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Sample records for bitter pit

  1. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jemrić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg, cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  2. Composição mineral e severidade de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Catarina' Mineral composition and bitter pit severity in 'Catarina' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Maçãs 'Catarina', colhidas na maturação comercial em pomar no município de São Joaquim-SC, foram separadas em quatro lotes de 14 frutos, de acordo com a severidade de incidência de "bitter pit": nula (nenhuma lesão/fruto, baixa (1-2 lesões/fruto, moderada (3-5 lesões/fruto e alta (6-18 lesões/fruto. Foram determinadas as concentrações de Ca, Mg, K e N na casca e na polpa de cada fruto. Foram verificadas relação linear (P 'Catarina' apples were harvested at the commercial maturity in an orchard in São Joaquim-SC and segregated in four lots of 14 fruits with different levels of bitter pit severity: null (none pit/fruit, low (1-2 pits/fruit, moderate (3-5 pits/fruit, and high (6-18 pits/fruit. Nutritional analysis (Ca, Mg, K, and N in the skin and flesh tissues were performed on individual fruits of each severity level. The average number of pits/fruit (calculated for each lot of bitter pit severity showed a negative linear relationship (P < 0.05 with the skin Ca content, and a negative linear relationship (P < 0.05 with the ratios of Mg/Ca, (K+Mg/Ca, and (K+Mg+N/Ca in the skin. For the flesh, the increasing of bitter pit severity was accompanied by significant reduction of Ca and Mg contents. The multivariate analysis (canonical discriminant analysis showed that the Mg/Ca ratio in the skin provided the best discrimination between the lots of fruit with different levels of bitter pit severity. Therefore, for 'Catarina' apples, increasing values of the Mg/Ca ratio in the skin are indicative of fruits with increasing bitter pit susceptibility.

  3. Comparison of phenolic composition of healthy apple tissues and tissues affected by bitter pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Anka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Cunja, Vlasta; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2013-12-11

    Bitter pit is an important Ca(2+) deficiency disorder of apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.), with symptoms, necrotic spots, developing during storage. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic compounds and their contents in bitter pit in comparison to healthy skin and pulp using HPLC-MS(2). The experiment was carried out on three cultivars 'Jonagored', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Pinova'. All 15 determined phenolic compounds in pulp tissues specifically affected by bitter pit were higher than those in healthy pulp. Chlorogenic acid and catechin were to 5 times higher in those affected pulp tissues. Higher content was also determined for hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanols in the peel above the bitter pit; in contrast, flavonols and anthocyanins were higher in healthy peel. Anthocyanins in healthy peel of cultivar 'Jonagored' were 10 times higher from the content in peel above the bitter pit.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on bitter pit of apple fruits (Malus Domestica Borkh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2000-12-01

    Tow varieties of apple fruits Golden and Starking were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kGy and with 0, 1.0, 1.5 kGy respectively. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 centigrade and relative humidity of 80 to 90%. Fruit quality (firmness, skin thickness and bitter pit) and juice characteristics (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, organic acids, Ph, and viscosity), were determined during storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months). The used doses of gamma irradiation significantly decreased the percentage and intensity of bitter pit. Irradiated fruits were softer immediately after irradiation and through storage periods, there were no differences in firmness between irradiated and unirradiated fruits. Gamma irradiation increased the thickness of skin in Golden fruits and decreased it in Starking. Juice production from both varieties immediately after irradiation was not affected by gamma irradiation. However the juice produced from irradiated fruits had higher organic acids (citric and malic acids), viscosity and Ph values than the control. (author)

  5. Métodos para predição de bitter pit em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Braeburn' Methods for bitter pit prediction in Fuji and Braeburn apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sestari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram conduzidos com objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de métodos para predição da ocorrência de bitter pit em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Braeburn' em duas épocas de amostragem. Os frutos, provenientes de seis pomares distintos, três para cada cultivar, foram coletados antecipadamente (20 dias em relação à colheita e na data prevista para a colheita comercial. Os métodos de predição utilizados foram: a infiltração dos frutos com solução 0,10M MgCl2 mais 0,01% Tween-20 e 0,4M de sorbitol; b imersão dos frutos em solução com 2500nL L-1 de ethephon mais 0,01% Tween-20. Os frutos foram armazenados em atmosfera controlada (AC por cinco meses mais 12 dias, a 20°C, simulando a incidência real de bitter pit em armazenamento comercial. Cada tratamento foi constituído por quatro repetições de 25 frutos. A incidência e severidade de bitter pit, prevista por ambos os métodos foi semelhante à ocorrência real de bitter pit após o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada para cada uma das cultivares utilizadas, quando os frutos foram amostrados antecipadamente em relação à colheita comercial. Na avaliação realizada com frutos amostrados na colheita comercial, nenhum dos métodos foi capaz de prever a incidência de bitter pit após o armazenamento de maneira confiável. Para ambas as cultivares, a infiltração com magnésio e a imersão dos frutos em ethephon só são eficientes na predição da incidência de bitter pit em frutos coletados 20 dias antes da colheita comercial.Experiments were carried out with objective to evaluate the efficiency of methods for bitter pit prediction in 'Fuji' and 'Braeburn' apples sampled at two harvest dates. Fruits from 6 orchards, three for each cultivar, were sampled earlier (20 days before harvest and at commercial harvest date. The prediction methods assessed were: infiltration of apples with 0.10M MgCl2 solution containing 0.01% Tween-20 and 0.4M sorbitol; and immersion of fruits in 2

  6. Impacts of 1-Methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere established during conditioning on development of bitter pit in ‘Honeycrisp’ apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Honeycrisp’ apples are susceptible to develop the physiological disorder bitter pit. This disorder typically develops during storage, but pre-harvest lesion development can also occur. ‘Honeycrisp’ is also chilling sensitive and fruit is typically held at 10-20 oC after harvest for up to 7d to re...

  7. Atributos fisiológicos, físico-químicos e minerais associados à ocorrência de "bitter pit" em maçãs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquidauana Miqueloto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os atributos fisiológicos, físico-químicos e minerais associados à ocorrência pós-colheita de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Catarina'. Os frutos foram colhidos, armazenados por 120 dias a 1ºC, com 90–95% de umidade relativa e, em seguida, divididos em lotes com ou sem sintoma de "bitter pit". Maçãs 'Catarina' apresentaram maior incidência e severidade de "bitter pit", em comparação a 'Fuji'. Em ambas as cultivares, os frutos com "bitter pit" apresentaram maior produção de etileno, respiração e acidez titulável, e menor pH, firmeza de polpa, textura da casca e da polpa e percentagem de cor vermelha na casca. Os frutos com "bitter pit" também apresentaram menores teores de Ca e maiores valores das relações K/Ca, N/Ca, (K+Mg/Ca e (K+Mg+N/Ca nos tecidos da casca e da polpa da região pistilar. A análise canônica discriminante indica que os atributos mais adequados para discriminar frutos com e sem "bitter pit" são força para penetração na polpa e relação K/Ca na polpa, em maçãs 'Fuji', e acidez titulável e relação K/Ca na casca, em maçãs 'Catarina'.

  8. Previsão de bitter pit em maçãs por meio da infiltração de Mg2+ e da aplicação de ethephon nos frutos Prediction of bitter pit in apples through Mg2+ infiltration and ethephon application on fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sestari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da infiltração de magnésio e cálcio no desenvolvimento de sintomas de bitter pit de maçãs 'Gala'. Examinou-se, também, a eficiência da infiltração de magnésio e da aceleração da maturação de maçãs 'Royal Gala' como métodos de previsão da ocorrência de bitter pit após o armazenamento. No primeiro experimento, maçãs 'Gala' foram infiltradas com MgCl2; CaCl2 ou MgCl2 mais CaCl2. No segundo experimento, maçãs 'Royal Gala' foram infiltradas com MgCl2; ou imersas em solução contendo ethephon por cinco minutos. Como controle, frutos de cada cultivar foram armazenados em atmosfera controlada por seis meses mais 18 dias a 20°C. Frutos infiltrados com MgCl2 apresentaram significativo acréscimo na incidência e severidade de bitter pit, proporcional à concentração de MgCl2 na solução. Frutos infiltrados com CaCl2 não apresentaram sintomas de bitter pit. A aceleração da maturação de maçãs 'Royal Gala' na colheita foi efetiva na previsão de bitter pit após o armazenamento.The effect of magnesium and calcium infiltration on bitter pit symptoms development in Gala apples was studied. It was also examined the efficiency of magnesium infiltration and the ripening hastening of Royal Gala apples as a predictive methods of bitter pit occurrence after storage. In the first experiment, Gala apples were infiltrated with MgCl2; CaCl2; or MgCl2 plus CaCl2. In the second experiment Royal Gala apples were infiltrated with MgCl2; or immersed into solution containing ethephon during five minutes. As a control a sample of each cultivar was stored in controlled atmosphere during 6 months plus eighteen days at 20°C. Fruits infiltrated with MgCl2 showed increased incidence and severity of bitter pit proportional to the MgCl2 concentration in the solution. Infiltration with CaCl2 prevents bitter pit-like symptoms. The ripening hastening of Royal Gala apples at harvest was effective on the bitter pit prediction after

  9. O teor de cálcio na casca é indicativo da suscetibilidade ao "bitter pit" em maçãs 'fuji'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar os atributos minerais na casca e na polpa, relacionados à severidade de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Fuji'. Os frutos foram colhidos em pomar comercial do município de Lages-SC, e armazenados durante quatro meses em câmara fria convencional (0±0,4°C e 90-95% de umidade relativa. Posteriormente, foram separadas em quatro lotes, de acordo com a severidade de "bitter pit": nula (0 lesão/fruto, baixa (1-2 lesões/fruto, moderada (3-4 lesões/fruto e alta (5-16 lesões/fruto, com 15 frutos (repetições em cada nível de severidade. Os frutos de cada lote foram analisados individualmente quanto aos teores de Ca, Mg, K e N, na casca e na polpa. Na análise univariada dos teores minerais da polpa, observou-se aumento nos níveis de K e da relação K/Ca com o aumento na severidade de "bitter pit", apesar da ausência de diferenças quanto aos teores de Ca. Na casca, os teores de Ca e de N diminuíram, e as relações K/Ca, Mg/Ca e (K+Mg/Ca aumentaram com o incremento da severidade do distúrbio. Pela análise canônica discriminante (análise multivariada, observou-se que a melhor separação entre níveis de severidade de "bitter pit" foi obtida com os teores de Ca na casca. Assim, para maçãs 'Fuji', é mais seguro fazer previsão da ocorrência de "bitter pit" durante a armazenagem, com base nos teores de Ca na casca do que na polpa. Frutos com teor de Ca na casca < 240 mg kg-1 de matéria fresca são suscetíveis a esse distúrbio.

  10. Identificação pré-colheita do risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'gala' por meio de infiltração com magnésio e análise dos teores de cálcio e nitrogênio nos frutos Preharvest identification of bitter pit risk in 'gala' apples by fruit infiltration with magnesium and analysis of fruit contents of calcium and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O "bitter pit" é um distúrbio fisiológico pós-colheita em maçãs, ocasionado pela deficiência de Ca e agravado pela presença de elevados níveis de Mg, N e K nos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade prática da infiltração de maçãs 'Gala' com Mg, visando a avaliar, em pré-colheita, o risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" durante o armazenamento refrigerado, bem como a identificar os atributos minerais do fruto associados à ocorrência do distúrbio. Em 50 talhões de pomares localizados no município de Fraiburgo-SC, foram coletadas amostras de 25 frutos / talhão, cerca de 20 dias antes do início da colheita comercial, sendo os mesmos infiltrados a vácuo com Mg e avaliados quanto à incidência (% e severidade (manchas / fruto de "bitter pit". Nos mesmos talhões, na maturação comercial, foram coletadas amostras de 120 frutos / talhão, sendo que 100 frutos foram armazenados em câmara fria convencional durante quatro meses (0 ± 0,5ºC e 90-95% UR, e 20 frutos foram utilizados para a análise mineral (teores de Ca, Mg, K e N. Cinco dias após a remoção da câmara fria, os frutos foram avaliados quanto à incidência (% e severidade (manchas / fruto de "bitter pit". Houve correlação linear altamente significativa (r² = 0,69; pBitter pit is a postharvest physiological disorder in apples, related to Ca deficiency, and aggravated by high levels of Mg, N, and K in the fruits. This work was carried out to assess the practical viability of 'Gala' apples infiltration with Mg, for preharvest identification of bitter pit risk during cold storage, as well as, to identify the mineral attributes associated with the occurrence of the disorder. Fruits were sampled in 50 plots of apple orchards located in Fraiburgo, SC (Southern Brazil. Samples of 25 fruits / plot were harvested about 20 days before commercial harvesting, and then vacuum infiltrated with Mg and assessed for incidence (% and severity (pits / fruit of

  11. Control efficacy of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers on bitter pit in bagged 'Fuji' apple and effects on the Ca and N contents of apple fruits and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian-Mei; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Nie, Pei-Xian; Xue, Xaio-Min; Wang, Gui-Ping; An, Miao

    2018-04-20

    The preharvest application of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers can reduce bitter pit (BP) incidence in apples and improve fruit quality by increasing the Ca content and decreasing both the N content and the N/Ca ratio in fruits. In this study, we aimed to investigate the control efficacy of Ca-containing fertilizers on BP incidence and the effects on the Ca and N contents in bagged 'Fuji' apple by spraying the foliar fertilizer containing calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), calcium nitrate [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ] or calcium formate [Ca(HCOO) 2 ] at early stage [5 days after full bloom (DAFB) + 40 DAFB] and at late stage (80 DAFB + 125 DAFB). The BP incidences were reduced significantly with the reduce percentage of 43.2~73.0%, and the efficacy of spraying at early stage was significantly higher than that of spraying at late stage. The Ca content of bagged apple fruits was increased while the N content and N/Ca ratio were decreased after spraying Ca-containing foliar fertilizers, however, the Ca content, N content and N/Ca ratio of apple leaves were differentially influenced. The foliar fertilizer containing CaCl 2, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or Ca(HCOO) 2 could be used at early stage to control BP in apple and improve the quality of bagged apple fruits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Pitting corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgaier, W.

    1985-01-01

    Pitting corrosion is a kind of electrolytic corrosion by which the surface of a material is locally affected owing to inhomogeneities on the part of the material or medium. The paper deals briefly with questions relating to the importance, to parameters medium or materialwise, influence on production and construction, as well as the general conditions for pitting corrosion. In particular oxygen corrosion in unalloyed and low-alloy steel, and pitting corrosion in ferritic chromium-steel and austenitic chromium-nickel (molybdenum) steel is described. (DG) [de

  13. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  14. Bitter (CW6)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available originating from the sea tend to build up the sand bar at the mouth of the Bitter, whilst the river would tend to breach it at times of flow, particularly in the winter months. Sea water probably only overtops the sandbar during exceptionally high tides...

  15. Bitter Gourd: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd fruits are a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and have the highest nutritive value among cucurbits. Moreover, the crude protein content (11.4-20.9 g.kg-1) of bitter gourd fruits is higher than that of tomato and cucumber. This book chapter focuses on the ...

  16. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  17. Bitter melon: antagonist to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Pratibha; Ray, Ratna B

    2010-06-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide, in spite of substantial progress in the development of anti-cancer therapies. One approach to control cancer could be its prevention by diet, which inhibits one or more neoplastic events and reduces cancer risk. Dietary compounds offer great potential in the fight against cancer by inhibiting the carcinogenesis process through the regulation of cell homeostasis and cell-death machineries. For centuries, Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine) has recommended the use of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) as a functional food to prevent and treat diabetes and associated complications. It is noteworthy to mention that bitter melon extract has no-to-low side effects in animals as well as in humans. The anti-tumor activity of bitter melon has recently begun to emerge. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anti-cancer efficacy of bitter melon and its active constituents. Several groups of investigators have reported that treatment of bitter-melon-related products in a number of cancer cell lines induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis without affecting normal cell growth. Therefore, the effect of bitter melon should be beneficial for health, and use of the non-modified dietary product is cost effective.

  18. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  19. Pop the Pills without Bitterness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structure of a taste bud. Keywords. Taste-masking, fluid bed coat- ing, microencapsulation, com- plexation, solid dispersion. Sweet sensations are most easily detected at the tip, whereas bitterness at the back of the tongue, but salty sensations are usually detected at the tip and the sides of the tongue. GENERAL I ARTICLE.

  20. Pop the Pills without Bitterness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Masking the bitter taste of drugs is a potential tool for the improvement of patient compliance, which in tum decides the commercial success of the product. To improve the palatability of a pharmaceutical product, many techniques have been devel- oped, which have not only improved the taste of the product, but also the ...

  1. Pharmacogenetics of taste: turning bitter pills sweet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagtegaal, Mariëlle J; Swen, Jesse J; Hanff, Lidwien M; Schimmel, Kirsten Jm; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Poor palatability of oral drug formulations used for young children negatively influences medication intake, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Some children are more sensitive to bitter tastes than others. Bitter tasting status is currently assessed by phenotyping with 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) as a bitter probe. Recent studies showed that interindividual differences in PROP sensitivity can be largely explained by three SNPs in TAS2R38, encoding a bitter taste receptor. Gustin, involved in the development of taste buds, and the sweet receptor genotype potentially explain remaining parts of PROP sensitivity variability. Other TAS2 receptor bitter receptor genes may also play a role in bitter aversions. Dependent on their genotype, children may have different medication formulation preferences. Taste genetics could improve drug acceptance by enabling better-informed choices on adapting oral formulations to children's taste preferences. This paper presents an overview of recent findings concerning bitter taste genetics and discusses these in the context of pediatric drug formulation.

  2. Etch pits on caprolactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, A. E. D. M.; Geertman, R. M.

    1992-09-01

    As an extension of the results on the morphology, we investigated the defect structure of solution-grown caprolactam crystals by means of slight etching in cyclohexane and subsequent microscopic observation of the resulting etch pits on the 200, 110, and faces. In case of the face (which is a cleavage plane), we confirmed that the etch pits are formed around dislocation lines by performing an "etch-and-match" experiment. Information is obtained on morphology and density of etch pits, the presence of grain boundaries, as well as qualitative information on the inclination of the dislocation lines.

  3. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  4. Structure of sump pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Kaneo; Takahashi, Yukichi; Suzuki, Kunihiko.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a sump pit of a structure wherein the leaks of liquid wastes or underwater out of a sump pit storing radioactive liquid wastes can be readily detected. Constitution: A concrete pit is provided with a gap, in which a protective vessel is housed and installed. Furthermore, the protective vessel is provided at its inner side with a gap, in which a liquid waste storage container is installed. In the gap between the liquid waste storage container and the protective vessel there is provided a liquid waste leak detecting electrode. In a case where storage fails due to earthquake, corrosion or the like and the liquid wastes leak, the leak detecting electrode comes into contact with the liquid wastes, and detects the leak thereof. Furthermore, a detecting tube is installed in the gap between the concrete pit and the protective vessel thereby detecting the ingress of underwater. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Bitter and sweet tasting molecules: it's complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, Yaron; Hayes, John E; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-04-18

    "Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25 member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs. Molecules humans describe as sweet are recognized by a TAS1R2/TAS1R3 heterodimer of class C GPCRs. Here we characterize the chemical space of bitter and sweet molecules: the majority of bitter compounds show higher hydrophobicity compared to sweet compounds, while sweet molecules have a wider range of sizes. Critically, recent evidence indicates that TAS1Rs and TAS2Rs are not limited to the oral cavity; moreover, some bitterants are pharmacologically promiscuous, with the hERG potassium channel, cytochrome P450 enzymes and carbonic anhydrases as common off-targets. Further focus on polypharmacology may unravel new physiological roles for tastant molecules. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. e-Bitter: Bitterant Prediction by the Consensus Voting From the Machine-Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Suqing; Jiang, Mengying; Zhao, Chengwei; Zhu, Rui; Hu, Zhicheng; Xu, Yong; Lin, Fu

    2018-01-01

    In-silico bitterant prediction received the considerable attention due to the expensive and laborious experimental-screening of the bitterant. In this work, we collect the fully experimental dataset containing 707 bitterants and 592 non-bitterants, which is distinct from the fully or partially hypothetical non-bitterant dataset used in the previous works. Based on this experimental dataset, we harness the consensus votes from the multiple machine-learning methods (e.g., deep learning etc.) combined with the molecular fingerprint to build the bitter/bitterless classification models with five-fold cross-validation, which are further inspected by the Y-randomization test and applicability domain analysis. One of the best consensus models affords the accuracy, precision, specificity, sensitivity, F1-score, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.929, 0.918, 0.898, 0.954, 0.936, and 0.856 respectively on our test set. For the automatic prediction of bitterant, a graphic program "e-Bitter" is developed for the convenience of users via the simple mouse click. To our best knowledge, it is for the first time to adopt the consensus model for the bitterant prediction and develop the first free stand-alone software for the experimental food scientist.

  7. Age-related differences in bitter taste and efficacy of bitter blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is the primary culprit for rejection of pediatric liquid medications. We probed the underlying biology of bitter sensing and the efficacy of two known bitter blockers in children and adults.A racially diverse group of 154 children (3-10 years old and their mothers (N = 118 evaluated the effectiveness of two bitter blockers, sodium gluconate (NaG and monosodium glutamate (MSG, for five food-grade bitter compounds (quinine, denatonium benzoate, caffeine, propylthiouracil (PROP, urea using a forced-choice method of paired comparisons. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01407939.The blockers reduced bitterness in 7 of 10 bitter-blocker combinations for adults but only 3 of 10 for children, suggesting that efficacy depends on age and is also specific to each bitter-blocker combination. Only the bitterness of urea was reduced by both blockers in both age groups, whereas the bitterness of PROP was not reduced by either blocker in either age group regardless of TAS2R38 genotype. Children liked the salty taste of the blocker NaG more than did adults, but both groups liked the savory taste of MSG equally.Bitter blocking was less effective in children, and the efficacy of blocking was both age and compound specific. This knowledge will pave the way for evidence-based strategies to help develop better-tasting medicines and highlights the conclusion that adult panelists and genotyping alone may not always be appropriate in evaluating the taste of a drug geared for children.

  8. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  9. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  10. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The sense of bitter taste plays a critical role in animals as it can help them to avoid intake of toxic and harmful substances. Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, Tas2r2 and Tas2r7). To better understand the genetic polymorphisms and importance of bitter ...

  11. Specific alleles of bitter receptor genes influence human sensitivity to the bitterness of aloin and saccharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Alexey N; Xu, Hong; Tang, Huixian; Zhang, Lan; Li, Qing; Li, Xiaodong

    2007-08-21

    Variation in human taste is a well-known phenomenon. However, little is known about the molecular basis for it. Bitter taste in humans is believed to be mediated by a family of 25 G protein-coupled receptors (hT2Rs, or TAS2Rs). Despite recent progress in the functional expression of hT2Rs in vitro, up until now, hT2R38, a receptor for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), was the only gene directly linked to variations in human bitter taste. Here we report that polymorphism in two hT2R genes results in different receptor activities and different taste sensitivities to three bitter molecules. The hT2R43 gene allele, which encodes a protein with tryptophan in position 35, makes people very sensitive to the bitterness of the natural plant compounds aloin and aristolochic acid. People who do not possess this allele do not taste these compounds at low concentrations. The same hT2R43 gene allele makes people more sensitive to the bitterness of an artificial sweetener, saccharin. In addition, a closely related gene's (hT2R44's) allele also makes people more sensitive to the bitterness of saccharin. We also demonstrated that some people do not possess certain hT2R genes, contributing to taste variation between individuals. Our findings thus reveal new examples of variations in human taste and provide a molecular basis for them.

  12. Pitting process visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes time-domain simulation of gear pitting damage using animation program. Key frames have been used to create illusion of motion. The animation uses experimental results of high-cycle fatigue of material. The fatigue damage occurs in the nominal creep area on the side of the gear tooth sample loaded with variable-positioned Hertz pressure. By applying the force, the pressure cumulates between two convex surfaces. This phenomenon results in material damage under of curved surfaces in contact. Moreover, further damage has been registered on the surface. This is due to exceeding the elastic-plastic state limit and development of „tabs“. The tabs serve as origin of surface micro cracks powered by shear stress and enclosed grease pressure as well. This deformation and extreme pressures of Pascal law contribute to elongation and growth of the surface micro crack. Non-homogenous parts of material volume support the initialization/development of the micro cracks as well. Resulting visualization of the tooth-side fatigue damage provides clear and easy-to-understand description of the damage development process right from the micro crack initialization to the final fragmentation due to pitting degradation.

  13. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride ... halides, the most aggressive and thus, the most frequently investigated is the chloride ions, particularly its effect on pit formation in 18/8 stainless steel [1 - 3]. ... in sea water), and moderately high temperatures.

  14. PIT Tagging Anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Brome

    2008-01-01

    The following video demonstrates a procedure to insert a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag under the skin of an anuran (frog or toad) for research and monitoring purposes. Typically, a 12.5 mm tag (0.5 in.) is used to uniquely identify individual anurans as smal as 40 mm (1.6 in.) in length from snout to vent. Smaller tags are also available and allow smaller anurans to be tagged. The procedure does not differ for other sizes of tages or other sizes of anurans. Anyone using this procedure should ensure that the tag is small enough to fit easily behind the sacral hump of the anuran, as shown in this video.

  15. Power to the pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurbin, T.

    2009-02-15

    This article discussed the need to provide transmission lines to new mines in British Columbia. Commodity pricing and energy use are topical issues in the mining industry, where the viability of a mine may depend on whether it can get electricity from the power grid. There is much incentive to switch from diesel to electricity where possible to reduce fuel consumption and avoid a carbon tax. Less than 0.03 per cent of the land base in British Columbia is used for mining, but 7 mines in BC consume 14 to 17 per cent of all power generated by BC Hydro. The large open pit mines need up to 930 GWh of electricity per year. This article listed some of the hard rock mines that are among the biggest energy users in the province. In general, one sixth of a mine's operating costs is in power consumption. The initial operation of the open pit process involves drilling, blasting, the use of large electric scoop shovels, and water pumping. While trucking is powered by diesel, some mines operate conveyors which increase the amount of electricity used to get ore to the mill. Large electric motors are used in the crushing process. The largest proportion of energy is used in the grinding circuit of the size reduction process. Electricity is also needed for the flotation process and pumping of tailings ponds. Mines dealing with BC Hydro require continuous reliable electricity delivered at a stable voltage . Even a short interruption of a millisecond outage can have a big impact on a mining operation. BC Hydro tries to align its maintenance and repair schedules with the needs of their customer's planned maintenance shut downs as much as possible. 5 figs.

  16. Human bitter perception correlates with bitter receptor messenger RNA expression in taste cells123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipchock, Sarah V; Mennella, Julie A; Spielman, Andrew I; Reed, Danielle R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alleles of the receptor gene TAS2R38 are responsible in part for the variation in bitter taste perception of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and structurally similar compounds (eg, glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables). At low concentrations, people with the PAV (“taster” amino acid sequence) form of TAS2R38 perceive these bitter compounds, whereas most with the AVI (“nontaster” amino acid sequence) form do not; heterozygotes (PAV/AVI) show the widest range of bitter perception. Objectives: The objectives were to examine individual differences in expression of PAV-TAS2R38 messenger RNA (mRNA) among heterozygotes, to test the hypotheses that the abundance of allele-specific gene expression accounts for the variation in human bitter taste perception, and to relate to dietary intake of bitter-tasting beverages and foods. Design: Heterozygous individuals (n = 22) provided psychophysical evaluation of the bitterness of PROP, glucosinolate-containing broccoli juice, non–glucosinolate-containing carrot juice, and several bitter non-TAS2R38 ligands as well as dietary recalls. Fungiform taste papillae were examined for allele-specific TAS2R38 expression by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: PAV-TAS2R38 mRNA expression was measured in 18 of 22 heterozygous subjects. Relative expression varied widely and positively correlated with ratings of bitterness intensity of PROP (P = 0.007) and broccoli juice (P = 0.004) but not of the control solutions carrot juice (P = 0.26), NaCl (P = 0.68), caffeine (P = 0.24), or urea (P = 0.47). Expression amounts were related to self-reported recent and habitual caffeine intake (P = 0.060, P = 0.005); vegetable intake was too low to analyze. Conclusions: We provide evidence that PAV-TAS2R38 expression amount correlates with individual differences in bitter sensory perception and diet. The nature of this correlation calls for additional research on the molecular mechanisms associated with some individual

  17. Genetics of bitter perception in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, G; Harder, D B

    1994-12-01

    Inbred and congenic strains exhibited several patterns of relative sensitivity to bitter tastants in 48-h, two-bottle preference tests. With segregation analyses of descendents of crosses between contrasting strains, these patterns suggested at least three genetic loci influencing bitter perception. The extensively characterized Soa (sucrose octaacetate) locus underlies one pattern. Variation at this locus had pleiotropic effects on avoidance of other acetylated sugars, plus such structurally dissimilar bitter tastants as brucine, denatonium benzoate, and quinine sulfate. Unlike SOA, however, sensitivity to quinine sulfate was polygenically determined, and produced a second characteristic pattern. At least one, possibly several, additional unlinked loci contributed to quinine differences. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) aversion differences exemplified a third pattern. Segregation consistent with monogenic control of PTC aversion has been reported, and within segregating populations PTC aversion did not covary with SOA or quinine sulfate avoidance. Variants of the three major patterns may be useful for analysis of specific mechanisms. While both showed the SOA pattern, strychnine differences were markedly smaller than brucine (dimethoxystrychnine) differences. Likewise, a hop extract containing primarily iso-alpha acids (e.g., isohumulone) produced an SOA-like pattern, while an extract with nonisomerized alpha-acids (e.g., humulone) did not.

  18. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between...... pregnant and nonpregnant women. Methods: Forty-six pregnant and 45 nonpregnant women evaluated taste intensity and liking of five samples of each of four different products: two sweet (cake and apple + berry juice) and two bitter (salad and grapefruit juice). Product samples varied in sweetness...... and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However...

  19. EFEKTIVITAS AROMATERAPI BITTER ORANGE TERHADAP NYERI POST PARTUM SECTIO CAESAREA

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Utami

    2016-01-01

    Surgery that causes severe pain physiological response as compared to a normal delivery was called sectio caesarea. The alternative to reduce pain with bitter orange aroma therapy. Bitter orange aroma therapy is to give the effect of reducing the muscle tensions and stress the body as a whole with the goal of keeping the body and mind into a relaxed. This research was aimed to explore the effectiveness of bitter orange aroma therapy for reduction pain in post partum sectio caesarea. The metho...

  20. Single pit propagation on austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtault, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical characterization of metastable events such as pitting corrosion of stainless steel in chloride electrolyte remains complex because many individual processes may occur simultaneously on the alloy surface. To overcome these difficulties, an experimental setup, the flow micro-device, has been developed to achieve the initiation of a single pit and to propagate the single pit in three dimensions. In this work, we take advantage of such a device in order to revisit the pitting process on a 316L stainless steel in a chloride - sulphate bulk. In a first step, the time evolution of the pit geometry (depth, radius) and the chemical evolution of the pit solution investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy have shown that the pit depth propagation depends on the formation of a metal chloride and sulphate gel in the pit solution, and is controlled by the metallic cations diffusion from the pit bottom to the pit mouth. The pit radius growth is defined by the initial surface de-passivation, by the presence of a pit cover and by the gel development in the solution. all of these phenomena are function of applied potential and chemical composition of the solution. In a last step, it was demonstrated that a critical chloride concentration is needed in order to maintain the pit propagation. This critical concentration slightly increases with the pit depth. From statistical analysis performed on identical experiments, a zone diagram showing the pit stability as a function of the chloride concentration and the pit dimensions was built. (author) [fr

  1. variability in condensed tannins and bitterness in spider plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) contributes considerably to the nutrition and medicines of communities in southern Africa. However, its utilisation is limited by its bitterness caused by condensed tannins. Unfortunately, processing options that reduce the bitterness also remove nutritionally and medicinally useful ...

  2. Optimization of ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline hydrolysis with 0.25 M sodium hydroxide has no significant effect on concentration of reducing sugar and ethanol yield. Acid hydrolysis with 2.5 M sulphuric acid and saccharification using Aspergillus niger are better methods for optimizing ethanol production from bitter kola pulp waste. Solar drying of the bitter kola ...

  3. Bitterness of saponins and their content in dry peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.; Vincken, J.P.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Legger, A.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Roozen, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The bitterness of a saponin mixture (containing saponin B and DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin in a ratio of 1:4) and saponin B obtained from dry peas were established by a trained panel using line scaling. Both saponins were found to be bitter. However, the saponin

  4. Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce. Copnall, James 2017. London, Hurst Publishers, 317 pp. ISBN 978-184804-830-9. Reviewed by Nicodemus Minde*. Having served as the BBC Sudan correspondent from 2009 to 2012, James. Copnall has compiled an insightful account of the bitter-sweet split of the.

  5. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Arrázola

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype (sweet, slightly bitter or bitter and the genotype (homozygous: sweet or bitter or heterozygous: sweet or slightly bitter with an easy analytical test. Results showed that there was a clear difference in the amount of amygdalin between bitter and non-bitter cultivars. However, the content of amygdalin did not differentiate the other genotypes, since similar amounts of amygdalin can be found in the two different genotypes with the same phenotype

  6. Stochastic modeling of pitting corrosion: A new model for initiation and growth of multiple corrosion pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)]. E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Alfonso, L. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Rivas, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)

    2007-02-15

    In this work, a new stochastic model capable of simulating pitting corrosion is developed and validated. Pitting corrosion is modeled as the combination of two stochastic processes: pit initiation and pit growth. Pit generation is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, in which induction time for pit initiation is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. In this way, the exponential and Weibull distributions can be considered as the possible distributions for pit initiation time. Pit growth is simulated using a nonhomogeneous Markov process. Extreme value statistics is used to find the distribution of maximum pit depths resulting from the combination of the initiation and growth processes for multiple pits. The proposed model is validated using several published experiments on pitting corrosion. It is capable of reproducing the experimental observations with higher quality than the stochastic models available in the literature for pitting corrosion.

  7. GWAS of human bitter taste perception identifies new loci and reveals additional complexity of bitter taste genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Mirko; Kutalik, Zoltán; Souza Destito, Maria C; Souza, Milena M; Cirillo, Cintia A; Zamboni, Amabilene; Martin, Nathalie; Morya, Edgard; Sameshima, Koichi; Beckmann, Jacques S; le Coutre, Johannes; Bergmann, Sven; Genick, Ulrich K

    2014-01-01

    Human perception of bitterness displays pronounced interindividual variation. This phenotypic variation is mirrored by equally pronounced genetic variation in the family of bitter taste receptor genes. To better understand the effects of common genetic variations on human bitter taste perception, we conducted a genome-wide association study on a discovery panel of 504 subjects and a validation panel of 104 subjects from the general population of São Paulo in Brazil. Correction for general taste-sensitivity allowed us to identify a SNP in the cluster of bitter taste receptors on chr12 (10.88- 11.24 Mb, build 36.1) significantly associated (best SNP: rs2708377, P = 5.31 × 10(-13), r(2) = 8.9%, β = -0.12, s.e. = 0.016) with the perceived bitterness of caffeine. This association overlaps with-but is statistically distinct from-the previously identified SNP rs10772420 influencing the perception of quinine bitterness that falls in the same bitter taste cluster. We replicated this association to quinine perception (P = 4.97 × 10(-37), r(2) = 23.2%, β = 0.25, s.e. = 0.020) and additionally found the effect of this genetic locus to be concentration specific with a strong impact on the perception of low, but no impact on the perception of high concentrations of quinine. Our study, thus, furthers our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of bitter taste perception.

  8. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initia...

  9. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2013-11-15

    Bitterness in whole wheat bread can negatively influence product acceptability and consumption. The overall goal of this project was to identify the main bitter compounds in a commercial whole wheat bread product. Sensory-guided fractionation of the crust (most bitter portion of the bread sample) utilising liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, ultra-filtration and 2-D offline RPLC revealed multiple bitter compounds existed. The compounds with the highest bitterness intensities were selected and structurally elucidated based on accurate mass-TOF, MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Eight bitter compounds were identified: Acortatarins A, Acortatarins C, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural(HMF), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one (DDMP), N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)-l-tryptophan (ARP), Tryptophol (TRO), 2-(2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)butanoic acid (PBA) and Tryptophan (TRP). Based on the structures of these compounds, two main mechanisms of bitterness generation in wheat bread were supported, fermentation and Maillard pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Arrázola, Guillermo; Sánchez P., Raquel; Dicenta, Federico; Grané Teruel, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor) and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic) are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype...

  11. Detection of bitterness-Suppression using a taste sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiyama, Satoru; Ezaki, Shu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    We tried to detect the suppression of bitterness with a taste sensor. Quinine hydrochloride, which has a positive charge usually cause large potential change of negatively, charged membranes of the sensor. The potential change was decreased by sour substances such as acetic acid. The decrease of the potential change of response implies a decrease in the intensity of bitterness. Contrary to this, response of the sensor to sodium picrate, which has a negative charge, was diminished by sodium salts of organic acids. As the hydrophobicity of organic acids increased, the suppression of bitterness also increased. The present study is expected to provide a new quantitative technique to measure the strength of bitterness of foods and drugs in place of sensory evaluation. (author)

  12. [Preliminary analysis of bitter substances in spica of Prunella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xin; Xi, Meng-Qian; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Han, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Rong-bo; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Zhu, Huan-Rong

    2014-02-01

    Volatile oil components and the contents and types of amino acid in spica of Prunella vulgaris were analysed by GC-MS and amino acid analyzer. Esters, fatty acids, aromatic hydrocarbon, ketone and several alcohol compounds were identified by mass spectrum comparison. In these ingredients, beta-ionone smelled aroma of cedar, raspberry, nerolidol showed weak sweet soft orange blossom flavor, neroli tasted sweet and fresh, nerolidol tasted sweet with light aroma of wood, hexadecanal showed a weak aroma of flowers and wax, alpha-sinensal had rich and fresh sweet orange flavor. To some extent, these types of aromatic substances can affect the taste of herbal tea or decoction made of Spica Prunellae. Among amino acids detected, natural amino acids accounted for a larger proportion, and those natural amino acids showed bitterness, slight bitterness, sourness (freshness), sweetness, slight sweetness, sourness (slight freshness). The results indicated that bitter and slightly bitter amino acids have the greatest impacts on the sense of Spica Prunellae.

  13. Variant angina associated with bitter orange in a dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gange, Christopher A; Madias, Christopher; Felix-Getzik, Erika M; Weintraub, Andrew R; Estes, N A Mark

    2006-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has banned the sale of ephedrine-based weight-loss products because of their association with many cardiovascular adverse effects. Bitter orange is now being used as a stimulant in "ephedra-free" weight-loss supplements but was recently implicated in adverse cardiovascular sequelae. To our knowledge, this report describes the first case of variant angina associated with bitter orange in a dietary supplement.

  14. Promiscuity and selectivity of bitter molecules and their receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Niv, Masha Y

    2015-07-15

    Bitter taste is essential for survival, as it protects against consuming poisonous compounds, which are often bitter. Bitter taste perception is mediated by bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs), a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of TAS2R subtypes is species-dependent, and varies from 3 in chicken to 50 in frog. TAS2Rs present an intriguing case for studying promiscuity: some of the receptors are still orphan, or have few known agonists, while others can be activated by numerous, structurally dissimilar compounds. The ligands also vary in the repertoire of TAS2Rs that they activate: some bitter compounds are selective toward a single TAS2R, while others activate multiple TAS2Rs. Selectivity/promiscuity profile of bitter taste receptors and their compounds was explored by a chemoinformatic approach. TAS2R-promiscuous and TAS2R-selective bitter molecules were found to differ in chemical features, such as AlogP, E-state, total charge, number of rings, globularity, and heavy atom count. This allowed the prediction of bitter ligand selectivity toward TAS2Rs. Interestingly, while promiscuous TAS2Rs are activated by both TAS2R-promiscuous and TAS2R-selective compounds, almost all selective TAS2Rs in human are activated by promiscuous compounds, which are recognized by other TAS2Rs anyway. Thus, unique ligands, that may have been the evolutionary driving force for development of selective TAS2Rs, still need to be unraveled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EFEKTIVITAS AROMATERAPI BITTER ORANGE TERHADAP NYERI POST PARTUM SECTIO CAESAREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Utami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery that causes severe pain physiological response as compared to a normal delivery was called sectio caesarea. The alternative to reduce pain with bitter orange aroma therapy. Bitter orange aroma therapy is to give the effect of reducing the muscle tensions and stress the body as a whole with the goal of keeping the body and mind into a relaxed. This research was aimed to explore the effectiveness of bitter orange aroma therapy for reduction pain in post partum sectio caesarea. The method used this research was quasi experimental with pre test and post test design with control group. The instruments used numeric rating scale to measure pain intensity. The sampling technique used purposive sampling where the quantity of research sample 34 respondents which are divided into 2 groups, namely intervention group and control group. bitter orange aroma therapy carried out for 15 minutes each day for 2 days. The univariate analysis was conducted to show pain distribution and bivariate analysis was conducted by Wicoxon and Mann Whitney. The result show that after bitter orange aroma therapy was applied towards intervered group, it was obtained that mean of respondents category pain was reducing at 3,44 (low pain with the reduction was 1,47 and mean of post partum sectio caesarea pain without given bitter orange aroma therapy in control group was 4,82 (moderate pain with the reduction was 0. The statistic showed up p value (0,000< 0,05 which mean that kneading techniques effective to reduce pain of post partum sectio caesarea. Based on the result, bitter orange aroma therapy can be recommended as nursing intervention of post partum sectio caesarea.

