disorders in day treatment aspects of assessment and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exterkate, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Part I gives a general introduction and overview of the research with a naturalistic design that has been done in Amarum. Amarus is a specialized public health centre for the treatment of people with eating disorders where the development of Evidence Based Mental Health (EBMH) and the use of

  20. Inhibitive action of alkaloids and non alkaloid fractions of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2.0 MHCl solution by non-alkaloidal and alkaloidal fractions of the extracts of Phyllanthus amarus (NAEPA and AEPA respectively) was studied using gravimetric and gasometric techniques at 303 and 323 K. The results revealed that the extracts functioned as good corrosion inhibitors.

  1. Seasonal change in the opportunity for sexual selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Smith, C.; Bryja, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2008), s. 642-651 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Grant - others:British Ecological Society(GB) ECPG 551/617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bitterling * body size * sexual selection * mating success * reproductive skew Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.325, year: 2008 http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03602.x

  2. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callería District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

    2005-06-03

    Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml).

  3. The lignan niranthin poisons Leishmania donovani topoisomerase IB and favours a Th1 immune response in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Sayan; Mukherjee, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Rupkatha; Mukherjee, Budhaditya; Sengupta, Souvik; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Roy, Syamal; Majumder, Hemanta K

    2012-01-01

    Niranthin, a lignan isolated from the aerial parts of the plant Phyllanthus amarus, exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we have shown for the first time that niranthin is a potent anti-leishmanial agent. The compound induces topoisomerase I-mediated DNA–protein adduct formation inside Leishmania cells and triggers apoptosis by activation of cellular nucleases. We also show that niranthin inhibits the relaxation activity of heterodimeric type IB topois...

  4. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess...... the potential for FZT transmission in an area with high density of tilapia farms, wild-caught fish from local rivers and canals were bought at local markets. The wild-caught fish species included Hemiculter leucisculus (145), Rhodeus sinensis Gunther (10), Rasborinus lineatus (96), Squaliobarbus curriculus (6......), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong...

  5. Estudo fitoquímico e bioensaio toxicológico frente a larvas de Artemia salina Leach. de três espécies medicinais do gênero Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Nascimento

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico e a toxicidade de três espécies do gênero Phyllanthus (P. niruri, P. amarus e P. tenellus, coletadas em diferentes localidades do estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. Os extratos brutos das três espécies foram submetidos a testes convencionais por cromatografia em camada delgada analítica para verificação das classes de metabólitos presentes, e testados frente a larvas de Artemia salina para obtenção das concentrações letais médias (CL50. Os testes fitoquímicos demonstraram a presença de flavonóides, saponinas, terpenos, naftoquinonas, alcalóides, antraquinonas, lignanas e taninos. As três espécies de Phyllanthus apresentaram variações na composição fitoquímica e na toxicidade frente a A. salina. Dependendo do local de coleta, os valores de CL50 variaram de 404,43 ± 49,64 µg/mL a 770,84 ± 51,78 µg/mL para P. niruri, 837,65 ± 61,45 µg/mL a 1075,89 ± 70,72 µg/mL para P. amarus e 534,60 ± 46,83 µg/mL a 1003,62 ± 65,15 µg/mL para P. tenellus. Palavras-chave: Phyllanthus niruri; Phyllanthus amarus,/i>; Phyllanthus tenellus; análise fitoquímica preliminar; bioensaio toxicológico; CL50

  6. Current knowledge from experimental works with radioprotective drugs from the viewpoint of latest scientific research; Aktualne poznatky z experiment8lnych prac s rastlinami s radioprotektivnym ucinkom vo svetle najnovsich vedeckych vyskumov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalka, J [Ustav vyzivy, dietetiky a krmovinarstva, Univerzita veterinarskeho lekarstva, 04181 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2008-06-15

    The protection of both human and animal population against a radiation impairment proves to be an impulse for continuous intensive searching for plants with radioprotective properties, identification of their radioprotective components and examination of their effects both in vivo an in vitro. I am presenting the results as well as knowledge of a latest scientific research in this field with testing the following plants: Vigna radiata, Mentha piperita, Citrus aurantium var. amara, Syzygium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia, Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus amarus, Aloe vera, Angelica sinensis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Panax ginseng, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Crataegus microphylla. (authors)

  7. Current knowledge from experimental works with radioprotective drugs from the viewpoint of latest scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalka, J.

    2008-01-01

    The protection of both human and animal population against a radiation impairment proves to be an impulse for continuous intensive searching for plants with radioprotective properties, identification of their radioprotective components and examination of their effects both in vivo an in vitro. I am presenting the results as well as knowledge of a latest scientific research in this field with testing the following plants: Vigna radiata, Mentha piperita, Citrus aurantium var. amara, Syzygium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia, Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus amarus, Aloe vera, Angelica sinensis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Panax ginseng, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Crataegus microphylla. (authors)

  8. Biomassa e composição química de genótipos melhorados de espécies medicinais cultivadas em quatro municípios paulistas Biomass and chemical composition of improved genotypes of medicinal plant species cultivated in four cities of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Artimonte Vaz

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biomassa e a composição química de genótipos selecionados de Artemisia annua (artemisia, Cordia verbenacea (erva-baleeira, Phyllanthus amarus (quebra-pedra e Mikania laevigata (guaco, nos municípios de Altinópolis, Campinas, Jales e São Carlos, no Estado de São Paulo. Ocorrem variações na produção de biomassa, assim como diferenças qualitativas e quantitativas, na composição química das plantas, em função dos locais de cultivo, destacando-se os maiores rendimentos de princípios ativos na região de Jales.The objective of this work was to evaluate the production and chemical constituents of selected genotypes of Artemisia annua, Cordia verbenaceae, Phyllanthus amarus and Mikania laevigata cultivated in Altinópolis, Campinas, Jales and São Carlos. Biomass variations, and qualitative and quantitative differences in plants chemical composition are observed among the locations, with higher values of interesting substances being detected in Jales.

