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Sample records for bitter melon extract

  1. Optimized aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon for production of a saponin-enriched bitter melon powder.

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    Tan, Sing P; Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Parks, Sophie E; Roach, Paul D

    2014-07-01

    Bitter melon, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), aqueous extracts are proposed to have health-promoting properties due to their content of saponins and their antioxidant activity. However, the optimal conditions for the aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon and the effects of spray drying have not been established. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the aqueous extraction of the saponins from bitter melon, using response surface methodology, prepare a powder using spray drying, and compare the powder's physical properties, components, and antioxidant capacity with aqueous and ethanol freeze-dried bitter melon powders and a commercial powder. The optimal aqueous extraction conditions were determined to be 40 °C for 15 min and the water-to-sample ratio was chosen to be 20:1 mL/g. For many of its physical properties, components, and antioxidant capacity, the aqueous spray-dried powder was comparable to the aqueous and ethanol freeze-dried bitter melon powders and the commercial powder. The optimal conditions for the aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon followed by spray drying gave a high quality powder in terms of saponins and antioxidant activity. This study highlights that bitter melon is a rich source of saponin compounds and their associated antioxidant activities, which may provide health benefits. The findings of the current study will help with the development of extraction and drying technologies for the preparation of a saponin-enriched powdered extract from bitter melon. The powdered extract may have potential as a nutraceutical supplement or as a value-added ingredient for incorporation into functional foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

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    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  3. Quantity and quality of guinea pig (cavia porcellus) spermatozoa after administration of methanol extract of bitter melon (momordica charantia) seed and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA)

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    Ilyas, Syafruddin; Hutahaean, Salomo; Nursal

    2018-03-01

    The discovery of male contraceptive drugs continues to be pursued, due to the few participation of men associated with the lack of contraceptive options for men. The combination of bitter melon seed methanol extract and DMPA are the options that currently apply to men. Therefore, the use of guinea pigs as experimental animals conducted research using experimental methods with complete randomized design (CRD). There are 4 control groups and 4 treatment groups. The first group, control group of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 0 week (K0), The second one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g Body Weight/day for 0 week (P0), the third one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 4 weeks (K1), the fourth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 4 weeks + Depot medroxy Progesterone Acetate (P1), the fifth one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 8 weeks (K2), the sixth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 8 weeks + DMPA (P2), the seventh one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 12 weeks (K3), the eighth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 12 weeks + DMPA (P3). Methanol extract of bitter melon seed to decrease the quantity and quality of guinea pig spermatozoa decreased significantly, i.e. viability and normal morphology of spermatozoa (p<0.05).

  4. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): a review of efficacy and safety.

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    Basch, Ethan; Gabardi, Steven; Ulbricht, Catherine

    2003-02-15

    The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, drug interactions, and place in therapy of bitter melon are described. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is an alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Components of bitter melon extract appear to have structural similarities to animal insulin. Antiviral and antineoplastic activities have also been reported in vitro. Four clinical trials found bitter melon juice, fruit, and dried powder to have a moderate hypoglycemic effect. These studies were small and were not randomized or double-blind, however. Reported adverse effects of bitter melon include hypoglycemic coma and convulsions in children, reduced fertility in mice, a favism-like syndrome, increases in gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in animals, and headaches. Bitter melon may have additive effects when taken with other glucose-lowering agents. Adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to properly assess safety and efficacy before bitter melon can be routinely recommended. Bitter melon may have hypoglycemic effects, but data are not sufficient to recommend its use in the absence of careful supervision and monitoring.

  5. Novel bitter melon extracts highly yielded from supercritical extraction reduce the adiposity through the enhanced lipid metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet

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    Li Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia is a species of edible plant known for its medicinal value towards diabetes and obesity. Due to the various compositions of bitter melon extracts (BME, the comprehensive knowledge concerning their anti-obesity effects was insufficient. Here we first introduced supercritical extraction to BME's preparation, (supercritical extraction is a relatively advanced extraction method with a better efficiency and selectivity and expected to be extensively used in future applications and the resultants were subjected to HPLC analysis, validating the presence of 42.60% of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA, cis9, trans11, trans13-18:3 and 13.17% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis9, trans11-18:2. The BMSO (bitter melon seed oil was then administered to the HFD mice, an obesity model established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet. Consequently, due to the BMSO's supplementation, the HFD mice showed a significantly decreased body-weight, Lee's index, fat index and adipose size, whereas the liver weight stayed unchanged. Meanwhile, the serum FFA (free fatty acids levels returned to normal at the dosage of 10 g/kg, and the elevated serum leptin levels were also recovered by BMSO's supplementation with moderate and high dose. These findings suggested that BMSO restored the balance between lipid intake and metabolism, which was probably mediated by leptin's variation. In summary, a detailed anti-obesity effect was described with regard to a potent CFA's (conjugated fatty acid combination offered by BME. A potential mechanism underlying BME's beneficial effects was proposed, paving the way for the better use of BME's pharmaceutical function to serve the obesity's treatment.

  6. Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) Extract Inhibits Tumorigenicity and Overcomes Cisplatin-Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cells Through Targeting AMPK Signaling Cascade.

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    Yung, Mingo M H; Ross, Fiona A; Hardie, D Grahame; Leung, Thomas H Y; Zhan, Jinbiao; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Chan, David W

    2016-09-01

    Objective Acquired chemoresistance is a major obstacle in the clinical management of ovarian cancer. Therefore, searching for alternative therapeutic modalities is urgently needed. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a traditional dietary fruit, but its extract also shows potential medicinal values in human diabetes and cancers. Here, we sought to investigate the extract of bitter melon (BME) in antitumorigenic and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells. Three varieties of bitter melon were used to prepare the BME. Ovarian cancer cell lines, human immortalized epithelial ovarian cells (HOSEs), and nude mice were used to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity, cisplatin resistance, and tumor inhibitory effect of BME. The molecular mechanism of BME was examined by Western blotting. Cotreatment with BME and cisplatin markedly attenuated tumor growth in vitro and in vivo in a mouse xenograft model, whereas there was no observable toxicity in HOSEs or in nude mice in vivo Interestingly, the antitumorigenic effects of BME varied with different varieties of bitter melon, suggesting that the amount of antitumorigenic substances may vary. Studies of the molecular mechanism demonstrated that BME activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in an AMP-independent but CaMKK (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase)-dependent manner, exerting anticancer effects through activation of AMPK and suppression of the mTOR/p70S6K and/or the AKT/ERK/FOXM1 (Forkhead Box M1) signaling cascade. BME functions as a natural AMPK activator in the inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth and might be useful as a supplement to improve the efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation

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    Tzung-Hsun Tsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser. leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1 and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2 by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections.

  8. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy.

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    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    effects on metabolism enzymes and drug transporters. This has important implications, given that a large proportion of individuals, taking bitter melon based supplements/phytochemical extracts/food based home-remedies, are also likely to be taking conventional therapeutic drugs at the same time. Accordingly, the comprehensively reviewed information here could be prudently translated to the clinical implications associated with any potential concerns regarding bitter melon consumption by cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

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    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C; Ullah, Abul H J

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i). PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+)-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+)-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m) and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3)VO(4), Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+)-independent enzyme in plants.

  10. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium

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    Attila Czompa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related cardiovascular disease. Methods: Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM extract suspended in mucin–water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control. Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO and treatment (Control or BM. Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results: Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in

  11. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium.

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    Czompa, Attila; Gyongyosi, Alexandra; Szoke, Kitti; Bak, Istvan; Csepanyi, Evelin; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad; Lekli, Istvan

    2017-03-20

    Objective : A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM)) extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease. Methods : Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO) rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM) extract suspended in mucin-water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control). Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO) and treatment (Control or BM). Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results : Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in blood of ZO

  12. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

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    Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions. PMID:25650336

  13. Bio-active Compounds of Bitter Melon Genotypes (Momordica charantia L. in Relation to Their Physiological Functions

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    Navam S. Hettiarachchy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L is one of the most popular cooked vegetables in many Asian countries. Its experimental use in mice has indicated improvement in glucose tolerance against Type II diabetes and reduction in blood cholesterol. However, it has not been proven which alkaloids, polypeptides, or their combinations in the Bitter Melon extract are responsible for the medicinal effects. Green and white varieties of Bitter Melon differ strikingly in their bitter tastes, green being much more bitter than white. It is not yet known whether they are different in their special nutritional and hypoglycemic properties. Nutritional qualities of Bitter Melons such as protein, amino acids, minerals, and polyphenolics contents were determined using four selected varieties such as Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG], and Chinese White [CW] grown at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff [UAPB] Agricultural Research Center. Results indicated that protein levels of IW were significantly higher than IG in both flesh and seed. Methods: Four Bitter Melon varieties, Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG] and Chinese White [CW] were used for phytochemical analyses to determine protein contents, protein hydrolysis, amino acids contents, and their antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. All analyses were conducted following standard methods. Statistical analyses wereconducted using JMP 5 software package [SAS]. The Tukey’s HSD procedure was used for the significance of differences at the 5% level. Results: Moisture contents across the four varieties of Bitter Melon flesh ranged between 92.4 and 93.5%, and that of seed ranged between 53.3 and 75.9%. Protein contents of the flesh were highest in IW [9.8%] and lowest in CG [8.4%]. Seed protein contents were the highest in IW [31.3%] and lowest in IG [27.0%]. Overall, white varieties had higher protein contents than the green varieties. Compared with soy

  14. Bitter melon extract ameliorates palmitate-induced apoptosis via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells and high-fat/high-fructose-diet-induced fatty liver

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    Hwa Joung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter melon (BM improves glucose level, lipid homeostasis, and insulin resistance in vivo. However, the preventive mechanism of BM in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been elucidated yet. Aim & Design: To determine the protective mechanism of bitter melon extract (BME, we performed experiments in vitro and in vivo. BME were treated palmitate (PA-administrated HepG2 cells. C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: high-fat/high-fructose (HF/HFr without or with BME supplementation (100 mg/kg body weight. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis, and biochemical markers were then examined by western blot and real-time PCR analyses. Results: BME significantly decreased expression levels of ER-stress markers (including phospho-eIF2α, CHOP, and phospho-JNK [Jun N-terminal kinases] in PA-treated HepG2 cells. BME also significantly decreased the activity of cleaved caspase-3 (a well known apoptotic-induced molecule and DNA fragmentation. The effect of BME on ER stress–mediated apoptosis in vitro was similarly observed in HF/HFr-fed mice in vivo. BME significantly reduced HF/HFr-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT as markers of hepatic damage in mice. In addition, BME ameliorated HF/HFr-induced serum TG and serum-free fatty acids. Conclusion: These data indicate that BME has protective effects against ER stress mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells as well as in HF/HFr-induced fatty liver of mouse. Therefore, BME might be useful for preventing and treating NAFLD.

  15. Accumulation of Charantin and Expression of Triterpenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia).

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    Cuong, Do Manh; Jeon, Jin; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2017-08-23

    Charantin, a natural cucurbitane type triterpenoid, has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological functions such as anticancer, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activities. However, accumulation of charantin in bitter melon has been little studied. Here, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes involved in the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in bitter melon seedlings. A total of 88,703 transcripts with an average length of 898 bp were identified in bitter melon seedlings. On the basis of a functional annotation, we identified 15 candidate genes encoding enzymes related to triterpenoid biosynthesis and analyzed their expression in different organs of mature plants. Most genes were highly expressed in flowers and/or fruit from the ripening stages. An HPLC analysis confirmed that the accumulation of charantin was highest in fruits from the ripening stage, followed by male flowers. The accumulation patterns of charantin coincide with the expression pattern of McSE and McCAS1, indicating that these genes play important roles in charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon. We also investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon and found that red light was the most effective wavelength.

  16. Anti diabetic effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melone on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

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    Yakaiah Vangoori, Mishra SS, Ambudas B, Ramesh P, Meghavani G, Deepika K, Prathibha A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the anti diabetic effect of the bitter melon on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental animals (rabbits. Materials and Methods: the alcohol extract of whole fruit was tested for its efficacy in Alloxan (150mg/kg induced diabetic rabbit. The diabetic rabbits were divided into 5groups. Group I (control received 2% gumacasia, groupie (positive control received standard drug Metformin (62.5mg+2%GA, group III, IV, V (T1 T2 T3 were treated orally with a daily dose of 0.5(gm 1gm, 1.5gm respectively for 35 days, for all diabetic rabbits after giving TEST,NC,PC preparations, the blood samples were collected and determined the blood glucose level 0,1,3,24hrs intervals. 0hr reading is before drug giving and remaining 3 readings after drugs giving. 24th her reading is considered as 0hr reading for the next day. Results: administration of alcohol of an extract of bitter melon produced a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels in Alloxan induced rabbits. There was a significant fall in blood sugar level in High dose (1.5GM/kg in comparison to low dose (0.5gm/kg and median dose (1gm/kg shown by LSD test. This is comparable to the effect of Metformin. Conclusion: the results of this study show that chronic oral administration of an extract of Momordica charantia fruit at an appropriate dosage may be good alternative anti diabetic agent.

  17. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon: A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

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    Shovic Anne C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2 analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  18. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon): A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC) before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results. PMID:21794176

  19. The effect of leaf presence on the rooting of stem cutting of bitter melon and on changes in polyamine levels

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    The study was conducted to investigate the optimal hormone treatment for rooting in bitter melon and the effect of defoliation on rooting and polyamine levels. Commercial preparation (diluted 1:10 and 1: 20) gave extensive rooting within five days after treatment. The presence of leaf with the stem ...

  20. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

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    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  1. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon and its medicinal potency

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    Baby Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia, commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  2. Momordica charantia (bitter melon attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation

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    Feher Domonkos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising epidemic of obesity is associated with cognitive decline and is considered as one of the major risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation is a critical component in the progression of several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Increased metabolic flux to the brain during overnutrition and obesity can orchestrate stress response, blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, recruitment of inflammatory immune cells from peripheral blood and microglial cells activation leading to neuroinflammation. The lack of an effective treatment for obesity-associated brain dysfunction may have far-reaching public health ramifications, urgently necessitating the identification of appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on high-fat diet (HFD-associated BBB disruption, stress and neuroinflammatory cytokines. Methods C57BL/6 female mice were fed HFD with and without bitter melon (BM for 16 weeks. BBB disruption was analyzed using Evans blue dye. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS perfused brains were analyzed for neuroinflammatory markers such as interleukin-22 (IL-22, IL-17R, IL-16, NF-κB1, and glial cells activation markers such as Iba1, CD11b, GFAP and S100β. Additionally, antioxidant enzymes, ER-stress proteins, and stress-resistant transcription factors, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 and forkhead box class O transcription factor (FoxO were analyzed using microarray, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western immunoblotting and enzymatic assays. Systemic inflammation was analyzed using cytokine antibody array. Results BM ameliorated HFD-associated changes in BBB permeability as evident by reduced leakage of Evans blue dye. HFD-induced glial cells activation and expression of neuroinflammatory markers such as NF-κB1, IL-16, IL-22 as well as IL-17R were normalized in the brains of mice supplemented with BM

  3. Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldız, Gülsüm; Sekeroglu, Nazım; Kulak, Muhittin; Demirkol, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per  plant), number of seeds (30.2  per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli.

  4. Momordica charantia (bitter melon inhibits primary human adipocyte differentiation by modulating adipogenic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerurkar Vivek R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escalating trends of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes (T2D has prompted an increase in the use of alternative and complementary functional foods. Momordica charantia or bitter melon (BM that is traditionally used to treat diabetes and complications has been demonstrated to alleviate hyperglycemia as well as reduce adiposity in rodents. However, its effects on human adipocytes remain unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BM juice (BMJ on lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation transcription factors in primary human differentiating preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods Commercially available cryopreserved primary human preadipocytes were treated with and without BMJ during and after differentiation. Cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, and adipogenic genes mRNA expression was measured by commercial enzymatic assay kits and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-PCR. Results Preadipocytes treated with varying concentrations of BMJ during differentiation demonstrated significant reduction in lipid content with a concomitant reduction in mRNA expression of adipocyte transcription factors such as, peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor γ (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c and adipocytokine, resistin. Similarly, adipocytes treated with BMJ for 48 h demonstrated reduced lipid content, perilipin mRNA expression, and increased lipolysis as measured by the release of glycerol. Conclusion Our data suggests that BMJ is a potent inhibitor of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes. BMJ may therefore prove to be an effective complementary or alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans.

  5. Mining the bitter melon (momordica charantia l.) seed transcriptome by 454 analysis of non-normalized and normalized cDNA populations for conjugated fatty acid metabolism-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) produce high levels of eleostearic acid, an unusual conjugated fatty acid with industrial value. Deep sequencing of non-normalized and normalized cDNAs from developing bitter melon seeds was conducted to uncover key genes required for biotechnological tran...

  6. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  7. Quantitative determination of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as bitter melon, is widely cultivated in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is a common food staple; its fruits, leaves, seeds, stems, and roots also have a long history of use in traditional medicine. In the United States, dietary supplements labeled as containing bitter melon can be purchased over-the-counter and from Internet suppliers. Currently, no quantitative analytical method is available for monitoring the content of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides, the major constituents of bitter melon, in such supplements. We investigated the use of HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS for the quantitative determination of such compounds in dietary supplements containing bitter melon. Values for each compound obtained from external calibration were compared with those obtained from the method of standard additions to address matrix effects associated with ESI. In addition, the cucurbitane-type triterpene and triterpene glycoside contents of two dietary supplements determined by the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions were compared with those measured by an HPLC method with evaporative light scattering detection, which was recently developed for quantification of such compounds in dried fruits of M. charantia. The contents of five cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in 10 dietary supplements were measured using the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions. The total contents of the five compounds ranged from 17 to 3464 microg/serving.

  8. Some physical and chemical properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. seed and fatty acid composition of seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem GÖLÜKÇÜ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible part and leaves of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. are used as food or medicine to control some diseases because of its antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-hepatotoxic, antiviral, antiulcerogenic and larvicidal effects. Although fruits have considerable amount of seeds, they have not received much attention. In this study, some physical and chemical properties of the seed and also fatty acid composition of seed oil were determined. Oil content of the sample was determined by soxhlet apparatus as 26.10% in dried sample. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS and seven fatty acids were identified and their ratios were determined in this seed oil. The main fatty acid was determined as α-eleostearic (45.60%. The other fatty acids were palmitic (3.69%, stearic (28.00%, oleic (12.45%, linoleic (8.90%, arachidic (0.71% and gadoleic acids (0.65%.

  9. Response of gut microbiota and inflammatory status to bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) in high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juan; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Ying

    2016-12-24

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota. Obese SD rats (Sprague-Dawley rats, rattus norregicus) were randomly divided into four groups: (a) normal control diet (NCD) and distilled water, (b) HFD and distilled water, (c) HFD and 300mg BMP/kg body weight (bw), (d) HFD and 10mg pioglitazone (PGT)/kg bw. We observed remarkable decreases in the fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR index, serum lipid levels, and cell sizes of epididymal adipose tissues in the BMP and PGT groups after 8 weeks. BMP could significantly improve the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and local endotoxin levels compared to the HFD group (p<0.05). BMP suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by inhibiting inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) degradation and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/ p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK/p38 MAPKs) in adipose tissue. Sequencing results illustrated that BMP treatment markedly decreased the proportion of the endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens and increased butyrate producers. These results demonstrate that BMP ameliorates insulin sensitivity partly via relieving the inflammatory status in the system and in white adipose tissues of obese rats, and is associated with a proportional regulation of specific gut microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Tribulus terrestris and Bitter Almond Extracts

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    Hamid Abtahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial effects of the extracts of different kinds of plants have been demonstrated in several studies. However, no study has been conducted so far on the synergistic effects of two herbal extracts on their germicidal effects. In this study, in addition to antibacterial effects of the aqueous, methanol or ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and bitter almond on some bacteria, the synergistic effects of the extracts of these two plants were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, water, methanol and ethanol extracts of seeds were screened against some bacterial strains. Seeds were extracted by percolation method. Aliquots of the extracts at variable concentrations were then incubated with different bacterial strains, and the antimicrobial activities of the extracts from seeds were determined by MIC. Three antibiotics were used as reference compounds for antibacterial activities. Seeds extract inhibited significantly the growth of the tested bacterial strains. Results: The greatest synergistic effect of T. terrestris and bitter almond extracts is detected in methanol and aqueous extracts. Among the bacterial strains tested, Staphylococcus aureus was most susceptibility. Conclusion: The results showed the highest antibacterial effect in the combination of methanol extract of T. terrestris and the aqueous extract of the bitter almond.

  11. The responses of antioxidant system in bitter melon, sponge gourd, and winter squash under flooding and chilling stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuong Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the responses of antioxidant system and physiological parameters of bitter melon (BM), sponge gourd (SG), and winter squash (WS) under waterlogged and low temperature conditions. The BM and SG plants were subjected to 0-72 h flooding treatments, and BM and WS plants were exposed to chilling at 12/7 °C (day/night) for 0-72 h. Different genotypes responded differently to environmental stress according to their various antioxidant system and physiological parameters. Increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities provided SG and WS plants with increased waterlogging and chilling stress tolerance, respectively, compared to BM plants. The APX gene from SG and the SOD gene from WS were then cloned, and the regulation of APX and SOD gene expressions under flooding and chilling stress, respectively, were also measured. Increased expression of APX and SOD genes was accompanied by the increased activity of the enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to those stresses. Both APX and SOD activities can be used for selecting BM lines with the best tolerances to water logging and chilling stresses.

  12. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  13. Riboflavin accumulation and characterization of cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Sang Un

    2012-12-05

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the universal precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide--cofactors that are essential for the activity of a wide variety of metabolic enzymes in animals, plants, and microbes. Using the RACE PCR approach, cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (McLS) and riboflavin synthase (McRS), which catalyze the last two steps in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, were cloned from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a popular vegetable crop in Asia. Amino acid sequence alignments indicated that McLS and McRS share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes and carry an N-terminal extension, which is reported to be a plastid-targeting sequence. Organ expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT PCR showed that McLS and McRS were constitutively expressed in M. charantia, with the strongest expression levels observed during the last stage of fruit ripening (stage 6). This correlated with the highest level of riboflavin content, which was detected during ripening stage 6 by HPLC analysis. McLS and McRS were highly expressed in the young leaves and flowers, whereas roots exhibited the highest accumulation of riboflavin. The cloning and characterization of McLS and McRS from M. charantia may aid the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crops.

  14. Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf (Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Del) and sniper. 1000EC (2,3 ... man and animals.1 It is estimated that 80% of the popula- ..... evaluation of waste, surface and ground water quality using the Allium test ...

  15. Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina Del ) and sniper 1000EC (2,3 dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) using the Alium cepa ... 96 hours and EC50 values at 95% confidence interval was determined from a plot of root length against sample concentrations using Microsoft Excel software.

  16. Bitter melon juice exerts its efficacy against pancreatic cancer via targeting both bulk and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Deepanshi; Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Sushil; Wempe, Michael F; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2018-05-04

    Pancreatic cancer (PanC) is one of the deadliest malignancies worldwide and frontline treatment with gemcitabine becomes eventually ineffective due to increasing PanC resistance, suggesting additional approaches are needed to manage PanC. Recently, we have shown the efficacy of bitter melon juice (BMJ) against PanC cells, including those resistant to gemcitabine. Since cancer stem cells (CSCs) are actively involved in PanC initiation, progression, relapse and drug-resistance, here we assessed BMJ ability in targeting pancreatic cancer-associated cancer stem cells (PanC-CSCs). We found BMJ efficacy against CD44 + /CD24 + /EpCAM high enriched PanC-CSCs in spheroid assays; BMJ also increased the sensitivity of gemcitabine-resistant PanC-CSCs. Exogenous addition of BMJ to PanC-CSC generated spheroids (not pre-exposed to BMJ) also significantly reduced spheroid number and size. Mechanistically, BMJ effects were associated with a decrease in the expression of genes and proteins involved in PanC-CSC renewal and proliferation. Specifically, immunofluorescence staining showed that BMJ decreases protein expression/nuclear localization of CSC-associated transcription factors SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG, and CSC marker CD44. Immunohistochemical analysis of MiaPaCa2 xenografts from BMJ treated animals also showed a significant decrease in the levels of CSC-associated transcription factors. Together, these results show BMJ potential in targeting PanC-CSC pool and associated regulatory pathways, suggesting the need for further investigation of its efficacy against PanC growth and progression including gemcitabine-resistant PanC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Controlling fusarium wilt disease in melon(cucumis melo L.) using tilllered onion bulb extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushu, Z.; Guo, Q.; Xuezheng, W.; Yanan, Z.; Yuting, Li.

    2017-01-01

    Melon wilt disease is a soil-borne disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. This disease incur of the heavy economic loss in melon crops. To decrease damage to melons, many control methods have been developed. However, many of the current control methods have limitations and disadvantages. For example, fungicides may cause health concerns for both humans and the environment due to high toxin content and the presence of residues. Therefore, biological control methods that reduce or eliminate the risk of environmental contamination and threats to human health are urgently needed to solve these issues and to protect melon crops from wilt disease.In this research, we assessed the efficacy of tillered onion bulb extract (TOE) for biocontrol of melon wilt disease in melon. Different concentrations of the TOE have been shown to have inhibitory effects on Fusariumspore germination and growth, pathogenic bacterial biomass, and fungal sporulation, with increased inhibitory effects at higher TOE concentrations. In melon wilt disease, concentrations of TOE greater than 250 mg/mL produced the highest protective effects in both susceptible and resistant melon cultivars. The disease index in resistant varieties was 18%, and the disease control effect was 63.51%, while the disease index in susceptible varieties was 21.41%, and the disease control effect reached 65.96%. These values indicate stronger control effects than those achieved using 40% Ning WP melon blight. High concentrations (over 500 mg/mL) of TOE had strong inhibitory effects on melon seed germination and the activity of protective enzymes in melon cultivars. (author)

  18. Extraction of bitter acids from hops and hop products using pressurized solvent extraction (PSE)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čulík, J.; Jurková, M.; Horák, T.; Čejka, P.; Kellner, V.; Dvořák, J.; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2009), s. 220-225 ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : hops * bitter acids * pressurized solvent extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  19. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  20. Bitter melon seed oil may reduce the adiposity through the hypothalamus mTOR signaling in mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon seed oil (BMSO was found to have an advantageous effect on anti-obesity. Up to date, the mechanisms underlying this process have been extensively investigated. However, there are very few reports focusing on the roles of central nervous system (CNS involved. In this study, Golgi-Cox staining and western blotting assays were used to examine the hypothalamic spine density and the expression levels of NMDA-2B receptor and P-S6 protein, respectively. A significant reduction concerning hypothalamic spine density was observed in HFD mice, a phenomenon that could be partially rescued by the BMSO administration. Furthermore, it was found that BMSO could also reverse the changes upon the phosphorylation levels of S6, a typical protein involved in mTOR signaling pathway, indicating that mTOR signaling potentially participated in this metabolism regulation. Besides, NMDA-2B levels were up-regulated in HFD mice, which could not be considerably influenced by BMSO. In summary, this study first proposed aberrant hypothalamic plasticity as CNS's roles in BMSO's fat-reducing effects, favoring the better recognition and treatment of the intractable hypothalamic obesity.

  1. Potential use of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) derived compounds as antidiabetics: In silico and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Ariyo, Esther Opeyemi; Akinjiyan, Moses Orimoloye; Olayeriju, Olanrewaju Sam; Lawal, Akeem Olalekan; Adanlawo, Isaac Gbadura; Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2018-05-12

    Momordica charantia (bitter lemon) belongs to the cucurbitaceae family which has been extensively used in traditional medicines for the cure of various ailments such as cancer and diabetes. The underlying mechanism of M. charantia to maintain glycemic control was investigated. GLP-1 and DPP-4 gene modulation by M. charantia (5-20% inclusion in rats diet) was investigated in vivo by RT-PCR and possible compounds responsible for diabetic action predicted through in silico approach. Phytochemicalss previously characterized from M. charantia were docked into glucacon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1r), dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP4) and Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 (TGR5) predicted using Autodock Vina. The results of the in silico suggests momordicosides D (ligand for TGR5), cucurbitacin (ligand for GLP-1r) and charantin (ligand for DPP-4) as the major antidiabetic compounds in bitter lemon leaf. M. charantia increased the expression of GLP-1 by about 295.7% with concomitant decreased in expression of DPP-4 by 87.2% with 20% inclusion in rat's diet. This study suggests that the mechanism underlying the action of these compounds is through activation of TGR5 and GLP-1 receptor with concurrent inhibition of DPP4. This study confirmed the use of this plant in diabetes management and the possible bioactive compounds responsible for its antidiabetic property are charantin, cucurbitacin and momordicoside D and all belong to the class of saponins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Absence of furanocoumarins in Advantra Z® (Citrus aurantium, bitter orange) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Howard; Romano, Felice

    2014-09-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) juice is known for its ability to alter drug metabolism through inhibition of the cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) system, and result in drug-food interactions that may be life threatening. The primary active ingredients in grapefruit responsible for these effects are the furanocoumarins bergapten, bergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB). Bergamottin and DHB appear to be the most important in terms of adverse drug interactions. Furanocoumarins are present in the juices and fruits of other Citrus species including C. aurantium (bitter oranges). Bergapten is the predominant furanocoumarin in bitter orange. Bitter orange extracts are widely used in products associated with weight loss, sports performance, and energy production. Questions have been raised about the potential of bitter orange extracts to cause drug interactions. This study examined the furanocoumarin content of four standardized bitter orange extracts (Advantra Z®) by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results indicated that the total furanocoumarin content of each of the four extracts was less than 20 μg/g, amounts insufficient to exert significant effects on the metabolism of susceptible drugs in human subjects at the doses commonly used for these extracts.

  3. Effects of Karela (Bitter Melon; Momordica charantia) on genes of lipids and carbohydrates metabolism in experimental hypercholesterolemia: biochemical, molecular and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Dalia Yossri; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Baiomy, Ahmed A; Yassin, Magdy Hassan; El-Sawy, Hanan Basiouni

    2017-06-17

    Hypercholesterolemia is a serious diseases associated with type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and liver diseases. Humans seek for safe herbal medication such as karela (Momordica charantia/bitter melon) to treat such disorders to avoid side effect of pharmacotherapies widely used. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups; control group with free access to food and water, cholesterol administered group (40 mg/kg BW orally); karela administered group (5 g /kg BW orally) and mixture of cholesterol and karela. The treatments continued for 10 weeks. Karela was given for hypercholesterolemic rats after 6 weeks of cholesterol administration. Serum, liver and epididymal adipose tissues were taken for biochemical, histopathological and genetic assessments. Hypercholesterolemia induced a decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels that were ameliorated by karela administration. Hypercholesterolemia up regulated antioxidants mRNA expression and altered the expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes. In parallel, hypercholesterolemic groups showed significant changes in the expression of PPAR-alpha and gamma, lipolysis, lipogenesis and cholesterol metabolism such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1). Acyl CoA oxidase (ACO), fatty acids synthase (FAS), sterol responsible element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) at hepatic and adipose tissue levels. Interestingly, Karela ameliorated all altered genes confirming its hypocholesterolemic effect. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings revealed that hypercholesterolemia induced hepatic tissue changes compared with control. These changes include cholesterol clefts, necrosis, karyolysis and sever congestion of portal blood vessel. Caspase-3 immunoreactivity showed positive expression in

  4. Prophylactic effect of paw-paw leaf and bitter leaf extracts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (ANOVA) and significant means separated using FLSD = LSD procedure as outlined in Obi (2002). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. In pre-soaking, paw-paw leaf (PL) extract had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the disease incidence at. 50% anthesis. Bitter leaf (BL) extract had a high signifi- cant effect (P ...

  5. Effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on serum glucose level and various protein parameters in acetaminophen intoxicated rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Zahra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Liver function tests, including total plasma proteins, albumin, bilirubin and glucose were analyzed to find out the hepatocurative and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica charantia. Method: The study was divided into two categories. In first category, the livers of rabbits were intoxicated with acetaminophen, and then Momordica fruit extract was given to observe its hepatocurative effects. Results: The results indicated significant changes in concentrations of the parameters in acetaminophen-challenged rabbits. In the second category, treatment was started by giving Momordica fruit extract dose orally for 10 days and 15 days to two groups of rabbits, respectively. Then, livers of rabbits were damaged with acetaminophen and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica were observed. Conclusion: The results showed that the animals treated with Momordica fruit extract experienced less liver damage due to acetaminophen intoxication, indicating that Momordica has hepatoprotective properties. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 7-12

  6. In vivo test of bitter (andrographis paniculata nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarmin, R.; Huda, NK; Yuniarti, E.; Violita

    2018-03-01

    Sambiloto or Bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), are often used to treat various diseases, such as influenza, cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-HIV, anti-mitotic and anti-fertility. This study aimed to determine the effects of the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm mice quality (Mus musculus L. Swiss Webster). This research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments, which are 0.0 g/b.w., (P0), 0.2 g/b.w., (P1), 0,4 g/b.w., (P3), or 0.6 g/b.w., (P4) bitter extract orally for 36 days. After treatment, the mice decapitated, dissected and collected the sperm from vas deferens. Then, the number of sperm counted by used the improved Neubauer and then stained by Eosin to count the abnormal sperm. Data analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) then DNMRT. The results showed that the average numbers of sperm are 28.80 x 105 (P0), 19.50 x 105 (P1), 12.50 x105 (P2) and 9.50 x 105 (P3). The average abnormal sperm numbers are 18.33 x 105 (P0), 22.50 x 105 (P1), 31.50 x105 (P2) and 39.33 x 105 (P3). It showed that the effective treatment to decrease sperm number was 0.2 g/b.w., of bitter extract. It can conclude that the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract decreases the quality of the ejaculated sperm of mice (Mus musculus L.)

  7. Teratogenic effect of the water extract of bitter gourd ( Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also showed that 31.2% of all the malformed litters had multiple congenital malformations. It also showed that the experimental rats had nine resorption sites while control had none. This demonstrates that the water extract of Momordica charantia is teratogenic in Sprague Dawley rats and should be used with caution in ...

  8. Haemolytic effect of saponin extract from Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) on human erythrocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.

    2001-09-01

    Leaves of Veronia amygdalina were extracted using ethanol and aqueous extraction respectively. The physico-chemical analysis of the extracts revealed that both extracts had darkish brown colour, sweetish bitter taste, pungent smell, positive froth and haemolytic test, this indicated the presence of saponin in both extracts. The result of the haemolytic assay revealed that blood group-O had the highest susceptibility to the saponin-induced haemolysis, while blood group-A had the least susceptibility to haemolysis among the blood groups tested. Genotype-AA had the highest resistant to haemolysis by Vernonia amygdalina saponin induced haemolysis, while genotype-SS had the least resistant to haemolysis among the genotype tested. Furthermore the ethanol extract had a higher haemolytic activity than the aqueous extract on the various human erythrocyte analysed. This study revealed that Vernonia amygdalina had haemolytic substance, this substance had a high haemolytic effect on blood group-O and genotype-SS. The active haemolytic substance in both extracts was identified to be saponin. (author)

  9. Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment.

  10. A proteome-based design of bitter peptide digestion regime to attenuate cod-bone soup bitterness: comparison with a rainbow trout extract-mediated bitter taste masking approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Feng; Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhizhou; Jiang, Jie; Han, Ying; Guo, Changlu

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The fresh bones (with some meat on them; frequently discarded as a large quantity of industry garbage) of marine fish such as cod and salmon are good materials for manufacture of food additives (taste adjusters). However, such fish-bone originated additives often have apparent bitter taste and need additional debittering regime. RESULTS: In this study, 46 known bitter peptides in the cod proteome were targeted for specific protease digestion to eliminate bitter taste from the cod ...

  11. Extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola, 38.30% for melon and ...

  12. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Seed Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida and Its Antioxidant Activity and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ganjloo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150–300 bar, temperature (40–50 °C and dynamic extraction time (60–120 min on crude extraction yield (CEY were studied through response surface methodology (RSM. The SC-CO2 extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9% as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE. It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO2 extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO2 extraction conditions.

  13. Stabilization of cucurbitacin E-glycoside, a feeding stimulant for diabroticite beetles, extracted from bitter Hawkesbury watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for diabroticite beetles, including corn rootworms and cucumber beetles, which can be added to a bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticide treatments needed to control these pests. One of them, cucurbitacin E- glycoside, is water soluble and easily processed from mutant bitter Hawkesbury watermelons (BHW that express elevated levels of cucurbitacin. Storage of BHW extract at room temperature resulted in a 92% reduction of cucurbitacin E-glycoside over two months, while refrigeration or freezing resulted in a 60% loss of the active ingredient during this time. The loss of the active ingredient was correlated with an increase in BHW extract pH from 5 to greater than 9. The increase in pH of the BHW extracts at room temperature appeared to be due to the growth of certain bacteria, especially Bacillus spp. In refrigerated extracts, the pH remained relatively constant, and bacterial growth was dominated by bacteria such as Lactobacilli. An alternative to refrigeration is concentration of BHW extract. One means of concentration is spray drying, but the high sugar content of the BHW extract (20mg/ml glucose, 40mg/ml fructose makes this technique impractical. Fermentation of the BHW extract by the yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, eliminated the sugars and did not raise the pH nor alter the cucurbitacin E-glycoside content of the extract. Elimination of the sugars by fermentation produced an extract that could be successfully spray dried. BHW extract fermented by S. boulardii produced a higher level of feeding stimulation for spotted cucumber beetles in laboratory choice tests. When applied to cucumbers, there was no difference in control of spotted and striped cucumber beetles between baits of fresh or fermented juices combined with the same insecticide.

  14. Stabilization of cucurbitacin E-glycoside, a feeding stimulant for diabroticite beetles, extracted from bitter Hawkesbury watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A.W.; Blackburn, Michael; Schroder, Robert F.W.; Matsuo, Koharto; Li, Betty W.

    2002-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for diabroticite beetles, including corn rootworms and cucumber beetles, which can be added to a bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticide treatments needed to control these pests. One of them, cucurbitacin E-glycoside, is water soluble and easily processed from mutant bitter Hawkesbury watermelons (BHW) that express elevated levels of cucurbitacin. Storage of BHW extract at room temperature resulted in a 92% reduction of cucurbitacin E-glycoside over two months, while refrigeration or freezing resulted in a 60% loss of the active ingredient during this time. The loss of the active ingredient was correlated with an increase in BHW extract pH from 5 to greater than 9. The increase in pH of the BHW extracts at room temperature appeared to be due to the growth of certain bacteria, especially Bacillus spp. In refrigerated extracts, the pH remained relatively constant, and bacterial growth was dominated by bacteria such as Lactobacilli. An alternative to refrigeration is concentration of BHW extract. One means of concentration is spray drying, but the high sugar content of the BHW extract (20mg/ml glucose, 40mg/ml fructose) makes this technique impractical. Fermentation of the BHW extract by the yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, eliminated the sugars and did not raise the pH nor alter the cucurbitacin E-glycoside content of the extract. Elimination of the sugars by fermentation produced an extract that could be successfully spray dried. BHW extract fermented by S. boulardii produced a higher level of feeding stimulation for spotted cucumber beetles in laboratory choice tests. When applied to cucumbers, there was no difference in control of spotted and striped cucumber beetles between baits of fresh or fermented juices combined with the same insecticide. PMID:15455053

  15. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber

  16. Increased eating control and energy levels associated with consumption of bitter orange (p-synephrine extract: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaats GR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gilbert R Kaats,1 Robert B Leckie,2 Nate Mrvichin,1 Sidney J Stohs3 1Integrative Health Technologies, Inc., 2R.B. Leckie Research Consultants, San Antonio, TX, 3Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Using a placebo-controlled double-blinded 30-day protocol, 40 overweight adults were asked to consume a chocolate-flavored chew 15–30 min before their two largest meals of the day. The chews contained either a placebo or an “active” product (100 mg of a bitter orange extract, standardized to 51.5 mg p-synephrine. Subjects completed a 13-item Weight Control Support Scale (WCSS containing eating control, energy level, and palatability subscales daily throughout the study. All 40 subjects completed the study. No adverse effects were reported in either the placebo or active groups. As compared to placebo, subjects consuming the active product reported statistically more (p≤0.001 positive responses on the WCSS as well as on each of the three subscales. This study suggests that, as compared to a placebo control, consuming a chew containing bitter orange extract (51.5 mg p-synephrine 15–30 min before the two largest meals of the day resulted in a statistically significant greater and more positive response to eating/appetite control and a weight-control support scale. Keywords: bitter orange extract, p-synephrine, Citrus aurantium, appetite suppression, energy, safety

  17. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Based on Melon Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Melon oil and cow fat were extracted by standard methods and used in the formulation of SNEDDS based on either melon oil alone, or its admixture with cow fat by utilizing varying ratios of oil(s), surfactants and co-surfactants, with or without carbosil, a glidant. The formulations were encapsulated in hard gelatin ...

  18. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2012-10-08

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  19. In vitro and in vivo α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities of the protein extracts from two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovitha, Sundar; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-07-18

    α-amylase and α-glucosidase digest the carbohydrates and increase the postprandial glucose level in diabetic patients. Inhibiting the activity of these two enzymes can control postprandial hyperglycemia, and reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Bitter gourd or balsam pear is one of the important medicinal plants used for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes patients. However, there is limited information available on the presence of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting compounds. In the current study, the protein extracts from the fruits of M. charantia var. charantia (MCC) and M. charantia var. muricata (MCM) were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities in vitro, and glucose lowering activity after oral administration in vivo. The protein extract from both MCC and MCM inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase through competitive inhibition, which was on par with Acarbose as indicated by in vitro percentage of inhibition (66 to 69 %) and IC50 (0.26 to 0.29 mg/ml). Both the protein extracts significantly reduced peak blood glucose and area under the curve in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, which were orally challenged with starch and sucrose. Protein extracts from the fruits of the two varieties of bitter gourd inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro and lowered the blood glucose level in vivo on par with Acarbose when orally administrated to Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Further studies on mechanism of action and methods of safe and biologically active delivery will help to develop an anti-diabetic oral protein drug from these plants.

  20. Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL of melon (Cucumis melo L. SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS. The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE. Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate. Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate. Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE INHIBITIVE ACTION BETWEEN THE BITTER ORANGE LEAF EXTRACT AND ITS CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT LINALOOL ON THE MILD STEEL CORROSION IN HCL SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Abdel-Gaber

    Full Text Available Bitter orange, Citrus Aurantium (CA, extract and one of its chemical constituents, Linalool, have been evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.5 mol L-1 hydrochloric acid (HCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and atomic force spectroscopy (AFM techniques. Functional groups of CA and Linalool were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance studies showed that CA and Linalool act as mixed type inhibitors. The activation parameters showed that the corrosion inhibition takes place by spontaneous physical adsorption on the mild steel surface. Thermodynamic-kinetic model and Flory-Huggins isotherms were used to investigate the adsorption characteristics of CA and Linalool. The surface morphologies of mild steel specimens were studied using AFM, in which the surface roughness of the metal specimens on a micro scale was characterized.

  2. In vitro regeneration from internodal explants of bitter melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thiru

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... shoots per internodal explant after 80 days of culture. Key words: ... grown in the tropical regions of Asia, Amazon, east Africa and the ... Tamilnadu, India. .... expressed as the mean ± standard error (SE) of three experiments.

  3. Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) and the Effects of Diabetes Disease

    OpenAIRE

    ALTINTERİM, Başar

    2012-01-01

    Kudret narı (Momordica charantia) diyabetli hastaların kan glukoz seviyelerinin düşürülmesi için kullanılmış öncelikli bir alternatif tedavidir. Hayvan ve insanlarda yapılan çalışmalar kudret narında hipoglisemik maddelerin var olduğunu göstermiştir

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia is widely cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal herb in many Asian and African countries. After the sequencing of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, and melon (Cucumis melo genomes, bitter gourd became the fourth cucurbit species whose whole genome was sequenced. However, a comprehensive analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs in bitter gourd, including a comparison with the three aforementioned cucurbit species has not yet been published. Here, we identified a total of 188,091 and 167,160 SSR motifs in the genomes of the bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘OHB3-1,’ respectively. Subsequently, the SSR content, motif lengths, and classified motif types were characterized for the bitter gourd genomes and compared among all the cucurbit genomes. Lastly, a large set of 138,727 unique in silico SSR primer pairs were designed for bitter gourd. Among these, 71 primers were selected, all of which successfully amplified SSRs from the two bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘K44’. To further examine the utilization of unique SSR primers, 21 SSR markers were used to genotype a collection of 211 bitter gourd lines from all over the world. A model-based clustering method and phylogenetic analysis indicated a clear separation among the geographic groups. The genomic SSR markers developed in this study have considerable potential value in advancing bitter gourd research.

  5. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  6. 'Egusi' Melon, Citrullus lanatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    seeds are not only edible but also used to produce fuel (An Ku, 2007). ... Nigeria, ''Egusi'' is cultivated over an area of 320,800 ha with a production figure of ... production of somatic embryos from melon cell suspension cultures (Oridate and ... (V/V) alcohol for 30 seconds, then 4% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for 8 minutes.

  7. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Crude Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida Seed Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM. Process variables were power level (25–75%, temperature (45–55 °C and sonication time (20–40 min. It was found that all process variables have significant (p < 0.05 effects on the response variable. A central composite design (CCD was used to determine the optimum process conditions. Optimal conditions were identified as 65% power level, 52 °C temperature and 36 min sonication time for maximum crude yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  8. An immunoblotting analysis of cross-reactivity between melon, and plantago and grass pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ortiz, J C; Ventas, P; Cosmes, P; López-Asunsolo, A

    1996-01-01

    It is known that most patients with type I allergy to pollens also suffer intolerance to fruits. Recently, an epidemiological and CAP-inhibition study has shown a new clustering of allergy between melon and Plantago and grass pollens. The aim of the present study was to confirm these results by immunoblotting analysis and inhibition of immunoblotting. Sera from 3 patients with confirmed allergy to melon, and Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata pollens were used for the in vitro studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis with a pool of sera revealed that several distinct protein bands were shared by the three extracts at 14, 31, and a spectrum between 40 and 70 kDa, approximately. Immunoblotting inhibition experiments, performed with extracts of melon, Plantago and Dactylis, showed that all allergens of melon blotting were almost completely inhibited by grass and Plantago pollen extracts. Inversely, the melon extract was capable of inhibiting IgE-binding to various allergens of Dactylis at high mol mass and partially to the band at 14 kDa. Moreover, the melon almost totally inhibited the IgE-binding capacity to the proteins of Plantago extract. Taken together, the results support the presence of structurally similar allergens in melon, Plantago and grass pollens, and that all allergenic epitopes of the melon are present in these pollens.

  9. A new frontier of Okinawa's agriculture: An economic evaluation of the melon fly eradication project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, H.

    2006-01-01

    During the post-reversion period (1972-2002), Okinawa's GDP has grown on average by 6.40% annually. In the growth process, agricultural activities have been rapidly replaced by construction and services activities such as public works and tourism. Okinawa's agriculture has been diversifying from traditional sugarcane and pineapple cultivation to flowers, tropical fruits and various healthy foods such as bitter melon or ''goya'' and turmeric. This paper attempts to post-evaluate the area-wide melon fly eradication project in Okinawa which was successfully completed in 1993. The melon flies affected more than 40 important vegetables and fruits in Okinawa. The sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method, was adopted to eradicate the flies. Based on conventional cost-benefit analysis, the project produced net accumulated benefits after 6 years of the eradication. The study shows that the project is viable even on commercial basis

  10. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  11. Bitter (CW6)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available originating from the sea tend to build up the sand bar at the mouth of the Bitter, whilst the river would tend to breach it at times of flow, particularly in the winter months. Sea water probably only overtops the sandbar during exceptionally high tides...