  16. Bitter melon therapy: an experimental treatment of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebultan, S P

    1995-01-01

    People in Asia often use a medicinal plant, bitter melon (Mamordica charantia), to treat various diseases (e.g., malaria). It has anti-viral, anti-tumor, and immune system boosting properties. Some Asians, especially Filipinos, eat bitter melon. They believe that bitter melon cleanses the blood and boosts the immune system. Rural Filipino midwives place a strong bitter melon extract in a newborn's mouth to activate the immune system. An HIV-infected man in California uses bitter melon therapy. Bitter melon therapy can be prepared by extracting juices from fresh leaves and fruits and adding purified water to the extract to control the potency. Another preparation involves bringing two pounds of leaves and fruits in a gallon of purified water to a boil, allowing it to simmer for five minutes, filtering the decoction in a sterile strainer, and storing it in the refrigerator. The therapy can be administered either orally or via the rectum. The HIV-infected California man drank 10 ounces of the juices or a combination of juices and decoction each day for five days a week during the first year. He then switched to rectal retention enema due to the bad taste. He increased the dosage to 16 ounces/day and the duration to seven days a week. He held an inserted enema bag or rectal syringe until the juices/decoction had been absorbed. Sometimes he would infuse most of the therapy two times a day. Within seven days of rectal retention enema delivery of the bitter melon therapy, his energy level increased rapidly and his physical stamina and appetite improved. One year after therapy began, his CD4 count increased greatly. Later, his CD4/CD8 ratios had returned to normal. He no longer experiences acute sinusitis or recurrent respiratory infections. He has had no serious side effects.

  17. Probenecid inhibits the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R16 and suppresses bitter perception of salicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tiffani A; Alarcon, Suzanne; Thomas, Anu; Berdougo, Eli; Doranz, Benjamin J; Breslin, Paul A S; Rucker, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    Bitter taste stimuli are detected by a diverse family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed in gustatory cells. Each bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) responds to an array of compounds, many of which are toxic and can be found in nature. For example, human TAS2R16 (hTAS2R16) responds to β-glucosides such as salicin, and hTAS2R38 responds to thiourea-containing molecules such as glucosinolates and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). While many substances are known to activate TAS2Rs, only one inhibitor that specifically blocks bitter receptor activation has been described. Here, we describe a new inhibitor of bitter taste receptors, p-(dipropylsulfamoyl)benzoic acid (probenecid), that acts on a subset of TAS2Rs and inhibits through a novel, allosteric mechanism of action. Probenecid is an FDA-approved inhibitor of the Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1) transporter and is clinically used to treat gout in humans. Probenecid is also commonly used to enhance cellular signals in GPCR calcium mobilization assays. We show that probenecid specifically inhibits the cellular response mediated by the bitter taste receptor hTAS2R16 and provide molecular and pharmacological evidence for direct interaction with this GPCR using a non-competitive (allosteric) mechanism. Through a comprehensive analysis of hTAS2R16 point mutants, we define amino acid residues involved in the probenecid interaction that result in decreased sensitivity to probenecid while maintaining normal responses to salicin. Probenecid inhibits hTAS2R16, hTAS2R38, and hTAS2R43, but does not inhibit the bitter receptor hTAS2R31 or non-TAS2R GPCRs. Additionally, structurally unrelated MRP1 inhibitors, such as indomethacin, fail to inhibit hTAS2R16 function. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of probenecid in cellular experiments translates to inhibition of bitter taste perception of salicin in humans. This work identifies probenecid as a pharmacological tool for understanding the cell biology of

  18. Probenecid inhibits the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R16 and suppresses bitter perception of salicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffani A Greene

    Full Text Available Bitter taste stimuli are detected by a diverse family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs expressed in gustatory cells. Each bitter taste receptor (TAS2R responds to an array of compounds, many of which are toxic and can be found in nature. For example, human TAS2R16 (hTAS2R16 responds to β-glucosides such as salicin, and hTAS2R38 responds to thiourea-containing molecules such as glucosinolates and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC. While many substances are known to activate TAS2Rs, only one inhibitor that specifically blocks bitter receptor activation has been described. Here, we describe a new inhibitor of bitter taste receptors, p-(dipropylsulfamoylbenzoic acid (probenecid, that acts on a subset of TAS2Rs and inhibits through a novel, allosteric mechanism of action. Probenecid is an FDA-approved inhibitor of the Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1 transporter and is clinically used to treat gout in humans. Probenecid is also commonly used to enhance cellular signals in GPCR calcium mobilization assays. We show that probenecid specifically inhibits the cellular response mediated by the bitter taste receptor hTAS2R16 and provide molecular and pharmacological evidence for direct interaction with this GPCR using a non-competitive (allosteric mechanism. Through a comprehensive analysis of hTAS2R16 point mutants, we define amino acid residues involved in the probenecid interaction that result in decreased sensitivity to probenecid while maintaining normal responses to salicin. Probenecid inhibits hTAS2R16, hTAS2R38, and hTAS2R43, but does not inhibit the bitter receptor hTAS2R31 or non-TAS2R GPCRs. Additionally, structurally unrelated MRP1 inhibitors, such as indomethacin, fail to inhibit hTAS2R16 function. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of probenecid in cellular experiments translates to inhibition of bitter taste perception of salicin in humans. This work identifies probenecid as a pharmacological tool for understanding the cell

  19. Genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes and phylogenetic analysis of bitter taste receptor genes in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As nontraditional model organisms with extreme physiological and morphological phenotypes, snakes are believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste sensation is essential to distinguish the nutritious and poisonous food resources and the genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes is largely scarce. To explore the genetic basis of the bitter taste of snakes and characterize the evolution of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs in reptiles, we identified Tas2r genes in 19 genomes (species corresponding to three orders of non-avian reptiles. Our results indicated contractions of Tas2r gene repertoires in snakes, however dramatic gene expansions have occurred in lizards. Phylogenetic analysis of the Tas2rs with NJ and BI methods revealed that Tas2r genes of snake species formed two clades, whereas in lizards the Tas2r genes clustered into two monophyletic clades and four large clades. Evolutionary changes (birth and death of intact Tas2r genes in reptiles were determined by reconciliation analysis. Additionally, the taste signaling pathway calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (Calhm1 gene of snakes was putatively functional, suggesting that snakes still possess bitter taste sensation. Furthermore, Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts (PIC analyses reviewed a significant correlation between the number of Tas2r genes and the amount of potential toxins in reptilian diets, suggesting that insectivores such as some lizards may require more Tas2rs genes than omnivorous and carnivorous reptiles.

  20. Additional toxic, bitter saponins from the seeds of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W W; Heinstein, P F; McLaughlin, J L

    1989-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an important Native American food grain. Prior to consumption, the seeds must be washed with H2O to remove bitterness and improve nutritive value. From the warm-H2O extract of quinoa seeds from Mexico, saponins 1-4 were isolated by monitoring the fractionation with brine shrimp lethality and a taste test for bitterness. By chemical, spectral, and enzymatic methods, 1-4 were identified as glycosides of oleanolic acid. Saponin 4, 3-O-[(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)(1----3)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-O -methyl ester]-oleanolic acid, is a new natural compound.

  1. The Bitter Chemodiversity of Hops (Humulus lupulus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresel, Michael; Vogt, Christian; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-10-03

    To map the chemodiversity of key bitter compounds in hops, a total of 75 different samples collected from the global hop market were analyzed for 117 key bitter tastants by means of a multiparametric HPLC-MS/MSMRM method. Among the compounds detected, 2'',3''-epoxyxanthohumol was detected for the first time in hops and iso¬xantho¬humol M was identified as a marker compound for varieties grown in Germany. Hop ageing experiments in the absence and presence of air oxygen, respectively, were conducted to address the stability of hop-derived compounds during long-term storage.

  2. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  3. Aseismic structure evaluation tests on storage pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Seiichi; Fuke, Hikaru; Shimosaka, Shigeru; Kitamura, Katsuhide; Zako, Masaru.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the aseismic structural property of a storage pit for vitrified radioactive waste canisters, a full-scale model of the storage pit and canisters filled with dummy vitrified waste were subjected to seismic tests on the shaking table owned by the National Research Center for Disaster Prevention. Three storage pits were tested, all measuring 558.8 mm in diameterx6765 mm in height, of Sch. 40 structural steel plate but with longitudinal internal ribs of different sizes to leave different clearances between the pit and the canister. The dummy canisters, each measuring 430 mm in diameterx1345 mm in height and weighting 480 kg, were piled five high in the pit. The table was shaken in horizontal direction, applying as exciting wave (a) wave pulse, (b) sinusoidal waves in frequency sweep, (c) continuous single-frequency wave and (d) reproduced actual seismic waves. (author)

  4. Floating Lid Constructions for Pit Water Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due to the l...... to the large share in price the development of lid constructions is crucial for the development of pit water storage and seasonal storage.The current report gives a survey of the most important established and planned designs from Denmark, Sweden and Germany.......Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due...

  5. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  6. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  7. Protective properties of yoyo cleanser bitters against mercury ii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of oral administration of Yoyo Cleanser Bitters on the mercuric chloride-induced kidney damage in adult Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 210 g were grouped into six groups of five rats each. Group A animals served as control that were neither ...

  8. Germination, seedling growth and ion accumulation of bitter vetch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of NaCl levels on germination and seedling growth, and ion accumulation in five bitter vetch lines. Germination percentage (%), mean germination time (MGT, day), emergence percentage (%), shoot and root length (mm), shoot and root fresh and dry weight (mg/plant) and the ...

  9. Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates the different marketing of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) starting from the point of production with the view to improving the trade. Farmers have Garcinia trees on their farm and these were spared during land preparation for farming. Marketing of Garcinia nuts generated appreciable income to the producers ...

  10. Collection and marketing of Bitter Cola ( Garcinia kola ) in Nkwerre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints encountered by collectors and marketers include rot and decay during storage (99%), poor storage facilities (97%), pest and diseases (88.2%) and labour costs (68.2%). Recommendations based on the findings include providing financial resources in form of loans, grants or incentives in order to boost bitter ...

  11. Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    London, Hurst Publishers, 317 pp. ISBN 978-184804-830-9. Reviewed by Nicodemus Minde*. Having served as the BBC Sudan correspondent from 2009 to 2012, James. Copnall has compiled an insightful account of the bitter-sweet split of the two Sudans (Sudan and South Sudan) in July 2009. This updated edition.

  12. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Issue 3. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan domestic and Tibetan chicken populations. YUAN SU DIYAN LI UMA GAUR YAN WANG NAN WU BINLONG CHEN HONGXIAN XU HUADONG YIN YAODONG HU QING ZHU. RESEARCH ARTICLE ...

  13. Growth of Bitter leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina , Del. Compositeae) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth parameters were positively correlated to rainfall, relative humidity and cloud cover. Maximum temperature was negatively correlated to the growth ... 13 no. 3/4 December (2001) pp. 227-233. KEY WORDS: bitter leaf, Vernonia amygdalina, growth characteristics climate and yield, nutritive values. Resume

  14. Toxicity studies in rats fed nature cure bitters | Aniagu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded doses of Nature Cure Bitters (NCB) were administered daily (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o) to rats for 28 days and the effects on body weight, organ weight, clinical signs, gross pathology, haematology, histology and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. The relative weights of the heart, liver and testes of ...

  15. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  16. Preliminary studies on ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    Because petroleum is a non-renewable resource, studies have recently been focused on getting alcohol through renewable resources such as agricultural sources6,7,8. Garcinia kola (bitter kola) is a tropical plant that grows well in Nigeria, producing fruit that is usually reddish-yellow when ripe. It is however cultivated in the ...

  17. Ruzu ® herbal bitters and glibenclamide tablets: Dissolution and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The concomitant intake of poly-herbal medicines with orthodox drugs raises huge concerns about herb-drug interactions and patient safety, especially as the pharmacokinetic properties of these herbal medicines are not known. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of Ruzu® herbal bitters on the ...

  18. Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina Del ) and sniper 1000EC (2,3 dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) using the Alium cepa ... 96 hours and EC50 values at 95% confidence interval was determined from a plot of root length against sample concentrations using Microsoft Excel software.

  19. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber

  20. Bitter decoration and magneto-optical observations of vortex chains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by making Bitter decorations in two groups of samples; overdoped BSCCO and underdoped YBCO. In an extremely overdoped BSCCO (Tc = 68 K), we find ..... cake and Josephson vortices is realized in highly anisotropic superconductor. Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+y. The fundamental energy scale for the attractive interactions.

  1. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  2. Value of Bitter Leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina ) Meal as Feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) leaf meal as feed ingredient on the performance, feed cost and carcass and organ weights of finisher broilers. The leaves were air dried under room temperature, ground and sieved through a 3 mm mesh to produce the meal.

  3. Quinoa bitterness: causes and solutions for improving product acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Estrella, Diego; Torri, Luisa; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Marti, Alessandra

    2018-02-27

    Awareness of the several agronomic, environmental, and health benefits of quinoa has led to a constant increase in its production and consumption not only in South America - where it is a native crop - but also in Europe and the United States. However, producing wheat or gluten-free based products enriched with quinoa alters some quality characteristics, including sensory acceptance. Several anti-nutritional factors such as saponins are concentrated in the grain pericarp. These bitter and astringent substances may interfere with the digestion and absorption of various nutrients. Developing processes to decrease or modify the bitterness of quinoa can enhance palatability and thus consumption of quinoa. In addition to the production of sweet varieties of quinoa, other processes have been proposed. Some of them (i.e. washing, pearling and the combination of the two) have a direct effect on saponins, either by solubilisation and/or the mechanical removal of seed layers. Others, such as fermentation or germination, are able to mask the bitterness with aroma compounds and/or sugar formation. This review presents the major sources of the undesirable sensory attributes of quinoa, included bitterness, and various ways of counteracting the negative characteristics of quinoa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Independent Evolution of Strychnine Recognition by Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ava Yuan; Di Pizio, Antonella; Levit, Anat; Yarnitzky, Tali; Penn, Osnat; Pupko, Tal; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-01-01

    The 25 human bitter taste receptors (hT2Rs) recognize thousands of structurally and chemically diverse bitter substances. The binding modes of human bitter taste receptors hT2R10 and hT2R46, which are responsible for strychnine recognition, were previously established using site-directed mutagenesis, functional assays, and molecular modeling. Here we construct a phylogenetic tree and reconstruct ancestral sequences of the T2R10 and T2R46 clades. We next analyze the binding sites in view of experimental data to predict their ability to recognize strychnine. This analysis suggests that the common ancestor of hT2R10 and hT2R46 is unlikely to bind strychnine in the same mode as either of its two descendants. Estimation of relative divergence times shows that hT2R10 evolved earlier than hT2R46. Strychnine recognition was likely acquired first by the earliest common ancestor of the T2R10 clade before the separation of primates from other mammals, and was highly conserved within the clade. It was probably independently acquired by the common ancestor of T2R43-47 before the homo-ape speciation, lost in most T2Rs within this clade, but enhanced in the hT2R46 after humans diverged from the rest of primates. Our findings suggest hypothetical strychnine T2R receptors in several species, and serve as an experimental guide for further study. Improved understanding of how bitter taste receptors acquire the ability to be activated by particular ligands is valuable for the development of sensors for bitterness and for potential toxicity.

  5. Independent Evolution of Strychnine Recognition by Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Yuan Xue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The 25 human bitter taste receptors (hT2Rs recognize thousands of structurally and chemically diverse bitter substances. The binding modes of human bitter taste receptors hT2R10 and hT2R46, which are responsible for strychnine recognition, were previously established using site-directed mutagenesis, functional assays, and molecular modeling. Here we construct a phylogenetic tree and reconstruct ancestral sequences of the T2R10 and T2R46 clades. We next analyze the binding sites in view of experimental data to predict their ability to recognize strychnine. This analysis suggests that the common ancestor of hT2R10 and hT2R46 is unlikely to bind strychnine in the same mode as either of its two descendants. Estimation of relative divergence times shows that hT2R10 evolved earlier than hT2R46. Strychnine recognition was likely acquired first by the earliest common ancestor of the T2R10 clade before the separation of primates from other mammals, and was highly conserved within the clade. It was probably independently acquired by the common ancestor of T2R43-47 before the homo-ape speciation, lost in most T2Rs within this clade, but enhanced in the hT2R46 after humans diverged from the rest of primates. Our findings suggest hypothetical strychnine T2R receptors in several species, and serve as an experimental guide for further study. Improved understanding of how bitter taste receptors acquire the ability to be activated by particular ligands is valuable for the development of sensors for bitterness and for potential toxicity.

  6. Bitter Taste Responses of Gustducin-positive Taste Cells in Mouse Fungiform and Circumvallate Papillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Takai, Shingo; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Margolskee, Robert F; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2018-01-15

    Bitter taste serves as an important signal for potentially poisonous compounds in foods to avoid their ingestion. Thousands of compounds are estimated to taste bitter and presumed to activate taste receptor cells expressing bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) and coupled transduction components including gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2) and transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5). Indeed, some gustducin-positive taste cells have been shown to respond to bitter compounds. However, there has been no systematic characterization of their response properties to multiple bitter compounds and the role of transduction molecules in these cells. In this study, we investigated bitter taste responses of gustducin-positive taste cells in situ in mouse fungiform (anterior tongue) and circumvallate (posterior tongue) papillae using transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in gustducin-positive cells. The overall response profile of gustducin-positive taste cells to multiple bitter compounds (quinine, denatonium, cyclohexamide, caffeine, sucrose octaacetate, tetraethylammonium, phenylthiourea, L-phenylalanine, MgSO 4 , and high concentration of saccharin) was not significantly different between fungiform and circumvallate papillae. These bitter-sensitive taste cells were classified into several groups according to their responsiveness to multiple bitter compounds. Bitter responses of gustducin-positive taste cells were significantly suppressed by inhibitors of TRPM5 or PLCβ2. In contrast, several bitter inhibitors did not show any effect on bitter responses of taste cells. These results indicate that bitter-sensitive taste cells display heterogeneous responses and that TRPM5 and PLCβ2 are indispensable for eliciting bitter taste responses of gustducin-positive taste cells. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing granular pit construction from larval Neuroptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas; Olafsen, Jeffrey S.; Loudon, Catherine; Steeples, Don W.

    2002-03-01

    Antlion larvae, Myrmeleon carolinus, build cone-shaped pits in dry sand for prey capture. The surface of these pits are prone to avalanches that can depend upon the physical properties of the sand in the local environment. The antlion larvae are observed to be capable of assessing both sand depth and particle size. In a polydisperse granular environment, the antlion demonstrates the ability to sort the sand by size in a dynamic manner. An imaging technique is developed to investigate the potential role of air viscosity on the pit construction process.

  8. The cuisine of the Pitted Ware Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Persson, Per

    The Pitted Ware Culture is a Middle Neolithic culture in southwestern Scandinavia. It appears about thousand years after the introduction of agriculture to this area. In some regions, it is characterized by an almost fully “Mesolithic” economy with a heavy reliance on seal hunting. In Djursland......, northeastern Denmark, however, the Pitted Ware Culture has always been regarded as having a mixed economy, utilizing both domesticated and wild resources. The research presented here was prepared in the framework of the multi-disciplinary project “CONTACT. The Pitted Ware Phenomenon in Djursland and Maritime...

  9. Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranteda, Guglielmo; Carlesimo, Marta; Pranteda, Giulia; Abruzzese, Claudia; Grimaldi, Miriam; De Micco, Sabrina; Muscianese, Marta; Bottoni, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PK erythromycin and hyperhidrosis. All patients with PK seen in Sant'Andrea Hospital, between January 2009 and December 2011, were collected. PK was clinically and microscopically diagnosed. All patients underwent only topical treatment with erythromycin 3% gel twice daily. At the beginning of the study and after 5 and 10 days of treatment, a clinical evaluation and a gravimetric measurement of plantar sweating were assessed. A total of 97 patients were diagnosed as PK and were included in the study. Gravimetric measurements showed that in 94 of 97 examined patients (96.90%) at the time of the diagnosis, there was a bilateral excessive sweating occurring specifically in the areas affected by PK. After 10 days of antibiotic therapy, hyperhidrosis regressed together with the clinical manifestations. According to these data, we hypothesize that hyperhidrosis is due to an eccrine sweat gland hyperfunction, probably secondary to bacterial infection. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  11. AHAR: Part 1 - PIT Estimates of Homelessness

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report outlines the key findings of the 2014 Point-In-Time (PIT) and Housing Inventory (HIC) counts conducted in January 2014. Specifically, this report...

  12. CLPX-Ground: ISA Snow Pit Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of snow pit data from nine study areas, within three larger-scale areas in northern Colorado (Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears Meso-cell...

  13. Pitting corrosion of 5052 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, F.; Lee, S.; Faunce, J.; Green, J. A. S.; Ptashnick, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The relative degree of pitting of 5052 aluminum alloy in a prepaint cleaning process is correlated with the proportion of MgO in the surface oxide of the alloy. Magnesium oxide, formed on the surface during process heat treatments of the alloy, is soluble in the acidic environment of the particular cleaning solutions, thus allowing easier access of corrosive ion to the aluminum metal. The pitting mechanism involves the: (1) formation of microscopic, localized galvanic cells between aluminum (anode) and iron-containing constituents (cathodic sites) normally found in the matrix of 5052 (and other 5xxx aluminum alloys), (2) aggravation of pit formation by chloride, and (3) enhancement of cathodic reactions and hence the overall corrosion process due to penetration of the oxide layer by cupric and ferric ions, and dissolved O 2 present in the cleaning solutions. Pitting was eliminated by adding 0.1% NaNO 3 to the cleaning bath.

  14. Pit 9 project: A private sector initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.W.; Hughes, F.P.; Burton, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the Pit 9 Comprehensive Demonstration which is intended to demonstrate a cost-effective approach to remediate an Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) waste disposal pit through a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interim Action. The remediation will include additional requirements, if needed, to provide high confidence that only minor additional work would be necessary to accomplish the final closure as part of the overall final closure strategy for the INEL's Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA)

  15. Bitter taste inhibiting agents for whey protein hydrolysate and whey protein hydrolysate beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, Pattarin; Gerard, Patrick; Lopetcharat, Kannapon; Drake, MaryAnne

    2012-08-01

    Whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) are known for bioactivity and functionality, but WPH also have a distinct bitter taste. Identification of effective bitter taste inhibiting agents for WPH would broaden the use of this ingredient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 24 documented bitter taste inhibitors for WPH. Two spray-dried WPH with different levels of hydrolysis (DH) were evaluated with each potential inhibitor. Quinine hydrochloride (quinine) was presented as a control with each WPH. Percent bitter taste inhibition was reported relative to quinine bitterness. Effective bitter taste inhibitors were subsequently evaluated in WPH beverages with vanilla and chocolate flavoring followed by descriptive analysis. The compounds evaluated did not inhibit bitter taste of quinine and the 2 WPH in a similar manner (P sucralose, fructose, sucrose, adenosine 5' monophosphate (5'AMP), adenosine 5'monophosphate disodium (5'AMP Na(2) ), sodium acetate, monosodium glutamate, and sodium gluconate. Sodium chloride inhibited bitter taste of WPH with high DH but not WPH with low DH. Amino acids (l-Lysine, l-arginine) inhibited bitter taste of quinine but not WPH. All effective inhibitors in rehydrated WPH were also effective in the beverage applications. Sweeteners (fructose, sucralose, and sucrose) enhanced vanilla and chocolate flavors in beverages. Most salts and a nucleotide, while effective for bitter taste inhibition, suppressed vanilla and chocolate flavors and potentiated other flavors (that is, sour aromatic), and basic tastes (salty, sour). The bitter taste of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) limits their use as ingredients. This study identified effective bitter taste inhibitors of WPH with different peptide composition and provides insights for effective bitter inhibitors for product applications with WPH. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms inTAS2R9andTAS2R31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alissa L; McGeary, John E; Hayes, John E

    2013-09-01

    In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to vary across bitter taste receptors polymorphisms in TAS2R31 . RebA has shown to activate hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14 in vitro. Here we examined bitterness and sweetness perception of natural and synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. In a follow-up to a previous gene-association study, participants (n=122) who had been genotyped previously rated sweet, bitter and metallic sensations from rebaudioside A (RebA), rebaudioside D (RebD), aspartame, sucrose and gentiobiose in duplicate in a single session. For comparison, we also present sweet and bitter ratings of AceK collected in the original experiment for the same participants. At similar sweetness levels, aspartame elicited less bitterness than RebD, which was significantly less bitter than RebA. The bitterness of RebA and RebD showed wide variability across individuals, and bitterness ratings for these compounds were correlated. However, RebA and RebD bitterness did not covary with AceK bitterness. Likewise, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown previously to explain variation in the suprathreshold bitterness of AceK (rs3741845 in TAS2R9 and rs10772423 in TAS2R31 ) did not explain variation in RebA and RebD bitterness. Because RebA activates hT2R4 and hT2R14, a SNP in TAS2R4 previously associated with variation in bitterness perception was included here; there are no known functional SNPs for TAS2R14 . In present data, a putatively functional SNP (rs2234001) in TAS2R4 did not explain variation in RebA or RebD bitterness

  17. Certification of standard reference materials containing bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, L C; Putzbach, K; Nelson, B C; Rimmer, C A; Bedner, M; Thomas, J Brown; Porter, B J; Wood, L J; Schantz, M M; Murphy, K E; Sharpless, K E; Wise, S A; Yen, J H; Siitonen, P H; Evans, R L; Nguyen Pho, A; Roman, M C; Betz, J M

    2008-07-01

    A suite of three dietary supplement standard reference materials (SRMs) containing bitter orange has been developed, and the levels of five alkaloids and caffeine have been measured by multiple analytical methods. Synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, N-methyltyramine, hordenine, total alkaloids, and caffeine were determined by as many as six analytical methods, with measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at two collaborating laboratories. The methods offer substantial independence, with two types of extractions, two separation methods, and four detection methods. Excellent agreement was obtained among the measurements, with data reproducibility for most methods and analytes better than 5% relative standard deviation. The bitter-orange-containing dietary supplement SRMs are intended primarily for use as measurement controls and for use in the development and validation of analytical methods.

  18. Sensorial properties of red wine polyphenols: Astringency and bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Susana; Brandão, Elsa; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-03-24

    Polyphenols have been the subject of numerous research over the past years, being referred as the nutraceuticals of modern life. The healthy properties of these compounds have been associated to a natural chemoprevention of 21st century major diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's). This association led to an increased consumption of foodstuffs rich in these compounds such as red wine. Related to the ingestion of polyphenols are the herein revised sensorial properties (astringency and bitterness) which are not still pleasant. This review intends to be an outline both at a sensory as a molecular level of the mechanisms underlying astringency and bitterness of polyphenols. Up-to-date knowledge of this matter is discussed in detail.

  19. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Tribulus terrestris and Bitter Almond Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abtahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial effects of the extracts of different kinds of plants have been demonstrated in several studies. However, no study has been conducted so far on the synergistic effects of two herbal extracts on their germicidal effects. In this study, in addition to antibacterial effects of the aqueous, methanol or ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and bitter almond on some bacteria, the synergistic effects of the extracts of these two plants were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, water, methanol and ethanol extracts of seeds were screened against some bacterial strains. Seeds were extracted by percolation method. Aliquots of the extracts at variable concentrations were then incubated with different bacterial strains, and the antimicrobial activities of the extracts from seeds were determined by MIC. Three antibiotics were used as reference compounds for antibacterial activities. Seeds extract inhibited significantly the growth of the tested bacterial strains. Results: The greatest synergistic effect of T. terrestris and bitter almond extracts is detected in methanol and aqueous extracts. Among the bacterial strains tested, Staphylococcus aureus was most susceptibility. Conclusion: The results showed the highest antibacterial effect in the combination of methanol extract of T. terrestris and the aqueous extract of the bitter almond.

  20. Bitterness in sodium caseinate hydrolysates: role of enzyme preparation and degree of hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dara; Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate (NaCas) may lead to the development of bitterness. Careful selection of hydrolysis conditions (i.e. enzyme preparation and duration) yielding different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) may aid in the development of low bitterness. Eighteen NaCas hydrolysates were generated with four enzyme preparations (Alcalase 2.4L, Prolyve 1000, FlavorPro Whey and pepsin) to different DH values. Hydrolysate bitterness score, assessed using a trained panel (ten assessors), generally increased at higher DH values for Alcalase, Prolyve and pepsin hydrolysates. However, all FlavorPro Whey hydrolysates (DH 0.38-10.62%) displayed low bitterness score values ( 0.05). Enzyme preparation and DH affect the bitterness of NaCas hydrolysates. The results are relevant for the generation of NaCas hydrolysates with reduced bitterness. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Bitter taste genetics--the relationship to tasting, liking, consumption and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Emma L; Martin, Charlotte; Yates, Zoe; Veysey, Martin; Duesing, Konsta; Lucock, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Bitter is the most complex of human tastes, and is arguably the most important. Aversion to bitter taste is important for detecting toxic compounds in food; however, many beneficial nutrients also taste bitter and these may therefore also be avoided as a consequence of bitter taste. While many polymorphisms in TAS2R genes may result in phenotypic differences that influence the range and sensitivity of bitter compounds detected, the full extent to which individuals differ in their abilities to detect bitter compounds remains unknown. Simple logic suggests that taste phenotypes influence food preferences, intake and consequently health status. However, it is becoming clear that genetics only plays a partial role in predicting preference, intake and health outcomes, and the complex, pleiotropic relationships involved are yet to be fully elucidated.

  2. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  3. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  4. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Lei

    Full Text Available Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in

  5. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes det...

  6. Blood pressure and heart rate effects following a single dose of bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Linda T; Nguyen, DiemThuy T; Ambrose, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    The ingredients of numerous "ephedra-free" dietary supplements used for weight loss include bitter orange, which contains sympathomimetic alkaloids such as synephrine. Due to the similarity in chemical structure to ephedrine and the potential sympathomimetic effects of synephrine, it is hypothesized that bitter orange may increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). To determine the effects on BP and HR after a single dose of bitter orange in healthy adults. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 15 young, healthy, adult subjects received either a single dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange--a 900 mg dietary supplement extract standardized to 6% synephrine--or matching placebo, with a one week washout period. Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and HR were measured at baseline and every hour for 6 hours after administration. SBP after bitter orange was significantly increased versus placebo at hours 1-5 (p bitter orange, DBP after bitter orange was significantly increased versus placebo at hours 4 and 5 (p bitter orange versus placebo for hours 2-5 (p bitter orange versus placebo in young, healthy adults.

  7. Perceived bitterness character of beer in relation to hop variety and the impact of hop aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Olayide; James, Sue; Cowley, Trevor; Dehrmann, Frieda; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2017-09-01

    The impact of hop variety and hop aroma on perceived beer bitterness intensity and character was investigated using analytical and sensory methods. Beers made from malt extract were hopped with 3 distinctive hop varieties (Hersbrucker, East Kent Goldings, Zeus) to achieve equi-bitter levels. A trained sensory panel determined the bitterness character profile of each singly-hopped beer using a novel lexicon. Results showed different bitterness character profiles for each beer, with hop aroma also found to change the hop variety-derived bitterness character profiles of the beer. Rank-rating evaluations further showed the significant effect of hop aroma on selected key bitterness character attributes, by increasing perceived harsh and lingering bitterness, astringency, and bitterness intensity via cross-modal flavour interactions. This study advances understanding of the complexity of beer bitterness perception by demonstrating that hop variety selection and hop aroma both impact significantly on the perceived intensity and character of this key sensory attribute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia is widely cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal herb in many Asian and African countries. After the sequencing of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, and melon (Cucumis melo genomes, bitter gourd became the fourth cucurbit species whose whole genome was sequenced. However, a comprehensive analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs in bitter gourd, including a comparison with the three aforementioned cucurbit species has not yet been published. Here, we identified a total of 188,091 and 167,160 SSR motifs in the genomes of the bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘OHB3-1,’ respectively. Subsequently, the SSR content, motif lengths, and classified motif types were characterized for the bitter gourd genomes and compared among all the cucurbit genomes. Lastly, a large set of 138,727 unique in silico SSR primer pairs were designed for bitter gourd. Among these, 71 primers were selected, all of which successfully amplified SSRs from the two bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘K44’. To further examine the utilization of unique SSR primers, 21 SSR markers were used to genotype a collection of 211 bitter gourd lines from all over the world. A model-based clustering method and phylogenetic analysis indicated a clear separation among the geographic groups. The genomic SSR markers developed in this study have considerable potential value in advancing bitter gourd research.

  9. Renal and Hepatic Function in Hypercholesterolemic Rats Fed Jamaican Bitter Yam (Dioscorea polygonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoy, Marsha-Lyn; Grant, Kevin; Asemota, Helen; Simon, Oswald; Omoruyi, Felix

    2015-06-01

    We reported that Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) has antilipemic potential in rats; however there is limited data on the toxicological profile of the yam. We therefore investigated the effects of bitter yam consumption for 6 or 12 weeks on renal and hepatic function in rats fed a high (4%) cholesterol diet. Twenty four rats were divided into six groups (n = 4); three of which were used for each investigation (6 or 12 weeks). One group was administered 4% cholesterol diet, while the yam group had the cholesterol diet supplemented with 5% bitter yam. The control group was fed standard rat chow. Liver and kidney function tests were performed on serum, liver and kidney. Histological studies were conducted on liver samples. Acute toxicity tests were performed in rats and mice administered a single high dose of bitter yam (10 g/kg). Activities of liver and kidney AST and ALT differed (p ≤ .02) between control rats and those fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 12 weeks. Albumin to globulin ratio was reduced (p = .03) in rats fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 6 weeks as compared to the control group. Serum urea concentration was higher (p < .05) in rats fed bitter yam as compared to normal chow for 6 weeks. The cholesterol diet caused extensive fat deposition in liver cells; however this was inhibited by co-administration of bitter yam. Long-term administration of Jamaican bitter yam may induce slight changes in renal and hepatic functions.

  10. Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Abolfazl Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Metfornin chewing gum had suitable appearance and appropriate invitro characteristics that fallow the pharmacopeia suggestions. This chewable gum showed bitterness suppression with a suitable release rate.

  11. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Catherine M.; Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole; Wu, Benjamin; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. ► NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. ► NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. ► NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  12. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  13. Bitterness prediction of H1-antihistamines and prediction of masking effects of artificial sweeteners using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masanori; Ikehama, Kiyoharu; Yoshida, Koichi; Haraguchi, Tamami; Yoshida, Miyako; Wada, Koichi; Uchida, Takahiro

    2013-01-30

    The study objective was to quantitatively predict a drug's bitterness and estimate bitterness masking efficiency using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). To verify the predicted bitterness by e-Tongue, actual bitterness scores were determined by human sensory testing. In the first study, bitterness intensities of eight H(1)-antihistamines were assessed by comparing the Euclidean distances between the drug and water. The distances seemed not to represent the drug's bitterness, but to be greatly affected by acidic taste. Two sensors were ultimately selected as best suited to bitterness evaluation, and the data obtained from the two sensors depicted the actual taste map of the eight drugs. A bitterness prediction model was established with actual bitterness scores from human sensory testing. Concerning basic bitter substances, such as H(1)-antihistamines, the predictability of bitterness intensity using e-Tongue was considered to be sufficiently promising. In another study, the bitterness masking efficiency when adding an artificial sweetener was estimated using e-Tongue. Epinastine hydrochloride aqueous solutions containing different levels of acesulfame potassium and aspartame were well discriminated by e-Tongue. The bitterness masking efficiency of epinastine hydrochloride with acesulfame potassium was successfully predicted using e-Tongue by several prediction models employed in the study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bitter melon: a panacea for inflammation and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandawate, Prasad R.; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Padhye, Subhash B.; Anant, Shrikant

    2017-01-01

    Nature is a rich source of medicinal plants and their products that are useful for treatment of various diseases and disorders. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon or bitter gourd, is one of such plants known for its biological activities used in traditional system of medicines. This plant is cultivated in all over the world, including tropical areas of Asia, Amazon, east Africa, and the Caribbean and used as a vegetable as well as folk medicine. All parts of the plant, including the fruit, are commonly consumed and cooked with different vegetables, stir-fried, stuffed or used in small quantities in soups or beans to give a slightly bitter flavor and taste. The plant is reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-obesity, and immunomodulatory activities. The plant extract inhibits cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy and inhibiting cancer stem cells. The plant is rich in bioactive chemical constituents like cucurbitane type triterpenoids, triterpene glycosides, phenolic acids, flavonoids, essential oils, saponins, fatty acids, and proteins. Some of the isolated compounds (Kuguacin J, Karaviloside XI, Kuguaglycoside C, Momordicoside Q–U, Charantin, α-eleostearic acid) and proteins (α-Momorcharin, RNase MC2, MAP30) possess potent biological activity. In the present review, we are summarizing the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities of Momordica charantia along with a short account of important chemical constituents, providing a basis for establishing detail biological activities of the plant and developing novel drug molecules based on the active chemical constituents. PMID:26968675

  15. Modeling and management of pit lake water chemistry 1: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castendyk, D.N.; Eary, L.E.; Balistrieri, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of pit lake literature in the context of pit lake predictions. • Review of approaches used to predict pit wall-rock runoff and leachate. • Review of approaches used to generate a pit lake water balance. • Review of approaches used to generate a hydrodynamic prediction. • Review of approaches used to generate a geochemical prediction of a future pit lake. - Abstract: Pit lakes are permanent hydrologic/landscape features that can result from open pit mining for metals, coal, uranium, diamonds, oil sands, and aggregates. Risks associated with pit lakes include local and regional impacts to water quality and related impacts to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Stakeholders rely on predictive models of water chemistry to prepare for and manage these risks. This paper is the first of a two part series on the modeling and management of pit lakes. Herein, we review approaches that have been used to quantify wall-rock runoff geochemistry, wall-rock leachate geochemistry, pit lake water balance, pit lake limnology (i.e. extent of vertical mixing), and pit lake water quality, and conclude with guidance on the application of models within the mine life cycle. The purpose of this paper is to better prepare stakeholders, including future modelers, mine managers, consultants, permitting agencies, land management agencies, regulators, research scientists, academics, and other interested parties, for the challenges of predicting and managing future pit lakes in un-mined areas

  16. Markov Chain Models for the Stochastic Modeling of Pitting Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion of metallic structures has been widely recognized. It is assumed that this kind of deterioration retains no memory of the past, so only the current state of the damage influences its future development. This characteristic allows pitting corrosion to be categorized as a Markov process. In this paper, two different models of pitting corrosion, developed using Markov chains, are presented. Firstly, a continuous-time, nonhomogeneous linear growth (pure birth Markov process is used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. A closed-form solution of the system of Kolmogorov's forward equations is used to describe the transition probability function in a discrete pit depth space. The transition probability function is identified by correlating the stochastic pit depth mean with the empirical deterministic mean. In the second model, the distribution of maximum pit depths in a pitting experiment is successfully modeled after the combination of two stochastic processes: pit initiation and pit growth. Pit generation is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, in which induction time is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. Pit growth is simulated using a nonhomogeneous Markov process. An analytical solution of Kolmogorov's system of equations is also found for the transition probabilities from the first Markov state. Extreme value statistics is employed to find the distribution of maximum pit depths.

  17. Parturition pit: the bony imprint of vaginal birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, Tatum A.; Meyer, Isuzu; Jackson, Bradford; Pitt, Michael J.; Larrison, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate for pits along the dorsum of the pubic body in females and compare the presence/absence of these pits to vaginal birth data. We retrospectively reviewed females with vaginal birth data who underwent pelvic CT. The presence of pits along the dorsum of the pubic body, pit grade (0 = not present; 1 = faintly imperceptible; 2 = present; 3 = prominent), and the presence of osteitis condensans ilii, preauricular sulcus, and sacroiliac joint vacuum phenomenon were assessed on imaging. Musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the birth data evaluated the CTs. 48 males were also evaluated for the presence of pits. 482 female patients underwent CT pelvis and 171 were excluded due to lack of vaginal birth data. Of the 311 study patients, 262 had prior vaginal birth(s) and 194 had pits on CT. Only 7 of the 49 patients without prior vaginal birth had pits. There was a statistically significant association between vaginal birth and presence of pits (p < 0.0001). Patients with more prominent pits (grades 2/3) had a greater number of vaginal births. As vaginal deliveries increased, the odds of having parturition pits greatly increased, adjusting for age and race at CT (p < 0.0001). No males had pits. Our study indicates that parturition pits are associated with prior vaginal birth and should be considered a characteristic of the female pelvis. The lytic appearance of prominent pits on imaging can simulate disease and create a diagnostic dilemma for interpreting radiologists. (orig.)

  18. Comparisons of individual bitterness perception and vegetable liking and consumption among Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Tove Kjær; Nicklaus, Sophie; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    -quantitative food frequency questionnaire, a bitter threshold value test kit with quinineand a preference test with two samples of carrots differing in the degree of bitterness. All tests were conducted outside the laboratory, and the subjects (n=116, aged 18 to 79) were recruited during two different events at two...

  19. Interactions and thresholds of limonin and nomilin in bitterness perception in orange juice and other matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonin and nomilin are two bitter compounds present in citrus and are thought to cause the bitter off-flavor of Huanglongbing-infected fruit/juice. This study determined the thresholds of limonin, nomilin, and their combination in a simple matrix (sucrose and citric acid), a complex matrix (sucrose...

  20. Effect of an early bitter taste experience on subsequent feather-pecking behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander, A.; Beck, P.S.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that laying hens learn not to peck at bitter-tasting feathers from conspecifics. In the present experiment, feathers of newly hatched chicks were made distasteful by spraying them with a bitter-tasting substance (quinine). It was hypothesized that chicks could detect quinine

  1. Effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on glycaemic status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, A K; Kumar, G Suresh; Sambaiah, K; Salimath, P V

    2005-09-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), a commonly consumed vegetable is used as an adjunct in the management of diabetes mellitus. A study was carried out to examine the effect of edible portion of bitter gourd at 10% level in the diet in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. To evaluate the glycaemic control of bitter gourd during diabetes, diet intake, gain in body weight, water intake, urine sugar, urine volume, glomerular filtration rate and fasting blood glucose profiles were monitored. Water consumption, urine volume and urine sugar were significantly higher in diabetic controls compared to normal rats and bitter gourd feeding alleviated this rise during diabetes by about 30%. Renal hypertrophy was higher in diabetic controls and bitter gourd supplementation, partially, but effectively prevented it (38%) during diabetes. Increased glomerular filtration rate in diabetes was significantly reduced (27%) by bitter gourd. An amelioration of about 30% in fasting blood glucose was observed with bitter gourd feeding in diabetic rats. These results clearly provided experimental evidence that dried bitter gourd powder in the diet at 10% level improved diabetic status signifying its beneficial effect during diabetes.

