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Sample records for bitter gourd feeding

  1. Bitter Gourd: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd fruits are a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and have the highest nutritive value among cucurbits. Moreover, the crude protein content (11.4-20.9 g.kg-1) of bitter gourd fruits is higher than that of tomato and cucumber. This book chapter focuses on the ...

  2. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

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    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

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    Junjie Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia is widely cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal herb in many Asian and African countries. After the sequencing of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, and melon (Cucumis melo genomes, bitter gourd became the fourth cucurbit species whose whole genome was sequenced. However, a comprehensive analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs in bitter gourd, including a comparison with the three aforementioned cucurbit species has not yet been published. Here, we identified a total of 188,091 and 167,160 SSR motifs in the genomes of the bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘OHB3-1,’ respectively. Subsequently, the SSR content, motif lengths, and classified motif types were characterized for the bitter gourd genomes and compared among all the cucurbit genomes. Lastly, a large set of 138,727 unique in silico SSR primer pairs were designed for bitter gourd. Among these, 71 primers were selected, all of which successfully amplified SSRs from the two bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘K44’. To further examine the utilization of unique SSR primers, 21 SSR markers were used to genotype a collection of 211 bitter gourd lines from all over the world. A model-based clustering method and phylogenetic analysis indicated a clear separation among the geographic groups. The genomic SSR markers developed in this study have considerable potential value in advancing bitter gourd research.

  4. Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on glycoconjugate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Vijayalakshmi, B; Kumar, G Suresh; Salimath, P V

    2009-01-01

    Changes in glycoconjugate metabolism during the development of diabetic complications and their modulation by feeding bitter gourd and spent turmeric as fiber-rich source. This was studied by measuring the contents of total sugar, uronic acid, amino sugar, and sulfate in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Total sugar content decreased in liver, spleen, and brain, while an increase was observed in heart and lungs. Uronic acid content in liver, spleen, and brain decreased, and marginal increase was observed in testis. Amino sugar content decreased in liver, spleen, lungs and heart during diabetes, and augmentation was observed to different extents. Decrease in sulfation of glycoconjugates was observed in liver, spleen, lungs and heart during diabetes and was significantly ameliorated by bitter gourd and spent turmeric, except brain. Protein content decreased in liver, while an increase was observed in brain. The studies clearly showed alteration in glycoconjugate metabolism during diabetes and amelioration to different extents by feeding bitter gourd and spent turmeric. Improvement is due to slow release of glucose by fiber in the gastrointestinal track and short-chain fatty acid production from fiber by colon microbes.

  5. Cucurbit powdery mildew-resistant bitter gourd breeding lines reveal four races of Podosphaera xanthii in Asia

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    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a commercially and nutritionally important market vegetable in Asia cultivated mainly by smallholder farmers. Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii (Px) is a nearly ubiquitous and serious fungal disease of bitter gourd. Five bitter gourd...

  6. Increase in the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd by a heat-drying process.

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    Wei, Lu; Shaoyun, Wang; Shutao, Liu; Jianwu, Zhou; Lijing, Ke; Pingfan, Rao

    2013-12-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) is widely regarded as one of the best remedy foods for diabetes. The positive effect of bitter gourd on diabetes has been attributed in part to the remarkable free radical scavenging activity of its boiled water extract from sun-dried fruits. It is well known that a heat process significantly influences the antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. However, the heat drying processes of bitter gourd have not been studied so far. Here, we show that the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd extract significantly increases after the heat drying process, while the content of flavonoids and phenols, which are generally regarded as the main antioxidant components in bitter gourd, remain unaffected. Furthermore, the content of free amino acids and the total reducing sugar were found to decrease with increasing browning index, indicating the progression of the Maillard reaction, products of which are known to possess significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, it suggests that Maillard reaction products may be the main contributors to the increase in antioxidant capability. Finally, the bitter gourd extract with the higher antioxidant activity, was shown to manifest a corresponding higher proliferation activity on NIT-1 beta-cells. These results suggest that controllable conditions in the heat-drying processing of fresh bitter gourd fruit is of significance for enhancing the total free radical scavenging capacity, beta-cell proliferation activity and possibly the anti-diabetic activity of this fruit.

  7. Immediate effect of bitter gourd, ash gourd, Knol-khol juices on blood sugar levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study

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    G. Selvakumar

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: This study shows the significance of hypoglycemic effects of bitter gourd and Knol khol juices among the type 2 Diabetic patients. Hence Bitter gourd juice, Knol khol juices may be beneficial in Diabetes patients to reduce the blood glucose level.

  8. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

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    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in AVRDC collections of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is an important market vegetable in Asia, where it is also used in folk medicine to manage type 2 diabetes. Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a serious fungal disease of bitter gourd and yield losses of up to 50% have been reported. After observi...

  10. Morphological and Molecular Analysis Using RAPD in Biofield Treated Sponge and Bitter Gourd

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Gopal; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Branton, Alice; Gangwar, Mayank; Jana, Snehasis

    2015-01-01

    Plants are known to have sense and can respond to touch, electric and magnetic field. The present study was designed on the sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seeds with respect to biofield energy treatment. The seeds of each crop were divided into two groups, one was kept control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi' biofield energy treatment. The variabilities in growth contributing parameters were studied and compared with their control. T...

  11. First Report of Anthracnose on Bitter Gourd Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Korea

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    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose occurred in bitter gourd grown in Jeongup areas of Korea in 2011. Anthracnose of bitter gourd appeared as dark brown circular spots on naturally infected leaves and fruits. The symptoms of infected leaves and fruits were small brown to dark brown spots and gradually enlarged to larger cylindrical dark brown lesions. The causal fungus of anthracnose isolated from the diseased plants was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on the morphological and cultural characteristics and ITS rDNA sequence analysis. All isolates of C. gloeosporioides produced symptoms on the host leaves by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of anthracnose on bitter gourd caused by C. gloeosporioides in Korea.

  12. Draft genome sequence of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), a vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions.

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    Urasaki, Naoya; Takagi, Hiroki; Natsume, Satoshi; Uemura, Aiko; Taniai, Naoki; Miyagi, Norimichi; Fukushima, Mai; Suzuki, Shouta; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Sakamoto, Moriaki; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is an important vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions globally. In this study, the draft genome sequence of a monoecious bitter gourd inbred line, OHB3-1, was analyzed. Through Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly, scaffolds of 285.5 Mb in length were generated, corresponding to ∼84% of the estimated genome size of bitter gourd (339 Mb). In this draft genome sequence, 45,859 protein-coding gene loci were identified, and transposable elements accounted for 15.3% of the whole genome. According to synteny mapping and phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes, bitter gourd was more related to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) than to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) or melon (C. melo). Using RAD-seq analysis, 1507 marker loci were genotyped in an F2 progeny of two bitter gourd lines, resulting in an improved linkage map, comprising 11 linkage groups. By anchoring RAD tag markers, 255 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map. Comparative analysis of genome sequences and predicted genes determined that putative trypsin-inhibitor and ribosome-inactivating genes were distinctive in the bitter gourd genome. These genes could characterize the bitter gourd as a medicinal plant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  13. Effect of gamma rays on morphogenesis from different explants of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.D.; Rao, A.M.; Nirmala, N.; Mallaiah, B.

    1993-01-01

    Different doses of irradiation were used on seeds of bitter gourd to elucidate their effect of morphogenetic response. Lower doses like 2-4 kRs favoured in multiple shoots induction and higher doses proved as the lethal. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  14. Bitter gourd reduces elevated fasting plasma glucose levels in an intervention study among prediabetics in Tanzania.

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    Krawinkel, Michael B; Ludwig, Christine; Swai, Mark E; Yang, Ray-Yu; Chun, Kwok Pan; Habicht, Sandra D

    2018-04-24

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus have become major health issues even in non-industrialized countries. As access to clinical management is often poor, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. For bitter gourd, Momordica charantia L., antidiabetic properties have been claimed. The main objective of the intervention study was to assess antidiabetic effects of daily bitter gourd consumption of 2.5g powder over the course of eight weeks among prediabetic individuals. In a randomized placebo-controlled single blinded clinical trial, 52 individuals with prediabetes were studied after consuming a bitter gourd or a cucumber juice. For reducing the impact of between subject differences in the study population, a crossover design was chosen with eight weeks for each study period and four weeks washout in between. Fasting plasma glucose was chosen as the primary outcome variable. Comparing the different exposures, the CROS analysis (t=-2.23, p=0.031, r=0.326) revealed a significant difference in the change of FPG of 0.31mmol/L (5.6mg/dL) with a trend (R 2 =0,42387). The number of 44 finally complete data sets achieved a power of 0.82, with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d 0.62). The effect was also proven by a general linear mixed model (estimate 0.31; SE: 0.12; p: 0.01; 95%CI: 0.08; 0.54). Not all participants responded, but the higher the initial blood glucose levels were, the more pronounced the effect was. No serious adverse effects were observed. Bitter gourd supplementation appeared to have benefits in lowering elevated fasting plasma glucose in prediabetes. The findings should be replicated in other intervention studies to further investigate glucose lowering effects and the opportunity to use bitter gourd for dietary self-management, especially in places where access to professional medical care is not easily assured. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Auxin Efflux Carrier Differentially Expressed in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

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    Yi-Li Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin regulates various developmental programs in plants, including cell growth, cell division and cell differentiation. The auxin efflux carriers are essential for the auxin transport. To show an involvement of auxin transporters in the coordination of fruit development in bitter gourd, a juicy fruit, we isolated novel cDNAs (referred as McPIN encoding putative auxin efflux carriers, including McPIN1, McPIN2 (allele of McPIN1 and McPIN3, from developing fruits of bitter gourd. Both McPIN1 and McPIN3 genes possess six exons and five introns. Hydropathy analysis revealed that both polypeptides have two hydrophobic regions with five transmembrane segments and a predominantly hydrophilic core. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that McPIN1 shared the highest homology to the group of Arabidopsis, cucumber and tomato PIN1, while McPIN3 belonged to another group, including Arabidopsis and tomato PIN3 as well as PIN4. This suggests different roles for McPIN1 and McPIN3 in auxin transport involved in the fruit development of bitter gourd. Maximum mRNA levels for both genes were detected in staminate and pistillate flowers. McPIN1 is expressed in a particular period of early fruit development but McPIN3 continues to be expressed until the last stage of fruit ripening. Moreover, these two genes are auxin-inducible and qualified as early auxin-response genes. Their expression patterns suggest that these two auxin transporter genes play a pivotal role in fruit setting and development.

  16. Proteomic analysis of heat treated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. Hong Kong Green) using 2D-DIGE.

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    Ng, Zhi Xiang; Chua, Kek Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the proteome of bitter gourd prior to and after subjecting to boiling and microwaving. A comparative analysis of the proteome profiles of raw and thermally treated bitter gourds was performed using 2D-DIGE. The protein content and number of protein spots in raw sample was higher when compared to the cooked samples. Qualitative analysis revealed that 103 (boiled sample) and 110 (microwaved sample) protein spots were up regulated whereas 120 (boiled sample) and 107 (microwaved sample) protein spots were down regulated. Ten protein spots with the highest significant fold change in the cooked samples were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolisms and stress responses. Small heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglycerate kinase play a role in heat-stress-mediated protection of bitter gourd. This study suggests that appropriate heat treatment (cooking methods) can lead to induction of selected proteins in bitter gourd. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of dehydration, packaging and irradiation on the microbial and sensory quality of bitter gourd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.S.; Zeb, A.; Alam, S.; Hashim, M.M.; Hashmi, M.S.; Riaz, A.

    2007-01-01

    The research was carried out in the Food Technology Section at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Peshawar, Pakistan during 2004-05 to study the effect of potassium metabisulphite, packaging and irradiation on the dehydrated bitter gourd. Samples were stored at ambient temperature for a period of three months and analyzed after 15 days of intervals for microbial (Total bacterial count, Total fungal count) and organoleptic (appearance, taste, after-taste, overall acceptability) characteristics. Mean score of taste panel for appearance, taste, after-taste and overall acceptability significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased, while microbial growth significantly (p less than 0.05) increased during storage. Results showed that sample (T5) i.e. (Blanched+0. I% potassium metabisulphite + Dehydrated + Irradiation (3kGy) + Packed) had negligible microbial growth, maintained maximum nutrients stability and best quality characteristics during storage

  18. An Update Review on the Anthelmintic Activity of Bitter Gourd, Momordica charantia.

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    Poolperm, Sutthaya; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2017-01-01

    Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitales ), as known as bitter melon or gourd, is a daily consumption as food and traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and Indo-China. It has been shown to possess anticancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, charantin, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, tannins, and terpenoids. This plant is rich in various saponins including momordicin, momordin, momordicoside, karavilagenin, karaviloside, and kuguacin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic infections. Based on established literature on the anthelmintic activity of M. charantia and possible mode of action, this review article has attempted to compile M. charantia could be further explored for the development of potential anthelmintic drug.