  12. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2013-11-15

    Bitterness in whole wheat bread can negatively influence product acceptability and consumption. The overall goal of this project was to identify the main bitter compounds in a commercial whole wheat bread product. Sensory-guided fractionation of the crust (most bitter portion of the bread sample) utilising liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, ultra-filtration and 2-D offline RPLC revealed multiple bitter compounds existed. The compounds with the highest bitterness intensities were selected and structurally elucidated based on accurate mass-TOF, MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Eight bitter compounds were identified: Acortatarins A, Acortatarins C, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural(HMF), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one (DDMP), N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)-l-tryptophan (ARP), Tryptophol (TRO), 2-(2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)butanoic acid (PBA) and Tryptophan (TRP). Based on the structures of these compounds, two main mechanisms of bitterness generation in wheat bread were supported, fermentation and Maillard pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Draft genome sequence of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), a vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasaki, Naoya; Takagi, Hiroki; Natsume, Satoshi; Uemura, Aiko; Taniai, Naoki; Miyagi, Norimichi; Fukushima, Mai; Suzuki, Shouta; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Sakamoto, Moriaki; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is an important vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions globally. In this study, the draft genome sequence of a monoecious bitter gourd inbred line, OHB3-1, was analyzed. Through Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly, scaffolds of 285.5 Mb in length were generated, corresponding to ∼84% of the estimated genome size of bitter gourd (339 Mb). In this draft genome sequence, 45,859 protein-coding gene loci were identified, and transposable elements accounted for 15.3% of the whole genome. According to synteny mapping and phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes, bitter gourd was more related to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) than to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) or melon (C. melo). Using RAD-seq analysis, 1507 marker loci were genotyped in an F2 progeny of two bitter gourd lines, resulting in an improved linkage map, comprising 11 linkage groups. By anchoring RAD tag markers, 255 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map. Comparative analysis of genome sequences and predicted genes determined that putative trypsin-inhibitor and ribosome-inactivating genes were distinctive in the bitter gourd genome. These genes could characterize the bitter gourd as a medicinal plant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  14. Bitter Gourd: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd fruits are a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and have the highest nutritive value among cucurbits. Moreover, the crude protein content (11.4-20.9 g.kg-1) of bitter gourd fruits is higher than that of tomato and cucumber. This book chapter focuses on the ...

  15. Technical Efficiency of Wet Season Melon Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananti Yekti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of high-value horticulture commodity which is cultivated widely in Kulon Progo regency. The nature of agricultural products is heavily dependent on the season, so it causes the prices of agricultural products always fluctuated every time. In wet season the price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive. Melon cultivation in wet season provide an opportunity to earn higher profits than in the dry season. The price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive in wet season, thus melon cultivation in wet season prospectively generate high profits. In order to achieve high profitability, melon farming has to be done efficiently. Objective of this study was to 1 determined the factors that influence melon production in wet season 2 measured technical efficiency of melon farming and 3 identified the factors that influanced technical efficiency. Data collected during April – June 2014. Location determined by multistage cluster sampling. 45 samples of farmers who cultivated melon during wet season obtained based on quota sampling technique. Technical efficiency was measured using Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier. The result reveals that 1 land use, quantity of seed, K fertilizer contributed significantly increasing melon production, while N fertilizer decreased melon production significantly 2 technical efficiency indeces ranged from 0.40 to 0.99, with a mean of  0.77; 3 farmer’s experience gave significant influence to technical efficiency of melon farming in wet season.

  16. Perceived bitterness character of beer in relation to hop variety and the impact of hop aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Olayide; James, Sue; Cowley, Trevor; Dehrmann, Frieda; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2017-09-01

    The impact of hop variety and hop aroma on perceived beer bitterness intensity and character was investigated using analytical and sensory methods. Beers made from malt extract were hopped with 3 distinctive hop varieties (Hersbrucker, East Kent Goldings, Zeus) to achieve equi-bitter levels. A trained sensory panel determined the bitterness character profile of each singly-hopped beer using a novel lexicon. Results showed different bitterness character profiles for each beer, with hop aroma also found to change the hop variety-derived bitterness character profiles of the beer. Rank-rating evaluations further showed the significant effect of hop aroma on selected key bitterness character attributes, by increasing perceived harsh and lingering bitterness, astringency, and bitterness intensity via cross-modal flavour interactions. This study advances understanding of the complexity of beer bitterness perception by demonstrating that hop variety selection and hop aroma both impact significantly on the perceived intensity and character of this key sensory attribute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  18. Bitter or not? BitterPredict, a tool for predicting taste from chemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan-Wiener, Ayana; Nissim, Ido; Ben Abu, Natalie; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Bassoli, Angela; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-09-21

    Bitter taste is an innately aversive taste modality that is considered to protect animals from consuming toxic compounds. Yet, bitterness is not always noxious and some bitter compounds have beneficial effects on health. Hundreds of bitter compounds were reported (and are accessible via the BitterDB http://bitterdb.agri.huji.ac.il/dbbitter.php ), but numerous additional bitter molecules are still unknown. The dramatic chemical diversity of bitterants makes bitterness prediction a difficult task. Here we present a machine learning classifier, BitterPredict, which predicts whether a compound is bitter or not, based on its chemical structure. BitterDB was used as the positive set, and non-bitter molecules were gathered from literature to create the negative set. Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost), based on decision trees machine-learning algorithm was applied to molecules that were represented using physicochemical and ADME/Tox descriptors. BitterPredict correctly classifies over 80% of the compounds in the hold-out test set, and 70-90% of the compounds in three independent external sets and in sensory test validation, providing a quick and reliable tool for classifying large sets of compounds into bitter and non-bitter groups. BitterPredict suggests that about 40% of random molecules, and a large portion (66%) of clinical and experimental drugs, and of natural products (77%) are bitter.

  19. Antioxidant potential of bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze seeds in in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidu Kamatham A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze, is a medicinally important plant. Earlier, we have reported phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic, antimicrobial activity of bitter cumin. In this study we have further characterized the antioxidative activity of bitter cumin extracts in various in vitro models. Methods Bitter cumin seeds were extracted with a combination of acetone, methanol and water. The antioxidant activity of bitter cumin extracts were characterized in various in vitro model systems such as DPPH radical, ABTS radical scavenging, reducing power, oxidation of liposomes and oxidative damage to DNA. Results The phenolic extracts of bitter cumin at microgram concentration showed significant scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals, reduced phosphomolybdenum (Mo(VI to Mo(V, ferricyanide Fe(III to Fe(II, inhibited liposomes oxidation and hydroxyl radical induced damage to prokaryotic genomic DNA. The results showed a direct correlation between phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity. Conclusion Bitter cumin is a good source of natural antioxidants.

  20. Increase in the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd by a heat-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Shaoyun, Wang; Shutao, Liu; Jianwu, Zhou; Lijing, Ke; Pingfan, Rao

    2013-12-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) is widely regarded as one of the best remedy foods for diabetes. The positive effect of bitter gourd on diabetes has been attributed in part to the remarkable free radical scavenging activity of its boiled water extract from sun-dried fruits. It is well known that a heat process significantly influences the antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. However, the heat drying processes of bitter gourd have not been studied so far. Here, we show that the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd extract significantly increases after the heat drying process, while the content of flavonoids and phenols, which are generally regarded as the main antioxidant components in bitter gourd, remain unaffected. Furthermore, the content of free amino acids and the total reducing sugar were found to decrease with increasing browning index, indicating the progression of the Maillard reaction, products of which are known to possess significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, it suggests that Maillard reaction products may be the main contributors to the increase in antioxidant capability. Finally, the bitter gourd extract with the higher antioxidant activity, was shown to manifest a corresponding higher proliferation activity on NIT-1 beta-cells. These results suggest that controllable conditions in the heat-drying processing of fresh bitter gourd fruit is of significance for enhancing the total free radical scavenging capacity, beta-cell proliferation activity and possibly the anti-diabetic activity of this fruit.

  1. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Okada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alzheimer′s disease (AD is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds′ aqueous extracts (PSAE for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN. Materials and Methods: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce. PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. Results: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. Conclusion: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  2. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds' aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  3. Pop the Pills without Bitterness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structure of a taste bud. Keywords. Taste-masking, fluid bed coat- ing, microencapsulation, com- plexation, solid dispersion. Sweet sensations are most easily detected at the tip, whereas bitterness at the back of the tongue, but salty sensations are usually detected at the tip and the sides of the tongue. GENERAL I ARTICLE.

  4. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. THE EFFECTIVENES OF ETANOL EXTRACT, PARTITION N-HEKSANA, AND CROMATHOGRAPHY FRACTION OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. TO LOWER BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Kusuma Clara Dewinda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the ethanol extract, partition n-hexane, and chromatography fractions Momordica charantia L. in lowering blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic male rats.  This study used 25 male rats were divided into five treatment groups P0 (negative control, P1 (positive control, P2 (ethanol extract, P3 (partition n-hexane, and P4 (chromatographic fraction the variable observed glucose levels blood for 21 days. Blood glucose levels were analyzed on days -1, 0, 4, 11, 18. The bill, which is used in the form of a completely randomized design (CRD. The data obtained and analyzed by using Split in Time. The results showed of giving chromatographic fractions bitter melon 50 mg / kg body weight can reduce blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic rats better than the ethanol extract 200 mg / kg body weight and partition n-hexane 50 mg / kg body weight.

  6. Is the bitter rejection response always adaptive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, J I

    1994-12-01

    The bitter rejection response consists of a suite of withdrawal reflexes and negative affective responses. It is generally assumed to have evolved as a way to facilitate avoidance of foods that are poisonous because they usually taste bitter to humans. Using previously published studies, the present paper examines the relationship between bitterness and toxicity in mammals, and then assesses the ecological costs and benefits of the bitter rejection response in carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous (grazing and browsing) mammals. If the bitter rejection response accurately predicts the potential toxicity of foods, then one would expect the threshold for the response to be lower for highly toxic compounds than for nontoxic compounds. The data revealed no such relationship. Bitter taste thresholds varied independently of toxicity thresholds, indicating that the bitter rejection response is just as likely to be elicited by a harmless bitter food as it is by a harmful one. Thus, it is not necessarily in an animal's best interest to have an extremely high or low bitter threshold. Based on this observation, it was hypothesized that the adaptiveness of the bitter rejection response depends upon the relative occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in an animal's diet. Animals with a relatively high occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., browsing herbivores) were predicted to have evolved a high bitter taste threshold and tolerance to dietary poisons. Such an adaptation would be necessary because a browser cannot "afford" to reject all foods that are bitter and potentially toxic without unduly restricting its dietary options. At the other extreme, animals that rarely encounter bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., carnivores) were predicted to have evolved a low bitter threshold. Carnivores could "afford" to utilize such a stringent rejection mechanism because foods containing bitter and potentially

  7. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-11-10

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter ingredient (EBI) with a core of bitter Gentiana lutea root extract and a coating of ethylcellulose-stearate was developed and included in a vanilla microencapsulated bitter ingredient-enriched pudding (EBIP). The coating masked bitterness in the mouth, allowing the release of bitter secoiridoids in the gastrointestinal tract. A cross-over randomised study was performed: twenty healthy subjects consumed at breakfast EBIP (providing 100 mg of secoiridoids) or the control pudding (CP) on two different occasions. Blood samples, glycaemia and appetite ratings were collected at baseline and 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after breakfast. Gastrointestinal peptides, endocannabinoids (EC) and N-acylethanolamines (NAE) were measured in plasma samples. Energy intakes were measured at an ad libitum lunch 3 h after breakfast and over the rest of the day (post lunch) through food diaries. No significant difference in postprandial plasma responses of gastrointestinal hormones, glucose, EC and NAE and of appetite between EBIP and CP was found. However, a trend for a higher response of glucagon-like peptide-1 after EBIP than after CP was observed. EBIP determined a significant 30 % lower energy intake over the post-lunch period compared with CP. These findings were consistent with the tailored release of bitter-tasting compounds from EBIP along the gastrointestinal tract. This study demonstrated that microencapsulated bitter secoiridoids were effective in reducing daily energy intake in humans.

  8. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  9. Bitter melon juice targets molecular mechanisms underlying gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    SOMASAGARA, RANGANATHA R.; DEEP, GAGAN; SHROTRIYA, SANGEETA; PATEL, MANISHA; AGARWAL, CHAPLA; AGARWAL, RAJESH

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PanC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, and resistance towards gemcitabine, the front-line chemotherapy, is the main cause for dismal rate of survival in PanC patients; overcoming this resistance remains a major challenge to treat this deadly malignancy. Whereas several molecular mechanisms are known for gemcitabine resistance in PanC cells, altered metabolism and bioenergetics are not yet studied. Here, we compared metabolic and bioenergetic functions between gemcita...

  10. Micromorphology and anatomy of fruits and seeds of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L., Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giuliani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is investigating the micromorphological properties of fruits and seeds in the food and medicinal plant Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae. A detailed anatomical description on cross-sections of immature fruits and seeds is reported for the first time. The fruit is characterized by a thin epicarp, a multi-layered mesocarp and by an inconspicuous endocarp. The seed-coat displays a pattern of organization in five tissues. These endomorphic features were compared and discussed with the results of previous investigations on other representatives of the genus Momordica. Since the structure of seed-coat is considered diacritical in the taxonomy of the genus, this report may offer a set of additional character useful for the characterization of the genus.

  11. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  12. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  13. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  14. An Update Review on the Anthelmintic Activity of Bitter Gourd, Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolperm, Sutthaya; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2017-01-01

    Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitales ), as known as bitter melon or gourd, is a daily consumption as food and traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and Indo-China. It has been shown to possess anticancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, charantin, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, tannins, and terpenoids. This plant is rich in various saponins including momordicin, momordin, momordicoside, karavilagenin, karaviloside, and kuguacin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic infections. Based on established literature on the anthelmintic activity of M. charantia and possible mode of action, this review article has attempted to compile M. charantia could be further explored for the development of potential anthelmintic drug.

  15. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  16. récolte du melon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... In vivo, 600 ppm of calcium silicate, calcium hydroxide and calcium oxide inhibited ... En 2013, la production du melon au Maroc a été .... Ca(OH)2, l'oxyde de calcium CaO, le sulfate de calcium ...... rot disease complex.

  17. High-quality total RNA isolation from melon (Cucumis melo L. fruits rich in polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Silveira de Campos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Melon, a member of the family Cucurbitaceae, is the fourth most important fruit in the world market and, on a volume basis, is Brazil’s main fresh fruit export. Many molecular techniques used to understand the maturation of these fruits require high concentrations of highly purified RNA. However, melons are rich in polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides, which interfere with RNA extraction. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for total RNA extraction from melon fruits. Six extraction buffers were tested: T1 guanidine thiocyanate/phenol/chloroform; T2 sodium azide/?-mercaptoethanol; T3 phenol/guanidine thiocyanate; T4 CTAB/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol; T5 SDS/sodium perchlorate/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol, and T6 sarkosyl/PVP/guanidine thiocyanate, using the AxyPrepTM Multisource Total RNA Miniprep Kit. The best method for extracting RNA from both mature and green fruit was based on the SDS/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol buffer, because it rapidly generated a high quality and quantity of material. In general, higher amounts of RNA were obtained from green than mature fruits, probably due to the lower concentration of polysaccharides and water. The purified material can be used as a template in molecular techniques, such as microarrays, RT-PCR, and in the construction of cDNA and RNA-seq data.

  18. Bitter and sweet tasting molecules: It's complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, Yaron; Hayes, John E; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-04-19

    "Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25-member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs. Molecules humans describe as sweet are recognized by a TAS1R2/TAS1R3 heterodimer of class C GPCRs. Here we characterize the chemical space of bitter and sweet molecules: the majority of bitter compounds show higher hydrophobicity compared to sweet compounds, while sweet molecules have a wider range of sizes. Importantly, recent evidence indicates that TAS1Rs and TAS2Rs are not limited to the oral cavity; moreover, some bitterants are pharmacologically promiscuous, with the hERG potassium channel, cytochrome P450 enzymes, and carbonic anhydrases as common off-targets. Further focus on polypharmacology may unravel new physiological roles for tastant molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Induction of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and phenylpropanoids in virus-infected cucumber and melon plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Belles Albert, José Mª; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Fayos, J.; Pallás Benet, Vicente; Rodrigo Bravo, Ismael; Conejero Tomás, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    [EN] In the present work, we have looked for the nature of the phenylpropanoids biosynthesized during the plant-pathogen reaction of two systems, Cucumis sativus and Cucumis melo infected with either prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) or melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), respectively. An accumulation of p-coumaric, caffeic and/or ferulic acids was observed in infected plant extracts hydrolysed with P-glucosidase or esterase. Analysis of undigested samples by HPLC/ESI revealed that these c...

  20. e-Bitter: Bitterant Prediction by the Consensus Voting From the Machine-Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Suqing; Jiang, Mengying; Zhao, Chengwei; Zhu, Rui; Hu, Zhicheng; Xu, Yong; Lin, Fu

    2018-01-01

    In-silico bitterant prediction received the considerable attention due to the expensive and laborious experimental-screening of the bitterant. In this work, we collect the fully experimental dataset containing 707 bitterants and 592 non-bitterants, which is distinct from the fully or partially hypothetical non-bitterant dataset used in the previous works. Based on this experimental dataset, we harness the consensus votes from the multiple machine-learning methods (e.g., deep learning etc.) combined with the molecular fingerprint to build the bitter/bitterless classification models with five-fold cross-validation, which are further inspected by the Y-randomization test and applicability domain analysis. One of the best consensus models affords the accuracy, precision, specificity, sensitivity, F1-score, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.929, 0.918, 0.898, 0.954, 0.936, and 0.856 respectively on our test set. For the automatic prediction of bitterant, a graphic program "e-Bitter" is developed for the convenience of users via the simple mouse click. To our best knowledge, it is for the first time to adopt the consensus model for the bitterant prediction and develop the first free stand-alone software for the experimental food scientist.

  1. Differential bitterness in capsaicin, piperine, and ethanol associates with polymorphisms in multiple bitter taste receptor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, Alissa A; McGeary, John E; Hayes, John E

    2016-03-15

    To date, the majority of research exploring associations with genetic variability in bitter taste receptors has understandably focused on compounds and foods that are predominantly or solely perceived as bitter. However, other chemosensory stimuli are also known to elicit bitterness as a secondary sensation. Here we investigated whether TAS2R variation explains individual differences in bitterness elicited by chemesthetic stimuli, including capsaicin, piperine and ethanol. We confirmed that capsaicin, piperine and ethanol elicit bitterness in addition to burning/stinging sensations. Variability in perceived bitterness of capsaicin and ethanol were significantly associated with TAS2R38 and TAS2R3/4/5 diplotypes. For TAS2R38, PAV homozygotes perceived greater bitterness from capsaicin and ethanol presented on circumvallate papillae, compared to heterozygotes and AVI homozygotes. For TAS2R3/4/5, CCCAGT homozygotes rated the greatest bitterness, compared to heterozygotes and TTGGAG homozygotes, for both ethanol and capsaicin when presented on circumvallate papillae. Additional work is needed to determine how these and other chemesthetic stimuli differ in bitterness perception across concentrations and presentation methods. Furthermore, it would be beneficial to determine which TAS2R receptors are activated in vitro by chemesthetic compounds. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Determination of taste-active compounds of a bitter Camembert cheese by omission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Septier, C; Leconte, N; Salles, C; Le Quere, J L

    2001-11-01

    The taste-active compounds of a Camembert cheese selected for its intense bitterness defect were investigated. The water-soluble fraction (WSE) was extracted with pure water and fractionated by successive tangential ultrafiltrations and nanofiltration. The physicochemical assessment of these fractions led to the construction of a model WSE which was compared by sensory evaluation to the crude water-soluble extract, using a panel of 16 trained tasters. As no significant difference was perceived, this model WSE was then used directly or mixed with other cheese components for omission tests. Among the main taste characteristics of the WSE (salty, sour, umami and bitter), bitterness was found to be due to small peptides whose mass distribution was obtained by RPHPLC-MS (400-3000 Da) and whose taste properties are discussed.

  3. Bitterness prediction in-silico: A step towards better drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Malkeet Singh; Nissim, Ido; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-02-05

    Bitter taste is innately aversive and thought to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter taste receptors (Tas2Rs) are G-protein coupled receptors, expressed both orally and extra-orally and proposed as novel targets for several indications, including asthma. Many clinical drugs elicit bitter taste, suggesting the possibility of drugs re-purposing. On the other hand, the bitter taste of medicine presents a major compliance problem for pediatric drugs. Thus, efficient tools for predicting, measuring and masking bitterness of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are required by the pharmaceutical industry. Here we highlight the BitterDB database of bitter compounds and survey the main computational approaches to prediction of bitter taste based on compound's chemical structure. Current in silico bitterness prediction methods provide encouraging results, can be constantly improved using growing experimental data, and present a reliable and efficient addition to the APIs development toolbox. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-criteria optimization of the flesh melons skin separation process by experimental and statistical analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Medvedkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation activity to create energy-efficient processes in the melon processing, is a significant task. Separation skin from the melon flesh with their subsequent destination application in the creation of new food products is one of the time-consuming operations in this technology. Lack of scientific and experimental base of this operation holding back the development of high-performance machines for its implementation. In this connection, the technique of the experiment on the separation of the skins of melons in the pilot plant and the search for optimal regimes of its work methods by statistical modeling is offered. The late-ripening species of melon: Kalaysan, Thorlami, Gulab-sary are objects of study. Interaction of factors influencing on separating the melon skins process is carried out. A central composite rotatable design and fractional factorial experiment was used. Using the method of experimental design with treatment planning template in Design Expert v.10 software yielded a regression equations that adequately describe the actual process. Rational intervals input factors values are established: the ratio of the rotational speed of the drum to the abrasive supply roll rotational frequency; the gap between the supply drum and the shearing knife; shearing blade sharpening angle; the number of feed drum spikes; abrading drum orifices diameter. The mean square error does not exceed 12.4%. Regression equations graphic interpretation is presented by scatter plots and engineering nomograms that can be predictive of a choice of rational values of the input factors for three optimization criteria: minimal specific energy consumption in the process of cutting values, maximal specific performance by the pulp and pulp extraction ratio values. Obtained data can be used for the operational management of the process technological parameters, taking into account the geometrical dimensions of the melon and its inhomogeneous structure.

  5. e-Bitter: Bitterant Prediction by the Consensus Voting From the Machine-Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suqing Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In-silico bitterant prediction received the considerable attention due to the expensive and laborious experimental-screening of the bitterant. In this work, we collect the fully experimental dataset containing 707 bitterants and 592 non-bitterants, which is distinct from the fully or partially hypothetical non-bitterant dataset used in the previous works. Based on this experimental dataset, we harness the consensus votes from the multiple machine-learning methods (e.g., deep learning etc. combined with the molecular fingerprint to build the bitter/bitterless classification models with five-fold cross-validation, which are further inspected by the Y-randomization test and applicability domain analysis. One of the best consensus models affords the accuracy, precision, specificity, sensitivity, F1-score, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC of 0.929, 0.918, 0.898, 0.954, 0.936, and 0.856 respectively on our test set. For the automatic prediction of bitterant, a graphic program “e-Bitter” is developed for the convenience of users via the simple mouse click. To our best knowledge, it is for the first time to adopt the consensus model for the bitterant prediction and develop the first free stand-alone software for the experimental food scientist.

  6. e-Bitter: Bitterant Prediction by the Consensus Voting From the Machine-learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Suqing; Jiang, Mengying; Zhao, Chengwei; Zhu, Rui; Hu, Zhicheng; Xu, Yong; Lin, Fu

    2018-03-01

    In-silico bitterant prediction received the considerable attention due to the expensive and laborious experimental-screening of the bitterant. In this work, we collect the fully experimental dataset containing 707 bitterants and 592 non-bitterants, which is distinct from the fully or partially hypothetical non-bitterant dataset used in the previous works. Based on this experimental dataset, we harness the consensus votes from the multiple machine-learning methods (e.g., deep learning etc.) combined with the molecular fingerprint to build the bitter/bitterless classification models with five-fold cross-validation, which are further inspected by the Y-randomization test and applicability domain analysis. One of the best consensus models affords the accuracy, precision, specificity, sensitivity, F1-score, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.929, 0.918, 0.898, 0.954, 0.936, and 0.856 respectively on our test set. For the automatic prediction of bitterant, a graphic program “e-Bitter” is developed for the convenience of users via the simple mouse click. To our best knowledge, it is for the first time to adopt the consensus model for the bitterant prediction and develop the first free stand-alone software for the experimental food scientist.

  7. Bitterness in Almonds1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Olsen, Carl Erik; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-01-01

    Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis) is determined by the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. The ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin in the almond kernel was studied throughout the growth season using four different genotypes for bitterness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed a specific developmentally dependent accumulation of prunasin in the tegument of the bitter genotype. The prunasin level decreased concomitant with the initiation of amygdalin accumulation in the cotyledons of the bitter genotype. By administration of radiolabeled phenylalanine, the tegument was identified as a specific site of synthesis of prunasin in all four genotypes. A major difference between sweet and bitter genotypes was observed upon staining of thin sections of teguments and cotyledons for β-glucosidase activity using Fast Blue BB salt. In the sweet genotype, the inner epidermis in the tegument facing the nucellus was rich in cytoplasmic and vacuolar localized β-glucosidase activity, whereas in the bitter cultivar, the β-glucosidase activity in this cell layer was low. These combined data show that in the bitter genotype, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, amygdalin formation is prevented because the prunasin is degraded upon passage of the β-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the tegument. The prunasin turnover may offer a buffer supply of ammonia, aspartic acid, and asparagine enabling the plants to balance the supply of nitrogen to the developing cotyledons. PMID:18192442

  8. Physicochemical Pro~rti~ of Curd Prepared from Melon Seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key~~;ds~ Mel6n curd, coagulati'an, protein, calcium, sulphate, acceptabilit:" . ' .' ~ I[. ,.} ..... from where they were prepared, Fat contents,~ar ied among ... Table 1: Chemical compositio'o ~f' Melon Seed Milk (IWSM) Raw Melon Curd RMC' .' -'.

  9. Postharvest firmness behaviour of near-isogenic lines of melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Dos-Santos, N.; Jowkar, M.M.; Obando-Ulloa, J.M.; Moreno, E.; Schouten, R.E.; Monforte, A.J.; Fernández-Trujillo, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    In two consecutive seasons the firmness of 13¿15 near-isogenic lines (NILs) of melons (Cucumis melo L.) was followed during storage at 21 °C. Firmness was measured using non-destructive compression of whole melon fruit to a predefined compression distance of 2 mm. The same individuals (about 6 per

  10. Efficacy of primextra gold in controlling weeds of melon ( Citrillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in the Center of Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State to evaluate the efficacy of Primextra Gold (290g /l S – Metalochlor and 370g/l Atrazine) herbicide in controlling weeds in melon and to determine its safety for use in melon. The experiment was carried out between ...

  11. Research progress of the bitter taste receptor genes in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Luo, Rui-Jian

    2018-02-20

    Among the five basic tastes (umami, sweet, bitter, salty and sour), the perception of bitterness is believed to protect animals from digesting toxic and harmful substances, thus it is vital for animal survival. The taste of bitterness is triggered by the interaction between bitter substances and bitter taste receptors, which are encoded by Tas2rs. The gene numbers vary largely across species to meet different demands. So far, several ligands of bitter receptors have been identified in primates. They also discovered that the selective pressure of certain bitter taste receptor genes vary across taxa, genes or even different functional regions of the gene. In this review, we summarize the research progress of bitter taste receptor genes in primates by introducing the functional diversity of bitter receptors, the specific interaction between bitter taste receptors and ligands, the relationship between the evolutionary pattern of bitter taste receptors and diets, and the adaptive evolution of bitter taste receptor genes. We aim to provide a reference for further research on bitter receptor genes in primates.

  12. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-07-01

    Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word 'melon' and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe.

  13. The effect of insecticide applications to melon crop on melon aphid and its natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Ceballos, J.; Checa, B.

    1999-01-01

    Melons are an important export crop for Panama and are cultivated on more than 1000 ha of land. Long growing season, extending well into January, allows several generations and build up of heavy populations of an important insect pest, Aphis gossypii, the melon aphid. Growers find it difficult to cultivate melons without several applications of insecticides. Although the insecticide applications control the aphids, they may also have adverse effects on the natural enemies of the aphid, in particular the two predatory insects Cycloneda sanguinea and Chrysoperla carnea. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of insecticide applications on these insects and on the yield of melons, and to estimate residues of the applied insecticides in soil. The insecticides were applied as four different type of treatments to melon crop. The treatments were (i) three periodic applications of endosulfan (Thiodan 35EC), each at 0.52 kg a.i./ha, (ii) three applications of fenitrothion (Sumithion 50WP), each at 0.35 kg a.i./ha, (iii) two applications of fenitrothion and one of endosulfan, and (iv) grower's treatment, which included applications of six different insecticides. The effect of the insecticide applications was evaluated by estimating numbers of each of the three type of insects before and within 72 hours after the applications and estimating yield of melons. All insecticide treatments reduced the populations of Aphis gossypii, but they also reduced the numbers of the benificial insects. Endosulfan was somewhat less toxic to C. carnea than the other insecticides were, since greater number of C. carnea were recorded from the plots treated with endosulfan than the other treated plots. The best yield of melons was recorded in the plots which were sprayed with fenitrothion, followed by the plots sprayed with endosulfan. and then those with grower's insecticides. Soon after the application of endosulfan the residue in the soil was 0.2 mg/kg, but it declined to less

  14. Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest Nigeria: opportunity ... The study evaluates the different marketing of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) starting from the point of ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  15. Volatile emerging contaminants in melon fruits, analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Fabrizio; Verzera, Antonella; Tripodi, Gianluca; Condurso, Concetta

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and validate a headspace-solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method for the determination of volatile emerging contaminants in fruit. The method showed good precision (RSD ≤ 14%) and satisfactory recoveries (99.1-101.7%) and LOD and LOQ values ranging between 0.011-0.033 μg kg -1 and 0.037-0.098 μg kg -1 , respectively. The method was applied to investigate the content of volatile emerging contaminants in two varieties of melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.) cultivated adjoining high-risk areas. Glycol ethers, BHT, BHA and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) were determined in melon fruit pulps for the first time, with different sensitivities depending on sample and variety. Although the amount of the volatile contaminants in the melon samples were in the order of µg kg -1 , the safety of vegetable crops cultivated near risk areas should be more widely considered. The results showed that this accurate and reproducible method can be useful for routine safety control of fruits and vegetables.

  16. The Nudo, Rollo, Melon codes and nodal correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlado, J.M.; Aragones, J.M.; Minguez, E.; Pena, J.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of nodal calculation and checking results by the reference reactor experimental data. Nudo code description, adapting experimental data to nodal calculations. Rollo, Melon codes as improvement in the cycle life calculations of albedos, mixing parameters and nodal correlations. (author)

  17. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of 100g clean, mature, freshly washed melon seeds were dried at intervals of 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2h in an air-oven at 60O C. The experiments were carried out with five different bulk samples of melon seeds. The moisture content of the seeds at each drying stage was determined. The moisture loss in grams per ...

  18. Bitter taste stimuli induce differential neural codes in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wilson

    Full Text Available A growing literature suggests taste stimuli commonly classified as "bitter" induce heterogeneous neural and perceptual responses. Here, the central processing of bitter stimuli was studied in mice with genetically controlled bitter taste profiles. Using these mice removed genetic heterogeneity as a factor influencing gustatory neural codes for bitter stimuli. Electrophysiological activity (spikes was recorded from single neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius during oral delivery of taste solutions (26 total, including concentration series of the bitter tastants quinine, denatonium benzoate, cycloheximide, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA, presented to the whole mouth for 5 s. Seventy-nine neurons were sampled; in many cases multiple cells (2 to 5 were recorded from a mouse. Results showed bitter stimuli induced variable gustatory activity. For example, although some neurons responded robustly to quinine and cycloheximide, others displayed concentration-dependent activity (p<0.05 to quinine but not cycloheximide. Differential activity to bitter stimuli was observed across multiple neurons recorded from one animal in several mice. Across all cells, quinine and denatonium induced correlated spatial responses that differed (p<0.05 from those to cycloheximide and SOA. Modeling spatiotemporal neural ensemble activity revealed responses to quinine/denatonium and cycloheximide/SOA diverged during only an early, at least 1 s wide period of the taste response. Our findings highlight how temporal features of sensory processing contribute differences among bitter taste codes and build on data suggesting heterogeneity among "bitter" stimuli, data that challenge a strict monoguesia model for the bitter quality.

  19. Contribution of low molecular weight phenols to bitter taste and mouthfeel properties in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between low molecular weight compounds present in wines and their sensory contribution. Six young red wines were fractionated by gel permeation chromatography and subsequently each fraction obtained was separated from sugars and acids by solid phase extraction. Wines and both fractions were in-mouth evaluated by a trained sensory panel and UPLC-MS analyses were performed. The lack of ethanol and proanthocyanidins greatly increased the acidity perceived. The elimination of organic acids enabled the description of the samples, which were evaluated as bitter, persistent and slightly astringent. Coutaric acid and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside appear to be relevant astringent compounds in the absence of proanthocyanidins. Bitter taste was highly correlated with the in-mouth persistence. A significant predictive model for bitter taste was built by means of PLSR. Further research must be carried out to validate the sensory contribution of the compounds involved in bitterness and astringency and to verify the sensory interactions observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The bitter pill: clinical drugs that activate the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Anat; Nowak, Stefanie; Peters, Maximilian; Wiener, Ayana; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik; Niv, Masha Y

    2014-03-01

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) mediate aversive response to toxic food, which is often bitter. These G-protein-coupled receptors are also expressed in extraoral tissues, and emerge as novel targets for therapeutic indications such as asthma and infection. Our goal was to identify ligands of the broadly tuned TAS2R14 among clinical drugs. Molecular properties of known human bitter taste receptor TAS2R14 agonists were incorporated into pharmacophore- and shape-based models and used to computationally predict additional ligands. Predictions were tested by calcium imaging of TAS2R14-transfected HEK293 cells. In vitro testing of the virtual screening predictions resulted in 30-80% success rates, and 15 clinical drugs were found to activate the TAS2R14. hERG potassium channel, which is predominantly expressed in the heart, emerged as a common off-target of bitter drugs. Despite immense chemical diversity of known TAS2R14 ligands, novel ligands and previously unknown polypharmacology of drugs were unraveled by in vitro screening of computational predictions. This enables rational repurposing of traditional and standard drugs for bitter taste signaling modulation for therapeutic indications.

  1. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. McMullen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L. increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L. and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L. increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  2. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Towell, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L.) increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L.) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L.) increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  3. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However......Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between......, the liking of the least sweet apple + berry juice was significantly higher, and the optimal preferred sugar content was significantly lower in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. With regards to self-report, pregnant women who reported higher sensitivity in sweet or bitter taste did not have...

  4. Bitterness values for traditional tonic plants of southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, D K; van Wyk, B-E

    2013-06-03

    Bitterness values have been determined for southern African plant species that are traditionally used as tonics (imbizas or 'musa-pelo) to alleviate the symptoms of stress and a variety of ailments related to the digestive system. To measure and present, for the first time, the bitterness values of 15 of the best-known and most widely used tonic plants in southern Africa in order to find a rationale for their traditional use in improving appetite and treating digestive ailments. Most of the plants were found to be very bitter, with bitterness values comparable to those reported for internationally well-known bitter tonics such as Artemisia absynthium L. and Gentiana lutea L. The relatively high bitterness values obtained for all of the plants indicate that their alleged value in improving digestion and appetite may at least be partly ascribed to the bitter tonic (amarum) effect, i.e., the stimulation of gastric juices via the nervus vagus. It may be interesting to examine the chemical compounds responsible for the bitter taste, as well as the possible links between bitterness and the anecdotal anti-stress properties ascribed to these species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of changes in tastes of İpsala and Kırkağaç melons against Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydemir BARIŞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891 (Diptera: Tephritidae] is the most important pest of the melons (Cucumis melo L. (Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbitales. The larvae cause to damage by feeding in seed cavity. Also, the tissues damaged by larvae turn brown and occurring scent spread in melon. This study aims to determine change in the taste of melon tissues damaged by larvae for the first time in Turkey. For this purpose, Kırkağaç and İpsala variety melons widely utilized in the province Ankara were selected in this study. Fruit taste (points, water-soluble dry matter, titratable acidity (TA and pH measurements were included in analysis of melon. Statistical differences were determined in Kırkağaç melon with melon fly with respect to control in terms of all of the features discussed in the fruit analysis. A statistically significant difference was observed compared to the control in the other measurements excluding the only titratable acidity in İpsala melon with melon fly.

  6. Odor-Active Compounds in the Special Flavor Hops Huell Melon and Polaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiens, Silva D; Steinhaus, Martin

    2018-02-14

    The volatiles isolated from samples of the special flavor hop varieties, Huell Melon and Polaris, and from the aroma hop variety, Hallertau Tradition, by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) were subjected to a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), which resulted in 46 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16 to 2048. On the basis of high FD factors, myrcene, (3R)-linalool, and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid were confirmed as important variety-independent hop odorants. (1R,4S)-Calamenene was identified for the first time as an odor-active compound in hops. Clear differences in the FD factors and their subsequent objectification by stable isotope dilution quantitation suggested that high concentrations of the esters ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and propyl 2-methylbutanoate cause the characteristic fruity, cantaloupe-like odor note in Huell Melon hops, whereas the fruity and minty odor notes in Polaris are associated with high amounts of 3-methylbutyl acetate and 1,8-cineole.

  7. BitterSweetForest: A random forest based binary classifier to predict bitterness and sweetness of chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Preissner, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Taste of a chemical compounds present in food stimulates us to take in nutrients and avoid poisons. However, the perception of taste greatly depends on the genetic as well as evolutionary perspectives. The aim of this work was the development and validation of a machine learning model based on molecular fingerprints to discriminate between sweet and bitter taste of molecules. BitterSweetForest is the first open access model based on KNIME workflow that provides platform for prediction of bitter and sweet taste of chemical compounds using molecular fingerprints and Random Forest based classifier. The constructed model yielded an accuracy of 95% and an AUC of 0.98 in cross-validation. In independent test set, BitterSweetForest achieved an accuracy of 96 % and an AUC of 0.98 for bitter and sweet taste prediction. The constructed model was further applied to predict the bitter and sweet taste of natural compounds, approved drugs as well as on an acute toxicity compound data set. BitterSweetForest suggests 70% of the natural product space, as bitter and 10 % of the natural product space as sweet with confidence score of 0.60 and above. 77 % of the approved drug set was predicted as bitter and 2% as sweet with a confidence scores of 0.75 and above. Similarly, 75% of the total compounds from acute oral toxicity class were predicted only as bitter with a minimum confidence score of 0.75, revealing toxic compounds are mostly bitter. Furthermore, we applied a Bayesian based feature analysis method to discriminate the most occurring chemical features between sweet and bitter compounds from the feature space of a circular fingerprint.

  8. Quality improvement of oriental melon and watermelon using bioceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.K.; Lee, K.J.; Ryou, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    Oriental melon and watermelon plants were cultivated in the soil treated with bioceramics in a greenhouse during summer season from June 1st to August 20th, 1995. Two application methods were employed, one was a mixed treatment of soil and bioceramics, and the other was a spray treatment of bioceramic solution on the stems and leaves. And two types of bioceramics were also stopped by five levels. In order to analyze the bioceramic effect on oriental melon and watermelon, the growth rate of stems, leaves and fruits were measured in the greenhouse. After harvest, the sweetness of fruits was measured and the freshness of fruits based on the storage period was tested by human taste and smell sense. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The growth rates of stems, leaves and fruits of oriental melon and watermelon were the largest in the bioceramic treatment of No. 3. 2. The density of oriental melon and watermelon was the largest in the bioceramic treatment of No. 3 and No. 2 respectively. 3. The Brix number of watermelon was 10.6 in non-bioceramic treatment and 11.5 in the bioceramic treatment of No. 2, and that of oriental melon was 8.6 in non-bioceramic treatment and 12.3 in the bioceramic treatment of No. 2. 4. The storage duration of watermelon treated with bioceramics was about 50 days in the condition of the ambient temperature of 25∼30°C. (author)

  9. Genetic quality control in mass-reared melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.

    2002-01-01

    Quality control in mass-reared melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae, after eradication is discussed, based on the results of artificial selection experiments. First, a brief history of quality control in mass-rearing of insects is described. In practical mass- rearing of melon fly, many traits have already been differentiated between mass-reared and wild flies. These differing traits are reviewed and the factors which caused these differences are considered. It was considered that the differences between wild and mass-reared melon flies depended on the selection pressures from the mass-rearing method. Next, the results of several artificial selection experiments using the melon fly are reviewed. Finally, consideration is given to some correlated responses to artificial selection in mass-rearing. Longevity that is correlated to early fecundity was successfully controlled by artificial selection for reproduction in the mass-rearing system. On the basis of these results, an improved method for quality control in mass-reared melon fly with considerations for quantitative genetics is discussed

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at various chain positions to form a broad spectrum of apocarotenoids, including aromatic substances, pigments and phytohormones. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, we isolated three cDNA-encoding CCDs (McCCD1, McCCD4, and McNCED) from Momordica charantia. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that they share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time RT PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of McCCD1 and McCCD4 was highest in flowers, and lowest in roots and old leaves (O-leaves). During fruit maturation, the two genes displayed differential expression, with McCCD1 peaking at mid-stage maturation while McCCD4 showed the lowest expression at that stage. The mRNA expression level of McNCED, a key enzyme involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was high during fruit maturation and further increased at the beginning of seed germination. When first-leaf stage plants of M. charantia were exposed to dehydration stress, McNCED mRNA expression was induced primarily in the leaves and, to a lesser extend, in roots and stems. McNCED expression was also induced by high temperature and salinity, while treatment with exogenous ABA led to a decrease. These results should be helpful in determining the substrates and cleavage sites catalyzed by CCD genes in M. charantia, and also in defining the roles of CCDs in growth and development, and in the plant's response to environmental stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Postlaminectomy Bone and Scar Formations in Presence of Ankaferd Blood Stopper and Bitter Melon (Momordica Charantia): An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruoglu, Enis; Onger, Mehmet Emin; Marangoz, Abdullah Hilmi; Kocacan, Suleyman Emre; Cokluk, Cengiz; Kaplan, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative model of postlaminectomy was designed in rats. The effects of Momordica Charantia (MC) and Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) on the bone and scar formation after laminectomy were concurrently evaluated. Eighteen adult Wistar albino rats underwent lumbar laminectomy at L2-L3 vertebral levels, and were randomly assigned to one of three groups of six rats each. The Treatment group received MC and ABS treatment and the Control group was left untreated. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after treatment. Then; the lumbar spine was excised en-block, fixed and decalcified. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson"s trichrome, and evaluated for peridural fibrosis (PF), new bone formation, and vascular proliferation. Total volume of new bone in the MC group was significantly increased in comparison to the Control group (p < 0.05). Also; there was highly significant increase in terms of the total volume of fibrous tissue in the MC and ABS groups when compared with the Control group (p < 0.01). Besides; there was a highly significant difference between the MC and the Control groups (p < 0.01) in point of total volume of vessel. Both MC and ABS are not convenient to prevent the PF formation and MC may promote new bone formation and angiogenesis after lumbar laminectomy in rats.

  12. Pembuatan Fruit Leather dari Campuran Buah Sirsak (Annoma Muricata L.)dan Buah Melon (Cucumis Melo L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Risti, Andika Pranata; Herawati, Netti

    2017-01-01

    Theaim of this study wasto get the best treatment fruit leather from mixed soursop (Annoma muricata L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.). The study used a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 6 treatments and 3 replications.The treatments were SM1 (soursop 100 : melon 0), SM2 (soursop80 : melon 20), SM3 (soursop60 : melon40), SM4 (soursop40 : melon60) SM5 (soursop20 : melon80) and SM6 (soursop 0 : melon 100). The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and DNMRT at 5%. Thestudyshowed that ...

  13. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  14. Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce. Copnall, James 2017. London, Hurst Publishers, 317 pp. ISBN 978-184804-830-9. Reviewed by Nicodemus Minde*. Having served as the BBC Sudan correspondent from 2009 to 2012, James. Copnall has compiled an insightful account of the bitter-sweet split of the.

  15. variability in condensed tannins and bitterness in spider plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) contributes considerably to the nutrition and medicines of communities in southern Africa. However, its utilisation is limited by its bitterness caused by condensed tannins. Unfortunately, processing options that reduce the bitterness also remove nutritionally and medicinally useful ...

  16. Bitterness of saponins and their content in dry peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.; Vincken, J.P.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Legger, A.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Roozen, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The bitterness of a saponin mixture (containing saponin B and DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin in a ratio of 1:4) and saponin B obtained from dry peas were established by a trained panel using line scaling. Both saponins were found to be bitter. However, the saponin

  17. Performance Evaluation Of Africa Elemi Melon And Africa Locust Bean Oil As Potential Quenchants For Medium Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Ibeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative and comparative study was carried out on some locally sourced oils melon oil Africa elemi oil and Africa locust bean oil to evaluate suitability as substitute quenching media to mineral-based oil. The cooling ability of the oils was investigated using AISI 1034 medium carbon steel. The effect of heat transfer coefficient on quench severity mechanical properties of the quenched specimens were investigated in the course of the study. Results showed that the peak rate of heat extraction of melon oil Africa locust bean and Africa elemi oil were higher than that of mineral oil. Higher heat transfer coefficient of 1463 1023 Wm2k were obtained for melon oil and Africa locust bean Africa elemi and SAE 40 oil have heat transfer coefficient of 982 and 469 Wm2k respectively. The selected oils can be used as quenchants for medium carbon steel since the oils exhibits better cooling properties and mechanical properties than mineral-based oil.