  9. Los pishtacos: degolladores degollados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available LES PISHTACOS : ÉGORGEURS ÉGORGÉS. A partir de douze récits de la sierra centrale du Pérou, nous analysons les multiples représentations du Pishtaco. Il est significatif que dans cette région, ces personnages maléfiques soient toujours vaincus par les taureaux (représentation des Amarus, par les chiens et par les paysans pauvres qui utilisent diverses astuces. Nous faisons une étude comparative avec d’autres régions du pays à propos du cycle de la graisse et des méthodes permettant la délivrance. En résumé, le Pishtaco est un personnage fascinant qui synthétise un ensemble de symboles et de traditions hispaniques et andines. Tomando como base doce relatos de la sierra central del Perú, se analiza las múltiples representaciones del Pishtaco. Particularmente significativo resulta el hecho de que en esta zona estos personajes malignos son siempre derrotados. Sus vencedores son los toros (metamorfosis de los Amarus, los perros y campesinos pobres que se valen del ají, del chuño y otras tretas jocosas. En cuanto al ciclo de la grasa y las contraconjuras, se hacen referencias comparativas con otras áreas geográficas del país En suma, el Pishtaco es un personaje fascinante y sintetiza una serie de símbolos y tradiciones hispano andinas. THE PISHTACOS: THE SLAUGHTERS SLAUGHTED. On the base of twelve narrations from the central sierra of Peru, we analyze the multiples representations of the Pishtaco. The fact that in this region these malefic entities are always beaten by bulls (representations of amarus by dogs and by poor peasants using different artfulness. About the grease cycle and the means of delivery reference are made to other areas of the country. Resuming, the pishtaco is a fascinating entity syntheting a whole lot of symbols and spanish traditions.

  10. [Host plants of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector of virus of Cucumis melo melon (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M V; Agüero, R; Rivera, C

    2001-03-01

    Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis.

  11. Characterization of leaves used in infusion preparation grown in northeastern Brazil by chemometric methods based on their multi-elemental composition

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    Maria de Fátima Lopes FERNANDES

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In many places of the world, medicinal plants represent the only form of treatment for various diseases. This work aimed to determine and correlate minerals of infusions and leaves of medicinal plants grown in Northeastern Brazil. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis and Pearson correlation were performed. The higher content of Na was for Ocimum basilicum L. (94.3 mg/100g and Datura stramonium L. (91.6 mg/100g. The plants examined had low levels of K in infusions. All samples contain Mg at significant levels. The cluster analysis divided the medicinal plants into three groups, associated with Passiflora edulis, Capraria biflora and Phyllanthus amarus. Ca and Al were the minerals that contributed most to an association between the plants in principal component 1; while K, Na and Mg contributed most in principal component 2. Furthermore, the high percentage of extraction, mainly Ca and Mg, suggests these plants could be used as potential mineral supplements.

  12. Pharmacognostical study of Tamalaki (Phyllanthus fraternus Webster), a herb used in Tamaka-svasa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Binay; Dubey, S. D.; Tripathi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Tamalaki is a herbacious medicinal plant, described in Ayurvedic texts in many occurrences with different properties, actions, uses and synonyms, supposed to indicate more than one species commonly used in practice. Modern scholars mostly suggest Phyllanthus fraternus Webster (syn. P. niruri Linn.), P. amarus Schum. and Thonn. and P. urinaria Linn. as the source plants of Tamalaki. In this study, an attempt has been made to designate P. fraternus as the source plant of Tamalaki used in the treatment of Tamaka-svasa (Bronchial asthma) and other respiratory disorders by analyzing therapeutic uses, actions, properties, taste, synonyms as well as pharmacognostical characters. Smooth capsule, six tepals, less and short fibrous root, pentagonal outline with wing-shaped young stem are some of the specific characters observed in this species. PMID:22529659

  13. Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, S P; Jayaram, S; Gopalakrishnan, V; Hari, R; Jeyakumar, P; Sripathi, M S

    2002-12-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of liver diseases has a long history, starting with the Ayurvedhic treatment, and extending to the Chinese, European and other systems of traditional medicines. The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift towards therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in liver diseases by carefully synergizing the strengths of the traditional systems of medicine with that of the modern concept of evidence-based medicinal evaluation, standardization of herbal products and randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to support clinical efficacy. The present review provides the status report on the scientific approaches made to herbal preparations used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver diseases. In spite of the availability of more than 300 preparations for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases in Indian systems of medicine using more than 87 Indian medicinal plants, only four terrestrial plants have been scientifically elucidated while adhering to the internationally acceptable scientific protocols. In-depth studies have proved Sylibum marianum to be anti-oxidative, antilipidperoxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and liver regenerative. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to be hepatoprotective and capable of inducing an indigenous interferon. Picrorhiza kurroa is proved to be anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory. Extensive studies on Phyllanthus amarus have confirmed this plant preparation as being anti-viral against hepatitis B and C viruses, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating, as well as possessing anti-inflammatory properties. For the first time in the Indian systems of medicine, a chemo-biological fingerprinting methodology for standardization of P. amarus preparation has been patented. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  14. Larvicidal potential of some plants from West Africa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azokou, Alain; Koné, Mamidou W; Koudou, Benjamin G; Tra Bi, Honora F

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes increased resistance to insecticides, and environmental concerns about the use of insecticides, pose a major challenge in the search for new molecules to deplete and incapacitate mosquito populations. Plants are the valuable source as practices consisting in exploiting plant materials as repellents, and are still in wide use throughout developing countries. The aim of the present study was to screen plants from Cτte d'Ivoire for larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. Resistant and sensitive larvae (III and IV instar) of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to crude ethanol extracts (90%) of 45 plants and viability observed after 30 min, 6, 12 and 24 h postincubation. After partition of active extracts, each fraction (hexane and chloroform washed with NaCl 1%, tannins and aqueous) was tested using the same protocol at various concentrations (1000- 31.2 ppm). Of 49 extracts tested, 7 exhibited high potential (LC50 = 80 to 370 ppm) against resistant and sensitive III and IV instar larvae of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. These extracts were from Cissus populnea, Cochlospermum planchonii, Heliotropium indicum, Phyllanthus amarus, Vitex grandifolia and Alchornea cordifolia. However, three most active plant species (LC50 = 80- 180 ppm) were Cs. populnea, Cm. planchonii and P. amarus Their hexane and chloroform fractions showed high larvicidal activity. This study demonstrated that plants from Cτte d'Ivoire have a real potential for malaria, yellow fever, filarial and dengue vector control. Those could be used as sources or provide lead compounds for the development of safe plant-based biocides.