  19. Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: A preliminary dietary supplementation trial

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    Tsai Chung-Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. is a common tropical vegetable that has been used in traditional or folk medicine to treat diabetes. Wild bitter gourd (WBG ameliorated metabolic syndrome (MetS in animal models. We aimed to preliminarily evaluate the effect of WBG supplementation on MetS in Taiwanese adults. Methods A preliminary open-label uncontrolled supplementation trial was conducted in eligible fulfilled the diagnosis of MetS from May 2008 to April 2009. A total of 42 eligible (21 men and 21 women with a mean age of 45.7 ± 11.4 years (23 to 63 years were supplemented with 4.8 gram lyophilized WBG powder in capsules daily for three months and were checked for MetS at enrollment and follow-up monthly. After supplementation was ceased, the participants were continually checked for MetS monthly over an additional three-month period. MetS incidence rate were analyzed using repeated-measures generalized linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results After adjusting for sex and age, the MetS incidence rate (standard error, p value decreased by 7.1% (3.7%, 0.920, 9.5% (4.3%, 0.451, 19.0% (5.7%, 0.021, 16.7% (5.4%, 0.047, 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229 and 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229 at visit 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 compared to that at baseline (visit 1, respectively. The decrease in incidence rate was highest at the end of the three-month supplementation period and it was significantly different from that at baseline (p = 0.021. The difference remained significant at end of the 4th month (one month after the cessation of supplementation (p = 0.047 but the effect diminished at the 5th and 6th months after baseline. The waist circumference also significantly decreased after the supplementation (p Conclusion This is the first report to show that WBG improved MetS in human which provides a firm base for further randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of WBG supplementation.

  20. Antifungal Potential of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against Myrothecium Leaf Spot of Bitter Gourd ( Momordica charantia L.

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    Muhammad Abid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bitter gourd is of great importance due to its usage against the treatment of numerous ailments in human beings. A comprehensive survey at four localities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan was carried out to determine the severity of Myrothecium leaf spot. Maximum disease severity was at C1 (Chak 11/NP and least at C2 (Kot Mehtab. Among isolated species Myrothecium roridum was found more prevalent and pathogenic as compared to M. verrucaria. Antifungal activity using solvent extracts of five medicinal plants (Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, Nicotiana tabacum, Moringa oleifera and Eucalyptus globosum were evaluated against isolated species by agar well diffusion method at various concentrations (0.01, 0.10, 1.0 and 10.0 µg / mL. N. tabacum revealed maximum zone size (13.40 mm and 8.28 mm with ethanol and chloroform solvents respectively followed by M. azedarach (9.00mm and 6.48mm. However, least inhibition was observed with ethanol and chloroform extracts of E. globosum (6.04mm and 3.88mm zone size respectively. Ethanol extracts showed highest activity when compared to chloroform extracts. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that all the selected plants are rich in chemical compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenols whereas Saponins was only present in N. tabacum while absent in rest of the extracts.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of a galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Thyageshwar; Sharma, Alok; Vijayan, M.

    2010-01-01

    A galactose-specific lectin purified from the seeds of bitter gourd (M. charantia) has been crystallized and preliminary X-ray study of the crystals has been carried out. A galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a four-chain type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) resulting from covalent association through a disulfide bridge between two identical copies of a two-chain unit. The available structural information on such four-chain RIPs is meagre. The bitter gourd lectin was therefore crystallized for structural investigation and the crystals have been characterized. It is anticipated that the structure of the orthorhombic crystals will be analysed using molecular replacement by taking advantage of its sequence, and presumably structural, homology to normal two-chain type II RIPs

  2. A RAD-Based Genetic Map for Anchoring Scaffold Sequences and Identifying QTLs in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia)

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    Cui, Junjie; Luo, Shaobo; Niu, Yu; Huang, Rukui; Wen, Qingfang; Su, Jianwen; Miao, Nansheng; He, Weiming; Dong, Zhensheng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Hu, Kailin

    2018-01-01

    Genetic mapping is a basic tool necessary for anchoring assembled scaffold sequences and for identifying QTLs controlling important traits. Though bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is both consumed and used as a medicinal, research on its genomics and genetic mapping is severely limited. Here, we report the construction of a restriction site associated DNA (RAD)-based genetic map for bitter gourd using an F2 mapping population comprising 423 individuals derived from two cultivated inbred lines, the gynoecious line ‘K44’ and the monoecious line ‘Dali-11.’ This map comprised 1,009 SNP markers and spanned a total genetic distance of 2,203.95 cM across the 11 linkage groups. It anchored a total of 113 assembled scaffolds that covered about 251.32 Mb (85.48%) of the 294.01 Mb assembled genome. In addition, three horticulturally important traits including sex expression, fruit epidermal structure, and immature fruit color were evaluated using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. As a result, we identified three QTL/gene loci responsible for these traits in three environments. The QTL/gene gy/fffn/ffn, controlling sex expression involved in gynoecy, first female flower node, and female flower number was detected in the reported region. Particularly, two QTLs/genes, Fwa/Wr and w, were found to be responsible for fruit epidermal structure and white immature fruit color, respectively. This RAD-based genetic map promotes the assembly of the bitter gourd genome and the identified genetic loci will accelerate the cloning of relevant genes in the future. PMID:29706980

  3. A RAD-Based Genetic Map for Anchoring Scaffold Sequences and Identifying QTLs in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

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    Junjie Cui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mapping is a basic tool necessary for anchoring assembled scaffold sequences and for identifying QTLs controlling important traits. Though bitter gourd (Momordica charantia is both consumed and used as a medicinal, research on its genomics and genetic mapping is severely limited. Here, we report the construction of a restriction site associated DNA (RAD-based genetic map for bitter gourd using an F2 mapping population comprising 423 individuals derived from two cultivated inbred lines, the gynoecious line ‘K44’ and the monoecious line ‘Dali-11.’ This map comprised 1,009 SNP markers and spanned a total genetic distance of 2,203.95 cM across the 11 linkage groups. It anchored a total of 113 assembled scaffolds that covered about 251.32 Mb (85.48% of the 294.01 Mb assembled genome. In addition, three horticulturally important traits including sex expression, fruit epidermal structure, and immature fruit color were evaluated using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. As a result, we identified three QTL/gene loci responsible for these traits in three environments. The QTL/gene gy/fffn/ffn, controlling sex expression involved in gynoecy, first female flower node, and female flower number was detected in the reported region. Particularly, two QTLs/genes, Fwa/Wr and w, were found to be responsible for fruit epidermal structure and white immature fruit color, respectively. This RAD-based genetic map promotes the assembly of the bitter gourd genome and the identified genetic loci will accelerate the cloning of relevant genes in the future.

  4. Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on constituents of glycosaminoglycans in different tissues in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

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    Kumar, G Suresh; Vijayalakshmi, B; Salimath, P V

    2006-06-01

    Diet is now one of the well established means in the management of diabetes. Bitter gourd and spent turmeric at 10% level were tested for their efficacy on glycosaminoglycan metabolism in various tissues viz., liver, spleen, lungs, heart and testis in control, diabetic and treated rats. The glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were isolated from defatted and dried tissues. The contents of sulfated GAGs decreased in all the tissues and the decrease was more prominent in heart and testis. In the isolated GAGs, contents of total sugar, amino sugar, uronic acid and sulfate were studied. Decrease in total sugar content was maximum in testis. Amino sugar content decreased considerably in testis (38%) and lungs (15%). The content of uronic acid also decreased in testis (33%) besides heart (29%) and liver (25%). Sulfate groups in GAGs perform pivotal functions in many biological events and decrease in sulfate content was significant in heart (40%), testis (37%) and liver (37%). GAGs profile on the cellulose acetate electrophoresis revealed that heparan sulfate (HS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) were present in liver, spleen and lungs. HS, CS were present in heart, DS/CS was observed in testis. The observed beneficial effects in GAGs metabolism during diabetes may be due to the presence of high amounts of dietary fibres present in bitter gourd and spent turmeric, besides, possible presence of bioactive compounds in one or both of them.

  5. Accumulation and distribution characteristics of biomass and nitrogen in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) under different fertilization strategies.

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    Zhang, Baige; Li, Mingzhu; Li, Qiang; Cao, Jian; Zhang, Changyuan; Zhang, Fusuo; Song, Zhao; Chen, Xinping

    2018-05-01

    The elemental uptake and allocation patterns of crops create insight for nutrient management. Two-year field experiments were conducted to determine the growth and nitrogen (N) uptake patterns of bitter gourd and to evaluate different N management strategies. Two N practices during the nursery stage, namely the conventional fertilizer method (Scon) and the controlled-release fertilizer management method (Scrf), combined with three N management strategies after transplanting, namely zero N fertilizer application (Nno), the conventional strategy (Ncon) and the systematic N management strategy (Nopt), were assessed. Averaged over two years, the Scrf-Nopt treatment performed best, producing 33.1 t ha -1 fruit yield with 310 kg N ha -1 , indicating that the yield was 22.6% greater by using 18.8% less fertilizer N than in the Scon-Ncon treatment. The Scrf-Nopt treatment facilitated plant growth by accumulating 20.0% more total dry weight and prioritized its allocation to productive organs (57.2%), while the Scon-Ncon strategy was biased toward leaves (56.3%) over fruits (43.8%). Nitrogen uptake and distribution closely followed the pattern of biomass. The Scrf-Nopt fertilization strategy coordinated the important role that N plays in total accumulation and well proportion of biomass and N in bitter gourd developmental processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, MCha-Pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves.

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    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Wei, Yunming; Li, Jing; Yang, Xingyong

    2015-03-01

    An antifungal protein, designated MCha-Pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex, an additional gel filtration on HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 30, and finally, HPLC on a SOURCE 5RPC column. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 25733.46Da. Automated Edman degradation was used to determine the N-terminal sequence of MCha-Pr, and the amino acid sequence was identified as V-E-Y-T-I-T-G-N-A-G-N-T-P-G-G. The MCha-Pr protein has some similarity to the pathogenesis-related proteins from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Analysis of the circular dichroism spectra indicated that MCha-Pr predominantly contains α-helix and β-sheet structures. MCha-Pr had inhibitory effects towards a variety of fungal species and the 50% inhibition of fungal growth (IC50) for Alternaria brassicae, Cercospora personata, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor sp., and Rhizoctonia solani are 33 μM, 42 μM, 37 μM, 40 μM, and 48 μM, respectively. In addition, this antifungal protein can inhibit the germination of A. brassicae spores at 12.5 μM. These results suggest that MCha-Pr in bitter gourd leaves plays a protective role against phytopathogens and has a wide antimicrobial spectrum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The responses of antioxidant system in bitter melon, sponge gourd, and winter squash under flooding and chilling stresses

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    Do, Tuong Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the responses of antioxidant system and physiological parameters of bitter melon (BM), sponge gourd (SG), and winter squash (WS) under waterlogged and low temperature conditions. The BM and SG plants were subjected to 0-72 h flooding treatments, and BM and WS plants were exposed to chilling at 12/7 °C (day/night) for 0-72 h. Different genotypes responded differently to environmental stress according to their various antioxidant system and physiological parameters. Increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities provided SG and WS plants with increased waterlogging and chilling stress tolerance, respectively, compared to BM plants. The APX gene from SG and the SOD gene from WS were then cloned, and the regulation of APX and SOD gene expressions under flooding and chilling stress, respectively, were also measured. Increased expression of APX and SOD genes was accompanied by the increased activity of the enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to those stresses. Both APX and SOD activities can be used for selecting BM lines with the best tolerances to water logging and chilling stresses.

  8. Value of Bitter Leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina ) Meal as Feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) leaf meal as feed ingredient on the performance, feed cost and carcass and organ weights of finisher broilers. The leaves were air dried under room temperature, ground and sieved through a 3 mm mesh to produce the meal.

  9. In vitro and in vivo α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities of the protein extracts from two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovitha, Sundar; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-07-18

    α-amylase and α-glucosidase digest the carbohydrates and increase the postprandial glucose level in diabetic patients. Inhibiting the activity of these two enzymes can control postprandial hyperglycemia, and reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Bitter gourd or balsam pear is one of the important medicinal plants used for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes patients. However, there is limited information available on the presence of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting compounds. In the current study, the protein extracts from the fruits of M. charantia var. charantia (MCC) and M. charantia var. muricata (MCM) were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities in vitro, and glucose lowering activity after oral administration in vivo. The protein extract from both MCC and MCM inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase through competitive inhibition, which was on par with Acarbose as indicated by in vitro percentage of inhibition (66 to 69 %) and IC50 (0.26 to 0.29 mg/ml). Both the protein extracts significantly reduced peak blood glucose and area under the curve in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, which were orally challenged with starch and sucrose. Protein extracts from the fruits of the two varieties of bitter gourd inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro and lowered the blood glucose level in vivo on par with Acarbose when orally administrated to Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Further studies on mechanism of action and methods of safe and biologically active delivery will help to develop an anti-diabetic oral protein drug from these plants.

  10. Development of novel simple sequence repeat markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through enriched genomic libraries and their utilization in analysis of genetic diversity and cross-species transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Swati; Singh, Archana; Archak, Sunil; Behera, Tushar K; John, Joseph K; Meshram, Sudhir U; Gaikwad, Ambika B

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are the preferred markers for genetic analyses of crop plants. The availability of a limited number of such markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) necessitates the development and characterization of more SSR markers. These were developed from genomic libraries enriched for three dinucleotide, five trinucleotide, and two tetranucleotide core repeat motifs. Employing the strategy of polymerase chain reaction-based screening, the number of clones to be sequenced was reduced by 81 % and 93.7 % of the sequenced clones contained in microsatellite repeats. Unique primer-pairs were designed for 160 microsatellite loci, and amplicons of expected length were obtained for 151 loci (94.4 %). Evaluation of diversity in 54 bitter gourd accessions at 51 loci indicated that 20 % of the loci were polymorphic with the polymorphic information content values ranging from 0.13 to 0.77. Fifteen Indian varieties were clearly distinguished indicative of the usefulness of the developed markers. Markers at 40 loci (78.4 %) were transferable to six species, viz. Momordica cymbalaria, Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera, Momordica balsamina, Momordica dioca, Momordica cochinchinesis, and Momordica sahyadrica. The microsatellite markers reported will be useful in various genetic and molecular genetic studies in bitter gourd, a cucurbit of immense nutritive, medicinal, and economic importance.