  2. Binding of Caffeine and Quinine by Whey Protein and the Effect on Bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Kelsey; Hayes, John; Euston, Stephen; Elias, Ryan; Coupland, John

    2017-02-01

    Many drugs and phytochemicals are bitter, leading to noncompliance with prescriptions and avoidance of healthy foods and a need to suppress their taste. The goal of this study was to investigate the binding of bitterants (quinine and caffeine) by whey protein isolate (WPI) and the effect on perceived bitterness. Caffeine interacted minimally with WPI, while the proportion of unbound quinine decreased exponentially with protein concentration. Molecular modeling was used to show the energy of the quinine-Β-lactoglubulin interaction was an order of magnitude greater than the caffeine-Β-lactoglobulin interaction. Untrained assessors were used to assess the bitterness of caffeine (1.8, 5.7, and 18 mM) and quinine (0.056, 0.10, and 0.18 mM) solutions with 0% or 1% WPI. There was no significant effect of protein on the bitterness of caffeine solutions, but WPI decreased the bitterness of quinine relative to the same concentration in water. This is generally consistent with our hypothesis that higher binding results in lower bitterness; however the magnitude of reduction was not large and the bitterness of the protein-quinine solutions was greater than would be expected for the unbound quinine present. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... the transfer of water into and out of the pit, biological trans- formations, and pathogen die-off (Buckley et al., 2008). .... formations that consumed or generated it. However, the age distribution of the originally deposited unbiodegradable mate- rial depends only on the deposition history, as it undergoes no.

  4. Evaluation of PIT-tagging in cyprinids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Brönmark, C.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were used to investigate how different marking procedures, with 23 mm PIT (passive integrated transponders) - tags. affected mortality, body condition and tag expulsion in small roach Rutilus rutilus and rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (117 to 163 mm total length...

  5. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  6. Some questions on small uranium open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junyi

    1992-01-01

    The experiences of the existing uranium open pits are summarized and the questions in design, erection and production are analyzed. It is important helpful to develop and to design such economical and reasonable small uranium open pits

  7. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Alissa L.; McGeary, John E.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to va...

  8. Pit Study, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [pit_study_LOSCO_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The 'Pit Study' was meant to identify the remnants of former oil extraction sites which pose the threat of creating an oil spill. These remnants include many other...

  9. Physico-chemical evaluation of bitter and non-bitter Aloe and their raw juice for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, M M; Kumar, S; Pancholy, A; Patidar, M

    2014-11-01

    In addition to Aloe vera which is bitter in taste, a non-bitter Aloe is also found in arid part of Rajasthan. This non-bitter Aloe (NBA) is sporadically cultivated as vegetable and for health drink. In spite of its cultivation and various uses, very little information is available about its detailed botanical parameters and chemical characters. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical characters of NBA through employing floral morphology, leaf characters and leaf gel and to compare them with those of A. vera. Of eleven floral characters studied, eight characters of NBA were significantly different from that of A. vera. Most visible difference was observed in their reproductive shoots which are highly branched in NBA (5.21 inflorescence/shoot) as compared to A. vera (1.5 inflorescence/shoot). NBA produces less leaf-biomass (-29.32 %) with less leaf-thickness (-31.44 %) but higher leaf length, width, and no. of spine/side by 17.56 %, 21.34 % and 16.11 %, respectively, with significant difference as compared to A. vera. But its polysaccharide content (0.259 %) is at par with that of A. vera. The raw juice from the leaf of NBA has very low aloin content (4.1 ppm) compared to that from A. vera (427.3 ppm) making it a safer health drink compared to the one obtained from A. vera. Thus, NBA raw juice emerged as suitable alternative to A. vera juice for human consumption.

  10. Cucurbit powdery mildew-resistant bitter gourd breeding lines reveal four races of Podosphaera xanthii in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a commercially and nutritionally important market vegetable in Asia cultivated mainly by smallholder farmers. Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii (Px) is a nearly ubiquitous and serious fungal disease of bitter gourd. Five bitter gourd...

  11. Evaluation of bitterness in white wine applying descriptive analysis, time-intensity analysis, and temporal dominance of sensations analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowsky, Martina; Fischer, Ulrich

    2012-06-30

    Bitterness in wine, especially in white wine, is a complex and sensitive topic as it is a persistent sensation with negative connotation by consumers. However, the molecular base for bitter taste in white wines is still widely unknown yet. At the same time studies dealing with bitterness have to cope with the temporal dynamics of bitter perception. The most common method to describe bitter taste is the static measurement amongst other attributes during a descriptive analysis. A less frequently applied method, the time-intensity analysis, evaluates the temporal gustatory changes focusing on bitterness alone. The most recently developed multidimensional approach of the temporal dominance of sensations method reveals the temporal dominance of bitter taste in relation to other attributes. In order to compare the results comprised with these different sensory methodologies, 13 commercial white wines were evaluated by the same panel. To facilitate a statistical comparison, parameters were extracted from bitterness curves obtained from time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations analysis and were compared to bitter intensity as well as bitter persistency based on descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance differentiated significantly the wines regarding all measured bitterness parameters obtained from the three sensory techniques. Comparing the information of all sensory parameters by multiple factor analysis and correlation, each technique provided additional valuable information regarding the complex bitter perception in white wine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end

  13. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit 36 was chosen having the highest the Net Present Value (NPV) @ 10% of $338.60 million. The optimal pit had 21.19 Mt of ore at an average grade of 1.557 g/t. The NPV was very sensitive to gold price changes but marginally sensitive to mining cost changes. From the optimal pit, a detailed pit designed with circular ...

  14. Diet-induced regulation of bitter taste receptor subtypes in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Vegezzi

    Full Text Available Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138, selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108 are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment.

  15. Diet-Induced Regulation of Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegezzi, Gaia; Anselmi, Laura; Huynh, Jennifer; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rozengurt, Enrique; Raybould, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2014-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138), selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108) are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment. PMID:25238152

  16. Bitter Melon Extract Promotes Granulation Tissue Growth and Angiogenesis in the Diabetic Wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rekha; Garcia-Gomez, Ignacio; Gudehithlu, Krishnamurthy P; Singh, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    Bitter melon is a plant fruit that has been shown to exert a hypoglycemic effect when used systemically in patients with diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the topical effect of bitter melon on diabetic wounds using the wound chamber model in rats. Two bilateral wound chambers were implanted subcutaneously in the thoracic-lumbar region of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin 7 days after implantation of wound chambers. After 24 hours of induction of diabetes, aqueous extract of bitter melon was injected into 1 wound chamber, and saline (0.9% sodium chloride solution) was injected into the contralateral chamber once daily for 3 days. Wound fluid was collected on day 4 for analysis, following which rats were euthanized. The granulation tissue encapsulating the wound chamber was removed and processed for histology. Controls included diabetic rats with wound chambers injected with saline (instead of bitter melon) and nondiabetic rats with wound chambers injected with bitter melon. In rats with diabetes, wound granulation tissue treated with bitter melon was well formed, with distinct cellular layers, whereas the saline-treated granulation tissue showed a severe loss of tissue organization and blood vessels. Moreover, the bitter melon treatment increased angiogenesis in the diabetic granulation tissue, marked by abundant microvessels and large blood vessels. In nondiabetic rats, no differences in wound granulation tissues were observed between saline- and bitter melon-treated groups. Bitter melon treatment had no effect on systemic blood glucose levels or insulin receptor substrate 1, suggesting that its stimulatory effect on diabetic granulation tissue was not due to alteration of systemic blood glucose levels. When applied locally to diabetic wounds, bitter melon extract prevents regression of granulation tissue and blood vessels, thus accelerating and improving wound healing.

  17. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  18. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  19. Oil of bitter orange: new topical antifungal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, W; Mourad, B; Ibrahim, S; Sonbol, F

    1996-06-01

    Superficial dermatophyte infection is one of the most common dermatologic diseases. Some of these infections are extremely resistant to therapy. Sixty patients participated in this study; they were classified into three groups (20 patients in each). All groups had comparable numbers of patients with tinea corporis, cruris, and pedis. Group 1 was treated with a 25% emulsion of oil of bitter orange (OBO) three times daily; group 2 was treated with 20% OBO in alcohol three times daily and group 3 was treated with pure OBO, once daily. Clinical and mycologic examinations were performed before therapy and every week until a complete cure had occurred. In group 1, 80% of patients were cured in 1 to 2 weeks and 20% in 2 to 3 weeks. In group 2, 50% were cured in 1 to 2 weeks, 30% in 2 to 3 weeks and 20% in 3 to 4 weeks. In group 3, 25% of patients did not continue the trial. Of the remaining patients, 33.3% were cured in one week, 60% in 1 to 2 weeks, and 6.7% in 2 to 3 weeks. Oil of bitter orange produced no side effects except mild irritation seen with the use of the pure form. An in vitro study showed that OBO (natural product) exerts fungistatic and fungicidal activity against a variety of pathogenic dermatophyte species. It is a promising, cheap, and available topical antifungal therapeutic agent.

  20. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  1. Laboratory protocols for testing the efficacy of commercial pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is considerable national interest in the use of commercial microbially derived products for controlling the rate of accumulation of the contents of pit latrines. Manufacturers claim that some of these products can reduce accumulation rates, prevent the pit from ever filling up, or even result in decreases in pit contents ...

  2. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... This paper studies the Surpac and Whittle software and their application in designing an optimised pit. Exploration data from. Mpeasem Gold Mining Project (MGMP) is used as the primary input for the work. The work entails: block modelling of. MGMP deposit; pit optimisation; analysis of the Pit NPV's ...

  3. Congenital pits of the optic nerve head and retinochoroidal colobomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C; Augsburger, J J

    1980-07-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with bilateral retinochoroidal colobomas associated with an inferonasal congenital pit of the optic nerve head in each eye. Different theories on the origin of such pits are discussed. This case supports the theory that some congenital optic pits occur as a result of failure of closure of the superior end of the embryonic fissure.

  4. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not 'idle bystanders' but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is 'bitter melon' (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter melon

  5. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not ‘idle bystanders’ but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is ‘bitter melon’ (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter

  6. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only

  7. 5G in Open-Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    for the future wireless network design, simulation and performance evaluation. The results show that, in order to comply with ultra-reliable communications (URC) availability requirements, larger shadowing margins will have to be considered in the network planning in open-pit mines, when compared to traditional......5G will play a pivotal role in the digitization of the industrial sector and is expected to make the best use of every bit of spectrum available. In this light, this paper presents the results of an extensive measurement campaign in two iron-ore open-pit mining complexes, at the 700 MHz and 2.6 GHz...... bands, considering macro and small cell deployments. The study is further motivated by the rise of unmanned machinery in the mining industry. We present values of path loss exponents, shadow fading standard deviations, autocorrelation distances and inter-frequency cross-correlation, which are all useful...

  8. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Antioxidant potential of bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze seeds in in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidu Kamatham A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze, is a medicinally important plant. Earlier, we have reported phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic, antimicrobial activity of bitter cumin. In this study we have further characterized the antioxidative activity of bitter cumin extracts in various in vitro models. Methods Bitter cumin seeds were extracted with a combination of acetone, methanol and water. The antioxidant activity of bitter cumin extracts were characterized in various in vitro model systems such as DPPH radical, ABTS radical scavenging, reducing power, oxidation of liposomes and oxidative damage to DNA. Results The phenolic extracts of bitter cumin at microgram concentration showed significant scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals, reduced phosphomolybdenum (Mo(VI to Mo(V, ferricyanide Fe(III to Fe(II, inhibited liposomes oxidation and hydroxyl radical induced damage to prokaryotic genomic DNA. The results showed a direct correlation between phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity. Conclusion Bitter cumin is a good source of natural antioxidants.

  10. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  11. Investigating pitting in X65 carbon steel using potentiostatic polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Sikiru; Hua, Yong; Barker, R.; Neville, A.

    2017-11-01

    Although pitting corrosion in passive materials is generally well understood, the growth of surface pits in actively-corroding materials has received much less attention to date and remains poorly understood. One of the key challenges which exists is repeatedly and reliably generating surface pits in a practical time-frame in the absence of deformation and/or residual stress so that studies on pit propagation and healing can be performed. Another pertinent issue is how to evaluate pitting while addressing general corrosion in low carbon steel. In this work, potentiostatic polarisation was employed to induce corrosion pits (free from deformation or residual stress) on actively corroding X65 carbon steel. The influence of applied potential (50 mV, 100 mV and 150 mV vs open circuit potential) was investigated over 24 h in a CO2-saturated, 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 30 °C and pH 3.8. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilised to examine pits, while surface profilometry was conducted to measure pit depth as a function of applied potential over the range considered. Analyses of light pitting (up to 120 μm) revealed that pit depth increased linearly with increase in applied potential. This paper relates total pit volume (measured using white light interferometry) to dissipated charge or total mass loss (using the current response for potentiostatic polarisation in conjunction with Faraday's law). By controlling the potential of the surface (anodic) the extent of pitting and general corrosion could be controlled. This allowed pits to be evaluated for their ability to continue to propagate after the potentiostatic technique was employed. Linear growth from a depth of 70 μm at pH 3.8, 80 °C was demonstrated. The technique offers promise for the study of inhibition of pitting.

  12. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, M K Mohan Maruga; Sethiya, Neeraj Kumar; Mishra, S H

    2010-07-01

    Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f.) (Nymphaeaceae) is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata.

  13. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Mohan Maruga Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f. (Nymphaeaceae is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata.

  14. Cooling of BITTER-type electromagnetic coils with intense field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Jacques

    1966-01-01

    After having outlined the various problems faced when designing BITTER-type electromagnetic coils with axial cooling (evacuation of the power dissipated in the coil, electromagnetic forces, fabrication and machining technologies, corrosion and erosion due to the presence of water and to potential differences), the author of this research thesis reports the study of the cooling of such an electromagnetic coil. In order to know the heat power to be evacuated for a given field, both the power and the field must be computed, but the influence of cooling holes on these both values is not well known. Thus, the author reports the study of the influence of these holes on the power to be dissipated by these holes, and on the magnetic field. Then, he studies how this power is evacuated, and determines heat exchange relationships for the coil canals. He finally discusses how the obtained results can be used to design an advanced electromagnetic coil [fr

  15. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose...... identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted...

  16. The Bad Taste of Medicines: Overview of Basic Research on Bitter Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A.; Spector, Alan C.; Reed, Danielle R.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many active pharmaceutical ingredients taste bitter and thus are aversive to children, as well as many adults. Encapsulation of the medicine in pill or tablet form, an effective method for adults to avoid the unpleasant taste, is problematic for children. Many children cannot or will not swallow solid dosage forms. Objective This review highlights basic principles of gustatory function, with a special focus on the science of bitter taste, derived from studies of animal models and human psychophysics. We focus on the set of genes that encode the proteins that function as bitter receptors, as well as the cascade of events that lead to multidimensional aspects of taste function, highlighting the role that animal models played in these discoveries. We also summarize psychophysical approaches to studying bitter taste in adult and pediatric populations, highlighting evidence of the similarities and differences in bitter taste perception and acceptance between adults and children and drawing on useful strategies from animal models. Results Medicine often tastes bitter, and because children are more bitter sensitive than are adults, this creates problems with compliance. Bitter arises from stimulating receptors in taste receptor cells, with signals processed in the taste bud and relayed to the brain. However, there are many gaps in our understanding of how best to measure bitterness and how to ameliorate it, including whether it is more efficiently addressed at the level of receptor and sensory signaling, at the level of central processing, or by masking techniques. All methods of measuring responsiveness to bitter ligands—in animal models, through human psychophysics, or with “electronic tongues”—have limitations. Conclusions Better-tasting medications may enhance pediatric adherence to drug therapy. Sugars, acids, salt, and other substances reduce perceived bitterness of several pharmaceuticals, and although pleasant flavorings may help children

  17. Influence of Pitting Corrosion on Fatigue and Corrosion Fatigue of Ship and Offshore Structures, Part II: Load - Pit - Crack Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Marek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper has been discussed influence of stresses on general corrosion rate and corrosion pit nucleation rate and growth , whose presence has been questioned by some authors but accepted by most of them. Influence of roughness of pit walls on fatigue life of a plate suffering pit corrosion and presence of the so called „ non-damaging” pits which never lead to initiation of fatigue crack, has been presented. Possibility of prediction of pit-to-crack transition moment by two different ways, i.e. considering a pit a stress concentrator or an equivalent crack, has been analyzed. Also, influence of statistical distribution of depth of corrosion pits as well as anticorrosion protection on fatigue and corrosion fatigue has been described.

  18. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  19. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  20. Quality evaluation of Poza bitters, a new poly herbal formulation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    70:5) showed three spots with Rf values similar to some of references used. High performance liquid chromatography fingerprint showed two retention times of poza bitters which were not similar to those of the reference standards: hesperidin ...

  1. germination of seeds from earlier fruits of bitter and sweet african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2014-11-18

    , 2006). The mesocarp of the sweet bush mangoes are edible; while the endocarp of both bitter and sweet fruits are important part of African communities' diets and is marketed all over the world (Lowe et al.,. 2000; Tabuna ...

  2. The Diversity of Bitter Manioc (Manihot Esculenta Crantz Cultivation in a Whitewater Amazonian Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While bitter manioc has been one of the most important staple crops in the central Amazon for thousands of years, there have been few studies of its cultivation in the fertile whitewater landscapes of this region. Anthropological research on bitter manioc cultivation in the Amazon has focused almost exclusively on long-fallow shifting cultivation in marginal upland areas of low soil fertility. This has contributed to the persistence of the oversimplified notion that because bitter manioc is well adapted to infertile upland soils; it cannot yield well in alluvial and/or fertile soils. I hypothesized that bitter manioc cultivation would be well adapted to the fertile soils of the whitewater landscapes of the central Amazon because of the centrality of this crop to subsistence in this region. In this article, I examine one such whitewater landscape, the middle Madeira River, Amazonas, Brazil, where smallholders cultivate bitter manioc on fertile Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE and floodplain soils, and on infertile Oxisols and Ultisols. In this region, cultivation on fertile soils tends to be short-cycled, characterised by short fallowing (0–6 years and shorter cropping periods (5–12 months with a predominance of low starch fast maturing “weak” landraces. By contrast, cultivation on infertile soils is normally long-cycled, characterised by longer fallows (>10 years and longer cropping periods (1–3 years with a predominance of high starch slow maturing “strong” landraces. This diversity in bitter manioc cultivation systems (landraces, fallow periods, soils demonstrates that Amazonian farmers have adapted bitter manioc cultivation to the specific characteristics of the landscapes that they inhabit. I conclude that contrary to earlier claims, there are no ecological limitations on growing bitter manioc in fertile soils, and therefore the cultivation of this crop in floodplain and ADE soils would have been possible in the pre-Columbian period.

  3. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p‐Synephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Stohs, Sidney J.

    2017-01-01

    Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange) extracts that contain p‐synephrine as the primary protoalkaloid are widely used for weight loss/weight management, sports performance, appetite control, energy, and mental focus and cognition. Questions have been raised about the safety of p‐synephrine because it has some structural similarity to ephedrine. This review focuses on current human, animal, in vitro, and mechanistic studies that address the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of bitter or...

  4. HMF formation and colour change of bitter orange and sweet orange jams during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kopjar, Mirela; Đurkan, Ivana; Piližota, Vlasta

    2010-01-01

    In this work influence of preparation on 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and colour of bitter orange jams and sweet orange jams was investigated. Samples were prepared without and with treatment of oranges with ascorbic acid in order to investigate the influence on prevention of browning in jams. Samples were stored for 365 days at 4 °C and at room temperature and formation of HMF and colour change during storage were measured. After jam preparation bitter orange jams had higher HMF content tha...

  5. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam p...

  7. The Odorant ( R)-Citronellal Attenuates Caffeine Bitterness by Inhibiting the Bitter Receptors TAS2R43 and TAS2R46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Barbara; Brockhoff, Anne; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    Sensory studies showed the volatile fraction of lemon grass and its main constituent, the odor-active citronellal, to significantly decrease the perceived bitterness of a black tea infusion as well as caffeine solutions. Seven citronellal-related derivatives were synthesized and shown to inhibit the perceived bitterness of caffeine in a structure-dependent manner. The aldehyde function at carbon 1, the ( R)-configuration of the methyl-branched carbon 3, and a hydrophobic carbon chain were found to favor the bitter inhibitory activity of citronellal; for example, even low concentrations of 25 ppm were observed to reduce bitterness perception of caffeine solution (6 mmol/L) by 32%, whereas ( R)-citronellic acid (100 pm) showed a reduction of only 21% and ( R)-citronellol (100 pm) was completely inactive. Cell-based functional experiments, conducted with the human bitter taste receptors TAS2R7, TAS2R10, TAS2R14, TAS2R43, and TAS2R46 reported to be sensitive to caffeine, revealed ( R)-citronellal to completely block caffeine-induced calcium signals in TAS2R43-expressing cells, and, to a lesser extent, in TAS2R46-expressing cells. Stimulation of TAS2R43-expressing cells with structurally different bitter agonists identified ( R)-citronellal as a general allosteric inhibitor of TAS2R43. Further structure/activity studies indicated 3-methyl-branched aliphatic aldehydes with a carbon chain of ≥4 C atoms as best TAS2R43 antagonists. Whereas odor-taste interactions have been mainly interpreted in the literature to be caused by a central neuronal integration of odors and tastes, rather than by peripheral events at the level of reception, the findings of this study open up a new dimension regarding the interaction of the two chemical senses.

  8. Bingham Pump Outage Pits: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkala, R.O.; Jewell, C.E.; Holmes, W.G.; Marine, I.W.

    1987-03-01

    Seven waste sites known as the Bingham Pump Outage Pits located in areas of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) received solid waste containing an estimated 4 Ci of low-level radioactivity in 1957-1958. These sites were subsequently backfilled and have been inactive since that time. Most of the radioactivity at the Bingham Pump Outage Pits has been eliminated by radioactive decay. A total of approximately 1 Ci of activity (primarily 137 Cs and 90 Sr) is estimated to remain at the seven sites. The closure options considered for the Bingham Pump Outage Pits are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated. Evaluation indicates that the relative human health risks for all closure options are small. The greatest public risk would occur after the waste site was released to unrestricted public use (assumed to occur in Year 2085) via the groundwater pathway to a well. The cost estimates show that the waste removal and closure option is the most expensive (89.6 million dollars). The cost of the no waste removal and the no action options is $800,000. 35 refs., 26 figs., 47 tabs

  9. The stochastic model of pitting corrosion of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y. H.; Wang, B. R.; Hu, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Considering that pitting corrosion is a stochastic process, the purpose of this paper is to use stochastic theory to investigate the growth process of pitting corrosion of metals. Based on the mechanism of pit growth and nonequilibrium statistical theory, the time evolution equations of pit depth and corrosion rate are obtained, and the probability density function can be derived by solving Fock-Plank Equation. Subsequently, the failure probability or reliability of metals is calculated based on the weakest link model of pitting corrosion. Finally, the stochastic model is used on the aircraft aluminum alloy LD2. Furthermore, this methodology can be applied to analyze the reliability and predict the pitting life of metals.

  10. Markov chain modelling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Valor, A.; Hallen, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-time, non-homogenous linear growth (pure birth) Markov process has been used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The closed form solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process is used to describe the transition probability function in a discrete pit depth space. The identification of the transition probability function can be achieved by correlating the stochastic pit depth mean with the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. Monte-Carlo simulations previously reported have been used to predict the time evolution of the mean value of the pit depth distribution for different soil textural classes. The simulated distributions have been used to create an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. The proposed model has also been applied to pitting corrosion data from pipeline repeated in-line inspections and laboratory immersion experiments.

  11. Thallium toxicosis in a Pit Bull Terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Petra A; Merola, Valentina; Osborne, Tanasa; Bailey, Keith L; Meerdink, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    Thallotoxicosis is described in an adult Pit Bull Terrier. The dog exhibited anorexia, emesis, weakness, conscious proprioceptive deficits, and a hemorrhagic diarrhea before death. A severe, acute necrotizing enterocolitis was evident upon histological examination, as was a multifocal to coalescing pulmonary edema. Liver and kidney thallium concentrations were 18 and 26 ppm, respectively. The source of the thallium was determined to be thallium sulfate obtained by a person with the intent to harm family members. Although thallium has not been produced in the United States for 20 years, this report demonstrates the need to consider thallium toxicosis as a differential diagnosis for animals presenting with vague and mixed gastrointestinal and neurological signs.

  12. The Pit and the Safety Pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, Robert Leon; Ramos, Amadeo Gabriel

    2000-11-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the safety analysis pendulum has swung considerably in the direction of increasingly complex and lengthy safety evaluations and intense reviews during the past 30 years. The test of this hypothesis will be a review of the safety analysis conducted for various activities associated with the retrieval of transuranic radioactive waste from burial pits at a National Laboratory site over a span of 30 years. The examination will focus on the safety aspects and the safety analysis that was conducted for the projects. At the conclusion of this examination, the paper will identify five reasons why the changes have taken place.

  13. A novel bioelectronic tongue in vivo for highly sensitive bitterness detection with brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen; Zhang, Bin; Hu, Liang; Zhuang, Liujing; Hu, Ning; Wang, Ping

    2016-04-15

    Animals' gustatory system has been widely acknowledged as one of the most sensitive chemosensing systems, especially for its ability to detect bitterness. Since bitterness usually symbolizes inedibility, the potential to use rodent's gustatory system is investigated to detect bitter compounds. In this work, the extracellular potentials of a group of neurons are recorded by chronically coupling microelectrode array to rat's gustatory cortex with brain-machine interface (BMI) technology. Local field potentials (LFPs), which represent the electrophysiological activity of neural networks, are chosen as target signals due to stable response patterns across trials and are further divided into different oscillations. As a result, different taste qualities yield quality-specific LFPs in time domain which suggests the selectivity of this in vivo bioelectronic tongue. Meanwhile, more quantitative study in frequency domain indicates that the post-stimulation power of beta and low gamma oscillations shows dependence with concentrations of denatonium benzoate, a prototypical bitter compound, and the limit of detection is deduced to be 0.076 μM, which is two orders lower than previous in vitro bioelectronic tongues and conventional electronic tongues. According to the results, this in vivo bioelectronic tongue in combination with BMI presents a promising method in highly sensitive bitterness detection and is supposed to provide new platform in measuring bitterness degree. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Perception of bitterness, sweetness and liking of different genotypes of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M; Gawthrop, F; Michelmore, R W; Wagstaff, C; Methven, L

    2016-04-15

    Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable, consumed across the world, containing bitter sesquiterpenoid lactone (SL) compounds that may negatively affect consumer acceptance and consumption. We assessed liking of samples with differing absolute abundance and different ratios of bitter:sweet compounds by analysing recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from an interspecific lettuce mapping population derived from a cross between a wild (L. serriola acc. UC96US23) and domesticated lettuce (L. sativa, cv. Salinas). We found that the ratio of bitter:sweet compounds was a key determinant of bitterness perception and liking. We were able to demonstrate that SLs, such as 8-deoxylactucin-15-sulphate, contribute most strongly to bitterness perception, whilst 15-p-hydroxylphenylacetyllactucin-8-sulphate does not contribute to bitter taste. Glucose was the sugar most highly correlated with sweetness perception. There is a genetic basis to the biochemical composition of lettuce. This information will be useful in lettuce breeding programmes in order to produce leaves with more favourable taste profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  16. 6-methoxyflavanones as bitter taste receptor blockers for hTAS2R39.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibke S U Roland

    Full Text Available Many (dietary bitter compounds, e.g. flavonoids, activate bitter receptor hTAS2R39 in cell-based assays. Several flavonoids, amongst which some flavanones, are known not to activate this receptor. As certain flavanones are known to mask bitter taste sensorially, flavanones might act as bitter receptor antagonists. Fourteen flavanones were investigated for their potential to reduce activation of hTAS2R39 by epicatechin gallate (ECG, one of the main bitter compounds occurring in green tea. Three flavanones showed inhibitory behavior towards the activation of hTAS2R39 by ECG: 4'-fluoro-6-methoxyflavanone, 6,3'-dimethoxyflavanone, and 6-methoxyflavanone (in order of decreasing potency. The 6-methoxyflavanones also inhibited activation of hTAS2R14 (another bitter receptor activated by ECG, though to a lesser extent. Dose-response curves of ECG at various concentrations of the full antagonist 4'-fluoro-6-methoxyflavanone and wash-out experiments indicated reversible insurmountable antagonism. The same effect was observed for the structurally different agonist denatonium benzoate.

  17. Markov Chain Models for the Stochastic Modeling of Pitting Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Valor, A.; Caleyo, F.; Alfonso, L.; Velázquez, J. C.; Hallen, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion of metallic structures has been widely recognized. It is assumed that this kind of deterioration retains no memory of the past, so only the current state of the damage influences its future development. This characteristic allows pitting corrosion to be categorized as a Markov process. In this paper, two different models of pitting corrosion, developed using Markov chains, are presented. Firstly, a continuous-time, nonhomogeneous linear growth (pure ...

  18. Fabrication of Nano-pit Array Using Electron Beam Lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryam Alsadat Rad; Kamarulazizi Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the fabrication of nano-pits array pattern using electron beam lithography (EBL). We investigated the effect of different electron beam dosage and acceleration voltage in fabrication nano-pits array pattern and effect of them on dimension of nano-pits. The SEM images have shown effect of the voltage and dosage variation on them and also the proximity effect. (author)

  19. Differentiating percussion pits and carnivore tooth pits using 3D reconstructions and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yravedra, José; Aramendi, Julia; Maté-González, Miguel Ángel; Austin Courtenay, Lloyd; González-Aguilera, Diego

    2018-01-01

    During the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century the discussion on early human behavioral patterns revolved around the hunting versus scavenging debate. The correct identification of bone modifications, including percussion, cut and tooth marks, is a key issue within this debate. While many authors have shown that carnivore and human modifications can be easily distinguished, it is true that sometimes percussion marks without associated microstriations and tooth pits overlap morphologically, causing confusion, especially when unmodified hammerstones are used. In order to solve this equifinality problem, many investigations have focused their efforts on other pieces of evidence such as the identification of notches, fragmentation patterns and frequencies, among others. These studies, however, cannot be considered as fully conclusive. Within this paper we address the problem of equifinality when identifying percussion marks produced with unmodified hammerstones and tooth pits created by carnivores using new methodologies based on the 3D reconstruction of marks and their statistical multivariate analysis. For the purpose of this study a total of 128 marks- 39 percussion marks produced with an unmodified quartzite hammerstone, and 89 pits generated by different carnivores-were virtually modelled with the aid of a DAVID structured-light scanner SLS-2 and later analyzed by means of geometric morphometrics. Our results show that percussion marks not associated with striae fields and the pits generated by the carnivores studied here can be successfully distinguished.

  20. Pitting corrosion of Inconel 600 in chloride and thiosulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Geping; Ho, Juiting.

    1990-01-01

    Inconel 600 has been widely used as the steam generator tube material in nuclear pressurized water reactors. Pitting corrosion of the steam generator tube mainly occurs at the secondary water side. It was reported in several papers that pits formed in Inconel 600 in steam generators always contained sulfur, and the main source of that sulfur was thought to be the feedwater. The thiosulfate anion is known to reduce the pitting potential and increase the corrosion rate of AISI Type 304 stainless steel in chloride at low temperatures. It is recognized as a dangerous corrosion promoter and as a reducer of the pitting potential of Inconel 600 in chloride solutions at high temperatures. In other cases, the addition of low-level sulfate to dilute chloride media reduces the pitting potential of alloy 800 at 30 degree C, and increasing the sulfate concentration results in improved chloride pitting resistance. The purpose of the work reported in this paper is mainly to identify the effect of thiosulfate on the chloride pitting of Inconel 600 at low temperatures and the effects of deoxygenation, pH value, and temperature. This study is divided into three parts: (1) potentiodynamic anodic polarization scanning; (2) open-circuit immersion test; and (3) determination of pit density and average pit depth

  1. Research process of nondestructive testing pitting corrosion in metal material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo ZHANG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitting corrosion directly affects the usability and service life of metal material, so the effective nondestructive testing and evaluation on pitting corrosion is of great significance for fatigue life prediction because of data supporting. The features of pitting corrosion are elaborated, and the relation between the pitting corrosion parameters and fatigue performance is pointed out. Through introducing the fundamental principles of pitting corrosion including mainly magnetic flux leakage inspection, pulsed eddy current and guided waves, the research status of nondestructive testing technology for pitting corrosion is summarized, and the key steps of nondestructive testing technologies are compared and analyzed from the theoretical model, signal processing to industrial applications. Based on the analysis of the signal processing specificity of different nondestructive testing technologies in detecting pitting corrosion, the visualization combined with image processing and signal analysis are indicated as the critical problems of accurate extraction of pitting defect information and quantitative characterization for pitting corrosion. The study on non-contact nondestructive testing technologies is important for improving the detection precision and its application in industries.

  2. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czompa, Attila; Gyongyosi, Alexandra; Szoke, Kitti; Bak, Istvan; Csepanyi, Evelin; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad; Lekli, Istvan

    2017-03-20

    Objective : A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM)) extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease. Methods : Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO) rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM) extract suspended in mucin-water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control). Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO) and treatment (Control or BM). Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results : Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in blood of ZO

  3. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Czompa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related cardiovascular disease. Methods: Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM extract suspended in mucin–water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control. Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO and treatment (Control or BM. Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results: Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in

  4. Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-02

    A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

  5. Study of the changes in the dietary fatty acids and physicochemical values of sweet and bitter apricot oils in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, H.; Hamid, S.

    2007-01-01

    The quantity of oil in local varieties of sweet and bitter apricot was found to be more than that earlier reported for the Indian varieties. Both, sweet and bitter apricot oils, were semi-drying type. Refractive index of bitter apricot oil was higher whereas, free fatty acids were more in sweet apricot oil. Amount of cyanide, cadmium, antimony, arsenic, lead and copper as well as of palmitic acid insignificantly increased with ripening, being more in bitter apricot oil. Major difference was noted in fatty acid composition. Linoleic acid was present in higher amount in sweet apricot oil (21.4%) than in bitter apricot oil (19.6%). Concentration of palmitic acid in sweet oil was 5.0%, while in bitter oil, it was 6.4%. (author)

  6. The sweetness and bitterness of childhood: Insights from basic research on taste preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Bobowski, Nuala K

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we review findings from basic, experimental research on children that suggest that the liking of sweet and the dislike of bitter tastes reflect children's basic biology. Children are born preferring sweet tastes, which attract them to mother's milk and even act as an analgesic. They prefer higher levels of sweet than do adults, with preferences declining to adult levels during middle to late adolescence, which coincides with the cessation of physical growth. The level of sweetness most preferred by children has remained heightened relative to adults for nearly a decade, despite reductions in sugar, both consumed and in the food environment. In spite of these reductions, however, children's intake of sugar remains higher than that recommended by health organizations worldwide. In contrast to sweet taste, children dislike and reject bitter taste, which protects them from ingesting poisons. Although variation in bitter taste receptor genes such as TAS2R38 accounts for people's marked differences in perceptions of the same bitter-tasting compounds, basic research revealed that these genotype-phenotype relationships are modified with age, with children of the same genotype being more bitter sensitive than adults and the changeover occurring during mid-adolescence. This heightened bitter sensitivity is also evident in the taste of the foods (green vegetables) or medicines (liquid formulations of drugs) they dislike and reject. While bitter taste can be masked or blocked to varying degrees by sugars and salts, their efficacy in modulating bitterness is not only based on the type of bitter ligand but on the person's age. Children's heightened preference for sweet and dislike of bitter, though often detrimental in the modern food environment, reflects their basic biology. Increasing knowledge of individual variation in taste due to both age and genetics will shed light on potential strategies to promote healthier eating since chronic diseases derive in

  7. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manufacturers of various commercial pit latrine additives claim that by addition of this product to pit content, accumulation rate and pit content volume can be reduced, thereby preventing the pit from ever reaching capacity. This paper presents a comprehensive study conducted to determine the effects of additives on pit ...

  8. Exactly which synephrine alkaloids does Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, D B; Cutter, G; Poehlman, E T; Moore, D R; Barnes, S

    2005-04-01

    Following the withdrawal of ephedrine from the dietary supplement marketplace sales of products containing Citrus aurantium (CA) (bitter orange) for weight loss are believed to have increased dramatically. CA contains a number of constituents speculated to lead to weight loss, of which the most frequently cited constituent is synephrine. Concerns have been raised about the safety of products containing synephrine. To develop an adequate basis for clinical and public health recommendations, it is necessary to understand the nature of the synephrine alkaloids in CA. There are six possible isomers of synephrine (para, meta, ortho; and for each a d or l form). Some authors have stated that CA contains only p-synephrine, whereas other authors have stated that CA contains m-synephrine. This is an important distinction because the two molecules have different pharmacologic properties, which may differentially affect safety and efficacy. We are unable to identify published data that explicitly show whether CA contains p-synephrine, m-synephrine, or both. In this brief report, we show that at least one product purportedly containing synephrine alkaloids from CA contains both p-synephrine and m-synephrine. We believe this justifies further investigation into which synephrine alkaloids are present in CA and products purportedly containing synephrine alkaloids from CA and the relative quantities of each of the different isomers.

  9. Sensomics analysis of key bitter compounds in the hard resin of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and their contribution to the bitter profile of Pilsner-type beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresel, Michael; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-04-08

    Recent brewing trials indicated the occurrence of valuable bitter compounds in the hard resin fraction of hop. Aiming at the discovery of these compounds, hop's ε-resin was separated by means of a sensory guided fractionation approach and the key taste molecules were identified by means of UV/vis, LC-TOF-MS, and 1D/2D-NMR studies as well as synthetic experiments. Besides a series of literature known xanthohumol derivatives, multifidol glucosides, flavon-3-on glycosides, and p-coumaric acid esters, a total of 11 bitter tastants are reported for the first time, namely, 1",2"-dihydroxanthohumol F, 4'-hydroxytunicatachalcone, isoxantholupon, 1-methoxy-4-prenylphloroglucinol, dihydrocyclohumulohydrochinone, xanthohumols M, N, and P, and isoxanthohumols M, N, and P, respectively. Human sensory analysis revealed low bitter recognition threshold concentrations ranging from 5 (co-multifidol glucopyranoside) to 198 μmol/L (trans-p-coumaric acid ethyl ester) depending on their chemical structure. For the first time, LC-MS/MS quantitation of these taste compounds in Pilsner-type beer, followed by taste re-engineering experiments, revealed the additive contribution of iso-α-acids and the identified hard resin components to be truly necessary and sufficient for constructing the authentic bitter percept of beer. Finally, brewing trails using the ε-resin as the only hop source impressively demonstrated the possibility to produce beverages strongly enriched with prenylated hop flavonoids.

  10. Citric Acid Suppresses the Bitter Taste of Olopatadine Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoyama, Mai; Uchida, Shinya; Tanaka, Shimako; Hakamata, Akio; Odagiri, Keiichi; Inui, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are formulated to disintegrate upon contact with saliva, allowing administration without water. Olopatadine hydrochloride, a second-generation antihistamine, is widely used for treating allergic rhinitis. However, it has a bitter taste; therefore, the development of taste-masked olopatadine ODTs is essential. Some studies have suggested that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of drugs. However, these experiments were performed using solutions, and the taste-masking effect of citric acid on ODTs has not been evaluated using human gustatory sensation tests. Thus, this study evaluated citric acid's taste-masking effect on olopatadine ODTs. Six types of olopatadine ODTs containing 0-10% citric acid were prepared and subjected to gustatory sensation tests that were scored using the visual analog scale. The bitterness and overall palatability of olopatadine ODTs during disintegration in the mouth and after spitting out were evaluated in 11 healthy volunteers (age: 22.8±2.2 years). The hardness of the ODTs was >50 N. Disintegration time and dissolution did not differ among the different ODTs. The results of the gustatory sensation tests suggest that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of olopatadine ODTs in a dose-dependent manner. Olopatadine ODTs with a high content of citric acid (5-10%) showed poorer overall palatability than that of those without citric acid despite the bitterness suppression. ODTs containing 2.5% citric acid, yogurt flavoring, and aspartame were the most suitable formulations since they showed low bitterness and good overall palatability. Thus, citric acid is an effective bitterness-masking option for ODTs.

  11. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C; Ullah, Abul H J

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i). PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+)-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+)-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m) and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3)VO(4), Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+)-independent enzyme in plants.

  13. Response of CEDIA amphetamines assay after a single dose of bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, DiemThuy T; Bui, Linda T; Ambrose, Peter J

    2006-04-01

    Bitter orange has recently been substituted as an ingredient in many "ephedra-free" dietary supplements used for weight loss. The primary active ingredient in bitter orange is synephrine. Previous reports have documented false-positive results from ephedrine with urine amphetamine assays. Because of the similarity in chemical structure of ephedrine and synephrine, it is hypothesized that ingestion of a bitter orange supplement may have the potential to cause false-positive results with urine amphetamine assays. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay after ingestion of bitter orange. Six healthy adult male volunteers were administered a single oral dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange, a 900-mg dietary supplement extract standardized to 6% synephrine. Urine specimens were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 hours post-administration. Additional urine specimens were collected from 1 subject at 9, 12, and 15 hours after administration. All specimens were analyzed by the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity and pH also were measured. All urine specimens demonstrated a negative response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity ranged from 1.007 to 1.028, and pH ranged from 5.0 to 7.0; thus, reducing the possibility that the negative results were caused by diluted specimens or reduced excretion of synephrine into alkaline urine. This information will be of value when health care providers or those who interpret drug screens are asked to provide consultation regarding the interference of bitter orange supplements with the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. A single-dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange was not found to cause a false-positive response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay in 6 healthy adult male volunteers.