  15. Exploration of the antibacterial and chemical potential of some Beninese pharmacopoiea traditional plants

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    Boris Lègba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial and chemical properties of some medicinal plants used in the fight against enteropathogens in Benin. Methods. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Senna siamea, Uvaria chamae, Lantana camara and Phyllantus amarus were tested on 10 bacterial strains. Well diffusion technique, coupled with the microdilution determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (CMB was used for antibacterial testing. The larval cytotoxicity was evaluated by using Artemia salina crustacean larvae. flavonoids and polyphenols were also assayed by the method using aluminum trichloride (AlCl3 and the method using the folin-Ciocalteu reagent, respectively. Results. The results of the study revealed that extracts had an effective antibacterial activity at 100 mg/mL, with MIC between 100 and 25 mg/mL and CMB between 100 and 50 mg/mL. The inhibition diameters of the extracts varied between 7.5 and 21 mm. The ethanolic extract of Phyllantus amarus leaves showed the best antibacterial activity. None of the extracts tested was found to be cytotoxic at the dose of 20 mg/mL. The aqueous Uvaria chamae root extract has the highest polyphenol content (231.896552±0.27586207 in μg EAG/100 mg extract, whereas the aqueous leaf extract of Uvaria chamae is the richest in flavonoids (41.061082 0.43180737 in μg ER/100 mg of extract. Conclusions. These interesting results can be used in the development of improved traditional medicines against enteropathogens.

  16. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chang, Q C; Zhang, Y; Na, L; Wang, W T; Xu, W W; Gao, D Z; Liu, Z X; Wang, C R; Zhu, X Q

    2014-08-29

    The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes was surveyed in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, between August 2011 and September 2013. Thirteen species of freshwater fish (n=3221) and one species of shrimp (n=93) were collected from Songhua river, Nenjiang river and other lakes or ponds in 37 sites of 15 representative cities in Heilongjiang Province. They were individually examined by digestion technique, and the C. sinensis metacercariae were identified morphologically followed by confirmation using sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. Ten of the 13 examined species of freshwater fishes were infected with C. sinensis metacercariae, while all shrimps were negative. The overall prevalence of C. sinensis infection in 3221 examined freshwater fishes was 19.96%, with 42.57% (272/639) in Pseudorasbora parva, 22.55% (83/368) in Hemicculter leuciclus, 20.44% (121/592) in Carassius auratus, 17.71% (68/384) in Saurogobio dabryi, 10.85% (23/212) in Rhodeus ocellatus, 10.54% (48/455) in Phoxinus lagowskii, 8.20% (21/256) in Perccottus glehnii, 6.25% (5/80) in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, 4.55% (1/22) in Xenocypris davidi, and 1.49% (1/67) in Cyprinus carpio. The average infection intensity in P. parva was 103.3 encysted metacercariae per gram of fish meat in Zhaoyuan city. The average prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Songhua river, Nenjiang river and lakes or ponds were 31.96% (503/1574), 11.30% (102/903) and 7.93% (59/744), respectively. The prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Zhaoyuan city (43.68%) was the highest among all sampling locations. These results revealed a high-prevalence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, posing significant public health concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Species composition, diversity and density of small fishes in two different habitats in Niushan Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shao-Wen; Li, Zhong-Jie; Cao, Wen-Xuan

    2007-07-01

    This paper studied the spatial distribution of small fishes in a shallow macrophytic lake, Niushan Lake in spring 2003, and its relations with habitat heterogeneity. Based on the macrophyte cover condition, distance from lake shore and water depth, two representative habitat types in the lake were selected. Habitat A was near the shore with dense submersed macrophyte, while habitat B was far from the shore with sparse submersed macrophyte. Small fishes were sampled quantitatively by block net (180 m2), and their densities within the net area were estimated by multiple mark-recapture or Zippin's removal method. The results showed that there were some differences in species composition, biodiversity measurement, and estimated density of small fishes between the two habitats: 1) the catches in habitat A consisted of 14 small fish species from 5 families, among which, benthopelagic species Rhodeus ocellatus, Paracheilognathus imberbis and Pseudorasbora parva were considered as dominant species, while those in habitat B consisted of 9 small fish species from 3 families, among which, bottom species Rhinogobius giurinus and Micropercops swinhonis were dominant; 2) the Bray-Curtis index between the two small fish communities was 0.222, reflecting their low structure similarity, and no significant difference was observed between their rank/ abundance distributions, both of which belonged to log series distribution; 3) the total density of 9 major species in habitat A was 8.71 ind x m(-2), while that of 5 major species in habitat B was only 3.54 ind x m(-2). The fact that the spatial distribution of the small fishes differed with habitats might be related to their habitat need for escaping predators, feeding, and breeding, and thus, aquatic macrophyte habitat should be of significance in the rational exploitation of small fish resources as well as the conservation of fish resource diversity.

  18. Prevalence and Intensity of Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Wicheon Stream in Gunwi-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Ju, Jung-Won; Son, Dong-Chul

    2018-01-01

    The infection status of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) was examined in freshwater fish from a highly prevalent site, Wicheon (a branch of Nakdong-gang), which is located in Gunwi-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 1,162 fish in 32 species were examined by the artificial digestion method through 6 years. CsMc were detected in 720 (67.5%) out of 1,067 fish (26 spp.) and their density was 610 per fish infected. In the susceptible gobioninid fish group, i.e., Pungtungia herzi, Squalidus gracilis majimae, Squalidus japonicus coreanus, Sarcocheilichthys variegatus wakiyae and Pseudorasbora parva, all of 323 fish were infected with an average of 1,310 CsMc. Total 23 (95.8%) gobioninid fish, i.e., Pseudogobio esocinus, Abbottina springeri, Hemibarbus longirostris, Microphysogobio koreensis, and Microphysogobio jeoni, were infected with 127 CsMc in average. In the acheilognathinid fish (bitterlings) group, the prevalence was 77.0%, and the density was 50 CsMc per fish infected. In the rasborinid fish (chubs) group, i.e., Zacco platypus, Zacco temminckii, Zacco koreanus, and Opsariichthys uncirostris amurensis, 147 (36.5%) out of 403 fish examined were infected with 15 CsMc in average. The susceptibility indices of CsMc were 412 in the overall positive fish group, 1,310 in the gobioninid group-1, 122 in the gobioninid group-2, 38.5 in the acheilognathinid group, and 5.5 in the rasborinid fish group. Conclusively, it was confirmed that CsMc are highly prevalent in fish from Wicheon, and their infection tendency varied according to the subfamily groups in Cyprinidae fish hosts. PMID:29529849