  18. Differential metabolism of L-phenylalanine in the formation of aromatic volatiles in melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Itay; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Bar, Einat; Lev, Shery; Jhirad, Pliaa; Meshulam, Yuval; Wissotsky, Guy; Portnoy, Vitaly; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A; Tadmor, Yaakov; Giovannoni, James J; Fei, Zhangjun; Fait, Aaron; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2018-04-01

    Studies on the active pathways and the genes involved in the biosynthesis of L-phenylalanine-derived volatiles in fleshy fruits are sparse. Melon fruit rinds converted stable-isotope labeled L-phe into more than 20 volatiles. Phenylpropanes, phenylpropenes and benzenoids are apparently produced via the well-known phenylpropanoid pathway involving phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and being (E)-cinnamic acid a key intermediate. Phenethyl derivatives seemed to be derived from L-phe via a separate biosynthetic route not involving (E)-cinnamic acid and PAL. To explore for a biosynthetic route to (E)-cinnamaldehyde in melon rinds, soluble protein cell-free extracts were assayed with (E)-cinnamic acid, CoA, ATP, NADPH and MgSO 4 , producing (E)-cinnamaldehyde in vitro. In this context, we characterized CmCNL, a gene encoding for (E)-cinnamic acid:coenzyme A ligase, inferred to be involved in the biosynthesis of (E)-cinnamaldehyde. Additionally we describe CmBAMT, a SABATH gene family member encoding a benzoic acid:S-adenosyl-L-methionine carboxyl methyltransferase having a role in the accumulation of methyl benzoate. Our approach leads to a more comprehensive understanding of L-phe metabolism into aromatic volatiles in melon fruit. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Arrázola

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype (sweet, slightly bitter or bitter and the genotype (homozygous: sweet or bitter or heterozygous: sweet or slightly bitter with an easy analytical test. Results showed that there was a clear difference in the amount of amygdalin between bitter and non-bitter cultivars. However, the content of amygdalin did not differentiate the other genotypes, since similar amounts of amygdalin can be found in the two different genotypes with the same phenotype

  20. Molecular Features Underlying Selectivity in Chicken Bitter Taste Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Di Pizio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickens sense the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptors (Gallus gallus taste 2 receptors, ggTas2rs, representing a minimal case of bitter perception. Some bitter compounds like quinine, diphenidol and chlorpheniramine, activate all three ggTas2rs, while others selectively activate one or two of the receptors. We focus on bitter compounds with different selectivity profiles toward the three receptors, to shed light on the molecular recognition complexity in bitter taste. Using homology modeling and induced-fit docking simulations, we investigated the binding modes of ggTas2r agonists. Interestingly, promiscuous compounds are predicted to establish polar interactions with position 6.51 and hydrophobic interactions with positions 3.32 and 5.42 in all ggTas2rs; whereas certain residues are responsible for receptor selectivity. Lys3.29 and Asn3.36 are suggested as ggTas2r1-specificity-conferring residues; Gln6.55 as ggTas2r2-specificity-conferring residue; Ser5.38 and Gln7.42 as ggTas2r7-specificity conferring residues. The selectivity profile of quinine analogs, quinidine, epiquinidine and ethylhydrocupreine, was then characterized by combining calcium-imaging experiments and in silico approaches. ggTas2r models were used to virtually screen BitterDB compounds. ~50% of compounds known to be bitter to human are likely to be bitter to chicken, with 25, 20, 37% predicted to be ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7 agonists, respectively. Predicted ggTas2rs agonists can be tested with in vitro and in vivo experiments, contributing to our understanding of bitter taste in chicken and, consequently, to the improvement of chicken feed.

  1. First attempts of linking modelling, Postharvest behaviour and Melon Genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Santos, Don N.; Obando-Ulloa, J.M.; Moreno, E.; Schouten, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    The onset of climacteric is associated with the end of melon fruit shelf-life. The aim of this research was to develop practical and applicable models of fruit ripening changes (hardness, moisture loss) also able to discriminate between climacteric and non-climacteric behaviour. The decrease in

  2. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low

  3. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cervical cancer will take several decades to be apparent. There are more effective ways of screening, such as HPV DNA testing,[2] ... ARTICLE. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop! C Gordon, MB ChB, Diploma in HIV ...

  4. an evalution of some mechanical methods for shelling melon seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    When the pressure was increased, more seeds were broken and there was a lot of heat generated between the drum and the belt due to friction. In general the results of the tests on the two devices indicate that the application of pressure coupled .... The static bending properties of melon seeds show that both the shells and.

  5. FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR MELON BASED ON NUTRITIONAL BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aridiano Lima de Deus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of the most demanding cucurbits regarding fertilization, requiring knowledge of soils, crop nutritional requirements, time of application, and nutrient use efficiency for proper fertilization. Developing support systems for decision-making for fertilization that considers these variables in nutrient requirement and supply is necessary. The objective of this study was parameterization of a fertilizer recommendation system for melon (Ferticalc-melon based on nutritional balance. To estimate fertilizer recommendation, the system considers the requirement subsystem (REQ, which includes the demand for nutrients by the plant, and the supply subsystem (SUP, which corresponds to the supply of nutrients through the soil and irrigation water. After determining the REQtotal and SUPtotal, the system calculates the nutrient balances for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, recommending fertilizer application if the balance is negative (SUP < REQ, but not if the balance is positive or zero (SUP ≥ REQ. Simulations were made for different melon types (Yellow, Cantaloupe, Galia and Piel-de-sapo, with expected yield of 45 t ha-1. The system estimated that Galia type was the least demanding in P, while Piel-de-sapo was the most demanding. Cantaloupe was the least demanding for N and Ca, while the Yellow type required less K, Mg, and S. As compared to other fertilizer recommendation methods adopted in Brazil, the Ferticalc system was more dynamic and flexible. Although the system has shown satisfactory results, it needs to be evaluated under field conditions to improve its recommendations.

  6. Cucurbits powdery mildew race identity and reaction of melon genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resistance is one of the most suitable strategies to control cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) on melon, incited by Podosphaera xanthii or Golovinomyces orontii. However, many races of these pathogens have been reported worldwide in recent years, what may compromise the effectiveness of this met...

  7. Protection of melon plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to characterize a virus causing severe mosaic, yellowing, stunting and leaf deformation on melon (Cucumis melo L.), and evaluate the capacity of Pseudomonas fluorescens as biofertilizer to improve plant growth and restrict the accumulation of the virus in the plant. The virus was identified as an ...

  8. Fertilizer use efficiency by maize (Zea mays) and egusi- melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DBOY

    fertilizers by maize and egusi-melon in various ratios of mixtures in an ultisol in ... fertilizers replicated three timesfor two years as experiments 2009 and 2010, .... design. In 2011, the fertilizer rates were increased to six to further determine the ...

  9. Preliminary Study on the Use of Urea Activated Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption studies were carried out using urea activated melon (Citrullus colocynthis) husks as a low-cost potential adsorbent to remove cadmium from industrial effluents. Bioabsorption parameters considered were as contact time, adsorbent dosage and adsorbate concentration. Cadmium removal was found to be ...

  10. Effect of Some Plant Extracts on the Microbial Spoilage of Cajanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ethanolic extracts of seven plant sources on the microbial spoilage of Cajanus cajan extract was investigated. The results showed that the extracts obtained from Aloe vera, bitter leaf, Gultiferae (garcinia or bitter kola), Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) and Zingiber officialae (ginger) were effective against ...

  11. DNA fingerprinting of Chinese melon provides evidentiary support of seed quality appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Ma, Hongyan; Luan, Feishi; Song, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines). Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC) were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines) were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR) codes of 471 melon varieties (lines) were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications.

  12. DNA Fingerprinting of Chinese Melon Provides Evidentiary Support of Seed Quality Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Ma, Hongyan; Luan, Feishi; Song, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines). Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC) were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines) were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR) codes of 471 melon varieties (lines) were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications. PMID:23285039

  13. DNA fingerprinting of Chinese melon provides evidentiary support of seed quality appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines. Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR codes of 471 melon varieties (lines were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications.

  14. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter

  15. Orosensory-directed identification of astringent mouthfeel and bitter-tasting compounds in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Jan Carlos; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-02-27

    Application of sequential solvent extraction, followed by HPLC combined with the taste dilution analysis, enabled the localization of the most intense velvety astringent, drying, and puckering astringent, as well as bitter-tasting, compounds in red wine, respectively. Isolation of the taste components involving gel adsorption chromatography, ultrafiltration, and synthesis revealed the identification of 26 sensory-active nonvolatiles, among which several hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavon-3-ol glycosides, and dihydroflavon-3-ol rhamnosides as well as a structurally undefined polymeric fraction (>5 kDa) were identified as the key astringent components. In contradiction to literature suggestions, flavan-3-ols were found to be not of major importance for astringency and bitter taste, respectively. Surprisingly, a series of hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl esters and hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl esters were identified as bitter compounds in wine. Taste qualities and taste threshold concentrations of the individual wine components were determined by means of a three-alternative forced-choice test and the half-mouth test, respectively.

  16. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-05

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water).

  17. Bitter-tasting and kokumi-enhancing molecules in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Andreas Georg; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-12-22

    Sequential application of solvent extraction and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses (TDA) and comparative TDA, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments, led to the discovery of 10 C(17)-C(21) oxylipins with 1,2,4-trihydroxy-, 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy-, and 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motifs, respectively, besides 1-O-stearoyl-glycerol and 1-O-linoleoyl-glycerol as bitter-tasting compounds in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.). On the basis of quantitative data, dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, and taste re-engineering experiments, these phytochemicals, among which 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-octadeca-12-ene was found with the highest taste impact, were confirmed to be the key contributors to the bitter off-taste developed upon thermal processing of avocado. For the first time, those C(17)-C(21) oxylipins exhibiting a 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy- and a 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motif, respectively, were discovered to induce a mouthfulness (kokumi)-enhancing activity in sub-bitter threshold concentrations.

  18. NMR Phase Noise in Bitter Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, E. E.; Calder, E. S.; Thomas, G. W.; Mitrović, V. F.; Bachman, H. N.; Halperin, W. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Reyes, A. P.

    2001-02-01

    We have studied the temporal instability of a high field resistive Bitter magnet through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This instability leads to transverse spin decoherence in repeated and accumulated NMR experiments as is normally performed during signal averaging. We demonstrate this effect via Hahn echo and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation experiments in a 23-T resistive magnet. Quantitative analysis was found to be consistent with separate measurements of the magnetic field frequency fluctuation spectrum, as well as with independent NMR experiments performed in a magnetic field with a controlled instability. Finally, the CPMG sequence with short pulse delays is shown to be successful in recovering the intrinsic spin-spin relaxation even in the presence of magnetic field temporal instability.

  19. Detection and occurrence of Melon yellow spot virus in Ecuador: an emergent threat to melon and watermelon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, more than fifty viruses have been reported in cucurbit crops. In Ecuador, approximately 3000 Ha of watermelon, melon and cucumbers are cultivated annually. However, very few studies have been conducted to identify viruses responsible for important epidemics in this crop in Ecuador. During...

  20. Studies of the antitumor and immunomodulatory characteristics of an extract of Momordica charantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunnick, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    An extract from the fruit of the bitter melon (BME), Momordica charantia is able to act as a biological response modifier in the murine system. Injection of 8 μg of BME protein, intraperitoneally induces an infiltration of lymphocytes into the peritoneal cavity. These peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) are cytotoxic to a wide range of tumor targets, including the NK sensitive tumor cell line, YAC-1. Injections of BME given twice a week augments tumor cytotoxic PEC, for 4 weeks. Fractionation of BME induced PEC revealed that the non-specific, tumor cytotoxic population of PEC were non-adherent mononuclear cells. Fractionation of PEC using unit gravity sedimentation revealed that the cytotoxic population is either a neutrophil or a large granular lymphocyte (LGL) as observed in the 51 Cr-release assay. The antitumor activity of the BME which confers a tumor-dormant state on L1210 tumor-bearing mice was found to correlate with an increase in tumor cytotoxic cells in the PEC of BME injected mice. Tumor-bearing mice which received treatment with saline did not exhibit any tumor cytotoxic activity. Oral administration of the BME augmented splenic NK cytotoxicity. BME is highly antigenic. The formation of antibodies against the BME is detectable by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay after three weeks of ip injections (two/week). The mechanism of NK activation is still unknown. Results indicated that a BME does not induce the production of interleukin-2 or interferon

  1. Efficacy of protein bait sprays in controlling melon fruit fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] in vegetable agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, Z.U.A.; Baloch, N.

    2017-01-01

    Melon fruit fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] is an injurious pest of vegetables and fruits throughout the cosmos. Vegetables are key source of proteins, minerals and vitamins for human nutrition. However, a number of factors, such as Tephritid flies, confine production of vegetables. Among them , B. cucurbitae is most deleterious pests of the vegetables. In the present investigation, conducted at two field locations of district, Hyderabad during 2016, efficacy of various bait sprays was evaluated in controlling Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) infestation. The field locations were Jeay Shah and Dehli farm and the cucurbit vegetable crops were bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia). For this purpose, three food attractants such as Nu-lure, Protein hydrolysate and Prima were sprayed on onemeter square per field area, as spot treatment. Significantly higher reductions in B. cucurbitae infestations (24.80+-2.63, 21.20+-2.75) were recorded with Protein hydrolysate followed by Nu-lure (27.80+-3.26, 24.20+-3.57), as compared with untreated plots, at both field locations (P<0.05). Moreover, higher number of pupae were recovered (121.40+-13.81, 115.00+-14.17) and higher number of flies and trap catches were observed in control (P<0.05). This study established that Protein hydrolysate is an effective food attractant for reducing B. cucurbitae in all the tested cucurbits. Results of the present investigation would be useful in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the cucurbit agro-ecosystem. (author)

  2. Ethanolic leaf extract of Langenaria breviflora (bitter gourd) inhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: Gastrointestinal toxicity remains a barrier to applications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ... acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin and indomethacin ..... Hepatic and Renal Function of Rats. IOSR.

  3. Ameliorative effect of aqueous leaf extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result revealed that group B showed marked increase in the activity of the serum urea, creatinine, catalase and superoxide dismutase along with reduction in level of malonyl dehydrogenase. While the other groups showed normal value of serum catalase, superioxide dismutase, malonyl dehydrogenase, urea and ...

  4. Efficiency of bitter kola marketing in Abia State, Nigeria | Iheke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency of bitter kola marketing in Abia State, Nigeria. ... The goal of marketing of agricultural products is to ensure that consumers get satisfaction from the entire process of production, as well as ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. Detection of bitterness-Suppression using a taste sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiyama, Satoru; Ezaki, Shu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    We tried to detect the suppression of bitterness with a taste sensor. Quinine hydrochloride, which has a positive charge usually cause large potential change of negatively, charged membranes of the sensor. The potential change was decreased by sour substances such as acetic acid. The decrease of the potential change of response implies a decrease in the intensity of bitterness. Contrary to this, response of the sensor to sodium picrate, which has a negative charge, was diminished by sodium salts of organic acids. As the hydrophobicity of organic acids increased, the suppression of bitterness also increased. The present study is expected to provide a new quantitative technique to measure the strength of bitterness of foods and drugs in place of sensory evaluation. (author)

  6. Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Wood, Elizabeth; Rogel Castillo, Cristian; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2013-08-14

    Amygdalin is a cynaogenic diglucoside responsible for the bitterness of almonds. Almonds display three flavor phenotypes, nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter. Herein, the amygdalin content of 20 varieties of nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds from four primary growing regions of California was determined using solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS). The detection limit for this method is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL (3 times the signal-to-noise ratio) and the LOQ is 0.33 ng/mL (10 times the signal-to-noise ratio), allowing for the reliable quantitation of trace levels of amygdalin in nonbitter almonds (0.13 mg/kg almond). Results indicate that amygdalin concentrations for the three flavor phenotypes were significantly different (p almonds are 63.13 ± 57.54, 992.24 ± 513.04, and 40060.34 ± 7855.26 mg/kg, respectively. Levels of amygdalin ranged from 2.16 to 157.44 mg/kg in nonbitter, from 523.50 to 1772.75 mg/kg in semibitter, and from 33006.60 to 53998.30 mg/kg in bitter almonds. These results suggest that phenotype classification may be achieved on the basis of amygdalin levels. Growing region had a statistically significant effect on the amygdalin concentration in commercial varieties (p < 0.05).

  7. Promiscuity and selectivity of bitter molecules and their receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Niv, Masha Y

    2015-07-15

    Bitter taste is essential for survival, as it protects against consuming poisonous compounds, which are often bitter. Bitter taste perception is mediated by bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs), a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of TAS2R subtypes is species-dependent, and varies from 3 in chicken to 50 in frog. TAS2Rs present an intriguing case for studying promiscuity: some of the receptors are still orphan, or have few known agonists, while others can be activated by numerous, structurally dissimilar compounds. The ligands also vary in the repertoire of TAS2Rs that they activate: some bitter compounds are selective toward a single TAS2R, while others activate multiple TAS2Rs. Selectivity/promiscuity profile of bitter taste receptors and their compounds was explored by a chemoinformatic approach. TAS2R-promiscuous and TAS2R-selective bitter molecules were found to differ in chemical features, such as AlogP, E-state, total charge, number of rings, globularity, and heavy atom count. This allowed the prediction of bitter ligand selectivity toward TAS2Rs. Interestingly, while promiscuous TAS2Rs are activated by both TAS2R-promiscuous and TAS2R-selective compounds, almost all selective TAS2Rs in human are activated by promiscuous compounds, which are recognized by other TAS2Rs anyway. Thus, unique ligands, that may have been the evolutionary driving force for development of selective TAS2Rs, still need to be unraveled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  9. Radioimmunoassay for the citrus bitter principle, naringin, and related flavonoid-7-O-neohesperidosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdan, P.S.; Weiler, E.W.; Mansell, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoassay for the citrus bitter principle, naringin, and related flavonoid-7-O-neohesperidosides is reported. The assay detects ca. 2 ng of naringin and can be used to quantify this compound in the parts per billion (ppb) range in crude grapefruit juice and extracts of other plant tissues. The antiserum used is highly reactive with the 2-rhamnosyl-1-glucopyranose at the C-7 position but not with e.g. the isomeric 6-rhamnosyl-1-glucopyranose moiety and can, thus, be used to identify the stereochemistry of this disaccharide moiety at the C-7 position of flavanoids. The assay involves a directly iodinated naringin-[ 125 I] as immunotracer. (orig.)

  10. Effect of mulching on melon (cv. Campero) crop coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerekovic, Natasa; Todorovic, Mladen; Snyder, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    . This improvement is particularly important because midseason Kc refers to the peak Kc values and relies on the period of growing season that is usually the most important for irrigation and the most sensitive to water stress, thus when an accurate scheduling should be applied. Overall results indicate...... depend mainly on water management practices during the end of the season. A review of Kc for melon grown under mulch and the results of investigations on Policoro data confirmed relevant difference in the length of the growing period in respect to the data presented in FAO 56. Therefore, careful....... The Kc mid values determined with equations are average adjustments for the mid-season period for the melon crop in Policoro, taking in consideration relevant weather data for wind speed and relative humidity as averages for these period. High Kc values were related to irrigation events. Kc end values...

  11. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  12. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60 Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

  13. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  14. Bitter taste masking of enzyme-treated soy protein in water and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Anne S; Laursen, Anne; Knudsen, Tine A; Møller, Stine; Kidmose, Ulla

    2018-08-01

    Bioactive protein hydrolysates are often very bitter. To overcome this challenge, xylitol, sucrose, α-cyclodextrin, maltodextrin and combinations of these were tested systematically as bitter-masking agents of an enzyme-treated soy protein in an aqueous model and in a bread model. Sensory descriptive analysis was used to reveal the bitter-masking effect of the taste-masking blends on the enzyme-treated soy protein. In water, xylitol, sucrose and maltodextrin reduced bitterness significantly, whereas α-cyclodextrin did not. No significant difference was observed in bitterness reduction between xylitol and sucrose. Both reduced bitterness significantly more than maltodextrin. No interactions between the taste-masking agents affecting bitterness reduction were found. Clearer bitter-masking effects were seen in the aqueous model compared with the bread model. The bitter-masking effects of α-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin were similar between water and bread. The effect of xylitol and sucrose on bitterness suppression varied between the systems. In water, bitterness was negatively correlated with sweetness. In bread, bitterness was negatively correlated with freshness, and maltodextrin significantly reduced bitterness of the enzyme-treated soy protein and increased freshness. Bitter-masking effects were generally more discernible in the aqueous model compared with the bread model. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. In vitro evaluation of potential bitterness-masking terpenoids from the Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Fletcher, Joshua N; Lv, Wei; Deng, Ye; Vincent, Michael A; Slack, Jay P; McCluskey, T Scott; Jia, Zhonghua; Cushman, Mark; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2014-07-25

    In a screening of extracts of selected plants native to Ohio against the human bitterness receptor hTAS2R31, a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod) was determined to have hTAS2R31 antagonistic activity and, thus, was fractionated for isolation of potential bitterness-masking agents. One new labdane diterpenoid, solidagol (1), and six known terpenoids, including two labdane diterpenoids (2 and 3), three clerodane diterpenoids (6β-angeloyloxykolavenic acid, 6β-tigloyloxykolavenic acid, and crotonic acid), and a triterpenoid (longispinogenin), were isolated. Among these compounds, 3β-acetoxycopalic acid (2) was found to be the first member of the labdane diterpene class shown to have inhibitory activity against hTAS2R31 activation (IC50 8 μM). A homology model of hTAS2R31 was constructed, and the molecular docking of 2 to this model indicated that this diterpenoid binds well to the active site of hTAS2R31, whereas this was not the case for the closely structurally related compound 3 (sempervirenic acid). The content of 2 in the chloroform-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of S. canadensis was up to 2.24 g/100 g dry weight, as determined by HPLC.

  16. Powdery Mildew Control and Yield Response of Inodorus Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolito Camele

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on melon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus Naud. in 2006 and 2007 at “Pantanello” Experimental Farm (40° 24’N; 16° 48’E; 10 m a.s.l.; Metaponto, southern Italy to evaluate the efficacy of a low environmental impact control strategy against powdery mildew of cucurbits. Winter melon was treated with a new anti-oidium formulation, called Stifénia, obtained from fenugreek seeds and stimulating the plant self-defence. The adopted experimental design included two control strategies (1. biological, using Stifénia and 2. conventional, using penconazole, myclobutanil and sulphur and an untreated control (treated with water alone applied to two cultivars of inodorus melon (cv ‘Amarillo’ and HF1 ‘Cocorito’, the latter a genotype resistant to powdery mildew. Stifénia applications were not effective against the disease; in fact, there were no differences in percentage of attacked plant surface between treated plots and untreated ones. The melon marketable yield was significantly higher with the conventional strategy respect to Stifénia and control. Repeated applications of Stifénia resulted in a significant decrease of marketable yield even in comparison with the untreated control. The cultivars significantly affected powdery mildew development, since the resistant one (‘Cocorito’ was attacked later and damaged always lower than the non-resistant genotype (‘Amarillo’. Laboratory analyses carried out on infected leaves always confirmed that Golovinomyces cichoracearum D.C. was responsible of the disease.

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  18. Effect of gamma radiation on the content β-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs 137 source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in β-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific β-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and α -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 kGy ranging from 0.8 to 9

  19. EFEKTIVITAS AROMATERAPI BITTER ORANGE TERHADAP NYERI POST PARTUM SECTIO CAESAREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Utami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery that causes severe pain physiological response as compared to a normal delivery was called sectio caesarea. The alternative to reduce pain with bitter orange aroma therapy. Bitter orange aroma therapy is to give the effect of reducing the muscle tensions and stress the body as a whole with the goal of keeping the body and mind into a relaxed. This research was aimed to explore the effectiveness of bitter orange aroma therapy for reduction pain in post partum sectio caesarea. The method used this research was quasi experimental with pre test and post test design with control group. The instruments used numeric rating scale to measure pain intensity. The sampling technique used purposive sampling where the quantity of research sample 34 respondents which are divided into 2 groups, namely intervention group and control group. bitter orange aroma therapy carried out for 15 minutes each day for 2 days. The univariate analysis was conducted to show pain distribution and bivariate analysis was conducted by Wicoxon and Mann Whitney. The result show that after bitter orange aroma therapy was applied towards intervered group, it was obtained that mean of respondents category pain was reducing at 3,44 (low pain with the reduction was 1,47 and mean of post partum sectio caesarea pain without given bitter orange aroma therapy in control group was 4,82 (moderate pain with the reduction was 0. The statistic showed up p value (0,000< 0,05 which mean that kneading techniques effective to reduce pain of post partum sectio caesarea. Based on the result, bitter orange aroma therapy can be recommended as nursing intervention of post partum sectio caesarea.

  20. Metabolomic and elemental profiling of melon fruit quality as affected by genotype and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernillon, Stéphane; Biais, Benoit; Deborde, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global crop in terms of economic importance and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to explore the variability in metabolite and elemental composition of several commercial varieties of melon in various environmental conditions. Volatile and non...

  1. Metabolomic and elemental profiling of melon fruit quality as affected by genotype and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernillon, S.; Biais, B.; Deborde, C.; Maucort, M.; Cabasson, C.; Gibon, Y.; Hansen, T.; Husted, S.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Mumm, R.; Jonker, H.; Ward, J.L.; Miller, S.J.; Baker, J.M.; Burger, J.; Tadmor, Y.; Beale, M.H.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Schaffer, A.; Rolin, D.; Hall, R.D.; Moing, A.

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global crop in terms of economic importance and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to explore the variability in metabolite and elemental composition of several commercial varieties of melon in various environmental conditions. Volatile and non-volatile

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF MELON F1 SEEDS BASED ON LINES WITH GENIC MALE STERILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sokolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspective technology of development of melon of F1hybrids seeds by use maternal lines with an original form of genic mail sterility and marker trait (lobed leaves was studied. Elements of technology allow developing hybrid seeds of melon with hybridity of 90-95%.

  3. Fine genetic mapping of a locus controlling short internode length in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compact and dwarfing vining habits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) may have commercial importance since they can contribute to the promotion of concentrated fruit set and can be planted in higher plant densities than standard vining types. A diminutive (dwarf) melon mutant line (PNU-D1) wi...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South... and Vegetables § 319.56-26 Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America. (a) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus...

  5. Bitterness and Physichochemical Properties of Angelwing Clam (Pholas Orientalis) Hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Ismail; Nurul Fasihah Razak

    2016-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates from angelwing clam were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain. The bitterness of hydrolysates was evaluated based on the degree hydrolysis (DH), sensory analysis, molecular weight distribution and functional group. By using 3 % of enzyme substrate ratio bromelain resulted in high DH value at 12.57 % when angelwing clam was hydrolysed for 2 hours. Sensory analysis showed that angelwing hydrolysate was bitter. Angelwing hydrolysate had molecular weight below 50 kDa. The lower molecular weight indicated that the protein has been degraded into smaller peptide chains which contribute to bitter taste. Moreover, the high peak of amine group in angelwing hydrolysate (3385.6 cm -1 ) suggested that bitterness exists. Angelwing hydrolysate had higher protein content, lower fat content and had good water holding capacity than the flesh. This result suggested that angelwing hydrolysate could be useful as food ingredient even though bitter taste developed after the hydrolysis. Thus, debittering should be considered in order to pave the way for full utilization of angelwing clam hydrolysate as a food ingredient. (author)

  6. Some bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of the bitter almond kernel (prunus dulcis var. amara)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keser, S.; Yilmaz, O.

    2014-01-01

    in this study, it was determined antioxidant activities and phenolic, flavonoid, phytosterol, lipid soluble vitamin and fatty acid contents of bitter almond kernel extract (bae). antioxidant activities of bae was investigated by dppho, abtso+, oho radical scavenging, metal chelating activity and determination of lipid peroxidation levels (tbars). bae was scavenged 83.49% of the abts radical, 68.34% of the hydroxyl radical, and 68.65% of the dpph radical. this extract was shown 49.36% of the metal chelating activity myricetin (1831.52 mu g/g), kaempferol (104.52 mu g/g), naringenin (2.51 mu g/g), vanillic acid (91.70 mu g/g), caffeic acid (85.92 mu g/g), ferulic acid (27.11 mu g/g) rosmarinic acid (0.95 mu g/g), hydroxycinnamic acid (1.35 mu g/g), delta-tocopherol (4.95 mg/kg), mu-tocopherol (104.15 mg/kg), vitamin k (42.25 mg/kg), beta-sitosterol (366.95 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (242.65 mg/kg) were determined in the bae. the major fatty acids were oleic acid (70.61%) and linoleic acid (20.68%) in the bae. these results indicate that bitter almond can be a good natural source of fatty acids, lipid soluble vitamins, phytosterols, flavonoid, phenolic compounds. (author)

  7. Genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes and phylogenetic analysis of bitter taste receptor genes in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As nontraditional model organisms with extreme physiological and morphological phenotypes, snakes are believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste sensation is essential to distinguish the nutritious and poisonous food resources and the genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes is largely scarce. To explore the genetic basis of the bitter taste of snakes and characterize the evolution of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs in reptiles, we identified Tas2r genes in 19 genomes (species corresponding to three orders of non-avian reptiles. Our results indicated contractions of Tas2r gene repertoires in snakes, however dramatic gene expansions have occurred in lizards. Phylogenetic analysis of the Tas2rs with NJ and BI methods revealed that Tas2r genes of snake species formed two clades, whereas in lizards the Tas2r genes clustered into two monophyletic clades and four large clades. Evolutionary changes (birth and death of intact Tas2r genes in reptiles were determined by reconciliation analysis. Additionally, the taste signaling pathway calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (Calhm1 gene of snakes was putatively functional, suggesting that snakes still possess bitter taste sensation. Furthermore, Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts (PIC analyses reviewed a significant correlation between the number of Tas2r genes and the amount of potential toxins in reptilian diets, suggesting that insectivores such as some lizards may require more Tas2rs genes than omnivorous and carnivorous reptiles.

  8. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and ben......Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose...

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on melon read-to-eat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Polizel, Francine Fernanda, E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fran_sininho@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work comes from the irradiation of Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.), with the aid of gamma irradiation (Co60) to physical and chemical changes to assess their conservation. The research aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on melons, including the possibility of conservation, through pH, acidity, soluble solids and fresh squash. The samples were minimally processed and submitted to gamma radiation Co{sup 60} at doses of 0 (control); 1kGy and 2kGy. Physicochemical analyzes were made in periods of 1, 7 and 14 days after irradiation treatment. On day 1 and day 7, pH levels in irradiated samples had increased compared to control. Since the 14th day, the dose decreased 1kGy equaling the control. Soluble solids showed a statistical gradual decrease according to the increase of dose. The 14th had no significant difference while the 7th the dose was increased. The 1kGy sample decreased in another dose compared to the control. In fresh squash, absent statistics were observed for all samples in the three periods. And for the analysis of titratable acidity, there was observed no significant difference at day 1. There was observed a decrease in the 2kGy and 1kGy dose to 7 days compared to the control. On 14th day, a reduction in the dose of 2kGy and deterioration of 1kGy dose of the sample. Therefore, it demonstrates the irradiation doses of 2kGy, 1kGy physic-chemically alters the Cantaloupe melon pH, soluble solids content and acidity. And the dose of 2kGy is the one that longer preserves samples based on acidity values, greater and smaller values of soluble solids. (author)

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on melon read-to-eat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Polizel, Francine Fernanda; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    This work comes from the irradiation of Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.), with the aid of gamma irradiation (Co60) to physical and chemical changes to assess their conservation. The research aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on melons, including the possibility of conservation, through pH, acidity, soluble solids and fresh squash. The samples were minimally processed and submitted to gamma radiation Co 60 at doses of 0 (control); 1kGy and 2kGy. Physicochemical analyzes were made in periods of 1, 7 and 14 days after irradiation treatment. On day 1 and day 7, pH levels in irradiated samples had increased compared to control. Since the 14th day, the dose decreased 1kGy equaling the control. Soluble solids showed a statistical gradual decrease according to the increase of dose. The 14th had no significant difference while the 7th the dose was increased. The 1kGy sample decreased in another dose compared to the control. In fresh squash, absent statistics were observed for all samples in the three periods. And for the analysis of titratable acidity, there was observed no significant difference at day 1. There was observed a decrease in the 2kGy and 1kGy dose to 7 days compared to the control. On 14th day, a reduction in the dose of 2kGy and deterioration of 1kGy dose of the sample. Therefore, it demonstrates the irradiation doses of 2kGy, 1kGy physic-chemically alters the Cantaloupe melon pH, soluble solids content and acidity. And the dose of 2kGy is the one that longer preserves samples based on acidity values, greater and smaller values of soluble solids. (author)

  11. Rainbow tensor model with enhanced symmetry and extreme melonic dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Itoyama

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and briefly analyze the rainbow tensor model where all planar diagrams are melonic. This leads to considerable simplification of the large N limit as compared to that of the matrix model: in particular, what are dressed in this limit are propagators only, which leads to an oversimplified closed set of Schwinger–Dyson equations for multi-point correlators. We briefly touch upon the Ward identities, the substitute of the spectral curve and the AMM/EO topological recursion and their possible connections to Connes–Kreimer theory and forest formulas.

  12. Rainbow tensor model with enhanced symmetry and extreme melonic dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoyama, H.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce and briefly analyze the rainbow tensor model where all planar diagrams are melonic. This leads to considerable simplification of the large N limit as compared to that of the matrix model: in particular, what are dressed in this limit are propagators only, which leads to an oversimplified closed set of Schwinger-Dyson equations for multi-point correlators. We briefly touch upon the Ward identities, the substitute of the spectral curve and the AMM/EO topological recursion and their possible connections to Connes-Kreimer theory and forest formulas.

  13. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  14. Ruzu ® herbal bitters and glibenclamide tablets: Dissolution and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The concomitant intake of poly-herbal medicines with orthodox drugs raises huge concerns about herb-drug interactions and patient safety, especially as the pharmacokinetic properties of these herbal medicines are not known. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of Ruzu® herbal bitters on the ...

  15. Quinoa bitterness: causes and solutions for improving product acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Estrella, Diego; Torri, Luisa; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Marti, Alessandra

    2018-02-27

    Awareness of the several agronomic, environmental, and health benefits of quinoa has led to a constant increase in its production and consumption not only in South America, where it is a native crop, but also in Europe and the USA. However, producing wheat or gluten-free based products enriched with quinoa alters some quality characteristics, including sensory acceptance. Several anti-nutritional factors such as saponins are concentrated in the grain pericarp. These bitter and astringent substances may interfere with the digestion and absorption of various nutrients. Developing processes to decrease or modify the bitterness of quinoa can enhance palatability, and thus consumption, of quinoa. In addition to the production of sweet varieties of quinoa, other processes have been proposed. Some of them (i.e. washing, pearling and the combination of the two) have a direct effect on saponins, either by solubilization and/or the mechanical removal of seed layers. Others, such as fermentation or germination, are able to mask the bitterness with aroma compounds and/or sugar formation. This review presents the major sources of the undesirable sensory attributes of quinoa, including bitterness, and various ways of counteracting the negative characteristics of quinoa. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan domestic and Tibetan chicken populations. YUAN SU DIYAN LI UMA GAUR YAN WANG NAN WU BINLONG CHEN HONGXIAN XU HUADONG YIN YAODONG HU QING ZHU. RESEARCH ARTICLE Volume 95 Issue 3 September 2016 pp 675-681 ...

  17. Nutritional evaluation of bitter leaf meal ( Vernonia amygdalina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional evaluation of bitter leaf meal ( Vernonia amygdalina ): effects on ... A total of 72 one-day-old broiler chicks of Abor-acre breed were used for the trial and ... reduced the level of cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, low density lipoprotein, ...

  18. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemrić, T.; Fruk, I.; Fruk, M.; Radman, S.; Sinkovič, L.; Fruk, G.

    2016-01-01

    Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg), cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  19. Value of Bitter Leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina ) Meal as Feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) leaf meal as feed ingredient on the performance, feed cost and carcass and organ weights of finisher broilers. The leaves were air dried under room temperature, ground and sieved through a 3 mm mesh to produce the meal.

  20. Evaluation of the Protective Effects of Bitter Leaf (Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Haematological Indices of Rats Fed with Crude Oil Treated Diet ... This study indicates that intake of bitter leaf reduced the toxic effect of crude ... effects of petroleum hydrocarbon include decreased ... Cell Indices: After thirty days blood samples were .... Comparative study of ... ingestion of crude oil (Nigerian Bonny Light),.

  1. variability in condensed tannins and bitterness in spider plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    R.T. KUTSUKUTSA, E. GASURA, S. MABASA and E. NGADZE ... L.) contributes considerably to the nutrition and medicines of communities in ... Key Words: Cleome gynandra, indigenous vegetable, nutrition, phenolic .... mouths with distilled water and waited for some .... the bitterness can be a good measure of the.

  2. Toxicity studies in rats fed nature cure bitters | Aniagu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded doses of Nature Cure Bitters (NCB) were administered daily (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o) to rats for 28 days and the effects on body weight, organ weight, clinical signs, gross pathology, haematology, histology and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. The relative weights of the heart, liver and testes of ...

  3. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemrić, T.; Fruk, I.; Fruk, M.; Radman, S.; Sinkovič, L.; Fruk, G.

    2016-07-01

    Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg), cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  4. Preliminary studies on ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    A study on yeast fermentation of bitter kola pod( agricultural waste) was ... optimization of the ethanol production were investigated. ... components of biomass to produce a liquid .... Mani, S., Tabil, L. G. and Opoku, A. (2002). Ethanol from Agricultural crop residues-An. Overview. ... Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola.

  5. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, ... Journal of Genetics, DOI 10.1007/s12041-016-0684-4, Vol. ..... between red-winged blackbirds and European starlings. ... Academic Press,.

  6. Cyanide and Amygdalin as Indicators of the Presence of Bitter Almonds in Imported Raw Almonds: CYANIDE AND AMYGDALIN AS INDICATORS OF BITTER ALMONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Toomey, Valerie M.; Nickum, Elisa A.; Flurer, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting "bitter" opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in the subm...

  7. Disease Incidence of Melon Leaf Curl in East Java and Special Province of Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Julijantono

    2010-12-01

    Infeksi penyebab penyakit yang disebabkan oleh geminivirus telah menyebabkan kerugian secara ekonomi berbagai jenis tanaman penting yang dibudidayakan. Kejadian penyakit pada tanaman melon telah diamati sejak tahun 2004, dan tersebar secara luas di pusat penanaman melon di Jawa Timur maupun Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY. Di Jawa Timur dan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY, pada tahun 2008 kejadian penyakit daun keriting melon mencapai 100% dan 14,3%. Penyebab penyakit telah dideteksi menggunakan teknik polymerase chain reaction. Amplifikasi Fragmen DNA virus dari tanaman yang terinfeksi dihasilkan dengan ukuran 770 bp menggunakan sepasang primer CPA5 dan CPA2.

  8. Physical and chemical characteristics of melon in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosete A. G. Kohn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melon farming is characterized as an important family agriculture activity and the organic production of fruits and vegetables has shown a large growth in terms of areas in Brazil and around the world. This work aimed to study the postharvest quality of melon cultivated in an organic system. The organic treatments constituted of base fertilizer with cattle manure vermicompost (recommended dose, ½ dose and double dose plus the use of biofertilizer (sprayed or sprayed + irrigated, and an additional treatment with chemical fertilization. The postharvest quality was evaluated through physico-chemical and phytochemical attributes. The organic management with half the recommended dose of vermicompost plus the sprayed biofertilizer and the chemical fertilization management produced fruits with higher levels of sugar, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and folates, obtaining more balanced fruits, with a better phytochemical quality. The antioxidant capacity was defined mainly by the presence of the phenolic compounds, which were influenced by the type and the dose of the evaluated fertilizers, with superiority in the organic treatments with double the dose of cattle manure vermicompost.

  9. Independent Evolution of Strychnine Recognition by Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Yuan Xue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The 25 human bitter taste receptors (hT2Rs recognize thousands of structurally and chemically diverse bitter substances. The binding modes of human bitter taste receptors hT2R10 and hT2R46, which are responsible for strychnine recognition, were previously established using site-directed mutagenesis, functional assays, and molecular modeling. Here we construct a phylogenetic tree and reconstruct ancestral sequences of the T2R10 and T2R46 clades. We next analyze the binding sites in view of experimental data to predict their ability to recognize strychnine. This analysis suggests that the common ancestor of hT2R10 and hT2R46 is unlikely to bind strychnine in the same mode as either of its two descendants. Estimation of relative divergence times shows that hT2R10 evolved earlier than hT2R46. Strychnine recognition was likely acquired first by the earliest common ancestor of the T2R10 clade before the separation of primates from other mammals, and was highly conserved within the clade. It was probably independently acquired by the common ancestor of T2R43-47 before the homo-ape speciation, lost in most T2Rs within this clade, but enhanced in the hT2R46 after humans diverged from the rest of primates. Our findings suggest hypothetical strychnine T2R receptors in several species, and serve as an experimental guide for further study. Improved understanding of how bitter taste receptors acquire the ability to be activated by particular ligands is valuable for the development of sensors for bitterness and for potential toxicity.

  10. Independent Evolution of Strychnine Recognition by Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ava Yuan; Di Pizio, Antonella; Levit, Anat; Yarnitzky, Tali; Penn, Osnat; Pupko, Tal; Niv, Masha Y.

    2018-01-01

    The 25 human bitter taste receptors (hT2Rs) recognize thousands of structurally and chemically diverse bitter substances. The binding modes of human bitter taste receptors hT2R10 and hT2R46, which are responsible for strychnine recognition, were previously established using site-directed mutagenesis, functional assays, and molecular modeling. Here we construct a phylogenetic tree and reconstruct ancestral sequences of the T2R10 and T2R46 clades. We next analyze the binding sites in view of experimental data to predict their ability to recognize strychnine. This analysis suggests that the common ancestor of hT2R10 and hT2R46 is unlikely to bind strychnine in the same mode as either of its two descendants. Estimation of relative divergence times shows that hT2R10 evolved earlier than hT2R46. Strychnine recognition was likely acquired first by the earliest common ancestor of the T2R10 clade before the separation of primates from other mammals, and was highly conserved within the clade. It was probably independently acquired by the common ancestor of T2R43-47 before the homo-ape speciation, lost in most T2Rs within this clade, but enhanced in the hT2R46 after humans diverged from the rest of primates. Our findings suggest hypothetical strychnine T2R receptors in several species, and serve as an experimental guide for further study. Improved understanding of how bitter taste receptors acquire the ability to be activated by particular ligands is valuable for the development of sensors for bitterness and for potential toxicity. PMID:29552563

  11. The Herbal Bitter Drug Gentiana lutea Modulates Lipid Synthesis in Human Keratinocytes In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfle, Ute; Haarhaus, Birgit; Seiwerth, Jasmin; Cawelius, Anja; Schwabe, Kay; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Schempp, Christoph M

    2017-08-22

    Gentiana lutea is a herbal bitter drug that is used to enhance gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Recently we have shown that amarogentin, a characteristic bitter compound of Gentiana lutea extract (GE), binds to the bitter taste receptors TAS2R1 and TAS2R38 in human keratinocytes, and stimulates the synthesis of epidermal barrier proteins. Here, we wondered if GE also modulates lipid synthesis in human keratinocytes. To address this issue, human primary keratinocytes were incubated for 6 days with GE. Nile Red labeling revealed that GE significantly increased lipid synthesis in keratinocytes. Similarly, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector indicated that GE increases the amount of triglycerides in keratinocytes. GE induced the expression of epidermal ceramide synthase 3, but not sphingomyelinase. Lipid synthesis, as well as ceramide synthase 3 expression, could be specifically blocked by inhibitors of the p38 MAPK and PPARγ signaling pathway. To assess if GE also modulates lipid synthesis in vivo, we performed a proof of concept half side comparison on the volar forearms of 33 volunteers. In comparison to placebo, GE significantly increased the lipid content of the treated skin areas, as measured with a sebumeter. Thus, GE enhances lipid synthesis in human keratinocytes that is essential for building an intact epidermal barrier. Therefore, GE might be used to improve skin disorders with an impaired epidermal barrier, e.g., very dry skin and atopic eczema.

  12. Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Kroeze, C.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa, de J.A.; Souza de Aragão, F.A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Potting, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in

  13. FUNCTIONAL MALE STERILITY AND ITS USE IN BREEDING OF VEGETABLE AND MELON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the manifestation of functional male sterility and its importance in the breeding of melons. Utilization of functional male sterility allows solving the problem effective hybrid seed production.

  14. Performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) on fermentative biohydrogen production from melon waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyari, K.; Sarto; Syamsiah, S.; Prasetya, A.

    2016-11-01

    This research was meant to investigate performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as bioreactor for producing biohydrogen from melon waste through dark fermentation method. Melon waste are commonly generated from agricultural processing stages i.e. cultivation, post-harvesting, industrial processing, and transportation. It accounted for more than 50% of total harvested fruit. Feedstock of melon waste was fed regularly to CSTR according to organic loading rate at value 1.2 - 3.6 g VS/ (l.d). Optimum condition was achieved at OLR 2.4 g VS/ (l.d) with the highest total gas volume 196 ml STP. Implication of higher OLR value is reduction of total gas volume due to accumulation of acids (pH 4.0), and lower substrate volatile solid removal. In summary, application of this method might valorize melon waste and generates renewable energy sources.

  15. The transgenosis main directions in vegetable and melon production: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with priority directions of vegetable and melon plants selection. The wide varieties of alien genetic information transferring methods during the transgenic plants creation of vegetable and melon species are grounded. The essence of the new hybrids identification method as genetic engineering products: kind of cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, zucchini, lettuce seed, pea Pisum sativum, common bean, eggplant and capsicum is revealed. The transgenosis main directions of botanical taxa varieties of vegetable and melon plants on condition of the international and national practice holding are proved. The international practice of the state approbation and registration of genetically engineered structures in biological objects (plant varieties and in their processed products are studied. A monitoring about food and pharmaceutical substances based on genetically modified varieties and hybrids structures of vegetable and melon plants have been held.

  16. FUNCTIONAL MALE STERILITY AND ITS USE IN BREEDING OF VEGETABLE AND MELON CROPS

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the manifestation of functional male sterility and its importance in the breeding of melons. Utilization of functional male sterility allows solving the problem effective hybrid seed production.

  17. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M.; Plaut, Z.; Ben-Hur, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl– uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg−1, respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl– concentrations were quite similar among the different scion–rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons. PMID:20729482

  18. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M; Plaut, Z; Ben-Hur, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl(-) uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg(-1), respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl(-) concentrations were quite similar among the different scion-rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons.

  19. Fertilizer use efficiency by maize ( Zea mays ) and egusi-melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three separate field studies were conducted in a rainforest area to determine efficient use of applied fertilizers by maize and egusi-melon in various ratios of mixtures in an ultisol in Nigeria. The experiment was a factorial combination of seven cropping ratios of maize and egusi-melon (MA:EM 1:0, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 1:2, and 1:3, ...

  20. Degradation of hop bitter acids by fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huszcza, Ewa; Bartmanska, Agnieszka; Aniol, Miroslaw; Maczka, Wanda; Zolnierczyk, Anna; Wawrzenczyk, Czeslaw

    2008-01-01

    Nine fungal strains related to: Trametes versicolor, Nigrospora oryzae, Inonotus radiatus, Crumenulopsis sororia, Coryneum betulinum, Cryptosporiopsis radicicola, Fusarium equiseti, Rhodotorula glutinis and Candida parapsilosis were tested for their ability to degrade humulones and lupulones. The best results were obtained for T. versicolor culture, in which humulones and lupulones were fully degraded after 4 days of incubation in the dark or after 36 h in the light. The experiments were performed on a commercial hop extract and on sterilized spent hops

  1. Characterization of Acanthosicyos horridus and Citrullus lanatus seed oils: two melon seed oils from Namibia used in food and cosmetics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikhyoussef, Natascha; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha; Böck, Ronnie; de Koning, Charles; Cheikhyoussef, Ahmad; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2017-10-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and 1 H NMR profiles of Citrullus lanatus and Acanthosicyos horridus melon seed oils were determined and compared among different extraction methods (cold pressing, traditional, and Soxhlet). The oil content was 40.2 ± 3.45 and 37.8 ± 7.26% for C. lanatus and A. horridus , respectively. Significant differences ( p  yield, physicochemical characteristics, tocopherol, and fatty acid composition have the potential to replace or improve major commercial vegetable oils and to be used for various applications in the food industry and nutritive medicines.