  14. Assessment of bitter taste of pharmaceuticals with multisensor system employing 3 way PLS regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa [CESAM and Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Blinova, Yulia [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Seleznev, Boris [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Clapham, David; Ives, Robert S.; Saunders, Kenneth A. [GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Legin, Andrey [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Chemically diverse APIs are studied with potentiometric “electronic tongue”. ► Bitter taste of APIs can be predicted with 3wayPLS regression from ET data. ► High correlation of ET assessment with human panel and rat in vivo model. -- Abstract: The application of the potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue, ET) for quantification of the bitter taste of structurally diverse active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is reported. The measurements were performed using a set of bitter substances that had been assessed by a professional human sensory panel and the in vivo rat brief access taste aversion (BATA) model to produce bitterness intensity scores for each substance at different concentrations. The set consisted of eight substances, both inorganic and organic – azelastine, caffeine, chlorhexidine, potassium nitrate, naratriptan, paracetamol, quinine, and sumatriptan. With the aim of enhancing the response of the sensors to the studied APIs, measurements were carried out at different pH levels ranging from 2 to 10, thus promoting ionization of the compounds. This experiment yielded a 3 way data array (samples × sensors × pH levels) from which 3wayPLS regression models were constructed with both human panel and rat model reference data. These models revealed that artificial assessment of bitter taste with ET in the chosen set of API's is possible with average relative errors of 16% in terms of human panel bitterness score and 25% in terms of inhibition values from in vivo rat model data. Furthermore, these 3wayPLS models were applied for prediction of the bitterness in blind test samples of a further set of API's. The results of the prediction were compared with the inhibition values obtained from the in vivo rat model.

  15. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line

  16. Establishing Ground Vibration Threshold Level for Open Pit Mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of blasting activities on building structures in open pit mining districts in Ghana a study was carried out in Prestea, a township very close to the perimeter of the Plant North pit of the Bogoso Gold Ltd (now Golden Star Resources Bogoso/Prestea Mines), in the Western Region of Ghana. It was observed ...

  17. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water

  18. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines | Brouckaert | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excreta (faeces and urine) that are deposited into a pit latrine are subject to biodegradation, which substantially reduces the volume that remains. On the other hand, other matter that is not biodegradable usually finds itsway into pit latrines. The net filling rate is thus dependent on both the rate of addition of material and its ...

  19. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, Kayle D. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Gunter, Jason R. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Joslyn, Cameron C. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Vazquez, Brandon J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Garfield, John S. [AEM Consulting, Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  20. Pit membranes of Ephedra resemble gymnosperms more than angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Dute; Lauren Bowen; Sarah Schier; Alexa Vevon; Troy Best; Maria Auad; Thomas Elder; Pauline Bouche; Steven Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial...

  1. The phylogenetic significance of vestured pits in Boraginaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2010-01-01

    The bordered pit structure in tracheary elements of 105 Boraginaceae species is studied using scanning electron microscopy to examine the systematic distribution of vestured pits. Forty-three species out of 16 genera show a uniform presence of this feature throughout their secondary xylem. Most

  2. Analysis of two Pit-1 gene polymorphisms: Single nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit-1 is a pituitary-specific transcription factor responsible for pituitary development and hormone expression in mammals. Pit-1 is a member of the POU domain containing proteins, a group of transcriptional regulators with a critical role in cell differentiation and proliferation. It was shown that this group of proteins control the ...

  3. Construction of the KUT test pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, K.E.; Bush, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    Models are required to calibrate spectral logging systems to differentiate between U, Th, and K (''KUT''), in order to determine the grade of low-grade U deposits. The models were constructed by excavating three pits, emplacing three form tanks (11 ft long, 4 ft dia culvert) with 4-in. dia central holes, and pouring the following zones: 3-ft concrete lower barren zone, a 5-ft ore zone, and a final 3-ft upper barren zone. The U ore zone comprised 0.33 percent U 3 O 8 Climax ore, sand, cement, and water; the Th ore zone comprised monazite sands, plaster sand, cement, and water; and the K ore zone comprised feldspar, cement, and water. Form pipes were used to form the central holes. Analyses were made of samples taken from the zones

  4. PITTING CORROSION OF STAINLESS STEEL AT THE VARIOUS SURFACE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Zatkalíková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The stainless steel surface treatment is very important with regard to its pitting corrosion susceptibility. An effect of various types surfacing on pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 304stainless steel is investigated in this work. The samples of the tested material are turned, blasted, peened, grinded and a half of them are pickled to achieve higher purity of surfaces and better quality of passive film. Eight types of different finished surfaces are tested by electrochemical and immersion tests to determine corrosion behaviour in conditions where pitting is evoked by controlled potential and second by solution with high redox potential. By this way the effect of mechanical and chemical surface treatment on the resistance to pitting corrosion, character, size and shape of pits are compared in the conditions of different mechanisms of corrosion process.

  5. Stochastic models for predicting pitting corrosion damage of HLRW containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Stochastic models for predicting aqueous pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. These models could be used to predict the time required for the first pit to penetrate a container and the increase in the number of breaches at later times, both of which would be useful in the repository system performance analysis. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic models are described, and predictions of induction time, survival probability and pit depth distributions are presented. These results suggest that the pit nucleation probability decreases with exposure time and that pit growth may be a stochastic process. The advantages and disadvantages of the stochastic approach, methods for modeling the effects of environment, and plans for future work are discussed

  6. Method for Identifying Lava Tubes Among Pit Craters Using Brightness Profile Across Pits on the Moon or Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongil Jung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caves can serve as major outposts for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In addition, caves can protect people and electronic equipment from external hazards such as cosmic ray radiation and meteorites impacts and serve as a shelter. Numerous pit craters have been discovered on the Moon and Mars and are potential entrances to caves; the principal topographic features of pit craters are their visible internal floors and pits with vertical walls. We have devised two topographical models for investigating the relationship between the topographical characteristics and the inner void of pit craters. One of our models is a concave floor void model and the other is a convex floor tube model. For each model, optical photographs have been obtained under conditions similar to those in which optical photographs have been acquired for craters on the Moon and Mars. Brightness profiles were analyzed for determining the profile patterns of the void pit craters. The profile patterns were compared to the brightness profiles of Martian pit craters, because no good-quality images of lunar pit craters were available. In future studies, the model profile patterns will be compared to those of lunar pit craters, and the proposed method will likely become useful for finding lunar caves and consequently for planning lunar bases for manned lunar expeditions.

  7. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  8. Accumulation of Charantin and Expression of Triterpenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Do Manh; Jeon, Jin; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2017-08-23

    Charantin, a natural cucurbitane type triterpenoid, has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological functions such as anticancer, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activities. However, accumulation of charantin in bitter melon has been little studied. Here, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes involved in the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in bitter melon seedlings. A total of 88,703 transcripts with an average length of 898 bp were identified in bitter melon seedlings. On the basis of a functional annotation, we identified 15 candidate genes encoding enzymes related to triterpenoid biosynthesis and analyzed their expression in different organs of mature plants. Most genes were highly expressed in flowers and/or fruit from the ripening stages. An HPLC analysis confirmed that the accumulation of charantin was highest in fruits from the ripening stage, followed by male flowers. The accumulation patterns of charantin coincide with the expression pattern of McSE and McCAS1, indicating that these genes play important roles in charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon. We also investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon and found that red light was the most effective wavelength.

  9. HMF formation and colour change of bitter orange and sweet orange jams during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work influence of preparation on 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF and colour of bitter orange jams and sweet orange jams was investigated. Samples were prepared without and with treatment of oranges with ascorbic acid in order to investigate the influence on prevention of browning in jams. Samples were stored for 365 days at 4 °C and at room temperature and formation of HMF and colour change during storage were measured. After jam preparation bitter orange jams had higher HMF content than sweet orange jams (231 mg/kg and 58.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of oranges with ascorbic acid increased formation of HMF during preparation of jams (261 mg/kg and 95 mg/kg for bitter and sweet orange jams. During storage the same tendency was observed. Also, difference in colour between sweet and bitter orange jams was observed. The highest colour change was observed in bitter orange jams (ΔE* = 5.66 with addition of ascorbic acid. In this work the importance of pH value of jams and storage temperature for HMF formation and colour was emphasised.

  10. Mass spectrometric determination of the predominant adrenergic protoalkaloids in bitter orange (Citrus aurantium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bryant C; Putzbach, Karsten; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sander, Lane C

    2007-11-28

    The predominant adrenergic protoalkaloid found in the peel and fruit of bitter orange, Citrus aurantium, is synephrine. Synephrine is reputed to have thermogenic properties and is used as a dietary supplement to enhance energy and promote weight loss. However, there exists some concern that the consumption of dietary supplements containing synephrine or similar protoalkaloids may contribute to adverse cardiovascular events. This study developed and validated a positive-ion mode liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of the major (synephrine) and minor (tyramine, N-methyltyramine, octopamine, and hordenine) adrenergic protoalkaloids in a suite of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) bitter orange Standard Reference Materials (SRMs): SRM 3258 Bitter Orange Fruit, SRM 3259 Bitter Orange Extract, and SRM 3260 Bitter Orange Solid Oral Dosage Form. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for all protoalkaloids is approximately 1 pg on-column, except for octopamine (20 pg on-column). Additionally, the method has a linear dynamic range of > or =3 orders of magnitude for all of the protoalkaloids. Individual, as well as "total", protoalkaloid levels (milligrams per kilogram) in the NIST SRMs were determined and compared to the levels measured by an independent liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection (LC/FD) method. Satisfactory concordance between the LC/MS/MS and LC/FD protoalkaloid measurements was demonstrated. LC/MS/MS analysis of the protoalkaloids in the SRMs resulted in mean measurement imprecision levels of < or =10% coefficient of variation (% CV).

  11. Absence of furanocoumarins in Advantra Z® (Citrus aurantium, bitter orange) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Howard; Romano, Felice

    2014-09-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) juice is known for its ability to alter drug metabolism through inhibition of the cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) system, and result in drug-food interactions that may be life threatening. The primary active ingredients in grapefruit responsible for these effects are the furanocoumarins bergapten, bergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB). Bergamottin and DHB appear to be the most important in terms of adverse drug interactions. Furanocoumarins are present in the juices and fruits of other Citrus species including C. aurantium (bitter oranges). Bergapten is the predominant furanocoumarin in bitter orange. Bitter orange extracts are widely used in products associated with weight loss, sports performance, and energy production. Questions have been raised about the potential of bitter orange extracts to cause drug interactions. This study examined the furanocoumarin content of four standardized bitter orange extracts (Advantra Z®) by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results indicated that the total furanocoumarin content of each of the four extracts was less than 20 μg/g, amounts insufficient to exert significant effects on the metabolism of susceptible drugs in human subjects at the doses commonly used for these extracts.

  12. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p-Synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J

    2017-10-01

    Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange) extracts that contain p-synephrine as the primary protoalkaloid are widely used for weight loss/weight management, sports performance, appetite control, energy, and mental focus and cognition. Questions have been raised about the safety of p-synephrine because it has some structural similarity to ephedrine. This review focuses on current human, animal, in vitro, and mechanistic studies that address the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of bitter orange extracts and p-synephrine. Numerous studies have been conducted with respect to p-synephrine and bitter orange extract because ephedra and ephedrine were banned from use in dietary supplements in 2004. Approximately 30 human studies indicate that p-synephrine and bitter orange extracts do not result in cardiovascular effects and do not act as stimulants at commonly used doses. Mechanistic studies suggest that p-synephrine exerts its effects through multiple actions, which are discussed. Because p-synephrine exhibits greater adrenergic receptor binding in rodents than humans, data from animals cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. This review, as well as several other assessments published in recent years, has concluded that bitter orange extract and p-synephrine are safe for use in dietary supplements and foods at the commonly used doses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p‐Synephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange) extracts that contain p‐synephrine as the primary protoalkaloid are widely used for weight loss/weight management, sports performance, appetite control, energy, and mental focus and cognition. Questions have been raised about the safety of p‐synephrine because it has some structural similarity to ephedrine. This review focuses on current human, animal, in vitro, and mechanistic studies that address the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of bitter orange extracts and p‐synephrine. Numerous studies have been conducted with respect to p‐synephrine and bitter orange extract because ephedra and ephedrine were banned from use in dietary supplements in 2004. Approximately 30 human studies indicate that p‐synephrine and bitter orange extracts do not result in cardiovascular effects and do not act as stimulants at commonly used doses. Mechanistic studies suggest that p‐synephrine exerts its effects through multiple actions, which are discussed. Because p‐synephrine exhibits greater adrenergic receptor binding in rodents than humans, data from animals cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. This review, as well as several other assessments published in recent years, has concluded that bitter orange extract and p‐synephrine are safe for use in dietary supplements and foods at the commonly used doses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28752649

  14. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine.

  15. Ischemic colitis associated with use of a bitter orange-containing dietary weight-loss supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Shahnaz; Spector, Jeremy; Mitchell, Robert M

    2006-12-01

    Since the US Food and Drug Administration banned the use of dietary supplements containing ephedra in February 2004, numerous "ephedra-free" weight-loss products have appeared on the market. Many of these supplements contain compounds such as bitter orange that are similar in structure and action to ephedra. We describe a patient in whom ischemic colitis developed 1 week after initiation of a bitter orange-containing weight-loss supplement. The patient had no other predisposing factors, and discontinuation of the supplement led to immediate improvement and ultimate resolution of her symptoms. Both consumers and health care professionals should be aware of the potential harm that bitter orange-containing dietary supplements can cause and report such adverse events to the US Food and Drug Administration.

  16. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-07-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties.

  17. First Report of Anthracnose on Bitter Gourd Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose occurred in bitter gourd grown in Jeongup areas of Korea in 2011. Anthracnose of bitter gourd appeared as dark brown circular spots on naturally infected leaves and fruits. The symptoms of infected leaves and fruits were small brown to dark brown spots and gradually enlarged to larger cylindrical dark brown lesions. The causal fungus of anthracnose isolated from the diseased plants was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on the morphological and cultural characteristics and ITS rDNA sequence analysis. All isolates of C. gloeosporioides produced symptoms on the host leaves by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of anthracnose on bitter gourd caused by C. gloeosporioides in Korea.

  18. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Pang, Bing; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine.

  19. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Pang, Bing; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine. PMID:26557150

  20. Fecal indicator and Ascaris removal from double pit latrine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Digbijoy; Ridwanul Haque, A T M; Kabir, Babar; Ubaid, Sharmin Farhat

    2016-12-01

    Since May 2006, the BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Programme in Bangladesh has enabled more than 30 million people to achieve hygienic sanitation, contributing to an increase in sanitation coverage from 33 to 83% in programme areas and rapid progress towards universal access. In rural areas, most families have single pit latrines that need to be emptied when full. Since 2007, BRAC has promoted the use of hygienic double-pit latrines. Use of double-pit latrines, where appropriate, is also recommended in the Bangladeshi Draft National Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy. More than 800,000 double-pit latrines are in use in BRAC WASH areas, delaying the need for emptying and allowing time for the fecal matter to decompose while the resting pit is sealed. This paper focuses on a study undertaken by BRAC WASH to treat and safely use fecal material from double pit latrines as an organic fertilizer for rice and other crops. The study investigated the removal of pathogens from pit waste through simple solar drying and conducted analysis on nutrient properties of fecal sludge. The study showed a significant positive impact on developing organic fertilizer from fecal sludge.

  1. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is described and used to calculate the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles of 26 aqueous species from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution. Precipitation of oxides and salts of copper is considered. Studied conditions include water compositions from tap waters to seawater at the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. Carbonate and sulphate are aggressive towards copper because of complex formation with divalent copper. Carbonate is less aggressive in a corrosion pit than outside at the pH of the bulk. Carbonate carries acidity out from the pit, favours oxide formation and may prevent the initiation of acidic corrosion pits. The concentration profiles are used to estimate the maximum propagation rates for a corrosion pit. A high potential is found to be the most important factor for the rate of propagation. The levels of potential copper can sustain, as corrosion potentials are discussed in terms of the stability of cuprous oxide as a cathode material for oxygen reduction relative to non-conducting cupric phases.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in AVRDC collections of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is an important market vegetable in Asia, where it is also used in folk medicine to manage type 2 diabetes. Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a serious fungal disease of bitter gourd and yield losses of up to 50% have been reported. After observi...

  3. First report of phytophthora fruit rot on bitter gourd (Mormodica charantia) and sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) caused by phytophthora capsici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luffa sponge (smooth gourd) and bitter gourds (bitter melon) are specialty cucurbit vegetables cultivated in the United States (US) on a small scale for select markets. Luffa gourds are also grown for the sponge obtained from dried fruit for personal hygiene and skin care. These two cucurbits prod...

  4. Modulatory effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) on alterations in kidney heparan sulfate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Suresh; Shetty, A K; Salimath, P V

    2008-01-17

    Glycoconjugates in the kidney play an important role in the maintenance of glomerular filtration barrier. Thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is well characterized in diabetic nephropathy. Changes in GBM mainly include reduction and undersulfation of heparan sulfate, and laminin with accumulation of type IV collagen leading to kidney dysfunction and there is a need to identify therapies that arrest disease progression to end-stage renal failure. In the present investigation, effect of bitter gourd on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with particular emphasis on kidney heparan sulfate (HS) was studied. Earlier, our study showed partial reversal of all the diabetes-induced effects by bitter gourd. Increase in the components of glycoconjugates during diabetes was significantly decreased by bitter gourd feeding. Diabetes associated elevation in the activities of enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were significantly lowered by bitter gourd supplementation. GAGs composition revealed decrease in amino sugar, and uronic acid contents during diabetes and bitter gourd feeding was effective in countering this reduction. Decrease in sulfate content in the GAGs during diabetes was ameliorated by bitter gourd feeding. HS decreased by 43% in diabetic rats while bitter gourd feeding to diabetic rats showed 28% reduction. These results clearly indicate beneficial role of bitter gourd in controlling glycoconjugate and heparan sulfate related kidney complications during diabetes thus prolonging late complications of diabetes.

  5. Prunasin Hydrolases during Fruit Development in Sweet and Bitter Almonds1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  6. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) extract subchronic 90-day safety study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, N.S.; Stohs, S.J.; Magar, C.C.; Kale, A.; Sowmya, B.

    2017-01-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) extracts are widely used in dietary supplements and bitter oranges are used in various juices and food products. p-Synephrine, the primary active constituent, comprises approximately 90% of total protoalkaloids. This study, performed per OECD 408 guidance, examined the 90-day subchronic safety/toxicity of an extract standardized to 50% p-synephrine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day to male and female rats. No adverse effects were observed with respect...

  7. Pungent and bitter, cytotoxic and antiviral terpenoids from some bryophytes and inedible fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Nagashima, Fumihiro; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Toyota, Masao; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Komala, Ismiarni; Ito, Takuya; Yagi, Yasuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Most liverworts elaborate characteristic odiferous, pungent and bitter tasting compounds many of which show antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, allergenic contact dermatitis, cytotoxic, insecticidal, anti-HIV, superoxide anion radical release, plant growth regulatory, neurotrophic, NO production inhibitory, muscle relaxant, antiobesity, piscicidal and nematocidal activities. Several inedible mushrooms produce female spider pheromones, strong antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds. The present paper is concerned with the extraction and isolation of terpenoids from some bryophytes and inedible fungi and their pungent and bitter taste, and cytotoxic and antiviral activity.

  8. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a vegetable commonly used for diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snee, Laura S; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Dooley, Dian A; Efird, Jimmy T; Shovic, Anne C; Nerurkar, Pratibha V

    2011-07-28

    Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC) before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) analyses. Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  9. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon): A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC) before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results. PMID:21794176

  10. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon: A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shovic Anne C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2 analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  11. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  12. Ultimate strength of stiffened plates with pitting corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting residual strength of corroded plates is of crucial importance for service life estimation of aged structures. A series of nonlinear finite element method is employed for ultimate strength analysis of stiffened plates with pitting corrosion. Influential parameters, including plate thickness, type and size of stiffeners, pit depth and degree of pitting are varied and more than 208 finite element models are analyzed. It is found that ultimate strength is reduced by increasing pit depth to thickness ratio. Thin and intermediate plates have minimum and maximum reduction of ultimate strength with stronger stiffeners, respectively. In weak stiffener, reduction of ultimate strength in thin and intermediate plates depends on DOP. Reduction of ultimate strength in thick plates depends on thickness ofplate and DOP. For intermediate plates, reduction for all stiffeners regardless of shape and size are the same.

  13. CLPX-Ground: ISA Snow Pit Measurements, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of snow pit data from nine study areas, within three larger-scale areas in northern Colorado (Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears Meso-cell...

  14. Studies in pitting corrosion on archaeological bronzes. Copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresle, Aa.; Saers, J.; Arrhenius, B.

    1983-01-01

    Copper has been proposed as a canister material for use in the long-term storage of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors. The storage period has been set to at least 100 000 years, during which time the copper cylinders must remain intact so that the contained waste has no possibility of leaking out. In this work, the pitting factor in archaelogical copper objects have been determined. The absolute values of the pitting factor obtained are generally very low. In the case of the most thoroughly studied material the pitting factor is only slightly more than three units. Nor does the native copper, with a presumed burial period of about 8000 years, exhibit particularly high values. In summary, it can therefore be concluded that the present study does not provide support for the assumption of extremely high pitting factors in copper-base material that has been buried for periods of several millenia. (G.B.)

  15. South Pole Snow Pit, 1988 and 1989, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Information from 6-meter snow pits dug close to the South Pole in austral summer 1988-1989 by the Glacier Research Group of the University of New Hampshire (location...

  16. Numerical Simulation of Material Strength Deterioration due to Pitting Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Kolios, Athanasios J.; Srikanth, Sumant; Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Pitting corrosion is an insidious form of localized corrosion affecting characteristics of various engineering metallic alloys. Currently very limited literature exists with regard to systematic characterization of pitted surfaces or the efficient use of numerical methods to assess its effect, i.e. fatigue life reduction caused by the state of a corroded specimen and particularly through the study of stress concentrations considering the geometrical anomalies introduced to a surface. Much of ...

  17. Ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangfa; Jiang Xue

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, there is a detail description of ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines, including method, process and results. We took ecological geology environmental assessment work on the base of the results of some open-pit mines such as extremely low content magnetite in Hebei Province, inducted and summarized the ecological geology environment quality. The results are reasonable. It provides basic data for the second mines programming in Hebei Province. (authors)

  18. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Guerra; Marta Mazur; Francesca Rinaldo; Denise Corridore; Daniele Salvi; Debora Pasqualotto; Gianna Maria Nardi; Livia Ottolenghi

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of denta...

  19. Force-displacement measurements of earlywood bordered pits using a mesomechanical tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Keith J. Bourne; John C. Hermanson; Samuel V. Glass; Adriana Costa; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2015-01-01

    The elastic properties of pit membranes are reported to have important implications in understanding air-seeding phenomena in gymnosperms, and pit aspiration plays a large role in wood technological applications such as wood drying and preservative treatment. Here we present force–displacement measurements for pit membranes of circular bordered pits, collected on a...

  20. Deterministic chaos in the pitting phenomena of passivable alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerle, Stephane

    1998-01-01

    It was shown that electrochemical noise recorded in stable pitting conditions exhibits deterministic (even chaotic) features. The occurrence of deterministic behaviors depend on the material/solution severity. Thus, electrolyte composition ([Cl - ]/[NO 3 - ] ratio, pH), passive film thickness or alloy composition can change the deterministic features. Only one pit is sufficient to observe deterministic behaviors. The electrochemical noise signals are non-stationary, which is a hint of a change with time in the pit behavior (propagation speed or mean). Modifications of electrolyte composition reveals transitions between random and deterministic behaviors. Spontaneous transitions between deterministic behaviors of different features (bifurcation) are also evidenced. Such bifurcations enlighten various routes to chaos. The routes to chaos and the features of chaotic signals allow to suggest the modeling (continuous and discontinuous models are proposed) of the electrochemical mechanisms inside a pit, that describe quite well the experimental behaviors and the effect of the various parameters. The analysis of the chaotic behaviors of a pit leads to a better understanding of propagation mechanisms and give tools for pit monitoring. (author) [fr

  1. Statistical characterization of pitting corrosion process and life prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.K.; Younas, M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to prevent corrosion failures of machines and structures, it is desirable to know in advance when the corrosion damage will take place, and appropriate measures are needed to mitigate the damage. The corrosion predictions are needed both at development as well as operational stage of machines and structures. There are several forms of corrosion process through which varying degrees of damage can occur. Under certain conditions these corrosion processes at alone and in other set of conditions, several of these processes may occur simultaneously. For a certain type of machine elements and structures, such as gears, bearing, tubes, pipelines, containers, storage tanks etc., are particularly prone to pitting corrosion which is an insidious form of corrosion. The corrosion predictions are usually based on experimental results obtained from test coupons and/or field experiences of similar machines or parts of a structure. Considerable scatter is observed in corrosion processes. The probabilities nature and kinetics of pitting process makes in necessary to use statistical method to forecast the residual life of machine of structures. The focus of this paper is to characterization pitting as a time-dependent random process, and using this characterization the prediction of life to reach a critical level of pitting damage can be made. Using several data sets from literature on pitting corrosion, the extreme value modeling of pitting corrosion process, the evolution of the extreme value distribution in time, and their relationship to the reliability of machines and structure are explained. (author)

  2. Effect of gamma rays on morphogenesis from different explants of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.D.; Rao, A.M.; Nirmala, N.; Mallaiah, B.

    1993-01-01

    Different doses of irradiation were used on seeds of bitter gourd to elucidate their effect of morphogenetic response. Lower doses like 2-4 kRs favoured in multiple shoots induction and higher doses proved as the lethal. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  3. Possible association of acute lateral-wall myocardial infarction and bitter orange supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykamp, Diane L; Fackih, Majed N; Compton, Anthony L

    2004-05-01

    To report a possible incidence of acute lateral-wall myocardial infarction (MI) coinciding with the use of a Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange)-containing dietary supplement in a patient with undetected coronary vascular disease. A 55-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with symptoms of dull aching shoulder and chest pain. A review of medications during cardiac rehabilitation revealed the patient had ingested a multicomponent dietary supplement for weight loss containing 300 mg of bitter orange (Edita's Skinny Pill) for the past year. Although the patient's past medical history did not include hypertension, coronary disease, or hyperlipidemia, an arteriogram revealed a lesion in the left main coronary artery. She did have a smoking history. She was diagnosed with acute lateral-wall MI and hospitalized for 4 days. Consumers generally consider dietary supplements safe. However, some supplements taken for weight loss contain ingredients that have been associated with cardiovascular events. Although consumers are becoming more aware of the serious adverse effects secondary to products containing ingredients such as Ma huang and ephedra, reports involving other ingredients are increasing. Bitter orange or synephrine, found in bitter orange, has been associated with adverse cardiovascular reactions. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, C. aurantium is possibly associated with this cardiovascular event. The use of C. aurantium-containing supplements may present as a risk for cardiovascular toxicity; however, additional studies/case reports are needed to validate this conclusion.

  4. Evaluation of some pollutant levels in bitter orange trees: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Sabina Rossini; Valdés, Benito; Mingorance, Maria Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Samples of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) fruits (epicarp and mesocarp), leaves and its fruit marmalade from sites in Seville (Andalucia, Spain) with different levels of traffic were analysed for Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations by ICP/AES. Comparative values are given from a background area. The effect of washing on metal content in epicarp and leaves was investigated. Results revealed that Ba, Fe and Mn accumulated in leaves > epicarp > mesocarp, Cu and Ni in leaves > epicarp congruent withmesocarp and Zn leaves > mesocarp > epicarp. Washing had no significant effect on epicarp metal content while it removes part of Cu, Fe and Zn deposited on leaves. Bitter orange fruits are used mainly to make marmalade; artificial contamination effects on fruit composition were investigated and the dietary intake of the elements was determined. The citrus fruits sprayed with metal solution showed a significant increase in the studied elements compared to untreated fruits. The levels of all elements studied were lower than provisional tolerable daily intake values indicating that bitter orange marmalade consumption is safe for alimentary use. Bitter orange tree exhibit differences in metal content between fruits and leaves and fruits are safe for consumption.

  5. germination of seeds from earlier fruits of bitter and sweet african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... mango trees and identify types of seeds suitable to overcome the climatic hindrances for uniform plantations establishment in the .... In general, these studies lack a comparative basis between bitter and sweet .... Characteristics of mango provenances tested in the Dahomey Gap in Benin. Type of ABMTs.

  6. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bitter plants used as substitute of Cinchona spp. (quina) in Brazilian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Gustavo P; Somavilla, Nádia S; Fagg, Christopher W; Brandão, Maria G L

    2013-10-07

    Bitter tasting plant species are used as tonics and have been previously used to treat intermittent fevers in Brazil, the principal symptom of malaria. Many of these species were named quina and were used as substitutes of Cinchona spp., the source of quinine. To present data on these bitter species named quina and to discuss their potential as sources of bioactive substances. Data about the plants were obtained from a survey of the literature and documents written by early naturalists and clinical doctors living in the 18th and 19th centuries in Brazil. Correlated pharmacological studies were obtained from different scientific databases. A total of 29 species were recorded. The largest number of species belonged to the Rubiaceae family (14), being Remijia ferruginea (A. St.-Hil) DC. the most representative. Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae), Hortia brasiliana Vand. ex DC. (Rutaceae) and Solanum pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Solanaceae) were also frequently mentioned in the historical bibliography. Pharmacological studies have shown the presence of bitter bioactive substances useful to treat digestive disorders and/or with antimalarial activities, in all of the recorded botanic families. This study shows that several bitter species named quina were used in the past as substitute of Cinchona spp. and studying these plants can lead to the development of new products. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Variability of amygdalin content in seeds of sweet and bitter apricot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Drug Administration for the use of Vitamin B17 as a drug in the treatment of patients (Asma and Misirli, 2007). Apricot seeds contain various amounts of amygdalin depending on cultivars. It is reported that bitter cultivars contain higher amygdalin than sweet cultivars (Gomez et al., 1998). Femenia et al.

  9. Op het grensvlak van chemie en biotechnologie (interview met Harry Bitter)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, van J.; Bitter, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Harry Bitter, sinds twee jaar hoogleraar Biobased Chemistry & Technology aan de Wageningen Universiteit, pleit voor meer chemie en katalyse in het onderzoek naar biobased producten. ‘Mijn onderzoeksfocus ligt op hoe je de omzettingen van biomassa naar product zo optimaal mogelijk kunt uitvoeren.

  10. Interactions between limonin and nomilin, two bitter compounds of orange juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a preliminary step to understand and characterize which metabolites are responsible for the bitter off-favor of Huanglongbing infected fruit, the thresholds of limonin, nomilin, and their combination in a sugar and acid matrix, as well as in healthy ‘Valencia’ orange juice were determined by tast...

  11. Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) pulp waste on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of acid hydrolysis of bitter kola (Garcinia kola) pulp wastes on the production of CM-cellulase and -glucosidase using Aspergillus niger was investigated. Hydrolysis for 3 h with 2.5 M sulphuric acid yielded highest fermentable sugar. Acid hydrolysis enhanced CM-cellulase and -glucosidase levels by 500% at 96 h and ...

  12. Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) as an Antimicrobial Agent: Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This work investigated the effects of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) on the normal flora of the mouth. Two methods were adopted in this work. In the first method, the bacterial load of saliva samples collected after chewing Garcinia kola for days 1-5 decreased drastically when compared to bacterial load from saliva ...

  13. Improved Durability and Sensitivity of Bitterness-Sensing Membrane for Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the improvement of a bitterness sensor based on a lipid polymer membrane consisting of phosphoric acid di-n-decyl ester (PADE as a lipid and bis(1-butylpentyl adipate (BBPA and tributyl o-acetylcitrate (TBAC as plasticizers. Although the commercialized bitterness sensor (BT0 has high sensitivity and selectivity to the bitterness of medicines, the sensor response gradually decreases to almost zero after two years at room temperature and humidity in a laboratory. To reveal the reason for the deterioration of the response, we investigated sensor membranes by measuring the membrane potential, contact angle, and adsorption amount, as well as by performing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. We found that the change in the surface charge density caused by the hydrolysis of TBAC led to the deterioration of the response. The acidic environment generated by PADE promoted TBAC hydrolysis. Finally, we succeeded in fabricating a new membrane for sensing the bitterness of medicines with higher durability and sensitivity by adjusting the proportions of the lipid and plasticizers.

  14. Extraction of bitter acids from hops and hop products using pressurized solvent extraction (PSE)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čulík, J.; Jurková, M.; Horák, T.; Čejka, P.; Kellner, V.; Dvořák, J.; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2009), s. 220-225 ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : hops * bitter acids * pressurized solvent extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  15. Use of local materials in the preservation of Garcinia kola (bitter kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) was carried out using different local materials to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life. The materials were kept moist by wetting them throughout the period of study (8 weeks). The local materials used were sandy soil, jute bag, clay pot and ...

  16. Histological changes in the testis of rats treated with Alomo Bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the increasing demand for herbal aphrodisiacs, this study investigates the effect of Alomo bitters on the histology of testis in adult rats. 36 male rats of comparable weight (151.67 ± 2.89 grams) and sizes were involved in this study. The animals were assigned into four groups; a control group (A) and three test ...

  17. Prophylactic effect of paw-paw leaf and bitter leaf extracts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (ANOVA) and significant means separated using FLSD = LSD procedure as outlined in Obi (2002). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. In pre-soaking, paw-paw leaf (PL) extract had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the disease incidence at. 50% anthesis. Bitter leaf (BL) extract had a high signifi- cant effect (P ...

  18. The taste transduction channel TRPM5 is a locus for bitter-sweet taste interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Karel; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Margolskee, Robert F; Voets, Thomas; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Nilius, Bernd

    2008-05-01

    Ordinary gustatory experiences, which are usually evoked by taste mixtures, are determined by multiple interactions between different taste stimuli. The most studied model for these gustatory interactions is the suppression of the responses to sweeteners by the prototype bitter compound quinine. Here we report that TRPM5, a cation channel involved in sweet taste transduction, is inhibited by quinine (EC(50)=50 microM at -50 mV) owing to a decrease in the maximal whole-cell TRPM5 conductance and an acceleration of channel closure. Notably, quinine inhibits the gustatory responses of sweet-sensitive gustatory nerves in wild-type (EC(50)= approximately 1.6 mM) but not in Trpm5 knockout mice. Quinine induces a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of TRPM5-dependent responses of single sweet-sensitive fibers to sucrose, according to the restricted diffusion of the drug into the taste tissue. Quinidine, the stereoisomer of quinine, has similar effects on TRPM5 currents and on sweet-induced gustatory responses. In contrast, the chemically unrelated bitter compound denatonium benzoate has an approximately 100-fold weaker effect on TRPM5 currents and, accordingly, at 10 mM it does not alter gustatory responses to sucrose. The inhibition of TRPM5 by bitter compounds constitutes the molecular basis of a novel mechanism of taste interactions, whereby the bitter tastant inhibits directly the sweet transduction pathway.

  19. Draft genome sequence of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), a vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasaki, Naoya; Takagi, Hiroki; Natsume, Satoshi; Uemura, Aiko; Taniai, Naoki; Miyagi, Norimichi; Fukushima, Mai; Suzuki, Shouta; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Sakamoto, Moriaki; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is an important vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions globally. In this study, the draft genome sequence of a monoecious bitter gourd inbred line, OHB3-1, was analyzed. Through Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly, scaffolds of 285.5 Mb in length were generated, corresponding to ∼84% of the estimated genome size of bitter gourd (339 Mb). In this draft genome sequence, 45,859 protein-coding gene loci were identified, and transposable elements accounted for 15.3% of the whole genome. According to synteny mapping and phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes, bitter gourd was more related to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) than to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) or melon (C. melo). Using RAD-seq analysis, 1507 marker loci were genotyped in an F2 progeny of two bitter gourd lines, resulting in an improved linkage map, comprising 11 linkage groups. By anchoring RAD tag markers, 255 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map. Comparative analysis of genome sequences and predicted genes determined that putative trypsin-inhibitor and ribosome-inactivating genes were distinctive in the bitter gourd genome. These genes could characterize the bitter gourd as a medicinal plant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  20. Development of delayed bitterness and effect of harvest date in stored juice from two complex citrus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithore, Smita; Dea, Sharon; McCollum, Greg; Manthey, John A; Bai, Jinhe; Leclair, Clotilde; Hijaz, Faraj; Narciso, Jan A; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Plotto, Anne

    2016-01-30

    Mandarins and mandarin hybrids have excellent flavor and color attributes, making them good candidates for consumption as fresh fruit. When processed into juice, however, they are less palatable, as they develop delayed bitterness when stored for a period of time. In this study the kinetics of delayed bitterness in two citrus mandarin hybrid siblings, 'Ambersweet' and USDA 1-105-106, was explored by sensory and instrumental analyses. In addition to the bitter limonoids, other quality factors (i.e. sugars, acids, pH, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and the ratio SSC/TA) were also measured. The two citrus hybrid siblings had different chemical profiles, which were perceived by taste panels. USDA 1-105-106 developed delayed bitterness when the juice was stored for more than 4 h, similar to juice from 'Navel' oranges, but 'Ambersweet' did not. Bitterness in 'Ambersweet' was more affected by harvest maturity, as juice from earlier harvest had lower SSC but higher TA and bitter limonoids. Since juice of USDA 1-105-106 shows delayed bitterness when stored for more than 4 h, this cultivar is not suitable for juice processing. Our finding that siblings can differ in chemical and sensory properties emphasize the importance of post-processing storage studies before releasing cultivars for juice. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Effects of processing methods on the proximate composition and momordicosides K and L content of bitter melon vegetable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donya, Alice; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson; Chen, Pengyin; Jalaluddin, Mohammed

    2007-07-11

    Bitter melon (Mormodica charantia L.) has been associated with health benefits such as hypoglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-HIV activities. The vegetable, however, has an unpleasant bitter taste. The purpose of this research was to establish the effect of various processing methods on the moisture, lipid, and protein content of the Sri Lanka variety of bitter melon and to determine the effect of the processing methods on momordicosides K and L contents. The processing methods used were frying, blanching, sun drying, oven drying, freeze drying, and bitter masking with five different commercial bitter masking agents. Moisture, lipid, and protein analyses were done using standard AACC methods. Drying decreased moisture content from 92% to 9.5-10.2%. Frying lowered moisture content to 0.8% while increasing lipid content from 3.6 to 67%. Protein content remained unaffected by treatments. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) method was used to identify momordicosides K and L in methanolic extracts of fresh and processed samples. Only extracted ion chromatographs for blanched bitter melon and bitter melon with MY 68 agent showed the absence of momordicosides K and L.

  2. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L. extract subchronic 90-day safety study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Deshmukh

    Full Text Available Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L. extracts are widely used in dietary supplements and bitter oranges are used in various juices and food products. p-Synephrine, the primary active constituent, comprises approximately 90% of total protoalkaloids. This study, performed per OECD 408 guidance, examined the 90-day subchronic safety/toxicity of an extract standardized to 50% p-synephrine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day to male and female rats. No adverse effects were observed with respect to any of the observed parameters of clinical signs, functional observations of sensory reactivity, grip strength and motor activity, ophthalmology, body weights, hematology, food consumption, urinalysis, organ weights, as well as gross and microscopic pathology at termination at any of the doses in either sex. Treatment at 1000 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract resulted in non-adverse effects including fully reversible signs of repetitive head burrowing in the bedding material and piloerection for short periods of time in both sexes immediately after administration, which gradually disappeared by treatment day-81. A slight and reversible elevation of BUN and urea levels in male rats, and slight to mild increase in the relative but not absolute heart weights of male and female rats was observed. Based on these results, the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL for this bitter orange extract standardized to 50% p-synephrine was 300 mg/kg, while the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL was 1000 mg/kg. The results indicate a high degree of safety for this bitter orange extract. Keywords: Citrus aurantium, Bitter orange, p-Synephrine, Subchronic toxicity, No-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL, No-observed-effect-level (NOEL

  3. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. In vivo test of bitter (andrographis paniculata nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarmin, R.; Huda, NK; Yuniarti, E.; Violita

    2018-03-01

    Sambiloto or Bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), are often used to treat various diseases, such as influenza, cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-HIV, anti-mitotic and anti-fertility. This study aimed to determine the effects of the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm mice quality (Mus musculus L. Swiss Webster). This research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments, which are 0.0 g/b.w., (P0), 0.2 g/b.w., (P1), 0,4 g/b.w., (P3), or 0.6 g/b.w., (P4) bitter extract orally for 36 days. After treatment, the mice decapitated, dissected and collected the sperm from vas deferens. Then, the number of sperm counted by used the improved Neubauer and then stained by Eosin to count the abnormal sperm. Data analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) then DNMRT. The results showed that the average numbers of sperm are 28.80 x 105 (P0), 19.50 x 105 (P1), 12.50 x105 (P2) and 9.50 x 105 (P3). The average abnormal sperm numbers are 18.33 x 105 (P0), 22.50 x 105 (P1), 31.50 x105 (P2) and 39.33 x 105 (P3). It showed that the effective treatment to decrease sperm number was 0.2 g/b.w., of bitter extract. It can conclude that the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract decreases the quality of the ejaculated sperm of mice (Mus musculus L.)

  5. Nobody’s perfect: Can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka ePlavcová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that species-specific pit properties such as pit membrane thickness, pit membrane porosity, torus-to-aperture diameter ratio and pit chamber depth influence xylem vulnerability to cavitation. Despite the indisputable importance of using mean pit characteristics, considerable variability in pit structure within a single species or even within a single pit field should be acknowledged. According to the rare pit hypothesis, a single pit that is more air-permeable than many neighboring pits is sufficient to allow air-seeding. Therefore, any irregularities or morphological abnormalities in pit structure allowing air-seeding should be associated with increased vulnerability to cavitation. Considering the currently proposed models of air-seeding, pit features such as rare, large pores in the pit membrane, torus extensions, and plasmodesmatal pores in a torus can represent potential glitches. These aberrations in pit structure could either result from inherent developmental flaws, or from damage caused to the pit membrane by chemical and physical agents. This suggests the existence of interesting feedbacks between abiotic and biotic stresses in xylem physiology.