  11. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) as a rich source of bioactive components to combat cancer naturally: Are we on the right track to fully unlock its potential as inhibitor of deregulated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Khalid, Sumbul; Tahir, Fatima; Sabitaliyevich, Uteuliev Yerzhan; Yaylim, Ilhan; Attar, Rukset; Xu, Baojun

    2018-05-10

    Research over decades has progressively explored pharmacological actions of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). Biologically and pharmacologically active molecules isolated from M. charantia have shown significant anti-cancer activity in cancer cell lines and xenografted mice. In this review spotlight was set on the bioactive compounds isolated from M. charantia that effectively inhibited cancer development and progression via regulation of protein network in cancer cells. We summarize most recent high-quality research work in cancer cell lines and xenografted mice related to tumor suppressive role-play of M. charantia and its bioactive compounds. Although M. charantia mediated health promoting, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory effects have been extensively investigated, there is insufficient information related to regulation of signaling networks by bioactive molecules obtained from M. charantia in different cancers. M. charantia has been shown to modulate AKT/mTOR/p70S6K signaling, p38MAPK-MAPKAPK-2/HSP-27 pathway, cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-associated proteins in different cancers. However, still there are visible knowledge gaps related to the drug targets in different cancers because we have not yet developed comprehensive understanding of the M. charantia mediated regulation of signal transduction pathways. To explore these questions, experimental platforms are needed that can prove to be helpful in getting a step closer to personalized medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment.

  13. Stabilization of cucurbitacin E-glycoside, a feeding stimulant for diabroticite beetles, extracted from bitter Hawkesbury watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for diabroticite beetles, including corn rootworms and cucumber beetles, which can be added to a bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticide treatments needed to control these pests. One of them, cucurbitacin E- glycoside, is water soluble and easily processed from mutant bitter Hawkesbury watermelons (BHW that express elevated levels of cucurbitacin. Storage of BHW extract at room temperature resulted in a 92% reduction of cucurbitacin E-glycoside over two months, while refrigeration or freezing resulted in a 60% loss of the active ingredient during this time. The loss of the active ingredient was correlated with an increase in BHW extract pH from 5 to greater than 9. The increase in pH of the BHW extracts at room temperature appeared to be due to the growth of certain bacteria, especially Bacillus spp. In refrigerated extracts, the pH remained relatively constant, and bacterial growth was dominated by bacteria such as Lactobacilli. An alternative to refrigeration is concentration of BHW extract. One means of concentration is spray drying, but the high sugar content of the BHW extract (20mg/ml glucose, 40mg/ml fructose makes this technique impractical. Fermentation of the BHW extract by the yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, eliminated the sugars and did not raise the pH nor alter the cucurbitacin E-glycoside content of the extract. Elimination of the sugars by fermentation produced an extract that could be successfully spray dried. BHW extract fermented by S. boulardii produced a higher level of feeding stimulation for spotted cucumber beetles in laboratory choice tests. When applied to cucumbers, there was no difference in control of spotted and striped cucumber beetles between baits of fresh or fermented juices combined with the same insecticide.

  14. Stabilization of cucurbitacin E-glycoside, a feeding stimulant for diabroticite beetles, extracted from bitter Hawkesbury watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phyllis A.W.; Blackburn, Michael; Schroder, Robert F.W.; Matsuo, Koharto; Li, Betty W.

    2002-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for diabroticite beetles, including corn rootworms and cucumber beetles, which can be added to a bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticide treatments needed to control these pests. One of them, cucurbitacin E-glycoside, is water soluble and easily processed from mutant bitter Hawkesbury watermelons (BHW) that express elevated levels of cucurbitacin. Storage of BHW extract at room temperature resulted in a 92% reduction of cucurbitacin E-glycoside over two months, while refrigeration or freezing resulted in a 60% loss of the active ingredient during this time. The loss of the active ingredient was correlated with an increase in BHW extract pH from 5 to greater than 9. The increase in pH of the BHW extracts at room temperature appeared to be due to the growth of certain bacteria, especially Bacillus spp. In refrigerated extracts, the pH remained relatively constant, and bacterial growth was dominated by bacteria such as Lactobacilli. An alternative to refrigeration is concentration of BHW extract. One means of concentration is spray drying, but the high sugar content of the BHW extract (20mg/ml glucose, 40mg/ml fructose) makes this technique impractical. Fermentation of the BHW extract by the yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, eliminated the sugars and did not raise the pH nor alter the cucurbitacin E-glycoside content of the extract. Elimination of the sugars by fermentation produced an extract that could be successfully spray dried. BHW extract fermented by S. boulardii produced a higher level of feeding stimulation for spotted cucumber beetles in laboratory choice tests. When applied to cucumbers, there was no difference in control of spotted and striped cucumber beetles between baits of fresh or fermented juices combined with the same insecticide. PMID:15455053

  15. Ethanolic leaf extract of Langenaria breviflora (bitter gourd) inhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: Gastrointestinal toxicity remains a barrier to applications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ... acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin and indomethacin ..... Hepatic and Renal Function of Rats. IOSR.

  16. Teratogenic effect of the water extract of bitter gourd ( Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also showed that 31.2% of all the malformed litters had multiple congenital malformations. It also showed that the experimental rats had nine resorption sites while control had none. This demonstrates that the water extract of Momordica charantia is teratogenic in Sprague Dawley rats and should be used with caution in ...

  17. Allelopathic Stress Produced by Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with in vitro effects of allelochemicals present in leaf and fruit leachate of Momordica charantia in vitro on plant growth and metabolism of Lycopersicon esculentum. Momordica was selected as a donor plant and tomato as recipient. Seeds of tomato were shown in pots and after germination different concentrations viz. 25, 50, 75 and 100% of leaf and fruit leachates were applied as treatment. Twenty days old seedlings were harvested for biophysical and biochemical analyses. The root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of the seedlings decreased in dose dependent manner. The reduction in pigment and protein contents and nitrate reductase activity was concentration dependent. Membrane leakage increased as the concentration of leachates increased. Activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POX activities significantly enhanced under allelopathic stress. Inhibition of various metabolic activities under allelopathic stress resulted in decreased plant growth and development. The fruit leachate of Momordica was more inhibitory than leaf leachate.

  18. Economic feasibility of intercropping of chili with sweet gourd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Hossain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI, Ishurdi, Pabna during two consecutive years of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 to find out the suitable combination of intercropping of chili with sweet gourd for increasing the productivity and economic return. The treatments were T1=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 40% chili (50cm x 100cm + 100% recommended fertilizer (RF of chili, T2=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 40% chili (50cm x 100cm + 75% RF of chili, T3=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 40% chili (50cm x 100cm + 50% RF of chili, T4=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 100% RF of chili, T5=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 75% RF of chili, T6=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 50% RF of chili, T7=Sole sweet gourd, T8= Sole chili. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Fruit yield was calculated for sweet gourd and chili in ton per hectare considering the whole plot as harvested area. Results revealed that the yield of both sweet gourd and chili significantly affected by plant population and fertilizer dose in the intercropping systems. The highest equivalent yield of sweet gourd (21.21 t ha-1, land equivalent ratio (1.59, gross return (Tk. 318150.00 ha-1, gross margin (Tk. 237935.00 ha-1 and benefit cost ratio (3.97 were obtained from 100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 100% RF of chili (T4. Sole crop of chili (T8 gave the lowest equivalent yield of sweet gourd (7.38 t ha-1, gross return (Tk. 110700.00 ha-1, gross margin (Tk. 37455.00 ha-1 and benefit cost ratio (1.51. Therefore, sweet gourd (100% and chili (50% with recommended fertilizer (100% of chili might be economically profitable for chili with sweet gourd intercropping system.

  19. Chemical composition and some anti-nutrient content of raw and processed bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for use as feeding stuff in poultry diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J; Samei, A; Rahmani, H

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine chemical composition of raw and treated bitter vetch seed for use in poultry diets. Processing methods were: soaked in water for 12 h, then autoclaved and dried (SA); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSA); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange of water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSC); coarsely ground, soaked in solution of 1% acetic acid for 24 h at 60 degrees C and dried (GAA). Raw bitter vetch seed was contained 94.52, 26.56, 0.4, 58.86, 3.38, 5.32, 12.28 and 14.20 percent DM, CP, EE, NFE, Ash, CF, ADF and NDF, respectively. Its GE, AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn values were 18.10, 13.15, 14.38, 14.10 and 14.69 MJ/kg, respectively. Results indicated that bitter vetch is a good source of Fe (340 ppm) and Cu (46.7 ppm). It s amino acid profile was suitable and methionine was the first limiting amino acid when compared with broiler and layer chicks requirements. Its canavanine and tannin content were 0.78 and 6.7 mg/kgDM, respectively. Processing methods improved CP and in some cases AMEn. All processing methods especially GSC resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in canavanine and tannin.

  20. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not 'idle bystanders' but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is 'bitter melon' (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter melon

  1. Molecular Features Underlying Selectivity in Chicken Bitter Taste Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Di Pizio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickens sense the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptors (Gallus gallus taste 2 receptors, ggTas2rs, representing a minimal case of bitter perception. Some bitter compounds like quinine, diphenidol and chlorpheniramine, activate all three ggTas2rs, while others selectively activate one or two of the receptors. We focus on bitter compounds with different selectivity profiles toward the three receptors, to shed light on the molecular recognition complexity in bitter taste. Using homology modeling and induced-fit docking simulations, we investigated the binding modes of ggTas2r agonists. Interestingly, promiscuous compounds are predicted to establish polar interactions with position 6.51 and hydrophobic interactions with positions 3.32 and 5.42 in all ggTas2rs; whereas certain residues are responsible for receptor selectivity. Lys3.29 and Asn3.36 are suggested as ggTas2r1-specificity-conferring residues; Gln6.55 as ggTas2r2-specificity-conferring residue; Ser5.38 and Gln7.42 as ggTas2r7-specificity conferring residues. The selectivity profile of quinine analogs, quinidine, epiquinidine and ethylhydrocupreine, was then characterized by combining calcium-imaging experiments and in silico approaches. ggTas2r models were used to virtually screen BitterDB compounds. ~50% of compounds known to be bitter to human are likely to be bitter to chicken, with 25, 20, 37% predicted to be ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7 agonists, respectively. Predicted ggTas2rs agonists can be tested with in vitro and in vivo experiments, contributing to our understanding of bitter taste in chicken and, consequently, to the improvement of chicken feed.

  2. Mapping of the gynoecy in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia using RAD-seq analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Matsumura

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia is a monoecious plant of the Cucurbitaceae family that has both male and female unisexual flowers. Its unique gynoecious line, OHB61-5, is essential as a maternal parent in the production of F1 cultivars. To identify the DNA markers for this gynoecy, a RAD-seq (restriction-associated DNA tag sequencing analysis was employed to reveal genome-wide DNA polymorphisms and to genotype the F2 progeny from a cross between OHB61-5 and a monoecious line. Based on a RAD-seq analysis of F2 individuals, a linkage map was constructed using 552 co-dominant markers. In addition, after analyzing the pooled genomic DNA from monoecious or gynoecious F2 plants, several SNP loci that are genetically linked to gynoecy were identified. GTFL-1, the closest SNP locus to the putative gynoecious locus, was converted to a conventional DNA marker using invader assay technology, which is applicable to the marker-assisted selection of gynoecy in M. charantia breeding.

  3. Mapping of the Gynoecy in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia) Using RAD-Seq Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hideo; Miyagi, Norimichi; Taniai, Naoki; Fukushima, Mai; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Urasaki, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a monoecious plant of the Cucurbitaceae family that has both male and female unisexual flowers. Its unique gynoecious line, OHB61-5, is essential as a maternal parent in the production of F1 cultivars. To identify the DNA markers for this gynoecy, a RAD-seq (restriction-associated DNA tag sequencing) analysis was employed to reveal genome-wide DNA polymorphisms and to genotype the F2 progeny from a cross between OHB61-5 and a monoecious line. Based on a RAD-seq analysis of F2 individuals, a linkage map was constructed using 552 co-dominant markers. In addition, after analyzing the pooled genomic DNA from monoecious or gynoecious F2 plants, several SNP loci that are genetically linked to gynoecy were identified. GTFL-1, the closest SNP locus to the putative gynoecious locus, was converted to a conventional DNA marker using invader assay technology, which is applicable to the marker-assisted selection of gynoecy in M. charantia breeding. PMID:24498029

  4. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  5. Bitter (CW6)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available originating from the sea tend to build up the sand bar at the mouth of the Bitter, whilst the river would tend to breach it at times of flow, particularly in the winter months. Sea water probably only overtops the sandbar during exceptionally high tides...

  6. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C; Ullah, Abul H J

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i). PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+)-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+)-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m) and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3)VO(4), Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+)-independent enzyme in plants.

  7. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A; Ryan, Timothy M; Clarke, Andrew C; Smith, Bruce D; Perry, George H

    2015-12-08

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops' progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval.

  8. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Alvaro; Smith, Bruce D; Gifford, John A; Green, Richard E; Newsom, Lee A; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-02-25

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315-18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication.

  9. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Álvaro; Smith, Bruce D.; Gifford, John A.; Green, Richard E.; Newsom, Lee A.; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315–18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication. PMID:24516122

  10. Nutritional value OF Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 0.21%) and ash (5.80 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  11. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in sponge gourd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows-7

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... the Middle East and India, China, Japan and Malaysia. (Porterfield, 1955). Sponge gourd is native to Tropical. Asia, probably India and South East Asia. The tender fruit is used as vegetable which is easily digestible and increase appetite when consumed (Okusanya et al.,. 1981). Besides being a vegetable ...

  12. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, R. S. S.; Yadav, K. S.; Yadav, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K m values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydroge...