  19. Spatial and temporal (1963-2012 variability of ichthyofauna in the large lowland Warta River, Poland

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    Andrzej Kruk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Warta River is a tributary of the Odra (Oder River. It is 795.2 km long. In 1986 the large Jeziorsko dam reservoir was constructed in the 306th km of its course. In the late 1980s, the river pollution assumed its highest level and stopped increasing as the former political system collapsed and many industrial plants went bankrupt. Unified fish electrocatches have been performed along the Warta River since the 1960s. During the last sampling, in 2011-2012, fish fauna in the middle course of the river was in the poorest condition due to the destabilizing upstream impact of the Jeziorsko dam reservoir, large amounts of wastewater input to the river, and the lack of unpolluted tributaries that could serve as sources of recolonizers. The weakest human pressure was reported for the upper and lower courses, which resulted in higher numbers of species significantly preferring them, and the higher species richness. Species richness significantly increased in comparison with the previous sampling occasions (in 1963-66, 1986-88, and 1996-98. Significant increases in the stability of occurrence, abundance or biomass were recorded for many species including burbot, chub, dace, ide, gudgeon, bleak, bitterling, perch and spined loach. Significant declines in the above mentioned population parameters were rare and related mainly to European eel (a migratory species. The previously recorded strong negative trend (declines in rheophils, increase in the dominance of roach and perch has been reversed. However, regenerated fish assemblages were not recorded in 1996-98 (i.e. several years after the beginning of the improvement in water quality but in 2011-2012 (i.e. about one decade later. We have noticed a similar delay in ichthyofauna recovery also in the Pilica River (Vistula system. This is why we believe that about 15 years are necessary to observe a considerable improvement in fish fauna in larger degraded rivers.

  20. Mesohabitats, fish assemblage composition, and mesohabitat use of the Rio Grande silvery minnow over a range of seasonal flow regimes in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte, in and near Big Bend National Park, Texas, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, J. Bruce; Braun, Christopher L.; Pearson, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010–11, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluated the physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition of mapped river mesohabitats at four sites on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (hereinafter Rio Grande) in and near Big Bend National Park, Texas. The four sites used for the river habitat study were colocated with sites where the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has implemented an experimental reintroduction of the Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus), a federally listed endangered species, into part of the historical range of this species. The four sites from upstream to downstream are USGS station 08374340 Rio Grande at Contrabando Canyon near Lajitas, Tex. (hereinafter the Contrabando site), USGS station 290956103363600 Rio Grande at Santa Elena Canyon, Big Bend National Park, Tex. (hereinafter the Santa Elena site), USGS station 291046102573900 Rio Grande near Ranger Station at Rio Grande Village, Tex. (hereinafter the Rio Grande Village site), and USGS station 292354102491100 Rio Grande above Stillwell Crossing near Big Bend National Park, Tex. (hereinafter the Stillwell Crossing site).

  1. The lignan niranthin poisons Leishmania donovani topoisomerase IB and favours a Th1 immune response in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sayan; Mukherjee, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Rupkatha; Mukherjee, Budhaditya; Sengupta, Souvik; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Roy, Syamal; Majumder, Hemanta K

    2012-01-01

    Niranthin, a lignan isolated from the aerial parts of the plant Phyllanthus amarus, exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we have shown for the first time that niranthin is a potent anti-leishmanial agent. The compound induces topoisomerase I-mediated DNA–protein adduct formation inside Leishmania cells and triggers apoptosis by activation of cellular nucleases. We also show that niranthin inhibits the relaxation activity of heterodimeric type IB topoisomerase of L. donovani and acts as a non-competitive inhibitor interacting with both subunits of the enzyme. Niranthin interacts with DNA–protein binary complexes and thus stabilizes the ‘cleavable complex’ formation and subsequently inhibits the religation of cleaved strand. The compound inhibits the proliferation of Leishmania amastigotes in infected cultured murine macrophages with limited cytotoxicity to the host cells and is effective against antimony-resistant Leishmania parasites by modulating upregulated P-glycoprotein on host macrophages. Importantly, besides its in vitro efficacy, niranthin treatment leads to a switch from a Th2- to a Th1-type immune response in infected BALB/c mice. The immune response causes production of nitric oxide, which results in almost complete clearance of the liver and splenic parasite burden after intraperitoneal or intramuscular administration of the drug. These findings can be exploited to develop niranthin as a new drug candidate against drug-resistant leishmaniasis. PMID:23027614

  2. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS FROM BAMBOO FOR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-qunCao; Yong-deYue; Zhen-huaPeng; Ri-maoHua; FengTang

    2004-01-01

    The extracts from 7 species of bamboo were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens pallens. At the tested concentration, the extracts of selected bamboo had different degree of toxic effects on the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. Among them,the extracts of Pleioblastus juxianensis, Brachystachyum albostriatum, Phyllostachys platyglossa and Pleioblastus amarus were found to be effective with LC50values at 24h of 30.65mg/L,53.94mg/L, 41.21 mg/L and 54.49 mg/L respectively, against Culex pipiens pallens larvae. The extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis by Soxhlet method showed stronger activity than the extract obtained by interval-shaking, the LC50 of which were 30.65 mg/L and 48.34 mg/L, respectively.The diethyl ether extract of Pleioblastus juxianensis exhibited better larvicidal activity than the methanol extract and the petroleum ether extract. The results would help to provide the basis for the study of environment acceptable pesticide for mosquito control, and also help to comprehensively utilize the source of bamboo.