  2. Antifungal Potential of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against Myrothecium Leaf Spot of Bitter Gourd ( Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bitter gourd is of great importance due to its usage against the treatment of numerous ailments in human beings. A comprehensive survey at four localities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan was carried out to determine the severity of Myrothecium leaf spot. Maximum disease severity was at C1 (Chak 11/NP and least at C2 (Kot Mehtab. Among isolated species Myrothecium roridum was found more prevalent and pathogenic as compared to M. verrucaria. Antifungal activity using solvent extracts of five medicinal plants (Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, Nicotiana tabacum, Moringa oleifera and Eucalyptus globosum were evaluated against isolated species by agar well diffusion method at various concentrations (0.01, 0.10, 1.0 and 10.0 µg / mL. N. tabacum revealed maximum zone size (13.40 mm and 8.28 mm with ethanol and chloroform solvents respectively followed by M. azedarach (9.00mm and 6.48mm. However, least inhibition was observed with ethanol and chloroform extracts of E. globosum (6.04mm and 3.88mm zone size respectively. Ethanol extracts showed highest activity when compared to chloroform extracts. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that all the selected plants are rich in chemical compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenols whereas Saponins was only present in N. tabacum while absent in rest of the extracts.

  3. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  4. Rapid and sensitive ultrasonic-assisted derivatisation microextraction (UDME) technique for bitter taste-free amino acids (FAA) study by HPLC-FLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Li, Jun; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; Li, Guoliang; Song, Cuihua; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2014-01-15

    Amino acids, as the main contributors to taste, are usually found in relatively high levels in bitter foods. In this work, we focused on seeking a rapid, sensitive and simple method to determine FAA for large batches of micro-samples and to explore the relationship between FAA and bitterness. Overall condition optimisation indicated that the new UDME technique offered higher derivatisation yields and extraction efficiencies than traditional methods. Only 35min was needed in the whole operation process. Very low LLOQ (Lower limit of quantification: 0.21-5.43nmol/L) for FAA in twelve bitter foods was obtained, with which BTT (bitter taste thresholds) and CABT (content of FAA at BTT level) were newly determined. The ratio of CABT to BTT increased with decreasing of BTT. This work provided powerful potential for the high-throughput trace analysis of micro-sample and also a methodology to study the relationship between the chemical constituents and the taste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Instrumental and sensory analyses of quality attributes of grafted specialty melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenjing; Zhao, Xin; Huber, Donald J; Sims, Charles A

    2015-11-01

    Soilborne disease management remains a great challenge in melon production with the phaseout of soil fumigant methyl bromide. Grafting has been shown to be an effective approach to control soilborne diseases. However, previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impacts of rootstock on fruit quality. Very few studies have assessed melon quality attributes using both sensory evaluation and instrumental methods. Galia melon 'Arava' (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Ser.) and honeydew melon 'Honey Yellow' (C. melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) were grafted onto commercial hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) rootstocks and root-knot nematode-resistant Cucumis metulifer E. Mey. ex Naud. rootstock. The grafting combinations were evaluated under different production conditions. Grafting with hybrid squash rootstocks resulted in reduced soluble solids content (SSC) and decreased sensory ratings of 'Arava' fruit. By contrast with grafted 'Arava', grafted 'Honey Yellow' did not exhibit significant differences in sensory properties and instrumental measurements regardless of production conditions and rootstock selection. The effects of grafting on fruit quality attributes differed between the two distinctive types of melon scion used. Potential negative impacts of rootstocks on melon fruit quality need to be considered in the selection and use of disease-resistant rootstocks. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effects of sudden melon intake on ruminal parameters of non-adapted sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco L.C. Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of varying amounts of melon with high sugar content offered to sheep without prior melon experience and that were not adapted to consuming it. We used 12 eight-month-old, rumen-cannulated crossbred sheep weighing 25 kg each. The animals received a base diet of roughage, and then half were randomly selected to have 25% of their diet replaced with melon (G25% and the other half had 75% of their diet replaced with melon (75%. Ruminal fluid was collected before administration of melon and at 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after the administration of the fruit. Sheep from the G25% group presented volatile fatty acid ruminal acidosis (sub-acute between 3 and 6 h after consumption. This acidosis was characterized by a rumen pH slightly lower than 5.6, increased discrete L-lactic acid content, and increased redox potential (RP and methylene blue redox (MBR time of the ruminal fluid. The G75% group presented lactic ruminal acidosis at T6h, characterized by a rumen pH lower than 5.0, high lactate-L content, increased RP and MBR time, and increased ruminal fluid osmolarity. Therefore, offering large amounts of melon (75% of dry matter (DM is not recommended but 25% of DM of this fruit can be used safely.

  7. The utilization of alkali-treated melon husk by broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, S S; Amalime, A C; Akadiri, K C

    2002-09-01

    The effects of alkali treatment on chemical constituents of melon husk (MH) and performance characteristics of broilers fed alkali-treated MH (ATMH) diets were investigated. The chemical analysis showed that alkali treatment increased the ash content of MH (from 15.70% to 16.86%) and reduced the crude fibre content (from 29.00% to 14.00%). Result of feed intake was superior on 30% alkali diet with a value of 100.14 g/bird/day. Body weight gain decreased with increase in the level of ATMH in the diet. Highest dressing percentage of 66.33% and best meat/bone ratio of 2.57 were obtained on 10% and 20% alkali diets, respectively. Dietary treatments had significant effect (P poultry carcases and chicken meat with favourable shelf life.

  8. Analysis of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wild Melon MLO Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wild species have a potential value in crop breeding. Explore MLO gene which related with powdery mildew natural resistance is very important for improving the quality of melon. Resistance to powdery mildew was examined in cultivar and wild species by leaf inoculation. The wild germplasms showed resistance to powdery mildew Race1. Cloning and sequence analysis of the CmMLO2 gene identified an 85 bp difference between the wild and cultivated species. The CmMLO2 gene was expressed in the wild germplasm after fluorescence-labeled Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A positive transgenic plant showed successful invasion by powdery mildew Race1. These results suggested that the wild species might have failed to encode the MLO protein, thereby resulting in the MLO-negative regulation of powdery mildew, which in turn resulted in the broad-spectrum resistance of the wild species to powdery mildew.

  9. Sensorial properties of red wine polyphenols: Astringency and bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Susana; Brandão, Elsa; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-03-24

    Polyphenols have been the subject of numerous research over the past years, being referred as the nutraceuticals of modern life. The healthy properties of these compounds have been associated to a natural chemoprevention of 21st century major diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's). This association led to an increased consumption of foodstuffs rich in these compounds such as red wine. Related to the ingestion of polyphenols are the herein revised sensorial properties (astringency and bitterness) which are not still pleasant. This review intends to be an outline both at a sensory as a molecular level of the mechanisms underlying astringency and bitterness of polyphenols. Up-to-date knowledge of this matter is discussed in detail.

  10. Melon oil methyl ester: an environmentally friendly fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Fasogbon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demand for energy is growing across the globe due to the direct relationship between the well-being and prosperity of people and energy usage. However, meeting this growing energy demand in a safe and environmentally friendly manner is a key challenge. To this end, methyl esters (biodiesels have been and are being widely investigated as alternatives to fossil fuels in compression ignition engines. In this study, melon (Colocynthis Citrullus Lanatus oil was used to synthesize biodiesel (methyl ester using the transesterification method in the presence of a sodium hydroxide promoter. The emissions profile of the biodiesel was investigated by setting up a single-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled CI engine connected to a TD115-hydraulic dynamometer and an Eclipse Flue Gas Analyzer (FGA with model number EGA4 flue gas analyzer. The engine was run at engine speeds of 675, 1200 and 1900rpm for biodiesel/diesel blends at 21°C on a volume basis of 0/100(B0, 10/90(B10, 20/80(B20, 30/70(B30, 40/60(B40 and 50/50(B50. The test showed a downward trend in the emissions profile of the biodiesel, with remarkable reductions of about 55% in the dangerous-carbon monoxide exhaust gas pollutant and 33.3% in the unfriendly SOX from 100% diesel to B30-biodiesel concentration. Increasing the speed from 675 to 1200 and then to 1900 rpm also afforded further reductions in CO and SOX exhaust emissions. NOX however increased marginally by 2.1% from the same 100% diesel to the B30-biodiesel composition. Based on the remarkable reduction in CO and SOX and the marginal increase in NOX as the concentration of the biodiesel increased in the blends, the study concludes that melon oil methyl ester is an environmentally friendly fuel.

  11. Bitterness in sodium caseinate hydrolysates: role of enzyme preparation and degree of hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dara; Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate (NaCas) may lead to the development of bitterness. Careful selection of hydrolysis conditions (i.e. enzyme preparation and duration) yielding different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) may aid in the development of low bitterness. Eighteen NaCas hydrolysates were generated with four enzyme preparations (Alcalase 2.4L, Prolyve 1000, FlavorPro Whey and pepsin) to different DH values. Hydrolysate bitterness score, assessed using a trained panel (ten assessors), generally increased at higher DH values for Alcalase, Prolyve and pepsin hydrolysates. However, all FlavorPro Whey hydrolysates (DH 0.38-10.62%) displayed low bitterness score values ( 0.05). Enzyme preparation and DH affect the bitterness of NaCas hydrolysates. The results are relevant for the generation of NaCas hydrolysates with reduced bitterness. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Extra virgin olive oil bitterness evaluation by sensory and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favati, Fabio; Condelli, Nicola; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela

    2013-08-15

    An experimental investigation was performed on blend extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from different cultivars and EVOO from different olive monovarieties (Coratina, Leccino, Maiatica, Ogliarola) with the aim to evaluate the possibility of estimating the perceived bitterness intensity by using chemical indices, such as the total phenol content and the compounds responsible for oil bitterness measured spectrophotometrically at 225 nm (K225 value), as bitterness predictors in different EVOO. Therefore, a bitterness predictive model, based on the relationship between the perceived bitterness intensity of the selected stimuli and the chosen chemicals parameters has been built and validated. The results indicated that the oil bitterness intensity could be satisfactorily predicted by using the K225 values of oil samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bitter tastants alter gastric-phase postprandial haemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2014-07-03

    Since Greco-Roman times bitter tastants have been used in Europe to treat digestive disorders, yet no pharmacological mechanism has been identified which can account for this practice. This study investigates whether the bitter tastants, gentian root (Gentian lutea L.) and wormwood herb (Artemisia absinthium L.), stimulate cephalic and/or gut receptors to alter postprandial haemodynamics during the gastric-phase of digestion. Normal participants ingested (1) 100 mL water plus capsules containing either cellulose (placebo-control) or 1000 mg of each tastant (n=14); or (2) 100mL of water flavoured with 500 or 1500 mg of each tastant (a) gentian (n=12) and (b) wormwood (n=12). A single beat-to-beat cardiovascular recording was obtained for the entire session. Pre/post-ingestion contrasts with the control were analysed for (1) the encapsulated tastants, in the "10 to 15" minute post-ingestion period, and (2) the flavoured water in the "5 to 10" minute post-ingestion period. Water, the placebo-control, increased cardiac contraction force and blood pressure notwithstanding heart rate decreases. Encapsulated tastants did not further alter postprandial haemodynamics. In contrast gentian (500 and 1500 mg) and wormwood (1500 mg) flavoured water elicited increased peripheral vascular resistance and decreased cardiac output, primarily by reducing stroke volume rather than heart rate. Drinking 100mL water elicits a pressor effect during the gastric-phase of digestion due to increased cardiac contraction force. The addition of bitter tastants to water elicits an additional and parallel pressor effect due to increased peripheral vascular resistance; yet the extent of the post-prandial blood pressure increases are unchanged, presumably due to baroreflex buffering. The vascular response elicited by bitter tastants can be categorised as a sympathetically-mediated cephalic-phase response. A possible mechanism by which bitter tastants could positively influence digestion is altering

  14. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes det...

  15. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Lei

    Full Text Available Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in

  16. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Weiwei; Ravoninjohary, Aurore; Li, Xia; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K; Jiang, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor) genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus) should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in understanding the forces

  17. Generation of a BAC-based physical map of the melon genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomènech Pere

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumis melo (melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among horticulture crops is second only to Solanaceae. Melon has high intra-specific genetic variation, morphologic diversity and a small genome size (450 Mb, which make this species suitable for a great variety of molecular and genetic studies that can lead to the development of tools for breeding varieties of the species. A number of genetic and genomic resources have already been developed, such as several genetic maps and BAC genomic libraries. These tools are essential for the construction of a physical map, a valuable resource for map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole genome sequencing data. However, no physical map of any Cucurbitaceae has yet been developed. A project has recently been started to sequence the complete melon genome following a whole-genome shotgun strategy, which makes use of massive sequencing data. A BAC-based melon physical map will be a useful tool to help assemble and refine the draft genome data that is being produced. Results A melon physical map was constructed using a 5.7 × BAC library and a genetic map previously developed in our laboratories. High-information-content fingerprinting (HICF was carried out on 23,040 BAC clones, digesting with five restriction enzymes and SNaPshot labeling, followed by contig assembly with FPC software. The physical map has 1,355 contigs and 441 singletons, with an estimated physical length of 407 Mb (0.9 × coverage of the genome and the longest contig being 3.2 Mb. The anchoring of 845 BAC clones to 178 genetic markers (100 RFLPs, 76 SNPs and 2 SSRs also allowed the genetic positioning of 183 physical map contigs/singletons, representing 55 Mb (12% of the melon genome, to individual chromosomal loci. The melon FPC database is available for download at http://melonomics.upv.es/static/files/public/physical_map/. Conclusions Here we report the construction

  18. Strobilurin and boscalid in the quality of net melon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Macedo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, fungicides were used exclusively for disease control; however observations of physiological effects brought a new concept to the use of these products. Strobilurins have positive physiological effects on crop yield, due to the increase of liquid photosynthesis and better hormonal balance. However, boscalid complements the action of these fungicides, applied alternately or together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strobilurins (azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin, boscalid and the mixture of these on the physical-chemical quality of net melon fruits (Cucumis melo var. Reticulatus. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of São Manuel (SP, using the hybrid of Cantaloupe M2-308 net melon, the experimental design was in randomized blocks with five replicates. The treatments used were: T1 - control; T2 - azoxystrobin 60g ha-1 of active principle (a.p.; T3 - boscalid 75g ha-1 of the a.p.; T4 - pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 of the a.p.; T5 - boscalid (37,5g ha-1 of the a.p. + pyraclostrobin (25g ha-1 of the a.p. The first application of the treatments was carried out at fourteen days after the transplanting of the seedlings and the others at seven day intervals, totaling eight applications throughout the cycle. Two fruits of each plot were collected, which were identified for analysis in the laboratory. The following characteristics were evaluated: fresh fruit mass; mesocarp thickness, pulp texture, peel trajectory, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids and the ratio. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability using the SISVAR program. The fruits of the plants treated with boscalid 75g ha-1 were the ones that showed higher concentration of soluble solids and low titratable acidity, resulting in a better ratio. Despite the lower value, the fruits of the plants treated with pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 showed a high ratio value, besides presenting higher

  19. Effect of the bitterness of food on muscular activity and masticatory movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yamato; Shiga, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of the bitterness of food on muscular activity and masticatory movement. Twenty healthy subjects were asked to chew a non-bitter gummy jelly and a bitter gummy jelly on their habitual chewing side. The masseter muscular activity and the movement of mandibular incisal point were recorded simultaneously. For all cycles excluding the first cycle, parameters representing the muscular activity (total integral value and integral value per cycle) and masticatory movement (path, rhythm, and stability) were calculated and compared between the two types of gummy jellies. The total integral value of masseter muscular activity during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly was significantly smaller than during the chewing of non-bitter gummy jelly, however, no definite trends in the integral value per cycle and the stability of movement were observed. The parameters representing the movement path tended to be small during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly than during the chewing of non-bitter gummy jelly. The masticatory width was significantly smaller during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly. The parameters representing the rhythm of movement were significantly longer during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly than during the chewing of non-bitter gummy jelly. From these results it was suggested that the bitterness of food does not affect the integral value per cycle or the stability of the masticatory movement, but it does affect the movement path and rhythm, with narrowing of the path and slowing of the rhythm. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis...

  1. Grafting of Romanian Melons and Watermelons for Culture from South Area of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Sora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable grafting is useful in Romania; it is more difficult in watermelons and melons and it is continuously developing. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for seedling producing of scions (Romanian melons and watermelons and rootstocks (F1 hybrids of Lagenaria siceraria and Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata for obtaining of grafted plant seedlings. The experience was realized out on a collection consisting from two Romanian scions, melon (‘Fondant’ variety and watermelon (‘Dochiţa’ variety obtained at Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău and two rootstocks, bottle gourd - L. siceraria (‘Emphasis’ F1 and interspecific hybrid squash - C. maxima x C. moschata (‘Cobalt’ F1. The obtaining of scion and rootstock plants was made according to the ecological requirements of the species. The grafting was made by annexation (splice grafting. The plants had optimal diameters for splice grafting. Between scions (‘Fondant’ and ‘Dochiţa’ are no diference, statistical analysis could not be performed. Technological stages for producing grafted seedlings of Romanian melon and watermelon were established. The grafting was performed successfully for cucurbit symbiotes (scions and rootstocks. These technological stages for grafting by annexation of Romanian melons and watermelons are recommended for cultures in the south area of Romania.

  2. Study on the sterilization of canned water melon by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.M.

    1978-01-01

    In order to study the effects of gamma-irradiations on the storage life of canned water melon, the contents of canning water melon were controlled pH to 4.0 and 5.0 by adding some kinds of organic acids such as citric acid, tartaric acid, and ascorbic acid, respectively. The pH controlled water melons were canned, followed by being exposed to 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 Mrads of gamma-ray, respectively. The results were as follows: In non-acid canned water melon, the higher doses of radiation induced the more efficiency on the extension of storage life of it even if the efficiency was mot so great. By irradiations of 1.0 Mrads, it could be kept for 15 days without any deterioration. By means of the addition of organic acids, the radiation effect on the extension of the storage life of the above food increased remarkably. In particular, the water melon cans with ascorbic acid (pH 4.0) could be kept for 60 days without any deterioration by gamma-irradiation of 0.5 and 1.0 Mrads. (Author)

  3. Microstructural and thermal study of Al-Si-Mg/melon shell ash particulate composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulwahab

    Full Text Available The microstructural study via scanning electron microscope (SEM and thermal study via differential scanning calorimetric (DSC study of Al-7%Si-0.3Mg/melon shell ash particulate composite has been carried out. The melon shell ash was used in the production of MMC ranging from 5% to 20% at interval of 5% addition using stir casting method. The melon shell ash was characterized using X-ray fluorescent (XRF that reveal the presence of CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, and TiO2 as major compounds. The composite was machined and subjected to heat treatment. Microstructural analyses of the composite produced were done using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The microstructure obtained reveals a dark ceramic (reinforcer and white metallic phase. Equally, the 5 wt% DSC result gives better thermal conductivity than other proportions (10 wt%, 15 wt%, and 20 wt%. These results showed that an improved property of Al-Si-Mg alloy was achieved using melon shell ash particles as reinforcement up to a maximum of 20 wt% for microstructural and 5% wt DSC respectively. Keywords: Microstructural analysis, Melon shell ash, Stir casting, X-ray fluorescent, Reinforcement, Composite

  4. Binding Energy calculation of GSK-3 protein of Human against some anti-diabetic compounds of Momordica charantia linn (Bitter melon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ridip; Parida, Pratap; Neog, Bijoy; Yadav, Raj Narain Singh

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the major life threatening diseases worldwide. It creates major health problems in urban India. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) protein of human is known for phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase which also acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis. In traditional medicine, Momordica charantia is used as antidiabetic plant because of its hypoglycemic effect. Hence to block the active site of the GSK-3 protein three anti-diabetic compounds namely, charantin, momordenol & momordicilin were taken from Momordica charantia for docking study and calculation of binding energy. The aim of present investigation is to find the binding energy of three major insulin-like active compounds against glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), one of the key proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, with the help of molecular docking using ExomeTM Horizon suite. The study recorded minimum binding energy by momordicilin in comparison to the others.

  5. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sociodemographic profiles regarding bitter food consumption: cross-sectional evidence from a general French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Martin, Christophe; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    Certain beneficial foods taste bitter (e.g., cruciferous vegetables) and might be aversive to consumers. Here, individual characteristics according to bitter food consumption patterns were assessed. The study included 2327 participants in the SU.VI.MAX antioxidant-based randomized controlled trial (1994-2002). The sample was drawn from the general French population. Dietary data were obtained from a minimum of twelve 24-h dietary records provided during the first 2years of follow-up. Two bitter food consumption scores were computed - one assessing the variety of items consumed (unweighted score) and the other reflecting exposure to bitterness estimated via complementary sensory panel data from the EpiPref project (weighted score). Associations with sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Among men, the variety of bitter foods consumed was positively associated with educational level and alcohol intake and inversely associated with physical activity and rural area of residence. Among women, the same outcome was positively associated with alcohol intake and inversely associated with diabetes. In turn, Body Mass Index displayed a significant inverse association with the bitterness-weighted score across sex, whereas educational level was supported only in women. This study adds to the presently scant knowledge about non-genetic determinants or moderators of actual bitter food intake. Future studies should elucidate the impact of diabetes and body size on bitter food intake patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of an early bitter taste experience on subsequent feather-pecking behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander, A.; Beck, P.S.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that laying hens learn not to peck at bitter-tasting feathers from conspecifics. In the present experiment, feathers of newly hatched chicks were made distasteful by spraying them with a bitter-tasting substance (quinine). It was hypothesized that chicks could detect quinine

  8. Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Somorin, Yinka; Odutayo, Foluke I; Nwabekee, Stella U; Balogun, Afeez T; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-11-21

    An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 )=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB 1 =68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of mycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB 1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sterilization of the melon fly, dacus cucurbitae coquillett, with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Tadashi; Zukeyama, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between radiation dose and mating competitiveness of gamma irradiated melon fly males were studied with two methods; those being FRIED's method and the method of the direct counting of normal and irradiated flies in copula under the coexistence of normal females, normal males and irradiated males. In the former method, the mating competitiveness of irradiated males did not reduced significantly with doses from 1 to 10 kR, but at 30 kR, reduced significantly. In the latter method, the mating competitiveness values of males irradiated with 7 and 12 kR were less than unity, but not significant. At 30 kR, the mating competitiveness reduced significantly. It can be said that the harmful effect of irradiation on the mating competitiveness of the melon flies was negligible with a dose of 7 kR, which was used in the eradication project of melon fly from Kume Island. (author)

  10. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  11. Identification of Local Melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Bartek Based on Chromosomal Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUDI SETIADI DARYONO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartek is one of local melon varieties mainly cultivated in Pemalang, Central Java. Bartek has three variations of fruits; Long-Green, Ellips-Green, and Yellow. Chromosome characterization of the Bartek was investigated to determine the genetic variation. The main purpose of this research was to determine the genetic characters of Bartek including chromosome number, mitosis, cell cycle, and karyotype. Squash method was used for chromosome preparation. The results showed that all of Bartek observed in this study have similar diploid (2n chromosome number = 24. According to the total number of chromosome, Bartek is closer to melon than cucumber. The mitotic analysis exhibited that the Bartek has similar karyotype formula, 2n = 2x = 24m. Based on the R value of the three kinds of Bartek (R < 0.27, it indicated that three kinds of Bartek were considered to be originated from similar species and one of melon varieties (Cucumis melo L. var. Bartek.

  12. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Haymer, David S.; Chou, Ming-Yi; Feng, Hai-Tung; Chen, Hsaio-Han; Huang, Yu-Bing; Mau, Ronald F. L.

    2012-01-01

    Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad. PMID:22629193

  13. Population genetic structure of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), from China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Zhang, Jun L; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Run J

    2008-11-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, is a species of fruit flies of significant agricultural interest. Of supposed Indian origin, the melon fly is now widely distributed throughout South East Asia up to China, while it has been recently eradicated from Japan. The population structure of seven geographic populations from coastal China, as well as samples from other regions of South East Asia and Japan, including lab colonies, have been studied using a 782 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequence. The observed genetic diversity was exceedingly low, considering the geographic scale of the sampling, and one single haplotype was found to be predominant from Sri Lanka to China. We confirm that Bactrocera cucurbitae exists in South East Asia as a single phyletic lineage, that Chinese populations are genetically uniform, and that no apparent genetic differentiation exists between these and three available Japanese melon fly sequences.

  14. Physico-chemical evaluation of bitter and non-bitter Aloe and their raw juice for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, M M; Kumar, S; Pancholy, A; Patidar, M

    2014-11-01

    In addition to Aloe vera which is bitter in taste, a non-bitter Aloe is also found in arid part of Rajasthan. This non-bitter Aloe (NBA) is sporadically cultivated as vegetable and for health drink. In spite of its cultivation and various uses, very little information is available about its detailed botanical parameters and chemical characters. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical characters of NBA through employing floral morphology, leaf characters and leaf gel and to compare them with those of A. vera. Of eleven floral characters studied, eight characters of NBA were significantly different from that of A. vera. Most visible difference was observed in their reproductive shoots which are highly branched in NBA (5.21 inflorescence/shoot) as compared to A. vera (1.5 inflorescence/shoot). NBA produces less leaf-biomass (-29.32 %) with less leaf-thickness (-31.44 %) but higher leaf length, width, and no. of spine/side by 17.56 %, 21.34 % and 16.11 %, respectively, with significant difference as compared to A. vera. But its polysaccharide content (0.259 %) is at par with that of A. vera. The raw juice from the leaf of NBA has very low aloin content (4.1 ppm) compared to that from A. vera (427.3 ppm) making it a safer health drink compared to the one obtained from A. vera. Thus, NBA raw juice emerged as suitable alternative to A. vera juice for human consumption.

  15. Review: Katja Werthmann, Bitteres Gold: Bergbau, Land und Geld in Westafrika (2009 Buchbesprechung: Katja Werthmann, Bitteres Gold: Bergbau, Land und Geld in Westafrika (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hönke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Katja Werthmann, Bitteres Gold: Bergbau, Land und Geld in Westafrika, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-89645-821-6, 260 pp.Besprechung der Monographie: Katja Werthmann, Bitteres Gold: Bergbau, Land und Geld in Westafrika, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-89645-821-6, 260 Seiten.

  16. Differential anti-diabetic effects and mechanism of action of charantin-rich extract of Taiwanese Momordica charantia between type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsien-Yi; Kan, Wei-Chih; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Yu, Sung-Hsun; Chang, Liang-Hao; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2014-07-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae), also called bitter melon, has traditionally been used as a natural anti-diabetic agent for anti-hyperglycemic activity in several animal models and clinical trials. We investigated the differences in the anti-diabetic properties and mechanism of action of Taiwanese M. charantia (MC) between type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. To clarify the beneficial effects of MC, we measured non-fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin levels in KK/HIJ mice with high-fat diet-induced diabetes (200 mg/kg/day of charantin-rich extract of MC [CEMC]) and in ICR mice with STZ-induced diabetes. After 8 weeks, all the mice were exsanguinated, and the expression of the insulin-signaling-associated proteins in their tissue was evaluated, in coordination with the protective effects of CEMC against pancreatic β-cell toxicity (in vitro). Eight weeks of data indicated that CEMC caused a significant decline in non-fasting blood glucose, plasma glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in the KK/HIJ mice, but not in the ICR mice. Furthermore, CEMC decreased plasma insulin and promoted the sensitivity of insulin by increasing the expression of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle and of IRS-1 in the liver of KK/HIJ mice; however, CEMC extract had no effect on the insulin sensitivity of ICR mice. In vitro study showed that CEMC prevented pancreatic β cells from high-glucose-induced cytotoxicity after 24 h of incubation, but the protective effect was not detectable after 72 h. Collectively, the hypoglycemic effects of CEMC suggest that it has potential for increasing insulin sensitivity in patients with T2D rather than for protecting patients with T1D against β-cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de Sapo melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujol Marta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of genetic and genomic resources for melon has increased significantly, but functional genomics resources are still limited for this crop. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that can be utilized to generate novel mutations in candidate genes. A TILLING resource is available for cantalupensis melons, but not for inodorus melons, the other main commercial group. Results A new ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized (EMS melon population was generated for the first time in an andromonoecious non-climacteric inodorus Piel de Sapo genetic background. Diverse mutant phenotypes in seedlings, vines and fruits were observed, some of which were of possible commercial interest. The population was first screened for mutations in three target genes involved in disease resistance and fruit quality (Cm-PDS, Cm-eIF4E and Cm-eIFI(iso4E. The same genes were also tilled in the available monoecious and climacteric cantalupensis EMS melon population. The overall mutation density in this first Piel de Sapo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1 mutation/1.5 Mb by screening four additional genes (Cm-ACO1, Cm-NOR, Cm-DET1 and Cm-DHS. Thirty-three point mutations were found for the seven gene targets, six of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was demonstrated for a loss-of-function mutation in the Phytoene desaturase gene, which is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. Conclusions The TILLING approach was successful at providing new mutations in the genetic background of Piel de Sapo in most of the analyzed genes, even in genes for which natural variation is extremely low. This new resource will facilitate reverse genetics studies in non-climacteric melons, contributing materially to future genomic and breeding studies.

  18. Cucurbit powdery mildew-resistant bitter gourd breeding lines reveal four races of Podosphaera xanthii in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a commercially and nutritionally important market vegetable in Asia cultivated mainly by smallholder farmers. Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii (Px) is a nearly ubiquitous and serious fungal disease of bitter gourd. Five bitter gourd...

  19. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  20. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  1. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis of LEA genes in watermelon and melon genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz; Baloglu, Pinar; Yer, Esra Nurten; Kara, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large and diverse group of polypeptides which were first identified during seed dehydration and then in vegetative plant tissues during different stress responses. Now, gene family members of LEA proteins have been detected in various organisms. However, there is no report for this protein family in watermelon and melon until this study. A total of 73 LEA genes from watermelon (ClLEA) and 61 LEA genes from melon (CmLEA) were identified in this co...

  2. Analysis of expressed sequence tags generated from full-length enriched cDNA libraries of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendahmane Abdelhafid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo, an economically important vegetable crop, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family which includes several other important crops such as watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin. It has served as a model system for sex determination and vascular biology studies. However, genomic resources currently available for melon are limited. Result We constructed eleven full-length enriched and four standard cDNA libraries from fruits, flowers, leaves, roots, cotyledons, and calluses of four different melon genotypes, and generated 71,577 and 22,179 ESTs from full-length enriched and standard cDNA libraries, respectively. These ESTs, together with ~35,000 ESTs available in public domains, were assembled into 24,444 unigenes, which were extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases, assigning them Gene Ontology (GO terms, and mapping them onto metabolic pathways. Comparative analysis of melon unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that 75% to 85% of melon unigenes had homologs in other dicot plants, while approximately 70% had homologs in monocot plants. The analysis also identified 6,972 gene families that were conserved across dicot and monocot plants, and 181, 1,192, and 220 gene families specific to fleshy fruit-bearing plants, the Cucurbitaceae family, and melon, respectively. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 175 tissue-specific genes, which provides a valuable gene sequence resource for future genomics and functional studies. Furthermore, we identified 4,068 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 3,073 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the melon EST collection. Finally, we obtained a total of 1,382 melon full-length transcripts through the analysis of full-length enriched cDNA clones that were sequenced from both ends. Analysis of these full-length transcripts indicated that sizes of melon 5' and 3' UTRs were similar to those of tomato, but

  3. Cantaloupe melon ( Cucumis melo L. conservation using hydrocooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Mendes Aroucha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Maintaining cantaloupe melon at field temperature impairs conservation as it speeds up cell metabolism and transpiration, and, consequently, reduces shelf life. This study aimed to evaluate the conservation of Torreon hybrid cantaloupe using the hydrocooling treatment. Fruits were harvested at the commercial maturity stage (60 days after planting, in the morning, at the Nova California Farm, municipality of Mossoró-RN, in September 2007. One set of fruit was immersed in chilled water at 5 ºC for 5 min, at the packing house, while the remaining set was not hydro cooled. Then, both sets (treated and untreated with hydrocooling were pre-cooled in air forced tunnels at 7 ºC, until the temperature in the pulp reached 10 ºC. Both fruit sets were stored for 0, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days under modified atmosphere at 3 ± 1 oC and 90 ± 5% RH. After each storage period, the fruits were incubated in an atmosphere-controlled chamber at 20 ± 2 oC and 80 ± 5% de RH, for seven days. The following characteristics were evaluated: external and internal appearance, mass loss, soluble solids, firmness and titrable acidity. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized split-plot design with four replications of three fruits. The plots consisted of the hydrocooling conditions (with and without fruit soaking in chilled water, and the sub-plots consisted of the storage times (0, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days.The treatment with hydrocooling was efficient in keeping the firmness and soluble solids of the fruits and shortened the pre-cooling time in the cooling tunnel. However, hydrocooling did not increase fruit shelf-life.

  4. Antidiabetic Activity and Chemical Composition of Sanbai Melon Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haili; Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Ya; Qiu, Pengcheng; Li, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Many fruits and herbs had been used in Traditional Chinese Medicines for treating diabetes mellitus (DM); however, scientific and accurate evidences regarding their efficacy and possible mechanisms were largely unknown. Sanbai melon seed oil (SMSO) was used in folk medicine in treating DM, but there is no literature about these effects. The present study was aimed at confirming the treatment effects of SMSO in type 1 DM. Methods Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg body weight. After diabetes induction, mice were treated with SMSO at dose of 1 g/kg, 2 g/kg, and 4 g/kg. Drugs were given by gavage administration once a day continuously for 28 days. At the end of treatment, several biochemical parameters and molecular mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays, ELISA, and Western blotting. The chemical compositions of SMSO were also tested. Results SMSO treatment significantly improved the symptoms of weight loss, polydipsia, reduced FBG level, increased plasma insulin levels, reduced plasma lipids levels, and protected islet injury. The results also showed that SMSO mitigated oxidative stress and alleviated the liver and renal injury in diabetes mice. SMSO also protected islet cells from apoptotic damage by suppressing ER mediated and mitochondrial dependent apoptotic pathways. Further constituent analysis results showed that SMSO had rich natural resources which had beneficial effects on DM. Conclusions This study showed that SMSO had excellent antidiabetes effect and provided scientific basis for the use of SMSO as the functional ingredients production and dietary supplements production in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:29853958

  5. Genetic Characterization of Turkish Snake Melon (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo flexuosus Group) Accessions Revealed by SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Ilknur; Kacar, Yildiz Aka; Simsek, Ozhan; Sari, Nebahat

    2016-08-01

    Snake melon is an important cucurbit crop especially in the Southeastern and the Mediterranean region of Turkey. It is consumed as fresh or pickled. The production is mainly done with the local landraces in the country. Turkey is one of the secondary diversification centers of melon and possesses valuable genetic resources which have different morphological characteristics in case of snake melon. Genetic diversity of snake melon genotypes collected from different regions of Turkey and reference genotypes obtained from World Melon Gene Bank in Avignon-France was examined using 13 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 69 alleles were detected, with an average of 5.31 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content of SSR markers ranged from 0.19 to 0.57 (average 0.38). Based on cluster analysis, two major groups were defined. The first major group included only one accession (61), while the rest of all accessions grouped in the second major group and separated into different sub-clusters. Based on SSR markers, cluster analysis indicated that considerably high genetic variability exists among the examined accessions; however, Turkish snake melon accessions were grouped together with the reference snake melon accessions.

  6. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300-1458.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-09-01

    The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word 'gherkin' back to languages of the geographical nativity of C. sativus, the Indian

  7. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  8. Combination of an e-nose, an e-tongue and an e-eye for the characterisation of olive oils with different degree of bitterness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apetrei, C., E-mail: apetreic@ugal.ro [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, European Excellence Research Centre for Environmental Problems, ' Dunarea de Jos' University of Galati (Romania) (Spain); Apetrei, I.M.; Villanueva, S. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Sciences Faculty, University of Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Saja, J.A. de, E-mail: sajasaez@fmc.uva.es [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Sciences Faculty, University of Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Gutierrez-Rosales, F., E-mail: rosales@cica.es [Instituto de la Grasa de Sevilla, CSIC, Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero, 4, Sevilla, E-41012 (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@dali.eis.uva.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Po del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-03-17

    An electronic panel has been used to characterise the organoleptic characteristics of twenty-five extra virgin olive oils from varieties Hojiblanca, Picual and Arbequina, with different degree of bitterness. The method consists in the combination of three systems: electronic nose, electronic tongue and electronic eye. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA), where PC1, PC2 and PC3 explained 59% of the total variance between the samples, has demonstrated that the capability of discrimination of the combined system is superior to that obtained with the three instruments separately. This improvement is due to the increased information extracted from each sample. Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) has allowed separation of the groups in function of olive variety with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) lower than 0.099. Using PLS1 and PLS2 regression models, good correlations have been found between the signals obtained from the electronic tongue and the polyphenolic content (measured by chromatographic methods) or the bitterness index (scored by a panel of experts) with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9 in calibration and validation. These preliminary results indicate that the combination of an e-nose, an e-tongue and an e-eye can be a useful tool for the analysis of olive oil bitterness.

  9. Combination of an e-nose, an e-tongue and an e-eye for the characterisation of olive oils with different degree of bitterness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apetrei, C.; Apetrei, I.M.; Villanueva, S.; Saja, J.A. de; Gutierrez-Rosales, F.; Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic panel has been used to characterise the organoleptic characteristics of twenty-five extra virgin olive oils from varieties Hojiblanca, Picual and Arbequina, with different degree of bitterness. The method consists in the combination of three systems: electronic nose, electronic tongue and electronic eye. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA), where PC1, PC2 and PC3 explained 59% of the total variance between the samples, has demonstrated that the capability of discrimination of the combined system is superior to that obtained with the three instruments separately. This improvement is due to the increased information extracted from each sample. Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) has allowed separation of the groups in function of olive variety with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) lower than 0.099. Using PLS1 and PLS2 regression models, good correlations have been found between the signals obtained from the electronic tongue and the polyphenolic content (measured by chromatographic methods) or the bitterness index (scored by a panel of experts) with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9 in calibration and validation. These preliminary results indicate that the combination of an e-nose, an e-tongue and an e-eye can be a useful tool for the analysis of olive oil bitterness.

  10. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, by mass release of sterile flies in Okinawa prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinohana, H.; Kuba, H.; Kohama, T.; Kinjo, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Nakamori, H.; Tanahara, A.; Sokei, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1972, MAFF, Japan and the Okinawa Prefectural Government initiated an experimental eradication project of the melon fly from Kume Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Following the successful eradication on Kume Island in 1978, large scale SIT was started to eradicate the melon fly on the 3 groups of islands, Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan in 1984, 1986 and 1989, and eradication was achieved in 1987, 1990 and 1993, respectively. For the successful eradication on Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama groups of islands, about 6,340, 30,940 and 15,440 million sterile melon flies were released, respectively

  11. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  12. Land Use Cover Mapping of Water Melon and Cereals in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Fiorentino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new high-resolution images from the satellites as IKONOS, SPOT5, Quickbird2 give us the opportunity to map ground features, which were not detectable in the past, by using medium resolution remote sensed data (LANDSAT. More accurate and reliable maps of land cover can then be produced. However, classification procedure with these images is more complex than with the medium resolution remote sensing data for two main reasons: firstly, because of their exiguous number of spectral bands, secondly, owing to high spatial resolution, the assumption of pixel independence does not generally hold. It is then necessary to have a multi-temporal series of images or to use classifiers taking into account also proximal information. The data in this study were (i a remote sensing image taken by SPOT5 satellite in July 2007 and used to discriminate the water melon cover class and, (ii three multi-temporal remote sensing images taken by SPOT5 satellite in May, June and July 2008 used to discriminate water melon and cereal crop cover classes. For water melon recognition, providing a single image in 2007, an object-oriented technique was applied instead of a traditional, per pixel technique obtaining an increase of overall accuracy of 15%. In 2008, since it was available a multi-temporal data set, a traditional ‘Maximum Likelihood’ technique was applied for both water melon and cereal crop cover class. The overall accuracy is greater than 95%.

  13. THE USE OF GENETIC RESOURCES IN BREEDING OF VEGETABLE AND MELON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Burenin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the modern homeland assortment of vegetable crops is given. The donors of the most important traits and the accessions  of vegetable and melon crops perspective for breeding from the VIR collection are shown. The short characteristic of the varieties is given.

  14. A Specific Melon Concentrate Exhibits Photoprotective Effects from Antioxidant Activity in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Egoumenides

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the largest body organ and the first barrier to exogenous threats. This organ is constantly exposed to external factors such as ultraviolet radiation, which induces many adverse effects including sunburn, depigmentation, photo aging, photo immune suppression, and even skin cancer. Antioxidants seem to be good candidates in order to reduce ultraviolet-mediated damages and to prevent the health consequences of ultraviolet exposure. The present investigation aims to further characterize the potential skin photoprotective effects of a food supplementation and a topical administration of a melon concentrate alone or in combination. A clinical study assessing the Minimal Erythema Dose (MED was first set up to evaluate photoprotection. Afterward, an independent in vitro study was performed on human skin explants from a donor to evaluate the effect of the melon concentrate at different levels including on the sunburn cells formation and on the endogenous antioxidant enzymes and its influence on melanin. Clinical study results demonstrate that melon concentrate application and/or supplementation increased MED. It also increased the endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduced sunburn cells and melanin level on irradiated skin explants. Therefore, it is suggested that melon concentrate administration (oral and/or topical could be a useful strategy for photoprotection due to its antioxidant properties.

  15. Map-based molecular diversity, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of fruit traits in melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wide phenotypic diversity, in melon fruits, is the result of consumer preferences combined with genotype fitness to the different agro-climatic zones. There is no sufficient information with respect to the extent of genetic divergence, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in mel...

  16. The effect of ethylene on transgenic melon ripening and fruit quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In cell wall expression analysis, MPG1 increased when fruits of transgenic melons were exposed to ethylene; showing they are ethylene- dependent. MPG2 decreased ... Ethylene productions in transgenic fruits were reestablished when ethylene was applied, exhibiting the same behavior as transgenic fruits. Antioxidant ...

  17. Eco-Friendly (Water Melon Peels: Alternatives to Wood-based Particleboard Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. D. Idris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using water melon peels as alternatives to wood-based particleboard composites. The water melon peels composite boards were produced by compressive moulding using recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE as a binder. The RLDPE was varies from 30 to 70wt% with interval of 10wt%. The microstructure, water absorption(WA, thickness swelling index(TS, modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, internal bonding strength(IB, impact strength and wear properties of the boards were determined. The results showed that high modulus of rupture of 11.45N/mm2, MOE of 1678N/mm2, IB of 0.58N/mm2, wear rate of 0.31g were obtained from particleboard produced at 60wt%RLDPE. The uniform distribution of the water melon particles and the RLDPE in the microstructure of the composites board is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The results showed that the MOE, MOR and IB meet the minimum requirements of the European standards, for general purpose like panelling, ceiling, partitioning. Hence, water melon particles can be used as a substitute to wood-based particleboard for general purpose applications also besides being environmental friendly of using watermelon and RLDPE in production of particleboard, this alternative to wood-based particleboard is very cost-effective.

  18. Democracy, war and peace: the bitter laughter of Aristophanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Yazbek Rivitti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to develop a comparative study between two comedies of Aristophanes, The Acharnians and The Knights, bringing to light the building of critical thinking of Aristophanes concerning Athenian democracy of his time. The analysis of the text focuses on the convergence of both as revealing contradictions in Athenian democratic practices in times of war. This article also examines the dichotomy public / private in The Acharnians and the relationship between the people and their rulers, in The Knights. The dialogue between the two texts is explored not only in the bitter satire of Aristophanes, but in the only solution that appears in both texts regarding a time of war and a political system in crisis: the consummation of peace. 

  19. Dynamic evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensing bitter tastes is crucial for many animals because it can prevent them from ingesting harmful foods. This process is mainly mediated by the bitter taste receptors (T2R, which are largely expressed in the taste buds. Previous studies have identified some T2R gene repertoires, and marked variation in repertoire size has been noted among species. However, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of vertebrate T2R genes remain poorly understood. Results To better understand the evolutionary pattern of these genes, we identified 16 T2R gene repertoires based on the high coverage genome sequences of vertebrates and studied the evolutionary changes in the number of T2R genes during birth-and-death evolution using the reconciled-tree method. We found that the number of T2R genes and the fraction of pseudogenes vary extensively among species. Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, we showed that T2R gene families in teleost fishes are more diverse than those in tetrapods. In addition to the independent gene expansions in teleost fishes, frogs and mammals, lineage-specific gene duplications were also detected in lizards. Furthermore, extensive gains and losses of T2R genes were detected in each lineage during their evolution, resulting in widely differing T2R gene repertoires. Conclusion These results further support the hypotheses that T2R gene repertoires are closely related to the dietary habits of different species and that birth-and-death evolution is associated with adaptations to dietary changes.

  20. Comparisons of individual bitterness perception and vegetable liking and consumption among Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Tove Kjær; Nicklaus, Sophie; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the consumption of bitter and strong tasting vegetables such as cabbages and root vegetables, it is required to identify potential mediators of sociodemographic–diet relationships. In this context a consumer field studywas conducted in Denmark which comprised a semi-quantitative...... food frequency questionnaire, a bitter threshold value test kit with quinineand a preference test with two samples of carrots differing in the degree of bitterness. All tests were conducted outside the laboratory, and the subjects (n=116, aged 18 to 79) were recruited during two different events at two...

  1. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis of LEA genes in watermelon and melon genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz; Baloglu, Pinar; Yer, Esra Nurten; Kara, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large and diverse group of polypeptides which were first identified during seed dehydration and then in vegetative plant tissues during different stress responses. Now, gene family members of LEA proteins have been detected in various organisms. However, there is no report for this protein family in watermelon and melon until this study. A total of 73 LEA genes from watermelon ( ClLEA ) and 61 LEA genes from melon ( CmLEA ) were identified in this comprehensive study. They were classified into four and three distinct clusters in watermelon and melon, respectively. There was a correlation between gene structure and motif composition among each LEA groups. Segmental duplication played an important role for LEA gene expansion in watermelon. Maximum gene ontology of LEA genes was observed with poplar LEA genes. For evaluation of tissue specific expression patterns of ClLEA and CmLEA genes, publicly available RNA-seq data were analyzed. The expression analysis of selected LEA genes in root and leaf tissues of drought-stressed watermelon and melon were examined using qRT-PCR. Among them, ClLEA - 12 - 17 - 46 genes were quickly induced after drought application. Therefore, they might be considered as early response genes for water limitation conditions in watermelon. In addition, CmLEA - 42 - 43 genes were found to be up-regulated in both tissues of melon under drought stress. Our results can open up new frontiers about understanding of functions of these important family members under normal developmental stages and stress conditions by bioinformatics and transcriptomic approaches.

  2. Quality evaluation of Poza bitters, a new poly herbal formulation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    70:5) showed three spots with Rf values similar to some of references used. High performance liquid chromatography fingerprint showed two retention times of poza bitters which were not similar to those of the reference standards: hesperidin ...