  13. Bitter or not? BitterPredict, a tool for predicting taste from chemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan-Wiener, Ayana; Nissim, Ido; Ben Abu, Natalie; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Bassoli, Angela; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-09-21

    Bitter taste is an innately aversive taste modality that is considered to protect animals from consuming toxic compounds. Yet, bitterness is not always noxious and some bitter compounds have beneficial effects on health. Hundreds of bitter compounds were reported (and are accessible via the BitterDB http://bitterdb.agri.huji.ac.il/dbbitter.php ), but numerous additional bitter molecules are still unknown. The dramatic chemical diversity of bitterants makes bitterness prediction a difficult task. Here we present a machine learning classifier, BitterPredict, which predicts whether a compound is bitter or not, based on its chemical structure. BitterDB was used as the positive set, and non-bitter molecules were gathered from literature to create the negative set. Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost), based on decision trees machine-learning algorithm was applied to molecules that were represented using physicochemical and ADME/Tox descriptors. BitterPredict correctly classifies over 80% of the compounds in the hold-out test set, and 70-90% of the compounds in three independent external sets and in sensory test validation, providing a quick and reliable tool for classifying large sets of compounds into bitter and non-bitter groups. BitterPredict suggests that about 40% of random molecules, and a large portion (66%) of clinical and experimental drugs, and of natural products (77%) are bitter.

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J-S; Kim, C K; Park, S H; Hirschi, K D; Mok, I- G

    2005-03-01

    We describe a procedure for producing transgenic bottle gourd plants by inoculating cotyledon explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 that carries the binary vector pCAMBIA3301 containing a glufosinate ammonium-resistance (bar) gene and the beta-D-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The most effective bacterial infection was observed when cotyledon explants of 4-day-old seedlings were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 6-8 days on co-cultivation medium supplemented with 0.1-0.001 mg/l L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine (AVG). The putatively transformed shoots directly emerged at the proximal end of cotyledon explants after 2-3 weeks of culturing on selection medium containing 2 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. These shoots were rooted after 3 weeks of culturing on half-strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l indole acetic acid and 1 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. Transgenic plants were obtained at frequencies of 1.9%. Stable integration and transmission of the transgenes in T1 generation plants were confirmed by a histochemical GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses. Genetic segregation analysis of T1 progenies showed that transgenes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in bottle gourd.

  15. Pop the Pills without Bitterness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structure of a taste bud. Keywords. Taste-masking, fluid bed coat- ing, microencapsulation, com- plexation, solid dispersion. Sweet sensations are most easily detected at the tip, whereas bitterness at the back of the tongue, but salty sensations are usually detected at the tip and the sides of the tongue. GENERAL I ARTICLE.

  16. Is the bitter rejection response always adaptive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, J I

    1994-12-01

    The bitter rejection response consists of a suite of withdrawal reflexes and negative affective responses. It is generally assumed to have evolved as a way to facilitate avoidance of foods that are poisonous because they usually taste bitter to humans. Using previously published studies, the present paper examines the relationship between bitterness and toxicity in mammals, and then assesses the ecological costs and benefits of the bitter rejection response in carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous (grazing and browsing) mammals. If the bitter rejection response accurately predicts the potential toxicity of foods, then one would expect the threshold for the response to be lower for highly toxic compounds than for nontoxic compounds. The data revealed no such relationship. Bitter taste thresholds varied independently of toxicity thresholds, indicating that the bitter rejection response is just as likely to be elicited by a harmless bitter food as it is by a harmful one. Thus, it is not necessarily in an animal's best interest to have an extremely high or low bitter threshold. Based on this observation, it was hypothesized that the adaptiveness of the bitter rejection response depends upon the relative occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in an animal's diet. Animals with a relatively high occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., browsing herbivores) were predicted to have evolved a high bitter taste threshold and tolerance to dietary poisons. Such an adaptation would be necessary because a browser cannot "afford" to reject all foods that are bitter and potentially toxic without unduly restricting its dietary options. At the other extreme, animals that rarely encounter bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., carnivores) were predicted to have evolved a low bitter threshold. Carnivores could "afford" to utilize such a stringent rejection mechanism because foods containing bitter and potentially

  17. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  18. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon and its medicinal potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baby Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia, commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  19. BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momordica charantia is a perennial plant with reported health benefits. BG-4, a novel peptide from Momordica charantia, was isolated, purified and characterized. The trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 is 8.6 times higher than purified soybean trypsin inhibitor. The high trypsin inhibitory activity ...

  20. BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Vermont P; Krishnan, Hari B

    2016-09-15

    Momordica charantia is a perennial plant with reported health benefits. BG-4, a novel peptide from Momordica charantia, was isolated, purified and characterized. The trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 is 8.6 times higher than purified soybean trypsin inhibitor. The high trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 may be responsible for its capability to cause cytotoxicity to HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells with ED50 values of 134.4 and 217.0 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, respectively. The mechanism involved in the cytotoxic effect may be associated with induction of apoptosis as evidenced by increased percentage of HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells undergoing apoptosis from 5.4% (untreated) to 24.8% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h) and 8.5% (untreated) to 31.9% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h), respectively. The molecular mechanistic explanation in the apoptosis inducing property of BG-4 is due to reduced expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax leading to increased expression of caspase-3 and affecting the expression of cell cycle proteins p21 and CDK2. This is the first report on the anti-cancer potential of a novel bioactive peptide isolated from Momordica charantia in vitro supporting the potential therapeutic property of BG-4 against colon cancer that must be addressed using in vivo models of colon carcinogenesis.

  1. Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Kitamura, Takayuki; Kang, Yi-Lan; Yu, Shou-Wen; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Chirality plays a significant role in the physical properties and biological functions of many biological materials, e.g., climbing tendrils and twisted leaves, which exhibit chiral growth. However, the mechanisms underlying the chiral growth of biological materials remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate how the Towel Gourd tendrils achieve their chiral growth. Our experiments reveal that the tendrils have a hierarchy of chirality, which transfers from the lower levels to the higher. The change in the helical angle of cellulose fibrils at the subcellular level induces an intrinsic torsion of tendrils, leading to the formation of the helical morphology of tendril filaments. A chirality transfer model is presented to elucidate the chiral growth of tendrils. This present study may help understand various chiral phenomena observed in biological materials. It also suggests that chirality transfer can be utilized in the development of hierarchically chiral materials having unique properties. PMID:24173107

  2. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R S S; Yadav, K S; Yadav, H S

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K(m) values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2 mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with K(i) value of 3.35 mM.

  3. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. S. Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The Km values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2 mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with Ki value of 3.35 mM.

  4. Seed Characteristics Diversity in Sponge Gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. Germplasms from Hatay Region in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazım MAVİ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate seed characteristics of sponge gourd, to establish a core collection of sponge gourd with the germplasm collected throughout the Hatay region. A mini-core collection was assessed for morphological performance and some seed traits. Substantial variations of seed characteristics: seed length, seed width, seed thickness (mm, seed index (length/width, seed size (length × width, mm2, seed colour, seed-coat surface, seed shape, seed wing, and 100-seed weight were investigated. Seed length, width and thickness were varied as 15.12-8.97 mm, 9.71-6.25 mm and 2.86-2.16 mm respectively. The seed sizes were determined from small (31 DÖ 06 to big (31 DE 04. Seed colours were ranged from black to white, even a brown colour like 07 MA 01. A hundred seed weights were observed as 16.43 g (31 AL 02 and 7.41 (31 DÖ 06. The results of dendrogram indicated that seed traits of the sponge gourd genotypes were separating in five groups. This collection of sponge gourds will be useful for the gene pools and a wide range of phenotypic variations to provide a good source of diversity for developing of sponge gourd cultivars in breeding programs.

  5. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  6. Bitter and sweet tasting molecules: It's complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, Yaron; Hayes, John E; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-04-19

    "Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25-member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs. Molecules humans describe as sweet are recognized by a TAS1R2/TAS1R3 heterodimer of class C GPCRs. Here we characterize the chemical space of bitter and sweet molecules: the majority of bitter compounds show higher hydrophobicity compared to sweet compounds, while sweet molecules have a wider range of sizes. Importantly, recent evidence indicates that TAS1Rs and TAS2Rs are not limited to the oral cavity; moreover, some bitterants are pharmacologically promiscuous, with the hERG potassium channel, cytochrome P450 enzymes, and carbonic anhydrases as common off-targets. Further focus on polypharmacology may unravel new physiological roles for tastant molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The number of taste buds is related to bitter taste sensitivity in layer and broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Jun-ichi; Nishimura, Shotaro; Bungo, Takashi; Tabata, Shoji

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between taste sensitivity and the number of taste buds using a bitter tastant, quinine hydrochloride, was investigated in White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, and broiler chickens. The White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red strains were able to perceive 2.0 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride, but the taste sensitivity of Rhode Island Red chickens was higher than that of White Leghorn chickens. Broiler chickens perceived 0.5 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride. The number of taste buds in the White Leghorn strain was the lowest, then the Rhode Island Red strain, with the number of taste buds highest in the broiler chickens. The number of taste buds was well correlated with bitter taste sensitivity. Therefore, we suggest that the number of taste buds is a vital factor in the perception of bitter taste and may be useful in selecting appropriate feeds for chickens.

  8. e-Bitter: Bitterant Prediction by the Consensus Voting From the Machine-Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Suqing; Jiang, Mengying; Zhao, Chengwei; Zhu, Rui; Hu, Zhicheng; Xu, Yong; Lin, Fu

    2018-01-01

    In-silico bitterant prediction received the considerable attention due to the expensive and laborious experimental-screening of the bitterant. In this work, we collect the fully experimental dataset containing 707 bitterants and 592 non-bitterants, which is distinct from the fully or partially hypothetical non-bitterant dataset used in the previous works. Based on this experimental dataset, we harness the consensus votes from the multiple machine-learning methods (e.g., deep learning etc.) combined with the molecular fingerprint to build the bitter/bitterless classification models with five-fold cross-validation, which are further inspected by the Y-randomization test and applicability domain analysis. One of the best consensus models affords the accuracy, precision, specificity, sensitivity, F1-score, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.929, 0.918, 0.898, 0.954, 0.936, and 0.856 respectively on our test set. For the automatic prediction of bitterant, a graphic program "e-Bitter" is developed for the convenience of users via the simple mouse click. To our best knowledge, it is for the first time to adopt the consensus model for the bitterant prediction and develop the first free stand-alone software for the experimental food scientist.

  9. Differential bitterness in capsaicin, piperine, and ethanol associates with polymorphisms in multiple bitter taste receptor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, Alissa A; McGeary, John E; Hayes, John E

    2016-03-15

    To date, the majority of research exploring associations with genetic variability in bitter taste receptors has understandably focused on compounds and foods that are predominantly or solely perceived as bitter. However, other chemosensory stimuli are also known to elicit bitterness as a secondary sensation. Here we investigated whether TAS2R variation explains individual differences in bitterness elicited by chemesthetic stimuli, including capsaicin, piperine and ethanol. We confirmed that capsaicin, piperine and ethanol elicit bitterness in addition to burning/stinging sensations. Variability in perceived bitterness of capsaicin and ethanol were significantly associated with TAS2R38 and TAS2R3/4/5 diplotypes. For TAS2R38, PAV homozygotes perceived greater bitterness from capsaicin and ethanol presented on circumvallate papillae, compared to heterozygotes and AVI homozygotes. For TAS2R3/4/5, CCCAGT homozygotes rated the greatest bitterness, compared to heterozygotes and TTGGAG homozygotes, for both ethanol and capsaicin when presented on circumvallate papillae. Additional work is needed to determine how these and other chemesthetic stimuli differ in bitterness perception across concentrations and presentation methods. Furthermore, it would be beneficial to determine which TAS2R receptors are activated in vitro by chemesthetic compounds. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effect of heat on loofah gourd seeds chemical composition and fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dehulled loofah gourd seeds (DLGS), Luffah cylindrica was divided into three parts namely; raw (DLGSR), boiled for 5 min at 100 oC (DLGSB) and cooked for 30 min (DGLSC). Proximate composition, amino acids, amino acid scores and energy were determined in DLGSR, DLGSB and DLGSC and fatty acids constituents ...

  11. Bitterness prediction in-silico: A step towards better drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Malkeet Singh; Nissim, Ido; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-02-05

    Bitter taste is innately aversive and thought to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter taste receptors (Tas2Rs) are G-protein coupled receptors, expressed both orally and extra-orally and proposed as novel targets for several indications, including asthma. Many clinical drugs elicit bitter taste, suggesting the possibility of drugs re-purposing. On the other hand, the bitter taste of medicine presents a major compliance problem for pediatric drugs. Thus, efficient tools for predicting, measuring and masking bitterness of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are required by the pharmaceutical industry. Here we highlight the BitterDB database of bitter compounds and survey the main computational approaches to prediction of bitter taste based on compound's chemical structure. Current in silico bitterness prediction methods provide encouraging results, can be constantly improved using growing experimental data, and present a reliable and efficient addition to the APIs development toolbox. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. e-Bitter: Bitterant Prediction by the Consensus Voting From the Machine-Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suqing Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In-silico bitterant prediction received the considerable attention due to the expensive and laborious experimental-screening of the bitterant. In this work, we collect the fully experimental dataset containing 707 bitterants and 592 non-bitterants, which is distinct from the fully or partially hypothetical non-bitterant dataset used in the previous works. Based on this experimental dataset, we harness the consensus votes from the multiple machine-learning methods (e.g., deep learning etc. combined with the molecular fingerprint to build the bitter/bitterless classification models with five-fold cross-validation, which are further inspected by the Y-randomization test and applicability domain analysis. One of the best consensus models affords the accuracy, precision, specificity, sensitivity, F1-score, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC of 0.929, 0.918, 0.898, 0.954, 0.936, and 0.856 respectively on our test set. For the automatic prediction of bitterant, a graphic program “e-Bitter” is developed for the convenience of users via the simple mouse click. To our best knowledge, it is for the first time to adopt the consensus model for the bitterant prediction and develop the first free stand-alone software for the experimental food scientist.