  3. Identification and characterization of phenolics and terpenoids from ethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus species by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Awantika Singh; Brijesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Phyllanthus species plants are a rich source of phenolics and widely used due to their medicinal properties. A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) for the identification and characterization of quercetin, kaempferol, ellagic acid and their derivatives in ethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus species. The chromatographic separation was carried out on Thermo Betasil C8 column (250 mm×4.5 mm, 5 μm) using 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in methanol as the mobile phase. The identification of diagnostic fragment ions and optimization of collision energies were carried out using 21 reference standards. Totally 51 compounds were identified which include 21 compounds identified and characterized unambiguously by comparison with their authentic standards and the remaining 30 were tentatively identified and characterized in ethanolic extracts of P. emblica, P. fraternus, P. amarus and P. niruri.

  4. Clock gene evolution: seasonal timing, phylogenetic signal, or functional constraint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, Trevor J; Turner, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Genetic determinants of seasonal reproduction are not fully understood but may be important predictors of organism responses to climate change. We used a comparative approach to study the evolution of seasonal timing within a fish community in a natural common garden setting. We tested the hypothesis that allelic length variation in the PolyQ domain of a circadian rhythm gene, Clock1a, corresponded to interspecific differences in seasonal reproductive timing across 5 native and 1 introduced cyprinid fishes (n = 425 individuals) that co-occur in the Rio Grande, NM, USA. Most common allele lengths were longer in native species that initiated reproduction earlier (Spearman's r = -0.70, P = 0.23). Clock1a allele length exhibited strong phylogenetic signal and earlier spawners were evolutionarily derived. Aside from length variation in Clock1a, all other amino acids were identical across native species, suggesting functional constraint over evolutionary time. Interestingly, the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) exhibited less allelic variation in Clock1a and observed heterozygosity was 2- to 6-fold lower than the 5 other (nonimperiled) species. Reduced genetic variation in this functionally important gene may impede this species' capacity to respond to ongoing environmental change.

  5. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Omobuwajo, O.R.; Adebajo, A.C.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported 1 . Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  6. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [ICTP Fellow on sabbatical leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O.R.; Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [lstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported{sup 1}. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  7. A comparative study on larvicidal potential of selected medicinal plants over green synthesized silver nano particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zameer Ahmed Khader

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Larvicidal activity was assessed for alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus amarus, Annona squamosa, Coccinia grandis and Eclipta prostrata extracted using solvents of various polarity. Third instar stage larvae of Dengue-vector, Aedes aegypti and Japanese encephalitis (JE causing mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus were subjected to larvicidal bioassay at various concentrations (1000, 500, 250 ppm. The results explored that the phytoconstituents and secondary metabolites present in all the plants elucidated potent larvicidal activity. Among the tested extract ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and hexane extract expressed significant larvicidal activity. Similarly, these plants were subjected to green synthesis of silver nanoparticles, characterized and subjected for its larvicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi causing malaria. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–VIS spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy respectively. The FTIR analysis strongly supported the capping behaviour of bio-reduced synthesized silver nanoparticles which in turn imparted the high stability of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The average size of synthesized nanoparticles was less than 1 µm, most spherical in shape with SEM analysis. The findings revealed that Eclipta prostrata and Annona squamosa has effective larvicidal activity, whereas all the synthesised nanoparticles demonstrated dose dependent activity even at very low concentration and the findings reveals that these extracts and nanoparticles can be a better remedy against these mosquitoes.

  8. Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Salazar-Aguilar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography (CC, identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions. Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC50 1.85 µg·mL−1, but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC50 30.04 µg·mL−1. Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL−1. Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents.

  9. Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Aguilar, Sandra; Ruiz-Posadas, Lucero Del Mar; Cadena-Iñiguez, Jorge; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Itzen; Rivera-Martínez, Ana Rocío; Aguirre-Medina, Juan Francisco

    2017-07-25

    The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography (CC), identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions). Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC 50 1.85 µg·mL -1 ), but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC 50 30.04 µg·mL -1 ). Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL -1 . Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents.

  10. Investigation of anticancer potential of hypophyllanthin and phyllanthin against breast cancer by in vitro and in vivo methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukiran Parvathaneni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities of hypophyllanthin and phyllanthin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn against breast cancer. Methods: In vitro anticancer activity was evaluated against two cell lines (MCF-7 and MDAMB-231 using MTT assay. In vivo anticancer activity was tested using Sprague-Dawley rats with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced mammary cancer. Results: In vitro studies demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth with IC50 values of (35.18依1.48 µg/mL (hypophyllanthin and (32.51依0.95 µg/mL (phyllanthin for MCF-7; (38.74 依1.24 (hypophyllanthin and (32.2依1.17 (phyllanthin for MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Tumor weights per group at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg/day for hypophyllanthin (12.82 and 12.06 g and phyllanthin (11.95 and 8.87 g treated groups were significantly (P<0.001 lower than untreated N-methyl-N-nitrosourea group (35.85. Conclusions: Results of the present research work indicated that the isolated lignan compounds, hypophyllanthin and phyllanthin showed significant anticancer activities against breast cancer, in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Plantas hospederas de Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, vector de virus del melón Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Sánchez

    2001-03-01

    palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia y Corchorus orinocensis.Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families and 72 plant species (40 families were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis.

  12. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); ICTP Fellow on Sabbatical Leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Adebajo, A. C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O. R. [Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M. C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  13. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey [Department of Applied Plant Science-Horticulture, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow (India)

    2012-07-01

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  14. Nitrogen distribution and cycling through water flows in a subtropical bamboo forest under high level of atmospheric deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-hua; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Li-hua; Xiao, Yin-long; Chen, Gang; Hu, Hong-ling; Liu, Li; Zheng, Jiang-kun; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Chen, Liang-hua