  3. An Improved Method for Determination of Cyanide Content in Bitter Almond Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Liu, Lei; Li, Mengjun; Yu, Xiuzhu; Zhang, Rui

    2018-01-01

    An improved colorimetric method for determination of cyanide content in bitter almond oil was developed. The optimal determination parameters were as follows: volume ratio of hydrochloric acid to bitter almond oil (v/v), 1.5:1; holding time for hydrolysis, 120 min; and volume ratio of distillation solution to bitter almond oil (v/v), 8:1. Analytical results showed that the relative standard deviations (SDs) of determinations were less than 10%, which satisfies the test requirements. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography and measurements exhibited a significant correlation (R = 0.9888, SD = 0.2015). Therefore, the improved colorimetric method can be used to determine cyanide content in bitter almond oil.

  4. Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cell responses to bitter and trigeminal stimulants in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Clapp, Tod R; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by epithelial solitary chemoreceptor (chemosensory) cells (SCCs), but the exact role of these cells in chemoreception is unclear (Finger et al. 2003). Histological evidence suggests that SCCs express elements of the bitter taste transduction pathway including T2R (bitter taste) receptors, the G protein α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and TRPM5, leading to speculation that SCCs are the receptor cells that mediate trigeminal nerve respo...

  5. A potential sex dimorphism in the relationship between bitter taste and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Emma Louise; Duesing, Konsta; Boyd, Lyndell; Yates, Zoe; Veysey, Martin; Lucock, Mark

    2017-03-22

    Bitterness is an innate aversive taste important in detecting potentially toxic substances, including alcohol. However, bitter compounds exist in many foods and beverages, and can be desirable, such as in beer. TAS2R38 is a well-studied bitter taste receptor with common polymorphisms. Some have reported relationships between TAS2R38 genotypes, bitter taste phenotype and alcohol intake, however results have been mixed. These mixed results may be explained by the varying taste properties of different alcoholic beverages or a sex dimorphism in responses. Bitter taste phenotype was assessed using PROP taste test and TAS2R38-P49A genotype was assessed by RFLP-PCR. Alcohol intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and classified by beverage type (beer, wine, spirits or mixed drinks). The relationships between bitter taste phenotype and carriage of the P allele of the TAS2R38-A49P gene and alcohol intake were assessed adjusted for and stratified by sex, and the interaction between taste and sex was evaluated. The relationship between alcohol intake and bitter taste phenotype varied by beverage type, with significant results for beer, spirits and mixed drinks, but not wine. When stratified, results varied by sex, and were only significant in males. Significant interactions were found for taster phenotype and sex (total alcohol intake and intake of beer and spirits). Results were similar for carriage of the TAS2R38-P49A P allele. Sex-specific interactions between bitter taste phenotype, TAS2R38 genotype and alcohol intake may explain variance in previous studies and may have implications for sex-specific disease risk and public health interventions.

  6. Effect of Water Quality and Drip Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Late Summer Melon

    OpenAIRE

    javad baghani; A. Alizadeh; H. Ansari; M. Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Production and growth of plants in many parts of the world due to degradation and water scarcity have been limited and particularly, in recent decades, agriculture is faced with stress. In the most parts of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Razavi province, drought is a fact and water is very important. Due to melon cultivation in this province, and the conditions of quality and quantity of water resources and water used to produce the melon product in this province, any researc...

  7. The Odorant ( R)-Citronellal Attenuates Caffeine Bitterness by Inhibiting the Bitter Receptors TAS2R43 and TAS2R46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Barbara; Brockhoff, Anne; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    Sensory studies showed the volatile fraction of lemon grass and its main constituent, the odor-active citronellal, to significantly decrease the perceived bitterness of a black tea infusion as well as caffeine solutions. Seven citronellal-related derivatives were synthesized and shown to inhibit the perceived bitterness of caffeine in a structure-dependent manner. The aldehyde function at carbon 1, the ( R)-configuration of the methyl-branched carbon 3, and a hydrophobic carbon chain were found to favor the bitter inhibitory activity of citronellal; for example, even low concentrations of 25 ppm were observed to reduce bitterness perception of caffeine solution (6 mmol/L) by 32%, whereas ( R)-citronellic acid (100 pm) showed a reduction of only 21% and ( R)-citronellol (100 pm) was completely inactive. Cell-based functional experiments, conducted with the human bitter taste receptors TAS2R7, TAS2R10, TAS2R14, TAS2R43, and TAS2R46 reported to be sensitive to caffeine, revealed ( R)-citronellal to completely block caffeine-induced calcium signals in TAS2R43-expressing cells, and, to a lesser extent, in TAS2R46-expressing cells. Stimulation of TAS2R43-expressing cells with structurally different bitter agonists identified ( R)-citronellal as a general allosteric inhibitor of TAS2R43. Further structure/activity studies indicated 3-methyl-branched aliphatic aldehydes with a carbon chain of ≥4 C atoms as best TAS2R43 antagonists. Whereas odor-taste interactions have been mainly interpreted in the literature to be caused by a central neuronal integration of odors and tastes, rather than by peripheral events at the level of reception, the findings of this study open up a new dimension regarding the interaction of the two chemical senses.

  8. Composição mineral e severidade de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Catarina' Mineral composition and bitter pit severity in 'Catarina' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Maçãs 'Catarina', colhidas na maturação comercial em pomar no município de São Joaquim-SC, foram separadas em quatro lotes de 14 frutos, de acordo com a severidade de incidência de "bitter pit": nula (nenhuma lesão/fruto, baixa (1-2 lesões/fruto, moderada (3-5 lesões/fruto e alta (6-18 lesões/fruto. Foram determinadas as concentrações de Ca, Mg, K e N na casca e na polpa de cada fruto. Foram verificadas relação linear (P 'Catarina' apples were harvested at the commercial maturity in an orchard in São Joaquim-SC and segregated in four lots of 14 fruits with different levels of bitter pit severity: null (none pit/fruit, low (1-2 pits/fruit, moderate (3-5 pits/fruit, and high (6-18 pits/fruit. Nutritional analysis (Ca, Mg, K, and N in the skin and flesh tissues were performed on individual fruits of each severity level. The average number of pits/fruit (calculated for each lot of bitter pit severity showed a negative linear relationship (P < 0.05 with the skin Ca content, and a negative linear relationship (P < 0.05 with the ratios of Mg/Ca, (K+Mg/Ca, and (K+Mg+N/Ca in the skin. For the flesh, the increasing of bitter pit severity was accompanied by significant reduction of Ca and Mg contents. The multivariate analysis (canonical discriminant analysis showed that the Mg/Ca ratio in the skin provided the best discrimination between the lots of fruit with different levels of bitter pit severity. Therefore, for 'Catarina' apples, increasing values of the Mg/Ca ratio in the skin are indicative of fruits with increasing bitter pit susceptibility.

  9. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  10. Perception of bitterness, sweetness and liking of different genotypes of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M; Gawthrop, F; Michelmore, R W; Wagstaff, C; Methven, L

    2016-04-15

    Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable, consumed across the world, containing bitter sesquiterpenoid lactone (SL) compounds that may negatively affect consumer acceptance and consumption. We assessed liking of samples with differing absolute abundance and different ratios of bitter:sweet compounds by analysing recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from an interspecific lettuce mapping population derived from a cross between a wild (L. serriola acc. UC96US23) and domesticated lettuce (L. sativa, cv. Salinas). We found that the ratio of bitter:sweet compounds was a key determinant of bitterness perception and liking. We were able to demonstrate that SLs, such as 8-deoxylactucin-15-sulphate, contribute most strongly to bitterness perception, whilst 15-p-hydroxylphenylacetyllactucin-8-sulphate does not contribute to bitter taste. Glucose was the sugar most highly correlated with sweetness perception. There is a genetic basis to the biochemical composition of lettuce. This information will be useful in lettuce breeding programmes in order to produce leaves with more favourable taste profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cell responses to bitter and trigeminal stimulants in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Clapp, Tod R; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2008-06-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by epithelial solitary chemoreceptor (chemosensory) cells (SCCs), but the exact role of these cells in chemoreception is unclear. Histological evidence suggests that SCCs express elements of the bitter taste transduction pathway including T2R (bitter taste) receptors, the G protein alpha-gustducin, PLCbeta2, and TRPM5, leading to speculation that SCCs are the receptor cells that mediate trigeminal nerve responses to bitter taste receptor ligands. To test this hypothesis, we used calcium imaging to determine whether SCCs respond to classic bitter-tasting or trigeminal stimulants. SCCs from the anterior nasal cavity were isolated from transgenic mice in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was driven by either TRPM5 or gustducin. Isolated cells were exposed to a variety of test stimuli to determine which substances caused an increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). GFP-positive cells respond with increased [Ca2+]i to the bitter receptor ligand denatonium and this response is blocked by the PLC inhibitor U73122. In addition, GFP+ cells respond to the neuromodulators adenosine 5'-triphosphate and acetylcholine but only very rarely to other bitter-tasting or trigeminal stimuli. Our results demonstrate that TRPM5- and gustducin-expressing nasal SCCs respond to the T2R agonist denatonium via a PLC-coupled transduction cascade typical of T2Rs in the taste system.

  12. Effects of indian coral tree, Erythrina indica lectin on eggs and larval development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2009-07-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of D-galactose binding lectin from Erythrina indica Lam. on the eggs and second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The lectin from E. indica seeds was extracted and purified by affinity chromatography using asilofetuin linked porous amino activated silica beads. The effects of various concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 microg ml(-1)) of lectin were studied on freshly laid eggs (0-8 hr) of B. cucurbitae which showed non-significant reduction in percent hatching of eggs. However, the treatment of second instar larvae (64-72 hr) with various test concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 microg ml(-1)) of lectin significantly reduced the percent pupation and percent emergence of B. cucurbitae depicting a negative correlation with the lectin concentration. The LC50 (81 microg ml(-1)) treatment significantly decreased the pupal weight. Moreover, the treatment of larvae had also induced a significant increase in the remaining development duration. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of LC50 concentration of lectin for three exposure intervals (24, 48 and 72 hr). It significantly suppressed the activity of all the enzymes after all the three exposure intervals except for esterases which increased significantly.

  13. Study of the changes in the dietary fatty acids and physicochemical values of sweet and bitter apricot oils in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, H.; Hamid, S.

    2007-01-01

    The quantity of oil in local varieties of sweet and bitter apricot was found to be more than that earlier reported for the Indian varieties. Both, sweet and bitter apricot oils, were semi-drying type. Refractive index of bitter apricot oil was higher whereas, free fatty acids were more in sweet apricot oil. Amount of cyanide, cadmium, antimony, arsenic, lead and copper as well as of palmitic acid insignificantly increased with ripening, being more in bitter apricot oil. Major difference was noted in fatty acid composition. Linoleic acid was present in higher amount in sweet apricot oil (21.4%) than in bitter apricot oil (19.6%). Concentration of palmitic acid in sweet oil was 5.0%, while in bitter oil, it was 6.4%. (author)

  14. Citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: Fish storage in ice with citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of Citrus (Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. The ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °C for 15 days. The pH value showed a regular increase in all samples. TVB-N levels of bitter orange treatment groups were recorded lower than the other groups reaching to 25.11 ± 0.02 mg/100 g at the end of the storage. The TMA-N values of bitter orange treatment groups were lower than that of control and grapefruit treatment groups. In terms of TBARS value, alteration was observed in the control samples and this value significantly (p extracts treatment groups at the end of storage since their antioxidant capacity. The oxidation was suppressed in citrus extracts treatment groups, especially in bitter orange flavedo treatment. The results showed the bitter orange albedo and bitter orange flavedo extracts in combination with ice storage have more effectiveness in controlling the biochemical indices in common pandora.

  15. orphological Evaluation and Classification of Melon Genotypes in Khorasan Provinces (Razavi, North and South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aireza sobhany

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melon is a tropical species that originates from Iran or Africa and Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey, Russia, Saudi Arabia, India and China are the most important centers of genetic diversity of cultivated varieties (1. The original area for cantaloupe and melon is Iran. Dry and warm climate is the best condition for Melon. This plant needs heat and light for good grows. Cloudy and rainy weather at the time of fruit ripening may affect melon taste and quality(2. According to the FAO statistics in 2012, the total area devoted to melon was 1,339,006 hectares with an average yield of 23.8 tons per hectare and 31,925,787 tons production. The highest production belonged to China (55% of world production. Iran produces about 5.4 percent of world production which is about 1450000 tons from 80,000 hectares (2. Recently, a great number of studies have studied the correlation between melon yield and its components. The first branch (5, the number of primary branches, the number of fruits per plant and fruit weight per plant (6, length and width of fruit and fruit shape index were the most important melons traits which have been evaluated by other studies (4. Fruit yield has significant positive correlation with the length of the stem, primary branches, the date of the first appearance of female flowers and fruit weight. Studies revealed that there is a negative correlation between the number of fruits per plant and the average fruit weight. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 2008 with 17 landrace seeds collected from different locations of Khorasan provinces included Kashmar, sarakhs, Boshruye, Sabzevar, Dargaz and Bajestan. Experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications at agricultural Research Station of Khorasan Razavi. Results and Discussion: The cultivars did not show any different in the time of emergence as all of them emerged 4 to 7 days after the first irrigation. The comparison

  16. Investigation about selecting strong type of melons by using melon paleness factor fusarium oxysporum f.sp.melonis and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Y.; Secer, E.; Kunter, B.; Erzurum, K.; Maden, S.; Yanmaz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family, especially in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM). This pathogen persists in the soil for extended periods of time, and the only effective control is the use of resistant varieties. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis is a very serious disease factor for farmers in Turkey. In this research, we show a method for mass-selection of melon mutants resistant to Fusarium wilt. In vitro selection of resistant cells, which are come from irradiated and non-irradiated explants, is done using culture filtrates of different FOM races. According to our results we determined effective irradiation doses and filtrate treatment dose by Linear Regression Analysis. According to our results 21.75 Gy is effective dose for in vitro Yuva cv. explants to induce mutation and for filtrate treatment 6.73% is the proper dose to select survive calluses and plantlets. We recommended using 10 and 20 Gy gamma ray doses for in vitro melon plantlets to induce mutation by our results. We succeed to regenerate 6% plantlets which were obtained and selected from irradiated plantlets and regenerated in in vitro medias which were include 6.73 % filtrate. Although 16.7% of resistant or tolerant plantlets can continue their viability in greenhouse conditions after disease inoculation treatment, we observed 4 plants had a surviving capability in a limited time. That is very important for breeding cycle and this research can lead to the development of new melon cultivars that will be resistant to Fusarium wilt.

  17. Perfil sensorial e aceitação de melão amarelo minimamente processado submetido a tratamentos químicos Sensory profile and consumer acceptance of minimally processed melon submitted to chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2010-09-01

    product by the consumer. The fruits were selected, washed, sanitized, minimally processed as cubes, and divided into four lots that consisted of: control, cubes treated with calcium chloride solution (1%, cubes treated with ascorbic acid (1%, and cubes covered with sodium alginate (1%. The cubes were conditioned were conditioned in polyethylene terephthalate trays, covered by a lid, and stored at 5 ± 1 ºC and 73 ± 5% RH for 8 days. On the 1th, 3rd, 5th, and 8th days after the processing, the melons were evaluated by eight trained sensory panelists using the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The consumer acceptance test was conducted in a laboratory with fifty non-trained panelists using hedonic and purchase intention scales besides the consumption frequency. The QDA showed that the treatments did not affect the prolongation of the shelf-life of minimally processed melons. The parameters used in the quality testing of the fruits submitted to the chemical treatments were: fresh and bright appearance, characteristic fresh smell and, acid, salty, bitter, fresh, astringent, watery, characteristic, and unusual tastes. The consumer acceptance test indicated that the melons treated with calcium chloride and ascorbic acid were more accepted for the panelists and showed that there was no significant difference in the purchase intention.

  18. Screening of Turkish Melon Accessions for Resistance to ZYMV, WMV and CMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan EKBIC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Çukurova University Department of Horticulture more than 350 melon accessions were collected from different ecological parts of Turkey which is located on the secondary genetic diversification center of this crop, and their characterization studies are near completion. Furthermore, evaluation studies of these materials have started. In the present study 67 melon accessions, sampled from this germplasm, were tested for resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. After resistance tests made by mechanical inoculation, four accessions (‘CU 100’, ‘CU 287’, ‘CU 305’ and ‘CU 328’ were found resistant to ZYMV and three accessions (‘CU 305’, ‘C 264’, and ‘C 276’ to WMV. No resistant genotype was found to CMV.

  19. Economic analysis of irrigated melon cultivated in greenhouse with and without soil plastic mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis M. de C. Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze technically and economically the irrigated ‘Gália’ melon (Hybrid Nectar, cultivated in greenhouse with and without using plastic mulch covering on the soil. Simultaneously, two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD, in which melon plants were submitted to five water availability levels, defined by 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150% of crop evapotranspiration, with four replicates. The difference between experiments were only about the soil covering with plastic mulch: with (CC or without (SC plastic mulch. The economically optimal irrigation depths were 208.83 and 186.88 mm, resulting in yields of 50.85 and 44.51 t ha-1 for the experiments with and without mulching, respectively. The results showing the economically optimal irrigation depths were very close to those that produced the highest yield.

  20. The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Prickly Paddy Melon (Cucumis myriocarpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brodie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing list of herbicide-resistant biotypes and environmental concerns about chemical use has prompted interest in alternative methods of managing weeds. This study explored the effect of microwave energy on paddy melon (Cucumis myriocarpus plants, fruits, and seeds. Microwave treatment killed paddy melon plants and seeds. Stem rupture due to internal steam explosions often occurred after the first few seconds of microwave treatment when a small aperture antenna was used to apply the microwave energy. The half lethal microwave energy dose for plants was 145 J/cm2; however, a dose of at least 422 J/cm2 was needed to kill seeds. This study demonstrated that a strategic burst of intense microwave energy, focused onto the stem of the plant is as effective as applying microwave energy to the whole plant, but uses much less energy.

  1. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Hideaki; Yamashita, Eiki; Kubo, Chikako; Ichiki-Uehara, Tamaki; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Omura, Toshihiro; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2007-01-01

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  2. Wear behavior of Al-7%Si-0.3%Mg/melon shell ash particulate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahab, M; Dodo, R M; Suleiman, I Y; Gebi, A I; Umar, I

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined wear characteristics of A356/melon shell ash particulate composites. Dry-sliding the stainless steel ball against specimen disc revealed the abrasive wear behavior of the composites under loads of 2 and 5N. The composite showed lower wear rate of 2.182 × 10 -4 mm 3 /Nm at 20 wt% reinforced material under load of 5N. Results showed that wear rate decreased significantly with increasing weight percentage of melon shell ash particles. Microstructural analyses of worn surfaces of the composites reveal evidence of plastic deformation of matrix phase. The wear resistance of A356 increased considerably with percentage reinforcement. In other words, the abrasive mass loss decreased with increasing percentage of reinforcement addition at the both applied loads. The control sample suffered a highest mass loss at 5 N applied load.

  3. Improving the quality of fresh-cut apples, pears, and melons using natural additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alandes, L; Quiles, A; Pérez-Munuera, I; Hernando, I

    2009-03-01

    Improving the quality of different fresh-cut fruits by adding natural substances was studied. "Fuji" apples, "Flor de Invierno" pears, and "Piel de Sapo" melons were treated with calcium lactate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, glutathione, and malic acid and stored for 4 wk at 4 degrees C. Instrumental texture (penetration), microstructure (light microscopy), acidity, soluble solids, color, pectinmethylesterase activity, and microflora were studied. The results showed that the combined treatment reinforced the cell walls strengthening the structure and texture of these fruits and maintained the L* and a* values throughout 4 wk of storage at 4 degrees C. The combination of additives provided low microbial counts in apples until the 4th week and in melons until the 2nd week. So, this combined treatment could be used to extend the shelf life of some fresh-cut fruits while preserving their quality.

  4. Citric Acid Suppresses the Bitter Taste of Olopatadine Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoyama, Mai; Uchida, Shinya; Tanaka, Shimako; Hakamata, Akio; Odagiri, Keiichi; Inui, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are formulated to disintegrate upon contact with saliva, allowing administration without water. Olopatadine hydrochloride, a second-generation antihistamine, is widely used for treating allergic rhinitis. However, it has a bitter taste; therefore, the development of taste-masked olopatadine ODTs is essential. Some studies have suggested that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of drugs. However, these experiments were performed using solutions, and the taste-masking effect of citric acid on ODTs has not been evaluated using human gustatory sensation tests. Thus, this study evaluated citric acid's taste-masking effect on olopatadine ODTs. Six types of olopatadine ODTs containing 0-10% citric acid were prepared and subjected to gustatory sensation tests that were scored using the visual analog scale. The bitterness and overall palatability of olopatadine ODTs during disintegration in the mouth and after spitting out were evaluated in 11 healthy volunteers (age: 22.8±2.2 years). The hardness of the ODTs was >50 N. Disintegration time and dissolution did not differ among the different ODTs. The results of the gustatory sensation tests suggest that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of olopatadine ODTs in a dose-dependent manner. Olopatadine ODTs with a high content of citric acid (5-10%) showed poorer overall palatability than that of those without citric acid despite the bitterness suppression. ODTs containing 2.5% citric acid, yogurt flavoring, and aspartame were the most suitable formulations since they showed low bitterness and good overall palatability. Thus, citric acid is an effective bitterness-masking option for ODTs.

  5. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of bitter taste of pharmaceuticals with multisensor system employing 3 way PLS regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Blinova, Yulia; Legin, Evgeny; Seleznev, Boris; Clapham, David; Ives, Robert S.; Saunders, Kenneth A.; Legin, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chemically diverse APIs are studied with potentiometric “electronic tongue”. ► Bitter taste of APIs can be predicted with 3wayPLS regression from ET data. ► High correlation of ET assessment with human panel and rat in vivo model. -- Abstract: The application of the potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue, ET) for quantification of the bitter taste of structurally diverse active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is reported. The measurements were performed using a set of bitter substances that had been assessed by a professional human sensory panel and the in vivo rat brief access taste aversion (BATA) model to produce bitterness intensity scores for each substance at different concentrations. The set consisted of eight substances, both inorganic and organic – azelastine, caffeine, chlorhexidine, potassium nitrate, naratriptan, paracetamol, quinine, and sumatriptan. With the aim of enhancing the response of the sensors to the studied APIs, measurements were carried out at different pH levels ranging from 2 to 10, thus promoting ionization of the compounds. This experiment yielded a 3 way data array (samples × sensors × pH levels) from which 3wayPLS regression models were constructed with both human panel and rat model reference data. These models revealed that artificial assessment of bitter taste with ET in the chosen set of API's is possible with average relative errors of 16% in terms of human panel bitterness score and 25% in terms of inhibition values from in vivo rat model data. Furthermore, these 3wayPLS models were applied for prediction of the bitterness in blind test samples of a further set of API's. The results of the prediction were compared with the inhibition values obtained from the in vivo rat model

  7. Assessment of bitter taste of pharmaceuticals with multisensor system employing 3 way PLS regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa [CESAM and Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Blinova, Yulia [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Seleznev, Boris [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Clapham, David; Ives, Robert S.; Saunders, Kenneth A. [GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Legin, Andrey [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Chemically diverse APIs are studied with potentiometric “electronic tongue”. ► Bitter taste of APIs can be predicted with 3wayPLS regression from ET data. ► High correlation of ET assessment with human panel and rat in vivo model. -- Abstract: The application of the potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue, ET) for quantification of the bitter taste of structurally diverse active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is reported. The measurements were performed using a set of bitter substances that had been assessed by a professional human sensory panel and the in vivo rat brief access taste aversion (BATA) model to produce bitterness intensity scores for each substance at different concentrations. The set consisted of eight substances, both inorganic and organic – azelastine, caffeine, chlorhexidine, potassium nitrate, naratriptan, paracetamol, quinine, and sumatriptan. With the aim of enhancing the response of the sensors to the studied APIs, measurements were carried out at different pH levels ranging from 2 to 10, thus promoting ionization of the compounds. This experiment yielded a 3 way data array (samples × sensors × pH levels) from which 3wayPLS regression models were constructed with both human panel and rat model reference data. These models revealed that artificial assessment of bitter taste with ET in the chosen set of API's is possible with average relative errors of 16% in terms of human panel bitterness score and 25% in terms of inhibition values from in vivo rat model data. Furthermore, these 3wayPLS models were applied for prediction of the bitterness in blind test samples of a further set of API's. The results of the prediction were compared with the inhibition values obtained from the in vivo rat model.

  8. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  9. Influence of Potassium Installment (K on Melon Features Using System Tutoring in Sinop-Mt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Andrade Bonetti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an extremely important nutrient for the production of melon. To produce with quality is a necessity in today's market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in productivity, length, diameter and oBrix content and acidity due to the fragmentation of fertilization. The research was developed in the city of Sinop-MT, in 2010. In the experience, randomized blocks (RBD with 2 treatments (DBC and 11 plots, totaling 22 repetitions, were used. Treatment (T1 consisted of the application of the total recommendation of potassium at planting (240 kg ha-¹. In treatment two (T2, 20% of the recommendation were applied at sowing, 20%, 30 days after sowing (DAS, 40%, 45 DAS and 20%, 60 DAS. Each plot consisted of 8 melon plants. 8 melons were harvested by repetition when they reached the point of physiological maturity. Productivity (kg-1, length and diameter (cm-1, sugar content and acidity were the parameters for evaluation. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the obtained means were compared by Tukey test with p <(0.05. The analysis of variance showed significant results for treatment. Regarding the means, T1 was lower when compared to T2 °Brix values of 8.775 and 10.15 respectively differing among themselves. The same was true for the acidity, (T1 8,6 and T2 11.1. As for productivity, length and diameter there was no statistical difference. The results showed that potassium fertilizer management is important for obtaining high-quality melons.

  10. Clinical evaluation of unadapted sheep submited to sudden intake of melon with high levels of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leonardo Costa Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the clinical effects of two different amounts of melon, with a high sugar content, suddenly offered to unadapted sheep. Twelve rumem cannulated crossbred 8-months-old sheep , weighing 25 kg each, were used. These sheep had never been fed with food concentrated with sugar or fruits. The animals were kept in collective pens with a basal diet of roughage and then randomly divided into two equal groups. The sheep in the two groups received 25% and 75% of dry matter (DM of the diet the crushed melon, administered by the rumen cannula. Physical examination and measurement of rumen fluid pH was performed at the following times: 0, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. The animals of G25% did not present clinical signs despite subacute acidosis expected after administration of the melon. However, in the G75%, sheep developed clinical manifestation indicative of lactic acidosis with rumen fluid pH lower than 5.0 from T6h, but did not present with dehydration. In sheep from G75 %, tachycardia was observed at 3 h and continued until the end of the study; tachypnea was also observed at 3 h, which was caused by increased abdominal circumference. Based on the results obtained, the supplementation of high amounts of melon (75% DM in the diet is not recommended for sheep, although the use of 25% DM is safe. However, greater amounts of this fruit could be used in the diet of sheep with gradual adaptation to the substrate.

  11. The Diet Composition of Beaked Whales and Melon-Headed Whales from the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    description and comparison of diet composition as well as provide insight into the foraging behavior and ecology of these whales in the North...activities. Assessing diet for many species of cetaceans is difficult, given that most foraging occurs far below the surface and that stomach...furthering our understanding of the foraging behavior of this species. Such an examination of food habits from Hawaiian melon-headed whales would be

  12. Estimatation of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of melon cultivated in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia S. Lozano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to determine the water consumption and the crop coefficient of melon in a protected environment. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Technical Center of Irrigation of the State University of Maringá, in Maringá, PR. The melon hybrid used was Sunrise and the irrigations were performed daily by drip irrigation. Crop water requirement was quantified based on its evapotranspiration directly measured through constant water table lysimeters. Weather information was collected in an automatic weather station, installed inside the protected environment, which allowed to calculate the reference evapotranspiration by the Penman-Monteith method. The total water consumption of the melon crop was 295 mm, reaching maximum crop evapotranspiration of 5.16 mm d-1. The phenological stages were shorter in the initial, growth and intermediate phases, compared with the data from FAO. The determined crop coefficients were 0.87, 1.15 and 0.64 for the initial, intermediate and final stages, respectively

  13. Screening of melon genotypes for resistance to vegetable leafminer and your phenotypic correlations with colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Frederico I C DE; Fiege, Leonardo B C; Celin, Elaine F; Innecco, Renato; Nunes, Glauber H S; Aragão, Fernando A S DE

    2017-01-01

    Melon is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. With short cycle in a system of phased planting, phytosanitary control is compromised, and a great volume of agricultural chemicals is used to control vegetable leafminer. Genetic control is an ideal alternative to avoid the damage caused by this insect. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate Cucumis accessions in regard to resistance to leafminer and correlate the variables analyzed. Fifty-four accessions and four commercial hybrids of melon were tested. The study was divided into two experiments: with and with no choice. The following characteristics were evaluated: with choice, in field - subjective score based on the infestation and the number of mines per leaf; and with no choice, in cage - number of mines per leaf, chlorophyll content, and leaf colorimetry. The results showed variability among the accessions and some genotypes showed favorable results for resistance in both experiments. There was correlation between the two variables in the experiment in the field. The accessions CNPH 11-282, CNPH 06-1047, and CNPH 11-1077 are the most recommended for future breeding programs with aim on introgression of resistance to vegetable leafminer in melon.

  14. Endogenous microbial contamination of melons (Cucumis melo) from international trade: an underestimated risk for the consumer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cuesta, Irene; Drees, Nathalie; Ulrich, Sebastian; Stauch, Peter; Sperner, Brigitte; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred; Gottschalk, Christoph

    2018-03-31

    Fruits and vegetables have increasingly been related to foodborne outbreaks. Besides surface contamination, a possible internalization of microorganisms into edible parts of plants during growth has already been observed. To examine an actual risk for the consumer, microbial contamination of the rind and pulp of 147 muskmelons from international trade was assessed using cultural and biochemical methods, polymerase chain reaction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. One hundred percent of the rind samples [3.69-8.92 log colony forming units (CFU) g -1 ] and 89.8% of the pulp samples (maximum load 3.66 log CFU g -1 ) were microbiologically contaminated. Among the 432 pulp isolates, opportunistic and potentially pathogenic bacteria were identified, mainly Staphylococcus spp. (48.9%), Clostridium spp. (42.9%) and Enterobacteriaceae (27.9%). Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and isolates of the Bacillus cereus group were found on the rind (1.4%, 0.7% and 42.9%, respectively) and in the pulp (0.7%, 1.4% and 4.7%). Clostridium perfringens was isolated from the rind of seven melons. The present study revealed a regularly occurring internal contamination of melons. Possible health risks for consumers because of an occurrence of microorganisms in melon pulp should be considered in future food safety assessments. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality and nutritional quality of netted melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Wang, B L; Shui, D J; Cao, L L; Wang, C; Yang, T; Wang, X Y; Ye, H X

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on shelf life, fruit visual quality and nutritional quality were investigated. Netted melons were treated with air (control) and 0.6 µl l(-1) 1-MCP at 25 ℃ for 24 h, and then stored at 25 ℃ or 10 ℃ for 10 days. 1-MCP significantly extended the shelf life, inhibited weight loss and delayed firmness decline of melon fruits. Ethylene production was also inhibited and respiration rate was declined. 1-MCP retarded 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases and inhibited ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced the decrease in total soluble solids and titratable acidity, as well as the decrease of the content of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose). These results indicated that 1-MCP treatment is a good method to extend melon shelf life and maintain fruit quality, and the combination of 1-MCP and low temperature storage resulted in more acceptable fruit quality. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Adapting the Melon Production Model to Climate Change in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo, AT.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded in a package of climate change adaptation, researchers and farmers tested the melon hybrid variety, Kim Hoang Hau (KHH, for yield and disease resistance during the spring-summer season from March to June 2015 in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh province. The results were analysed and subsequently discussed with local farmers in focused groups. Analysis showed that the KHH was suitable to local soil conditions. The farmers preferred this new variety over the local melon, because not only did KHH give higher yield and pest resistance, it also showed less vulnerability to climatic stressors. Farmers decided to grow KHH based on the prevailing good market price at that time. However, farmers only shifted away from the old melon when they could anticipate the possibility of selling the new product. Those who did not continue with the KHH had difficulty in actively accessing the market for this new product. This study suggests that the market information does not solely drive the process of the adaptation itself, but it also provides relevant stimuli to farmers enabling them to successfully shift to new crop varieties. This study also implies that such process-based understanding is crucial in formulating strategies that increase the farmer's capacity to adapt to climate change.

  17. Trichoderma harzianum T-78 supplementation of compost stimulates the antioxidant defence system in melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Pascual, José A; Tittarelli, Fabio; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-08-30

    Compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing medium in efforts to achieve more sustainable agriculture. The addition of specific microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. In this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with T. harzianum T-78, affects the antioxidant defence system in melon plants under nursery conditions. Compost application and/or Trichoderma inoculation modulated the antioxidant defence system in melon plants. The combination of citrus compost and Trichoderma showed a biostimulant effect that correlated with an increase in ascorbate recycling enzymes (monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase) and peroxidase. Moreover, the inoculation of both composts with Trichoderma increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate recycling. Based on the long-established relationship between ascorbic acid and plant defence responses as well as plant growth and development, it can be suggested that ascorbate recycling activities play a major role in the protection provided by Trichoderma and its biostimulant effect and that these outcomes are linked to increases in antioxidant enzymes. We can conclude that the combination of citrus compost and T. harzianum T-78 constitutes a viable, environmentally friendly strategy for improving melon plant production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Sensory and quality analysis of different melon cultivars after prolonged storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Edelgard; Ulrich, Detlef; Schulz, Hartwig; Tuvia-Alkali, Sharon; Fallik, Elazar

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the sensory and general quality of four different melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L.) immediately after harvest and at the end of storage and marketing simulation. After 16 days of storage at 5 degrees C and additional 3 days at 20 degrees C, only cultivar 'C-8' had a poor general appearance due to significant low firmness and relatively high decay incidence compared to the cultivars '5080', 'Ideal' and '7302'. The cultivar '7302' was found to have the higher overall quality. The human-sensory and organoleptic analyses revealed that the cultivars can be differentiated on the basis of retronasal odour. The texture of the melons seems to be dependent on the genotype. All the complex perceptions analysed in this work contribute to the acceptability, which is in the fresh fruits of '7302' the best and in 'Ideal' the worst. After storage and marketing simulation 'Ideal' and 'C-8' are no longer favoured, but '5080' and '7302', despite different characters, were found to be similarly accepted. It can be concluded that with the aid of the human-sensory method developed to characterize the melon varieties it is possible to distinguish the different genotypes.

  19. Biopesticide effect of green compost against fusarium wilt on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, M; Hernandez, M T; Garcia, C; Bernal, A; Pascual, J A

    2005-01-01

    The biopesticide effect of four green composts against fusarium wilt in melon plants and the effect of soil quality in soils amended with composts were assayed. The composts consisted of pruning wastes, with or without addition of coffee wastes (3/1 and 4/1, dry wt/dry wt) or urea (1000/1, dry wt/dry wt). In vitro experiments suggested the biopesticide effect of the composts against Fusarium oxysporum, while only the compost of pine bark and urea (1000/1dry wt/dry wt) had an abiotic effect. Melon plant growth with composts and F. oxysporum was one to four times greater than in the non-amended soil, although there was no significant decrease in the level of the F. oxysporum in the soil. The addition of composts to the soil also improved its biological quality, as assessed by microbiological and biochemical parameters: ATP and hydrolases involved in the P (phosphatase), C (beta-glucosidase) and N (urease) cycles. Green composts had greater beneficial characteristics, improved plant growth and controlled fusarium wilt in melon plants. These composts improve the soil quality of semi-arid agricultural soils. Biotic and abiotic factors from composts have been tested as responsible of their biopesticide activity against fusarium wilt.

  20. Purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, MCha-Pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Wei, Yunming; Li, Jing; Yang, Xingyong

    2015-03-01

    An antifungal protein, designated MCha-Pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex, an additional gel filtration on HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 30, and finally, HPLC on a SOURCE 5RPC column. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 25733.46Da. Automated Edman degradation was used to determine the N-terminal sequence of MCha-Pr, and the amino acid sequence was identified as V-E-Y-T-I-T-G-N-A-G-N-T-P-G-G. The MCha-Pr protein has some similarity to the pathogenesis-related proteins from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Analysis of the circular dichroism spectra indicated that MCha-Pr predominantly contains α-helix and β-sheet structures. MCha-Pr had inhibitory effects towards a variety of fungal species and the 50% inhibition of fungal growth (IC50) for Alternaria brassicae, Cercospora personata, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor sp., and Rhizoctonia solani are 33 μM, 42 μM, 37 μM, 40 μM, and 48 μM, respectively. In addition, this antifungal protein can inhibit the germination of A. brassicae spores at 12.5 μM. These results suggest that MCha-Pr in bitter gourd leaves plays a protective role against phytopathogens and has a wide antimicrobial spectrum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The repertoire of bitter taste receptor genes in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shuai; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Huanxin; Zhong, Huaming; Wei, Qinguo; Yan, Jiakuo; Li, Haotian; Liu, Guangshuai; Sha, Weilai; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-07-01

    Bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) play important roles in mammalian defense mechanisms by helping animals detect and avoid toxins in food. Although Tas2r genes have been widely studied in several mammals, minimal research has been performed in canids. To analyze the genetic basis of Tas2r genes in canids, we first identified Tas2r genes in the wolf, maned wolf, red fox, corsac fox, Tibetan fox, fennec fox, dhole and African hunting dog. A total of 183 Tas2r genes, consisting of 118 intact genes, 6 partial genes and 59 pseudogenes, were detected. Differences in the pseudogenes were observed among nine canid species. For example, Tas2r4 was a pseudogene in the dog but might play a functional role in other canid species. The Tas2r42 and Tas2r10 genes were pseudogenes in the maned wolf and dhole, respectively, and the Tas2r5 and Tas2r34 genes were pseudogenes in the African hunting dog; however, these genes were intact genes in other canid species. The differences in Tas2r pseudogenes among canids might suggest that the loss of intact Tas2r genes in canid species is species-dependent. We further compared the 183 Tas2r genes identified in this study with Tas2r genes from ten additional carnivorous species to evaluate the potential influence of diet on the evolution of the Tas2r gene repertoire. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the Tas2r genes from the 18 species intermingled across the tree, suggesting that Tas2r genes are conserved among carnivores. Within canids, we found that some Tas2r genes corresponded to the traditional taxonomic groupings, while some did not. PIC analysis showed that the number of Tas2r genes in carnivores exhibited no positive correlation with diet composition, which might be due to the limited number of carnivores included in our study.

  2. Secondary and sucrose metabolism regulated by different light quality combinations involved in melon tolerance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xin; Wang, Hui; Gong, Biao; Liu, Shiqi; Wei, Min; Ai, Xizhen; Li, Yan; Shi, Qinghua

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of different light combinations on powdery mildew resistance and growth of melon seedlings. Light-emitting diodes were used as the light source and there were five light combinations: white light (420-680 nm); blue light (460 nm); red light (635 nm); RB31 (ratio of red and blue light, 3: 1); and RB71 (ratio of red and blue light, 7: 1). Compared with other treatments, blue light significantly decreased the incidence of powdery mildew in leaves of melon seedlings. Under blue light, H 2 O 2 showed higher accumulation, and the content of phenolics, flavonoid and tannins, as well as expression of the genes involved in synthesis of these substances, significantly increased compared with other treatments before and after infection. Lignin content and expression of the genes related to its synthesis were also induced by blue light before infection. Melon irradiated with RB31 light showed the best growth parameters. Compared with white light, red light and RB71, RB31 showed higher accumulation of lignin and lower incidence of powdery mildew. We conclude that blue light increases melon resistance to powdery mildew, which is dependent on the induction of secondary metabolism that may be related to H 2 O 2 accumulation before infection. Induction of tolerance of melon seeds to powdery mildew by RB31 is due to higher levels of sucrose metabolism and accumulation of lignin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Induced resistance by cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methyl methylbenzoic acid) against wilt disease of melon and cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, H.; Li, Z.; Zhang, D.; Li, W.; Tang, W.

    2004-01-01

    Cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid) was proved be active in controlling wilt diseases of melon and cotton plants grown in the house. Soil drench with 200-1000 ppm cresotic acid induced 62-77 %, 69-79 % and 50-60 % protection against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp melonis (FOM) in melon, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum (FOV) and Verticillium dahliae in cotton, respectively. Since no inhibitory effect of cresotic acid on mycelial growth of these three fungual pathogens was observed in vitro, it is suggested that control of these wilt diseases with cresotic acid resulted from induced resistance. Cresotic acid induced resistance in melon plants not only against race 0, race 1, race 2 and race 1,2, but also against a mixture of these four races of FOM, suggesting a non-race- specific resistance. Level of induced resistance by cresotic acid against FOM depended on inoculum pressure applied to melon plants. At 25 day after inoculation with FOM, percentage protection induced by cresotic acid under low inoculum pressure retained a level of 51 %, while under high inoculum pressure percentage protection decreased to only 10 %. High concentrations of cresotic acid significantly reduced plant growth. Reduction in fresh weight of melon (36-51%) and cotton (42-71%) was obtained with 500-1000 ppm cresotic acid, while only less than 8% reduction occurred with 100-200 ppm. (author)

  4. First Report of Anthracnose on Bitter Gourd Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose occurred in bitter gourd grown in Jeongup areas of Korea in 2011. Anthracnose of bitter gourd appeared as dark brown circular spots on naturally infected leaves and fruits. The symptoms of infected leaves and fruits were small brown to dark brown spots and gradually enlarged to larger cylindrical dark brown lesions. The causal fungus of anthracnose isolated from the diseased plants was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on the morphological and cultural characteristics and ITS rDNA sequence analysis. All isolates of C. gloeosporioides produced symptoms on the host leaves by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of anthracnose on bitter gourd caused by C. gloeosporioides in Korea.

  5. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-07-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties.

  6. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine.

  7. Localization of phosphatidylinositol signaling components in rat taste cells: Role in bitter taste transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, P.M.; Verma, A.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in taste transduction we have visualized, in rat tongue, ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticular accumulation of 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding sites, and phosphatidylinositol turnover monitored by autoradiography of [ 3 H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol formed from [ 3 H]cytidine. Accumulated 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, and phosphatidylinositol turnover are selectively localized to apical areas of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, which are associated with bitter taste. Further evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in bitter taste is our observation of a rapid, selective increase in mass levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate elicited by low concentrations of denatonium, a potently bitter tastant

  8. The number of taste buds is related to bitter taste sensitivity in layer and broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Jun-ichi; Nishimura, Shotaro; Bungo, Takashi; Tabata, Shoji

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between taste sensitivity and the number of taste buds using a bitter tastant, quinine hydrochloride, was investigated in White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, and broiler chickens. The White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red strains were able to perceive 2.0 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride, but the taste sensitivity of Rhode Island Red chickens was higher than that of White Leghorn chickens. Broiler chickens perceived 0.5 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride. The number of taste buds in the White Leghorn strain was the lowest, then the Rhode Island Red strain, with the number of taste buds highest in the broiler chickens. The number of taste buds was well correlated with bitter taste sensitivity. Therefore, we suggest that the number of taste buds is a vital factor in the perception of bitter taste and may be useful in selecting appropriate feeds for chickens.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1560 - Ox bile extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ox bile extract. 184.1560 Section 184.1560 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1560 Ox bile extract. (a) Ox bile extract (CAS Reg. No. 8008-63-7), also..., partly bitter, disagreeable taste. It is the purified portion of the bile of an ox obtained by...

  10. 75 FR 17430 - Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Kern, San Luis Obispo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...] Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare... Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) located in Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, and Ventura counties of California. We... developing a CCP for Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge NWRs in Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, and...

  11. Does mere exposure mediate sensitivity to bitter taste on consumer liking and acceptability of whole grain foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health benefits of whole grains (WG) are well known, yet consumption by Americans falls far short of recommended amounts. Roughly 75% of Americans are sensitive to bitter taste, and WG are known to contain bitter tasting phenolic compounds. It has been reported that individuals with the highest se...

  12. Preliminary evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in AVRDC collections of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is an important market vegetable in Asia, where it is also used in folk medicine to manage type 2 diabetes. Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a serious fungal disease of bitter gourd and yield losses of up to 50% have been reported. After observi...

  13. Mary Poppins was right: Adding small amounts of sugar or salt reduces the bitterness of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Alyssa J; Stubbs, Cody A; McDowell, Elliott H; Moding, Kameron J; Johnson, Susan L; Hayes, John E

    2018-07-01

    Only a quarter of adults and 7% of children consume recommended amounts of vegetables each day. Often vegetables are not initially palatable due to bitterness, which may lead children and adults to refuse to taste or eat them. The objective of this research was to determine if very small amounts of sugar or salt (common household ingredients) could lead to significant reductions in bitterness intensity and increased hedonic ratings of green vegetable purees. For Experiment 1, three different green vegetable purees (broccoli, spinach, and kale) were prepared with different levels of sugar (0%, 0.6%, 1.2%, and 1.8%) or salt (0 and 0.2%). Samples were evaluated using standard descriptive analysis techniques with nine adults who completed more than 20 h of green vegetable specific training as a group. For Experiment 2, each vegetable puree was prepared with either 0% or 2% sugar, and bitterness was assessed via a forced choice task with 84 adults. For Experiment 3, each vegetable puree was prepared with 0%, 1%, or 2% sugar and rated for liking on standard 9 point hedonic scales by 99 adults. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that addition of small amounts of sugar and salt each reduced the bitterness (and increased sweetness and saltiness) from all three vegetables without altering other sensory properties (e.g. texture or aroma). Experiment 3 showed that adding sugar to vegetable purees increased hedonic ratings for adult consumers. We also found parents had mixed attitudes about the idea of adding sugar to foods intended for infants and toddlers. Further research on the effects of bitterness masking especially for specific populations (e.g., infants and young children or adults who have higher sensitivity to bitter taste) is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prunasin Hydrolases during Fruit Development in Sweet and Bitter Almonds1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  15. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    OpenAIRE

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna; Luiz H. Beirão; Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi

    2004-01-01

    During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition...