  13. e-Bitter: Bitterant Prediction by the Consensus Voting From the Machine-learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Suqing; Jiang, Mengying; Zhao, Chengwei; Zhu, Rui; Hu, Zhicheng; Xu, Yong; Lin, Fu

    2018-03-01

    In-silico bitterant prediction received the considerable attention due to the expensive and laborious experimental-screening of the bitterant. In this work, we collect the fully experimental dataset containing 707 bitterants and 592 non-bitterants, which is distinct from the fully or partially hypothetical non-bitterant dataset used in the previous works. Based on this experimental dataset, we harness the consensus votes from the multiple machine-learning methods (e.g., deep learning etc.) combined with the molecular fingerprint to build the bitter/bitterless classification models with five-fold cross-validation, which are further inspected by the Y-randomization test and applicability domain analysis. One of the best consensus models affords the accuracy, precision, specificity, sensitivity, F1-score, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.929, 0.918, 0.898, 0.954, 0.936, and 0.856 respectively on our test set. For the automatic prediction of bitterant, a graphic program “e-Bitter” is developed for the convenience of users via the simple mouse click. To our best knowledge, it is for the first time to adopt the consensus model for the bitterant prediction and develop the first free stand-alone software for the experimental food scientist.

  14. The neuronal and molecular basis of quinine-dependent bitter taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Mazija, Lorena; Wüst, Alexander; Thum, Andreas S.

    2014-01-01

    The sensation of bitter substances can alert an animal that a specific type of food is harmful and should not be consumed. However, not all bitter compounds are equally toxic and some may even be beneficial in certain contexts. Thus, taste systems in general may have a broader range of functions than just in alerting the animal. In this study we investigate bitter sensing and processing in Drosophila larvae using quinine, a substance perceived by humans as bitter. We show that behavioral choice, feeding, survival, and associative olfactory learning are all directly affected by quinine. On the cellular level, we show that 12 gustatory sensory receptor neurons that express both GR66a and GR33a are required for quinine-dependent choice and feeding behavior. Interestingly, these neurons are not necessary for quinine-dependent survival or associative learning. On the molecular receptor gene level, the GR33a receptor, but not GR66a, is required for quinine-dependent choice behavior. A screen for gustatory sensory receptor neurons that trigger quinine-dependent choice behavior revealed that a single GR97a receptor gene expressing neuron located in the peripheral terminal sense organ is partially necessary and sufficient. For the first time, we show that the elementary chemosensory system of the Drosophila larva can serve as a simple model to understand the neuronal basis of taste information processing on the single cell level with respect to different behavioral outputs. PMID:24478653

  15. Bitterness in Almonds1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Olsen, Carl Erik; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-01-01

    Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis) is determined by the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. The ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin in the almond kernel was studied throughout the growth season using four different genotypes for bitterness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed a specific developmentally dependent accumulation of prunasin in the tegument of the bitter genotype. The prunasin level decreased concomitant with the initiation of amygdalin accumulation in the cotyledons of the bitter genotype. By administration of radiolabeled phenylalanine, the tegument was identified as a specific site of synthesis of prunasin in all four genotypes. A major difference between sweet and bitter genotypes was observed upon staining of thin sections of teguments and cotyledons for β-glucosidase activity using Fast Blue BB salt. In the sweet genotype, the inner epidermis in the tegument facing the nucellus was rich in cytoplasmic and vacuolar localized β-glucosidase activity, whereas in the bitter cultivar, the β-glucosidase activity in this cell layer was low. These combined data show that in the bitter genotype, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, amygdalin formation is prevented because the prunasin is degraded upon passage of the β-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the tegument. The prunasin turnover may offer a buffer supply of ammonia, aspartic acid, and asparagine enabling the plants to balance the supply of nitrogen to the developing cotyledons. PMID:18192442

  16. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome, and development of SSR markers in wax gourd (Benicasa hispida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wax gourd is a widely used vegetable of Cucuribtaceae, and also has important medicinal and health values. However, the genomic resources of wax gourd were scarcity, and only a few nucleotide sequences could be obtained in public databases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we examined transcriptome in wax gourd. More than 44 million of high quality reads were generated from five different tissues of wax gourd using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 4 Gbp data were generated, and de novo assembled into 65,059 unigenes, with an N50 of 1,132 bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known protein database, 36,070 (55.4% showed significant similarity to known proteins in Nr database, and 24,969 (38.4% had BLAST hits in Swiss-Prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,994 of wax gourd unigenes were assigned to GO term annotation, and 23,977 were found to have COG classifications. In addition, a total of 18,713 unigenes were assigned to 281 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, 6,242 microsatellites (simple sequence repeats were detected as potential molecular markers in wax gourd. Two hundred primer pairs for SSRs were designed for validation of the amplification and polymorphism. The result showed that 170 of the 200 primer pairs were successfully amplified and 49 (28.8% of them exhibited polymorphisms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study enriches the genomic resources of wax gourd and provides powerful information for future studies. The availability of this ample amount of information about the transcriptome and SSRs in wax gourd could serve as valuable basis for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, molecular genetics and molecular breeding of this important vegetable crop.

  17. Research progress of the bitter taste receptor genes in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Luo, Rui-Jian

    2018-02-20

    Among the five basic tastes (umami, sweet, bitter, salty and sour), the perception of bitterness is believed to protect animals from digesting toxic and harmful substances, thus it is vital for animal survival. The taste of bitterness is triggered by the interaction between bitter substances and bitter taste receptors, which are encoded by Tas2rs. The gene numbers vary largely across species to meet different demands. So far, several ligands of bitter receptors have been identified in primates. They also discovered that the selective pressure of certain bitter taste receptor genes vary across taxa, genes or even different functional regions of the gene. In this review, we summarize the research progress of bitter taste receptor genes in primates by introducing the functional diversity of bitter receptors, the specific interaction between bitter taste receptors and ligands, the relationship between the evolutionary pattern of bitter taste receptors and diets, and the adaptive evolution of bitter taste receptor genes. We aim to provide a reference for further research on bitter receptor genes in primates.

  18. Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola ( Bitter kola ) in southwest Nigeria: opportunity ... The study evaluates the different marketing of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) starting from the point of ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tocci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

  20. Bitter taste stimuli induce differential neural codes in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wilson

    Full Text Available A growing literature suggests taste stimuli commonly classified as "bitter" induce heterogeneous neural and perceptual responses. Here, the central processing of bitter stimuli was studied in mice with genetically controlled bitter taste profiles. Using these mice removed genetic heterogeneity as a factor influencing gustatory neural codes for bitter stimuli. Electrophysiological activity (spikes was recorded from single neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius during oral delivery of taste solutions (26 total, including concentration series of the bitter tastants quinine, denatonium benzoate, cycloheximide, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA, presented to the whole mouth for 5 s. Seventy-nine neurons were sampled; in many cases multiple cells (2 to 5 were recorded from a mouse. Results showed bitter stimuli induced variable gustatory activity. For example, although some neurons responded robustly to quinine and cycloheximide, others displayed concentration-dependent activity (p<0.05 to quinine but not cycloheximide. Differential activity to bitter stimuli was observed across multiple neurons recorded from one animal in several mice. Across all cells, quinine and denatonium induced correlated spatial responses that differed (p<0.05 from those to cycloheximide and SOA. Modeling spatiotemporal neural ensemble activity revealed responses to quinine/denatonium and cycloheximide/SOA diverged during only an early, at least 1 s wide period of the taste response. Our findings highlight how temporal features of sensory processing contribute differences among bitter taste codes and build on data suggesting heterogeneity among "bitter" stimuli, data that challenge a strict monoguesia model for the bitter quality.

  1. The bitter pill: clinical drugs that activate the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Anat; Nowak, Stefanie; Peters, Maximilian; Wiener, Ayana; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik; Niv, Masha Y

    2014-03-01

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) mediate aversive response to toxic food, which is often bitter. These G-protein-coupled receptors are also expressed in extraoral tissues, and emerge as novel targets for therapeutic indications such as asthma and infection. Our goal was to identify ligands of the broadly tuned TAS2R14 among clinical drugs. Molecular properties of known human bitter taste receptor TAS2R14 agonists were incorporated into pharmacophore- and shape-based models and used to computationally predict additional ligands. Predictions were tested by calcium imaging of TAS2R14-transfected HEK293 cells. In vitro testing of the virtual screening predictions resulted in 30-80% success rates, and 15 clinical drugs were found to activate the TAS2R14. hERG potassium channel, which is predominantly expressed in the heart, emerged as a common off-target of bitter drugs. Despite immense chemical diversity of known TAS2R14 ligands, novel ligands and previously unknown polypharmacology of drugs were unraveled by in vitro screening of computational predictions. This enables rational repurposing of traditional and standard drugs for bitter taste signaling modulation for therapeutic indications.

  2. Development of Insertion and Deletion Markers for Bottle Gourd Based on Restriction Site-associated DNA Sequencing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi WU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd is an important cucurbit crop worldwide. To provide more available molecular markers for this crop, a bioinformatic approach was employed to develop insertion–deletions (InDels markers in bottle gourd based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq data. A total of 892 Indels were predicted, with the length varying from 1 bp to 167 bp. Single-nucleotide InDels were the predominant types of InDels. To validate these InDels, PCR primers were designed from 162 loci where InDels longer than 2 bp were predicated. A total of 112 InDels were found to be polymorphic among 9 bottle gourd accessions under investigation. The rate of prediction accuracy was thus at a high level of 72.7%. DNA fingerprinting for 4 cultivars were performed using 8 selected Indels markers, demonstrating the usefulness of these markers.

  3. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinchan Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism.

  4. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. McMullen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L. increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L. and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L. increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  5. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Towell, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L.) increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L.) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L.) increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  6. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However......Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between......, the liking of the least sweet apple + berry juice was significantly higher, and the optimal preferred sugar content was significantly lower in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. With regards to self-report, pregnant women who reported higher sensitivity in sweet or bitter taste did not have...

  7. Bitterness values for traditional tonic plants of southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, D K; van Wyk, B-E

    2013-06-03

    Bitterness values have been determined for southern African plant species that are traditionally used as tonics (imbizas or 'musa-pelo) to alleviate the symptoms of stress and a variety of ailments related to the digestive system. To measure and present, for the first time, the bitterness values of 15 of the best-known and most widely used tonic plants in southern Africa in order to find a rationale for their traditional use in improving appetite and treating digestive ailments. Most of the plants were found to be very bitter, with bitterness values comparable to those reported for internationally well-known bitter tonics such as Artemisia absynthium L. and Gentiana lutea L. The relatively high bitterness values obtained for all of the plants indicate that their alleged value in improving digestion and appetite may at least be partly ascribed to the bitter tonic (amarum) effect, i.e., the stimulation of gastric juices via the nervus vagus. It may be interesting to examine the chemical compounds responsible for the bitter taste, as well as the possible links between bitterness and the anecdotal anti-stress properties ascribed to these species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. BitterSweetForest: A random forest based binary classifier to predict bitterness and sweetness of chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Preissner, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Taste of a chemical compounds present in food stimulates us to take in nutrients and avoid poisons. However, the perception of taste greatly depends on the genetic as well as evolutionary perspectives. The aim of this work was the development and validation of a machine learning model based on molecular fingerprints to discriminate between sweet and bitter taste of molecules. BitterSweetForest is the first open access model based on KNIME workflow that provides platform for prediction of bitter and sweet taste of chemical compounds using molecular fingerprints and Random Forest based classifier. The constructed model yielded an accuracy of 95% and an AUC of 0.98 in cross-validation. In independent test set, BitterSweetForest achieved an accuracy of 96 % and an AUC of 0.98 for bitter and sweet taste prediction. The constructed model was further applied to predict the bitter and sweet taste of natural compounds, approved drugs as well as on an acute toxicity compound data set. BitterSweetForest suggests 70% of the natural product space, as bitter and 10 % of the natural product space as sweet with confidence score of 0.60 and above. 77 % of the approved drug set was predicted as bitter and 2% as sweet with a confidence scores of 0.75 and above. Similarly, 75% of the total compounds from acute oral toxicity class were predicted only as bitter with a minimum confidence score of 0.75, revealing toxic compounds are mostly bitter. Furthermore, we applied a Bayesian based feature analysis method to discriminate the most occurring chemical features between sweet and bitter compounds from the feature space of a circular fingerprint.

  9. Cardanol-based thermoset plastic reinforced by sponge gourd fibers (Luffa cylindrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leandro da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A growing global trend for maximum use of natural resources through new processes and products has enhanced studies and exploration of renewable natural materials. In this study, cardanol, a component of the cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, was used as a building block for the development of a thermosetting matrix, which was reinforced by raw and modified sponge gourd fibers (Luffa cylindrica. DSC and TG results showed that among biocomposites, the one reinforced by sponge gourd fibers treated with NaOH 10 wt% (BF10 had the highest thermal stability, besides the best performance in the Tensile testing, showing good incorporation, dispersion, and adhesion to polymer matrix, observed by SEM. After 80 days of simulated soil experiments, it has been discovered that the presence of treated fiber allowed better biodegradability behavior to biocomposites. The biobased thermoset plastic and biocomposites showed a good potential to several applications, such as manufacturing of articles for furniture and automotive industries, especially BF10.