    2013-01-01

    The hydrological cycle is an important way of transportation and reallocation of reactive nitrogen (N) in forest ecosystems. However, under a high level of atmospheric N deposition, the N distribution and cycling through water flows in forest ecosystems especially in bamboo ecosystems are not well understood. In order to investigate N fluxes through water flows in a Pleioblastus amarus bamboo forest, event rainfall/snowfall (precipitation, PP), throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF), surface runoff (SR), forest floor leachate (FFL), soil water at the depth of 40 cm (SW1) and 100 cm (SW2) were collected and measured through the whole year of 2009. Nitrogen distribution in different pools in this ecosystem was also measured. Mean N pools in vegetation and soil (0-1 m) were 351.7 and 7752.8 kg ha(-1). Open field nitrogen deposition at the study site was 113.8 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), which was one of the highest in the world. N-NH4(+), N-NO3(-) and dissolved organic N (DON) accounted for 54%, 22% and 24% of total wet N deposition. Net canopy accumulated of N occurred with N-NO3(-) and DON but not N-NH4(+). The flux of total dissolved N (TDN) to the forest floor was greater than that in open field precipitation by 17.7 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), due to capture of dry and cloudwater deposition net of canopy uptake. There were significant negative exponential relationships between monthly water flow depths and monthly mean TDN concentrations in PP, TF, SR, FFL and SW1. The open field nitrogen deposition through precipitation is very high over the world, which is the main way of reactive N input in this bamboo ecosystem. The water exchange and N consume mainly occurred in the litter floor layer and topsoil layer, where most of fine roots of bamboo distributed.

  15. Nitrogen distribution and cycling through water flows in a subtropical bamboo forest under high level of atmospheric deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hua Tu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hydrological cycle is an important way of transportation and reallocation of reactive nitrogen (N in forest ecosystems. However, under a high level of atmospheric N deposition, the N distribution and cycling through water flows in forest ecosystems especially in bamboo ecosystems are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate N fluxes through water flows in a Pleioblastus amarus bamboo forest, event rainfall/snowfall (precipitation, PP, throughfall (TF, stemflow (SF, surface runoff (SR, forest floor leachate (FFL, soil water at the depth of 40 cm (SW1 and 100 cm (SW2 were collected and measured through the whole year of 2009. Nitrogen distribution in different pools in this ecosystem was also measured. Mean N pools in vegetation and soil (0-1 m were 351.7 and 7752.8 kg ha(-1. Open field nitrogen deposition at the study site was 113.8 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, which was one of the highest in the world. N-NH4(+, N-NO3(- and dissolved organic N (DON accounted for 54%, 22% and 24% of total wet N deposition. Net canopy accumulated of N occurred with N-NO3(- and DON but not N-NH4(+. The flux of total dissolved N (TDN to the forest floor was greater than that in open field precipitation by 17.7 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, due to capture of dry and cloudwater deposition net of canopy uptake. There were significant negative exponential relationships between monthly water flow depths and monthly mean TDN concentrations in PP, TF, SR, FFL and SW1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The open field nitrogen deposition through precipitation is very high over the world, which is the main way of reactive N input in this bamboo ecosystem. The water exchange and N consume mainly occurred in the litter floor layer and topsoil layer, where most of fine roots of bamboo distributed.

  16. Physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition at site and mesohabitat scales over a range of streamflows in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, winter 2011-12, summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Porter, Michael D.; Moring, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In winter 2011–12 and summer 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Albuquerque District and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service New Mexico Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office in Albuquerque, New Mexico, evaluated the physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition of available mesohabitats over a range of streamflows at 15 sites on the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico. The fish assemblage of the Middle Rio Grande includes several minnow species adapted to hydrologically variable but seasonably predictable rivers, including theHybognathus amarus (Rio Grande silvery minnow), a federally listed endangered species. Gaining a better understanding of habitat usage by the Rio Grande silvery minnow was the impetus for studying physical characteristics and fish assemblages in the Middle Rio Grande during different streamflow conditions. Data were collected at all 15 sites during winter 2011–12 (moderate streamflow), and a subset was collected at the 13 most downstream sites in summer 2012 (low streamflow). Sites were grouped into four river reaches separated by diversion dams listed in downstream order (names of the diversion dams are followed by short names of the sites nearest each dam in parentheses, listed in downstream order): (1) Cochiti (Peña Blanca), (2) Angostura (Bernalillo, La Orilla, Barelas, Los Padillas), (3) Isleta (Los Lunas I, Los Lunas II, Abeytas, La Joya, Rio Salado), and (4) San Acacia (Lemitar, Arroyo del Tajo, San Pedro, Bosque del Apache I, and Bosque del Apache II). Stream habitat was mapped in the field by using a geographic information system in conjunction with a Global Positioning System. Fish assemblage composition was determined during both streamflow regimes, and fish were collected by seining in each mesohabitat where physical characteristic data (depth, velocity, dominant substrate type and size, and percent embeddedness) and water-quality properties (temperature

  17. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Adebajo, A.C.; Omobuwajo, O.R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications

  18. Arsenic accumulation in native plants of West Bengal, India: prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Mishra, Aradhana; Kumar, Amit; Dave, Richa; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Shukla, Mridul Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental and food chain contaminant and class I, non-threshold carcinogen. Plants accumulate As due to ionic mimicry that is of importance as a measure of phytoremediation but of concern due to the use of plants in alternative medicine. The present study investigated As accumulation in native plants including some medicinal plants, from three districts [Chinsurah (Hoogly), Porbosthali (Bardhman), and Birnagar (Nadia)] of West Bengal, India, having a history of As pollution. A site-specific response was observed for Specific Arsenic Uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1) dw) in total number of 13 (8 aquatic and 5 terrestrial) collected plants. SAU was higher in aquatic plants (5-60 mg kg(-1) dw) than in terrestrial species (4-19 mg kg(-1) dw). The level of As was lower in medicinal plants (MPs) than in non-medicinal plants, however it was still beyond the WHO permissible limit (1 mg kg(-1) dw). The concentration of other elements (Cu, Zn, Se, and Pb) was found to be within prescribed limits in medicinal plants (MP). Among the aquatic plants, Marsilea showed the highest SAU (avg. 45 mg kg(-1) dw), however, transfer factor (TF) of As was the maximum in Centella asiatica (MP, avg. 1). Among the terrestrial plants, the maximum SAU and TF were demonstrated by Alternanthera ficoidea (avg. 15) and Phyllanthus amarus (MP, avg. 1.27), respectively. In conclusion, the direct use of MP or their by products for humans should not be practiced without proper regulation. In other way, one fern species (Marsilea) and some aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus difformis) might be suitable candidates for As phytoremediation of paddy fields.