  6. Nobody's perfect: can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Lenka; Jansen, Steven; Klepsch, Matthias; Hacke, Uwe G

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that species-specific pit properties such as pit membrane thickness, pit membrane porosity, torus-to-aperture diameter ratio and pit chamber depth influence xylem vulnerability to cavitation. Despite the indisputable importance of using mean pit characteristics, considerable variability in pit structure within a single species or even within a single pit field should be acknowledged. According to the rare pit hypothesis, a single pit that is more air-permeable than many neighboring pits is sufficient to allow air-seeding. Therefore, any irregularities or morphological abnormalities in pit structure allowing air-seeding should be associated with increased vulnerability to cavitation. Considering the currently proposed models of air-seeding, pit features such as rare, large pores in the pit membrane, torus extensions, and plasmodesmatal pores in a torus can represent potential glitches. These aberrations in pit structure could either result from inherent developmental flaws, or from damage caused to the pit membrane by chemical and physical agents. This suggests the existence of interesting feedbacks between abiotic and biotic stresses in xylem physiology.

  7. Determination of Bitter Orange alkaloids in dietary supplements standard reference materials by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sander, Lane C

    2007-07-13

    Four adrenergic amines [synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, and n-methyltyramine] were determined in a variety of Bitter Orange containing dietary supplements. Two extraction techniques were evaluated in detail: Soxhlet extraction and sonication extraction. A liquid chromatographic separation using a reversed-phase C(18) stationary phase and the ion-pairing reagent sodium dodecyl sulfate was developed to separate the Bitter Orange alkaloids. Ultraviolet absorbance detection at 220 nm and fluorescence detection with excitation at 273 nm and emission at 304 nm were used for the alkaloid detection. The method described was used for the assignment of the levels of the predominant alkaloids in three candidate standard reference materials containing Bitter Orange.

  8. Characterization of transport mechanisms and determinants critical for Na+-dependent Pi symport of the PiT family paralogs human PiT1 and PiT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Hede, Susanne E; Grunnet, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The general phosphate need in mammalian cells is accommodated by members of the P(i) transport (PiT) family (SLC20), which use either Na(+) or H(+) to mediate inorganic phosphate (P(i)) symport. The mammalian PiT paralogs PiT1 and PiT2 are Na(+)-dependent P(i) (NaP(i)) transporters...... and are exploited by a group of retroviruses for cell entry. Human PiT1 and PiT2 were characterized by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes with (32)P(i) as a traceable P(i) source. For PiT1, the Michaelis-Menten constant for P(i) was determined as 322.5 +/- 124.5 microM. PiT2 was analyzed for the first time...... and showed positive cooperativity in P(i) uptake with a half-maximal activity constant for P(i) of 163.5 +/- 39.8 microM. PiT1- and PiT2-mediated Na(+)-dependent P(i) uptake functions were not significantly affected by acidic and alkaline pH and displayed similar Na(+) dependency patterns. However, only PiT2...

  9. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkee eLee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylem hydraulic resistance varies with ion concentration in sap solution. It is assumed that this variation in resistance results from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in bordered pit membranes separating adjacent vessels. Although kinetics of the resistance change suggests swelling/deswelling behavior of the pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we provide evidence of structural changes in bordered pit membranes responding to variation in ionic concentration of solute around it using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft and lacking any sharp edges surface when submerged in de-ionized water, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM or AFM performed on air dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties with and elevation features as bordered pit membrane became harder, with visible edges of fibers and collapsed, while no change in porosity was observed. Analysis suggests a need for a major shift in our understanding to the physical bases of variable xylem resistance from change in porosity to change in pathway length. Findings support the role of actuating properties of hybrid hydrogel-cellulose materials in water redistribution and embolism resistance.

  10. Variation in the Ability to Taste Bitter Thiourea Compounds: Implications for Food Acceptance, Dietary Intake, and Obesity Risk in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kathleen L; Adise, Shana

    2016-07-17

    The ability to taste bitter thiourea compounds, such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), is inherited. Polymorphisms in the bitter-taste receptor TAS2R38 explain the majority of phenotypic variation in the PROP phenotype. It has been hypothesized that the PROP phenotype is a marker for perception of a variety of chemosensory experiences. In this review, we discuss studies that have investigated the relationship between bitter-taste response and dietary behaviors and chronic health in children. Investigators have hypothesized that children who are PROP tasters have lower liking and consumption of bitter foods, such as cruciferous vegetables. Additionally, several studies suggest that children who are unable to taste PROP (i.e., nontasters) like and consume more dietary fat and are prone to obesity. The relationship between the PROP phenotype and obesity is influenced by multiple confounders, including sex, food access, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Future studies that adjust for these variables are needed.

  11. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  12. Fukushima nuclear accident recorded in Tibetan Plateau snow pits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninglian Wang

    Full Text Available The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month.

  13. Congenital upper lip pit: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the rarest developmental malformations of the lip is congenital lip pits. They are usually seen as bilateral depressions in the vermilion zone of the lip and occur on the paramedian portion of the vermilion border of the lip. They are extremely rare in the upper lip. Lip pits are due to the failure of complete union of embryonic lateral sulci of the lip/notching of lip at an early stage of development with fixation of tissues of the base of the notch. Lip pits have also been associated with a variety of other congenital disorders and other malformations. The clinical and pathologic picture and the therapeutic aspects of this condition are discussed in this paper.

  14. Pit Distribution Design for Computer-Generated Waveguide Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shogo; Imai, Tadayuki; Ueno, Masahiro; Ohtani, Yoshimitsu; Endo, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Fukuda, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    Multilayered waveguide holography (MWH) is one of a number of page-oriented data multiplexing holographies that will be applied to optical data storage and three-dimensional (3D) moving images. While conventional volumetric holography using photopolymer or photorefractive materials requires page-by-page light exposure for recording, MWH media can be made by employing stamping and laminating technologies that are suitable for mass production. This makes devising an economical mastering technique for replicating holograms a key issue. In this paper, we discuss an approach to pit distribution design that enables us to replace expensive electron beam mastering with economical laser beam mastering. We propose an algorithm that avoids the overlapping of even comparatively large adjacent pits when we employ laser beam mastering. We also compensate for the angular dependence of the diffraction power, which strongly depends on pit shape, by introducing an enhancement profile so that a diffracted image has uniform intensity.

  15. 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Facility is owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. Dangerous waste and mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components) are managed and produced on the Hanford Facility. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office and serves as cooperator of the 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site, the unit addressed in this closure plan. The 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Part A Permit Application (Revision 3) and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application revision is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and three appendices. This 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of October 15, 1992

  16. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  17. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  18. Detection of Pitting in Gears Using a Deep Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Qu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; a new method for gear pitting fault detection is presented. The presented method is developed based on a deep sparse autoencoder. The method integrates dictionary learning in sparse coding into a stacked autoencoder network. Sparse coding with dictionary learning is viewed as an adaptive feature extraction method for machinery fault diagnosis. An autoencoder is an unsupervised machine learning technique. A stacked autoencoder network with multiple hidden layers is considered to be a deep learning network. The presented method uses a stacked autoencoder network to perform the dictionary learning in sparse coding and extract features from raw vibration data automatically. These features are then used to perform gear pitting fault detection. The presented method is validated with vibration data collected from gear tests with pitting faults in a gearbox test rig and compared with an existing deep learning-based approach.

  19. Effects of sesame and bitter almond seed oils on mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    kalyoncu, Ismail Hakki; KaSik, Giyaseddin; Özcan, Musa; Özturk, Celaleddin

    1999-01-01

    Secondary mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus from Nigde University Mushroom Research Centre (Aksaray-Nigde) was monitored in malt extract agar medium containing sesame or bitter almond seed oils. With 1 % sesame oil, highest growth was established and less growth period was determined as 27.4 days. All of the samples with sesame oil showed better growth according to the control, being the stimulative effect of sesame oil higher than that of bitter almond oil.
    <...

  20. Characterization of Bioactive Compounds in Tunisian Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Peel and Juice and Determination of Their Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jabri karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representin...

  1. Differential effects of bitter compounds on the taste transduction channels TRPM5 and IP3 receptor type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Luyten, Tomas; Parys, Jan B; Nilius, Bernd; Bultynck, Geert; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2014-05-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5) is a Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation channel involved in the transduction of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. We previously showed that TRPM5 is a locus for the modulation of taste perception by temperature changes, and by quinine and quinidine, 2 bitter compounds that suppress gustatory responses. Here, we determined whether other bitter compounds known to modulate taste perception also affect TRPM5. We found that nicotine inhibits TRPM5 currents with an effective inhibitory concentration of ~1.3mM at -50 mV. This effect may contribute to the inhibitory effect of nicotine on gustatory responses in therapeutic and experimental settings, where nicotine is often employed at millimolar concentrations. In addition, it implies the existence of a TRPM5-independent pathway for the detection of nicotine bitterness. Nicotine seems to act from the extracellular side of the channel, reducing the maximal whole-cell conductance and inducing an acceleration of channel closure that leads to a negative shift of the activation curve. TRPM5 currents were unaffected by nicotine's metabolite cotinine, the intensive sweetener saccharin or by the bitter xanthines caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. We also tested the effects of bitter compounds on another essential element of the sweet taste transduction pathway, the type 3 IP3 receptor (IP3R3). We found that IP3R3-mediated Ca(2+) flux is slightly enhanced by nicotine, not affected by saccharin, modestly inhibited by caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline, and strongly inhibited by quinine. Our results demonstrate that bitter compounds have differential effects on key elements of the sweet taste transduction pathway, suggesting for heterogeneous mechanisms of bitter-sweet taste interactions.

  2. Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Melissa A; McAllister, John T; Cooper, Robert F; Dubis, Adam M; Patitucci, Teresa N; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Anderson, Jennifer L; Stepien, Kimberly E; Costakos, Deborah M; Connor, Thomas B; Wirostko, William J; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Dubra, Alfredo; Curcio, Christine A; Brilliant, Murray H; Summers, C Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2014-05-20

    Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. Relationship Between Foveal Cone Specialization and Pit Morphology in Albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Melissa A.; McAllister, John T.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Patitucci, Teresa N.; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Costakos, Deborah M.; Connor, Thomas B.; Wirostko, William J.; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Dubra, Alfredo; Curcio, Christine A.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Summers, C. Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. Methods. We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. Results. We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. Conclusions. Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue. PMID:24845642

  4. The Influence of Radiation on Pit Solution Chemistry as it Pertains to the Transition from Metastable to Stable Pitting in Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galuszka-Muga, Barbara; Muga, Luis M.

    2006-01-01

    Previous work relevant to current efforts is summarized. A description of an improved version of a new electrochemical probe, the ArtPit, is given. The distinct feature of the probe for investigating metastable pitting of carbon steels is specified and compared to other approaches. The electrochemical response of the ArtPit under the gamma irradiation and elevated temperature conditions that occur at high level waste (HLW) storage tanks is presented. In particular, the Tafel slope determinations and chemical analyses of the ArtPit confined volume electrolyte are described. Based on results a possible approach for reducing the corrosion rate of HLW tank walls is suggested. Additional statistical analysis of the occurrence of short duration (passivated pits) and long term (stable pitting) electrochemical pulses (current surges) during exposure confirm that radiation enhances the occurrence of both more and smaller sized pits due to increased likelihood of repassivation

  5. Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

  6. Pitting and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saithala, Janardhan R.

    An investigation has been performed to determine the pitting resistance of stainless steels and stress corrosion cracking of super duplex stainless steels in water containing chloride ions from 25 - 170°C. The steels studied are 12% Cr, FV520B, FV566, 304L, Uranus65, 2205, Ferallium Alloy 255, and Zeron 100. All these commercial materials used in very significant industrial applications and suffer from pitting and stress corrosion failures. The design of a new experimental setup using an autoclave enabled potentiodynamic polarisation experiments and slow strain rate tests in dilute environments to be conducted at elevated temperatures. The corrosion potentials were controlled using a three electrode cell with computer controlled potentiostat.The experimental programme to determine pitting potentials was designed to simulate the service conditions experienced in most industrial plants and develop mathematical model equations to help a design engineer in material selection decision. Stress corrosion resistance of recently developed Zeron100 was evaluated in dilute environments to propose a mechanism in chloride solutions at high' temperatures useful for the nuclear and power generation industry. Results have shown the significance of the composition of alloying elements across a wide range of stainless steels and its influence on pitting. Nitrogen and molybdenum added to modern duplex stainless steels was found to be unstable at higher temperatures. The fractographic results obtained using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has given insight in the initiation of pitting in modem duplex and super duplex stainless steels. A mathematical model has been proposed to predict pitting in stainless steels based on the effect of environmental factors (temperature, chloride concentration, and chemical composition). An attempt has been made to identify the mechanism of SCC in Zeron100 super duplex stainless steel.The proposed empirical models have shown good correlation

  7. Reinvestigation of the bitter compounds in carrots (Daucus carota L.) by using a molecular sensory science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiech, Ludger; Uemura, Daisuke; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-11-12

    In order to reinvestigate the key molecules inducing bitter off-taste of carrots ( Daucus carota L.), a sensory-guided fractionation approach was applied to bitter carrot extracts. Besides the previously reported bitter compounds, 6-methoxymellein (1), falcarindiol (2), falcarinol (3), and falcarindiol-3-acetate (4), the following compounds were identified for the first time as bitter compounds in carrots with low bitter recognition thresholds between 8 and 47 micromol/L: vaginatin (5), isovaginatin (6), 2-epilaserine oxide (7), laserine oxide (8), laserine (14), 2-epilaserine (15), 6,8-O-ditigloyl- (9), 6-O-angeloyl-, 8-O-tigloyl- (10), 6-O-tigloyl-, 8-O-angeloyl- (11), and 6-, 8-O-diangeloyl-6 ss,8alpha,11-trihydroxygermacra-1(10) E,4 E-diene (12), as well as 8-O-angeloyl-tovarol (13) and alpha-angeloyloxy-latifolone (16). Among these bitter molecules, compounds 9, 10, 13, and 16 were not previously identified in carrots and compounds 6, 11, and 12 were yet not reported in the literature.

  8. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions. PMID:25650336

  9. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ashraful Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions.

  11. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantiumL.) extract subchronic 90-day safety study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, N S; Stohs, S J; Magar, C C; Kale, A; Sowmya, B

    2017-01-01

    Bitter orange ( Citrus aurantium L.) extracts are widely used in dietary supplements and bitter oranges are used in various juices and food products. p -Synephrine, the primary active constituent, comprises approximately 90% of total protoalkaloids. This study, performed per OECD 408 guidance, examined the 90-day subchronic safety/toxicity of an extract standardized to 50% p -synephrine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day to male and female rats. No adverse effects were observed with respect to any of the observed parameters of clinical signs, functional observations of sensory reactivity, grip strength and motor activity, ophthalmology, body weights, hematology, food consumption, urinalysis, organ weights, as well as gross and microscopic pathology at termination at any of the doses in either sex. Treatment at 1000 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract resulted in non-adverse effects including fully reversible signs of repetitive head burrowing in the bedding material and piloerection for short periods of time in both sexes immediately after administration, which gradually disappeared by treatment day-81. A slight and reversible elevation of BUN and urea levels in male rats, and slight to mild increase in the relative but not absolute heart weights of male and female rats was observed. Based on these results, the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for this bitter orange extract standardized to 50% p -synephrine was 300 mg/kg, while the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) was 1000 mg/kg. The results indicate a high degree of safety for this bitter orange extract.

  12. Comparative investigation of the sweet and bitter orange essential oil (Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Kostadinovic; Marina Stefova; Diana Nikolova

    2005-01-01

    The volatile fraction composition of commercially produced sweet and bitter orange oil from fruit peels was studied using GC-MS. More than fifty components were identified in the oils using their mass spectra and linear retention indices. The monoterpene limonene was the most abundant component even though not in a quantity expected for a fresh orange essential oil. Aldehydes, followed by alcohols and esters, were the main components in the oxygenated fraction. Aldehydes were the major oxy...

  13. Role of GLP-1 in the Hypoglycemic Effects of Wild Bitter Gourd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ni Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the role of GLP-1 in the hypoglycemic activity of wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L., BG. In vitro, the GLP-1 secretion in STC-1, a murine enteroendocrine cell line, was dose dependently stimulated by water extract (WE, its fractions (WEL, >3 kD and WES, <3 kD, and a bitter compounds-rich fraction of BG. These stimulations were partially inhibited by probenecid, a bitter taste receptor inhibitor, and by U-73122, a phospholipase Cβ2 inhibitor. These results suggested that the stimulation might involve, at least in part, certain bitter taste receptors and/or PLCβ2-signaling pathway. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids isolated from BG, 19-nor-cucurbita-5(10,6,8,22-(E,24-pentaen-3β-ol, and 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,24-diene-3β,23ξ-diol (karavilagenine E, showed relative high efficacy in the stimulation. In vivo, mice fed BG diet showed higher insulinogenic index in an oral glucose tolerance test. A single oral dose of WE or WES pretreatment significantly improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance. A single oral dose of WES significantly decreased glucose and increased insulin and GLP-1 in serum after 30 min. This acute hypoglycemic effect of WES was abolished by pretreatment with exendin-9, a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. Our data provide evidence that BG stimulates GLP-1 secretion which contributes, at least in part, to the antidiabetic activity of BG through an incretin effect.

  14. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production

    OpenAIRE

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2012-01-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p 

  15. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  16. Effect of Storage Duration and Atmosphere on the Content and Price of Hop Alpha Bitter Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybka A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of hops is significantly affected by the content of alpha bitter acids. Maintaining it with minimum losses lies within the competence of both the hop grower and processor depending on how they follow the optimum harvest technology, storage conditions, and post-harvest hop processing. That indicator is considerably affected by the hop storage method, i.e. whether the warehouse is air-conditioned or not, as well as the storage duration. The alpha bitter acid content should not be reduced during storage. The objective of this paper is an analysis of the alpha bitter acid content in the Saaz hop variety in a technological sequence of operations starting with drying at the grower and finishing with six-month storing at the processor, with three storage variants: an air-conditioned warehouse, non-conditioned warehouse, and a variant in which the square bale is moved after 60 days from a non-conditioned warehouse into an air-conditioned warehouse. The analysis of samples to identify the alpha bitter acid content was carried out by means of the ASBC Hops-6 and the HPLC EBC 7.7 methods. Practically in all cases the alpha content declines, although if a square bale is placed in an air-conditioned warehouse this decline is the lowest depending on the storage duration. The economic analysis shows a significant profit referring to the price of alpha contained in 1 t of hops stored in an air-conditioned warehouse. At the date of 1/11/2015 this profit was 14 706 CZK, at the date of 4/1/2016 it was 7646 CZK, and at 1/3/2016 the profit was 6587 CZK.

  17. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan domestic and Tibetan chicken populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan; Li, Diyan; Gaur, Uma; Wang, Yan; Wu, Nan; Chen, Binlong; Xu, Zhongxian; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The sense of bitter taste plays a critical role in animals as it can help them to avoid intake of toxic and harmful substances. Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, Tas2r2 and Tas2r7). To better understand the genetic polymorphisms and importance of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in chicken, here, we sequenced Tas2rs of 30 Sichuan domestic chickens and 30 Tibetan chickens. Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including three nonsynonymous mutations (m.359G>C, m.503C>A and m.583A>G) were detected in Tas2r1 (m. is the abbreviation for mutation); three SNPs were detected in Tas2r2, but none of them were missense mutation; eight SNPs were detected in Tas2r7 including six nonsynonymous substitutions (m.178G>A, m.421A>C, m.787C>T, m.832G>T, m.907A>T and m.943G>A). Tajima's D neutral test indicates that there is no population expansion in both populations, and the size of the population is relatively stable. All the three networks indicate that red jungle fowls share haplotypes with domestic chickens. In addition, we found that haplotypes H1 and HE1 were positively associated with high-altitude adaptation, whereas haplotypes H4 and HE4 showed a negative correlation with high-altitude adaptation in Tas2rs. Although, chicken has only three Tas2rs, our results showed that both Sichuan domestic chickens and Tibetan chickens have abundant haplotypes in Tas2rs, especially in Tas2r7, which might help chickens to recognize a wide variety of bitter-tasting compounds.

  18. The impact of bitter taste receptor genetics on culturable bacteria in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, D I; Christensen, J M; Alvarado, R; Sacks, R; Harvey, R J

    2017-03-01

    Extra-oral bitter taste receptors have been associated with innate bacterial defence mechanisms. Genetic variation in T2R38 functionality has been shown to be associated with susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We sought to independently assess the influence of bitter taste receptor genotype on the presence of culturable bacteria in the sinuses. A cross-sectional analysis of patients with CRS undergoing surgery was performed. Middle meatal nasal swabs were sent for microbiological evaluation at the time of the procedure. Mucosal biopsies were taken and sent for bitter taste receptor genotype analysis. Sequencing of 3 polymorphisms in the TAS2R38 gene was performed to identify genotypes as super-tasters (PAV/PAV), non-tasters (AVI/AVI) or heterozygous expression (PAV/AVI). The presence of culturable organisms and common pathogens were compared with bitter taste receptor genotypes. 25 patients (age 52.4 +/- 18.28 years, 51% female) were assessed. Super-tasters comprised 16% of the group, 24% were non-tasters and 48% had heterozygous expression. A cultured pathogen was grown in 48% of patients; 32% gram-positive, 20% gram-negative, 28% grew Staphylococcus aureus and 12% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A non-taster genotype was predictive of colonised pathogens. Tissue eosinophilia (more than 10 HPF) was seen in 48%. Even in a small sample of patients with CRS, non-taster T2R38 genotype appears to predict the presence of culturable bacteria colonising the sinus cavity at the time of surgery for their condition. A genetic link to patients more likely to become infected is likely.

  19. Lineage-Specific Loss of Function of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes in Humans and Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Go, Yasuhiro; Satta, Yoko; Takenaka, Osamu; Takahata, Naoyuki

    2005-01-01

    Since the process of becoming dead genes or pseudogenes (pseudogenization) is irreversible and can occur rather rapidly under certain environmental circumstances, it is one plausible determinant for characterizing species specificity. To test this evolutionary hypothesis, we analyzed the tempo and mode of duplication and pseudogenization of bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes in humans as well as in 12 nonhuman primates. The results show that primates have accumulated more pseudogenes than mice...

  20. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J.; Gupta, Nili; Case, R. Maynard; Thompson, David G.; McLaughlin, John T.

    2009-01-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of “equisweet” (Study A) or “equibitter” (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH2O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH2O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [13C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions. PMID:19535679

  1. Microstructural evolution and pitting resistance of annealed lean duplex stainless steel UNS S32304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ziying; Han Dong; Jiang Yiming; Shi Chong; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The relationship between pitting corrosion resistance and annealing temperature for UNS S32304 was systemically studied. ► The specimens annealed at 1080 °C for 1 h, quenched in water exhibit the best pitting corrosion resistance. ► The relationship between microstructural evolution and pitting resistance of annealed UNS S32304 was discussed in detail. ► The pitting corrosion resistance is consistent with pitting resistance equivalent number of weaker phase for UNS S32304 alloy. - Abstract: The effect of annealing temperature in the range from 1000 to 1200 °C on the pitting corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel UNS S32304 was investigated by the potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature techniques. The microstructural evolution and pit morphologies were studied using a scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the nucleation of metastable pits transformed from austenite phase to ferrite phase with the increasing annealing temperature. As the annealing temperature increased, the pitting corrosion resistance firstly increased and then decreased. The highest pitting corrosion resistance was obtained at 1080 °C with the highest critical pitting temperature value and pitting nucleation resistance. The results could be well explained by the microstructural evolution of ferrite and austenite phases induced by annealing treatment.

  2. Pitting Corrosion Topography Characteristics and Evolution Laws of LC4 Aluminum Alloy in Service Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhiguo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft aluminum alloy is easy to initiate pitting corrosion in the service environment, the pitting corrosion topography characteristics could directly affect the fatigue mechanical property of structure material. In order to obtain the pitting corrosion topography characteristics of LC4 aluminum alloy in the service environment, the accelerated corrosion test was carried out along the accelerated corrosion test environment spectrum which imitated the service environment spectrum, and the corrosion topography characteristic parameters of corrosion pit depth H,corrosion pit surface length L and corrosion pit surface width W were defined respectively. During the corrosion test process,the three parameters of typical corrosion pit were successively measured in different equivalent corrosion years for obtaining the corrosion pit damage size data, then the data were analysed through the statistics method and fractal theory. Further more in order to gain the pit topography characteristics in the same equivalent corrosion year and the topography evolution laws during different equivalent corrosion years were gained. The analysis results indicate that LC4 aluminum alloy corrosion pit topography characteristics in the service environment include the following:firstly, the pit topography characteristic parameters conform to the lognormal distributions in the same equivalent corrosion years; secondly,the pit topography characteristic parameters gradually reflect the fractal feature in accordance with the equivalent corrosion year increment, and the pits tend to be shallow, long and moderate wide topography character.

  3. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  4. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-05

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water).

  5. Functions of human bitter taste receptors depend on N-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichling, Claudia; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik

    2008-08-01

    Human bitter taste receptors of the TAS2R gene family play a crucial role as warning sensors against the ingestion of toxic food compounds. Moreover, the genetically highly polymorphic hTAS2Rs recognize an enormous number of structurally diverse toxic and non-toxic bitter substances, and hence, may substantially influence our individual eating habits. Heterologous expression in mammalian cells is a useful tool to investigate interactions between these receptors and their agonists. However, many bitter taste receptors are poorly expressed at the cell surface of heterologous cells requiring the addition of plasma membrane export promoting epitopes to the native receptor proteins. Currently, nothing is known about amino acid motifs or other receptor-intrinsic features of TAS2Rs affecting plasma membrane association. In the present study, we analyzed the Asn-linked glycosylation of hTAS2Rs at a consensus sequence in the second extracellular loop, which is conserved among all 25 hTAS2Rs. Non-glycosylated receptors exhibit substantially lower cell surface localization and reduced association with the cellular chaperone calnexin. As the auxiliary factors receptor transporting proteins 3 and 4 are able to restore the function of non-glycosylated hTAS2R16 partially, we conclude that glycosylation is important for receptor maturation but not for its function per se.

  6. Birds Generally Carry a Small Repertoire of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-09-04

    As they belong to the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates, birds have long been believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste is fundamental in birds to recognize dietary toxins (which are typically bitter) in potential food sources. To characterize the evolution of avian bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) and to test whether dietary toxins have shaped the repertoire size of avian Tas2rs, we examined 48 genomes representing all but 3 avian orders. The total number of Tas2r genes was found to range from 1 in the domestic pigeon to 12 in the bar-tailed trogon, with an average of 4, which suggested that a much smaller Tas2r gene repertoire exists in birds than in other vertebrates. Furthermore, we uncovered a positive correlation between the number of putatively functional Tas2rs and the abundance of potential toxins in avian diets. Because plant products contain more toxins than animal tissues and insects release poisonous defensive secretions, we hypothesized that herbivorous and insectivorous birds may demand more functional Tas2rs than carnivorous birds feeding on noninsect animals. Our analyses appear to support this hypothesis and highlight the critical role of taste perception in birds. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Comparative investigation of the sweet and bitter orange essential oil (Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kostadinovic

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile fraction composition of commercially produced sweet and bitter orange oil from fruit peels was studied using GC-MS. More than fifty components were identified in the oils using their mass spectra and linear retention indices. The monoterpene limonene was the most abundant component even though not in a quantity expected for a fresh orange essential oil. Aldehydes, followed by alcohols and esters, were the main components in the oxygenated fraction. Aldehydes were the major oxygenated components in the sweet orange oil, whereas alcohols and esters were present in higher amounts in the bitter orange oil. Among them, nonanal, decanal and linalool are the most important components for the flavour of sweet orange oil and carvon is the most important ketone for the flavour of bitter orange oil in combination with the other components. The amount of carvon gives a good indication about the freshness of the oil and the quantities of α-pinene and β-pinene, sabinene and myrcene give an indication about the natural or artificially changed composition of the essential oils.

  8. Time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar (Eugenia uniflora L.) with different sweeteners: Sweetness and bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; de Lima Dutra, Mariana Borges; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-01-01

    Pitanga has been used by the Brazilian food industry mainly for juice production. This fruit shows good economic potential due to its high concentration of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the present work was to characterize the time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar sweetened with different sweeteners to verify differences on the perception of sweet and bitter tastes. The sweeteners used to replace sucrose were sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. Fifteen assessors were selected according to their discriminating capability and trained to participate in the time-intensity analysis for sweetness and bitterness. The samples prepared with sucralose and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend presented a similar sweetness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose, and the samples prepared with sucralose and aspartame presented a similar bitterness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose. Thus, sucralose would be the most suitable sweetener to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tocci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

  10. An explanation for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during ripening on the tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susamci, E.; Romero, C.; Tuncay, O.; Brenes, M.

    2017-01-01

    Harvested olives require further processing to make them edible due to their content in the bitter substance oleuropein. However, some olives of the Erkence cultivar naturally de-bitter on the tree giving rise to the so-called Hurma olives. In this study, the evolution of the chemical characteristics of Erkence and Hurma olives harvested from the northeast and southwest area of trees located in the Karaburun Peninsula was assayed. It was confirmed that the oleuropein content in Hurma olives was much lower (< 2000 mg/kg fresh weight) than Erkence, which reached 35.000 mg/kg fresh weight at the beginning of the season. In addition, no free or polymerized anthocyanins were found in Hurma fruit in contrast to ripened Erkence fruit. The concentration of glucose was also lower in Hurma than Erkence olives. These results suggest that the enzymatic oxidation of oleuropein could be responsible for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during their ripening on the tree. [es

  11. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition of 2 and 4 % of glucose, respectively. The dark tuna meat was inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB and fermented at 10 °C for 30 days. The fermentation process was monitored through bacteriological and chemical analyses, when an increase of acidity and the corresponding decrease of pH were observed due to the prevalence of LAB. Sensorial analysis, using a test of multiple comparison, was carried out with pastes of fermented dark tuna meat and presented a significant difference when compared to the paste control, indicating the reduction of bitter taste.

  12. The safety of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Preuss, Harry G; Shara, Mohd

    2011-10-01

    Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its principal protoalkaloidal constituent p-synephrine are widely used in weight loss and weight management as well as in sports performance products. However, questions are raised frequently regarding the safety of these ingredients. The potential inherent dangers associated with the use of products containing C. aurantium extract are frequently touted, while conversely, millions of doses of dietary supplements have been consumed by possibly millions of individuals in recent years. Furthermore, millions of people consume on a daily basis various juices and food products from Citrus species that contain p-synephrine. This review summarizes current information regarding the safety of C. aurantium (bitter orange) extract and p-synephrine based on human, animal and in vitro assessments as well as receptor binding and mechanistic studies. The data indicate that based on current knowledge, the use of bitter orange extract and p-synephrine appears to be exceedingly safe with no serious adverse effects being directly attributable to these ingredients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on glycoconjugate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, B; Kumar, G Suresh; Salimath, P V

    2009-01-01

    Changes in glycoconjugate metabolism during the development of diabetic complications and their modulation by feeding bitter gourd and spent turmeric as fiber-rich source. This was studied by measuring the contents of total sugar, uronic acid, amino sugar, and sulfate in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Total sugar content decreased in liver, spleen, and brain, while an increase was observed in heart and lungs. Uronic acid content in liver, spleen, and brain decreased, and marginal increase was observed in testis. Amino sugar content decreased in liver, spleen, lungs and heart during diabetes, and augmentation was observed to different extents. Decrease in sulfation of glycoconjugates was observed in liver, spleen, lungs and heart during diabetes and was significantly ameliorated by bitter gourd and spent turmeric, except brain. Protein content decreased in liver, while an increase was observed in brain. The studies clearly showed alteration in glycoconjugate metabolism during diabetes and amelioration to different extents by feeding bitter gourd and spent turmeric. Improvement is due to slow release of glucose by fiber in the gastrointestinal track and short-chain fatty acid production from fiber by colon microbes.

  14. A fundamental understanding of the electrochemical noise related to pitting corrosion of carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufeng

    The pitting behavior of carbon steel in chloride-containing solutions was studied by the electrochemical noise technique. The semiconducting nature of the passive film formed on carbon steel was revealed as well. The initiation of metastable pits is generally indicated by a typical current and potential transient with the shape of a quick current rise and potential drop followed by a slow recovery. The potential fluctuations mainly come from the response of the electrode capacitance to pit growth charge. Only the current transients directly reflect the metastable pitting process. The potential dependence of the pit initiation rate is well illustrated by the point defect model, which assumes that pitting initiation is due to the anion-catalyzed cation vacancy condensation at the film/metal interface. Pit growth kinetics are controlled by the ohmic potential drop across the cover over the pits. The repassivation time of metastable pits is affected by the potential drop across the pit cover. A pit stabilization criterion of the ratio of peak pit current to pit radius indicates that the critical condition to maintain the stable pit growth must exceed 2 x 10-2 A cm-1 to avoid repassivation. The main role of chloride ions in pitting is to increase the chance of the breakdown of a passive film, rather than to inhibit surface repassivation. The initiation of a metastable pit will have a certain influence on subsequent pitting events in the case of high pitting activity. When the pitting activity decreases, the metastable pitting events will follow the Poisson distribution. Spectral analysis of noise data indicates that any transient having a sudden birth or a sudden death generates f-2 noise, while that without sudden change shows f -4 behavior. The roll-off frequency reflects the repassivation or growth rate of metastable pits. The noise resistance coincides with the polarization resistance only in passivity or general corrosion. For pitting, the noise resistance cannot

  15. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yvonne

    emptying methods include use of vacuum tankers, manual emptying and the newer use of gulpers and nibblers. ... extra vacuum pipe to be added, the price goes up by 3 to. 10 US dollars (Murungi and Van Dijk, 2014). ..... of the ideal portable pit-emptying machine. Waterlines 32:187-199. Still DA, Salisbury RH, Foxon KM, ...

  16. A critical analysis of physiochemical properties influencing pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Inadequate information on physiochemical properties of faecal sludge leads to inappropriate design of pit emptying devices and poor faecal sludge disposal contributing to environmental pollution. ... A sample of 300 g was sucked from each depth using a manual sampling tool and emptied into a plastic container.

  17. Pitting corrosion protection of low nickel stainless steel by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pitting corrosion protection of low nickel stainless steel by electropolymerized conducting polymer coating in 0·5 M NaCl solution. T DHANABAL, G AMIRTHAGANESAN. ∗ and J RAVICHANDRAN. Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science,.

  18. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and per...

  19. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum areas of Kampala City, Uganda. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... methods such as open defecation and emptying into storm drainages are employed which consequently contribute to environmental and health-related challenges.

  20. Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available that the pitting occurred during an idle period (a drought) due to oxygen ingress and failure to maintain a sufficient excess of the oxygen scavenger, sodium sulphite. The transverse orientation of the cracks and other factors suggest that the fatigue cracking...

  1. Laboratory protocols for testing the efficacy of commercial pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    additive products. Protocols were developed and tested on a range of different commercial products sold for their ability to control the rate of accumulation of pit latrine contents. The effect of commercial additives on mass loss from VIP sludge in. 300 g honey jars was compared to mass loss from similar units subjected to no ...

  2. Pitting corrosion of low-Cr austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Albany Research Center has investigated the pitting corrosion resistance of experimental low-Cr stainless steels and several commercial stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous and atmospheric environments. Previous research had shown the experimental alloys to be as corrosion resistant as commercial stainless steels in chloride-free acid environments. The alloys studied were Fe-8Cr-16Ni-5.5Si-1Cu-(0-1)Mo, 304 SS, and 316 SS. These alloys were examined by immersion and electrochemical tests in 3.5 wt. pct. NaCl and 6 wt.pct.FeCl 3 . Results of these tests showed that the addition of one weight percent Mo improved the pitting resistance of the low-Cr alloy and that the Mo-containing experimental alloy was as resistant to pitting as the commercial alloys. Electrochemical tests did, however, show the experimental alloys to be slightly less resistant to pitting than the commercial alloys. Because of these results, the low-Cr alloy with one weight percent Mo and 304 SS were exposed for one year to a marine atmospheric environment on the coast of Oregon. The marine atmospheric corrosion resistance of the low-Cr alloy was found to be comparable to that for type 304 stainless steel

  3. Metallography of pitted aluminum-clad, depleted uranium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.Z.; Howell, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The storage of aluminum-clad fuel and target materials in the L-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site for more than 5 years has resulted in extensive pitting corrosion of these materials. In many cases the pitting corrosion of the aluminum clad has penetrated in the uranium metal core, resulting in the release of plutonium, uranium, cesium-137, and other fission product activity to the basin water. In an effort to characterize the extent of corrosion of the Mark 31A target slugs, two unirradiated slug assemblies were removed from basin storage and sent to the Savannah River Technology Center for evaluation. This paper presents the results of the metallography and photographic documentation of this evaluation. The metallography confirmed that pitting depths varied, with the deepest pit found to be about 0.12 inches (3.05 nun). Less than 2% of the aluminum cladding was found to be breached resulting in less than 5% of the uranium surface area being affected by corrosion. The overall integrity of the target slug remained intact

  4. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  5. Dental Pit and Fissure Sealants: Implications for School Health Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack-Brown, K. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    To promote good personal hygiene practices in students, school health personnel must be informed about dental pit and fissure sealants and related programs. Adoption and maintenance of such programs may depend on the success of school health personnel in educating administrators and policymakers. (SM)

  6. Effect of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit viper) venom on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro study was conducted by mixing small amounts of green pit viper venom with blood and observing changes. At a concentration of 10 mg crude venom, red blood cells (RBC) osmotic fragility slightly increased. RBC morphology changed to spherical shape which was compatible with what was observed in scanning ...

  7. A critical analysis of physiochemical properties influencing pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    also done after each day of field sampling. During sampling maximum care was done to avoid spillage and contact of faecal sludge with skin. Furthermore, all waste samples onsite were disposed of according to the standards for faeces sample disposal and where possible pits were dug for purposes of burying the wastes.

  8. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  9. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  10. Atomic force microscopy of torus-bearing pit membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland R. Dute; Thomas Elder

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the...

  11. Optimal grade control sampling practice in open-pit mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2017-01-01

    Misclassification of ore grades results in lost revenues, and the need for representative sampling procedures in open pit mining is increasingly important in all mining industries. This study evaluated possible improvements in sampling representativity with the use of Reverse Circulation (RC) drill...

  12. Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (uPIT_SF), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (µPIT_SF) is a high-precision impulse bit electromagnetic plasma micro-thruster. The µPIT prototype is a...

  13. Demonstration of In-Situ Stabilization of Buried Waste at Pit G-11 at the Brookhaven National laboratory Glass Pits Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Gilbert, J.; Heiser, J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989 BNL was added to the EPAs National Priorities List. The site is divided into seven operable units (OU). OU-I includes the former landfill area. The field task site is noted as the AOC 2C Glass Holes location. Beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, BNL disposed of laboratory waste (glassware, chemicals and animal carcasses) in numerous shallow pits. The drivers for remediating the pits are; historical records that indicate hazardous materials may have been disposed of in the pits; ground water contamination down gradient of the pits; a test excavation of one of the glass holes that unearthed laboratory glass bottles with unidentified liquids still contained; and the fact that BNL rests atop an EPA designated sole-source aquifer. The specific site chosen for this demonstration was pit G-11. The requirements that lead to choosing this pit were; a well characterized pit and a relatively isolated pit where our construction operations would not impact on adjacent pits. The glass holes area, including pit G-11, was comprehensively surveyed using a suite of geophysical techniques (e.g., EM-31, EM-61, GPR). Prior to stabilizing the waste form a subsurface barrier was constructed to contain the entire waste pit. The pit contents were then stabilized using a cement grout applied via jet grouting. The stabilization was performed to make removal of the waste from the pit easier and safer in terms of worker exposure. The grouting process would mix and masticate the waste and grout and form a single monolithic waste form. This large monolith would then be subdivided into smaller 4 foot by 4 foot by 10-12 foot block using a demolition grout. The smaller blocks would then be easily removed from the site and disposed of in a CERCLA waste site

  14. Individual Differences Among Children in Sucrose Detection Thresholds: Relationship With Age, Gender, and Bitter Taste Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paule Valery; Reed, Danielle R; Mennella, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    Little research has focused on whether there are individual differences among children in their sensitivity to sweet taste and, if so, the biological correlates of such differences. Our goal was to understand how variations in children's sucrose detection thresholds relate to their age and gender, taste genotype, body composition, and dietary intake of added sugars. Sucrose detection thresholds in 7- to 14-year-old children were tested individually using a validated, two-alternative, forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method. Five genetic variants of taste genes were assayed: TAS1R3 and GNAT3 (sweet genes; one variant each) and the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38 (three variants). All children were measured for body weight and height. A subset of these children were measured for the percentage of body fat and waist circumference and provided added sugar intake by 24-hour dietary recall. Sucrose thresholds ranged from 0.23 to 153.8 mM with most of the children completing the threshold task (216/235; 92%). Some children were biologically related (i.e., siblings), and for the genetic analysis, one sibling from each family was studied. Variants in the bitter but not the sweet genes were related to sucrose threshold and sugar intake; children with two bitter-sensitive alleles could detect sucrose at lower concentrations (F(2,165) = 4.55, p = .01; rs1726866) and reported eating more added sugar (% kcal; F(2, 62) = 3.64, p = .03) than did children with less sensitive alleles. Age, gender, and indices of obesity also were related to child-to-child differences in sucrose threshold; girls were more sensitive than boys (t(214) = 2.0, p = .05), older children were more sensitive than younger children (r(214) = -.16, p = .02), and fatter (r(84) = -.22, p = .05) or more centrally obese children (r(84) = -.26, p = .02) were more sensitive relative to others. Inborn differences in bitter sensitivity may affect childhood dietary sugar intake with long-term health consequences

  15. Bitter gourd reduces elevated fasting plasma glucose levels in an intervention study among prediabetics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawinkel, Michael B; Ludwig, Christine; Swai, Mark E; Yang, Ray-Yu; Chun, Kwok Pan; Habicht, Sandra D

    2018-04-24

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus have become major health issues even in non-industrialized countries. As access to clinical management is often poor, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. For bitter gourd, Momordica charantia L., antidiabetic properties have been claimed. The main objective of the intervention study was to assess antidiabetic effects of daily bitter gourd consumption of 2.5g powder over the course of eight weeks among prediabetic individuals. In a randomized placebo-controlled single blinded clinical trial, 52 individuals with prediabetes were studied after consuming a bitter gourd or a cucumber juice. For reducing the impact of between subject differences in the study population, a crossover design was chosen with eight weeks for each study period and four weeks washout in between. Fasting plasma glucose was chosen as the primary outcome variable. Comparing the different exposures, the CROS analysis (t=-2.23, p=0.031, r=0.326) revealed a significant difference in the change of FPG of 0.31mmol/L (5.6mg/dL) with a trend (R 2 =0,42387). The number of 44 finally complete data sets achieved a power of 0.82, with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d 0.62). The effect was also proven by a general linear mixed model (estimate 0.31; SE: 0.12; p: 0.01; 95%CI: 0.08; 0.54). Not all participants responded, but the higher the initial blood glucose levels were, the more pronounced the effect was. No serious adverse effects were observed. Bitter gourd supplementation appeared to have benefits in lowering elevated fasting plasma glucose in prediabetes. The findings should be replicated in other intervention studies to further investigate glucose lowering effects and the opportunity to use bitter gourd for dietary self-management, especially in places where access to professional medical care is not easily assured. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of water chemistry on the pitting susceptibility of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.T.; Sindelar, R.L.; Lam, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels are being stored in water in the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the reactor disassembly (cooling) basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Experience shows that fuels stored in water are subject to rapid pitting corrosion if the water quality is poor. Upgrade projects and actions, including those to improve water quality, were recently undertaken to upgrade the disassembly basins for extended storage. A technical strategy was developed for continued basin storage of aluminum-clad fuel assemblies. The strategy includes development and implementation of basin technical standards for water quality to minimize attack due to pitting corrosion over a desired storage period. In the absence of localized corrosion, only slow, general corrosion of the cladding would be expected. A laboratory corrosion program is being performed to provide the bases for technical standards by identifying the region of aggressive water qualities where existing oxide films would tend to break down and pits would initiate and remain active. Initial results from corrosion potential and cyclic polarization testing of aluminum alloys in various water chemistries have shown that low conductivity water (< 50 μS/cm) should not be aggressive to cause self-pitting corrosion. Initial results from tests of 8001 and 5052 aluminum and aluminium-10% uranium alloy indicate that a strong galvanic couple should not exist between the aluminum cladding materials and the aluminum-uranium fuel. Additional laboratory testing will include immersion testing to allow characterization of the growth rate of active pits to benchmark a kinetic model. This model will form the basis for a water quality technical standard and enable prediction of the life of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels in basin storage

  17. Standardized emissions inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jose I; Camacho, Dumar A; Huertas, Maria E

    2011-08-01

    There is still interest in a unified methodology to quantify the mass of particulate material emitted into the atmosphere by activities inherent to open-pit mining. For the case of total suspended particles (TSP), the current practice is to estimate such emissions by developing inventories based on the emission factors recommended by the USEPA for this purpose. However, there are disputes over the specific emission factors that must be used for each activity and the applicability of such factors to cases quite different to the ones under which they were obtained. There is also a need for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) emission inventories and for metrics to evaluate the emission control programs implemented by open-pit mines. To address these needs, work was carried out to establish a standardized TSP and PM(10) emission inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas. The proposed methodology was applied to seven of the eight mining companies operating in the northern part of Colombia, home to the one of the world's largest open-pit coal mining operations (∼70 Mt/year). The results obtained show that transport on unpaved roads is the mining activity that generates most of the emissions and that the total emissions may be reduced up to 72% by spraying water on the unpaved roads. Performance metrics were defined for the emission control programs implemented by mining companies. It was found that coal open-pit mines are emitting 0.726 and 0.180 kg of TSP and PM(10), respectively, per ton of coal produced. It was also found that these mines are using on average 1.148 m(2) of land per ton of coal produced per year.