  10. Transferability of Cucurbita SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment of Turkish bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characte...

  11. First Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya ringspot virus-W Isolated from a Gourd in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhtar

    2017-01-12

    In the United States, the Papaya ringspot virus was first reported from papaya in Florida in 1949. Here, we determined the first complete genome sequence (10,302 nucleotides) of a Papaya ringspot virus-W isolate, which was collected from a commercial field of gourd in Tulsa, OK. Copyright © 2017 Ali.

  12. A preliminary report on the genetic variation in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S; Biswas, A; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Ghosh, P D

    2014-06-01

    Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is an economically important cucurbit and is extensively propagated through vegetative means, viz vine and root cuttings. As the accessions are poorly characterized it is important at the beginning of a breeding programme to discriminate among available genotypes to establish the level of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of 10 pointed gourd races, referred to as accessions was evaluated. DNA profiling was generated using 10 sequence independent RAPD markers. A total of 58 scorable loci were observed out of which 18 (31.03%) loci were considered polymorphic. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, Shannon's index, percent polymorphism, Nei's gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC)] for RAPD along with UPGMA clustering based on Jaccard's coefficient were estimated. The UPGMA dendogram constructed based on RAPD analysis in 10 pointed gourd accessions were found to be grouped in a single cluster and may represent members of one heterotic group. RAPD analysis showed promise as an effective tool in estimating genetic polymorphism in different accessions of pointed gourd.

  13. Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce. Copnall, James 2017. London, Hurst Publishers, 317 pp. ISBN 978-184804-830-9. Reviewed by Nicodemus Minde*. Having served as the BBC Sudan correspondent from 2009 to 2012, James. Copnall has compiled an insightful account of the bitter-sweet split of the.

  14. variability in condensed tannins and bitterness in spider plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) contributes considerably to the nutrition and medicines of communities in southern Africa. However, its utilisation is limited by its bitterness caused by condensed tannins. Unfortunately, processing options that reduce the bitterness also remove nutritionally and medicinally useful ...

  15. Bitterness of saponins and their content in dry peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.; Vincken, J.P.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Legger, A.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Roozen, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The bitterness of a saponin mixture (containing saponin B and DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin in a ratio of 1:4) and saponin B obtained from dry peas were established by a trained panel using line scaling. Both saponins were found to be bitter. However, the saponin

  16. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): a review of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Ethan; Gabardi, Steven; Ulbricht, Catherine

    2003-02-15

    The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, drug interactions, and place in therapy of bitter melon are described. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is an alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Components of bitter melon extract appear to have structural similarities to animal insulin. Antiviral and antineoplastic activities have also been reported in vitro. Four clinical trials found bitter melon juice, fruit, and dried powder to have a moderate hypoglycemic effect. These studies were small and were not randomized or double-blind, however. Reported adverse effects of bitter melon include hypoglycemic coma and convulsions in children, reduced fertility in mice, a favism-like syndrome, increases in gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in animals, and headaches. Bitter melon may have additive effects when taken with other glucose-lowering agents. Adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to properly assess safety and efficacy before bitter melon can be routinely recommended. Bitter melon may have hypoglycemic effects, but data are not sufficient to recommend its use in the absence of careful supervision and monitoring.

  17. Drought tolerance of selected bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] landraces assessed by leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashilo, Jacob; Odindo, Alfred O; Shimelis, Hussein A; Musenge, Pearl; Tesfay, Samson Z; Magwaza, Lembe S

    2017-11-01

    Successful cultivation of bottle gourd in arid and semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa and globally requires the identification of drought tolerant parents for developing superior genotypes with increased drought resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the level of drought tolerance among genetically diverse South African bottle gourd landraces based on leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic efficiency and identify promising genotypes for breeding. The responses of 12 bottle gourd landraces grown in glasshouse under non-stressed (NS) and drought-stressed (DS) conditions were studied. A significant genotype x water regime interaction was observed for gs, T, A, A/C i , IWUE, WUE ins , F m ', F v '/F m ', Ф PSII , qP, qN, ETR, ETR/A and AES indicating variability in response among the studied bottle gourd landraces under NS and DS conditions. Principal component analysis identified three principal components (PC's) under drought stress condition contributing to 82.9% of total variation among leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters measured. PC1 explained 36% of total variation contributed by gs, T, F 0 ', F m ', F v '/F m ' and qN, while PC2 explained 28% of the variation and highly correlated with A, A/C i , IWUE, WUE ins ETR/A and AES. PC3 explained 14% of total variation contributed by Ф PSII , qP and ETR. Principal biplot analysis allowed the identification of drought tolerant genotypes such as BG-27, BG-48, BG-58, BG-79, BG-70 and BG-78 which were grouped based on high gs, A, F m 'F v '/F m ', qN, ETR/A and AES under DS condition. The study suggests that the identified physiological traits could be useful indicators in the selection of bottle gourd genotypes for increased drought tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Arrázola

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype (sweet, slightly bitter or bitter and the genotype (homozygous: sweet or bitter or heterozygous: sweet or slightly bitter with an easy analytical test. Results showed that there was a clear difference in the amount of amygdalin between bitter and non-bitter cultivars. However, the content of amygdalin did not differentiate the other genotypes, since similar amounts of amygdalin can be found in the two different genotypes with the same phenotype

  19. Feed preference of grower ostriches consuming diets differing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed costs contribute the largest proportion of the input costs of slaughter birds in an intensive ostrich production unit. Alternative, cheaper feedstuffs, such as lupins (sweet and bitter cultivars), were therefore evaluated to determine the optimal lupin inclusion level in ostrich rations without affecting feed preference and ...

  20. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2013-11-15

    Bitterness in whole wheat bread can negatively influence product acceptability and consumption. The overall goal of this project was to identify the main bitter compounds in a commercial whole wheat bread product. Sensory-guided fractionation of the crust (most bitter portion of the bread sample) utilising liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, ultra-filtration and 2-D offline RPLC revealed multiple bitter compounds existed. The compounds with the highest bitterness intensities were selected and structurally elucidated based on accurate mass-TOF, MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Eight bitter compounds were identified: Acortatarins A, Acortatarins C, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural(HMF), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one (DDMP), N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)-l-tryptophan (ARP), Tryptophol (TRO), 2-(2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)butanoic acid (PBA) and Tryptophan (TRP). Based on the structures of these compounds, two main mechanisms of bitterness generation in wheat bread were supported, fermentation and Maillard pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter

  2. NMR Phase Noise in Bitter Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, E. E.; Calder, E. S.; Thomas, G. W.; Mitrović, V. F.; Bachman, H. N.; Halperin, W. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Reyes, A. P.

    2001-02-01

    We have studied the temporal instability of a high field resistive Bitter magnet through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This instability leads to transverse spin decoherence in repeated and accumulated NMR experiments as is normally performed during signal averaging. We demonstrate this effect via Hahn echo and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation experiments in a 23-T resistive magnet. Quantitative analysis was found to be consistent with separate measurements of the magnetic field frequency fluctuation spectrum, as well as with independent NMR experiments performed in a magnetic field with a controlled instability. Finally, the CPMG sequence with short pulse delays is shown to be successful in recovering the intrinsic spin-spin relaxation even in the presence of magnetic field temporal instability.

  3. Efficiency of bitter kola marketing in Abia State, Nigeria | Iheke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency of bitter kola marketing in Abia State, Nigeria. ... The goal of marketing of agricultural products is to ensure that consumers get satisfaction from the entire process of production, as well as ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  4. Detection of bitterness-Suppression using a taste sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiyama, Satoru; Ezaki, Shu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    We tried to detect the suppression of bitterness with a taste sensor. Quinine hydrochloride, which has a positive charge usually cause large potential change of negatively, charged membranes of the sensor. The potential change was decreased by sour substances such as acetic acid. The decrease of the potential change of response implies a decrease in the intensity of bitterness. Contrary to this, response of the sensor to sodium picrate, which has a negative charge, was diminished by sodium salts of organic acids. As the hydrophobicity of organic acids increased, the suppression of bitterness also increased. The present study is expected to provide a new quantitative technique to measure the strength of bitterness of foods and drugs in place of sensory evaluation. (author)

  5. Promiscuity and selectivity of bitter molecules and their receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Niv, Masha Y

    2015-07-15

    Bitter taste is essential for survival, as it protects against consuming poisonous compounds, which are often bitter. Bitter taste perception is mediated by bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs), a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of TAS2R subtypes is species-dependent, and varies from 3 in chicken to 50 in frog. TAS2Rs present an intriguing case for studying promiscuity: some of the receptors are still orphan, or have few known agonists, while others can be activated by numerous, structurally dissimilar compounds. The ligands also vary in the repertoire of TAS2Rs that they activate: some bitter compounds are selective toward a single TAS2R, while others activate multiple TAS2Rs. Selectivity/promiscuity profile of bitter taste receptors and their compounds was explored by a chemoinformatic approach. TAS2R-promiscuous and TAS2R-selective bitter molecules were found to differ in chemical features, such as AlogP, E-state, total charge, number of rings, globularity, and heavy atom count. This allowed the prediction of bitter ligand selectivity toward TAS2Rs. Interestingly, while promiscuous TAS2Rs are activated by both TAS2R-promiscuous and TAS2R-selective compounds, almost all selective TAS2Rs in human are activated by promiscuous compounds, which are recognized by other TAS2Rs anyway. Thus, unique ligands, that may have been the evolutionary driving force for development of selective TAS2Rs, still need to be unraveled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimized aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon for production of a saponin-enriched bitter melon powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sing P; Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Parks, Sophie E; Roach, Paul D

    2014-07-01

    Bitter melon, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), aqueous extracts are proposed to have health-promoting properties due to their content of saponins and their antioxidant activity. However, the optimal conditions for the aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon and the effects of spray drying have not been established. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the aqueous extraction of the saponins from bitter melon, using response surface methodology, prepare a powder using spray drying, and compare the powder's physical properties, components, and antioxidant capacity with aqueous and ethanol freeze-dried bitter melon powders and a commercial powder. The optimal aqueous extraction conditions were determined to be 40 °C for 15 min and the water-to-sample ratio was chosen to be 20:1 mL/g. For many of its physical properties, components, and antioxidant capacity, the aqueous spray-dried powder was comparable to the aqueous and ethanol freeze-dried bitter melon powders and the commercial powder. The optimal conditions for the aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon followed by spray drying gave a high quality powder in terms of saponins and antioxidant activity. This study highlights that bitter melon is a rich source of saponin compounds and their associated antioxidant activities, which may provide health benefits. The findings of the current study will help with the development of extraction and drying technologies for the preparation of a saponin-enriched powdered extract from bitter melon. The powdered extract may have potential as a nutraceutical supplement or as a value-added ingredient for incorporation into functional foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Bitter taste masking of enzyme-treated soy protein in water and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Anne S; Laursen, Anne; Knudsen, Tine A; Møller, Stine; Kidmose, Ulla

    2018-08-01

    Bioactive protein hydrolysates are often very bitter. To overcome this challenge, xylitol, sucrose, α-cyclodextrin, maltodextrin and combinations of these were tested systematically as bitter-masking agents of an enzyme-treated soy protein in an aqueous model and in a bread model. Sensory descriptive analysis was used to reveal the bitter-masking effect of the taste-masking blends on the enzyme-treated soy protein. In water, xylitol, sucrose and maltodextrin reduced bitterness significantly, whereas α-cyclodextrin did not. No significant difference was observed in bitterness reduction between xylitol and sucrose. Both reduced bitterness significantly more than maltodextrin. No interactions between the taste-masking agents affecting bitterness reduction were found. Clearer bitter-masking effects were seen in the aqueous model compared with the bread model. The bitter-masking effects of α-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin were similar between water and bread. The effect of xylitol and sucrose on bitterness suppression varied between the systems. In water, bitterness was negatively correlated with sweetness. In bread, bitterness was negatively correlated with freshness, and maltodextrin significantly reduced bitterness of the enzyme-treated soy protein and increased freshness. Bitter-masking effects were generally more discernible in the aqueous model compared with the bread model. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies.

  9. EFEKTIVITAS AROMATERAPI BITTER ORANGE TERHADAP NYERI POST PARTUM SECTIO CAESAREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Utami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery that causes severe pain physiological response as compared to a normal delivery was called sectio caesarea. The alternative to reduce pain with bitter orange aroma therapy. Bitter orange aroma therapy is to give the effect of reducing the muscle tensions and stress the body as a whole with the goal of keeping the body and mind into a relaxed. This research was aimed to explore the effectiveness of bitter orange aroma therapy for reduction pain in post partum sectio caesarea. The method used this research was quasi experimental with pre test and post test design with control group. The instruments used numeric rating scale to measure pain intensity. The sampling technique used purposive sampling where the quantity of research sample 34 respondents which are divided into 2 groups, namely intervention group and control group. bitter orange aroma therapy carried out for 15 minutes each day for 2 days. The univariate analysis was conducted to show pain distribution and bivariate analysis was conducted by Wicoxon and Mann Whitney. The result show that after bitter orange aroma therapy was applied towards intervered group, it was obtained that mean of respondents category pain was reducing at 3,44 (low pain with the reduction was 1,47 and mean of post partum sectio caesarea pain without given bitter orange aroma therapy in control group was 4,82 (moderate pain with the reduction was 0. The statistic showed up p value (0,000< 0,05 which mean that kneading techniques effective to reduce pain of post partum sectio caesarea. Based on the result, bitter orange aroma therapy can be recommended as nursing intervention of post partum sectio caesarea.