  16. Transcriptome analysis of bitter acid biosynthesis and precursor pathways in hop (Humulus lupulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Shawn M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter acids (e.g. humulone are prenylated polyketides synthesized in lupulin glands of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus which are important contributors to the bitter flavour and stability of beer. Bitter acids are formed from acyl-CoA precursors derived from branched-chain amino acid (BCAA degradation and C5 prenyl diphosphates from the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to obtain the transcriptomes of isolated lupulin glands, cones with glands removed and leaves from high α-acid hop cultivars, and analyzed these datasets for genes involved in bitter acid biosynthesis including the supply of major precursors. We also measured the levels of BCAAs, acyl-CoA intermediates, and bitter acids in glands, cones and leaves. Results Transcripts encoding all the enzymes of BCAA metabolism were significantly more abundant in lupulin glands, indicating that BCAA biosynthesis and subsequent degradation occurs in these specialized cells. Branched-chain acyl-CoAs and bitter acids were present at higher levels in glands compared with leaves and cones. RNA-seq analysis showed the gland-specific expression of the MEP pathway, enzymes of sucrose degradation and several transcription factors that may regulate bitter acid biosynthesis in glands. Two branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT enzymes, HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2, were abundant, with gene expression quantification by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR indicating that HlBCAT1 was specific to glands while HlBCAT2 was present in glands, cones and leaves. Recombinant HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2 catalyzed forward (biosynthetic and reverse (catabolic reactions with similar kinetic parameters. HlBCAT1 is targeted to mitochondria where it likely plays a role in BCAA catabolism. HlBCAT2 is a plastidial enzyme likely involved in BCAA biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of the hop BCATs and those from other plants showed that they group into distinct biosynthetic (plastidial and

  17. Separation of magnetic from non-magnetic information in the Bitter pattern method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, Witold

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of separating magnetic and non-magnetic contributions to the image contrast in the Bitter pattern method. With the help of the digital image difference procedure, it is demonstrated for the first time for the Bitter method that the separation is easy to achieve for relatively soft magnetic specimens, when an external field can be applied to simply produce the non-magnetic reference image of the specimen area under study. It is also shown that obtaining satisfactory results is principally impossible when removing the colloid from the specimen surface is used for the purpose of recording the non-magnetic image

  18. Protective coating of dried Vernonia amygdalina Extract by melt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried Vernonia amygdalina (VA) extract has been wax coated with carnuba wax or goat fat by melt granulation technique with a view to protect against moisture uptake and to disguise bitter taste. The particles were wax-coated using different concentrations (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% w/w). The uncoated and ...

  19. Water and nutrient productivity in melon crop by fertigation under subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping intensification and technical, economic and environmental issues require efficient application of production factors to maintain the soil productive capacity and produce good quality fruits and vegetables. The production factors, water and NPK nutrients, are the most frequent limiting factors to higher melon yields. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in a protected environment on the water and NPK nutrients productivity in melon cropped in two soil types: sandy loam and clay. The melon crop cultivated under environmental conditions with underground drip irrigation at 0.20m depth, with mulching on sandy loam soil increased water and N, P2O5 and K use efficiency.

  20. Determination of total mercury in fillets of sport fishes collected from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs, California, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir ranged from 0.09 to 1.16 micrograms per gram wet weight, and from New Melones Reservoir ranged from 0.03 to 0.94 microgram per gram wet weight. Most of the fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir (87 percent) and 27 percent of the fillets from New Melones Reservoir exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  1. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  2. Aroma volatiles obtained at harvest by HS-SPME/GC-MS and INDEX/MS-E-nose fingerprint discriminate climacteric behaviour in melon fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Torres, Libia A; Bueso, María C; Fernández-Trujillo, Juan P

    2016-05-01

    Melon aroma volatiles were extracted at harvest from juice of a climacteric near-isogenic line (NIL) SC3-5-1 with two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) introgressed which produced climacteric behaviour and its non-climacteric parental (PS) using two methodologies of analysis: static headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inside needle dynamic extraction (INDEX) by MS-based electronic nose (MS-E-nose). Of the 137 volatiles compounds identified, most were found at significantly higher concentrations in SC3-5-1 than in PS in both seasons. These volatiles were mostly esters, alcohols, sulfur-derived esters and even some aldehydes and others. The number of variables with high correlation values was reduced by using correlation network analysis. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) achieved the correct classification of PS and SC3-5-1. The ions m/z 74, 91, 104, 105, 106 and 108, mainly volatile derivatives precursor phenylalanine, were the most discriminant in SC3-5-1 and PS. As many as 104 QTLs were mapped in season 1 and at least 78 QTLs in each season with an effect above the PS mean. GC-MS gave better discrimination than E-nose. Most of the QTLs that mapped in both seasons enhanced aroma volatiles associated with climacteric behaviour. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Exposure to minimally processed pear and melon during shelf life could modify the pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Oliveira, Márcia; Anguera, Marina; Serrano, Jose C E; Abadias, Maribel

    2017-04-01

    Survival and virulence of foodborne pathogens can be influenced by environmental factors such as the intrinsic properties of food as well as the extrinsic properties that contribute to food shelf life (e.g., temperature and gas atmosphere). The direct contribution of food matrix characteristics on the survival of L. monocytogenes during fresh-cut fruit shelf life is not very well understood. In addition, the gastrointestinal tract is the primary route of listeriosis infection and penetration of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier is the first step in the infection process. Hence, the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes, measured as the capability for the organism to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract and the proportion of cells able to subsequently adhere to and invade differentiated Caco-2 cells, subjected to fresh-cut pear and melon shelf life, was investigated. Samples were inoculated, stored at 10 °C for 7 days and evaluated after inoculation and again after 2 and 7 days of storage. A decrease in L. monocytogenes' capacity to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract was observed with increasing storage time, regardless of the fruit matrix evaluated. Furthermore, L. monocytogenes placed on fresh-cut pear and melon was subjected to an attachment and invasion assay after crossing the simulated gastrointestinal tract. After inoculation, pathogen on fresh-cut pear showed 5-fold more capacity to adhere to Caco-2 cells than pathogen on fresh-cut melon. After 2 days of storage, L. monocytogenes grown on fresh-cut melon showed similar adhesive capacity (1.11%) than cells grown on pear (1.83%), but cells grown on melon had the higher invasive capacity (0.0093%). We can conclude that minimally processed melon could represent a more important hazard than pear under the studied shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, S A; Joda, A O; Ashidi, J S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment. ((c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  5. Postnatal development of bitter taste avoidance behavior in mice is associated with ACTIN-dependent localization of bitter taste receptors to the microvilli of taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsuko; Kondo, Kaori; Kunishima, Yoshimi; Iseki, Sachiko; Kondo, Takashi; Ota, Masato S

    2018-01-22

    Bitter taste avoidance behavior (BAB) plays a fundamental role in the avoidance of toxic substances with a bitter taste. However, the molecular basis underlying the development of BAB is unknown. To study critical developmental events by which taste buds turn into functional organs with BAB, we investigated the early phase development of BAB in postnatal mice in response to bitter-tasting compounds, such as quinine and thiamine. Postnatal mice started to exhibit BAB for thiamine and quinine at postnatal day 5 (PD5) and PD7, respectively. Histological analyses of taste buds revealed the formation of microvilli in the taste pores starting at PD5 and the localization of type 2 taste receptor 119 (TAS2R119) at the microvilli at PD6. Treatment of the tongue epithelium with cytochalasin D (CytD), which disturbs ACTIN polymerization in the microvilli, resulted in the loss of TAS2R119 localization at the microvilli and the loss of BAB for quinine and thiamine. The release of ATP from the circumvallate papillae tissue due to taste stimuli was also declined following CytD treatment. These results suggest that the localization of TAS2R119 at the microvilli of taste pores is critical for the initiation of BAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songxiao Cao

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.

  7. Engineering melon plants with improved fruit shelf life using the TILLING approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dahmani-Mardas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening.To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect.We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be widely exploited by the scientific community.

  8. Biological effects and application of proton beam (H+) implantation on melon seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xun; Ren Ruixing; Meng Hui; Shi Jinguo; Tang Zhangxiong; Tao Xianping

    2006-01-01

    Various doses and energy of the proton beam (H + ) were used to treat dry seeds of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Results show that, the proton beam irradiation can induced structural variations of chromosomes and abnormal behaviors during mitosis and meiosis. The percentage of cells with chromosomal aberration increased with the increment of energy and dose of the proton. The micronuclei, chromosomal bridge and chromosomal fragments were included in chromosomal aberration. The proton beam was effective in inducing mutants of early maturity. A early maturity line T 63-1-17-8-1-3 was selected from the progenies of the seeds treated with the proton beam. (authors)

  9. Stabilisation of Clay Soil with Lime and Melon Husk Ash for use in Farm Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Mohammed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rising cost of traditional stabilising agents and the need for economical utilisation of industrial and agricultural waste for beneficial engineering purposes has encouraged an investigation into the stabilization of clay soil with lime and melon husk ash. The chemical composition of the melon husk ash that was used in stabilising clay soil was determined. The clay soil was divided into two parts, one part was used to determine the index properties while the other part was treated at British Standard Light (BSL compaction energy with 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % melon husk ash by dry weight of the soil and each was admixed with 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % lime. The stabilised clay soil was cured for 7, 14 and 28 days before the unconfined compressive strength were determined while the coefficients of permeability of the stabilised clay soil were also determined at 28 days of curing. The data obtained from the experiment was subjected to analysis of variance to examine the significance at 5% level. Results showed that the natural clay soil belong to A-7-6 or CH (clay of high plasticity in the American Association of State Highway Transportation Official (AASHTO and Unified Soil Classification System (1986. The chemical composition of the ash had aluminum oxide, iron oxide and silicon dioxide values of 18.5%, 2.82% and 51.24% respectively. The unconfined compressive strength and coefficient of permeability of the natural clay soil was determined to be 285 kN/m2 and 1.45 x 10-5 cm/s, respectively. Increase in melon husk ash and lime percent increases the unconfined compressive strength (UCS of the stabilised clay soil significantly (p < 0.05 and decrease the coefficient of permeability when compared with the natural clay soil. The peak values of unconfined compressive strength for 7, 14 and 28 days of curing are 1200 kN/m2, 1598 kN/m2 and 1695 kN/m2 respectively at 6% MHA and 8% lime content while the lowest value for coefficient of permeability was 0

  10. Prophylactic effect of paw-paw leaf and bitter leaf extracts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vernonia amygdalina) were used to investigate their prophylactic effects on the incidence of myco-pathogens of groundnut in. Ishiagu, south eastern Nigeria. Two field experiments were conducted: pre-soaking of the seeds before sowing and ...

  11. The effect of extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina ) on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four (24) adult albino Wistar rats (twelve males and twelve females) were used for the study. The animals were divided into six groups of four rats in each. Proximate analysis was carried out on the plant sample with the following results: crude protein 22.45 ± 0.01%; crude fat (3.45 ± 0.0%); crude fiber (16.0 ± 0.0%) ...

  12. A novel quantified bitterness evaluation model for traditional Chinese herbs based on an animal ethology principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Jiang, Hong; Han, Li; Xiong, Xi; He, Yanan; Fu, Chaomei; Xu, Runchun; Zhang, Dingkun; Lin, Junzhi; Yang, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Traditional Chinese herbs (TCH) are currently gaining attention in disease prevention and health care plans. However, their general bitter taste hinders their use. Despite the development of a variety of taste evaluation methods, it is still a major challenge to establish a quantitative detection technique that is objective, authentic and sensitive. Based on the two-bottle preference test (TBP), we proposed a novel quantitative strategy using a standardized animal test and a unified quantitative benchmark. To reduce the difference of results, the methodology of TBP was optimized. The relationship between the concentration of quinine and animal preference index (PI) was obtained. Then the PI of TCH was measured through TBP, and bitterness results were converted into a unified numerical system using the relationship of concentration and PI. To verify the authenticity and sensitivity of quantified results, human sensory testing and electronic tongue testing were applied. The quantified results showed a good discrimination ability. For example, the bitterness of Coptidis Rhizoma was equal to 0.0579 mg/mL quinine, and Nelumbinis Folium was equal to 0.0001 mg/mL. The validation results proved that the new assessment method for TCH was objective and reliable. In conclusion, this study provides an option for the quantification of bitterness and the evaluation of taste masking effects.

  13. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of local materials in the preservation of Garcinia kola (bitter kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) was carried out using different local materials to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life. The materials were kept moist by wetting them throughout the period of study (8 weeks). The local materials used were sandy soil, jute bag, clay pot and ...

  15. Intrinsic bitterness of flavonoids and isoflavonoids and masking of their taste activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roland, W.S.U.

    2014-01-01

    Many flavonoids and isoflavonoids have been associated with beneficial health effects. Therefore, consumption of (iso)flavonoid-rich food products, and enrichment of foods with (iso)flavonoids is becoming increasingly popular. However, several (iso)flavonoids have been reported as bitter.

  16. Op het grensvlak van chemie en biotechnologie (interview met Harry Bitter)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, van J.; Bitter, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Harry Bitter, sinds twee jaar hoogleraar Biobased Chemistry & Technology aan de Wageningen Universiteit, pleit voor meer chemie en katalyse in het onderzoek naar biobased producten. ‘Mijn onderzoeksfocus ligt op hoe je de omzettingen van biomassa naar product zo optimaal mogelijk kunt uitvoeren.

  17. The effect of Yoyo bitters on the pharmacokinetics of single oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected and analyzed for paracetamol using spectrophotometric method. The values obtained for the pharmacokinetics parameters when paracetamol was administered alone falls within previously reported values. Yoyo bitters did not statistically (P>0.05) affect the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol ...

  18. Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) as an Antimicrobial Agent: Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This work investigated the effects of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) on the normal flora of the mouth. Two methods were adopted in this work. In the first method, the bacterial load of saliva samples collected after chewing Garcinia kola for days 1-5 decreased drastically when compared to bacterial load from saliva ...

  19. Notes on dredging in the Great Bitter Lake of the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1953-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the summer of 1950, the present writer spent a three weeks' holiday dredging in the Great Bitter Lake. Plans to collect specimens in that area for the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden had, unfortunately, to be drawn up somewhat hurriedly, but at least the most essential

  20. Effect of gamma rays on morphogenesis from different explants of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.D.; Rao, A.M.; Nirmala, N.; Mallaiah, B.

    1993-01-01

    Different doses of irradiation were used on seeds of bitter gourd to elucidate their effect of morphogenetic response. Lower doses like 2-4 kRs favoured in multiple shoots induction and higher doses proved as the lethal. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  1. The neuronal and molecular basis of quinine-dependent bitter taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Mazija, Lorena; Wüst, Alexander; Thum, Andreas S.

    2014-01-01

    The sensation of bitter substances can alert an animal that a specific type of food is harmful and should not be consumed. However, not all bitter compounds are equally toxic and some may even be beneficial in certain contexts. Thus, taste systems in general may have a broader range of functions than just in alerting the animal. In this study we investigate bitter sensing and processing in Drosophila larvae using quinine, a substance perceived by humans as bitter. We show that behavioral choice, feeding, survival, and associative olfactory learning are all directly affected by quinine. On the cellular level, we show that 12 gustatory sensory receptor neurons that express both GR66a and GR33a are required for quinine-dependent choice and feeding behavior. Interestingly, these neurons are not necessary for quinine-dependent survival or associative learning. On the molecular receptor gene level, the GR33a receptor, but not GR66a, is required for quinine-dependent choice behavior. A screen for gustatory sensory receptor neurons that trigger quinine-dependent choice behavior revealed that a single GR97a receptor gene expressing neuron located in the peripheral terminal sense organ is partially necessary and sufficient. For the first time, we show that the elementary chemosensory system of the Drosophila larva can serve as a simple model to understand the neuronal basis of taste information processing on the single cell level with respect to different behavioral outputs. PMID:24478653

  2. Geographic differences in patterns of genetic differentiation among bitter and sweet manioc (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta; Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, E Jane; Duputié, Anne; Delêtre, Marc; Roullier, Caroline; Narváez-Trujillo, Alexandra; Manu-Aduening, Joseph A; Emshwiller, Eve; McKey, Doyle

    2013-05-01

    Manioc (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta), one of the most important tropical food crops, is commonly divided according to cyanide content into two use-categories, "sweet" and "bitter." While bitter and sweet varieties are genetically differentiated at the local scale, whether this differentiation is consistent across continents is yet unknown. • Using eight microsatellite loci, we genotyped 522 manioc samples (135 bitter and 387 sweet) from Ecuador, French Guiana, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, and Vanuatu. Genetic differentiation between use-categories was assessed using double principal coordinate analyses (DPCoA) with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Jost's measure of estimated differentiation (D(est)). Genetic structure was analyzed using Bayesian clustering analysis. • Manioc neutral genetic diversity was high in all sampled regions. Sweet and bitter manioc landraces are differentiated in South America but not in Africa. Correspondingly, bitter and sweet manioc samples share a higher proportion of neutral alleles in Africa than in South America. We also found seven clones classified by some farmers as sweet and by others as bitter. • Lack of differentiation in Africa is most likely due to postintroduction hybridization between bitter and sweet manioc. Inconsistent transfer from South America to Africa of ethnobotanical knowledge surrounding use-category management may contribute to increased hybridization in Africa. Investigating this issue requires more data on the variation in cyanogenesis in roots within and among manioc populations and how manioc diversity is managed on the farm.

  3. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  5. Effect of main stem pruning and fruit thinning on the postharvest conservation of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella M. de A. Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Main stem pruning and fruit thinning are cultivation practices that can influence the yield and quality of the fruit. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of main stem pruning and fruit thinning on the postharvest conservation of Charentais Banzai melons. In the field, the plants were subjected to main stem pruning and fruit thinning, with harvesting done 74 days after sowing (DAS. The fruits were transported to the laboratory where they were cleaned, characterized, and stored in a cold chamber (5 °C and 90 ± 2% RH. In the field, the experiment was designed as a split-plot using a 2 × 4 + 1 factorial design, with two levels of main stem pruning (pruned and unpruned, four levels of thinning times (42, 45, 48, and 51 DAS, and a control (unpruned and unthinned. The sub-plot consisted of storage times (0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, with four blocks. The preharvest treatments did not significantly influence the production characteristics of the Banzai hybrid. The treatment without pruning increased the titratable acidity of fruit, and the thinning at 51 days after sowing (DAS reduced soluble sugars. There was a decline in pulp firmness, titratable acidity, reducing sugars, and an increase in soluble solids, total soluble sugar, and non-reducing sugars during storage. Pruning the main melon stem reduced the weight loss of the fruit after 28 days of storage.

  6. Expression analysis of fusarium wilt resistance gene in melon by real-time quantitative pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Xu, B.; Zhao, L.; Gao, P.; Luan, F.

    2014-01-01

    Melon Actin gene was used as a reference gene, to explore the gene expression profiles of the Fom-2 gene in roots, stems, and leaves of melon MR-1 under induction by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Monitoring using real-time quantitative PCR showed similar accumulation patterns of Fom-2 in roots, stems, and leaves over the observation period of 1 to 11 days; the expression level in stems was the highest. The expression of the Fom-2 gene was strengthened by the prolongation of induction time. In stems, the expression of Fom-2 was 5.737 times higher than in the control at three days; in roots, expression of Fom-2 was 5.617 times higher than in the control at five days. Similarly, the expression of Fom-2 in leaves obviously increased. It was 4.441 times higher than in the control at 5 days. The expression of Fom-2 was non-tissue specific, up-regulated under induction by Fusarium, and related to early resistance to Fusarium wilt. (author)

  7. Marker-assisted selection of Fusarium wilt-resistant and gynoecious melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Liu, S; Zhu, Q L; Luan, F S

    2015-12-08

    In this study, molecular markers were designed based on the sex determination genes ACS7 (A) and WIP1 (G) and the domain in the Fusarium oxysporum-resistant gene Fom-2 (F) in order to achieve selection of F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants. Markers of A and F are cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences that distinguish alleles according to restriction analysis. Twenty F1 and 1863 F2 plants derived from the crosses between the gynoecious line WI998 and the Fusarium wilt-resistant line MR-1 were genotyped based on the markers. The results showed that the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion results could be effectively used to identify plants with the AAggFF genotype in F2 populations. In the F2 population, 35 gynoecious wilt-resistant plants were selected by marker-assisted selection and were confirmed by disease infection assays, demonstrating that these markers can be used in breeding to select F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants.

  8. Pemacuan Pertumbuhan Melon (Cucumis melo L. dengan Cendawan Mikoriza Arbuskula dan Bakteri Azospirillum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Diana Tetelepta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMelon (Cucumis melo L. is a high economic value horticultural crop that is cultivated in some regions of Indonesia under fertilization management. Application of inorganic fertilizer continuously can reduce soil microbial abundance. One of the soil microbial that promote plant growth is arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and Azospirillum sp. The aim of this study was to analysed the effect of AMF and Azospirillum sp. in promoting growth and production of melon. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replicates. Five treatments tested were: control, fertilized with NPK, inoculated with AMF, inoculated with Azospirillum sp., inoculated with AMF + Azospirillum sp. The results showed that the effect of AMF on root growth and shoot growth were similar to NPK fertilizer. Azospirillum sp. increased root growth. On the other side, the effect of Azospirillum sp. on shoot growth was similar to NPK fertilizer. However, AMF and Azospirillum sp. inoculation solely increased plant height, fruit weight, fruit diameter, flavor and length of fruit storage. Meanwhile, combination of AMF and Azospirillum sp. increased plant height, root growth, shoot growth, fruit weight, fruit diameter, flavor and length of fruit storage. This study revealed that application of AMF and Azospirillum sp. in melon cultivation was more effective and efficient than NPK fertilizer.Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Azospirillum sp., Cucumis melo L.

  9. Molecular characterization and expression studies during melon fruit development and ripening of L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pateraki, Irene; Sanmartin, Maite; Kalamaki, Mary S.

    2004-01-01

    of a GalLDH full-length cDNA from melon (Cucumis melo L.) are described. Melon genomic DNA Southern analysis indicated that CmGalLDH was encoded by a single gene. CmGalLDH mRNA accumulation was detected in all tissues studied, but differentially expressed during fruit development and seed germination....... It is hypothesized that induction of CmGalLDH gene expression in ripening melon fruit contributes to parallel increases in the AA content and so playing a role in the oxidative ripening process. Higher CmGalLDH message abundance in light-grown seedlings compared with those raised in the dark suggests that Cm......GalLDH expression is regulated by light. Finally, various stresses and growth regulators resulted in no significant change in steady state levels of CmGalLDH mRNA in 20-d-old melon seedlings. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of GalLDH transcript induction in seed germination and differential gene...

  10. Ultrastructure of compatible and incompatible interactions in phloem sieve elements during the stylet penetration by cotton aphids in melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzo, E.; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Morcillo, Cesar; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, M.L.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Resistance of the melon line TGR-1551 to the aphid Aphis gossypii is based on preventing aphids from ingesting phloem sap. In electrical penetration graphs (EPGs), this resistance has been characterized with A. gossypii showing unusually long phloem salivation periods (waveform E1) mostly

  11. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. II - MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J M; Ahnert, C; Gomez Santamaria, J; Rodriguez Olabarria, I

    1985-07-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI codes, which are part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. These auxiliary codes, provide some of the input data for the main module SIMULA-3; these are, the reactivity correlations constants, the albe does and the transport factors. (Author) 7 refs.

  12. Appearance and overall acceptability of fresh-cut cantaloupe pieces from whole melon treated with wet steam process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimally processed fresh-cut fruits have a limited shelf-life because of deterioration caused by spoilage microflora and changes in physiological processes. Whole melons were inoculated with 7 log CFU/ml of each bacterium (Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes) and then t...

  13. Survival and growth populations of Salmonella transferred from melon rind surfaces to cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon pulps during preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumers are eating more fresh vegetable and fruit due to nutritional and health-related benefits. Whole melons (cantaloupes, honeydew and watermelons) are of particular interest because of their nutrient contents. However, they are frequently contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Conditions neces...

  14. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  15. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. II - MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Gomez Santamaria, J.; Rodriguez Olabarria, I.

    1985-01-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI codes, which are part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. These auxiliary codes, provide some of the input data for the main module SIMULA-3; these are, the reactivity correlations constants, the albe does and the transport factors. (Author) 7 refs

  16. Identifikasi berat, diameter, dan tebal daging buah melon (Cucumis melo L. kultivar action 434 tetraploid akibat perlakuan kolkisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ulung Anggraito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian farmers are very dependence on certificated seed from another countries. In the other side the natural resources andmen powers very abundance. For these reason it is properly developed the research in agriculture sector, especially on plants breeding.It can be hoped that in the future the dependence on certificated seed from another countries can be minimized. The objective of thisresearch were: (1 to find out the concentration and dipping period which is effective to induce polyploid in musk melon plant, (2identify the weight, diameter, dan flesh thickness of tetraploid musk melon as result of colchicines treatment. The sample of this researchwas Action 434 musk melon cultivar, product of Chia-Thai Seed, Thailand. The number of sample was 480 plants, which plants on fieldrandomly. There were four colchicines concentration as an independent variable: 0.0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.2%. The dipping periodwere 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours for each concentration respectively. Completely Random Design was used in three replications. Datameasurement were analyzed with Two Way ANOVA, DMRT, and LSD. From this research can be concluded that: (1 0.2 % colchicinesis the most effective concentration to induce polyploid on musk melon, with dipping period effective varied from 16–24 hours, (2 thereare changes in weight, diameter, and flesh thickness characters, with the increased tendency of each character in definite norm.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.

  18. Lower expressions of the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R in smokers: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Mieko; Takao, Tetsuya; Takao, Kyoichi; Koike, Fumihiko; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that smokers have deficit in detecting taste, particularly bitter taste, no study has investigated its biological correlate. Methods In this context, we compared the expression of the bitter taste receptor gene, taste 2 receptor (TAS2R) in the tongues of smokers and non-smokers. Tissue samples were collected from the lateral portion of the tongues of 22 smokers and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (19 males and three females) with no history of smoking...

  19. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L * , a * and b * were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p * parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This fact also occurred for the chromatographic coordinates a * and b * which remained in the same tonality for all treatments (p<0.05). Current results

  20. Disgust evoked by strong wormwood bitterness influences the processing of visual food cues in women: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Daniela; Giraldo, Matteo; Spiegl, Benjamin; Schienle, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The perception of intense bitterness is associated with disgust and food rejection. The present cross-modal event-related potential (ERP) study investigated whether a bitter aftertaste is able to influence affective ratings and the neuronal processing of visual food cues. We presented 39 healthy normal-weight women (mean age: 22.5 years) with images depicting high-caloric meat dishes, high-caloric sweets, and low-caloric vegetables after they had either rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea (bitter group; n = 20) or water (control group; n = 19) for 30s. The bitter aftertaste of wormwood enhanced fronto-central early potentials (N100, N200) and reduced P300 amplitudes for all food types (meat, sweets, vegetables). Moreover, meat and sweets elicited higher fronto-central LPPs than vegetables in the water group. This differentiation was absent in the bitter group, which gave lower arousal ratings for the high-caloric food. We found that a minor intervention ('bitter rinse') was sufficient to induce changes in the neuronal processing of food images reflecting increased early attention (N100, N200) as well as reduced affective value (P300, LPP). Future studies should investigate whether this intervention is able to influence eating behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ligand binding modes from low resolution GPCR models and mutagenesis: chicken bitter taste receptor as a test-case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Kruetzfeldt, Louisa-Marie; Cheled-Shoval, Shira; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-08-15

    Bitter taste is one of the basic taste modalities, warning against consuming potential poisons. Bitter compounds activate members of the bitter taste receptor (Tas2r) subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of functional Tas2rs is species-dependent. Chickens represent an intriguing minimalistic model, because they detect the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptor subtypes. We investigated the binding modes of several known agonists of a representative chicken bitter taste receptor, ggTas2r1. Because of low sequence similarity between ggTas2r1 and crystallized GPCRs (~10% identity, ~30% similarity at most), the combination of computational approaches with site-directed mutagenesis was used to characterize the agonist-bound conformation of ggTas2r1 binding site between TMs 3, 5, 6 and 7. We found that the ligand interactions with N93 in TM3 and/or N247 in TM5, combined with hydrophobic contacts, are typically involved in agonist recognition. Next, the ggTas2r1 structural model was successfully used to identify three quinine analogues (epiquinidine, ethylhydrocupreine, quinidine) as new ggTas2r1 agonists. The integrated approach validated here may be applicable to additional cases where the sequence identity of the GPCR of interest and the existing experimental structures is low.

  2. Evolution of the taste of a bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: characterization of a matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Nicklaus, S; Septier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of ripening on the taste of a typically bitter Camembert cheese. The first step was to select a typically bitter cheese among several products obtained by different processes supposed to enhance this taste defect. Second, the evolution of cheese taste during ripening was characterized from a sensory point of view. Finally, the relative impact of fat, proteins, and water-soluble molecules on cheese taste was determined by using omission tests performed on a reconstituted cheese. These omission tests showed that cheese taste resulted mainly from the gustatory properties of water-soluble molecules but was modulated by a matrix effect due to fat, proteins, and cheese structure. The evolution of this matrix effect during ripening was discussed for each taste characteristic.

  3. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  4. Bitter taste receptors as targets for tocolytics in preterm labor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaizhi; Lu, Ping; Delpapa, Ellen; Bellve, Karl; Deng, Ruitang; Condon, Jennifer C; Fogarty, Kevin; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Shi, Fangxiong; ZhuGe, Ronghua

    2017-09-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity, with few prevention and treatment options. Uterine contraction is a central feature of PTB, so gaining new insights into the mechanisms of this contraction and consequently identifying novel targets for tocolytics are essential for more successful management of PTB. Here we report that myometrial cells from human and mouse express bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and their canonical signaling components ( i.e., G-protein gustducin and phospholipase C β2). Bitter tastants can completely relax myometrium precontracted by different uterotonics. In isolated single mouse myometrial cells, a phenotypical bitter tastant (chloroquine, ChQ) reverses the rise in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and cell shortening induced by uterotonics, and this reversal effect is inhibited by pertussis toxin and by genetic deletion of α-gustducin. In human myometrial cells, knockdown of TAS2R14 but not TAS2R10 inhibits ChQ's reversal effect on an oxytocin-induced rise in [Ca 2+ ] i Finally, ChQ prevents mouse PTBs induced by bacterial endotoxin LPS or progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone more often than current commonly used tocolytics, and this prevention is largely lost in α-gustducin-knockout mice. Collectively, our results reveal that activation of the canonical TAS2R signaling system in myometrial cells produces profound relaxation of myometrium precontracted by a broad spectrum of contractile agonists, and that targeting TAS2Rs is an attractive approach to developing effective tocolytics for PTB management.-Zheng, K., Lu, P., Delpapa, E., Bellve, K., Deng, R., Condon, J. C., Fogarty, K., Lifshitz, L. M., Simas, T. A. M., Shi, F., ZhuGe, R. Bitter taste receptors as targets for tocolytics in preterm labor therapy. © FASEB.

  5. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production

    OpenAIRE

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2012-01-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p 

  6. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan domestic and Tibetan chicken populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan; Li, Diyan; Gaur, Uma; Wang, Yan; Wu, Nan; Chen, Binlong; Xu, Zhongxian; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The sense of bitter taste plays a critical role in animals as it can help them to avoid intake of toxic and harmful substances. Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, Tas2r2 and Tas2r7). To better understand the genetic polymorphisms and importance of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in chicken, here, we sequenced Tas2rs of 30 Sichuan domestic chickens and 30 Tibetan chickens. Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including three nonsynonymous mutations (m.359G>C, m.503C>A and m.583A>G) were detected in Tas2r1 (m. is the abbreviation for mutation); three SNPs were detected in Tas2r2, but none of them were missense mutation; eight SNPs were detected in Tas2r7 including six nonsynonymous substitutions (m.178G>A, m.421A>C, m.787C>T, m.832G>T, m.907A>T and m.943G>A). Tajima's D neutral test indicates that there is no population expansion in both populations, and the size of the population is relatively stable. All the three networks indicate that red jungle fowls share haplotypes with domestic chickens. In addition, we found that haplotypes H1 and HE1 were positively associated with high-altitude adaptation, whereas haplotypes H4 and HE4 showed a negative correlation with high-altitude adaptation in Tas2rs. Although, chicken has only three Tas2rs, our results showed that both Sichuan domestic chickens and Tibetan chickens have abundant haplotypes in Tas2rs, especially in Tas2r7, which might help chickens to recognize a wide variety of bitter-tasting compounds.

  7. Morphological and Molecular Analysis Using RAPD in Biofield Treated Sponge and Bitter Gourd

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Gopal; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Branton, Alice; Gangwar, Mayank; Jana, Snehasis

    2015-01-01

    Plants are known to have sense and can respond to touch, electric and magnetic field. The present study was designed on the sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seeds with respect to biofield energy treatment. The seeds of each crop were divided into two groups, one was kept control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi' biofield energy treatment. The variabilities in growth contributing parameters were studied and compared with their control. T...

  8. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition of 2 and 4 % of glucose, respectively. The dark tuna meat was inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB and fermented at 10 °C for 30 days. The fermentation process was monitored through bacteriological and chemical analyses, when an increase of acidity and the corresponding decrease of pH were observed due to the prevalence of LAB. Sensorial analysis, using a test of multiple comparison, was carried out with pastes of fermented dark tuna meat and presented a significant difference when compared to the paste control, indicating the reduction of bitter taste.

  9. Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on glycoconjugate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, B; Kumar, G Suresh; Salimath, P V

    2009-01-01

    Changes in glycoconjugate metabolism during the development of diabetic complications and their modulation by feeding bitter gourd and spent turmeric as fiber-rich source. This was studied by measuring the contents of total sugar, uronic acid, amino sugar, and sulfate in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Total sugar content decreased in liver, spleen, and brain, while an increase was observed in heart and lungs. Uronic acid content in liver, spleen, and brain decreased, and marginal increase was observed in testis. Amino sugar content decreased in liver, spleen, lungs and heart during diabetes, and augmentation was observed to different extents. Decrease in sulfation of glycoconjugates was observed in liver, spleen, lungs and heart during diabetes and was significantly ameliorated by bitter gourd and spent turmeric, except brain. Protein content decreased in liver, while an increase was observed in brain. The studies clearly showed alteration in glycoconjugate metabolism during diabetes and amelioration to different extents by feeding bitter gourd and spent turmeric. Improvement is due to slow release of glucose by fiber in the gastrointestinal track and short-chain fatty acid production from fiber by colon microbes.

  10. Overcoming chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cells: role of the bitter taste receptor T2R10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Louisa; Giese, Nathalia; Hackert, Thilo; Strobel, Oliver; Schirmacher, Peter; Felix, Klaus; Gaida, Matthias M

    2018-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are G-protein coupled transmembrane proteins initially identified in the gustatory system as sensors for the taste of bitter. Recent evidence on expression of these receptors outside gustatory tissues suggested alternative functions, and there is growing interest of their potential role in cancer biology. In this study, we report for the first time, expression and functionality of the bitter receptor family member T2R10 in both human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissue and PDAC derived cell lines. Caffeine, a known ligand for T2R10, rendered the tumor cells more susceptible to two standard chemotherapeutics, Gemcitabine and 5-Fluoruracil. Knocking down T2R10 in the cell line BxPC-3 reduced the caffeine-induced effect. As possible underlying mechanism, we found that caffeine via triggering T2R10 inhibited Akt phosphorylation and subsequently downregulated expression of ABCG2, the so-called multi-drug resistance protein that participates in rendering cells resistant to a variety of chemotherapeutics. In conclusion, T2R10 is expressed in pancreatic cancer and it downmodulates the chemoresistance of the tumor cells.

  11. Time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar (Eugenia uniflora L.) with different sweeteners: Sweetness and bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; de Lima Dutra, Mariana Borges; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-01-01

    Pitanga has been used by the Brazilian food industry mainly for juice production. This fruit shows good economic potential due to its high concentration of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the present work was to characterize the time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar sweetened with different sweeteners to verify differences on the perception of sweet and bitter tastes. The sweeteners used to replace sucrose were sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. Fifteen assessors were selected according to their discriminating capability and trained to participate in the time-intensity analysis for sweetness and bitterness. The samples prepared with sucralose and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend presented a similar sweetness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose, and the samples prepared with sucralose and aspartame presented a similar bitterness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose. Thus, sucralose would be the most suitable sweetener to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Bone marrow stromal and vascular smooth muscle cells have chemosensory capacity via bitter taste receptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy C Lund

    Full Text Available The ability of cells to detect changes in the microenvironment is important in cell signaling and responsiveness to environmental fluctuations. Our interest is in understanding how human bone marrow stromal-derived cells (MSC and their relatives, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC, interact with their environment through novel receptors. We found, through a proteomics screen, that MSC express the bitter taste receptor, TAS2R46, a protein more typically localized to the taste bud. Expression was also confirmed in VSMCs. A prototypical bitter compound that binds to the bitter taste receptor class, denatonium, increased intracellular calcium release and decreased cAMP levels as well as increased the extracellular release of ATP in human MSC. Denatonium also bound and activated rodent VSMC with a change in morphology upon compound exposure. Finally, rodents given denatonium in vivo had a significant drop in blood pressure indicating a vasodilator response. This is the first description of chemosensory detection by MSC and VSMCs via a taste receptor. These data open a new avenue of research into discovering novel compounds that operate through taste receptors expressed by cells in the marrow and vascular microenvironments.

  13. Nasal chemosensory cells use bitter taste signaling to detect irritants and bacterial signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Gulbransen, Brian D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Clapp, Tod R; Herman, Jake P; Sibhatu, Hiruy M; Churchill, Mair E A; Silver, Wayne L; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2010-02-16

    The upper respiratory tract is continually assaulted with harmful dusts and xenobiotics carried on the incoming airstream. Detection of such irritants by the trigeminal nerve evokes protective reflexes, including sneezing, apnea, and local neurogenic inflammation of the mucosa. Although free intra-epithelial nerve endings can detect certain lipophilic irritants (e.g., mints, ammonia), the epithelium also houses a population of trigeminally innervated solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) that express T2R bitter taste receptors along with their downstream signaling components. These SCCs have been postulated to enhance the chemoresponsive capabilities of the trigeminal irritant-detection system. Here we show that transduction by the intranasal solitary chemosensory cells is necessary to evoke trigeminally mediated reflex reactions to some irritants including acyl-homoserine lactone bacterial quorum-sensing molecules, which activate the downstream signaling effectors associated with bitter taste transduction. Isolated nasal chemosensory cells respond to the classic bitter ligand denatonium as well as to the bacterial signals by increasing intracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, these same substances evoke changes in respiration indicative of trigeminal activation. Genetic ablation of either G alpha-gustducin or TrpM5, essential elements of the T2R transduction cascade, eliminates the trigeminal response. Because acyl-homoserine lactones serve as quorum-sensing molecules for gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, detection of these substances by airway chemoreceptors offers a means by which the airway epithelium may trigger an epithelial inflammatory response before the bacteria reach population densities capable of forming destructive biofilms.

  14. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tocci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

  15. An explanation for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during ripening on the tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susamci, E.; Romero, C.; Tuncay, O.; Brenes, M.

    2017-01-01

    Harvested olives require further processing to make them edible due to their content in the bitter substance oleuropein. However, some olives of the Erkence cultivar naturally de-bitter on the tree giving rise to the so-called Hurma olives. In this study, the evolution of the chemical characteristics of Erkence and Hurma olives harvested from the northeast and southwest area of trees located in the Karaburun Peninsula was assayed. It was confirmed that the oleuropein content in Hurma olives was much lower (< 2000 mg/kg fresh weight) than Erkence, which reached 35.000 mg/kg fresh weight at the beginning of the season. In addition, no free or polymerized anthocyanins were found in Hurma fruit in contrast to ripened Erkence fruit. The concentration of glucose was also lower in Hurma than Erkence olives. These results suggest that the enzymatic oxidation of oleuropein could be responsible for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during their ripening on the tree. [es

  16. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  17. Comparison of Different Methods for Separation of Haploid Embryo Induced through Irradiated Pollen and Their Economic Analysis in Melon (Cucumis melo var. inodorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Baktemur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated pollen technique is the most successful haploidization technique within Cucurbitaceae. After harvesting of fruits pollinated with irradiated pollen, classical method called as “inspecting the seeds one by one” is used to find haploid embryos in the seeds. In this study, different methods were used to extract the embryos more easily, quickly, economically, and effectively. “Inspecting the seeds one by one” was used as control treatment. Other four methods tested were “sowing seeds direct nutrient media,” “inspecting seeds in the light source,” “floating seeds on liquid media,” and “floating seeds on liquid media after surface sterilization.” Y2 and Y3 melon genotypes selected from the third backcross population of Yuva were used as plant material. Results of this study show that there is no statistically significant difference among methods “inspecting the seeds one by one,” “sowing seeds direct CP nutrient media,” and “inspecting seeds in the light source,” although the average number of embryos per fruit is slightly different. No embryo production was obtained from liquid culture because of infection. When considered together with labor costs and time required for embryo rescue, the best methods were “sowing seeds directly in the CP nutrient media“ and ”inspecting seeds in the light source.”

  18. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahara, A.; Kirihara, S.; Kakinohana, H.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  19. Mass rearing of the melon fly in Okinawa, Japan - Special reference to quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishii, Masaaki; Kakinohana, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), had been completely eradicated from Okinawa, Japan in 1993 (Yamagishi et al. 1993, Kakinohana 1994, Kuba et al. 1996). Following the expansion of target areas during the eradication campaign, the number of flies produced was increased from 5 million to 280 million per week. In the process of the eradication project, the mass reared strains had been replaced three times with new strains. The aim of this paper is to show the changes in various traits of the third strain that were regularly monitored in the factory. First, unintentional and intentional artificial selections to which the strain was exposed are mentioned. Second, the changes in the monitored traits are shown, and finally, the relation between selection and the response to selection is discussed

  20. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: adriana.fabbri@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L{sup *}, a{sup *} and b{sup *} were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p<0.05), expressed as the mean results ± standard deviation. Samples of papaya and melons showed no statistical difference for the L{sup *} parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This

  1. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.: Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhong eJin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH, encoded by multigene family in plants, play a critical role in plant growth, development, adaptation, fruit ripening and aroma production. Thirteen ADH genes were identified in melon genome, including 12 ADHs and one formaldehyde dehydrogenease (FDH, designated CmADH1-12 and CmFDH1, in which CmADH1 and CmADH2 have been isolated in Cantaloupe. ADH genes shared a lower identity with each other at the protein level and had different intron-exon structure at nucleotide level. No typical signal peptides were found in all CmADHs, and CmADH proteins might locate in the cytoplasm. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 13 ADH genes were divided into 3 groups respectively, namely long-, medium- and short-chain ADH subfamily, and CmADH1,3-11, which belongs to the medium-chain ADH subfamily, fell into 6 medium-chain ADH subgroups. CmADH12 may belong to the long-chain ADH subfamily, while CmFDH1 may be a Class III ADH and serve as an ancestral ADH in melon. Expression profiling revealed that CmADH1, CmADH2, CmADH10 and CmFDH1 were moderately or strongly expressed in different vegetative tissues and fruit at medium and late developmental stages, while CmADH8 and CmADH12 were highly expressed in fruit after 20 days. CmADH3 showed preferential expression in young tissues. CmADH4 only had slight expression in root. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CmADH genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones, and the response pattern of CmADH genes to ABA, IAA and ethylene were different. These CmADHs were divided into ethylene-sensitive and –insensitive groups, and the functions of CmADHs were discussed.

  2. Genetic divergence among accessions of melon from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, F A S; Torres Filho, J; Nunes, G H S; Queiróz, M A; Bordallo, P N; Buso, G S C; Ferreira, M A; Costa, Z P; Bezerra Neto, F

    2013-12-06

    The genetic divergence of 38 melon accessions from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast and three commercial hybrids were evaluated using fruit descriptors and microsatellite markers. The melon germplasm belongs to the botanic varieties cantalupensis (19), momordica (7), conomon (4), and inodorus (3), and to eight genotypes that were identified only at the species level. The fruit descriptors evaluated were: number of fruits per plant (NPF), fruit mass (FM; kg), fruit longitudinal diameter (LD; cm), fruit transversal diameter (TD; cm), shape index based on the LD/TD ratio, flesh pulp thickness, cavity thickness (CT; cm), firmness fruit pulp (N), and soluble solids (SS; °Brix). The results showed high variability for all descriptors, especially for NPF, LD, and FM. The grouping analysis based on fruit descriptors produced eight groups without taxonomic criteria. The LD (22.52%), NPF (19.70%), CT (16.13%), and SS (9.57%) characteristics were the descriptors that contributed the most to genotype dissimilarity. The 17 simple sequence repeat polymorphic markers amplified 41 alleles with an average of 2.41 alleles and three genotypes per locus. Some markers presented a high frequency for the main allele. The genetic diversity ranged from 0.07 to 0.60, the observed heterozygosity had very low values, and the mean polymorphism information content was 0.32. Molecular genetic similarity analyses clustered the accessions in 13 groups, also not following taxonomic ranks. There was no association between morphoagronomic and molecular groupings. In conclusion, there was great variability among the accessions and among and within botanic groups.

  3. Application of water footprint in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa; Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana

    2015-04-01

    In recent times, there has been a major increase in the use of water and fertilizers in order to increase agricultural production, while at the same time there has increased evidence that aquifers are reducing their water level, enriched by nutrient and degraded as a result of pollution. So best management practices are needed for much of cropped, irrigated and fertirrigated land, to avoid contamination of fresh water and groundwater. The concept of "water footprint" (WF) was introduced as an indicator for the total volume of direct and indirect freshwater used, consumed and/or polluted [1]. The WF distinguishes between blue water (volume of surface and groundwater consumed), green water (rain-water consumed), and grey water (volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards). This study is focused in calculating the crops WF using a real case of study in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions which is principally cultivated in the centre of Spain declared vulnerable zone to nitrate pollution by applying the Directive 91/676/CEE. During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions applying mineral and organic fertilizers. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. This application help us to review the different concepts in which is based WF. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01. Keywords: Water footprint, nitrogen, fertirrigation, inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments, winery waste, semiarid conditions. [1] Hoekstra, A.Y. 2003. Virtual water trade. Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, Delft, The Netherlands, 12-13 December 2002. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 12, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands.

  4. CROSS-TOLERANCE MECHANISM INDUCTION IN MELON SEEDS BY PRIMING PRIOR DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marcel Sousa Lira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The loss of benefits after re-drying is one of the drawbacks of the seed priming technique. Different types of stresses have been used before re-drying to preserve the priming benefits. This process may be seen as promoting cross tolerance to increase the defense mechanisms that prevent loss of viability in seeds primed after drying. We tested the effect of some stresses to induce cross-tolerance and different drying conditions with the aim of maintaining priming benefits in melon seeds. The seeds were primed in an aerated KNO3 solution (0.35M, -1.7MPa, 25 °C, in the dark for six days. The primed seeds were then submitted to slow drying, fast drying, cold shock + slow drying, cold shock + fast drying, heat shock + slow drying, heat shock + fast drying, PEG + slow drying, PEG + fast drying, ABA + slow drying, ABA + fast drying and no drying (planted directly after priming. We evaluated antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and APX, germinability, mean time of germination (MTG and mean rate of germination (MRG. A completely randomized design was used with three repetitions of 50 seeds in each treatment. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05. ABA increased SOD activity after drying and CAT activity was reduced by priming. APX activity was not observed. The stress submission prior to re-drying improved the MRG and reduced MTG. Therefore, the induction of the cross-tolerance mechanism could be effective to maintain priming benefits in melon seeds.