  19. Behavioral observations of the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow in a conservation aquaculture facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tave Douglas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A major reason why conservation aquaculture is needed to improve the success of aquaculture-assisted fisheries is that traditional production aquaculture produces fish with mal-adaptive behaviors. These behaviors can be produced via domestication and culture techniques, and preventing these mal-adaptive behaviors requires integrating improvements in genetic management and culture protocols. The genetic protocols needed to minimize hatchery-induced genetic changes have received considerable attention, but changing the way fish are raised has received less effort. Conservation aquaculture cultures fish in environments that resemble their native habitats so that when stocked, they behave like wild fish rather than hatchery fish. A purpose built-conservation aquaculture facility can also be used to learn about a species’ behavior and how it reacts to changes in the environment, something which can be difficult or expensive to study in the wild. These observations can then be used to help direct both propagation and recovery management. This paper provides the rationale for why genetic management, culture systems, and management practices need to be altered to produce fish that are behaviorally similar to wild fish for aquaculture-assisted fisheries programs. It then provides a description of some of the behaviors of the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow Hybognathus amarus that were observed at the Los Lunas Silvery Minnow Refugium, a purpose-built conservation aquaculture facility, and explains how some of these behaviors can be used in culture and recovery management. Behaviors described are: schooling; predator avoidance; feeding behavior; use of vegetation for cover and predator avoidance; habitat use by bottom substrate; location in the water column; upstream movement via a fish ladder; movement upstream in a high-velocity channel; response to changes in water level; spawning behavior; seine avoidance; and Kaah-chee-nyee Srkaash, a behavior

  20. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey

    2012-01-01

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  1. Do laboratory species protect endangered species? Interspecies variation in responses to 17β-estradiol, a model endocrine active compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of estrogens on model laboratory species are well documented, their utility as surrogates for other species, including those listed as endangered, are less clear. Traditionally, conservation policies are evaluated based on model organism responses but are intended to protect all species in an environment. We tested the hypothesis that the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) is more vulnerable to endocrine disruption—as assessed through its larval predator-escape performance, survival, juvenile sex ratios, and whole-body vitellogenin concentration—than the commonly used toxicological model species fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Fish were exposed concurrently for 21 days to the model endocrine active compound (EAC) 17ß-estradiol (E2) at 10 ng E2/L and 30 ng E2/L in a flow-through system using reconstituted water that simulated the physicochemical conditions of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, USA. No significant differences were observed between the fathead and silvery minnow in larval predator-escape response or juvenile sex ratio. Rio Grande silvery minnow survival decreased significantly at day 14 compared with the other two species; by day 21, both cyprinid species (silvery minnow and fathead minnow) exhibited a significant decrease in survival compared with bluegill sunfish, a member of the family Centrarchidae. Male Rio Grande silvery minnow showed a significant increase in whole-body vitellogenin concentration in the 10 ng/L treatment, whereas fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish showed no significant increases in vitellogenin concentrations across treatments. Our study showed response differences to estrogen exposures between the two cyprinid species and further divergence in responses between the families Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae. These results suggest that commonly used laboratory model organisms may be less sensitive to EACs than the endangered

  2. Do laboratory species protect endangered species? Interspecies variation in responses to 17β-estradiol, a model endocrine active compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Z G; Buhl, K; Bartell, S E; Schoenfuss, H L

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of estrogens on model laboratory species are well documented, their utility as surrogates for other species, including those listed as endangered, are less clear. Traditionally, conservation policies are evaluated based on model organism responses but are intended to protect all species in an environment. We tested the hypothesis that the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) is more vulnerable to endocrine disruption-as assessed through its larval predator-escape performance, survival, juvenile sex ratios, and whole-body vitellogenin concentration-than the commonly used toxicological model species fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Fish were exposed concurrently for 21 days to the model endocrine active compound (EAC) 17ß-estradiol (E2) at 10 ng E2/L and 30 ng E2/L in a flow-through system using reconstituted water that simulated the physicochemical conditions of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, USA. No significant differences were observed between the fathead and silvery minnow in larval predator-escape response or juvenile sex ratio. Rio Grande silvery minnow survival decreased significantly at day 14 compared with the other two species; by day 21, both cyprinid species (silvery minnow and fathead minnow) exhibited a significant decrease in survival compared with bluegill sunfish, a member of the family Centrarchidae. Male Rio Grande silvery minnow showed a significant increase in whole-body vitellogenin concentration in the 10 ng/L treatment, whereas fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish showed no significant increases in vitellogenin concentrations across treatments. Our study showed response differences to estrogen exposures between the two cyprinid species and further divergence in responses between the families Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae. These results suggest that commonly used laboratory model organisms may be less sensitive to EACs than the endangered Rio

  3. Use of medicinal plants for diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago Uso de plantas medicinales para la diabetes en Trinidad y Tabago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mahabir

    1997-03-01

    ás frecuente en habitantes de Trinidad de herencia africana o mixta que en los de ascendencia india oriental. También fue más común en personas de baja escolaridad. La mayoría de los pacientes que usaban medicinas herbolarias (214/264, u 81% dijeron que ellos mismos recogían las plantas y 107/264 (41% las consumían más de una vez a la semana. Los pacientes que tomaban estas medicinas mencionaron 103 tipos distintos de plantas que se usaban para hacer remedios. Entre las 12 mencionadas con mayor frecuencia, Momordica charantia ("caraili", los áloes, Bontia daphnoides ("olive bush" y la planta Phyllantus amarus se usaban específicamente para la diabetes. La verbena, la planta Leonotis nepetifolia ("chandilay", el guanábano, la hierba Cymbopogan citratus ("fever grass" y la cáscara de naranja se usaban más bien para otros problemas. Los pacientes que se quejaban de una sensación urente o de entumecimiento en los pies, o de cansancio, debilidad, sensación de desmayo o mareo usaban las medicinas herbolarias para la diabetes con más frecuencia que los pacientes que notificaron tener otras manifestaciones de esa enfermedad. Los pacientes tratados con insulina usaban medicamentos herbolarios con menos frecuencia. Se concluye que las medicinas herbolarias son usadas con regularidad por muchos pacientes diabéticos en Trinidad. Las plantas utilizadas con mayor frecuencia para tratar la diabetes tienen actividad hipoglicemiante reconocida. El fondo cultural del paciente, así como su grado de escolaridad, sintomatología y tratamiento médico formal, también pueden ejercer influencia en la selección y uso de los medicamentos herbolarios.