  18. Evaluation of water chemistry on the pitting susceptibility of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.T.; Sindelar, R.L.; Lam, P.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels are being stored in water in the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the reactor disassembly (cooling) basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Experience shows that fuels stored in water are subject to rapid pitting corrosion if the water quality is poor. Upgrade projects and actions, including those to improve water quality, were recently undertaken to upgrade the disassembly basins for extended storage. A technical strategy was developed for continued basin storage of aluminum-clad fuel assemblies. The strategy includes development and implementation of basin technical standards for water quality to minimize attack due to pitting corrosion over a desired storage period. In the absence of localized corrosion, only slow, general corrosion of the cladding would be expected. A laboratory corrosion program is being performed to provide the bases for technical standards by identifying the region of aggressive water qualities where existing oxide films would tend to break down and pits would initiate and remain active. Initial results from corrosion potential and cyclic polarization testing of aluminum alloys in various water chemistries have shown that low conductivity water (< 50 {micro}S/cm) should not be aggressive to cause self-pitting corrosion. Initial results from tests of 8001 and 5052 aluminum and aluminium-10% uranium alloy indicate that a strong galvanic couple should not exist between the aluminum cladding materials and the aluminum-uranium fuel. Additional laboratory testing will include immersion testing to allow characterization of the growth rate of active pits to benchmark a kinetic model. This model will form the basis for a water quality technical standard and enable prediction of the life of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels in basin storage.

  19. Analysis of Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.

    2011-01-01

    To synchronize clocks between spacecraft in proximity, the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol has been proposed. PITS is based on the NTP Interleaved On-Wire Protocol and is capable of being adapted and integrated into CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol with minimal modifications. In this work, we will discuss the correctness and liveness of PITS. Further, we analyze and evaluate the performance of time synchronization latency with various channel error rates in different PITS operational modes.

  20. Studies on soil and water characteristics of Burrow pits for possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on soil and water characteristics of Burrow pits for possible conversion into fish ponds in Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... Soil and water parameters were investigated in 34 burrow pits in Egiland, Rivers State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The pits surface areas and depths ranged from 30,000 to 40,000 m2 and 1.00 to ...

  1. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... trials nor field trials provided any evidence that the use of pit additives has any beneficial effect on pit contents. .... diagram showing how measurements were taken using the infrared laser meter (Bakare, 2014). Laser Tape Measure. Pedestal Top. Wall Support to the pit. Cylindrical rings / concrete walls. P1.

  2. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.... Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. OMB...

  3. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY... Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. Type of Review...

  4. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  5. The convection stack - a device for ridding pit toilets of bad odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Alan Wagar

    1962-01-01

    One of the common problems on outdoor recreation areas is that pit toilets smell bad. Flush plumbing is one answer to the problem. But pit toilets are needed in many places where modern sewage systems are economically or physically impractical. To reduce the smell of the pit toilet, one simple, safe, and inexpensive device that can be used is the convection stack....

  6. Effect of PIT tags on the survival and recruitment of Great Tits Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Bouwman, Karen M.; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the use of subcutaneous passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in nestling and adult Great Tits Parus major. We investigated whether subcutaneous PIT tags affected fledging success, winter condition, survival and/or recruitment. We found no negative effects of PIT tags on any of these

  7. [Comparative analysis of ergogenic efficacy of energy drinks components (caffeine and bitter orange extract) in combination with alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuchin, A M; Iuvs, G G

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of ergogenic effects of caffeine and bitter orange exract combined with alcohol is presented in the article. Investigations were performed on 3 groups (8 animals in each group) of male Wistar rats aged 4 months. Animals in group 1 were treated orally for 7 days, the mixture comprising caffeine and alcohol (0.6 g of caffeine, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 4.28 mg caffeine per kg of body weight. Animals in group 2 received a mixture containing bitter orange extract and alcohol (1 g bitter orange extract, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 0.43 mg of synephrine per kg body weight. Animals in the control group received the same volume (7.1 ml/kg) 7.2% aqueous solution of ethanol. Group of animals consumed caffeine in mixture with alcohol and the control group exhibited a significant weight gain, while the body weight of animals treated with the extract of bitter orange didn't significantly change. Using the methodology of the open field the effects of caffeine and bitter orange extract in combination with alcohol on the ratio of the active components of the orienting-exploratory behavior and passive-defensive behavior have been determined. Administration of mixture with caffeine increased locomotory activity by 164%, administration of bitter orange extract didn't affect this performance. Introduction of caffeine containing mixture significantly reduced the level of situational anxiety, which was manifested in the reduction of time spent by the animal in the center of the arena. The effects of ergogenic components on the performance of static and dynamic muscle endurance have been investigated. Single administration of the mixture containing caffeine, after 30 min caused a significant increase in performance and, consequently, endurance of glycolytic muscle fibers measured using the "inverted grid" test. Animals from this group produced 186% more work compared with control animals. Acute

  8. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal

  9. New insight into the pit-to-crack transition from finite element analysis of the stress and strain distribution around a corrosion pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.; Wright, L.; Crocker, L.

    2010-01-01

    A finite element (FE) analysis has been undertaken to evaluate the stress and strain distribution associated with a single corrosion pit in a cylindrical steel specimen stressed remotely in tension. A key observation was the localisation of plastic strain to the pit walls (just below the surface of the specimen). Simulation of a growing pit in a static stress field indicated corresponding plastic strain rates that were commensurate with values associated with stress corrosion cracking. This observation introduces a wholly new concept in understanding of the evolution of stress corrosion cracks from pits and correlates with recent X-ray tomography measurements.

  10. A qNMR approach for bitterness phenotyping and QTL identification in an F1 apricot progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellati, Claudia; Paetz, Christian; Dondini, Luca; Tartarini, Stefano; Bassi, Daniele; Schneider, Bernd; Masia, Andrea

    2012-06-30

    In apricot the bitter flavor of seeds is determined by the amount of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glucoside whose cleavage by endogenous enzymes, upon seed crushing, releases toxic hydrogen cyanide. The presence of such a poisonous compound is an obstacle to the use and commercialization of apricot seeds for human or animal nutrition. To investigate the genetic loci involved in the determination of the bitter phenotype a combined genetic and biochemical approach was used, involving a candidate gene analysis and a fine phenotyping via quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance, on an F1 apricot progeny. Seven functional markers were developed and positioned on the genetic maps of the parental lines Lito and BO81604311 and seven putative QTLs for the bitterness level were determined. In conclusion, this analysis has revealed some loci involved in the shaping of the bitterness degree; has proven the complexity of the bitter trait in apricot, reporting an high variance of the QTLs found over the years; has showed the critical importance of the phenotyping step, whose precision and accuracy is a pre-requisite when studying such a multifactorial character. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of the effects of the casein derived bitter tastant on the melanophores in milieu with the melatonin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubashshir, Md; Ahmed, Fraz; Ovais, Mohd

    2011-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the casein derived bitter tastant Cyclo (Leu-Trp) [CLT] has an affinity or not for the particular receptors of the pineal hormone, melatonin, on the melanophores of a major carp Labeo rohita (Ham.). The bitter tastant CLT, in the dose range of 3.34×10(-16) M to 3.34×10(-4) M, has induced an aggregatory effect but not in a dose dependent manner. Binding of CLT with the receptors may vary at different concentrations. Denervation of the melanophores has shown a complete inhibition of the CLT mediated aggregation. Prazosin has partially inhibited the aggregatory effect of CLT. Moreover, the bitter tastant's response is mediated through the α2 adrenoceptors only at particular dose ranges. The MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole and the MT2 specific antagonist K185 have perfectly blocked the aggregatory effects of CLT. We have found that the CLT mediated aggregatory effect is dependent upon the release of neurotransmitters and the two subtypes of melatonin (MT) receptors (MT1 and MT2) possess a perfect affinity towards the bitter tastant CLT. Our study demands a need to further make a clinical research on the effects of bitter tastants on the physiology of the biological rhythm maintaining hormone melatonin.

  12. A 60day double-blind, placebo-controlled safety study involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaats, Gilbert R; Miller, Howard; Preuss, Harry G; Stohs, Sidney J

    2013-05-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in dietary supplements for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Bitter orange extract is commonly used in combination with multiple herbal ingredients. Most clinical studies conducted on bitter orange extract alone have involved single doses. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of bitter orange extract (approximately 49mg p-synephrine) alone or in combination with naringin and hesperidin twice daily given to 25 healthy subjects per group for 60days in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled protocol. No significant changes occurred in systolic or diastolic blood pressures, blood chemistries or blood cell counts in control or p-synephrine treated groups. Small, clinically insignificant differences in heart rates were observed between the p-synephrine plus naringin and hesperidin group and the p-synephrine alone as well as the placebo group. No adverse effects were reported in the three groups. Bitter orange extract and p-synephrine appear to be without adverse effects at a dose of up to 98mg daily for 60days based on the parameters measured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Host-guest kinetic interactions between HP-β-cyclodextrin and drugs for prediction of bitter taste masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Wu, Fei; Singh, Vikramjeet; Guo, Tao; Ren, Xiaohong; Yin, Xianzhen; Shao, Qun; York, Peter; Patterson, Laurence H; Zhang, Jiwen

    2017-06-05

    Cyclodextrins (CD) are widely used bitter taste masking agents, for which the binding equilibrium constant (K) for the drug-CD complex is a conventional parameter for quantitating the taste masking effects. However, some exceptions have been reported to the expected relationship between K and bitterness reduction and the relationship between kinetic parameters of a drug-CD interaction, including association rate constant (K a ) and disassociation rate constant (K d ), and taste masking remains unexplored. In this study, based upon a database of kinetic parameters of drugs-HP-β-CD generated by Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging for 485 drugs, the host-guest kinetic interactions between drugs and HP-β-CD for prediction of taste masking effects have been investigated. The taste masking effects of HP-β-CD for 13 bitter drugs were quantitatively determined using an electronic gustatory system (α-Astree e-Tongue). Statistical software was used to establish a model based on Euclidean distance measurements, K a and K d of the bitter drugs/HP-β-CD-complexes (R 2 =0.96 and Pkinetics of drug-CD interactions and taste masking was established and providing a new strategy for predicting the cyclodextrin mediated bitter taste masking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of a paper-disk approach to facilitate the sensory evaluation of bitterness in dairy protein hydrolysates from a newly developed food-grade fractionation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Niamh M; O'Riordan, Dolores; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Cohen, Joshua L; Heymann, Hildegarde; Barile, Daniela; Dallas, David C

    2017-06-01

    Casein-hydrolysates (NaCaH) are desirable functional ingredients, but their bitterness impedes usage in foods. This study sought to validate a paper-disk approach to help evaluate bitterness in NaCaHs and to develop a food-grade approach to separate a NaCaH into distinct fractions, which could be evaluated by a sensory panel. Membrane filtration generated sensory evaluation. Bitterness differences observed in the membrane fractions using this sensory evaluation approach reflected those observed for the same fractions presented as a liquid. The flash-chromatography fractions increased in bitterness with an increase in hydrophobicity, except for the 50% EtOH fraction which had little bitterness. Amino acid analysis of the fractions showed enrichment of different essential amino acids in both the bitter and less bitter fractions. The developed food-grade fractionation system, allowed for a simple and reasonably scaled approach to separating a NaCaH, into physicochemically different fractions that could be evaluated by a sensory panel. The method of sensory evaluation used in this study, in which NaCaH samples are impregnated into paper-disks, provided potential solutions for issues such as sample insolubility and limited quantities of sample. As the impregnated paper-disk samples were dehydrated, their long storage life could also be suitable for sensory evaluations distributed by mail for large consumer studies. The research, in this study, allowed for a greater understanding of the physicochemical basis for bitterness in this NaCaH. As some essential amino acids were enriched in the less bitter fractions, selective removal of bitter fractions could allow for the incorporation of the less bitter NaCaH fractions into food products for added nutritional value, without negatively impacting sensory properties. There is potential for this approach to be applied to other food ingredients with undesirable tastes, such as polyphenols.

  15. Formation of primary pit connection during conchocelis phase of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shual, Li; Jiang, Ming; Duan, Delin

    2006-09-01

    The formation of pit connection during conchocelis phase of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda was observed and examined with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and epifluorence microscope. It is indicated that the pit connection was formed in late stage of conchocelis phase and the early stages of conchosporangial cell development, and disappeared in bispore stage. The pit connection contained a thin membrane layer at outer pit plug. Stained with 4', 6'-diamidino-2-phenylidole dihydrochloride hydrate (DAPI), transferring of DNA or RNA between adjacent cells were observed in late stage of conchocelis development, it was deduced that pit connection might serve as a channel for signal transduction and genetic substance transportation in conchocelis phase.

  16. Water and chemical budgets of gravel pit lakes : Case studies of fluvial gravel pit lakes along the Meuse River (The Netherlands) and coastal gravel pit lakes along the Adriatic Sea (Ravenna, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel pit lakes form when gravel is excavated from below the water table of a phreatic or shallow confined aquifer. Typically many of these lakes are concentrated along naturally occurring sedimentary gravel deposits in areas where gravel is needed for construction. Most gravel pit lakes are

  17. The influence of tungsten on the pitting of aluminum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.A.; Fritz, T.L.; Davis, G.D.; Moshier, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the alloying additions responsible for the corrosion resistance of stainless steels can also be used to enhance the passivity of aluminum, provided that these elements remain in solid solution in the alloy. Passivity enhancing elements such as Cr, Mo, Ta, Zr, and W typically exhibit very low solubility limits in aluminum, below 1 atomic percent, and at these concentrations exert little influence on corrosion behavior. However, these solubility limits can be increased with a concomitant enhancement in corrosion performance if the alloys are produced using a rapid solidification process. One such process is co-sputter deposition of two metals, such as Al and W, simultaneously to form a binary alloy of W in solid solution with Al. Co-sputter deposition is routinely used to produce compound semiconductor films. The authors report on shifts in pitting potentials and on the effect of a transition element (W) on pitting resistance of Al

  18. Integrating Safeguards into the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    In September 2000, the United States and the Russian Federation entered into an agreement which stipulates each country will irreversibly transform 34 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium into material which could not be used for weapon purposes. Supporting the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to dispose of excess nuclear materials, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) is being designed and constructed to disassemble the weapon ''pits'' and convert the nuclear material to an oxide form for fabrication into reactor fuel at the separate Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility. The PDCF design incorporates automation to the maximum extent possible to facilitate material safeguards, reduce worker dose, and improve processing efficiency. This includes provisions for automated guided vehicle movements for shipping containers, material transport via automated conveyor between processes, remote process control monitoring, and automated Nondestructive Assay product systems

  19. Geologic report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    A preliminary geologic site characterization study was conducted at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site, which is part of the Weldon Spring Site, in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Raffinate Pits Site is under the custody of the Department of Energy (DOE). Surrounding properties, including the Weldon Spring chemical plant, are under the control of the Department of the Army. The study determined the following parameters: site stratigraphy, lithology and general conditions of each stratigraphic unit, and groundwater characteristics and their relation to the geology. These parameters were used to evaluate the potential of the site to adequately store low-level radioactive wastes. The site investigation included trenching, geophysical surveying, borehole drilling and sampling, and installing observation wells and piezometers to monitor groundwater and pore pressures

  20. Surface aspects of pitting and stress corrosion cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhan, J. S., Jr.; Hehemann, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The pitting and stress corrosion cracking of a stable austenitic stainless steel in aqueous chloride environments were investigated using a secondary ion mass spectrometer as the primary experimental technique. The surface concentration of hydrogen, oxygen, the hydroxide, and chloride ion, magnesium or sodium, chromium and nickel were measured as a function of potential in both aqueous sodium chloride and magnesium chloride environments at room temperature and boiling temperatures. It was found that, under anodic conditions, a sharp increase in the chloride concentration was observed to occur for all environmental conditions. The increase may be associated with the formation of an iron chloride complex. Higher localized chloride concentrations at pits and cracks were also detected with an electron microprobe.

  1. Development of pits and cones on ion bombarded copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanovic, L.A.; Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Whitton, I.L.; Williams, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of pits and cones on Ar ion bombarded copper has been studied. Carefully polished surfaces of large grained 99.999% pure copper crystals have been bombarded at normal incidence with 40 keV argon ions. The cone formation has been investigated for annealed and non-annealed crystals at room temperature and at 30 K and in the case of monocrystal and polycrystal samples. Although in the most other studies the presence of impurities is as a necessary condition for generation of cones and pits the obtained experimental results show that under certain conditions these features are formed on clean surfaces. It is shown that the dominant parameter in the production of cones on copper is the crystal orientation [ru

  2. A Bayesian approach to modeling and predicting pitting flaws in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.-X.; Mao, D.; Pandey, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generators in nuclear power plants have experienced varying degrees of under-deposit pitting corrosion. A probabilistic model to accurately predict pitting damage is necessary for effective life-cycle management of steam generators. This paper presents an advanced probabilistic model of pitting corrosion characterizing the inherent randomness of the pitting process and measurement uncertainties of the in-service inspection (ISI) data obtained from eddy current (EC) inspections. A Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation-based Bayesian method, enhanced by a data augmentation technique, is developed for estimating the model parameters. The proposed model is able to predict the actual pit number, the actual pit depth as well as the maximum pit depth, which is the main interest of the pitting corrosion model. The study also reveals the significance of inspection uncertainties in the modeling of pitting flaws using the ISI data: Without considering the probability-of-detection issues and measurement errors, the leakage risk resulted from the pitting corrosion would be under-estimated, despite the fact that the actual pit depth would usually be over-estimated.

  3. Heterogeneous distribution of pectin epitopes and calcium in different pit types of four angiosperm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Lenka; Hacke, Uwe G

    2011-12-01

    Intervessel pits act as safety valves that prevent the spread of xylem embolism. Pectin-calcium crosslinks within the pit membrane have been proposed to affect xylem vulnerability to cavitation. However, as the chemical composition of pit membranes is poorly understood, this hypothesis has not been verified. Using electron microscopy, immunolabeling, an antimonate precipitation technique, and ruthenium red staining, we studied the distribution of selected polysaccharides and calcium in the pit membranes of four angiosperm tree species. We tested whether shifts in xylem vulnerability resulting from perfusion of stems with a calcium chelating agent corresponded with the distribution of pectic homogalacturonans (HG) and/or calcium within interconduit pit membranes. No HG were detected in the main part of intervessel pit membranes, but were consistently found in the marginal membrane region known as the annulus. Calcium colocalized with HG in the annulus. In contrast to intervessel pits, the membrane of vessel-ray pits showed a high pectin content. The presence of two distinct chemical domains, the annulus and the actual pit membrane, can have substantial implications for pit membrane functioning. We propose that the annulus could affect the observed shift in xylem vulnerability after calcium removal by allowing increased pit membrane deflection. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Quantitative Correlation of 7B04 Aluminum Alloys Pitting Corrosion Morphology Characteristics with Stress Concentration Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Yan, Guangyao; Mu, Zhitao; Li, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    The accelerated pitting corrosion test of 7B04 aluminum alloy specimen was carried out according to the spectrum which simulated airport environment, and the corresponding pitting corrosion damage was obtained and was defined through three parameters A and B and C which respectively denoted the corrosion pit surface length and width and corrosion pit depth. The ratio between three parameters could determine the morphology characteristics of corrosion pits. On this basis the stress concentration factor of typical corrosion pit morphology under certain load conditions was quantitatively analyzed. The research shows that the corrosion pits gradually incline to be ellipse in surface and moderate in depth, and most value of B/A and C/A lies in 1 between 4 and few maximum exceeds 4; The stress concentration factor Kf of corrosion pits is obviously affected by the its morphology, the value of Kf increases with corrosion pits depth increasement under certain corrosion pits surface geometry. Also, the value of Kf decreases with surface width increasement under certain corrosion pits depth. The research conclusion can set theory basis for corrosion fatigue life analysis of aircraft aluminum alloy structure.

  5. The Effects of Hot Corrosion Pits on the Fatigue Resistance of a Disk Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Hazel, Brian; Mourer, David P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot corrosion pits on low cycle fatigue life and failure modes of the disk superalloy ME3 were investigated. Low cycle fatigue specimens were subjected to hot corrosion exposures producing pits, then tested at low and high temperatures. Fatigue lives and failure initiation points were compared to those of specimens without corrosion pits. Several tests were interrupted to estimate the fraction of fatigue life that fatigue cracks initiated at pits. Corrosion pits significantly reduced fatigue life by 60 to 98 percent. Fatigue cracks initiated at a very small fraction of life for high temperature tests, but initiated at higher fractions in tests at low temperature. Critical pit sizes required to promote fatigue cracking were estimated, based on measurements of pits initiating cracks on fracture surfaces.

  6. Dependence of Crystallographic Orientation on Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr Alloy 028

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, LiNa; Szpunar, Jerzy A.; Dong, JianXin; Ojo, Olanrewaju A.; Wang, Xu

    2018-03-01

    The influence of crystallographic orientation on the pitting corrosion behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr alloy 028 was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), potentiodynamic polarization technique, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that there is anisotropy of pitting corrosion that strongly depends on crystallographic orientation of the surface plane. The distribution of pit density in a standard stereographic triangle indicates that the crystallographic planes close to {100} are more prone to pitting corrosion compared to planes {110} and {111}. The surface energy calculation of (001) and (111) shows that the plane with a high atomic packing density has a low surface energy with concomitant strong resistance to pitting corrosion. A correlation function between crystallographic orientation and pitting corrosion susceptibility suggests a method that not only predicts the pitting resistance of known textured materials, but also could help to improve corrosion resistance by controlling material texture.

  7. Markov chain model helps predict pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Hallen, J. M. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Esquivel-Amezcua, A. [PEMEX PEP Region Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Valor, A. [Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    Recent reports place pipeline corrosion costs in North America at seven billion dollars per year. Pitting corrosion causes the higher percentage of failures among other corrosion mechanisms. This has motivated multiple modelling studies to be focused on corrosion pitting of underground pipelines. In this study, a continuous-time, non-homogenous pure birth Markov chain serves to model external pitting corrosion in buried pipelines. The analytical solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process gives the transition probability function in a discrete space of pit depths. The transition probability function can be completely identified by making a correlation between the stochastic pit depth mean and the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. The model proposed in this study can be applied to pitting corrosion data from repeated in-line pipeline inspections. Case studies presented in this work show how pipeline inspection and maintenance planning can be improved by using the proposed Markovian model for pitting corrosion.

  8. Genomic, genetic and functional dissection of bitter taste responses to artificial sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudnitzky, Natacha; Bufe, Bernd; Thalmann, Sophie; Kuhn, Christina; Gunn, Howard C; Xing, Chao; Crider, Bill P; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Wooding, Stephen P

    2011-09-01

    Bitter taste perception is initiated by TAS2R receptors, which respond to agonists by triggering depolarization of taste bud cells. Mutations in TAS2Rs are known to affect taste phenotypes by altering receptor function. Evidence that TAS2Rs overlap in ligand specificity suggests that they may also contribute joint effects. To explore this aspect of gustation, we examined bitter perception of saccharin and acesulfame K, widely used artificial sweeteners with aversive aftertastes. Both substances are agonists of TAS2R31 and -43, which belong to a five-member subfamily (TAS2R30-46) responsive to a diverse constellation of compounds. We analyzed sequence variation and linkage structure in the ∼140 kb genomic region encoding TAS2R30-46, taste responses to the two sweeteners in subjects, and functional characteristics of receptor alleles. Whole-gene sequences from TAS2R30-46 in 60 Caucasian subjects revealed extensive diversity including 34 missense mutations, two nonsense mutations and high-frequency copy-number variants. Thirty markers, including non-synonymous variants in all five genes, were associated (P 0.95). Haplotype analyses revealed that most associations were spurious, arising from LD with variants in TAS2R31. In vitro assays confirmed the functional importance of four TAS2R31 mutations, which had independent effects on receptor response. The existence of high LD spanning functionally distinct TAS2R loci predicts that bitter taste responses to many compounds will be strongly correlated even when they are mediated by different genes. Integrative approaches combining phenotypic, genetic and functional analysis will be essential in dissecting these complex relationships.

  9. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Morimoto-Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA. Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional

  10. Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Auxin Efflux Carrier Differentially Expressed in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Li Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin regulates various developmental programs in plants, including cell growth, cell division and cell differentiation. The auxin efflux carriers are essential for the auxin transport. To show an involvement of auxin transporters in the coordination of fruit development in bitter gourd, a juicy fruit, we isolated novel cDNAs (referred as McPIN encoding putative auxin efflux carriers, including McPIN1, McPIN2 (allele of McPIN1 and McPIN3, from developing fruits of bitter gourd. Both McPIN1 and McPIN3 genes possess six exons and five introns. Hydropathy analysis revealed that both polypeptides have two hydrophobic regions with five transmembrane segments and a predominantly hydrophilic core. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that McPIN1 shared the highest homology to the group of Arabidopsis, cucumber and tomato PIN1, while McPIN3 belonged to another group, including Arabidopsis and tomato PIN3 as well as PIN4. This suggests different roles for McPIN1 and McPIN3 in auxin transport involved in the fruit development of bitter gourd. Maximum mRNA levels for both genes were detected in staminate and pistillate flowers. McPIN1 is expressed in a particular period of early fruit development but McPIN3 continues to be expressed until the last stage of fruit ripening. Moreover, these two genes are auxin-inducible and qualified as early auxin-response genes. Their expression patterns suggest that these two auxin transporter genes play a pivotal role in fruit setting and development.

  11. Fenugreek with reduced bitterness prevents diet-induced metabolic disorders in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muraki Etsuko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various therapeutic effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on metabolic disorders have been reported. However, the bitterness of fenugreek makes it hard for humans to eat sufficient doses of it for achieving therapeutic effects. Fenugreek contains bitter saponins such as protodioscin. Fenugreek with reduced bitterness (FRB is prepared by treating fenugreek with beta-glucosidase. This study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of FRB on metabolic disorders in rats. Methods Forty Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with high-fat high-sucrose (HFS diet for 12 week to induce mild glucose and lipid disorders. Afterwards, the rats were divided into 5 groups. In the experiment 1, each group (n = 8 was fed with HFS, or HFS containing 2.4% fenugreek, or HFS containing 1.2%, 2.4% and 4.8% FRB, respectively, for 12 week. In the experiment 2, we examined the effects of lower doses of FRB (0.12%, 0.24% and 1.2% under the same protocol (n = 7 in each groups. Results In the experiment 1, FRB dose-dependently reduced food intake, body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT and soleus muscle weight. FRB also lowered plasma and hepatic lipid levels and increased fecal lipid levels, both dose-dependently. The Plasma total cholesterol levels (mmol/L in the three FRB and Ctrl groups were 1.58 ± 0.09, 1.45 ± 0.05*, 1.29 ± 0.07* and 2.00 ± 0.18, respectively (*; P P P  Conclusions Thus we have demonstrated that FRB (1.2 ~ 4.8% prevents diet-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and fatty liver.

  12. Trpm5 null mice respond to bitter, sweet, and umami compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damak, Sami; Rong, Minqing; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Kokrashvili, Zaza; Pérez, Cristian A; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Mosinger, Bedrich; Glendinning, John I; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Margolskee, Robert F

    2006-03-01

    Trpm5 is a calcium-activated cation channel expressed selectively in taste receptor cells. A previous study reported that mice with an internal deletion of Trpm5, lacking exons 15-19 encoding transmembrane segments 1-5, showed no taste-mediated responses to bitter, sweet, and umami compounds. We independently generated knockout mice null for Trpm5 protein expression due to deletion of Trpm5's promoter region and exons 1-4 (including the translation start site). We examined the taste-mediated responses of Trpm5 null mice and wild-type (WT) mice using three procedures: gustatory nerve recording [chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (NG) nerves], initial lick responses, and 24-h two-bottle preference tests. With bitter compounds, the Trpm5 null mice showed reduced, but not abolished, avoidance (as indicated by licking responses and preference ratios higher than those of WT), a normal CT response, and a greatly diminished NG response. With sweet compounds, Trpm5 null mice showed no licking response, a diminished preference ratio, and absent or greatly reduced nerve responses. With umami compounds, Trpm5 null mice showed no licking response, a diminished preference ratio, a normal NG response, and a greatly diminished CT response. Our results demonstrate that the consequences of eliminating Trmp5 expression vary depending upon the taste quality and the lingual taste field examined. Thus, while Trpm5 is an important factor in many taste responses, its absence does not eliminate all taste responses. We conclude that Trpm5-dependent and Trpm5-independent pathways underlie bitter, sweet, and umami tastes.

  13. Solitary chemosensory cells and bitter taste receptor signaling in human sinonasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Henry P; Cooper, Sarah E; Anderson, Catherine B; Tizzano, Marco; Kingdom, Todd T; Finger, Tom E; Kinnamon, Sue C; Ramakrishnan, Vijay R

    2013-06-01

    Solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) are specialized cells in the respiratory epithelium that respond to noxious chemicals including bacterial signaling molecules. SCCs express components of bitter taste transduction including the taste receptor type 2 (TAS2R) bitter taste receptors and downstream signaling effectors: α-Gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5). When activated, SCCs evoke neurogenic reflexes, resulting in local inflammation. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence SCCs in human sinonasal epithelium, and to test for a correlation with inflammatory disease processes such as allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Patient demographics and biopsies of human sinonasal mucosa were obtained from control patients (n = 7) and those with allergic rhinitis and/or chronic rhinosinusitis (n = 15). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and immunohistochemistry were used to determine whether expression of signaling effectors was altered in diseased patients. RT-PCR demonstrated that bitter taste receptors TAS2R4, TAS2R14, and TAS2R46, and downstream signaling effectors α-Gustducin, PLCβ2, and TRPM5 are expressed in the inferior turbinate, middle turbinate, septum, and uncinate of both control and diseased patients. PLCβ2/TRPM5-immunoreactive SCCs were identified in the sinonasal mucosa of both control and diseased patients. qPCR showed similar expression of α-Gustducin and TRPM5 in the uncinate process of control and diseased groups, and there was no correlation between level of expression and 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22) or pain scores. SCCs are present in human sinonasal mucosa in functionally relevant areas. Expression level of signaling effectors was similar in control and diseased patients and did not correlate with measures of pain and inflammation. Further study into these pathways may provide insight

  14. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Giacobbe Braccio; Vincenzo Lorefice; Cesare Freda; Enzo Benanti; Vinod Kumar Sharma

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity anal...

  15. Analysis of traversable pits model to make intelligent wheeled vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abbasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the issue of passing wheeled vehicles from pits is discussed. The issue is modeled by defining the limits of passing wheeled vehicles. The proposed model has been studied based on changes in the effective parameters. Finally, in order to describe the problem, the proposed model has been solved for wheeled vehicles based on the effective parameters by using one of the numerical methods.

  16. Image features of herniation pit of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe; Li Guangming; Wang Cunli; Wang Guimin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate imaging appearances of herniation pit of the femoral neck. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray, CT and MRI findings of 9 patients with herniation pit of the femoral neck. All nine patients were male with the age ranging from 21 to 73 years. They had pain in the hip from two months to two years duration. Results: The bilateral hips were affected in six patients, the right hips in the other 3 patients. Of the nine patients, X-ray plain films (2 cases), CT scanning(6 cases), and MR scanning (5 cases ) were performed. The size of the lesions ranged from 0.5 cm x 0.6 cm to 1.0 cm x 1.5 cm, located in the anterosuperior portion of the femoral neck (n=7) or anteroinferior portion (n=2). X-ray plain films showed an osteolytic lesion surrounded by a sclerotic rim. CT scanning showed the lesion just below the cortex of the femoral neck surrounded by a rim of sclerosis or associated with a small cortical break in two patients. MR scanning showed low signal intensity in five patients on T 1 WI and high signal intensity surrounded by a rim of low signal intensity (n=3) or low signal intensity (n=2) on T 2 WI, and high signal intensity on fat suppression MR image. A small joint effusion was observed in two cases on T 2 WI. Conclusion: The CT and MRI findings of herniation pit of the femoral neck are characteristic, it is useful in defining the diagnosis of the herniation pit of the femoral neck. (authors)

  17. A mathematical model of crevice and pitting corrosion. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharland, S.M.

    1985-09-01

    The time-independent equations of mass transport governing the concentration of species and electrode potential within a corroding crevice or pit are solved using a number of mathematical approximations based on physical observations. A variety of analytic and numerical techniques is described and several methods which reduce computing time are developed. A simple method of time stepping is described for a calculation of the effect of precipitation of solid hydroxide in the crevice. (author)

  18. Pitting Corrosion Susceptibility of AISI 301 Stainless Steel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions - 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.5M and 0.7M and 1.0M. Tensile tests and microscopic examinations were performed on samples prepared from the steel after exposure in the various environments.

  19. Radioimmunoassay for the citrus bitter principle, naringin, and related flavonoid-7-O-neohesperidosides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, P.S.; Weiler, E.W.; Mansell, R.L.

    1982-02-01

    An immunoassay for the citrus bitter principle, naringin, and related flavonoid-7-O-neohesperidosides is reported. The assay detects ca. 2 ng of naringin and can be used to quantify this compound in the parts per billion (ppb) range in crude grapefruit juice and extracts of other plant tissues. The antiserum used is highly reactive with the 2-rhamnosyl-1-glucopyranose at the C-7 position but not with e.g. the isomeric 6-rhamnosyl-1-glucopyranose moiety and can, thus, be used to identify the stereochemistry of this disaccharide moiety at the C-7 position of flavanoids. The assay involves a directly iodinated naringin-(/sup 125/I) as immunotracer.

  20. Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC Drugs: Time to Take a Bitter Pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Mani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC drugs are an emerging public health concern in India. With one of the huge pharmaceutical sectors in the world, India has a varied prevalence of SSSFC drugs ranging from 0.04% to 34% according to various studies. Apart from severe health consequences, SSSFC drugs also weaken community's trust in the health care system. India is tackling the epidemic of SSSFC drugs through various existing and new regulatory measures. Considering the calamitous consequences of this silent epidemic, it is time to prescribe a bitter pill.

  1. Association of a bitter taste receptor mutation with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooding Stephen P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is late-onset kidney disease thought to arise from chronic exposure to aristolochic acid, a phytotoxin that contaminates wheat supplies in rural areas of Eastern Europe. It has recently been demonstrated that humans are capable of perceiving aristolochic acid at concentrations below 40 nM as the result of high-affinity interactions with the TAS2R43 bitter taste receptor. Further, TAS2R43 harbors high-frequency loss-of-function mutations resulting in 50-fold variability in perception. This suggests that genetic variation in TAS2R43 might affect susceptibility to BEN, with individuals carrying functional forms of the receptor being protected by an ability to detect tainted foods. Methods To determine whether genetic variation in TAS2R43 predicts BEN susceptibility, we examined genotype-phenotype associations in a case–control study. A cohort of 88 affected and 99 control subjects from western Bulgaria were genotyped with respect to two key missense variants and a polymorphic whole-gene deletion of TAS2R43 (W35S, H212R, and wt/Δ, which are known to affect taste sensitivity to aristolochic acid. Tests for association between haplotypes and BEN status were then performed. Results Three major TAS2R43 haplotypes observed in previous studies (TAS2R43-W35/H212, -S35/R212 and –Δ were present at high frequencies (0.17, 0.36, and 0.47 respectively in our sample, and a significant association between genotype and BEN status was present (P = 0.020; odds ratio 1.18. However, contrary to expectation, BEN was positively associated with TAS2R43-W35/H212, a highly responsive allele previously shown to confer elevated bitter sensitivity to aristolochic acid, which should drive aversion but might also affect absorption, altering toxin activation. Conclusions Our findings are at strong odds with the prediction that carriers of functional alleles of TAS2R43 are protected from BEN by an ability to detect and

  2. Micro pit formation by mercury-sphere collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Syuichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2004-01-01

    The development of a MW-class spallation neutron source facility is being carried out under the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) Project promoted by JAERI and KEK. A mercury target working as the spallation neutron source will be subjected to pressure waves generated by rapid thermal expansion of mercury due to a pulsed proton beam injection. The pressure wave will impose dynamic stress on the vessel and deform the vessel, which would cause cavitation in mercury. To evaluate the effect of mercury micro jets, driven by cavitation bubble collapse, on the micro-pit formation, analyses on mercury sphere collision were carried out: single bubble dynamics and collision behavior on interface between liquid and solid, which take the nonlinearity due to shock wave in mercury and the strain rate dependency of yield stress in solid metal into account. Analytical results give a good explanation to understand relationship between the micro-pit formation and material properties: the pit size could decrease with increasing the yield strength of materials. (author)

  3. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system

  4. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  5. Investigation of the pitting corrosion of low carbon steel containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken because the prediction of the degradation rate of low carbon steel contains over long time frames is one of the crucial elements in the development of a source term model for low-level shallow land burial. The principal data base considered is that of the NBS corrosion measurements of ferrous materials buried in the ground for periods of up to 18 years. In this investigation, the maximum penetration in mils, hm, due to pitting corrosion was found to conform closely to the relation h m = kt n where it is the exposure time of the sample in years, κ is the pitting parameter in mil/(years) n , and n > O is a parameter related to the aeration property of the soil. The central objective of the present investigation is the determination of the dependence of the pitting parameters κ and n on the soil properties. The result of a detailed linear correlation analysis of κ on one hand, the pH value and the resistivity of the soil on the other hand revealed that κ is principally influenced by the pH value of the soil. The resistivity of the soil is found to play a minor role

  6. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

    2006-05-15

    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  7. Investigation on Floating Lid Construction, pit Water Storage, Ottrupgaard, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    At Ottrupgaard a pit water storage of 1,500 m3 and a lid area of about 700 m2 is built for seasonal storage of a solar collector field of 560 m2. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 57%, more precisely 1,163 Dkr./m2. Due to the large share in price...... the development of lid constructions is crucial for the development of pit water storage and seasonal storage, as it seems that the development of solar collectors will not have a breakthrough in the near future.The Ottrupgaard lid design is basically a sandwich element construction of PUR-foam between two...... conditions floating on hot water. The test lids were examined for tightness by a number of means. The results showed critical construction errors of the first lid design. A redesigned lid showed acceptable results, but also some water penetration into the lid insulation. The entered water gathers...