  5. Bitter gourd reduces elevated fasting plasma glucose levels in an intervention study among prediabetics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawinkel, Michael B; Ludwig, Christine; Swai, Mark E; Yang, Ray-Yu; Chun, Kwok Pan; Habicht, Sandra D

    2018-04-24

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus have become major health issues even in non-industrialized countries. As access to clinical management is often poor, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. For bitter gourd, Momordica charantia L., antidiabetic properties have been claimed. The main objective of the intervention study was to assess antidiabetic effects of daily bitter gourd consumption of 2.5g powder over the course of eight weeks among prediabetic individuals. In a randomized placebo-controlled single blinded clinical trial, 52 individuals with prediabetes were studied after consuming a bitter gourd or a cucumber juice. For reducing the impact of between subject differences in the study population, a crossover design was chosen with eight weeks for each study period and four weeks washout in between. Fasting plasma glucose was chosen as the primary outcome variable. Comparing the different exposures, the CROS analysis (t=-2.23, p=0.031, r=0.326) revealed a significant difference in the change of FPG of 0.31mmol/L (5.6mg/dL) with a trend (R 2 =0,42387). The number of 44 finally complete data sets achieved a power of 0.82, with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d 0.62). The effect was also proven by a general linear mixed model (estimate 0.31; SE: 0.12; p: 0.01; 95%CI: 0.08; 0.54). Not all participants responded, but the higher the initial blood glucose levels were, the more pronounced the effect was. No serious adverse effects were observed. Bitter gourd supplementation appeared to have benefits in lowering elevated fasting plasma glucose in prediabetes. The findings should be replicated in other intervention studies to further investigate glucose lowering effects and the opportunity to use bitter gourd for dietary self-management, especially in places where access to professional medical care is not easily assured. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Translocation-based genetic sexing system to enhance the sterile insect technique against the melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombs, S.D.; Lee, S.G.; Saul, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The autosomal recessive bubble wing (bw) mutant was used to construct a translocation-based genetic sex sorting system in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The translocation stock has females with the bubble wing phenotype that are unable to fly, but the males are wild-type and fly normally. The bubble wing translocation strain has lower egg hatch, larval viability, and eclosion rates than the wild-type strain. Expression of the bubble wing trait is temperature-dependent, with high expression of the trait in 92% of adults at 23°C but in only 15% of adults at 28°C. This translocation-based sex sorting system is the only method available for automatic separation of male and female melon flies in sterile insect release programs

  7. [Host plants of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector of virus of Cucumis melo melon (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M V; Agüero, R; Rivera, C

    2001-03-01

    Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis.

  8. Symptoms and Sensitivity to Chilling Injury of Cantaloupe Melons during Postharvest Síntomas y Sensibilidad a Daño por Enfriamiento de Melones Reticulados durante Poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Krarup

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature and development of specific symptoms of chilling injury (CI and the variation in sensitivity to the disorder of different cultivars of cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo var. cantalupensis Naudin was assessed during two seasons. Twenty-three cultivars of the Eastern Shipper (2, Western Shipper (13 and Galia (8 types were grown in a semiarid environment in Curacaví (33º27’ S, 70º38’ W, Chile, using common cultural practices. Fruits were harvested at the half-slip stage, except Galia (3/5 color, graded ,washed, and stored for 18 days at 0 ºC, with an additional 3 days at 20 ºC. Symptoms of CI appeared with varying intensity in almost all cultivars and were generally similar. Symptoms developed progressively: surface discoloration progressed from light pink to brownish to black, followed by large sunken areas, and eventually, discrete indentations and net whitening. Surface decay was not present in most fruits and should be considered a consequence rather than a symptom of CI. Cultivars had different sensitivities to the disorder; some cultivars were severely injured (Athena, Colima and Revigal whereas others developed almost no symptoms of CI (Hy-Mark, Gal 96, and Voyager I. The response variability to chilling showed the need for precise temperature recommendations for these cultivars, and signaled a potential for future long-term transport or storage of some cultivars.La naturaleza y el desarrollo de los síntomas de daño por enfriamiento (CI y la variación en sensibilidad de diversos cultivares de melones reticulados (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo var. cantalupensis Naudin a este desorden fisiológico se evaluaron durante dos temporadas. Veintitrés cultivares de los tipos Eastern (1, Western (15 y Galia (8 se cultivaron en un ambiente semi-árido en Curacaví (33º27’ S, 70º38’ O, Chile, en cultivos realizados de manera convencional, y los frutos se cosecharon al estado de madurez de medio desprendimiento

  9. Antifungal Activities of Some Leaf Extracts on Seed-borne Fungi of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of leaf extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), lemon grass (Cymbopogen citratus), neem (Azadirachta indica) and paw-paw (Carica papaya) on major seed-borne fungi: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium moniliforme of African yam ...

  10. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathishkumar Natarajan

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L. and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, 'SCNU1154', 'Edisto47', 'MR-1', and 'PMR5'. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs. Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon.

  11. Application of Cinnamon oil Nanoemulsion to Control Foodborne Bacteria such as Listeria Sp. and Salmonella Sp. On Melons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Sumit Kumar

    Listeria and Salmonella related recalls and outbreaks are of major concern to the melon industry. Cinnamon oil has shown its usefulness in food treatment due to strong antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial activities. However, its applications are limited due to poor solubility of cinnamon oil in water. Utilization of Cinnamon oil nanoemulsion may offer effective antimicrobial washing treatment to melon industry. The purpose of this study was to test the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion on melons against major food borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Different formulations of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion were made by ultrasonication using Tween 80 as an emulsifier. Nanoemulsion exhibiting the smallest oil droplets was applied. Oil droplets were characterized for particle size by dynamic light scattering. Microbroth dilution assay was performed on three strains each of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica to find out the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion. Honeydew and cantaloupe were artificially inoculated with the strains mentioned above followed by treatment in nanoemulsion (control, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5%) for one minute. Samples were dried and enumerated after one hour of treatment on selective media (PALCAM and XLD agar). The average diameter of nanoemulsion was 9.63+/-0.3nm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion for both Listeria and Salmonella strains was 0.078% v/v and 0.039% v/v, respectively and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 0.078125% v/v for both. Compared to the water control, 0.5% nanoemulsion showed up to 7.7 and 5.5 log CFU/gm reductions in L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, respectively. The data suggests that cinnamon oil nanoemulsion can be used as an effective natural microbial control agent for melons. Keywords: Nanoemulsion, ultrasonication, antimicrobial.

  12. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Hoy-Taek; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Veerappan, Karpagam; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L.) and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, 'SCNU1154', 'Edisto47', 'MR-1', and 'PMR5'. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs). Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon.

  13. BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION AND GENETIC DIVERSITY IN MELONS FROM FAMILY FARMING IN THE STATE OF MARANHÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE DE SOUZA MACÊDO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to perform botanical identification and to estimate genetic diversity in two sequential inbred generations (progenies S1 and S2 of melon accessions from traditional agriculture in the state of Maranhão, in order to generate useful information for commercial melon breeding. Two field experiments were carried out in a completely randomized block, using four replicates of 15 accessions from a first selfing cycle in 2013, and three replicates of 25 subaccessions (generation S2 in 2014. Flower and fruit descriptors were measured to obtain quantitative and qualitative data, in addition to a systematized photographic documentation of fruit for visually comparing the progenies S1 and S2. Distance matrices for quantitative and qualitative data were obtained and used to perform a joint analysis and UPGMA method. Large genetic diversity was found in the accessions analysed, since the presence of melon progenies was observed in the Cucumis melo ssp. agrestis, with its botanical varieties momordica and conomom, and of the Cucumis melo ssp. melo, with the botanical varieties cantalupensis and chandalak. Divergence analysis showed the formation of three groups in generation S1 and four groups in S2. However, the groups were not separated either by subspecies or by botanical variety. Thus, in addition to the large genetic diversity among and within melon accessions from family farming in the state of Maranhão, the progenies presented a large introgression of traits of the different subspecies and their botanical varieties due to the reproductive system and seed management of these species.

  14. Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Based on CAPS Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A. M.; Liu, S.; Wang, X.; Luan, F.; Baloch, A. W.; Baloch, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    In the current experiment, the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was done by composite interval mapping method to detect QTLs in edge, central parts and fruit shape of melon. In this context, 235 F/sub 2/ populations along with their parents were evaluated for fruit size, shape and color under replicated trail at Horticulture Experimental Station of Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China, during the growing year 2014. Moreover, 96 pairs of CAPS markers were used to construct a linkage map using F/sub 2/ population that was derived from the cross between two contrasting parents (MR-1 and Topmark). The total length of linkage map was found to be 4984.1cM with an average of 51.9177 cM between the markers. In a total, we detected ten QTLs, in which one was major, while others were minor. Five QTLs were detected in the edge part of melon fruit and three QTLs were detected in central parts of melon and all were considered as Brix content. Two QTLs were related with fruit shape. Our present genetic and QTLs mapping would be proved useful in plant breeding programs for the improvement of economically important horticultural traits. (author)

  15. Assessment of agro-ecological service crop managements combined with organic fertilisation strategies in organic melon crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Diacono

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In organic horticultural systems, cover crops could provide several ecological services, therefore, they can be defined agroecological service crops (ASCs. The objective of this two-year research was to study the suitability on melon production of different ASC termination strategies, in combination with organic fertilisers application. In a split-block design, the main-plot was the ASC management, comparing: i green manure, in which the vetch was chopped and plowed into the soil; and ii roller-crimper (RC, in which the vetch was flattened by a roller-crimper; with iii fallow control, without vetch. The subplot consisted of offfarm organic inputs: i commercial humified fertiliser; ii anaerobic digestate fertiliser; iii composted municipal solid wastes; which were compared to iv unfertilised control (N0. At vetch termination, above soil biomass and nitrogen (N content were determined. At harvesting, crop yield performance and quality, N status and N efficiency were investigated. Also, main soil characteristics were assessed at the end of the trial. Among the ASC managements, the slightly reduced yield in the RC plots particularly in combination with N0 might have been the result of less N supplied by the vetch during the melon cycle. Anyway, no negative effects were observed for yield quality. The use of the RC showed a great potential in enhancing soil fertility. Our study suggests the suitability in organic farming of properly matching management of ASC and fertilisation strategies on melon crop.

  16. Use of Non-Normalized, Non-Amplified cDNA for 454-Based RNA Sequencing of Fleshy Melon Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Portnoy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The melon ( L. fruit is an important crop and model system for the genomic study of both fleshy fruit development and the Cucurbitaceae family. To obtain an accurate representation of the melon fruit transcriptome based on expressed sequence tag (EST abundance in 454-pyrosequencing data, we prepared double-stranded complementary DNA (cDNA of melon without the usual amplification and normalization steps. A purification step was also included to eliminate small fragments. Complementary DNAs were obtained from 14 individual fruit libraries derived from two genotypes, separated into flesh and peel tissues, and sampled throughout fruit development. Pyrosequencing was performed using Genome Sequencer FLX (GS FLX technology, resulting in 1,215,359 reads, with mean length of >200 nucleotides. The global digital expression data was validated by comparative reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR of 40 selected genes and expression patterns were similar for the two methods. The results indicate that high-quality, nonbiased cDNA for next-generation sequencing can be prepared from mature, fleshy fruit, which are notorious for difficulties in ribonucleic acid (RNA preparation.

  17. Phytotoxicity of Alachlor, Bromacil and Diuron as single or mixed herbicides applied to wheat, melon, and molokhia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahhal, Yasser; Hamdona, Nisreen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity of herbicides applied singly or as mixtures to different crops under greenhouse conditions. Growth inhibition of the crops was taken as an indicator of phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity of mixtures was estimated by calculating EC50 value in toxic units. EC50 (mg/kg soil) of Alachlor, Bromacil and/or Diuron were: 11.37, 4.77, 1.64, respectively, on melon; 0.11, 0.08, 0.24, respectively, on molokhia, and 3.91, 3.08, 1.83, respectively, on wheat. EC50 values of binary mixture tests of (Alachlor + Bromacil), (Alachlor + Diuron), and (Bromacil + Diuron) were 12.21, 5.84, 10.22 on melon, 0.982, 925.4, 38.1 on molokhia, and 0.673, 1.34, 0.644 on wheat. Tertiary mixture tests showed EC50 values (TU/kg soil) of (Alachlor + Bromacil + Diuron) was 633.9 on melon, 3.02 on molokhia and 32.174 on wheat. Diuron was more toxic than Alachlor and Bromacil to the tested crops based on individual tests. Molokhia was the most sensitive crop to herbicides. Binary mixtures showed a synergistic effect as compared to the tertiary mixtures.

  18. Relationship between the nutrition status and sensory characteristics of melon fertilized with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, María Isabel; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; González, Miguel Angel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Ribas, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The interest in developing sustainable agriculture is becoming more important day by day. A large quantity of wastes from the wine and distillery industry are produced and constitute a serious problem not only environmental but also economic. The use of exhausted grape marc compost as organic amendment is a management option of the fertility of soils. On the other hand, consumers are increasingly concerned about the type, quality and origin of food production. Flavor and aroma are most often the true indicators of shelf-life from the consumer's point of view. The aim of this study was to relate the nutritional status of melon fertilized with exhausted grape marc compost with the sensory profile of fresh-cut fruits. A field experiment was established with three doses of compost (1, 2 and 3 kg per linear meter) and a control. Melons were harvested at maturity and the sensory evaluation was carried out by an expert panel of melon tasters to describe odour, flavour and texture. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration was determined in the fruits to calculate nutrient absorption. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01

  19. Pengaruh Pemberian Mikoriza Vesikula Arbuskula (MVA Campuran terhadap Kemunculan Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.

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    Najmah Farhati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo L. has economic potential to be cultivated because the fruit contains protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphor, fiber, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and niacin. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum will decrease melon crop production. One of controlling method to Fusarium wilt diseases on melon plants which safe for environtmental by using biological control. One of microorganisms which can be biological control agent is Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM. This research use experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The experimental treatment consists of two types of treatment which combine 5 doses of VAM mixture ( 0 g/plant, 10 g/plant, 12,5 g/plant, 15 g/plant, 17,5 g/plant and two inoculation method VAM is inoculated when seeds are planted and inoculation when the seedlings are replanted. Each treatment was repeated 3 times and each unit consist of three plant, so there are 30 units of experiments or 90 plants. The main variabels are observed consist of the incubation periode of the disease and the intensity of fusarium wilt and the supporting variabels consist of pH, temperature, humidity, and the scale of infection. The mixed MVA 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when seeds are planted and 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when the seedlings are replanted is the most effective to suppress incubation period of Fusarium wilt disease.

  20. From Cell to Beak: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization of Chicken Bitter Taste Thresholds

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    Shira Cheled-Shoval

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors—ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems and in-vivo (behavioral detection thresholds. ggTas2r-selective ligands, nicotine (ggTas2r1, caffeine (ggTas2r2, erythromycin and (+-catechin (ggTas2r7, and the Tas2r-promiscuous ligand quinine (all three ggTas2rs were studied. Ligands of the same receptor had different in-vivo:in-vitro ratios, and the ggTas2r-promiscuous ligand did not exhibit lower in-vivo:in-vitro ratios than ggTas2r-selective ligands. In-vivo thresholds were similar or up to two orders of magnitude higher than the in-vitro ones.

  1. From Cell to Beak: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization of Chicken Bitter Taste Thresholds.

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    Cheled-Shoval, Shira; Behrens, Maik; Korb, Ayelet; Di Pizio, Antonella; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Uni, Zehava; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-05-17

    Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors-ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems) and in-vivo (behavioral) detection thresholds. ggTas2r-selective ligands, nicotine (ggTas2r1), caffeine (ggTas2r2), erythromycin and (+)-catechin (ggTas2r7), and the Tas2r-promiscuous ligand quinine (all three ggTas2rs) were studied. Ligands of the same receptor had different in-vivo:in-vitro ratios, and the ggTas2r-promiscuous ligand did not exhibit lower in-vivo:in-vitro ratios than ggTas2r-selective ligands. In-vivo thresholds were similar or up to two orders of magnitude higher than the in-vitro ones.

  2. Study of the effects of the casein derived bitter tastant on the melanophores in milieu with the melatonin receptors.

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    Mubashshir, Md; Ahmed, Fraz; Ovais, Mohd

    2011-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the casein derived bitter tastant Cyclo (Leu-Trp) [CLT] has an affinity or not for the particular receptors of the pineal hormone, melatonin, on the melanophores of a major carp Labeo rohita (Ham.). The bitter tastant CLT, in the dose range of 3.34×10(-16) M to 3.34×10(-4) M, has induced an aggregatory effect but not in a dose dependent manner. Binding of CLT with the receptors may vary at different concentrations. Denervation of the melanophores has shown a complete inhibition of the CLT mediated aggregation. Prazosin has partially inhibited the aggregatory effect of CLT. Moreover, the bitter tastant's response is mediated through the α2 adrenoceptors only at particular dose ranges. The MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole and the MT2 specific antagonist K185 have perfectly blocked the aggregatory effects of CLT. We have found that the CLT mediated aggregatory effect is dependent upon the release of neurotransmitters and the two subtypes of melatonin (MT) receptors (MT1 and MT2) possess a perfect affinity towards the bitter tastant CLT. Our study demands a need to further make a clinical research on the effects of bitter tastants on the physiology of the biological rhythm maintaining hormone melatonin.

  3. Validation of a paper-disk approach to facilitate the sensory evaluation of bitterness in dairy protein hydrolysates from a newly developed food-grade fractionation system.

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    Murray, Niamh M; O'Riordan, Dolores; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Cohen, Joshua L; Heymann, Hildegarde; Barile, Daniela; Dallas, David C

    2017-06-01

    Casein-hydrolysates (NaCaH) are desirable functional ingredients, but their bitterness impedes usage in foods. This study sought to validate a paper-disk approach to help evaluate bitterness in NaCaHs and to develop a food-grade approach to separate a NaCaH into distinct fractions, which could be evaluated by a sensory panel. Membrane filtration generated sensory evaluation. Bitterness differences observed in the membrane fractions using this sensory evaluation approach reflected those observed for the same fractions presented as a liquid. The flash-chromatography fractions increased in bitterness with an increase in hydrophobicity, except for the 50% EtOH fraction which had little bitterness. Amino acid analysis of the fractions showed enrichment of different essential amino acids in both the bitter and less bitter fractions. The developed food-grade fractionation system, allowed for a simple and reasonably scaled approach to separating a NaCaH, into physicochemically different fractions that could be evaluated by a sensory panel. The method of sensory evaluation used in this study, in which NaCaH samples are impregnated into paper-disks, provided potential solutions for issues such as sample insolubility and limited quantities of sample. As the impregnated paper-disk samples were dehydrated, their long storage life could also be suitable for sensory evaluations distributed by mail for large consumer studies. The research, in this study, allowed for a greater understanding of the physicochemical basis for bitterness in this NaCaH. As some essential amino acids were enriched in the less bitter fractions, selective removal of bitter fractions could allow for the incorporation of the less bitter NaCaH fractions into food products for added nutritional value, without negatively impacting sensory properties. There is potential for this approach to be applied to other food ingredients with undesirable tastes, such as polyphenols.

  4. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity.

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    Yumie Morimoto-Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA. Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional

  5. Fenugreek with reduced bitterness prevents diet-induced metabolic disorders in rats

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    Muraki Etsuko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various therapeutic effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on metabolic disorders have been reported. However, the bitterness of fenugreek makes it hard for humans to eat sufficient doses of it for achieving therapeutic effects. Fenugreek contains bitter saponins such as protodioscin. Fenugreek with reduced bitterness (FRB is prepared by treating fenugreek with beta-glucosidase. This study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of FRB on metabolic disorders in rats. Methods Forty Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with high-fat high-sucrose (HFS diet for 12 week to induce mild glucose and lipid disorders. Afterwards, the rats were divided into 5 groups. In the experiment 1, each group (n = 8 was fed with HFS, or HFS containing 2.4% fenugreek, or HFS containing 1.2%, 2.4% and 4.8% FRB, respectively, for 12 week. In the experiment 2, we examined the effects of lower doses of FRB (0.12%, 0.24% and 1.2% under the same protocol (n = 7 in each groups. Results In the experiment 1, FRB dose-dependently reduced food intake, body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT and soleus muscle weight. FRB also lowered plasma and hepatic lipid levels and increased fecal lipid levels, both dose-dependently. The Plasma total cholesterol levels (mmol/L in the three FRB and Ctrl groups were 1.58 ± 0.09, 1.45 ± 0.05*, 1.29 ± 0.07* and 2.00 ± 0.18, respectively (*; P P P  Conclusions Thus we have demonstrated that FRB (1.2 ~ 4.8% prevents diet-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and fatty liver.

  6. Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Auxin Efflux Carrier Differentially Expressed in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

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    Yi-Li Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin regulates various developmental programs in plants, including cell growth, cell division and cell differentiation. The auxin efflux carriers are essential for the auxin transport. To show an involvement of auxin transporters in the coordination of fruit development in bitter gourd, a juicy fruit, we isolated novel cDNAs (referred as McPIN encoding putative auxin efflux carriers, including McPIN1, McPIN2 (allele of McPIN1 and McPIN3, from developing fruits of bitter gourd. Both McPIN1 and McPIN3 genes possess six exons and five introns. Hydropathy analysis revealed that both polypeptides have two hydrophobic regions with five transmembrane segments and a predominantly hydrophilic core. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that McPIN1 shared the highest homology to the group of Arabidopsis, cucumber and tomato PIN1, while McPIN3 belonged to another group, including Arabidopsis and tomato PIN3 as well as PIN4. This suggests different roles for McPIN1 and McPIN3 in auxin transport involved in the fruit development of bitter gourd. Maximum mRNA levels for both genes were detected in staminate and pistillate flowers. McPIN1 is expressed in a particular period of early fruit development but McPIN3 continues to be expressed until the last stage of fruit ripening. Moreover, these two genes are auxin-inducible and qualified as early auxin-response genes. Their expression patterns suggest that these two auxin transporter genes play a pivotal role in fruit setting and development.

  7. Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC Drugs: Time to Take a Bitter Pill

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    Geetha Mani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC drugs are an emerging public health concern in India. With one of the huge pharmaceutical sectors in the world, India has a varied prevalence of SSSFC drugs ranging from 0.04% to 34% according to various studies. Apart from severe health consequences, SSSFC drugs also weaken community's trust in the health care system. India is tackling the epidemic of SSSFC drugs through various existing and new regulatory measures. Considering the calamitous consequences of this silent epidemic, it is time to prescribe a bitter pill.

  8. Association of a bitter taste receptor mutation with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN

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    Wooding Stephen P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is late-onset kidney disease thought to arise from chronic exposure to aristolochic acid, a phytotoxin that contaminates wheat supplies in rural areas of Eastern Europe. It has recently been demonstrated that humans are capable of perceiving aristolochic acid at concentrations below 40 nM as the result of high-affinity interactions with the TAS2R43 bitter taste receptor. Further, TAS2R43 harbors high-frequency loss-of-function mutations resulting in 50-fold variability in perception. This suggests that genetic variation in TAS2R43 might affect susceptibility to BEN, with individuals carrying functional forms of the receptor being protected by an ability to detect tainted foods. Methods To determine whether genetic variation in TAS2R43 predicts BEN susceptibility, we examined genotype-phenotype associations in a case–control study. A cohort of 88 affected and 99 control subjects from western Bulgaria were genotyped with respect to two key missense variants and a polymorphic whole-gene deletion of TAS2R43 (W35S, H212R, and wt/Δ, which are known to affect taste sensitivity to aristolochic acid. Tests for association between haplotypes and BEN status were then performed. Results Three major TAS2R43 haplotypes observed in previous studies (TAS2R43-W35/H212, -S35/R212 and –Δ were present at high frequencies (0.17, 0.36, and 0.47 respectively in our sample, and a significant association between genotype and BEN status was present (P = 0.020; odds ratio 1.18. However, contrary to expectation, BEN was positively associated with TAS2R43-W35/H212, a highly responsive allele previously shown to confer elevated bitter sensitivity to aristolochic acid, which should drive aversion but might also affect absorption, altering toxin activation. Conclusions Our findings are at strong odds with the prediction that carriers of functional alleles of TAS2R43 are protected from BEN by an ability to detect and

  9. Effect of IL-1 and gustducin expression change on bitter taste during fever

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    Jenny Sunariani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic changes in the body, such as fever, cause inflammation, whose one of its impacts is the sense of bitterness inside the mouth. It implies in the reduction of appetite, which may finally result in the reduction of physical condition due to the inadequacy of food intake. It causes the inhibition of healing process, which reduces working productivity. The objective of this study was to identify the mechanism of bitterness due to inflammation, as proved locally in the taste buds of Wistar rats. This study was carried out experimentally using post-test only control design in experimental animals of male Wistar strain Rattus norvegicus. The animals were divided into two groups. First group served as control, while the second group received treatment with Salmonella typhimurium 0.5 ml/kg BW. Blood sample and tongue incision were taken from the animals. IL-1 was counted, and tongue incision was used for immunohistochemical staining for the variables of gustducin. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for data normality, and followed with comparative test. The discriminant analysis was also done to find the discriminant variable. It was found that there was an increase of biological response of signaling transduction of bitterness in taste buds, as indicated from the increase of gustducin in treatment group or in inflammatory fever condition as compared to control group (p < 0.05, but no change of concertation at IL-1 significan whenever there was any change of concertation by unfolding its mechanism. Further studies can be recommended to find the way to inhibit this sense of bitterness. The results are intended to overcome homeostatic disorder in the body to prevent loss of appetite, so that physical endurance can be maintained. It concluded that there is no increase of serum IL-1 expression in fever, but there is a significanly increase of taste buds gustducin. Further studies should focus on gustducin cellular role in other

  10. Development and validation of a mathematical model for growth of pathogens in cut melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    Many outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh-cut melons have been reported. The objective of our research was to develop a mathematical model that predicts the growth rate of Salmonella on fresh-cut cantaloupe over a range of storage temperatures and to validate that model by using Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon, using both new data and data from the published studies. The growth of Salmonella on honeydew and watermelon and E. coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon was monitored at temperatures of 4 to 25°C. The Ratkowsky (or square-root model) was used to describe Salmonella growth on cantaloupe as a function of storage temperature. Our results show that the levels of Salmonella on fresh-cut cantaloupe with an initial load of 3 log CFU/g can reach over 7 log CFU/g at 25°C within 24 h. No growth was observed at 4°C. A linear correlation was observed between the square root of Salmonella growth rate and temperature, such that √growth rate = 0.026 × (T - 5.613), R(2) = 0.9779. The model was generally suitable for predicting the growth of both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon, for both new data and data from the published literature. When compared with existing models for growth of Salmonella, the new model predicts a theoretic minimum growth temperature similar to the ComBase Predictive Models and Pathogen Modeling Program models but lower than other food-specific models. The ComBase Prediction Models results are very similar to the model developed in this study. Our research confirms that Salmonella can grow quickly and reach high concentrations when cut cantaloupe is stored at ambient temperatures, without visual signs of spoilage. Our model provides a fast and cost-effective method to estimate the effects of storage temperature on fresh-cut melon safety and could also be used in subsequent quantitative microbial risk

  11. Optimising the use of plastic protective covers in field grown melon on a farm scale

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    Paolo Benincasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This in-farm research study was aimed at evaluating new strategies in the use of plastic protective covers in field grown melon in order to expand the production period and reduce costs. Four experiments were set up in 2010 and repeated in 2011 in Central Italy, in an inland region with a temperate climate. We evaluated: i the use of high tunnels for two growing cycles per year, i.e. for very early and very late production (target transplanting in late winter and mid-summer, respectively, for either one year or two consecutive years, and the use of grafted plants in the second year as an alternative to normal plants to prevent soil born diseases; ii the use of ethylene-vinyl-acetate film low tunnels alone or combined with non-woven floating row covers for transplanting in early spring; iii the use of non-woven low tunnels for transplanting in mid-spring; iv the use of biodegradable and conventional polyethylene ground mulch films, both in the presence of nonwoven low tunnels. As far as the non-woven cover is concerned, we adopted the strategy of removing later with respect to usual practices, i.e. ten days after the onset of first pistillate flowers. This was based on the evidence that covers hamper honeybee circulation, which may be exploited on a farm-scale to delay pollination until an adequate number of pistillate flowers set, in order to shorten scaled fruit ripening and harvest. Our results demonstrate that high tunnels may be used for at least four consecutive melon growing cycles (early and late productions for two years with good off-season yields and no appreciable drawbacks in terms of disease scale-up, irrespective of the use of normal or grafted plants. The non-woven low tunnel was effective in hampering honeybee circulation and its delayed removal allowed the harvest period to be halved, a more uniform fruit size to be obtained, and labour productivity of harvest to be increased. This had positive implications on the management of

  12. Evolution of the composition of a selected bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: release and migration of taste-active compounds.

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    Engel, E; Tournier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to add to the understanding of changes in taste that occur during the ripening of a bitter Camembert cheese by the evolution of its composition. Physicochemical analyses were performed on rind, under-rind, and center portions of a Camembert cheese selected for its intense bitterness. At each of the six steps of ripening studied organic acids, sugars, total nitrogen, soluble nitrogen, phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Pi, Cl, and biogenic amines were quantified in each portion. Changes in cheese composition seemed to mainly result from the development of Penicillium camemberti on the cheese outer layer. Migration phenomena and the release of potentially taste-active compounds allowed for the evolution of saltiness, sourness, and bitterness throughout ripening to be better understood. Apart from taste-active compounds, the impact of the cheese matrix on its taste development is discussed.

  13. Uptake of calcium-45 by apple trees at different levels of moisture in relation to the occurrence of bitter pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanekom, A.N.; Deist, J.; Blommaert, K.L.J.

    1975-01-01

    Uptake and translocation of recently absorbed Ca ( 45 Ca) and total calcium by Golden Delicious apple trees grown in sand culture at different moisture levels were investigated in relation to bitter pit. Growth and development of the trees were significantly retarded by low moisture supply. Moisture stress not only lowered calcium uptake and/or translocation but also significantly decreased the concentration of recently absorbed calcium in the different parts of the tree. Except for the leaves where moisture stress significantly decreased the total calcium concentration, it did not affect the concentration in other parts of the tree. Although the fruit contributed only 5,8% to the total calcium content of the top parts of the tree, this amount of Ca realised a sufficiently high calcium concentration in the fruit to prevent bitter pit. There was no correlation within the experimental period between moisture supply to the trees and the calcium concentration in the fruit or the incidence of bitter pit [af

  14. A comparative study on the effectiveness of ozonated water and peracetic acid in the storability of packaged fresh-cut melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botondi, Rinaldo; Moscetti, Roberto; Massantini, Riccardo

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water and peracetic acid were tested as sanitizers to enhance the storability of fresh-cut melon cubes. Sanitizers were also combined with suitable packaging materials (polypropylene and polylactic acid based plastic films). Fresh-cut melon cubes were stored at 4 °C for up to 7 days. Ozonated water and peracetic acid treatments were given by dipping cubes into 0.8 ppm O3 and 100 ppm Tsunami 100™ solutions, respectively, for 3 min. Both sanitizers exhibited efficiency in reducing the total microbial counts on melon cubes (acid treatment in combination with polypropylene film packaging, consequently developing off-odors starting from day 3. Strong color changes were noted in cubes stored in polylactic acid packaging after 7 days of storage, affecting the sensory quality of the melon cubes. Sensory evaluation (overall visual quality) indicated loss in flavor in the polypropylene packaging. The overall visual quality started to decline on 3rd day because of the development of translucency.Overall, the use of ozone in combination with polypropylene packaging provided the best solution to maintain the quality of melon cubes for up to 5 days of storage at 4 °C.

  15. Dietary supplementation with a superoxide dismutase-melon concentrate reduces stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Notin, Claire; Schmitt, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Lacan, Dominique

    2014-06-19

    We aimed to investigate effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-melon concentrate supplementation on psychological stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 61 people divided in two groups: active supplement (n = 32) and placebo (n = 29) for 12 weeks. Volunteers were given one small hard capsule per day. One capsule contained 10 mg of SOD-melon concentrate (140 U of SOD) and starch for the active supplement and starch only for the placebo. Stress and fatigue were evaluated using four psychometric scales: PSS-14; SF-36; Stroop tests and Prevost scale. The supplementation with SOD-melon concentrate significantly decreased perceived stress, compared to placebo. Moreover, quality of life was improved and physical and mental fatigue were reduced with SOD-melon concentrate supplementation. SOD-melon concentrate supplementation appears to be an effective and natural way to reduce stress and fatigue. trial approved by the ethical committee of Poitiers (France), and the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT01767922.

  16. Dietary Supplementation with a Superoxide Dismutase-Melon Concentrate Reduces Stress, Physical and Mental Fatigue in Healthy People: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

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    Julie Carillon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD-melon concentrate supplementation on psychological stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 61 people divided in two groups: active supplement (n = 32 and placebo (n = 29 for 12 weeks. Volunteers were given one small hard capsule per day. One capsule contained 10 mg of SOD-melon concentrate (140 U of SOD and starch for the active supplement and starch only for the placebo. Stress and fatigue were evaluated using four psychometric scales: PSS-14; SF-36; Stroop tests and Prevost scale. Results: The supplementation with SOD-melon concentrate significantly decreased perceived stress, compared to placebo. Moreover, quality of life was improved and physical and mental fatigue were reduced with SOD-melon concentrate supplementation. Conclusion: SOD-melon concentrate supplementation appears to be an effective and natural way to reduce stress and fatigue. Trial registration: trial approved by the ethical committee of Poitiers (France, and the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT01767922.

  17. Immediate effect of bitter gourd, ash gourd, Knol-khol juices on blood sugar levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study

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    G. Selvakumar

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: This study shows the significance of hypoglycemic effects of bitter gourd and Knol khol juices among the type 2 Diabetic patients. Hence Bitter gourd juice, Knol khol juices may be beneficial in Diabetes patients to reduce the blood glucose level.

  18. Origin and differential selection of allelic variation at TAS2R16 associated with salicin bitter taste sensitivity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael C; Ranciaro, Alessia; Zinshteyn, Daniel; Rawlings-Goss, Renata; Hirbo, Jibril; Thompson, Simon; Woldemeskel, Dawit; Froment, Alain; Rucker, Joseph B; Omar, Sabah A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Nyambo, Thomas; Belay, Gurja; Drayna, Dennis; Breslin, Paul A S; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-02-01

    Bitter taste perception influences human nutrition and health, and the genetic variation underlying this trait may play a role in disease susceptibility. To better understand the genetic architecture and patterns of phenotypic variability of bitter taste perception, we sequenced a 996 bp region, encompassing the coding exon of TAS2R16, a bitter taste receptor gene, in 595 individuals from 74 African populations and in 94 non-Africans from 11 populations. We also performed genotype-phenotype association analyses of threshold levels of sensitivity to salicin, a bitter anti-inflammatory compound, in 296 individuals from Central and East Africa. In addition, we characterized TAS2R16 mutants in vitro to investigate the effects of polymorphic loci identified at this locus on receptor function. Here, we report striking signatures of positive selection, including significant Fay and Wu's H statistics predominantly in East Africa, indicating strong local adaptation and greater genetic structure among African populations than expected under neutrality. Furthermore, we observed a "star-like" phylogeny for haplotypes with the derived allele at polymorphic site 516 associated with increased bitter taste perception that is consistent with a model of selection for "high-sensitivity" variation. In contrast, haplotypes carrying the "low-sensitivity" ancestral allele at site 516 showed evidence of strong purifying selection. We also demonstrated, for the first time, the functional effect of nonsynonymous variation at site 516 on salicin phenotypic variance in vivo in diverse Africans and showed that most other nonsynonymous substitutions have weak or no effect on cell surface expression in vitro, suggesting that one main polymorphism at TAS2R16 influences salicin recognition. Additionally, we detected geographic differences in levels of bitter taste perception in Africa not previously reported and infer an East African origin for high salicin sensitivity in human populations.

  19. TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms, frequency of bitter food intake, and blood biomarkers among elderly woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Stecyna, Joanna; Malinowska, Anna M; Chmurzynska, Agata

    2017-09-01

    Taste sensitivity is one of the most important biological determinants of food choice. Three SNPs of the TAS2R38 gene (rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939) give rise to two common haplotypes: PAV and AVI. These haplotypes, as well as an SNP within the CA6 gene (rs2274333) that encodes carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6), correlate with bitterness perception. The extent of consumption of bitter food may influence some health outcomes. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the impact of the TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms on the choice of bitter food, BMI, blood lipoprotein, and glucose concentrations as well as systemic inflammation in elderly women. The associations between the TAS2R38 diplotype, CA6 genotype, and the intake of bitter-tasting foods were studied in a group of 118 Polish women over 60 years of age. The intake of Brassica vegetables, grapefruit, and coffee was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical parameters were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Genotyping was performed using the high resolution melting method. We found a correlation between lipid profile, glucose and CRP levels, and frequency of bitter food intake. The AVI/AVI subjects drank coffee more frequently than did the PAV/PAV homozygotes, as did the A carriers of CA6 in comparison with the GG homozygotes. We also observed that simultaneous carriers of the PAV haplotype and A allele of TAS2R38 and CA6, respectively, choose white cabbage more frequent and had lower plasma levels of CRP and glucose than did AVI/AVI and GG homozygotes. In elderly women, the TAS2R38 and CA6 polymorphisms may affect the frequency of consumption of coffee and white cabbage, but not of other bitter-tasting foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Métodos para predição de bitter pit em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Braeburn' Methods for bitter pit prediction in Fuji and Braeburn apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sestari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram conduzidos com objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de métodos para predição da ocorrência de bitter pit em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Braeburn' em duas épocas de amostragem. Os frutos, provenientes de seis pomares distintos, três para cada cultivar, foram coletados antecipadamente (20 dias em relação à colheita e na data prevista para a colheita comercial. Os métodos de predição utilizados foram: a infiltração dos frutos com solução 0,10M MgCl2 mais 0,01% Tween-20 e 0,4M de sorbitol; b imersão dos frutos em solução com 2500nL L-1 de ethephon mais 0,01% Tween-20. Os frutos foram armazenados em atmosfera controlada (AC por cinco meses mais 12 dias, a 20°C, simulando a incidência real de bitter pit em armazenamento comercial. Cada tratamento foi constituído por quatro repetições de 25 frutos. A incidência e severidade de bitter pit, prevista por ambos os métodos foi semelhante à ocorrência real de bitter pit após o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada para cada uma das cultivares utilizadas, quando os frutos foram amostrados antecipadamente em relação à colheita comercial. Na avaliação realizada com frutos amostrados na colheita comercial, nenhum dos métodos foi capaz de prever a incidência de bitter pit após o armazenamento de maneira confiável. Para ambas as cultivares, a infiltração com magnésio e a imersão dos frutos em ethephon só são eficientes na predição da incidência de bitter pit em frutos coletados 20 dias antes da colheita comercial.Experiments were carried out with objective to evaluate the efficiency of methods for bitter pit prediction in 'Fuji' and 'Braeburn' apples sampled at two harvest dates. Fruits from 6 orchards, three for each cultivar, were sampled earlier (20 days before harvest and at commercial harvest date. The prediction methods assessed were: infiltration of apples with 0.10M MgCl2 solution containing 0.01% Tween-20 and 0.4M sorbitol; and immersion of fruits in 2

  1. Eradication of melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) of the Kume Island using sterile males under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahashi, Osamu

    1984-01-01

    On the assumption that there were approximately 250,000 normal melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) in the Kume Island as of February 1975, sterile flies have been released into the field. A previous experiment undertaken in the Kudaka Island revealed that the number of sterile pupae (with 7 kR of irradiation) should be ten times larger than that of normal flies for obtaining satisfactory results. 2,500,000 or more pupae per week were required for the purpose of eradication in the Kume Island. Satisfactory results were not obtained because of the limited production of sterile flies (1,000,000 per week). Since a mass-production facility was established in Autumn 1975, the weekly release of 1,500,000 - 2,000,000 flies became possible. Since May 1976, 3,500,000 - 4,000,000 sterile flies began to be released weekly. As a result, the rate of hatchability of eggs decreased with increasing the proportion of sterile flies to normal flies. The number of female flies caught in monitor traps also suggested that there were few normal male flies. The incidence of injuried fruits of Melothria japonica Maxim. Okinawa began to decrease remarkably from May 1976. None of 156,000 fruits were injuried between October 1976 and September 1977. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Nitrogen uptake dynamics, yield and quality as influenced by nitrogen fertilization in Piel de sapo melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Cabello, M. J.; Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Arce, A.; Ribas, F.

    2012-11-01

    The need to reduce nitrogen (N) fertilizer pollution strengthens the importance of improving the utilization efficiency of applied N to crops. This requires knowledge of crop N uptake characteristics and how fertilization management affects it. A three-year field experiment was conducted from May to September in central Spain to investigate the influence of different N rates, which ranged from 11 to 393 kg ha{sup -}1, applied through drip irrigation, on the dynamics of N uptake, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), fruit yield and quality of a Piel de sapo melon crop (Cucumis melo L. cv. Sancho). Both N concentration and N content increased in different plant parts with the N rate. Leaves had the highest N concentration, which declined by 40-50% from 34-41 days after transplanting (DAT), while the highest N uptake rate was observed from 30-35 to 70-80 DAT, coinciding with fruit development. In each year, NUE declined with increasing N rate. With N fertilizer applications close to the optimum N rate of 90-100 kg ha -1, the fruits removed approximately 60 kg N ha -1, and the amount of N in the crop residue was about 80 kg N ha -1; this serves to replenish the organic nutrient pool in the soil and may be used by subsequent crops following mineralization. (Author) 36 refs.

  3. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar V S Akella

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  4. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Sudhakar V S; Kirk, William D J; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F A; Hamilton, James G C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  5. Identification of innovative potential quality markers in rocket and melon fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Cocetta, Giacomo; Bulgari, Roberta; Spinardi, Anna; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Ready-to-eat fresh cut produce are exposed to pre- and postharvest abiotic stresses during the production chain. Our work aimed to identify stress responsive genes as new molecular markers of quality that can be widely applied to leaves and fruits and easily determined at any stage of the production chain. Stress responsive genes associated with quality losses were isolated in rocket and melon fresh-cut produce and their expression levels analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) at different time points after harvest at 20 °C and 4 °C. qRT-PCR results were supported by correlation analysis with physiological and biochemical determinations evaluated at the same conditions such as chlorophyll a fluorescence indices, total, reducing sugars, sucrose, ethylene, ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species. In both species the putative molecular markers increased their expression soon after harvest suggesting a possible use as novel and objective quality markers of fresh-cut produces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of hot water dip and gamma irradiation on postharvest fungal decay of Galia melons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkai-Golan, R.; Padova, R.; Ross, I.; Lapidot, M.; Copel, A.; Davidson, H.

    1993-01-01

    Dipping Galia melons in hot water at 52 deg C for 5 min or at 55 deg for 2 min resulted in 12-15% decay (caused by Alternaria alternata, Fusarium spp. and Trichothecium roseum) during prolonged storage (12 d at 6 deg plus 3 d at 18 deg ) compared with 75% decay in untreated fruit or 60% decay in cold-water-dipped fruit. Irradiation at 0.5 or 1 kGy had no significant effect on decay development. However, combination of heat treatment with a 0.5 kGy dose prevented fungal growth, resulting in 5% decay during storage. Combinations of heating with 1 kGy irradiation gave no improvement in anti-fungal effect over treatment with 0.5 kGy and sometimes resulted in a decreased suppressive effect. Reducing the duration of dipping at 55 deg from 2 to 0.5 min, applied alone or in combination with irradiation, considerably reduced the anti-fungal effect of the treatment. The effective combined treatment resulted in 12-15% of slight peel damage, but all the fruits were regarded as marketable. No differences in fruit firmness were recorded among the treatments

  7. [Outlier sample discriminating methods for building calibration model in melons quality detecting using NIR spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Qing; Wang, Chun-Guang; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jian-Kang

    2012-11-01

    Outlier samples strongly influence the precision of the calibration model in soluble solids content measurement of melons using NIR Spectra. According to the possible sources of outlier samples, three methods (predicted concentration residual test; Chauvenet test; leverage and studentized residual test) were used to discriminate these outliers respectively. Nine suspicious outliers were detected from calibration set which including 85 fruit samples. Considering the 9 suspicious outlier samples maybe contain some no-outlier samples, they were reclaimed to the model one by one to see whether they influence the model and prediction precision or not. In this way, 5 samples which were helpful to the model joined in calibration set again, and a new model was developed with the correlation coefficient (r) 0. 889 and root mean square errors for calibration (RMSEC) 0.6010 Brix. For 35 unknown samples, the root mean square errors prediction (RMSEP) was 0.854 degrees Brix. The performance of this model was more better than that developed with non outlier was eliminated from calibration set (r = 0.797, RMSEC= 0.849 degrees Brix, RMSEP = 1.19 degrees Brix), and more representative and stable with all 9 samples were eliminated from calibration set (r = 0.892, RMSEC = 0.605 degrees Brix, RMSEP = 0.862 degrees).

  8. Renormalizable group field theory beyond melonic diagrams: An example in rank four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozza, Sylvain; Lahoche, Vincent; Oriti, Daniele

    2017-09-01

    We prove the renormalizability of a gauge-invariant, four-dimensional group field theory (GFT) model on SU(2), whose defining interactions correspond to necklace bubbles (found also in the context of new large-N expansions of tensor models), rather than melonic ones, which are not renormalizable in this case. The respective scaling of different interactions in the vicinity of the Gaussian fixed point is determined by the renormalization group itself. This is possible because the appropriate notion of canonical dimension of the GFT coupling constants takes into account the detailed combinatorial structure of the individual interaction terms. This is one more instance of the peculiarity (and greater mathematical richness) of GFTs with respect to ordinary local quantum field theories. We also explore the renormalization group flow of the model at the nonperturbative level, using functional renormalization group methods, and identify a nontrivial fixed point in various truncations. This model is expected to have a similar structure of divergences as the GFT models of 4D quantum gravity, thus paving the way to more detailed investigations on them.

  9. Resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in Melon Accession TGR-1551.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona A; Gosalvez, Blanca; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, Maria Luisa; Aranda, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    The genetic control of resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) in the TGR-1551 melon accession was studied through agroinoculation of a genetic family obtained from the cross between this accession and the susceptible Spanish cultivar 'Bola de Oro'. Segregation analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that one dominant gene and at least two more modifier genes confer resistance; one of these additional genes is likely present in the susceptible parent 'Bola de Oro'. Local and systemic accumulation of the virus was analyzed in a time course experiment, showing that TGR-1551 resistance was expressed systemically as a significant reduction of virus accumulation compared with susceptible controls, but not locally in agroinoculated cotyledons. In aphid transmission experiments, CABYV inoculation by aphids was significantly reduced in TGR-1551 plants, although the virus was acquired at a similar rate from TGR-1551 as from susceptible plants. Results of feeding behavior studies using the DC electrical penetration graph technique suggested that viruliferous aphids can salivate and feed from the phloem of TGR-1551 plants and that the observed reduction in virus transmission efficiency is not related to reduced salivation by Aphis gossypii in phloem sieve elements. Since the virus is able to accumulate to normal levels in agroinoculated tissues, our results suggest that resistance of TGR-1551 plants to CABYV is related to impairment of virus movement or translocation after it reaches the phloem sieve elements.