  4. The treatment of jaundice with medicinal plants in indigenous communities of the Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyotsana; Gairola, Sumeet; Gaur, R D; Painuli, R M

    2012-08-30

    , external and magico-religious remedies for jaundice, respectively by various communities in different parts of India. Most widely used hepatoprotective plant species for treatment of jaundice in India is Boerhavia diffusa L. followed by Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers, Saccharum officinarum L., Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn., Ricinus communis L., Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, Lawsonia inermis L. and Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. The plants recorded in the present survey have also been discussed in relation to pharmacological studies and hepatoprotective phytoconstituents present in them. Most of the recorded plants have shown hepatoprotective effects on experimental animals in earlier studies but more studies are needed to assess hepatoprotective properties of some recorded medicinal plants viz., Averrhoa carambola L., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Holarrhena pubescens Wall., Mangifera indica L., Ocimum americanum L., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, Physalis divaricata D. Don, Solanum incanum L., Sphaeranthus senegalensis DC. and Tribulus terrestris L.. The plants enumerated in this study with high number of citations and wider distributions have given some useful leads for further biomedical research. Nevertheless more phytochemical, pharmaceutical and clinical studies are needed to evaluate hepatoprotective properties, efficacy and safety of all the claimed medicinal plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    tropical region and Terminalia belerica in the sub-tropical region were least dominant reported. In the temperate region, Quercus leucotrichophora was the dominant tree and Pyrus pashia the least dominant tree. A total of 10 shrubs were recorded in all three regions: Adhatoda vasica was common species in the tropical and sub-tropical regions however, Rhus parviflora was common species in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Among the 33 herbs, Sida cordifolia was dominant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, while Barleria prionitis the least dominant in tropical and Phyllanthus amarus in the sub-tropical region. In temperate region, Vernonia anthelmintica was dominant and Imperata cylindrica least dominant. The consensus survey indicated that the inhabitants have a high level of agreement regarding the usages of single plant. The index value was high (1.0) for warts, vomiting, carminative, pain, boils and antiseptic uses, and lowest index value (0.33) was found for bronchitis. Conclusion The medicinal plants treated various ailments. These included diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines, leprosy. The ecological studies showed that the tree density and total basal cover increased from the tropical region to sub-tropical and temperate regions. The species composition changed with climatic conditions. Among the localities used for data collection in each climatic region, many had very poor vegetation cover. The herbaceous layer decreased with increasing altitude, which might be an indication that communities at higher elevations were harvesting more herbaceous medicinal plants, due to the lack of basic health care facilities. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in order to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants. Data on the use of individual species of medicinal plants is needed to provide an in-depth assessment of the plants availability

  6. Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mehraj A

    2011-10-01

    Ougeinia oojeinensis in the tropical region and Terminalia belerica in the sub-tropical region were least dominant reported. In the temperate region, Quercus leucotrichophora was the dominant tree and Pyrus pashia the least dominant tree. A total of 10 shrubs were recorded in all three regions: Adhatoda vasica was common species in the tropical and sub-tropical regions however, Rhus parviflora was common species in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Among the 33 herbs, Sida cordifolia was dominant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, while Barleria prionitis the least dominant in tropical and Phyllanthus amarus in the sub-tropical region. In temperate region, Vernonia anthelmintica was dominant and Imperata cylindrica least dominant. The consensus survey indicated that the inhabitants have a high level of agreement regarding the usages of single plant. The index value was high (1.0 for warts, vomiting, carminative, pain, boils and antiseptic uses, and lowest index value (0.33 was found for bronchitis. Conclusion The medicinal plants treated various ailments. These included diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines, leprosy. The ecological studies showed that the tree density and total basal cover increased from the tropical region to sub-tropical and temperate regions. The species composition changed with climatic conditions. Among the localities used for data collection in each climatic region, many had very poor vegetation cover. The herbaceous layer decreased with increasing altitude, which might be an indication that communities at higher elevations were harvesting more herbaceous medicinal plants, due to the lack of basic health care facilities. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in order to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants. Data on the use of individual species of medicinal plants is needed to provide an in-depth assessment

  7. Ecology and behavior of the zenaida dove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Data are summarized from a 10 year study of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in Puerto Rico and its offshore islands. The dove displays sexual size dimorphism, with males generally larger than females: Most activities (feeding, courtship, fighting) occurred in mornings and afternoons, whereas loafing and maintenance activities were more prevalent at mid-day. I recorded 77 plant species used as food by Zenaida Doves in Puerto Rico. Major food species uncluded Scleria lithosperma, Argemone mexicana, Croton rigidus, Phyllanthus amarus, Cordia angustifolia, Zanthoxylum martinicense, Euphorbia heterophylla, and several species of legumes. Zenaida Doves have two major vocalizations: the 'Coo', or Advertisement Call, given in assertive and sexual contexts, and the Nest Call, primarily used at or near the nest. Doves nested in a wide variety of habitats, including forest edge, mangrove forest, dry scrub, and mixed agriculture-urban areas. Nests were generally placed in trees, but doves nested on the ground where certain terrestrial predators were absent. Nests were found in all months of the year, although a breeding peak occurred from March through Mayor July. Doves replaced clutches when nests were destroyed, and recycled up to four times in a season. Males selected nest sites and initiated building. Eggs (2) were laid on alternate days, beginning about two days after the nest was completed. Incubation and nestling stages averaged 13.9 :t 0.5 [SE] and 14.3 :t 0.6 days. The male attended the nest from mid-morning (X = 08:59 hr) through mid-afternoon (x = 16:53), then the female took over incubation and brooding duties for the night. Nests were continuously covered from the laying of the first egg through day seven of the nestling stage. Thereafter, adult attendance dropped steadily until day 14, when they carne to the nest only for chick feedings. Chicks (days 0-15) showed a mean daily weight gain of 18.3% and attained a fledging weight of about 120g (81% of adult weight