  10. Variability, heritability, character association, path analysis and morphological diversity in snake gourd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Mahbubur Rahman Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability, heritability and path coefficient analysis were studied in 21 genotypes of snake gourd. The phenotypic coefficient of variations was found slightly higher than the genotypic coefficient of variations for all characters studied, indicating that the apparent variation is not only genetic but also influenced by the growing environment in the expression of the traits. The genotypic coefficient of variation was high for the fruit yield, number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. High heritability coupled with high-to-moderate genetic advance was estimated for all characters studied. Correlation studies revealed that the fruit yield had a significant, positive correlation with the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. Importantly, more than 90% of the genotypic total variation was contributed by the characters included in the path analysis. The highest, direct, positive effect was recorded for the number of fruits per vine. The divergence value for cluster analysis indicated that the genotypes from clusters II and III had the highest inter-cluster distance and were expected to provide high heterosis in hybridization and to show wide variability in genetic architecture. The selection of high yielding genotypes should give emphasis to the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight.

  11. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant.

  12. Pollen Deposition Is More Important than Species Richness for Seed Set in Luffa Gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Saeed, S; Sajjad, A

    2016-10-01

    In the context of global biodiversity decline, it is imperative to understand the different aspects of bee communities for sustaining the vital ecosystem service of pollination. Bee species can be assigned to functional groups (average difference among species in functionally related traits) on the basis of complementarity (trait variations exhibited by individual organisms) in their behavior but is not yet known which functional group trait is most important for seed set. In this study, first, the functional groups of bees were made based on their five selected traits (pollen deposition, visitation rate, stay time, visiting time of the day, body size) and then related to the seed set of obligate cross-pollinated Luffa gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca). We found that bee diversity and abundance differed significantly among the studied plots, but only the bee species richness was positively related to the seed set. Functional group diversity in terms of pollen deposition explained even more of the variance in seed set (r 2  = 0.74) than did the species richness (r 2  = 0.53) making it the most important trait of bee species for predicting the crop reproductive success.

  13. Bitterness and Physichochemical Properties of Angelwing Clam (Pholas Orientalis) Hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Ismail; Nurul Fasihah Razak

    2016-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates from angelwing clam were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain. The bitterness of hydrolysates was evaluated based on the degree hydrolysis (DH), sensory analysis, molecular weight distribution and functional group. By using 3 % of enzyme substrate ratio bromelain resulted in high DH value at 12.57 % when angelwing clam was hydrolysed for 2 hours. Sensory analysis showed that angelwing hydrolysate was bitter. Angelwing hydrolysate had molecular weight below 50 kDa. The lower molecular weight indicated that the protein has been degraded into smaller peptide chains which contribute to bitter taste. Moreover, the high peak of amine group in angelwing hydrolysate (3385.6 cm -1 ) suggested that bitterness exists. Angelwing hydrolysate had higher protein content, lower fat content and had good water holding capacity than the flesh. This result suggested that angelwing hydrolysate could be useful as food ingredient even though bitter taste developed after the hydrolysis. Thus, debittering should be considered in order to pave the way for full utilization of angelwing clam hydrolysate as a food ingredient. (author)

  14. Genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes and phylogenetic analysis of bitter taste receptor genes in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As nontraditional model organisms with extreme physiological and morphological phenotypes, snakes are believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste sensation is essential to distinguish the nutritious and poisonous food resources and the genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes is largely scarce. To explore the genetic basis of the bitter taste of snakes and characterize the evolution of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs in reptiles, we identified Tas2r genes in 19 genomes (species corresponding to three orders of non-avian reptiles. Our results indicated contractions of Tas2r gene repertoires in snakes, however dramatic gene expansions have occurred in lizards. Phylogenetic analysis of the Tas2rs with NJ and BI methods revealed that Tas2r genes of snake species formed two clades, whereas in lizards the Tas2r genes clustered into two monophyletic clades and four large clades. Evolutionary changes (birth and death of intact Tas2r genes in reptiles were determined by reconciliation analysis. Additionally, the taste signaling pathway calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (Calhm1 gene of snakes was putatively functional, suggesting that snakes still possess bitter taste sensation. Furthermore, Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts (PIC analyses reviewed a significant correlation between the number of Tas2r genes and the amount of potential toxins in reptilian diets, suggesting that insectivores such as some lizards may require more Tas2rs genes than omnivorous and carnivorous reptiles.

  15. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and ben......Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose...

  16. A proteome-based design of bitter peptide digestion regime to attenuate cod-bone soup bitterness: comparison with a rainbow trout extract-mediated bitter taste masking approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Feng; Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhizhou; Jiang, Jie; Han, Ying; Guo, Changlu

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The fresh bones (with some meat on them; frequently discarded as a large quantity of industry garbage) of marine fish such as cod and salmon are good materials for manufacture of food additives (taste adjusters). However, such fish-bone originated additives often have apparent bitter taste and need additional debittering regime. RESULTS: In this study, 46 known bitter peptides in the cod proteome were targeted for specific protease digestion to eliminate bitter taste from the cod ...

  17. THE CURRENT STATE OF SEED PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES AND GOURDS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION; NATIONAL FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of seed market of vegetable and gourds in Russian Federation in the frame of national food safety program is given in the article. Russia as a country with well-developed  seed production  in the last century has now  ceded  its  position,  and according  to  last experts’ association estimations the 80%  of  required volume of seeds of vegetables and gourds, amounting from 8 to 12 thousand per year is imported.  Not  less than 15 thousands  of  hectares  are  needed  to  be  necessary  for demand  of  Russian seed  production  sector,  however, presently only 2 thousands of hectares is a total certified land used for seed production.  Moreover, the seed production sector of some countries that export seeds rises becoming a profitable branch of agriculture, and providing local employment. The lack of competitiveness in Russia causes that many foreign companies increase annually purchasing prices for seeds and their production services. Therefore, now the total volume of seeds imported  in  Russian Federation has nearly been  twice less for the last years than in 2012, but in currency earnings in exporting countries the insignificant changes can be seen, where deviation is only 19-25%  from  average annual value, that means 1675 thousand dollars per year. Besides, for the Russian budget in the ruble currency the total cost of imported seeds has become 2.5 times more expensive since 2012, but the increase of combined cost of  marketable  vegetables  has been  over  2.7  billion  of rubles.  The  main  idea  that  the  seed  production  is  a process requiring the participation of breeders, seed producers and seed companies is main factor to succeed in recovering seed production sector. Exception of any participant or ignoring his interests may destroy all process. For instance, there is a chronic problem of plagiarism and royalty nonpayment causes the break between the business and

  18. Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf (Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Del) and sniper. 1000EC (2,3 ... man and animals.1 It is estimated that 80% of the popula- ..... evaluation of waste, surface and ground water quality using the Allium test ...

  19. Ruzu ® herbal bitters and glibenclamide tablets: Dissolution and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The concomitant intake of poly-herbal medicines with orthodox drugs raises huge concerns about herb-drug interactions and patient safety, especially as the pharmacokinetic properties of these herbal medicines are not known. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of Ruzu® herbal bitters on the ...

  20. Quinoa bitterness: causes and solutions for improving product acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Estrella, Diego; Torri, Luisa; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Marti, Alessandra

    2018-02-27

    Awareness of the several agronomic, environmental, and health benefits of quinoa has led to a constant increase in its production and consumption not only in South America, where it is a native crop, but also in Europe and the USA. However, producing wheat or gluten-free based products enriched with quinoa alters some quality characteristics, including sensory acceptance. Several anti-nutritional factors such as saponins are concentrated in the grain pericarp. These bitter and astringent substances may interfere with the digestion and absorption of various nutrients. Developing processes to decrease or modify the bitterness of quinoa can enhance palatability, and thus consumption, of quinoa. In addition to the production of sweet varieties of quinoa, other processes have been proposed. Some of them (i.e. washing, pearling and the combination of the two) have a direct effect on saponins, either by solubilization and/or the mechanical removal of seed layers. Others, such as fermentation or germination, are able to mask the bitterness with aroma compounds and/or sugar formation. This review presents the major sources of the undesirable sensory attributes of quinoa, including bitterness, and various ways of counteracting the negative characteristics of quinoa. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina Del ) and sniper 1000EC (2,3 dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) using the Alium cepa ... 96 hours and EC50 values at 95% confidence interval was determined from a plot of root length against sample concentrations using Microsoft Excel software.

  2. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan domestic and Tibetan chicken populations. YUAN SU DIYAN LI UMA GAUR YAN WANG NAN WU BINLONG CHEN HONGXIAN XU HUADONG YIN YAODONG HU QING ZHU. RESEARCH ARTICLE Volume 95 Issue 3 September 2016 pp 675-681 ...

  3. Nutritional evaluation of bitter leaf meal ( Vernonia amygdalina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional evaluation of bitter leaf meal ( Vernonia amygdalina ): effects on ... A total of 72 one-day-old broiler chicks of Abor-acre breed were used for the trial and ... reduced the level of cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, low density lipoprotein, ...

  4. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemrić, T.; Fruk, I.; Fruk, M.; Radman, S.; Sinkovič, L.; Fruk, G.

    2016-01-01

    Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg), cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  5. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  6. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  7. Evaluation of the Protective Effects of Bitter Leaf (Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Haematological Indices of Rats Fed with Crude Oil Treated Diet ... This study indicates that intake of bitter leaf reduced the toxic effect of crude ... effects of petroleum hydrocarbon include decreased ... Cell Indices: After thirty days blood samples were .... Comparative study of ... ingestion of crude oil (Nigerian Bonny Light),.

  8. variability in condensed tannins and bitterness in spider plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    R.T. KUTSUKUTSA, E. GASURA, S. MABASA and E. NGADZE ... L.) contributes considerably to the nutrition and medicines of communities in ... Key Words: Cleome gynandra, indigenous vegetable, nutrition, phenolic .... mouths with distilled water and waited for some .... the bitterness can be a good measure of the.

  9. Toxicity studies in rats fed nature cure bitters | Aniagu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded doses of Nature Cure Bitters (NCB) were administered daily (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o) to rats for 28 days and the effects on body weight, organ weight, clinical signs, gross pathology, haematology, histology and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. The relative weights of the heart, liver and testes of ...

  10. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemrić, T.; Fruk, I.; Fruk, M.; Radman, S.; Sinkovič, L.; Fruk, G.

    2016-07-01

    Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg), cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  11. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber

  12. Preliminary studies on ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    A study on yeast fermentation of bitter kola pod( agricultural waste) was ... optimization of the ethanol production were investigated. ... components of biomass to produce a liquid .... Mani, S., Tabil, L. G. and Opoku, A. (2002). Ethanol from Agricultural crop residues-An. Overview. ... Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola.

  13. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, ... Journal of Genetics, DOI 10.1007/s12041-016-0684-4, Vol. ..... between red-winged blackbirds and European starlings. ... Academic Press,.

  14. Cyanide and Amygdalin as Indicators of the Presence of Bitter Almonds in Imported Raw Almonds: CYANIDE AND AMYGDALIN AS INDICATORS OF BITTER ALMONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Toomey, Valerie M.; Nickum, Elisa A.; Flurer, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting "bitter" opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in the subm...

  15. Independent Evolution of Strychnine Recognition by Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Yuan Xue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The 25 human bitter taste receptors (hT2Rs recognize thousands of structurally and chemically diverse bitter substances. The binding modes of human bitter taste receptors hT2R10 and hT2R46, which are responsible for strychnine recognition, were previously established using site-directed mutagenesis, functional assays, and molecular modeling. Here we construct a phylogenetic tree and reconstruct ancestral sequences of the T2R10 and T2R46 clades. We next analyze the binding sites in view of experimental data to predict their ability to recognize strychnine. This analysis suggests that the common ancestor of hT2R10 and hT2R46 is unlikely to bind strychnine in the same mode as either of its two descendants. Estimation of relative divergence times shows that hT2R10 evolved earlier than hT2R46. Strychnine recognition was likely acquired first by the earliest common ancestor of the T2R10 clade before the separation of primates from other mammals, and was highly conserved within the clade. It was probably independently acquired by the common ancestor of T2R43-47 before the homo-ape speciation, lost in most T2Rs within this clade, but enhanced in the hT2R46 after humans diverged from the rest of primates. Our findings suggest hypothetical strychnine T2R receptors in several species, and serve as an experimental guide for further study. Improved understanding of how bitter taste receptors acquire the ability to be activated by particular ligands is valuable for the development of sensors for bitterness and for potential toxicity.

  16. Independent Evolution of Strychnine Recognition by Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ava Yuan; Di Pizio, Antonella; Levit, Anat; Yarnitzky, Tali; Penn, Osnat; Pupko, Tal; Niv, Masha Y.

    2018-01-01

    The 25 human bitter taste receptors (hT2Rs) recognize thousands of structurally and chemically diverse bitter substances. The binding modes of human bitter taste receptors hT2R10 and hT2R46, which are responsible for strychnine recognition, were previously established using site-directed mutagenesis, functional assays, and molecular modeling. Here we construct a phylogenetic tree and reconstruct ancestral sequences of the T2R10 and T2R46 clades. We next analyze the binding sites in view of experimental data to predict their ability to recognize strychnine. This analysis suggests that the common ancestor of hT2R10 and hT2R46 is unlikely to bind strychnine in the same mode as either of its two descendants. Estimation of relative divergence times shows that hT2R10 evolved earlier than hT2R46. Strychnine recognition was likely acquired first by the earliest common ancestor of the T2R10 clade before the separation of primates from other mammals, and was highly conserved within the clade. It was probably independently acquired by the common ancestor of T2R43-47 before the homo-ape speciation, lost in most T2Rs within this clade, but enhanced in the hT2R46 after humans diverged from the rest of primates. Our findings suggest hypothetical strychnine T2R receptors in several species, and serve as an experimental guide for further study. Improved understanding of how bitter taste receptors acquire the ability to be activated by particular ligands is valuable for the development of sensors for bitterness and for potential toxicity. PMID:29552563

  17. Genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as viewed with high frequency oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly diverse, economically important member of the Cucurbitaceae. C. pepo encompasses hundreds of cultivars of pumpkins, squash, and gourds. Although C. pepo has been scrutinized with various types of DNA markers, the relationships among the cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. p...