  10. Fluorescence-based optimization of human bitter taste receptor expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Taishi; Ito, Keisuke; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Tokuda, Natsuko; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Misaka, Takumi; Nomura, Norimichi; Murata, Takeshi; Abe, Keiko; Iwata, So

    2009-01-01

    Human TAS2 receptors (hTAS2Rs) perceive bitter tastants, but few studies have explored the structure-function relationships of these receptors. In this paper, we report our trials on the large-scale preparations of hTAS2Rs for structural analysis. Twenty-five hTAS2Rs were expressed using a GFP-fusion yeast system in which the constructs and the culture conditions (e.g., the signal sequence, incubation time and temperature after induction) were optimized by measuring GFP fluorescence. After optimization, five hTAS2Rs (hTAS2R7, hTAS2R8, hTAS2R16, hTAS2R41, and hTAS2R48) were expressed at levels greater than 1 mg protein/L of culture, which is a preferable level for purification and crystallization. Among these five bitter taste receptors, hTAS2R41 exhibited the highest detergent solubilization efficiency of 87.1% in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM)/cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Fluorescence size-exclusion chromatography showed that hTAS2R41 exhibited monodispersity in DDM/CHS without aggregates, suggesting that hTAS2R41 is a good target for future crystallization trials.

  11. Dextromethorphan mediated bitter taste receptor activation in the pulmonary circuit causes vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D; Singh, Nisha; Sikarwar, Anurag S; Chakraborty, Raja; Pydi, Sai P; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Chelikani, Prashen

    2014-01-01

    Activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in human airway smooth muscle cells leads to muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This finding led to our hypothesis that T2Rs are expressed in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and might be involved in regulating the vascular tone. RT-PCR was performed to reveal the expression of T2Rs in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Of the 25 T2Rs, 21 were expressed in these cells. Functional characterization was done by calcium imaging after stimulating the cells with different bitter agonists. Increased calcium responses were observed with most of the agonists, the largest increase seen for dextromethorphan. Previously in site-directed mutational studies, we have characterized the response of T2R1 to dextromethorphan, therefore, T2R1 was selected for further analysis in this study. Knockdown with T2R1 specific shRNA decreased mRNA levels, protein levels and dextromethorphan-induced calcium responses in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells by up to 50%. To analyze if T2Rs are involved in regulating the pulmonary vascular tone, ex vivo studies using pulmonary arterial and airway rings were pursued. Myographic studies using porcine pulmonary arterial and airway rings showed that stimulation with dextromethorphan led to contraction of the pulmonary arterial and relaxation of the airway rings. This study shows that dextromethorphan, acting through T2R1, causes vasoconstrictor responses in the pulmonary circuit and relaxation in the airways.

  12. Dextromethorphan mediated bitter taste receptor activation in the pulmonary circuit causes vasoconstriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir D Upadhyaya

    Full Text Available Activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs in human airway smooth muscle cells leads to muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This finding led to our hypothesis that T2Rs are expressed in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and might be involved in regulating the vascular tone. RT-PCR was performed to reveal the expression of T2Rs in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Of the 25 T2Rs, 21 were expressed in these cells. Functional characterization was done by calcium imaging after stimulating the cells with different bitter agonists. Increased calcium responses were observed with most of the agonists, the largest increase seen for dextromethorphan. Previously in site-directed mutational studies, we have characterized the response of T2R1 to dextromethorphan, therefore, T2R1 was selected for further analysis in this study. Knockdown with T2R1 specific shRNA decreased mRNA levels, protein levels and dextromethorphan-induced calcium responses in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells by up to 50%. To analyze if T2Rs are involved in regulating the pulmonary vascular tone, ex vivo studies using pulmonary arterial and airway rings were pursued. Myographic studies using porcine pulmonary arterial and airway rings showed that stimulation with dextromethorphan led to contraction of the pulmonary arterial and relaxation of the airway rings. This study shows that dextromethorphan, acting through T2R1, causes vasoconstrictor responses in the pulmonary circuit and relaxation in the airways.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on bitter pit of apple fruits (Malus Domestica Borkh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2000-12-01

    Tow varieties of apple fruits Golden and Starking were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kGy and with 0, 1.0, 1.5 kGy respectively. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 centigrade and relative humidity of 80 to 90%. Fruit quality (firmness, skin thickness and bitter pit) and juice characteristics (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, organic acids, Ph, and viscosity), were determined during storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months). The used doses of gamma irradiation significantly decreased the percentage and intensity of bitter pit. Irradiated fruits were softer immediately after irradiation and through storage periods, there were no differences in firmness between irradiated and unirradiated fruits. Gamma irradiation increased the thickness of skin in Golden fruits and decreased it in Starking. Juice production from both varieties immediately after irradiation was not affected by gamma irradiation. However the juice produced from irradiated fruits had higher organic acids (citric and malic acids), viscosity and Ph values than the control. (author)

  14. Intensity of bitterness of processed yerba mate leaves originated in two contrasted light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rakocevic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness intensity of beverage prepared from the leaves produced on the males and females of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, grown in the forest understory and monoculture, was evaluated. The leaves were grouped by their position (in the crown and on the branch tips and by the leaf age. The leaf gas exchange, leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density were observed. Inter and intra-specific competition for light and self-shading showed the same effect on yerba mate beverage taste. All the shading types resulted in bitterer taste of the processed yerba mate leaves compared to the leaves originated under the direct sun exposure. The leaves from the plants grown in the monoculture showed less bitterness than those grown in the forest understory. This conclusion was completely opposite to the conventionally accepted paradigm of the yerba mate industries. The leaves from the tips (younger leaves of the plants grown in the monoculture resulted a beverage of softer taste; the males produced less bitter leaves in any light environment (forest understory or in the crown in monoculture. The taste was related to the photosynthetic and transpiration rate, and leaf temperature. Stronger bitterness of the leaves provided from the shade conditions was related to the decreased leaf temperature and transpiration in the diurnal scale.Mediu-se a intensidade de amargor da bebida preparada a partir de folhas da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis de diversas idades, situadas em duas posições na copa (interior e ponteiras, produzidas por plantas masculinas e femininas cultivadas na floresta antropizada e em monocultura. As trocas gasosas foliares, a temperatura de folhas e a densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos também foram medidas. Com isso verificou-se que a idéia corrente de que o sombreamento está diretamente relacionado ao sabor suave do chimarrão é completamente equivocada, já que as competições inter- e intra

  15. Pewarisan Karakter Fenotip Melon (Cucumis melo L. ‘Hikapel Aromatis’ Hasil Persilangan ♀ ‘Hikapel’ dengan ♂ ‘Hikadi Aromatik’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop cultivars with superior phenotypes of melon and high level of productivity. This research used the individual results of crossing between melon  ♀ ‘Hikapel' with ♂ 'Hikadi Aromatik'. The research included qualitative and quantitative phenotype characterization test. The research was conducted in Center of Agrotechnology Innovation University of Gadjah Mada (PIAT-UGM, Kalitirto, Berbah, Sleman, Yogyakarta and Laboratory of Genetics Faculty of Biology UGM on December 2016 until March 2017. Quantitative data analysis used ANOVA testing through PKBT-STAT 2.02 software with Random Complete Block Design (RCBD method at significance level of 1% and 5%. Melon 'Hikapel Aromatik' has several advantages including oval shape, without net, without lobes, crispy texture, skin-collored yellow RHS (6A, has a 7-14 brix, has volatile aromatic compound and transposon influenced. Based on the results of recapitulation of variance, the characters of 'Hikapel Aromatik' was not uniform.

  16. Relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide pathways participate in the anti-fibrotic effect of a melon concentrate in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carillon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, a model of human essential hypertension, oxidative stress is involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis associated with hypertension. Dietary supplementation with agents exhibiting antioxidant properties could have a beneficial effect in remodeling of the heart. We previously demonstrated a potent anti-hypertrophic effect of a specific melon (Cucumis melo L. concentrate with antioxidant properties in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP were reported to reduce collagen deposition and fibrosis progression in various experimental models. Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that, beside reduction in oxidative stress, the melon concentrate may act through relaxin, its receptor (relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1, RXFP1, and ANP in SHR. Design and results: The melon concentrate, given orally during 4 days, reduced cardiomyocyte size (by 25% and totally reversed cardiac collagen content (Sirius red staining in SHR but not in their normotensive controls. Treatment with the melon concentrate lowered cardiac nitrotyrosine-stained area (by 45% and increased by 17–19% the cardiac expression (Western blot of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, plasma relaxin concentration was normalized while cardiac relaxin (Western blot was lowered in treated SHR. Cardiac relaxin receptor level determined by immunohistochemical analysis increased only in treated SHR. Similarly, the melon concentrate reversed the reduction of plasma ANP concentration and lowered its cardiac expression. Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that reversal of cardiac fibrosis by the melon concentrate involves antioxidant defenses, as well as relaxin and ANP pathways restoration. It is suggested that dietary SOD supplementation could be a useful additional strategy against cardiac hypertrophy

  17. Bitter EJB

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce; Lee, Bob; Linskey, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Addressing the storming controversy of EJB head-on, this guide discusses framework problems and common traps that can snare unwary developers. Advice is provided for choosing persistence strategies beyond EJB entity beans and a list of several entity bean antipatterns. Also offered are session bean and messaging antipatterns and a compelling discussion about how and when to use problematic stateful session beans. Solutions to difficult problems such as effective builds and performance tuning are furnished. Designed for EJB developers, architects, programmers, and project managers, this authoritative reference attacks basic Java programming problems to establish antipatterns as a serious field for Java developers in a well-known context.

  18. Bitter Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Multimedia (Video, Images, and Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly newsletter with evidence-based information on ... require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader . NCCIH Publication No.: D390 Updated: September 2016 Print ...

  19. bitter leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIFE SCIENCE

    use of these creams may have deleterious (mutagenic) effect on the genetic material (DNA) of ... clair, Fair and white), using the modified Ames test (with and without ... revertant strains of the organism with at least three alterations in the ...

  20. Antid aq iabetic queous c activ s leaf e ity and extract d acute t of Ve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    its resolutions the support of national traditional medicine program, drawing attention ... Plants have always been an exemplary source of drugs and many of the ... leaves and stem have a bitter taste when chewed. Its leaves were ... Phytochemical tests on the extract ..... cells could have started a gradual regeneration, hence.

  1. Análise multivariada de atributos nutricionais associados ao "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Gala' Multivariate analysis of nutritional attributes associated with bitter pit in 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar atributos nutricionais, quantificados na polpa e na casca dos frutos, que melhor discriminam quanto à severidade de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Gala'. Depois de quatro meses de armazenamento em atmosfera normal (0-1°C; 90-95% UR, os frutos foram separados em quatro lotes, de acordo com a severidade de incidência de "bitter pit": nula (nenhuma lesão por fruto, baixa (1-2 lesões por fruto, moderada (3-4 lesões por fruto e alta (5-13 lesões por fruto. Foram determinados os teores de Ca, Mg, K e N na casca e na polpa em frutos individuais (doze frutos de cada lote. A análise univariada mostrou que os frutos com sintomas de "bitter pit" apresentaram menor teor de Ca na casca e na polpa, maior teor de K na casca e maiores valores das relações K/Ca, Mg/Ca, N/Ca, (K+Mg/Ca e (K+Mg+N/Ca, tanto na casca como na polpa. Todavia, quando todos os atributos nutricionais avaliados na casca e na polpa foram submetidos à análise canônica discriminante (análise multivariada, a melhor discriminação entre frutos sem "bitter pit" e frutos com severidade de incidência de "bitter pit" de baixa a alta é obtida com a relação K/Ca na casca, seguido, em menor grau, pelas relações Mg/Ca e N/Ca na polpa.The objective of this work was to identify nutritional attributes, assessed in the flesh and skin tissues, that provide a better discrimination regarding bitter pit severity in 'Gala' apples. After four months in regular cold storage (0-1°C; 90-95% RH, fruits were segregated into four lots with different levels of bitter pit severity: null (none pit per fruit, low (1-2 pits per fruit, moderate (3-4 pits per fruit, and high (5-13 pits per fruit. Nutritional analysis (Ca, Mg, K and N in the skin and in the flesh tissues were performed on twelve individual fruits of each severity level. The univariate analysis showed that fruits with bitter pit symptoms had lower concentration of Ca in the skin and flesh tissues, a

  2. Anatomical Description of the Female Reproductive Organ and Radiation Induced Histological changes of Ovary of Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roksana Huque and Sharmina Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Application of gamma radiation as a physical method of disinfestations against melon flies was recognized as a potential quarantine treatment. At 50 Gy, oocytes showed degeneration one day after treatment whereas seven-day-old oocytes did not differ greatly in appearance from control groups. Abnormal enlargement of trophocyte cells and vacuolization of oocytes occurred predominantly following the treatment with 100 and 150 Gy. One day after treatment with 150 Gy trophocytes underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Irradiation at 100 and 150 Gy reduced the fertility to almost zero percent in the female melon flies.(authors)

  3. Modelling sensorial and nutritional changes to better define quality and shelf life of fresh-cut melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Amodio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of fresh-cut produce is mostly determined by evaluating the external appearance since this is the major factor affecting consumer choice at the moment of purchase. The aim of this study was to investigate the degradation kinetics of the major quality attributes in order to better define the shelf life of fresh-cut melons. Melon pieces were stored for eight days in air at 5°C. Sensorial and physical attributes including colour, external appearance, aroma, translucency, firmness, and chemical constituents, such as soluble solids, fructose, vitamin C, and phenolic content, along with antioxidant activity were monitored. Attributes showing significant changes over time were used to test conventional kinetic models of zero and first order, and Weibullian models. The Weibullian model was the most accurate to describe changes in appearance score, translucency, aroma, firmness and vitamin C (with a regression coefficient always higher than 0.956, while the other parameters could not be predicted with such accuracy by any of the tested models. Vitamin C showed the lowest kinetic rate among the model parameters, even though at the limit of marketability (appearance score 3, estimated at five days, a loss of 37% of its initial content was observed compared to the fresh-cut product, indicating a much lower nutritional value. After five days, the aroma score was already 2.2, suggesting that this quality attribute, together with the vitamin C content, should be taken into account when assessing shelf life of fresh-cut melons. In addition, logistical models were used to fit the percentage of rejected samples on the basis of non-marketability and non-edibility (appearance score <3 and <2, respectively. For both parameters, correlations higher than 0.999 were found at P<0.0001; for each mean score this model helps to understand the distribution of the samples among marketable, nonmarketable, and non-edible products.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    The genome of a new bipartite begomovirus Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala (MCLCuV-GT) was cloned and the genome sequence was determined. The virus causes distinct symptoms on melons that were not previously observed in melon crops in Guatemala or elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of MCLCuV-GT and begomoviruses infecting cucurbits and other host plant species indicated that its closest relative was MCLCuV from Costa Rica (MCLCuV-CR). The DNA-A components of two isolates shared 88.8% nucleotide identity, making them strains of the same species. Further, both MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR grouped with other Western Hemisphere cucurbit-infecting species in the SLCV-clade making them the most southerly cucurbit-infecting members of the clade to date. Although the common region of the cognate components of MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR, shared similar to 96.3% nucleotide identity. While DNA-A and DNA-B components of MCLCuV-GT were less than 86% nucleotide identity with the respective DNAA and DNA-B common regions of MCLCuV-CR. The late viral genes of the two strains shared the least nt identity (<88%) while their early genes shared the highest nt identity (>90%). The collective evidence suggests that these two strains of MCLCuV are evolutionarily divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of Vacuum Impregnation with Calcium Lactate of Minimally Processed Melon and Shelf-Life Study in Real Storage Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappi, Silvia; Tylewicz, Urszula; Romani, Santina; Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Rocculi, Pietro

    2016-10-05

    Vacuum impregnation (VI) is a processing operation that permits the impregnation of fruit and vegetable porous tissues with a fast and more homogeneous penetration of active compounds compared to the classical diffusion processes. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact on VI treatment with the addition of calcium lactate on qualitative parameters of minimally processed melon during storage. For this aim, this work was divided in 2 parts. Initially, the optimization of process parameters was carried out in order to choose the optimal VI conditions for improving texture characteristics of minimally processed melon that were then used to impregnate melons for a shelf-life study in real storage conditions. On the basis of a 2 3 factorial design, the effect of Calcium lactate (CaLac) concentration between 0% and 5% and of minimum pressure (P) between 20 and 60 MPa were evaluated on color and texture. Processing parameters corresponding to 5% CaLac concentration and 60 MPa of minimum pressure were chosen for the storage study, during which the modifications of main qualitative parameters were evaluated. Despite of the high variability of the raw material, results showed that VI allowed a better maintenance of texture during storage. Nevertheless, other quality traits were negatively affected by the application of vacuum. Impregnated products showed a darker and more translucent appearance on the account of the alteration of the structural properties. Moreover microbial shelf-life was reduced to 4 d compared to the 7 obtained for control and dipped samples. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. A Vegetal Biopolymer-Based Biostimulant Promoted Root Growth in Melon While Triggering Brassinosteroids and Stress-Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Lucini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant biostimulants are receiving great interest for boosting root growth during the first phenological stages of vegetable crops. The present study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological, and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse melon treated with the biopolymer-based biostimulant Quik-link, containing lateral root promoting peptides, and lignosulphonates. The vegetal-based biopolymer was applied at five rates (0, 0.06, 0.12, 0.24, or 0.48 mL plant-1 as substrate drench. The application of biopolymer-based biostimulant at 0.12 and 0.24 mL plant-1 enhanced dry weight of melon leaves and total biomass by 30.5 and 27.7%, respectively, compared to biopolymer applications at 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated plants. The root dry biomass, total root length, and surface in biostimulant-treated plants were significantly higher at 0.24 mL plant-1 and to a lesser extent at 0.12 and 0.48 mL plant-1, in comparison to 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated melon plants. A convoluted biochemical response to the biostimulant treatment was highlighted through UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics, in which brassinosteroids and their interaction with other hormones appeared to play a pivotal role. Root metabolic profile was more markedly altered than leaves, following application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Brassinosteroids triggered in roots could have been involved in changes of root development observed after biostimulant application. These hormones, once transported to shoots, could have caused an hormonal imbalance. Indeed, the involvement of abscisic acid, cytokinins, and gibberellin related compounds was observed in leaves following root application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Nonetheless, the treatment triggered an accumulation of several metabolites involved in defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates, thus potentially improving resistance toward plant stresses.

  7. EFFECT OF A BITTER BOLUS ON ORAL, PHARYNGEAL AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT OF HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Tavares ALVES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. Objective To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Method Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea, and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m. Results There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. Conclusion A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus. Contexto Durante a deglutição o bolo estimula os receptores sensoriais da boca, faringe, laringe e esôfago. Os alimentos doces e sem gosto são mais aceitáveis para a deglutição do que os alimentos amargos, que tem gosto desagradável para a maioria dos indivíduos. A hipótese destes autores era que a ingestão de um bolo amargo pode alterar o trânsito oral

  8. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides.

  9. First report of Colletotrichum godetiae causing bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Lans, van der A.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 418,000 tons in 2011. Symptoms of apple bitter rot were observed on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands in July 2013 after 9 months of storage in a packing house at controlled atmosphere.

  10. 77 FR 21797 - Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Ventura, Kern, San Luis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-R-2011-N253: FXRS12650800000S3-112-FF08R00000] Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Ventura, Kern, San Luis... acres, primarily in Kern County and extending into San Luis Obispo and Ventura Counties. Blue Ridge NWR...

  11. The human taste receptor hTAS2R14 responds to a variety of different bitter compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Maik; Brockhoff, Anne; Kuhn, Christina; Bufe, Bernd; Winnig, Marcel; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The recent advances in the functional expression of TAS2Rs in heterologous systems resulted in the identification of bitter tastants that specifically activate receptors of this family. All bitter taste receptors reported to date exhibit a pronounced selectivity for single substances or structurally related bitter compounds. In the present study we demonstrate the expression of the hTAS2R14 gene by RT-PCR analyses and in situ hybridisation in human circumvallate papillae. By functional expression in HEK-293T cells we show that hTAS2R14 displays a, so far, unique broad tuning towards a variety of structurally diverse bitter compounds, including the potent neurotoxins, (-)-α-thujone, the pharmacologically active component of absinthe, and picrotoxinin, a poisonous substance of fishberries. The observed activation of heterologously expressed hTAS2R14 by low concentrations of (-)-α-thujone and picrotoxinin suggests that the receptor is sufficiently sensitive to caution us against the ingestion of toxic amounts of these substances

  12. Proteomic analysis of heat treated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. Hong Kong Green) using 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Zhi Xiang; Chua, Kek Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the proteome of bitter gourd prior to and after subjecting to boiling and microwaving. A comparative analysis of the proteome profiles of raw and thermally treated bitter gourds was performed using 2D-DIGE. The protein content and number of protein spots in raw sample was higher when compared to the cooked samples. Qualitative analysis revealed that 103 (boiled sample) and 110 (microwaved sample) protein spots were up regulated whereas 120 (boiled sample) and 107 (microwaved sample) protein spots were down regulated. Ten protein spots with the highest significant fold change in the cooked samples were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolisms and stress responses. Small heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglycerate kinase play a role in heat-stress-mediated protection of bitter gourd. This study suggests that appropriate heat treatment (cooking methods) can lead to induction of selected proteins in bitter gourd. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bitterness intensity prediction of berberine hydrochloride using an electronic tongue and a GA-BP neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruixin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Xiaojie; Li, Huiling; Shi, Junhan; Li, Xuelin

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the bitterness intensity of a drug using an electronic tongue (e-tongue). The model drug of berberine hydrochloride was used to establish a bitterness prediction model (BPM), based on the taste evaluation of bitterness intensity by a taste panel, the data provided by the e-tongue and a genetic algorithm-back-propagation neural network (GA-BP) modeling method. The modeling characteristics of the GA-BP were compared with those of multiple linear regression, partial least square regression and BP methods. The determination coefficient of the BPM was 0.99965±0.00004, the root mean square error of cross-validation was 0.1398±0.0488 and the correlation coefficient of the cross-validation between the true and predicted values was 0.9959±0.0027. The model is superior to the other three models based on these indicators. In conclusion, the model established in this study has a high fitting degree and may be used for the bitterness prediction modeling of berberine hydrochloride of different concentrations. The model also provides a reference for the generation of BPMs of other drugs. Additionally, the algorithm of the study is able to conduct a rapid and accurate quantitative analysis of the data provided by the e-tongue.

  14. Phytotoxicity of Alachlor, Bromacil and Diuron as single or mixed herbicides applied to wheat, melon, and molokhia

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nahhal, Yasser; Hamdona, Nisreen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity of herbicides applied singly or as mixtures to different crops under greenhouse conditions. Growth inhibition of the crops was taken as an indicator of phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity of mixtures was estimated by calculating EC50 value in toxic units. EC50 (mg/kg soil) of Alachlor, Bromacil and/or Diuron were: 11.37, 4.77, 1.64, respectively, on melon; 0.11, 0.08, 0.24, respectively, on molokhia, and 3.91, 3.08, 1.83, respectively, on wheat. EC50 values ...

  15. extraction and characterisation of citrullus colocynthis seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrullus colocynthis L.). The physical characteristics of the Guna melon were compared with Citrullus lanatus "Serewe" and Citrullus vulgaris "Bara" melon types. There were significant (P<0.01) differences in the physical characteristics between ...

  16. Investigating the effect of antioxidant extract from orange peel on lipids oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN*

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research involved investigation of the extraction yield and antioxidant property of orange peel on lipid oxidation. Orange peel was oven dried, grinded to powder and extraction procedure carried out using methanol as solvent in a soxhlet extractor. The effects of time and temperature on the extraction process were considered and results obtained showed an optimum extraction temperature and time of 50ºC and 120 minutes respectively. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the orange peel extract showed that potassium and calcium are the major elements by percentag mposition of 55.5 and 32.65 respectively. In studying the effects of oran eel extract on the melon oil sample, peroxide, free fatty acid and pH analysis were carried out for a period of 60 day. The result obtained confirmed the of ability orange peel extract as antioxidant agent.

  17. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  18. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Fraser

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open

  19. Immunocytochemical evidence for co-expression of Type III IP3 receptor with signaling components of bitter taste transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnamon Sue C

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli into electrical signals that lead to the sense of taste. An important second messenger in taste transduction is IP3, which is involved in both bitter and sweet transduction pathways. Several components of the bitter transduction pathway have been identified, including the T2R/TRB taste receptors, phospholipase C β2, and the G protein subunits α-gustducin, β3, and γ13. However, the identity of the IP3 receptor subtype in this pathway is not known. In the present study we used immunocytochemistry on rodent taste tissue to identify the IP3 receptors expressed in taste cells and to examine taste bud expression patterns for IP3R3. Results Antibodies against Type I, II, and III IP3 receptors were tested on sections of rat and mouse circumvallate papillae. Robust cytoplasmic labeling for the Type III IP3 receptor (IP3R3 was found in a large subset of taste cells in both species. In contrast, little or no immunoreactivity was seen with antibodies against the Type I or Type II IP3 receptors. To investigate the potential role of IP3R3 in bitter taste transduction, we used double-label immunocytochemistry to determine whether IP3R3 is expressed in the same subset of cells expressing other bitter signaling components. IP3R3 immunoreactive taste cells were also immunoreactive for PLCβ2 and γ13. Alpha-gustducin immunoreactivity was present in a subset of IP3R3, PLCβ2, and γ13 positive cells. Conclusions IP3R3 is the dominant form of the IP3 receptor expressed in taste cells and our data suggest it plays an important role in bitter taste transduction.

  20. Relationship between the Amount of Bitter Substances Adsorbed onto Lipid/Polymer Membrane and the Electric Response of Taste Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Toko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness of bitter substances can be measured by the change in the membrane electric potential caused by adsorption (CPA using a taste sensor (electronic tongue. In this study, we examined the relationship between the CPA value due to an acidic bitter substance and the amount of the bitter substance adsorbed onto lipid/polymer membranes, which contain different lipid contents, used in the taste sensor. We used iso-α-acid which is an acidic bitter substance found in several foods and beverages. The amount of adsorbed iso-α-acid, which was determined by spectroscopy, showed a maximum at the lipid concentration 0.1 wt % of the membrane, and the same phenomenon was observed for the CPA value. At the higher lipid concentration, however, the amount adsorbed decreased and then remained constant, while the CPA value decreased monotonically to zero. This constant adsorption amount was observed when the membrane potential in the reference solution did not change with increasing lipid concentration. The decrease in CPA value in spite of the constant adsorption amount is caused by a decrease in the sensitivity of the membrane as the surface charge density increases. The reason why the peaks appeared in both the CPA value and adsorption amount is based on the contradictory adsorption properties of iso-α-acid. The increasing charged lipid concentration of the membrane causes an increasing electrostatic attractive interaction between iso-α-acid and the membrane, but simultaneously causes a decreasing hydrophobic interaction that results in decreasing adsorption of iso-α-acid, which also has hydrophobic properties, onto the membrane. Estimates of the amount of adsorption suggest that iso-α-acid molecules are adsorbed onto both the surface and interior of the membrane.

  1. Solid Phase Micro-Extraction GC–MS Analysis of Natural Volatile Components in Melon and Rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, H.A.; Jonker, H.H.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The natural fragrance compounds produced by plants play key roles in the long-term fitness and survival of these plants as well as being of direct/indirect benefit to man. Almost all plant fragrances, either pleasant or unpleasant, comprise many different compounds, from different chemical classes

  2. Variability and genetic structure of the population of watermelon mosaic virus infecting melon in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, I.M.; Malpica, J.M.; Diaz-Pendon, J.A.; Moriones, E.; Fraile, A.; Garcia-Arenal, F.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic structure of the population of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in Spain was analysed by the biological and molecular characterisation of isolates sampled from its main host plant, melon. The population was a highly homogeneous one, built of a single pathotype, and comprising isolates closely related genetically. There was indication of temporal replacement of genotypes, but not of spatial structure of the population. Analyses of nucleotide sequences in three genomic regions, that is, in the cistrons for the P1, cylindrical inclusion (CI) and capsid (CP) proteins, showed lower similar values of nucleotide diversity for the P1 than for the CI or CP cistrons. The CI protein and the CP were under tighter evolutionary constraints than the P1 protein. Also, for the CI and CP cistrons, but not for the P1 cistron, two groups of sequences, defining two genetic strains, were apparent. Thus, different genomic regions of WMV show different evolutionary dynamics. Interestingly, for the CI and CP cistrons, sequences were clustered into two regions of the sequence space, defining the two strains above, and no intermediary sequences were identified. Recombinant isolates were found, accounting for at least 7% of the population. These recombinants presented two interesting features: (i) crossover points were detected between the analysed regions in the CI and CP cistrons, but not between those in the P1 and CI cistrons, (ii) crossover points were not observed within the analysed coding regions for the P1, CI or CP proteins. This indicates strong selection against isolates with recombinant proteins, even when originated from closely related strains. Hence, data indicate that genotypes of WMV, generated by mutation or recombination, outside of acceptable, discrete, regions in the evolutionary space, are eliminated from the virus population by negative selection

  3. Melão minimamente processado: um controle de qualidade Minimally processed melon: a quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves Damasceno

    2005-12-01

    distribution of agricultural products, through procedures like selection, cleaning, washing, peeling and cutting, which do not affect their organoleptic characteristics and add value to them. The process results in natural and practical products, which require less time for preparation and consumption to fulfill the demands of modern life. The purpose of minimally processed and cooled food is to provide a product that is similar to the fresh one to guarantee safety, maintaining the nutritive and sensory quality. The process has attracted attention to research mainly regarding microbiological, physicochemical and sensory alterations that influence the shelf life of these products. The target of the research was to evaluate the effect of commercialization temperature (15ºC on the quality of the Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. inodorus minimally processed. Fruits packed in trays and involved in plastic film were randomly acquired in a local supermarket. Treatments were: temperatures (4 and 15ºC, storage periods (5, 10, 15 and 1, 2 and 3 days at 4 and 15ºC, respectively and a control treatment of minimally processed melon on day zero. Samples were analyzed as far as their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics are concerned. The melon quality was significantly affected during refrigerated storage. At commercialization temperature (15ºC, the product is only valid for 24 hours. Storage at 4°C allows conservation up to 5 days and it is necessary to display the adequate time of storage and temperature on the label of the product.

  4. Identification of a bitter-taste receptor gene repertoire in different Lagomorphs species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The repertoires of bitter taste receptor (T2R gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, Lepus europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi and Sylvilagus floridanus, using Oryctolagus cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of Oryctolagus cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in Romerolagus diazi and Sylvilagus floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification.

  5. Design and experimental results of the 1-T Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W. J.; Romero-Talamás, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) technical prototype of the 10 T Adjustable Long Pulsed High-Field Apparatus. BETA's final design specifications are highlighted in this paper which include electromagnetic, thermal, and stress analyses. We discuss here the design and fabrication of BETA's core, vessel, cooling, and electrical subsystems. The electrical system of BETA is composed of a scalable solid-state DC breaker circuit. Experimental results display the stable operation of BETA at 1 T. These results are compared to both analytical design and finite element calculations. Experimental results validate analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory. The theoretical steady state maxima and the limits of BETA's design are explored in this paper.

  6. Effects of dehydration, packaging and irradiation on the microbial and sensory quality of bitter gourd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.S.; Zeb, A.; Alam, S.; Hashim, M.M.; Hashmi, M.S.; Riaz, A.

    2007-01-01

    The research was carried out in the Food Technology Section at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Peshawar, Pakistan during 2004-05 to study the effect of potassium metabisulphite, packaging and irradiation on the dehydrated bitter gourd. Samples were stored at ambient temperature for a period of three months and analyzed after 15 days of intervals for microbial (Total bacterial count, Total fungal count) and organoleptic (appearance, taste, after-taste, overall acceptability) characteristics. Mean score of taste panel for appearance, taste, after-taste and overall acceptability significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased, while microbial growth significantly (p less than 0.05) increased during storage. Results showed that sample (T5) i.e. (Blanched+0. I% potassium metabisulphite + Dehydrated + Irradiation (3kGy) + Packed) had negligible microbial growth, maintained maximum nutrients stability and best quality characteristics during storage

  7. A code for calculating force and temperature of a bitter plate type toroidal field coil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, U.

    1989-01-01

    To assist the design effort of the TF coils for CIT, a set of programs was developed to calculate the transient spatial distribution of the current density, the temperature and the forces in the TF coil conductor region. The TF coils are of the Bitter (disk) type design and therefore have negligible variation of current density in the toroidal direction. During the TF pulse, voltages are induced which cause the field and current to diffuse in the minor radial direction. This penetration, combined with the increase of resistance due to the temperature rise determines the distribution of the current. After the current distribution has been determined, the in-plane (TF-TF) and the out-of-plane (TF-PF) forces in the conductor are computed. The predicted currents and temperatures have been independently corroborated using the SPARK code which has been modified for this type of problem. 6 figs

  8. Analysis of a Lipid/Polymer Membrane for Bitterness Sensing with a Preconditioning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yatabe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to evaluate the taste of foods or medicines using a taste sensor. The taste sensor converts information on taste into an electrical signal using several lipid/polymer membranes. A lipid/polymer membrane for bitterness sensing can evaluate aftertaste after immersion in monosodium glutamate (MSG, which is called “preconditioning”. However, we have not yet analyzed the change in the surface structure of the membrane as a result of preconditioning. Thus, we analyzed the change in the surface by performing contact angle and surface zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS and gas cluster ion beam time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-TOF-SIMS. After preconditioning, the concentrations of MSG and tetradodecylammonium bromide (TDAB, contained in the lipid membrane were found to be higher in the surface region than in the bulk region. The effect of preconditioning was revealed by the above analysis methods.

  9. Dual functional extracellular recording using a light-addressable potentiometric sensor for bitter signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Wang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Luhang; Wu, Chunsheng; Wang, Ping

    2018-08-31

    This paper presents a dual functional extracellular recording biosensor based on a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The design and fabrication of this biosensor make it possible to record both extracellular membrane potential changes and ATP release from a single taste bud cell for the first time. For detecting ATP release, LAPS chip was functionalized with ATP-sensitive DNA aptamer by covalent immobilization. Taste bud cells isolated from rat were cultured on LAPS surface. When the desired single taste bud cell was illuminated by modulated light, ATP release from single taste bud cells can be measured by recording the shifts of bias voltage-photocurrent curves (I-V curves) when the LAPS chip is working in discrete mode. On the other hand, extracellular membrane potential changes can be monitored by recording the fluctuation of LAPS photocurrent when the LAPS chip is working in continuous mode. The results show this biosensor can effectively record the enhancive effect of the bitter substance and inhibitory effect of the carbenoxolone (CBX) on the extracellular membrane potential changes and ATP release of single taste bud cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of CBX also confirms LAPS extracellular recordings are originated from bitter signal transduction. It is proved this biosensor is suitable for extracellular recording of ATP release and membrane potential changes of single taste bud cells. It is suggested this biosensor could be applied to investigating taste signal transduction at the single-cell level as well as applied to other types of cells which have similar functions to taste bud cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ongoing ingestive behavior is rapidly suppressed by a preabsorptive, intestinal “bitter taste” cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Terry L.; Powley, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery that cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract express the same molecular receptors and intracellular signaling components known to be involved in taste has generated great interest in potential functions of such post-oral “taste” receptors in the control of food intake. To determine whether taste cues in the GI tract are detected and can directly influence behavior, the present study used a microbehavioral analysis of intake, in which rats drank from lickometers that were programmed to simultaneously deliver a brief yoked infusion of a taste stimulus to the intestines. Specifically, in daily 30-min sessions, thirsty rats with indwelling intraduodenal catheters were trained to drink hypotonic (0.12 M) sodium chloride (NaCl) and simultaneously self-infuse a 0.12 M NaCl solution. Once trained, in a subsequent series of intestinal taste probe trials, rats reduced licking during a 6-min infusion period, when a bitter stimulus denatonium benzoate (DB; 10 mM) was added to the NaCl vehicle for infusion, apparently conditioning a mild taste aversion. Presentation of the DB in isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) for intestinal infusions accelerated the development of the response across trials and strengthened the temporal resolution of the early licking suppression in response to the arrival of the DB in the intestine. In an experiment to evaluate whether CCK is involved as a paracrine signal in transducing the intestinal taste of DB, the CCK-1R antagonist devazepide partially blocked the response to intestinal DB. In contrast to their ability to detect and avoid the bitter taste in the intestine, rats did not modify their licking to saccharin intraduodenal probe infusions. The intestinal taste aversion paradigm developed here provides a sensitive and effective protocol for evaluating which tastants—and concentrations of tastants—in the lumen of the gut can control ingestion. PMID:21865540

  11. Ongoing ingestive behavior is rapidly suppressed by a preabsorptive, intestinal "bitter taste" cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Lindsey A; Davidson, Terry L; Powley, Terry L

    2011-11-01

    The discovery that cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract express the same molecular receptors and intracellular signaling components known to be involved in taste has generated great interest in potential functions of such post-oral "taste" receptors in the control of food intake. To determine whether taste cues in the GI tract are detected and can directly influence behavior, the present study used a microbehavioral analysis of intake, in which rats drank from lickometers that were programmed to simultaneously deliver a brief yoked infusion of a taste stimulus to the intestines. Specifically, in daily 30-min sessions, thirsty rats with indwelling intraduodenal catheters were trained to drink hypotonic (0.12 M) sodium chloride (NaCl) and simultaneously self-infuse a 0.12 M NaCl solution. Once trained, in a subsequent series of intestinal taste probe trials, rats reduced licking during a 6-min infusion period, when a bitter stimulus denatonium benzoate (DB; 10 mM) was added to the NaCl vehicle for infusion, apparently conditioning a mild taste aversion. Presentation of the DB in isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) for intestinal infusions accelerated the development of the response across trials and strengthened the temporal resolution of the early licking suppression in response to the arrival of the DB in the intestine. In an experiment to evaluate whether CCK is involved as a paracrine signal in transducing the intestinal taste of DB, the CCK-1R antagonist devazepide partially blocked the response to intestinal DB. In contrast to their ability to detect and avoid the bitter taste in the intestine, rats did not modify their licking to saccharin intraduodenal probe infusions. The intestinal taste aversion paradigm developed here provides a sensitive and effective protocol for evaluating which tastants-and concentrations of tastants-in the lumen of the gut can control ingestion.

  12. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  13. Optimization of the production of bio diesel from egusi melon (Colocynthis Citrullus L.) oil using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giwa, S.O.; Chuah, L.A.; Nor Mariah Adam

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM), based on a central composite design (CCD), was used to determine the optimum conditions for the transesterification of crude egusi melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) seed oil. Three process factors were evaluated at three levels (2 3 experimental design): the oil/ methanol molar ratio, the amount of catalyst in relation to the oil mass, and the reaction temperature. The amounts of catalyst and reaction temperature were the most significant (P 2 = 0.98). Using multiple regression analysis a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for predicting methyl ester yield of the transesterification reaction. The squared terms of catalyst amount (P < 0.0001) and oil/ methanol molar ratio (P < 0.0072) showed significant effects on esters yield. The optimum reaction conditions for synthesis of EMOME were 1:6.55 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 1.22 % catalyst amounts, and 65 degree Celsius reaction temperature resulting in a yield of 84.01 %. Using these optimal factor values under experimental conditions a methyl esters yield of 84.04 % was obtained on an average, and this value was well within the range predicted by the model. RSM was found to be a suitable technique for optimizing transesterification of egusi melon seed oil. Fuel properties of EMOME measured according to accepted methods were found to satisfy all prescribed ASTM (D 6751) and EN 14214 specifications. (author)

  14. Effect of Dipping and Vacuum Impregnation Coating Techniques with Alginate Based Coating on Physical Quality Parameters of Cantaloupe Melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Parreidt, Tugce; Schmid, Markus; Müller, Kajetan

    2018-04-01

    Edible coating based on sodium alginate solution was applied to fresh-cut cantaloupe melon by dipping and vacuum impregnation coating methods. One aim of this work is to produce more technical information concerning these conventional and novel coating processes. For this purpose, the effect of various coating parameters (dipping time, draining time, time length of the vacuum period, vacuum pressure, atmospheric restoration time) with several levels on physical quality parameters (percentage of weight gain, color, and texture) of noncoated and coated samples were determined in order to define adequate coating process parameters to achieve a successful coating application. Additionally, the effects of dipping and vacuum impregnation processes were compared. Both processes improved the firmness of the melon pieces. However, vacuum impregnation application had higher firmness and weight gain results, and had significant effect (P coating technique and the parameters used significantly affect the physical quality characteristics of coated food products. The work presented produced more technical information concerning dipping and vacuum impregnation coating techniques, along with evaluating the effects of various coating parameters with several levels. The results revealed that vacuum impregnation technique is a successful coating method; however the effects should be carefully assessed for each product. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Studies on the dispersal behavior of melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae coquilett (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the influence of gamma-irradiation on dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Ryoichi

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of released male adults of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, was not the same in three directions from the release point. This bias seemed to depend on the habitat selection of melon flies because these was a linear relationship between the number of released flies caught and that of wild flies caught. The mean dispersal distance ranged from 50 m to 90 m and there were no remarkable differences in the values among groups which were allowed to disperse for different periods. Flies released at one point reached a stable distribution pattern in two or three days after their release. Another group of flies released at a different point, where the environment was less favourable to melon flies, showed a wider range of dispersal. It was concluded that in planning the arrangement of release points for the sterile male technique, a preliminary survey is needed to determine whether habitats favorable to the insect, that is, areas of high population density, exist continuously or not. A preliminary test to assess the influence of γ-irradiation on dispersal showed that the dosage of 10000 R reduced the dispersing ability of male adults of the melon fly. (author)

  16. Functional method implementation of post-crop conservation of melon cantaloupe, using ionizing radiation as quality control technique in productive chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Alessandra A.Z. Cozzo de; Matraia, Clarice; Walder, Julio Marcos M.; Spoto, Marta H.F.; Silva, Paula P.M. da; Maretti, Marina S.

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian fruit culture is an alternative to minimize the lack-of-food problem using management and post harvest appropriate techniques. Gamma radiation technology is a possible technique used for food, enlarging its shelf-life, eliminating pathogenic microorganisms and in the quarantine treatment. The irradiation with seven doses (150,300,450,600,750 and 900 Gy) was used in Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melon var. Cantaloupensis) aiming to establish the minimum, maximum and ideal doses, according to Brazilian laws, analyzing weight, color, firmness, pulp and juice quantity and sensory aspects, using the Difference Control Test. The results indicate that storage influenced significantly the weight, color and pulp quantity parameters. Doses higher than 450 Gy however influenced the firmness, juice quantity and sensory aspects characteristics. These results are indicating that the minimum dose was 150 Gy, the maximum dose was 900 Gy and the ideal dose for the quarantine treatment and to increase shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon was 450 Gy. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that the ionizing radiation can increase the shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon using doses up to 450 Gy making it proper to exportation. (author)

  17. Development of a Novel, Sensitive, Selective, and Fast Methodology to Determine Malondialdehyde in Leaves of Melon Plants by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa E. Yonny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early production of melon plant (Cucumis melo is carried out using tunnels structures, where extreme temperatures lead to high reactive oxygen species production and, hence, oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA is a recognized biomarker of the advanced oxidative status in a biological system. Thus a reliable, sensitive, simple, selective, and rapid separative strategy based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-(+ESI-MS/MS was developed for the first time to measure MDA, without derivatization, in leaves of melon plants exposed to stress conditions. The detection and quantitation limits were 0.02 μg·L−1 and 0.08 μg·L−1, respectively, which was demonstrated to be better than the methodologies currently reported in the literature. The accuracy values were between 96% and 104%. The precision intraday and interday values were 2.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to monitoring of changes in MDA levels between control and exposed to thermal stress conditions melon leaves samples. Important preliminary conclusions were obtained. Besides, a comparison between MDA levels in melon leaves quantified by the proposed method and the traditional thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS approach was undertaken. The MDA determination by TBARS could lead to unrealistic conclusions regarding the oxidative stress status in plants.

  18. A newly developed real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Fusarium oxysporum and its use in compatible and incompatible interactions with grafted melon genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegi, Anita; Catalano, Valentina; Luongo, Laura; Vitale, Salvatore; Scotton, Michele; Ficcadenti, Nadia; Belisario, Alessandra

    2013-08-01

    A reliable and species-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for detection of the complex soilborne anamorphic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The new primer pair, designed on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene with an amplicon of 142 bp, was highly specific to F. oxysporum without cross reactions with other Fusarium spp. The protocol was applied to grafted melon plants for the detection and quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a devastating pathogen of this cucurbit. Grafting technologies are widely used in melon to confer resistance against new virulent races of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, while maintaining the properties of valuable commercial varieties. However, the effects on the vascular pathogen colonization have not been fully investigated. Analyses were performed on 'Charentais-T' (susceptible) and 'Nad-1' (resistant) melon cultivars, both used either as rootstock and scion, and inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 and race 1,2. Pathogen development was compared using qPCR and isolations from stem tissues. Early asymptomatic melon infections were detected with a quantification limit of 1 pg of fungal DNA. The qPCR protocol clearly showed that fungal development was highly affected by host-pathogen interaction (compatible or incompatible) and time (days postinoculation). The principal significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on fungal development was due to the melon genotype used as rootstock, and this effect had a significant interaction with time and F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race. In particular, the amount of race 1,2 DNA was significantly higher compared with that estimated for race 1 in the incompatible interaction at 18 days postinoculation. The two fungal races were always present in both the rootstock and scion of grafted plants in either the compatible or incompatible interaction.

  19. Respons of Erythrocytes, Hematocrit and Hemoglobin River Catfish (Mystus Nemurus) Combination Fed Guava Leaves (Psidium Guajava) and Bitter (Andrographis Paniculata Ness)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Mesi; Lukystiowati, Iesje; Syawal, Henni

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted from April-June 2013 in the Laboratory of Aquaculture and Fish Diseases and Parasites Laboratory Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences University of Riau. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of erythrocytes, hematocrit, and blood hemoglobin river catfish (Mystus nemurus) fed a combination of guava leaves and bitter infected with the bacterium A. hydrophila. This study used 5 treatments of: negative control (without any solution guava, bitter and...

  20. Aquatic ecosystem health and trophic status classification of the Bitter Lakes along the main connecting link between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Abdallah, Hala S; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Irshad, Rizwan; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Almalki, Esam S

    2018-02-01

    The Bitter Lakes are the most significant water bodies of the Suez Canal, comprising 85% of the water volume, but spreading over only 24% of the length of the canal. The present study aims at investigation of the trophic status of the Bitter Lakes employing various trophic state indices, biotic and abiotic parameters, thus reporting the health of the Lake ecosystem according to the internationally accepted classification criteria's. The composition and abundance of phytoplankton with a dominance of diatoms and a decreased population density of 4315-7376 ind. l -1 reflect the oligotrophic nature of this water body. The intense growth of diatoms in the Bitter Lakes depends on silicate availability, in addition to nitrate and phosphate. If the trophic state index (TSI) is applied to the lakes under study it records that the Bitter Lakes have an index under 40. Moreover, in the total chlorophyll- a measurements of 0.35-0.96 µg l -1 there are more indicative of little algal biomass and lower biological productivity. At 0.76-2.3 µg l -1 , meanwhile, the low quantity of Phosphorus is a further measure of low biological productivity. In the Bitter Lakes, TN/TP ratios are high and recorded 147.4, and 184.7 for minimum and maximum ratios, respectively. These values indicate that in Bitter lakes, the limiting nutrient is phosphorus and confirm the oligotrophic status of the Bitter Lakes. The latter conclusion is supported by Secchi disc water clarity measurements, showing that light can penetrate, and thus algae can photosynthesize, as deep as >13 m. This study, therefore, showed that the Bitter Lakes of the Suez Canal exhibit oligotrophic conditions with clear water, low productivity and with no algal blooming.