  8. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloza, Julia; Molina, Jorge; Mejia, Humberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  9. Bio-active Compounds of Bitter Melon Genotypes (Momordica charantia L. in Relation to Their Physiological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navam S. Hettiarachchy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L is one of the most popular cooked vegetables in many Asian countries. Its experimental use in mice has indicated improvement in glucose tolerance against Type II diabetes and reduction in blood cholesterol. However, it has not been proven which alkaloids, polypeptides, or their combinations in the Bitter Melon extract are responsible for the medicinal effects. Green and white varieties of Bitter Melon differ strikingly in their bitter tastes, green being much more bitter than white. It is not yet known whether they are different in their special nutritional and hypoglycemic properties. Nutritional qualities of Bitter Melons such as protein, amino acids, minerals, and polyphenolics contents were determined using four selected varieties such as Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG], and Chinese White [CW] grown at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff [UAPB] Agricultural Research Center. Results indicated that protein levels of IW were significantly higher than IG in both flesh and seed. Methods: Four Bitter Melon varieties, Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG] and Chinese White [CW] were used for phytochemical analyses to determine protein contents, protein hydrolysis, amino acids contents, and their antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. All analyses were conducted following standard methods. Statistical analyses wereconducted using JMP 5 software package [SAS]. The Tukey’s HSD procedure was used for the significance of differences at the 5% level. Results: Moisture contents across the four varieties of Bitter Melon flesh ranged between 92.4 and 93.5%, and that of seed ranged between 53.3 and 75.9%. Protein contents of the flesh were highest in IW [9.8%] and lowest in CG [8.4%]. Seed protein contents were the highest in IW [31.3%] and lowest in IG [27.0%]. Overall, white varieties had higher protein contents than the green varieties. Compared with soy

  10. Epidemiological survey on prevalence and associated risk factors of bitter taste among inpatients from four Grade 3A hospitals in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Si

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Bitter taste is a common symptom in hospitalized patients, especially in patients with gastroesophageal reflux and liver and gallbladder diseases and the link to smoking, dietary and emotional stress. It is found that smoking is a sole risk factor for the manifestation of bitter taste.

  11. Immediate effect of bitter gourd, ash gourd, Knol-khol juices on blood sugar levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Selvakumar

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: This study shows the significance of hypoglycemic effects of bitter gourd and Knol khol juices among the type 2 Diabetic patients. Hence Bitter gourd juice, Knol khol juices may be beneficial in Diabetes patients to reduce the blood glucose level.

  12. TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms, frequency of bitter food intake, and blood biomarkers among elderly woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Stecyna, Joanna; Malinowska, Anna M; Chmurzynska, Agata

    2017-09-01

    Taste sensitivity is one of the most important biological determinants of food choice. Three SNPs of the TAS2R38 gene (rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939) give rise to two common haplotypes: PAV and AVI. These haplotypes, as well as an SNP within the CA6 gene (rs2274333) that encodes carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6), correlate with bitterness perception. The extent of consumption of bitter food may influence some health outcomes. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the impact of the TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms on the choice of bitter food, BMI, blood lipoprotein, and glucose concentrations as well as systemic inflammation in elderly women. The associations between the TAS2R38 diplotype, CA6 genotype, and the intake of bitter-tasting foods were studied in a group of 118 Polish women over 60 years of age. The intake of Brassica vegetables, grapefruit, and coffee was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical parameters were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Genotyping was performed using the high resolution melting method. We found a correlation between lipid profile, glucose and CRP levels, and frequency of bitter food intake. The AVI/AVI subjects drank coffee more frequently than did the PAV/PAV homozygotes, as did the A carriers of CA6 in comparison with the GG homozygotes. We also observed that simultaneous carriers of the PAV haplotype and A allele of TAS2R38 and CA6, respectively, choose white cabbage more frequent and had lower plasma levels of CRP and glucose than did AVI/AVI and GG homozygotes. In elderly women, the TAS2R38 and CA6 polymorphisms may affect the frequency of consumption of coffee and white cabbage, but not of other bitter-tasting foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Origin and differential selection of allelic variation at TAS2R16 associated with salicin bitter taste sensitivity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael C; Ranciaro, Alessia; Zinshteyn, Daniel; Rawlings-Goss, Renata; Hirbo, Jibril; Thompson, Simon; Woldemeskel, Dawit; Froment, Alain; Rucker, Joseph B; Omar, Sabah A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Nyambo, Thomas; Belay, Gurja; Drayna, Dennis; Breslin, Paul A S; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-02-01

    Bitter taste perception influences human nutrition and health, and the genetic variation underlying this trait may play a role in disease susceptibility. To better understand the genetic architecture and patterns of phenotypic variability of bitter taste perception, we sequenced a 996 bp region, encompassing the coding exon of TAS2R16, a bitter taste receptor gene, in 595 individuals from 74 African populations and in 94 non-Africans from 11 populations. We also performed genotype-phenotype association analyses of threshold levels of sensitivity to salicin, a bitter anti-inflammatory compound, in 296 individuals from Central and East Africa. In addition, we characterized TAS2R16 mutants in vitro to investigate the effects of polymorphic loci identified at this locus on receptor function. Here, we report striking signatures of positive selection, including significant Fay and Wu's H statistics predominantly in East Africa, indicating strong local adaptation and greater genetic structure among African populations than expected under neutrality. Furthermore, we observed a "star-like" phylogeny for haplotypes with the derived allele at polymorphic site 516 associated with increased bitter taste perception that is consistent with a model of selection for "high-sensitivity" variation. In contrast, haplotypes carrying the "low-sensitivity" ancestral allele at site 516 showed evidence of strong purifying selection. We also demonstrated, for the first time, the functional effect of nonsynonymous variation at site 516 on salicin phenotypic variance in vivo in diverse Africans and showed that most other nonsynonymous substitutions have weak or no effect on cell surface expression in vitro, suggesting that one main polymorphism at TAS2R16 influences salicin recognition. Additionally, we detected geographic differences in levels of bitter taste perception in Africa not previously reported and infer an East African origin for high salicin sensitivity in human populations.

  14. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  15. Fokker-Planck modeling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Eliana Nogueira [Risco Ambiental Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Paulo F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Saldanha, Pedro Luiz C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e Ciclo do Combustivel; Silva, Edson de Pinho da [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Physics

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion has been recognized since the 1930s. It has been learned that this damage retains no memory of its past. Instead, the future state is determined only by the knowledge of its present state. This Markovian property that underlies the stochastic process governing pitting corrosion has been explored as a discrete Markovian process by many authors since the beginning of the 1990s for underground pipelines of the oil and gas industries and nuclear power plants. Corrosion is a genuine continuous time and space state Markovian process, so to model it as a discrete time and/or state space is an approximation to the problem. Markovian chains approaches, with an increasing number of states, could involve a large number of parameters, the transition rates between states, to be experimentally determined. Besides, such an increase in the number of states produces matrices with huge dimensions leading to time-consuming computational solutions. Recent approaches involving Markovian discrete process have overcome those difficulties but, on the other hand, a large number of soil and pipe stochastic variables have to be known. In this work we propose a continuous time and space state approach to the evolution of pit corrosion depths in underground pipelines. In order to illustrate the application of the model for defect depth growth a combination of real life data and Monte Carlo simulation was used. The process is described by a Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is completely determined by the knowledge of two functions known as the drift and diffusion coefficients. In this work we also show that those functions can be estimated from corrosion depth data from in-line inspections. Some particular forms of drift and diffusion coefficients lead to particular Fokker-Planck equations for which analytical solutions are known, as is the case for the Wiener process, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the Brownian motion

  16. Canister Storage Building Receiving Pit Modification Informal Design Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIEG, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The design for modifications to the CSB Cask Receiving pit guides was verified by the informal design verification (meeting) method on August 9, 2000. The invited list of attendees and the meeting attendance sheet are included in attachment 1. The design modifications that were reviewed are documented in ECN 654484 (attachment 2). The requirement that the design is to be verified against is to ''center the transportation cask sufficiently to allow installation of the guide funnel on the cask (± 0.25 inches or less)''. The alternatives considered are detailed in attachment 3. Alternative number 4, ''Modify The Pit Guides'', was determined to be the preferred alternative primarily due to considerations of simplicity, reliability, and low cost. Alternative 1, ''Rotate the impact Absorber 180 o '', was successfully performed but was considered a temporary fix that was not acceptable for a long term operational mode. The requirement to position the receiving crane accurately enough to lower the transportation cask into the pit with the redesigned guides was discussed and considered to be achievable without undue effort from the operator. The tolerance on the OD of the transfer cask was discussed (± 1/8 inch) relative to the clearance with the guides. As-built dimensions for the cask OD will be looked at to verify sufficient clearance exists with the maximum cask OD. The final design thickness of the shims under the guides will be based on the as-built cask OD dimensions and field measurements between the pit guides. The need for a ''plastic'' cover for the guides was discussed and deemed unnecessary. Thermal growth of the cask OD was calculated at 3-5 mils and considered insignificant. The possibility of reducing the OD of the guide funnel was reviewed but this was considered impractical due to the requirement for the MCO to miss the edge of the funnel in case of a MCO drop. One of the transportation casks have the lift trunions installed 3/8 inch off center. This is

  17. Retrospective Analysis of Mosh-Pit-Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsten, Andrew M; Tennyson, Joseph; Weisberg, Stacy

    2017-12-01

    Moshing is a violent form of dancing found world-wide at rock concerts, festivals, and electronic dance music events. It involves crowd surfing, shoving, and moving in a circular rotation. Moshing is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to report epidemiologic information on patient presentation rate (PPR), transport to hospital rate (TTHR), and injury patterns from patients who participated in mosh-pits. Materials and Methods Subjects were patrons from mosh-pits seeking medical care at a single venue. The events reviewed were two national concert tours which visited this venue during their tour. The eight distinct events studied occurred between 2011 and 2014. Data were collected retrospectively from prehospital patient care reports (PCRs). A single Emergency Medical Service (EMS) provided medical care at this venue. The following information was gathered from each PCR: type of injury, location of injury, treatment received, alcohol or drug use, Advanced Life Support/ALS interventions required, age and gender, disposition, minor or parent issues, as well as type of activity engaged in when injured. Attendance for the eight events ranged from 5,100 to 16,000. Total patient presentations ranged from 50 to 206 per event. Patient presentations per ten thousand (PPTT) ranged from 56 to 130. The TTHR per 10,000 ranged from seven to 20. The mean PPTT was 99 (95% CI, 77-122) and the median was 98. The mean TTHR was 16 (95% CI, 12-29) and the median TTHR was 17. Patients presenting from mosh-pits were more frequently male (57.6%; P<.004). The mean age was 20 (95% CI, 19-20). Treatment received was overwhelmingly at the Basic Life Support (BLS) level (96.8%; P<.000001). General moshing was the most common activity leading to injury. Crowd surfing was the next most significant, accounting for 20% of presentations. The most common body part injured was the head (64% of injuries). This retrospective review of mosh-pit-associated injury

  18. A single base difference between Pit-1 binding sites at the hGH promoter and locus control region specifies distinct Pit-1 conformations and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewchuk, Brian M; Ho, Yugong; Liebhaber, Stephen A; Cooke, Nancy E

    2006-09-01

    Activation of the human growth hormone (hGH-N) gene in pituitary somatotropes is mediated by a locus control region (LCR). This LCR is composed of DNase I-hypersensitive sites (HS) located -14.5 kb to -32 kb relative to the hGH-N promoter. HSI, at -14.5 kb, is the dominant determinant of hGH-N expression and is essential for establishment of a 32-kb domain of histone acetylation that encompasses the active hGH locus. This activity is conferred by three binding sites for the POU domain transcription factor Pit-1. These Pit-1 elements are sufficient to activate hGH-N expression in the mouse pituitary. In contrast, Pit-1 sites at the hGH-N promoter are consistently unable to mediate similar activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that the functional difference between the promoter-proximal and the HSI Pit-1 binding sites can be attributed in part to a single base difference. This base affects the conformation of the Pit-1/DNA complex, and reciprocal exchange of the divergent bases between the two sets of Pit-1 elements results in a partial reversal of their transgenic activities. These data support a model in which the Pit-1 binding sites in the hGH LCR allosterically program the bound Pit-1 complex for chromatin activating functions.

  19. The Influence of Radiation on Pit Solution Chemistry as it Pertains to the Transition from Metastable to Stable Pitting in Steels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galuszka-Muga, Barbara

    2005-05-19

    An investigation was undertaken of the effect of gamma radiation on metastable pitting of mild carbon steels immersed in a solution similar to those existing at high level waste (HLW) deposits in the US. The object was to observe the extent to which a dosage rate of 1 Mrad/hour (10 Kgrey/hour) affected measurable electrochemical parameters such as pitting potential, open circuit potential, rate of metastable pitting and repassivation potential. Methods for reliably measuring electrochemical potentials in a high radiation field were developed. Exploratory analyses were made of the ion product release and electrolyte composition change in a confined volume simulating the conditions of a corrosion initiated pit during gamma irradiation. As expected the results indicated that the metastable pitting rate (as well as the general rate of corrosion) was significantly enhanced by a radiation field.

  20. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  1. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon and its medicinal potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baby Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia, commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  2. Some bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of the bitter almond kernel (prunus dulcis var. amara)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keser, S.; Yilmaz, O.

    2014-01-01

    in this study, it was determined antioxidant activities and phenolic, flavonoid, phytosterol, lipid soluble vitamin and fatty acid contents of bitter almond kernel extract (bae). antioxidant activities of bae was investigated by dppho, abtso+, oho radical scavenging, metal chelating activity and determination of lipid peroxidation levels (tbars). bae was scavenged 83.49% of the abts radical, 68.34% of the hydroxyl radical, and 68.65% of the dpph radical. this extract was shown 49.36% of the metal chelating activity myricetin (1831.52 mu g/g), kaempferol (104.52 mu g/g), naringenin (2.51 mu g/g), vanillic acid (91.70 mu g/g), caffeic acid (85.92 mu g/g), ferulic acid (27.11 mu g/g) rosmarinic acid (0.95 mu g/g), hydroxycinnamic acid (1.35 mu g/g), delta-tocopherol (4.95 mg/kg), mu-tocopherol (104.15 mg/kg), vitamin k (42.25 mg/kg), beta-sitosterol (366.95 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (242.65 mg/kg) were determined in the bae. the major fatty acids were oleic acid (70.61%) and linoleic acid (20.68%) in the bae. these results indicate that bitter almond can be a good natural source of fatty acids, lipid soluble vitamins, phytosterols, flavonoid, phenolic compounds. (author)

  3. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L. peel essential oil compositions obtained with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem GÖLÜKCÜ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus essential oils are one of the most widely used essential oils in the world. They could be obtained by cold press, hydro-distillation etc. In this study, the effects of cold press and hydro‑distillation applications on essential composition of bitter orange peel oil were investigated. Additionally changes in essential oil compositions by drying were presented. Essential oil composition was affected from extraction techniques and drying process. Limonene was determined as the main component of bitter orange essential oil (94.00-94.65%. The other highest components were β-myrcene (1.77-1.90%, linalool (0.53-0.81%, β-pinene (0.29-0.72% and α‑pinene (0.45-0.51% in descending order. As a result, the essential oil compositions of oil obtained by cold-press were more similar to fresh peel oil than the oils obtained by hydro distillation. On the other hand, the essential oil content of fresh sample significantly decreased during drying process. While essential oil content was 3.00% for the fresh peel, it was 2.50% for dried one. These results showed that drying process only affected essential oil content not its oil composition.

  4. In vitro evaluation of potential bitterness-masking terpenoids from the Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Fletcher, Joshua N; Lv, Wei; Deng, Ye; Vincent, Michael A; Slack, Jay P; McCluskey, T Scott; Jia, Zhonghua; Cushman, Mark; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2014-07-25

    In a screening of extracts of selected plants native to Ohio against the human bitterness receptor hTAS2R31, a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod) was determined to have hTAS2R31 antagonistic activity and, thus, was fractionated for isolation of potential bitterness-masking agents. One new labdane diterpenoid, solidagol (1), and six known terpenoids, including two labdane diterpenoids (2 and 3), three clerodane diterpenoids (6β-angeloyloxykolavenic acid, 6β-tigloyloxykolavenic acid, and crotonic acid), and a triterpenoid (longispinogenin), were isolated. Among these compounds, 3β-acetoxycopalic acid (2) was found to be the first member of the labdane diterpene class shown to have inhibitory activity against hTAS2R31 activation (IC50 8 μM). A homology model of hTAS2R31 was constructed, and the molecular docking of 2 to this model indicated that this diterpenoid binds well to the active site of hTAS2R31, whereas this was not the case for the closely structurally related compound 3 (sempervirenic acid). The content of 2 in the chloroform-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of S. canadensis was up to 2.24 g/100 g dry weight, as determined by HPLC.

  5. Key Phytochemicals Contributing to the Bitter Off-Taste of Oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther-Jordanland, Kirsten; Dawid, Corinna; Dietz, Maximilian; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-12-28

    Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from oat flour (Avena sativa L.) followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed avenanthramides and saponins as the key phytochemicals contributing to the typical astringent and bitter off-taste of oat. Besides avenacosides A and B, two previously unreported bitter-tasting bidesmosidic saponins were identified, namely, 3-(O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranosid)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-ene-3β,22,26-triol, and 3-(O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranosid)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-ene-3β,22,26-triol. Depending on the chemical structure of the saponins and avenanthramides, sensory studies revealed human orosensory recognition thresholds of these phytochemicals to range between 3 and 170 μmol/L.

  6. Isolation of bitter acids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) using countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Clinton J; Harris, Guy; Urban, Jan; Tripp, Matthew L; Bland, Jeffrey S; Carroll, Brian J

    2012-05-01

    Commercially available hops (Humulus lupulus L.) bitter acid extracts contain a mixture of three major congeners (co-, n-, and ad-) in addition to cis/trans diastereomers for each congener. Individual isomerized α-acids were obtained by the consecutive application of two separate countercurrent chromatography methods. First, individual isomerized α-acid congeners as a mixture of cis/trans diastereomers were obtained using a solvent system consisting of hexane and aqueous buffer. The second purification, capable of separating cis/trans diastereomers, was accomplished using a quaternary solvent system; an alternative procedure using β-cyclodextrin followed by countercurrent chromatography was also investigated. The NaBH(4) reduction of the purified isomerized α-acid compounds followed by countercurrent chromatography purification resulted in individual ρ iso α-acids (>95%). Similarly, catalytic hydrogenation of the purified isomerized α-acid compounds followed by countercurrent chromatography purification produced individual tetrahydro isomerized α-acids (>95%). Reported herein is a widely applicable approach that focuses on three critical variables--solvent system composition, pH, and buffer-to-sample ratio--that enable the efficient purification of individual bitter acids (≥95%) from commercially available hops extracts. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Draft Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on Stockpile Stewardship and Management for a Modern Pit Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is responsible for the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, including production readiness required to maintain that stockpile. Since 1989, DOE has been without the capability to produce stockpile certified plutonium pits, which are an essential component of nuclear weapons. NNSA, the Department of Defense (DOD), and Congress have highlighted the lack of long-term pit production capability as a national security issue requiring timely resolution. While a small interim capacity is currently being established at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), classified analyses indicate projected capacity requirements (number of pits to be produced over a period of time), and agility (ability to rapidly change from production of one pit type to another, ability to simultaneously produce multiple pit types, or the flexibility to produce pits of a new design in a timely manner) necessary for long-term support of the stockpile will require a long-term pit production capability. In particular, identification of a systemic problem associated with an existing pit type, class of pits, or aging phenomenon cannot be adequately responded to today, nor could it be with the small capability being established at LANL (see Section S.2 for a more detailed discussion regarding the purpose and need for a Modern Pit Facility [MPF])

  8. Numerical simulation of the double pits stress concentration in a curved casing inner surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour or sweet oil fields development is common in recent years. Casing and tubing are usually subjected to pitting corrosion because of exposure to the strong corrosion species, such as CO2, H2S, and saline water. When the corrosion pits formed in the casing inner surface, localized stress concentration will occur and the casing strength will be degraded. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the degree of stress concentration factor accurately. This article performed a numerical simulation on double pits stress concentration factor in a curved inner surface using the finite element software ABAQUS. The results show that the stress concentration factor of double pits mainly depends on the ratio of two pits distance to the pit radius (L/R. It should not be only assessed by the absolute distance between the two pits. When the two pits are close and tangent, the maximum stress concentration factor will appear on the inner tangential edges. Stress concentration increased by double pits in a curved casing inner surface is more serious than that in a flat surface. A correction factor of 1.9 was recommended in the curved inner surface double pits stress concentration factor predict model.

  9. Observation of etch pits in Fe-36wt%Ni Invar alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dong-zhu; Wu, Min-jie

    2014-07-01

    To indirectly investigate the dislocation behavior of Fe-36wt%Ni Invar alloy by the etch pit method, polished Invar specimens were etched by a solution containing 4 g copper sulfate, 20 mL hydrochloric acid, and 20 mL deionized water for 2 min. Etch pits in the etched surfaces were observed. All the etch pits in one specific grain exhibited similar shapes, which are closely related to the grain orientations. These etch pits were characterized as dislocation etch pits. It was observed that etch pits arranged along grain boundaries, gathered at grain tips and strip-like etch pit clusters passed through a number of grains in the pure Invar specimens. After the addition of a small amount of alloying elements, the identification of a single dislocation etch pit is challenging compared with the pure Invar alloy. Thus, the observation of etch pits facilitates the investigation on the dislocation behavior of the pure Invar alloy. In addition, alloying elements may affect the densities and sizes of etch pits.

  10. Structures of Bordered Pits Potentially Contributing to Isolation of a Refilled Vessel from Negative Xylem Pressure in Stems of Morus australis Poir.: Testing of the Pit Membrane Osmosis and Pit Valve Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooeda, Hiroki; Terashima, Ichiro; Taneda, Haruhiko

    2017-02-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism preventing the refilling vessel water from being drained to the neighboring functional vessels under negative pressure. The pit membrane osmosis hypothesis proposes that the xylem parenchyma cells release polysaccharides that are impermeable to the intervessel pit membranes into the refilling vessel; this osmotically counteracts the negative pressure, thereby allowing the vessel to refill. The pit valve hypothesis proposes that gas trapped within intervessel bordered pits isolates the refilling vessel water from the surrounding functional vessels. Here, using the single-vessel method, we assessed these hypotheses in shoots of mulberry (Morus australis Poir.). First, we confirmed the occurrence of xylem refilling under negative pressure in the potted mulberry saplings. To examine the pit membrane osmosis hypothesis, we estimated the semi-permeability of pit membranes for molecules of various sizes and found that the pit membranes were not semi-permeable to polyethylene glycol of molecular mass osmosis mechanism in mulberry would be unrealistically large. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Mud Pit Identification Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (September 2001, Rev. No. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2001-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection completed the Mud Pit Strategy, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (DOE/NV, 2001) to document a systematic process for identifying and categorizing potentially contaminated mud pits located on the NTS, and systematically evaluating them for inclusion in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The objectives of this report are to summarize the process used to define the six mud pit categories, identify mud pits, discuss the mud pits that do not meet FFACO entry criteria, identify mud pits for proposed FFACO entry, and describe the general mud pit distribution. Underground nuclear testing conducted since 1951 at the NTS has produced mud pits that were used for the transfer and collection of drilling mud, rock cuttings, and drilling fluids. This report documents the execution of the strategy document by examining the identification process and documenting these results. For clarification purposes, this document uses the term ''entry'' to indicate inclusion of mud pits into the FFACO and ''exclusion'' to indicate those mud pits which do not meet the ''entry'' criteria defined in this report. Based on this criteria, 257 mud pits identified that have been proposed for FFACO entry were found in 14 separate areas of the NTS. Each of the 257 mud pits proposed for FFACO entry will need to be located in the field, photographed, and documented during future Industrial Sites Project, Preliminary Assessment activities. If the field review determines that a mud pit was misidentified or improperly categorized, the appropriate FFACO modification request will be submitted for review and approval.

  12. Intensity of bitterness of processed yerba mate leaves originated in two contrasted light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rakocevic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness intensity of beverage prepared from the leaves produced on the males and females of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, grown in the forest understory and monoculture, was evaluated. The leaves were grouped by their position (in the crown and on the branch tips and by the leaf age. The leaf gas exchange, leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density were observed. Inter and intra-specific competition for light and self-shading showed the same effect on yerba mate beverage taste. All the shading types resulted in bitterer taste of the processed yerba mate leaves compared to the leaves originated under the direct sun exposure. The leaves from the plants grown in the monoculture showed less bitterness than those grown in the forest understory. This conclusion was completely opposite to the conventionally accepted paradigm of the yerba mate industries. The leaves from the tips (younger leaves of the plants grown in the monoculture resulted a beverage of softer taste; the males produced less bitter leaves in any light environment (forest understory or in the crown in monoculture. The taste was related to the photosynthetic and transpiration rate, and leaf temperature. Stronger bitterness of the leaves provided from the shade conditions was related to the decreased leaf temperature and transpiration in the diurnal scale.Mediu-se a intensidade de amargor da bebida preparada a partir de folhas da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis de diversas idades, situadas em duas posições na copa (interior e ponteiras, produzidas por plantas masculinas e femininas cultivadas na floresta antropizada e em monocultura. As trocas gasosas foliares, a temperatura de folhas e a densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos também foram medidas. Com isso verificou-se que a idéia corrente de que o sombreamento está diretamente relacionado ao sabor suave do chimarrão é completamente equivocada, já que as competições inter- e intra

  13. Evidence for an explosive origin of central pit craters on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathan R.; Bell, James F.; Christensen, Philip R.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2015-05-01

    Kilometer-scale pits are nested in the centers of many impact craters on Mars as well as on icy satellites. They have been inferred to form in the presence of a water-ice rich substrate; however, the process(es) responsible for their formation is still debated. Previous models invoke origins by either explosive excavation of potentially water-bearing crustal material, or by subsurface drainage of meltwater and/or collapse. If explosive excavation forms central pits, pit-derived ejecta should be draped around the pits, whereas internal collapse should not deposit significant material outside pit rims. Using visible wavelength images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) instruments and thermal infrared images from the Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument, we conducted a survey to characterize, in detail, the global population of central pits in impact craters ⩾10 km in diameter. We specifically examined the morphology and thermophysical characteristics of the pits for evidence of pit ejecta. Our analysis of thermal images suggests that coarse-grained materials are distributed proximally around many central pits on the floors of their host craters. The decrease in average grain size with distance from pit rims is consistent with pit-derived ejecta. These observations and interpretations better support an explosive origin for central pits on Mars than they do an origin of subsurface meltwater drainage and collapse of the overlying substrate. A major weakness to previous explosive central pit formation models is the inability for them to form pits late enough in the impact process to be preserved. To address this, we present an alternative "melt contact model" where a central uplift brings ice-bearing substrate into contact with impact melt to generate steam explosions and excavate central pits during the impact modification stage. Theoretical calculations show

  14. Bitter Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... current list of banned drugs. The fruit, peel, flower, and oil are used and can be taken ... E-mail: info@nccih.nih.gov PubMed® A service of the National Library of Medicine, PubMed® contains ...

  15. Detection of simulated pitting corrosion and noises in crude oil storage tank by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Latif, N.A.; Azhar Mohd Sinin; Mohamad Daud; Abd Nasir Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    The damage mechanisms associated with crude oil storage tanks can be complex and varied and include pitting corrosion due to presence of species such as sulphate reducing bacteria. Acoustic Emission (AE) could be used to characterise the pitting corrosion signal in crude oil storage tanks but it is extremely difficult to simulate the pitting corrosion in the laboratory using crude oil as electrolyte because crude oil is considered as non corrosive medium. In this study, induced current have been introduced onto a surface ASTM 516 steel as an electrical source to simulate the electrical noise produced during pitting corrosion process and AE sensor have been used to detect this current. It is found that AE system could detect AE signal release during current induction this current and is expected that if the exact simulation of the current magnitude produced during pitting corrosion process is made available, AE characterisation of pitting corrosion in such tank could be made possible. (Author)

  16. The role of inclusions in the pitting behaviour of maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.; Hussain, S.W.; Ashraf, H.

    1999-01-01

    The pitting characteristics of maraging steel in artificial seawater have been investigated electrochemically using the cyclic polarization technique. Pits were found to be associated with the inclusions present in steel. The hysteresis loop observed indicates that maraging steel has poor resistance to pitting in air saturated seawater. On examination of corroded surfaces under SEM, it is noted that the pits are always associated with inclusions, which are generally the carbonitrides of TiMo presents in maraging steel in varying quantities depending on the melting practice. In order to confirm that the pitting behavior is associated with inclusions, samples from clean maraging steel, having very low inclusion level, were tested. Such samples showed much less tendency for pitting. (author)

  17. Probability distribution of pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Velazquez, J.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado, 10400, La Habana (Cuba); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The probability distributions of external-corrosion pit depth and pit growth rate were investigated in underground pipelines using Monte Carlo simulations. The study combines a predictive pit growth model developed by the authors with the observed distributions of the model variables in a range of soils. Depending on the pipeline age, any of the three maximal extreme value distributions, i.e. Weibull, Frechet or Gumbel, can arise as the best fit to the pitting depth and rate data. The Frechet distribution best fits the corrosion data for long exposure periods. This can be explained by considering the long-term stabilization of the diffusion-controlled pit growth. The findings of the study provide reliability analysts with accurate information regarding the stochastic characteristics of the pitting damage in underground pipelines.

  18. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  19. Storage and Management of Open-pit Transportation Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiusheng Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aiming at the actual demand of open-pit mine daily production scheduling and positioning monitoring. After extracting data from existing topographic maps and other information, it discusses the feasibility of using this data to establish thematic database. By considering the extensive application of GPS data, utilizing new spatial data types of SQL Server 2008 for data storage and management. Extracting data algorithms such as the node spatial data, the regional boundary and the path are implemented, then spatial data storage and management is also realized. It provides the basis for the production of decision-making and production cost savings.

  20. Electrochemical tests for pitting and crevice corrosion susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postlethwaite, J.

    1983-01-01

    Passive metals are being considered as container materials for the disposal of nuclear waste by deep burial. Localized corrosion is a potential problem and electrochemical techniques have an important role in the assessment of the susceptibility of these container materials to crevice and pitting corrosion. This paper critically reviews both the theoretical background and the experimental details of the electrochemical test methods presently used in both industrial and scientific studies of localized corrosion in both halide and non-halide solutions and identifies those areas where theory and experimental behaviour are in agreement and those areas for which there is neither well established theory nor an experimental test method

  1. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira Junior, P.B.; Leite, C.B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.) [pt

  2. Proteomic analysis of heat treated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. Hong Kong Green) using 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Zhi Xiang; Chua, Kek Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the proteome of bitter gourd prior to and after subjecting to boiling and microwaving. A comparative analysis of the proteome profiles of raw and thermally treated bitter gourds was performed using 2D-DIGE. The protein content and number of protein spots in raw sample was higher when compared to the cooked samples. Qualitative analysis revealed that 103 (boiled sample) and 110 (microwaved sample) protein spots were up regulated whereas 120 (boiled sample) and 107 (microwaved sample) protein spots were down regulated. Ten protein spots with the highest significant fold change in the cooked samples were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolisms and stress responses. Small heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglycerate kinase play a role in heat-stress-mediated protection of bitter gourd. This study suggests that appropriate heat treatment (cooking methods) can lead to induction of selected proteins in bitter gourd. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides.

  4. An evidence-based systematic review of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Costa, Dawn; Giese, Nicole; Isaac, Richard; Liu, Angela; Liu, Yanze; Osho, Olufemi; Poon, Linda; Rusie, Erica; Stock, Tera; Weissner, Wendy; Windsor, Regina C

    2013-12-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  5. First report of Colletotrichum godetiae causing bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Lans, van der A.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 418,000 tons in 2011. Symptoms of apple bitter rot were observed on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands in July 2013 after 9 months of storage in a packing house at controlled atmosphere.

  6. The human taste receptor hTAS2R14 responds to a variety of different bitter compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Maik; Brockhoff, Anne; Kuhn, Christina; Bufe, Bernd; Winnig, Marcel; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The recent advances in the functional expression of TAS2Rs in heterologous systems resulted in the identification of bitter tastants that specifically activate receptors of this family. All bitter taste receptors reported to date exhibit a pronounced selectivity for single substances or structurally related bitter compounds. In the present study we demonstrate the expression of the hTAS2R14 gene by RT-PCR analyses and in situ hybridisation in human circumvallate papillae. By functional expression in HEK-293T cells we show that hTAS2R14 displays a, so far, unique broad tuning towards a variety of structurally diverse bitter compounds, including the potent neurotoxins, (-)-α-thujone, the pharmacologically active component of absinthe, and picrotoxinin, a poisonous substance of fishberries. The observed activation of heterologously expressed hTAS2R14 by low concentrations of (-)-α-thujone and picrotoxinin suggests that the receptor is sufficiently sensitive to caution us against the ingestion of toxic amounts of these substances

  7. The use of different techniques for determination of pitting corrosion potential of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskelinen, P.; Forsen, O.; Onnela, J.; Ylaesaari, S.; Haenninen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Three different techniques for pitting corrosion potential measurement on austenitic stainless steel (Fe18Cr10Ni) were compared: conventional polarization method, a new Avesta electrochemical corrosion measurement cell and a scratch technique. Special attention was paid to the effects of crevice corrosion during pitting corrosion potential measurement and to their elimination. Development of a rapid test technique for reliable pitting corrosion potential determination was aimed at and resulted from comparison of the different techniques

  8. Itataia's deposit - Structural zoning of a pit until the level 480 meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, J.C.G.S.

    1986-01-01

    This work is part of Itataia Project-Geotechnics; in it are introduced several comments concerning the structural zoning of a pit in Itataias' phosphorous-uranipherous deposit, until the level 480 meters. The structural parameters (fractures, faults, foliations) obtained in surface and underground works were statistically treated. Stereographic projection was used to define eventual slipping into the pit. All the data were arranged in tables to make it easy the comparison with experimental pits. (author) [pt

  9. INFLUENCE OF PIT WALL ANCHORAGE ONTO ADDITIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of additional projected deformations of buildings located in close proximity to pits is exemplified by the specific structure of the pit support system that has active PIT [1] anchors. The authors also consider the influence produced by the structure of anchors onto the two buildings located within the area of influence of the excavation works and protected by the anchors installed underneath the foundations of the two adjacent buildings.

  10. Galvanokinetic polarization method applied to the pitting corrosion study of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Xuan, Q.; Vu Quang, K.

    1992-01-01

    Galvanokinetic (GK) polarisation method was used to study the pitting corrosion of 316L stainless steel in chloride solution. Current scan rate effect on the pitting characteristic parameters was pointed out. Specific relations between current scan rate and some pitting characteristic parameters, such as critical current density I c , stable current density I s , critical time t c , stable time t s , were established. Some advantages of the GK polarisation method were discussed

  11. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Perkins, R.W.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Enderlin, W.I.

    1979-04-01

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations and production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 740 Ci/AFR during mining operations and 33 Ci/AFR/yr after abandonment of the mine

  12. Large heterogeneities in comet 67P as revealed by active pits from sinkhole collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Bodewits, Dennis; Besse, Sébastien; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst Uwe; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F; Auger, Anne-Thérèse; Barucci, M Antonella; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Bertini, Ivano; Capanna, Claire; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; Debei, Stefano; De Cecco, Mariolino; El-Maarry, Mohamed Ramy; Ferri, Francesca; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Gaskell, Robert; Giacomini, Lorenza; Groussin, Olivier; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurélie; Gutierrez-Marques, P; Gutiérrez, Pedro J; Güttler, Carsten; Hoekzema, Nick; Höfner, Sebastian; Hviid, Stubbe F; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kovacs, Gabor; Kramm, Rainer; Kührt, Ekkehard; Küppers, Michael; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lara, Luisa M; Lazzarin, Monica; Lee, Vicky; Leyrat, Cédric; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Lopez Moreno, Josè J; Lowry, Stephen; Magrin, Sara; Maquet, Lucie; Marchi, Simone; Marzari, Francesco; Massironi, Matteo; Michalik, Harald; Moissl, Richard; Mottola, Stefano; Naletto, Giampiero; Oklay, Nilda; Pajola, Maurizio; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Thomas, Nicolas; Toth, Imre; Tubiana, Cecilia

    2015-07-02

    Pits have been observed on many cometary nuclei mapped by spacecraft. It has been argued that cometary pits are a signature of endogenic activity, rather than impact craters such as those on planetary and asteroid surfaces. Impact experiments and models cannot reproduce the shapes of most of the observed cometary pits, and the predicted collision rates imply that few of the pits are related to impacts. Alternative mechanisms like explosive activity have been suggested, but the driving process remains unknown. Here we report that pits on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko are active, and probably created by a sinkhole process, possibly accompanied by outbursts. We argue that after formation, pits expand slowly in diameter, owing to sublimation-driven retreat of the walls. Therefore, pits characterize how eroded the surface is: a fresh cometary surface will have a ragged structure with many pits, while an evolved surface will look smoother. The size and spatial distribution of pits imply that large heterogeneities exist in the physical, structural or compositional properties of the first few hundred metres below the current nucleus surface.

  13. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  14. TRANSITIONS IN ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE DURING PITTING CORROSION OF ALUMINUM IN CHLORIDE ENVIRONMENTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SASAKI,K.; ISAACS,H.S.; LEVY,P.W.

    2001-09-02

    Aluminum, in a chloride containing solutions close to its pitting potential, shows vigorous fluctuations in current and potential. Measurements have been made of the freely corroding potential, and the currents between interconnected electrodes. It is shown that there is a transition in the behavior of the transients. The transition occurs when multiple active pits are present and electrochemical communication occurs between them. The major source of current and potential transients is the growth process in the active pits rather than meta-stable pitting at the passive surface.

  15. Assessment of Concrete Repair Techniques for Radiologically-Contaminated Tank Farm Pump and Valve Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the scope of Project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations,'' the condition of pump and valve pit walls and floors is being assessed, and repairs made as needed, to support upgrading the infrastructure necessary to safely transfer tank waste for treatment. Flaws in the surfaces of the pits (e.g., concrete crack/faults, protective coating deterioration) must be repaired to ensure containment integrity and to facilitate future decontamination of the pits. This engineering study presents a cost/risk/benefit evaluation of concrete and protective coating repair methods in pump and valve pits using various manual and remote tool systems

  16. The Space-Time Fractal Feature of Deformation at Convex Corner of Deep Foundation Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shun-li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study on the space-time feature of foundation pit deformation has important significance to ensure the stability of foundation pit engineering. In the present study, the relationship between the space-time fractal feature of foundation pit deformation and the stability of the foundation pit is expressed with simple indexes, such as the time and position of the maximum value of deformation. By combining the concrete engineering example, the fractal theory is introduced, and the correlation dimension is calculated with the measured deformation data for a period of time. By combining the concrete engineering example, the fractal theory was introduced, and used the correlation dimension calculated with the measured deformation data to analyze the space-time fractal feature of deformation at convex corner. Further researched on the relationship between the correlation dimension of the foundation pit deformation and the stability of foundation pit. The research showed that the correlation dimension could reveal the complex space-time feature of the foundation pit deformation. From the aspects of time, the correlation dimension is related to the foundation pit condition, construction disturbance, the change of supporting structure and so on, and has a certain degree of decline with time. From the aspects of space, the difference of correlation dimension between stable and unstable regions is relatively large while there is little difference in the stability region. With the correlation dimension, it is more easily to identify the stable and the unstable regions of the foundation pit, compared with the accumulated deformation.

  17. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Fraser

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open

  18. Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Wood, Elizabeth; Rogel Castillo, Cristian; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2013-08-14

    Amygdalin is a cynaogenic diglucoside responsible for the bitterness of almonds. Almonds display three flavor phenotypes, nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter. Herein, the amygdalin content of 20 varieties of nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds from four primary growing regions of California was determined using solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS). The detection limit for this method is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL (3 times the signal-to-noise ratio) and the LOQ is 0.33 ng/mL (10 times the signal-to-noise ratio), allowing for the reliable quantitation of trace levels of amygdalin in nonbitter almonds (0.13 mg/kg almond). Results indicate that amygdalin concentrations for the three flavor phenotypes were significantly different (p < 0.001). The mean concentrations of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds are 63.13 ± 57.54, 992.24 ± 513.04, and 40060.34 ± 7855.26 mg/kg, respectively. Levels of amygdalin ranged from 2.16 to 157.44 mg/kg in nonbitter, from 523.50 to 1772.75 mg/kg in semibitter, and from 33006.60 to 53998.30 mg/kg in bitter almonds. These results suggest that phenotype classification may be achieved on the basis of amygdalin levels. Growing region had a statistically significant effect on the amygdalin concentration in commercial varieties (p < 0.05).

  19. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  20. Relationship between the Amount of Bitter Substances Adsorbed onto Lipid/Polymer Membrane and the Electric Response of Taste Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Toko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness of bitter substances can be measured by the change in the membrane electric potential caused by adsorption (CPA using a taste sensor (electronic tongue. In this study, we examined the relationship between the CPA value due to an acidic bitter substance and the amount of the bitter substance adsorbed onto lipid/polymer membranes, which contain different lipid contents, used in the taste sensor. We used iso-α-acid which is an acidic bitter substance found in several foods and beverages. The amount of adsorbed iso-α-acid, which was determined by spectroscopy, showed a maximum at the lipid concentration 0.1 wt % of the membrane, and the same phenomenon was observed for the CPA value. At the higher lipid concentration, however, the amount adsorbed decreased and then remained constant, while the CPA value decreased monotonically to zero. This constant adsorption amount was observed when the membrane potential in the reference solution did not change with increasing lipid concentration. The decrease in CPA value in spite of the constant adsorption amount is caused by a decrease in the sensitivity of the membrane as the surface charge density increases. The reason why the peaks appeared in both the CPA value and adsorption amount is based on the contradictory adsorption properties of iso-α-acid. The increasing charged lipid concentration of the membrane causes an increasing electrostatic attractive interaction between iso-α-acid and the membrane, but simultaneously causes a decreasing hydrophobic interaction that results in decreasing adsorption of iso-α-acid, which also has hydrophobic properties, onto the membrane. Estimates of the amount of adsorption suggest that iso-α-acid molecules are adsorbed onto both the surface and interior of the membrane.

  1. A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Preuss, Harry G; Shara, Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions.

  2. PRESUMPTIVE PIT VIPER ENVENOMATION IN PSITTACINES IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dislich, Mathias; Wohlsein, Peter; Croukamp, Anna Sophie; Neumann, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Snake bites represent a serious public health risk in many regions of the globe, especially in tropical areas. Clinical signs and postmortem changes are well described in human and other mammalian species. However, detailed case reports about venomous snake attacks in avian species are limited. This report describes presumptive fatal envenomations in three psittacines caused by pit vipers in a Brazilian zoo. In one case, a Brazilian lancehead (Bothrops moojeni) was captured in the aviary. In all three cases the dermis around the suspected snake bite area exhibited hemorrhages and edema. Histologically, degeneration and necrosis of subcutaneous musculature were observed. Lung, heart, and kidneys displayed focal hemorrhages. The local changes are similar to those described for mammalian patients including humans. However, except for the parenchymatous hemorrhages, additional external and internal gross and histopathological lesions were missing. After ruling out other causes, such as aggression and dicoumarinic intoxication, the presumptive diagnosis of snake envenomation was made. The smaller size and variabilities of pathophysiological effects of the venom in parrots might explain the different lesion patterns observed, compared with mammals. Possibly, the birds may have reacted differently to envenomation by pit vipers and died before the venom could cause macroscopic and histological changes often observed in mammals.

  3. Open-pit mining of lignin waste storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Михайлов

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop performance criteria for fleet selection in surface mining of lignin as a raw material for factory-made fuel. The East Siberian Biotechnical Plant (ESBP proposes to close the Lignin Waste Storage (LWS at Tulun, Irkutsk Region of Russia. The LWS is a 9.6 ha facility used for the long-term storage of hydrolysis lignin and some fly ash. The project provided whole-year open-pit mining of lignin storage with one mining ledge within 3 years. Productivity – 1500 t/day or 447 000 t/year. Excavated lignin will be stockpile on the Pellet Plant territory for later processing. Part of this closure effort would involve constructing an artificial reservoir on the place of LWS. The objectives of this project were as follows: determine equipment needs and develop optimal procedures for the lignin excavation and transportation. Lignin moving may include site preparation, excavation, transportation and road surfacing. Lignin excavation is conduct by using techniques similar to those used for open-pit mining of peat. For this project, the excavator is the most important piece of equipment required for lignin removal and handling. The mining process consist of excavating the lignin (using Kraneks ЕК-270LC and hauling it to pellet plant via six off-road tractors&semitrailers (John Deere 7730& ISON-8520.

  4. Treatment of pit water from uranium mining operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, A.; Lafforgue, P.; Lyaudet, G.

    1984-01-01

    The pit water from uranium mines is normally treated to eliminate the soluble radium and suspended solids. The radium is precipitated together with the barium sulphate. The latter results from the reaction of barium chloride with an excess of sulphate ions. The suspended solids are flocculated by aluminium salts (chloride, polychloride). If necessary, synthetic flocculants are also used. Certain grades of pit water contain, sometimes incidentally, a few milligrams of uranium per litre. These quantities always remain too low for any direct recovery (treatment by ion exchange resins). By applying certain measures, the preceding processes can also be used to eliminate uranium. The latter is carried away by aluminium hydroxide in a very narrow zone of pH (6 to 7,4) which corresponds to the minimum solubility of the hydroxide. Depending on the characteristic of the water (pH, salinity), use is made either of aluminium sulphate or of sodium aluminate, with an addition of a base in extreme cases. This article gives various examples of applications in the Haute-Vienne, Chardon in Vendee, the Commanderie mine in Vendee, at Cerilly in Allier and at Lodeve in Herault [fr

  5. ARIES pit disassembly-safeguards issues for transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Cremers, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    Historic changes are now occurring in U.S. nonproliferation and arms control policy. The quantity of nuclear weapons required to provide a deterrence has decreased (especially with the end of the Cold War). Further, various bilateral and multilateral treaties now require the removal of numerous nuclear weapons from the U.S. stockpile. Although the removal of such weapons appears straightforward, the final disposition of the surplus weapons-grade nuclear material must be carefully considered. Domestically, several plutonium disposition plans are now under consideration concerning long-term safety, materials accounting, environmental impact, accessibility, and long-term containment. The Automated Retirement and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory is one such disposition method for the disassembly of plutonium weapons components (pits). The ARIES system integrates and automates several features: disassembly of pits, consolidation of the plutonium material, on-line measurement of final products, waste streams, and long-term packaging. Clearly, in any plutonium disposition plan, the safeguards aspects of materials control and accounting and the security aspects must be carefully considered and evaluated

  6. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Ishikura, S; Kogawa, H; Tsai, C C

    2003-01-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the s...

  7. An Update Review on the Anthelmintic Activity of Bitter Gourd, Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolperm, Sutthaya; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2017-01-01

    Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitales ), as known as bitter melon or gourd, is a daily consumption as food and traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and Indo-China. It has been shown to possess anticancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, charantin, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, tannins, and terpenoids. This plant is rich in various saponins including momordicin, momordin, momordicoside, karavilagenin, karaviloside, and kuguacin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic infections. Based on established literature on the anthelmintic activity of M. charantia and possible mode of action, this review article has attempted to compile M. charantia could be further explored for the development of potential anthelmintic drug.

  8. A code for calculating force and temperature of a bitter plate type toroidal field coil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, U.

    1989-01-01

    To assist the design effort of the TF coils for CIT, a set of programs was developed to calculate the transient spatial distribution of the current density, the temperature and the forces in the TF coil conductor region. The TF coils are of the Bitter (disk) type design and therefore have negligible variation of current density in the toroidal direction. During the TF pulse, voltages are induced which cause the field and current to diffuse in the minor radial direction. This penetration, combined with the increase of resistance due to the temperature rise determines the distribution of the current. After the current distribution has been determined, the in-plane (TF-TF) and the out-of-plane (TF-PF) forces in the conductor are computed. The predicted currents and temperatures have been independently corroborated using the SPARK code which has been modified for this type of problem. 6 figs

  9. Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lawrence; Birtwhistle, Richard; Kotecha, Jyoti; Hannah, Susan; Cuthbertson, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present article reviews the clinical data regarding the anti-diabetic potentials of M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects.

  10. Analysis of a Lipid/Polymer Membrane for Bitterness Sensing with a Preconditioning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yatabe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to evaluate the taste of foods or medicines using a taste sensor. The taste sensor converts information on taste into an electrical signal using several lipid/polymer membranes. A lipid/polymer membrane for bitterness sensing can evaluate aftertaste after immersion in monosodium glutamate (MSG, which is called “preconditioning”. However, we have not yet analyzed the change in the surface structure of the membrane as a result of preconditioning. Thus, we analyzed the change in the surface by performing contact angle and surface zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS and gas cluster ion beam time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-TOF-SIMS. After preconditioning, the concentrations of MSG and tetradodecylammonium bromide (TDAB, contained in the lipid membrane were found to be higher in the surface region than in the bulk region. The effect of preconditioning was revealed by the above analysis methods.

  11. Anti diabetic effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melone on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakaiah Vangoori, Mishra SS, Ambudas B, Ramesh P, Meghavani G, Deepika K, Prathibha A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the anti diabetic effect of the bitter melon on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental animals (rabbits. Materials and Methods: the alcohol extract of whole fruit was tested for its efficacy in Alloxan (150mg/kg induced diabetic rabbit. The diabetic rabbits were divided into 5groups. Group I (control received 2% gumacasia, groupie (positive control received standard drug Metformin (62.5mg+2%GA, group III, IV, V (T1 T2 T3 were treated orally with a daily dose of 0.5(gm 1gm, 1.5gm respectively for 35 days, for all diabetic rabbits after giving TEST,NC,PC preparations, the blood samples were collected and determined the blood glucose level 0,1,3,24hrs intervals. 0hr reading is before drug giving and remaining 3 readings after drugs giving. 24th her reading is considered as 0hr reading for the next day. Results: administration of alcohol of an extract of bitter melon produced a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels in Alloxan induced rabbits. There was a significant fall in blood sugar level in High dose (1.5GM/kg in comparison to low dose (0.5gm/kg and median dose (1gm/kg shown by LSD test. This is comparable to the effect of Metformin. Conclusion: the results of this study show that chronic oral administration of an extract of Momordica charantia fruit at an appropriate dosage may be good alternative anti diabetic agent.

  12. Impact of Prior Consumption on Sour, Sweet, Salty, and Bitter Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Josephine; Palma-Salgado, Sindy; Clark, Diana; Kahraman, Ozan; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-02-01

    Food sensory tests generally require panelists to abstain from food or beverage consumption 30 min to an hour before a tasting session. However, investigators do not have a complete control over panelists' intentional or unintentional consumption prior to a tasting session. Currently, it is unclear how prior consumption impacts the results of the tasting session. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temporary and lingering mouth irritation caused by the consumption of coffee, orange juice, and gum within 1, 15, or 30 min prior to the tasting session on the perception of 4 basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Fifty-two panelists were served a beverage (orange juice, coffee, and water) or were asked to chew a piece of gum, and then, remained in the waiting room for 1, 15, or 30 min. They were then asked to report taste intensities using 15-cm unstructured line scales. Mean intensities of all tastes were not significantly different when orange juice was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min when compared to water. Mean intensities of bitter were significantly lower when coffee was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min than when water was a primer. Mean intensities of sweet were significantly lower when gum was a primer at 1 and 15 min than when water was a primer. The findings showed that it is necessary for 30 min or more waiting period of no food or beverage consumption prior to sensory testing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Geng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%, benzoic acid (14.80%, and hexadecane (3.97% were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50 values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide.

  14. Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Huiling; Yu, Xinchi; Lu, Ailin; Cao, Haoqiang; Zhou, Bohang; Zhou, Le; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO) was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%), benzoic acid (14.80%), and hexadecane (3.97%) were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide. PMID:27589723

  15. Ongoing ingestive behavior is rapidly suppressed by a preabsorptive, intestinal “bitter taste” cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Terry L.; Powley, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery that cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract express the same molecular receptors and intracellular signaling components known to be involved in taste has generated great interest in potential functions of such post-oral “taste” receptors in the control of food intake. To determine whether taste cues in the GI tract are detected and can directly influence behavior, the present study used a microbehavioral analysis of intake, in which rats drank from lickometers that were programmed to simultaneously deliver a brief yoked infusion of a taste stimulus to the intestines. Specifically, in daily 30-min sessions, thirsty rats with indwelling intraduodenal catheters were trained to drink hypotonic (0.12 M) sodium chloride (NaCl) and simultaneously self-infuse a 0.12 M NaCl solution. Once trained, in a subsequent series of intestinal taste probe trials, rats reduced licking during a 6-min infusion period, when a bitter stimulus denatonium benzoate (DB; 10 mM) was added to the NaCl vehicle for infusion, apparently conditioning a mild taste aversion. Presentation of the DB in isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) for intestinal infusions accelerated the development of the response across trials and strengthened the temporal resolution of the early licking suppression in response to the arrival of the DB in the intestine. In an experiment to evaluate whether CCK is involved as a paracrine signal in transducing the intestinal taste of DB, the CCK-1R antagonist devazepide partially blocked the response to intestinal DB. In contrast to their ability to detect and avoid the bitter taste in the intestine, rats did not modify their licking to saccharin intraduodenal probe infusions. The intestinal taste aversion paradigm developed here provides a sensitive and effective protocol for evaluating which tastants—and concentrations of tastants—in the lumen of the gut can control ingestion. PMID:21865540

  16. Ongoing ingestive behavior is rapidly suppressed by a preabsorptive, intestinal "bitter taste" cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Lindsey A; Davidson, Terry L; Powley, Terry L

    2011-11-01

    The discovery that cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract express the same molecular receptors and intracellular signaling components known to be involved in taste has generated great interest in potential functions of such post-oral "taste" receptors in the control of food intake. To determine whether taste cues in the GI tract are detected and can directly influence behavior, the present study used a microbehavioral analysis of intake, in which rats drank from lickometers that were programmed to simultaneously deliver a brief yoked infusion of a taste stimulus to the intestines. Specifically, in daily 30-min sessions, thirsty rats with indwelling intraduodenal catheters were trained to drink hypotonic (0.12 M) sodium chloride (NaCl) and simultaneously self-infuse a 0.12 M NaCl solution. Once trained, in a subsequent series of intestinal taste probe trials, rats reduced licking during a 6-min infusion period, when a bitter stimulus denatonium benzoate (DB; 10 mM) was added to the NaCl vehicle for infusion, apparently conditioning a mild taste aversion. Presentation of the DB in isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) for intestinal infusions accelerated the development of the response across trials and strengthened the temporal resolution of the early licking suppression in response to the arrival of the DB in the intestine. In an experiment to evaluate whether CCK is involved as a paracrine signal in transducing the intestinal taste of DB, the CCK-1R antagonist devazepide partially blocked the response to intestinal DB. In contrast to their ability to detect and avoid the bitter taste in the intestine, rats did not modify their licking to saccharin intraduodenal probe infusions. The intestinal taste aversion paradigm developed here provides a sensitive and effective protocol for evaluating which tastants-and concentrations of tastants-in the lumen of the gut can control ingestion.

  17. Soil Properties in a South Georgia, USA, Borrow Pit 40 Years After Excavation Ceased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates soil properties in an abandoned sand borrow pit located about 11 km south of Valdosta, GA, USA, that was used and then abandoned with no efforts at reclamation, and compares those developing soils to natural soils surrounding the pit. The pit contains two tiers, a deep lower part and an upper terrace. There are distinct vegetative zones within the pit; three are included in this study. The lowest part of the pit is characterized by a mix of slash pines (Pinus caribaea) and deciduous trees including sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and blackgum (Nyssa biflora) with a well-developed leaf litter cover but a lack of significant underbrush or grass. Water ponds at the surface during wet periods in the lowest part of the pit. The upper terrace has sparse vegetation along its lip including a few stunted slash and longleaf (Pinus palustris) pines and a sparse lichen cover, including "deer moss" (Cladina evansii) on the ground surface, lacks leaf litter cover, and the water table is deep relative to the rest of the pit. There is a gentle slope away from this sparsely-vegetated area towards the edge of the excavation. The edge of the pit along the upper terrace has a healthy stand of mixed pine and deciduous trees similar to that found in the pit bottom, but the ground also includes a thick cover of grass (Andropogon sp.). Water ponds at the surface during wet periods here as well. Native deciduous trees including live oaks (Quercus virginiana), water oaks (Quercus nigra), and magnolias (Magnolia sp.) characterize the area outside the pit. Although soil formation over only 40 years is slight, there are distinct differences in the soils between the vegetative zones that were studied. Soil differences are attributed to differences in topographically controlled access to water and vegetation type. Study of surrounding developed soils reveals that soils within the pit still have a significant amount of development remaining before they reach equilibrium

  18. [Clinical evaluation of fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Pei-hong; Xu, Quan-lin; Ba, Yong

    2007-08-01

    To study the clinical effect of the fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children. 622 health permanent teeth in 6-8 years old children were divided into three groups. Children in the experimental group A (n=207,335 teeth) underwent fluor protector every six months, experimental group B(n=205, 327 teeth) with glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant and children in the control group(n=210, 354 teeth) underwent no treatment. The incidence of caries were compared among the three groups using SPSS10.0 software package after 3 years. After 3 years, the incidence of caries in A and B experimental groups were lower than in the control group, the difference was significant (P0.05). Fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant also have good clinical effect in preventing caries.

  19. A bitter pill for type 2 diabetes? The activation of bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 can stimulate GLP-1 release from enteroendocrine L-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hung; Hui, Hongxiang; Morvaridi, Susan; Cai, Jiena; Zhang, Sanqi; Tan, Jun; Wu, Vincent; Levin, Nancy; Knudsen, Beatrice; Goddard, William A; Pandol, Stephen J; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been found in many extra-oral locations like the gastrointestinal (GI) system, respiratory system, and brain, though its function at these locations is only beginning to be understood. To probe the receptor's potential metabolic role, immunohistochemistry of human ileum tissues was performed, which showed that the receptor was co-localized with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in L-cells. In a previous study, we had modeled the structure of this receptor for its many taste-variant haplotypes (Tan et al. 2011), including the taster haplotype PAV. The structure of this haplotype was then used in a virtual ligand screening pipeline using a collection of ∼2.5 million purchasable molecules from the ZINC database. Three compounds (Z7, Z3, Z1) were purchased from the top hits and tested along with PTU (known TAS2R38 agonist) in in vitro and in vivo assays. The dose-response study of the effect of PTU and Z7 on GLP-1 release using wild-type and TAS2R38 knockout HuTu-80 cells showed that the receptor TAS2R38 plays a major role in GLP-1 release due to these molecules. In vivo studies of PTU and the three compounds showed that they each increase GLP-1 release. PTU was also chemical linked to cellulose to slow its absorption and when tested in vivo, it showed an enhanced and prolonged GLP-1 release. These results suggest that the GI lumen location of TAS2R38 on the L-cell makes it a relatively safe drug target as systemic absorption is not needed for a TAS2R38 agonist drug to effect GLP-1 release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Flyover Modeling of Planetary Pits - Undergraduate Student Instrument Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, N.; Whittaker, W.

    2015-12-01

    On the surface of the moon and Mars there are hundreds of skylights, which are collapsed holes that are believed to lead to underground caves. This research uses Vision, Inertial, and LIDAR sensors to build a high resolution model of a skylight as a landing vehicle flies overhead. We design and fabricate a pit modeling instrument to accomplish this task, implement software, and demonstrate sensing and modeling capability on a suborbital reusable launch vehicle flying over a simulated pit. Future missions on other planets and moons will explore pits and caves, led by the technology developed by this research. Sensor software utilizes modern graph-based optimization techniques to build 3D models using camera, LIDAR, and inertial data. The modeling performance was validated with a test flyover of a planetary skylight analog structure on the Masten Xombie sRLV. The trajectory profile closely follows that of autonomous planetary powered descent, including translational and rotational dynamics as well as shock and vibration. A hexagonal structure made of shipping containers provides a terrain feature that serves as an appropriate analog for the rim and upper walls of a cylindrical planetary skylight. The skylight analog floor, walls, and rim are modeled in elevation with a 96% coverage rate at 0.25m2 resolution. The inner skylight walls have 5.9cm2 color image resolution and the rims are 6.7cm2 with measurement precision superior to 1m. The multidisciplinary student team included students of all experience levels, with backgrounds in robotics, physics, computer science, systems, mechanical and electrical engineering. The team was commited to authentic scientific experimentation, and defined specific instrument requirements and measurable experiment objectives to verify successful completion.This work was made possible by the NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Project Educational Flight Opportunity 2013 program. Additional support was provided by the sponsorship of an

  1. The transition of corrosion pitting to surface fatigue cracks in 2024-T3 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Paul Nolan

    Pitting corrosion experiments were executed to characterize the dynamics. of accelerated corrosion for the combination of 2024-T3 aluminum and a 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. Platinum was used as a counter electrode and a silver-silver chloride electrode was used as a reference. A corrosion protocol was developed to accelerate pitting corrosion on 2024-T3 aluminum. The developed protocol allowed for the relative control of pitting depth on fatigue dog-bone specimens. A pitting damage threshold was encountered for depths beyond an average value of approximately 135mum. Corrosion fatigue experiments were performed on specimens that had been prior corroded using the developed corrosion protocol. Pitting depths from approximately 40mum-200mum were examined for fatigue characterization. Corrosion pitting to surface fatigue crack transition was captured and fatigue crack growth behavior was documented. As well as the pit to crack transition, the short crack behavior to long crack behavior transition was captured and analyzed. Fractographic analysis of corrosion fatigue specimens revealed cracks nucleating, propagating and causing subsequent failure from accelerated prior pitting corrosion damage.

  2. Variation in xylem structure from tropics to tundra: Evidence from vestured pits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Baas, P.; Gasson, P.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.

    2004-01-01

    Bordered pits play an important role in permitting water flow among adjacent tracheary elements in flowering plants. Variation in the bordered pit structure is suggested to be adaptive in optimally balancing the conflict between hydraulic efficiency (conductivity) and safety from air entry at the

  3. Genetic variation of Pit -1 gene in Chinese indigenous and Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation of Pit-1 gene in Chinese indigenous and Western goose populations. J Cheng, N Qiao, W Zhao, Q Xu, H Zhang, X Duan, W Ji, G Chen. Abstract. Pituitary-specific transcription factor (Pit-1, or GHF1, or POU1F1) is expressed in the pituitary gland; it regulates pituitary development and expression of the ...

  4. Intervascular pit membranes with a torus in the wood of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) and related genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Choat, B.; Vinckier, S.; Lens, F.; Schols, P.; Smets, E.

    2004-01-01

    • The distribution of intervascular pit membranes with a torus was investigated in juvenile wood samples of 19 species of Ulmus and seven related genera. • A staining solution of safranin and alcian blue (35 : 65) was recommended to distinguish torus-bearing pit membranes using light microscopy. •

  5. A New Algorithm for Determining Ultimate Pit Limits Based on Network Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Khodayari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the mining industry is to determine ultimate pit limits. Final pit is a collection of blocks, which can be removed with maximum profit while following restrictions on the slope of the mine’s walls. The size, location and final shape of an open-pit are very important in designing the location of waste dumps, stockpiles, processing plants, access roads and other surface facilities as well as in developing a production program. There are numerous methods for designing ultimate pit limits. Some of these methods, such as floating cone algorithm, are heuristic and do not guarantee to generate optimum pit limits. Other methods, like Lerchs–Grossmann algorithm, are rigorous and always generate the true optimum pit limits. In this paper, a new rigorous algorithm is introduced. The main logic in this method is that only positive blocks, which can pay costs of their overlying non-positive blocks, are able to appear in the final pit. Those costs may be paid either by positive block itself or jointly with other positive blocks, which have the same overlying negative blocks. This logic is formulated using a network model as a Linear Programming (LP problem. This algorithm can be applied to two- and three-dimension block models. Since there are many commercial programs available for solving LP problems, pit limits in large block models can be determined easily by using this method.

  6. Pitting Corrosion Behavior of 304 SS and 316 SS Alloys in Aqueous Chloride and Bromide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Kareem Shakir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the present work falls on the pitting corrosion behavior investigation of 304 SS and 316 SS alloys in 3.5 wt% of aqueous solution bearing with chloride and bromide anion at different solutions temperature range starting from (20-50oC due to the pitting corrosion tremendous effect on the economic, safety and materials loss due to leakage. The impact of solution temperatures on the pitting corrosion resistance at 3.5wt% (NaCl and NaBr solutions for the 304 SS and 316 SS has been investigated utilizing the cyclic polarization techniques at the potential range -400 to1000 mV vs. SCE at 40 mV/sec scan rate followed by the surface characterization employing Scanning Electron Microscope. The results show that a significant decline in the pitting corrosion potential Ep values of both stainless steel alloys in chloride and bromide solution during temperature increase attributed to the pitting corrosion potential decreased arises from the modification of the passive film properties. The surface examination using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope prove the occurring of higher pitting density over 304 SS in chloride solution than that observed in bromide solution with a non-circular lacy cover pitfall out at the center and falls inside the pits hall in comparison to the isolated circular lacy cover pit formed on 316 SS in 3.5wt% NaBr solution at 50 oC.

  7. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activity; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Veterans Health... to ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire...

  8. Detection of pit fragments in fresh cherries using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIR spectroscopy in the wavelength region from 900nm to 2600nm was evaluated as the basis for a rapid, non-destructive method for the detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries. Partial Least Squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) following various spectral pretreatments was applied to sp...

  9. Extreme value statistics for pitting corrosion of old underground cast iron pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, Zohreh Soltani; Melchers, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Many major city water supply distribution networks consist of buried cast iron pipes. In many cases the pipes are internally cement-lined and the predominant corrosion is by external pitting. This may cause leakage and eventual structural failure. It is conventional to use the Gumbel extreme value distribution to represent the statistics of maximum pits depth and to use it to estimate the probability of pipe wall perforation. Herein data obtained for maximum pit depths for large-sized (1–2 m long) samples of 10 pipes exhumed from different, apparently randomly selected, locations after 34–129 years of service are examined for consistency with the Gumbel probability distribution. This was the case for the deepest pits, but the data for less deep pits show a consistent pattern of departure from the Gumbel distribution. Some extreme pit depth data, inconsistent with the rest are interpreted as possibly caused by material imperfections. - Highlights: • A single Gumbel distribution does not describe the complete probability distribution for pits on the old cast iron pipes. • A multi-component probability distribution is required to describe all data. • Some Gumbel plots also show a small number of much deeper pits inconsistent with the other data.

  10. Decommissioning management of pit water at an uranium mine in Hunan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the influence of mining on groundwater at an uranium mine in Hunan Province, emphatically discusses the managing principles, methods and research works of pit water in decommissioning, and summaries sealing technique, construction management and the effect achieved in management of pit water

  11. Potential Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Cask Drop in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POWERS, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    This calculation note documents the probabilistic calculation of a potential drop of a multi-canister overpack (MCO) cask or MCO cask and immersion pail at the K West Basin south loadout pit. The calculations are in support of the cask loading system (CLS) subproject alignment of CLS equipment in the K West Basin south loadout pit

  12. Rupelian (middle Oligocene) fish otoliths from the clay pit 'De Vlijt' near Winterswijk, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, P.A.M.; Hinsbergh, van V.W.M.

    1978-01-01

    A large, interesting otolith fauna from the Middle Oligocene was found in the clay pit 'De Vlijt' near Winterswijk by sifting large quantities of clay and by collecting large loose specimens in the clay pit. Thirty-five species and one subspecies were indentified; nine species are new, viz.

  13. The Tegelen clay-pits: a hundred year old classical locality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.

    2004-01-01

    Having been described in 1904 by Dubois as a locality for fossil mammals, the Tegelen clay-pits are nowadays considered a ‘classical’ locality. It is the type locality of the Tiglian, a warm period of the Early Pleistocene or Late Pliocene. The pits are primarily known for their mammalian remains,

  14. Drill and Blast Performance Evaluation at the Obra Pit of Chirano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the causes of inefficient fragmentation and formation of toes in the Obra pit of Chirano Gold Mines Ltd and recommends best practices in order to produce optimum fragmentation to feed the crusher at a reduced cost and to provide good working pit floors. The methods employed included: drilling ...

  15. Fishery and Ecological Investigations of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits Along the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    add to levee stability. V Levee Borra Pits 16. Borrow pits form a chain of water bodies along the riverward base of the 1600-mile main line levee...Sister Lake, Michigan, to be 86 pounds per acre based on rotenone treatment . 215. Standing stock estimates averaged 174 pounds per acre from 139

  16. Catastrophic windthrow in the Southern Appalachians: characteristics of pits and mounds and initial vegetation responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; Corey R. Baker

    2000-01-01

    We characterized pit and mound (PM) topography resulting from catastrophic wind in the Coweeta Basin, and located 48 PM’s across a variety of forest types. Our measurements included pit length, width, and depth; and mound height, thickness, and width. Species of fallen trees were...

  17. Micromorphology and systematic distribution of pit membrane thickenings in Oleaceae: Tori and pseudo-tori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Huysmans, S.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on the functional significance of pit membranes in water conducting cells have renewed general interest in their micromorphology. At least two types of pit membrane thickenings have been described in angiosperm families, i.e. genuine tori and pseudo-tori. This study explores the

  18. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

    2007-10-31

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  1. Genetic variation of Pit-1 gene in Chinese indigenous and Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Key words: Goose, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), pituitary-specific transcription factor gene (Pit-1). ... Six pairs of primers were designed according to the DNA sequence of duck Pit-1 gene .... Sample size, genotype and gene frequency in 6 goose populations for the polymorphic primer pairs.

  2. Stochastic approach to pitting-corrosion-extreme modelling in low-carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado 10400, La Habana (Cuba); Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Rivas, D.; Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    A stochastic model previously developed by the authors using Markov chains has been improved in the light of new experimental evidence. The new model has been successfully applied to reproduce the time evolution of extreme pitting corrosion depths in low-carbon steel. The model is shown to provide a better physical understanding of the pitting process.

  3. Management of Pit 9 - highlights of accomplishments and lessons learned to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Pit 9 project is a U.S. Department of Energy prototype full scale demonstration to retrieve and treat buried mixed transuranic waste. The project is being managed by the DOE-Idaho Environmental Restoration Program, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency Region 10 and the state of Idaho, under the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Pit 9 is located in the northeast corner of the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Pit 9 project was conceived out of the need to determine capabilities to cost effectively retrieve and treat buried radioactive and radioactive mixed waste, and obtain characterization and contaminant migration data for buried waste at the INEL. Waste was disposed in Pit 9 from November 1967 to June 1969. Pit 9, at about 380 feet by 125 feet, represents approximately one acre of surface area of the 88 acre SDA. The pit contains approximately 350,000 ft 3 of soil beneath and between the buried waste and about 250,000 ft 3 of overburden soil. The average depth of the pit from soil surface to bedrock is approximately 17.5 feet. Approximately 110,000 ft 3 of transuranic (TRU) contaminated mixed wastes from Rocky Flats and approximately 40,000 ft 3 of low level and mixed wastes from the INEL were buried in Pit 9 during this period. Pit 9 is estimated to contain over 30,000 gallons of organics (over 30% of the total organic inventory in the SDA) and approximately 66 pounds of TRU radionuclides (between 3% and 4% of the total TRU inventory in the SDA). Pit 9 was selected as a demonstration site because it was one of the last disposal pits at the INEL to receive Rocky Flats waste, disposal records are better for Pit 9 than for disposal pits and trenches from earlier points in time, and the wastes in Pit 9 are representative of the wastes disposed in the SDA

  4. CMP [Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides] Pits: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.C.; Kolb, N.L.; Price, V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  5. Electromechanical behaviour of PIT $Nb_{3}Sn$ wires for NED

    CERN Document Server

    Seeber, B; Buta, F; Flükiger, R; Boutboul, T; Scheuerlein, C; Oberli, L; Rossi, L

    2009-01-01

    The critical current vs. axial tensile strain and transverse compressive force for two PIT Nb3Sn conductors, manufactured by SMI (now EAS), has been investigated. In addition, the distribution of the critical temperature has been determined by specific heat measurements. After identical reaction heat treatments wire #B207 has a slightly broader Tc distribution than wire #B215 and less volume fraction of Nb3Sn. The behaviour under axial tensile strain is as expected, although the strain for maximum current, m, is relativly low. However the studied wires are rather sensitive to transverse compressive forces. For instance at 10 kN and 15 T the critical current is reduced to 48% of its initial value and recovers only partially after unloading.

  6. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  7. Evaluation of the susceptibility to pitting corrosion of structural steels, including steels with modified surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunarska, E.; Nikiforow, K.

    2001-01-01

    Although the low alloy ferrite-perlite and bainite-martensite steels mostly undergo the general corrosion, pitting corrosion occurring under certain conditions jeopardizes the safety of installations, causing perforation of walls or initiation of crack. On the basis of electrochemical, corrosion and microscopic examinations, the conditions simulating typical industrial corrosion environments, containing Cl - ions have been selected, to which the parts of machines, devices and installation are subjected. The test parameters provide the preferential pitting corrosion without prevailing general corrosion, and provide the similar type of corrosion of different kinds of ferrite-perlite and bainite-martensite steels, including steels with modified surface layer. The proposed express method allows to evaluate the susceptibility to pitting corrosion and to evaluate the effect of surface modification on susceptibility to pitting corrosion in environments containing Cl - ions. The method may be applied for the proper selection of materials exploited under pitting corrosion conditions and for preparation of precorroded samples for mechanical testing. (author)

  8. The Effect of Calcium Treatment on Pitting Corrosion of Type 316L Austenitic Stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Heon; LeeSoo Chan; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hee San

    2001-01-01

    Pitting in chloride containing aqueous solution occurs mainly on manganese sulphide. Adding a slight amount of Ca as an alloying element prevents the MnS formation, since Ca is a stronger sulphide former than Mn. In this work, calcium treated Type 316L austenitic stainless steels have been investigated electrochemically to evaluate the effect of modified inclusions on pitting corrosion. Staircase polarization measurements were performed in 3.5% NaCl solution, where the occurrence of pits in materials caused current spikes. During staircase polarization test, steels with calcium treatment show low and discontinuous current spikes while those without calcium treatment show high and continuous current spikes. The results show that calcium treatment in Ca/S ratio of 1 ∼ 2 leads to an increase in the pitting potential of several hundred mV. A relationship between the calcium treatment and pit initiation sites was described

  9. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  10. Effect of solution treatment on pitting behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solution heat treatment on pitting behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel was investigated by EDS, potentiodynamic polarization and SECM. The contrast experiments were carried out on the original steel. The results demonstrate that for the original sample, when the potential was at the open circuit potential, there were many pitting precursor areas, due to the local breakdown of passive film on the surface, the pitting current fluctuations on the scale of pA. On the contrary, after 1100 °C solution treatment, the passive film was more stable than the original one. Therefore, the solution treatment can markedly improve the pitting resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steel due to the reduction of pitting precursor areas.

  11. Simulation of Fatigue Crack Initiation at Corrosion Pits With EDM Notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Uniaxial fatigue tests were conducted to compare the fatigue life of laboratory produced corrosion pits, similar to those observed in the shuttle main landing gear wheel bolt-hole, and an electro-discharged-machined (EDM) flaw. EDM Jaws are used to simulate corrosion pits during shuttle wheel (dynamometer) testing. The aluminum alloy, (AA 7050) laboratory fatigue tests were conducted to simulate the local stress level contained in the wheel bolt-hole. Under this high local stress condition, the EDM notch produced a fatigue life similar to test specimens containing corrosion pits of similar size. Based on the laboratory fatigue test results, the EDM Jaw (semi-circular disc shaped) produces a local stress state similar to corrosion pits and can be used to simulate a corrosion pit during the shuttle wheel dynamometer tests.

  12. Pit incubation at passive iron-nickel alloys as a stochastic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristofaro, N.B. de (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial, San Martin (Argentina). Sector Electroquimica Aplicada); Heusler, K.E. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Korrosion und Korrosionsschutz)

    1990-05-01

    The distribution functions of pit incubation times were measured with homogeneous iron-nickel alloys containing 40, 60, and 90 wt% nickel, respectively, at different electrode potentials in borate buffer, pH 7.5, after addition of 50 mM sodium chloride. The empirical moments of the distribution function are the same as for iron. Considering a general distribution function of the exponential type with a time-dependent frequency function, the logarithms of its parameters all are linearly related to the reciprocal potential difference towards the critical pitting potential. The same relationship is also observed for the mean incubation times. At constant electrode potential the mean incubation times grow longer with increasing concentration of nickel in the alloy. The ciritical pitting potentials become more positive with the nickel concentration. The independence of the kinetics of pit incubation form the nature of the metal indicates a universal mechanism of pit nucleation. (orig.).

  13. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  14. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alas, C.A.; Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D.; Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T.

    1995-01-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia's Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste

  15. Aquatic ecosystem health and trophic status classification of the Bitter Lakes along the main connecting link between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Abdallah, Hala S; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Irshad, Rizwan; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Almalki, Esam S

    2018-02-01

    The Bitter Lakes are the most significant water bodies of the Suez Canal, comprising 85% of the water volume, but spreading over only 24% of the length of the canal. The present study aims at investigation of the trophic status of the Bitter Lakes employing various trophic state indices, biotic and abiotic parameters, thus reporting the health of the Lake ecosystem according to the internationally accepted classification criteria's. The composition and abundance of phytoplankton with a dominance of diatoms and a decreased population density of 4315-7376 ind. l -1 reflect the oligotrophic nature of this water body. The intense growth of diatoms in the Bitter Lakes depends on silicate availability, in addition to nitrate and phosphate. If the trophic state index (TSI) is applied to the lakes under study it records that the Bitter Lakes have an index under 40. Moreover, in the total chlorophyll- a measurements of 0.35-0.96 µg l -1 there are more indicative of little algal biomass and lower biological productivity. At 0.76-2.3 µg l -1 , meanwhile, the low quantity of Phosphorus is a further measure of low biological productivity. In the Bitter Lakes, TN/TP ratios are high and recorded 147.4, and 184.7 for minimum and maximum ratios, respectively. These values indicate that in Bitter lakes, the limiting nutrient is phosphorus and confirm the oligotrophic status of the Bitter Lakes. The latter conclusion is supported by Secchi disc water clarity measurements, showing that light can penetrate, and thus algae can photosynthesize, as deep as >13 m. This study, therefore, showed that the Bitter Lakes of the Suez Canal exhibit oligotrophic conditions with clear water, low productivity and with no algal blooming.

  16. Aquatic ecosystem health and trophic status classification of the Bitter Lakes along the main connecting link between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed A. El-Serehy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bitter Lakes are the most significant water bodies of the Suez Canal, comprising 85% of the water volume, but spreading over only 24% of the length of the canal. The present study aims at investigation of the trophic status of the Bitter Lakes employing various trophic state indices, biotic and abiotic parameters, thus reporting the health of the Lake ecosystem according to the internationally accepted classification criteria’s. The composition and abundance of phytoplankton with a dominance of diatoms and a decreased population density of 4315–7376 ind. l−1 reflect the oligotrophic nature of this water body. The intense growth of diatoms in the Bitter Lakes depends on silicate availability, in addition to nitrate and phosphate. If the trophic state index (TSI is applied to the lakes under study it records that the Bitter Lakes have an index under 40. Moreover, in the total chlorophyll-a measurements of 0.35–0.96 µg l−1 there are more indicative of little algal biomass and lower biological productivity. At 0.76–2.3 µg l−1, meanwhile, the low quantity of Phosphorus is a further measure of low biological productivity. In the Bitter Lakes, TN/TP ratios are high and recorded 147.4, and 184.7 for minimum and maximum ratios, respectively. These values indicate that in Bitter lakes, the limiting nutrient is phosphorus and confirm the oligotrophic status of the Bitter Lakes. The latter conclusion is supported by Secchi disc water clarity measurements, showing that light can penetrate, and thus algae can photosynthesize, as deep as >13 m. This study, therefore, showed that the Bitter Lakes of the Suez Canal exhibit oligotrophic conditions with clear water, low productivity and with no algal blooming.

  17. Effects of Nanoscale V-Shaped Pits on GaN-Based Light Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo-Wei; Li, Heng; Chang, Chia-Jui; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2017-01-28

    This paper reviews the formation of nanoscale V-shaped pits on GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system and studies the effect of V-shaped pits on quantum efficiency. Since V-pits could provide potential barriers around threading dislocations to lessen non-radiative recombinations in such a high defect environment. In our study, multiple InGaN/GaN quantum well samples with different emission wavelengths of 380, 420, 460, and 500 nm were grown, each with different nanoscale V-shaped pits of three diameters for 150, 200, and 250 nm, respectively. It was found that the multiple quantum well (MQW) sample with larger V-pits had a lower pit density, but a relatively larger total V-pits defected area. The optimum diameter of V-pits showing the highest quantum efficiency from the MQW sample depended on the emission wavelength. MQW samples with wavelengths of 380 and 500 nm exhibited the best internal quantum efficiency (IQE) performance at the smallest V-pits area; however, the best performance for MQW samples with wavelength around 420 and 460 nm occurred when large V-pit areas were presented. Photoluminescence (PL) peak shifts and Raman shifts can provide a relationship between quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) and IQE, as well as a comparison between strain and IQE. The results obtained in this phenomenological study shall provide a useful guide line in making high-performance GaN-based LEDs with wide emission spectra.

  18. Modeling and simulation of pit chemistry of 304 austenitic stainless steel under applied stress in sodium chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yuhui, E-mail: yhhuang@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety, MOE, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Tu, Shan-Tung; Xuan, Fu-Zhen [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety, MOE, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A corrosion model was developed to simulate a stressed metal surface with a pit. ► The stress state in the pit bottom was coupled with the local corrosion environment. ► An analytical expression was established for current density of deformed pit surface. ► Local deformation had a strong effect on potential and species concentration in pits. -- Abstract: A mathematical model for simulating the active dissolution of a pit on stressed metal surface had been developed. Based on active dissolution mechanism, dissolution current density on the pit surface was assumed and extended through accounting for the thermal activation energy and the multiaxial stress state in pit bottom. The influence of applied tensile stress, pit radius and temperature was addressed. The distribution of solution potential and species concentration was predicted for different applied tensile stresses based on finite element calculations.

  19. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Indicates Association of P-Glycoprotein Substrate or Inhibitor Character with Bitterness Intensity, Measured with a Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kentaro; Mita, Suzune; Morimoto, Kaori; Haraguchi, Tamami; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Miyako; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) regulates absorption of many drugs in the gastrointestinal tract and their accumulation in tumor tissues, but the basis of substrate recognition by P-gp remains unclear. Bitter-tasting phenylthiocarbamide, which stimulates taste receptor 2 member 38 (T2R38), increases P-gp activity and is a substrate of P-gp. This led us to hypothesize that bitterness intensity might be a predictor of P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status. Here, we measured the bitterness intensity of a panel of P-gp substrates and nonsubstrates with various taste sensors, and used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status and various physical properties, including intensity of bitter taste measured with the taste sensor. We calculated the first principal component analysis score (PC1) as the representative value of bitterness, as all taste sensor's outputs shared significant correlation. The P-gp substrates showed remarkably greater mean bitterness intensity than non-P-gp substrates. We found that Km value of P-gp substrates were correlated with molecular weight, log P, and PC1 value, and the coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of the linear regression equation was 0.63. This relationship might be useful as an aid to predict P-gp substrate status at an early stage of drug discovery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Quantity and quality of guinea pig (cavia porcellus) spermatozoa after administration of methanol extract of bitter melon (momordica charantia) seed and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Syafruddin; Hutahaean, Salomo; Nursal

    2018-03-01

    The discovery of male contraceptive drugs continues to be pursued, due to the few participation of men associated with the lack of contraceptive options for men. The combination of bitter melon seed methanol extract and DMPA are the options that currently apply to men. Therefore, the use of guinea pigs as experimental animals conducted research using experimental methods with complete randomized design (CRD). There are 4 control groups and 4 treatment groups. The first group, control group of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 0 week (K0), The second one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g Body Weight/day for 0 week (P0), the third one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 4 weeks (K1), the fourth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 4 weeks + Depot medroxy Progesterone Acetate (P1), the fifth one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 8 weeks (K2), the sixth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 8 weeks + DMPA (P2), the seventh one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 12 weeks (K3), the eighth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 12 weeks + DMPA (P3). Methanol extract of bitter melon seed to decrease the quantity and quality of guinea pig spermatozoa decreased significantly, i.e. viability and normal morphology of spermatozoa (p<0.05).