  18. Sensorial properties of red wine polyphenols: Astringency and bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Susana; Brandão, Elsa; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-03-24

    Polyphenols have been the subject of numerous research over the past years, being referred as the nutraceuticals of modern life. The healthy properties of these compounds have been associated to a natural chemoprevention of 21st century major diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's). This association led to an increased consumption of foodstuffs rich in these compounds such as red wine. Related to the ingestion of polyphenols are the herein revised sensorial properties (astringency and bitterness) which are not still pleasant. This review intends to be an outline both at a sensory as a molecular level of the mechanisms underlying astringency and bitterness of polyphenols. Up-to-date knowledge of this matter is discussed in detail.

  19. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Tribulus terrestris and Bitter Almond Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abtahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial effects of the extracts of different kinds of plants have been demonstrated in several studies. However, no study has been conducted so far on the synergistic effects of two herbal extracts on their germicidal effects. In this study, in addition to antibacterial effects of the aqueous, methanol or ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and bitter almond on some bacteria, the synergistic effects of the extracts of these two plants were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, water, methanol and ethanol extracts of seeds were screened against some bacterial strains. Seeds were extracted by percolation method. Aliquots of the extracts at variable concentrations were then incubated with different bacterial strains, and the antimicrobial activities of the extracts from seeds were determined by MIC. Three antibiotics were used as reference compounds for antibacterial activities. Seeds extract inhibited significantly the growth of the tested bacterial strains. Results: The greatest synergistic effect of T. terrestris and bitter almond extracts is detected in methanol and aqueous extracts. Among the bacterial strains tested, Staphylococcus aureus was most susceptibility. Conclusion: The results showed the highest antibacterial effect in the combination of methanol extract of T. terrestris and the aqueous extract of the bitter almond.

  20. Iso-α-acids, bitter components of beer, prevent obesity-induced cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Tatsuhiro; Ohya, Rena; Kondo, Keiji; Ano, Yasuhisa

    2018-03-19

    Dementia and cognitive decline have become worldwide public health problems, and it was recently reported that life-style related diseases and obesity are key risk factors in dementia. Iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter components of beer, have been reported to have various physiological functions via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In this report, we demonstrated that daily intake of iso-α-acids suppresses inflammations in the hippocampus and improves cognitive decline induced by high fat diet (HFD). Body weight, epididymal fat weight, and plasma triglyceride levels were increased in HFD-fed mice, and significantly decreased in iso-α-acids supplemented HFD-fed mice. HFD feeding enhances the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α, which was significantly suppressed by iso-α-acids administration. HFD-induced neuroinflammation caused lipid peroxidation, neuronal loss, and atrophy in hippocampus, and those were not observed in iso-α-acids-treated mice. Furthermore, iso-α-acids intake significantly improved cognitive decline induced by HFD-feeding. Iso-α-acids are food derived components that suppressing both lipid accumulation and brain inflammation, thus iso-α-acids might be beneficial for the risk of dementia increased by obesity and lifestyle-related diseases.

  1. Bitterness in sodium caseinate hydrolysates: role of enzyme preparation and degree of hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dara; Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate (NaCas) may lead to the development of bitterness. Careful selection of hydrolysis conditions (i.e. enzyme preparation and duration) yielding different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) may aid in the development of low bitterness. Eighteen NaCas hydrolysates were generated with four enzyme preparations (Alcalase 2.4L, Prolyve 1000, FlavorPro Whey and pepsin) to different DH values. Hydrolysate bitterness score, assessed using a trained panel (ten assessors), generally increased at higher DH values for Alcalase, Prolyve and pepsin hydrolysates. However, all FlavorPro Whey hydrolysates (DH 0.38-10.62%) displayed low bitterness score values ( 0.05). Enzyme preparation and DH affect the bitterness of NaCas hydrolysates. The results are relevant for the generation of NaCas hydrolysates with reduced bitterness. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Extra virgin olive oil bitterness evaluation by sensory and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favati, Fabio; Condelli, Nicola; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela

    2013-08-15

    An experimental investigation was performed on blend extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from different cultivars and EVOO from different olive monovarieties (Coratina, Leccino, Maiatica, Ogliarola) with the aim to evaluate the possibility of estimating the perceived bitterness intensity by using chemical indices, such as the total phenol content and the compounds responsible for oil bitterness measured spectrophotometrically at 225 nm (K225 value), as bitterness predictors in different EVOO. Therefore, a bitterness predictive model, based on the relationship between the perceived bitterness intensity of the selected stimuli and the chosen chemicals parameters has been built and validated. The results indicated that the oil bitterness intensity could be satisfactorily predicted by using the K225 values of oil samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bitter tastants alter gastric-phase postprandial haemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2014-07-03

    Since Greco-Roman times bitter tastants have been used in Europe to treat digestive disorders, yet no pharmacological mechanism has been identified which can account for this practice. This study investigates whether the bitter tastants, gentian root (Gentian lutea L.) and wormwood herb (Artemisia absinthium L.), stimulate cephalic and/or gut receptors to alter postprandial haemodynamics during the gastric-phase of digestion. Normal participants ingested (1) 100 mL water plus capsules containing either cellulose (placebo-control) or 1000 mg of each tastant (n=14); or (2) 100mL of water flavoured with 500 or 1500 mg of each tastant (a) gentian (n=12) and (b) wormwood (n=12). A single beat-to-beat cardiovascular recording was obtained for the entire session. Pre/post-ingestion contrasts with the control were analysed for (1) the encapsulated tastants, in the "10 to 15" minute post-ingestion period, and (2) the flavoured water in the "5 to 10" minute post-ingestion period. Water, the placebo-control, increased cardiac contraction force and blood pressure notwithstanding heart rate decreases. Encapsulated tastants did not further alter postprandial haemodynamics. In contrast gentian (500 and 1500 mg) and wormwood (1500 mg) flavoured water elicited increased peripheral vascular resistance and decreased cardiac output, primarily by reducing stroke volume rather than heart rate. Drinking 100mL water elicits a pressor effect during the gastric-phase of digestion due to increased cardiac contraction force. The addition of bitter tastants to water elicits an additional and parallel pressor effect due to increased peripheral vascular resistance; yet the extent of the post-prandial blood pressure increases are unchanged, presumably due to baroreflex buffering. The vascular response elicited by bitter tastants can be categorised as a sympathetically-mediated cephalic-phase response. A possible mechanism by which bitter tastants could positively influence digestion is altering

  4. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes det...

  5. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Lei

    Full Text Available Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in

  6. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Weiwei; Ravoninjohary, Aurore; Li, Xia; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K; Jiang, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor) genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus) should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in understanding the forces

  7. Perceived bitterness character of beer in relation to hop variety and the impact of hop aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Olayide; James, Sue; Cowley, Trevor; Dehrmann, Frieda; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2017-09-01

    The impact of hop variety and hop aroma on perceived beer bitterness intensity and character was investigated using analytical and sensory methods. Beers made from malt extract were hopped with 3 distinctive hop varieties (Hersbrucker, East Kent Goldings, Zeus) to achieve equi-bitter levels. A trained sensory panel determined the bitterness character profile of each singly-hopped beer using a novel lexicon. Results showed different bitterness character profiles for each beer, with hop aroma also found to change the hop variety-derived bitterness character profiles of the beer. Rank-rating evaluations further showed the significant effect of hop aroma on selected key bitterness character attributes, by increasing perceived harsh and lingering bitterness, astringency, and bitterness intensity via cross-modal flavour interactions. This study advances understanding of the complexity of beer bitterness perception by demonstrating that hop variety selection and hop aroma both impact significantly on the perceived intensity and character of this key sensory attribute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Evidence for Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Ash Gourd (Benincasa hispida) Germplasm Showing a Severe Yellow Stunt Disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Spoorthi, P; Panwar, G; Bag, Manas Kumar; Prasad, T V; Kumar, Gunjeet; Gangopadhyay, K K; Dutta, M

    2013-06-01

    An evaluation of 70 accessions of ash gourd germplasm grown at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India during Kharif season (2010) showed natural occurrence of a yellow stunt disease in three accessions (IC554690, IC036330 and Pusa Ujjwal). A set of begomovirus specific primers used in PCR gave expected amplicon from all the symptomatic plants; however no betasatellite was detected. Complete genome of the begomovirus (DNA-A and DNA-B), amplified through rolling circle amplification, was cloned and sequenced. The begomovirus under study shared high sequence identities to different isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and clustered with them. Among those isolates, the DNA-A and DNA-B of the present begomovirus isolate showed highest 99.6 and 96.8 % sequence identities, respectively with an isolate reported on pumpkin from India (DNA-A: AM286433, DNA-B: AM286435). Based on the sequence analysis, the begomovirus obtained from ash gourd was considered as an isolate of ToLCNDV. Thus, the present findings constitute the first report of occurrence of a new yellow stunt disease in ash gourd from India and demonstrated the association of ToLCNDV with the symptomatic samples. Occurrence of ToLCNDV in ash gourd germplasm not only adds up a new cucurbitaceous host of this virus but also raises the concern about the perpetuation of this virus in absence of its main host tomato and thus has an epidemiological relevance for understanding the rapid spread of this virus in tomato and other hosts in Indian sub-continent.

  9. Effect of the bitterness of food on muscular activity and masticatory movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yamato; Shiga, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of the bitterness of food on muscular activity and masticatory movement. Twenty healthy subjects were asked to chew a non-bitter gummy jelly and a bitter gummy jelly on their habitual chewing side. The masseter muscular activity and the movement of mandibular incisal point were recorded simultaneously. For all cycles excluding the first cycle, parameters representing the muscular activity (total integral value and integral value per cycle) and masticatory movement (path, rhythm, and stability) were calculated and compared between the two types of gummy jellies. The total integral value of masseter muscular activity during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly was significantly smaller than during the chewing of non-bitter gummy jelly, however, no definite trends in the integral value per cycle and the stability of movement were observed. The parameters representing the movement path tended to be small during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly than during the chewing of non-bitter gummy jelly. The masticatory width was significantly smaller during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly. The parameters representing the rhythm of movement were significantly longer during the chewing of bitter gummy jelly than during the chewing of non-bitter gummy jelly. From these results it was suggested that the bitterness of food does not affect the integral value per cycle or the stability of the masticatory movement, but it does affect the movement path and rhythm, with narrowing of the path and slowing of the rhythm. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sociodemographic profiles regarding bitter food consumption: cross-sectional evidence from a general French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Martin, Christophe; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    Certain beneficial foods taste bitter (e.g., cruciferous vegetables) and might be aversive to consumers. Here, individual characteristics according to bitter food consumption patterns were assessed. The study included 2327 participants in the SU.VI.MAX antioxidant-based randomized controlled trial (1994-2002). The sample was drawn from the general French population. Dietary data were obtained from a minimum of twelve 24-h dietary records provided during the first 2years of follow-up. Two bitter food consumption scores were computed - one assessing the variety of items consumed (unweighted score) and the other reflecting exposure to bitterness estimated via complementary sensory panel data from the EpiPref project (weighted score). Associations with sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Among men, the variety of bitter foods consumed was positively associated with educational level and alcohol intake and inversely associated with physical activity and rural area of residence. Among women, the same outcome was positively associated with alcohol intake and inversely associated with diabetes. In turn, Body Mass Index displayed a significant inverse association with the bitterness-weighted score across sex, whereas educational level was supported only in women. This study adds to the presently scant knowledge about non-genetic determinants or moderators of actual bitter food intake. Future studies should elucidate the impact of diabetes and body size on bitter food intake patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of an early bitter taste experience on subsequent feather-pecking behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander, A.; Beck, P.S.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that laying hens learn not to peck at bitter-tasting feathers from conspecifics. In the present experiment, feathers of newly hatched chicks were made distasteful by spraying them with a bitter-tasting substance (quinine). It was hypothesized that chicks could detect quinine

  13. Physico-chemical evaluation of bitter and non-bitter Aloe and their raw juice for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, M M; Kumar, S; Pancholy, A; Patidar, M

    2014-11-01

    In addition to Aloe vera which is bitter in taste, a non-bitter Aloe is also found in arid part of Rajasthan. This non-bitter Aloe (NBA) is sporadically cultivated as vegetable and for health drink. In spite of its cultivation and various uses, very little information is available about its detailed botanical parameters and chemical characters. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical characters of NBA through employing floral morphology, leaf characters and leaf gel and to compare them with those of A. vera. Of eleven floral characters studied, eight characters of NBA were significantly different from that of A. vera. Most visible difference was observed in their reproductive shoots which are highly branched in NBA (5.21 inflorescence/shoot) as compared to A. vera (1.5 inflorescence/shoot). NBA produces less leaf-biomass (-29.32 %) with less leaf-thickness (-31.44 %) but higher leaf length, width, and no. of spine/side by 17.56 %, 21.34 % and 16.11 %, respectively, with significant difference as compared to A. vera. But its polysaccharide content (0.259 %) is at par with that of A. vera. The raw juice from the leaf of NBA has very low aloin content (4.1 ppm) compared to that from A. vera (427.3 ppm) making it a safer health drink compared to the one obtained from A. vera. Thus, NBA raw juice emerged as suitable alternative to A. vera juice for human consumption.

  14. Review: Katja Werthmann, Bitteres Gold: Bergbau, Land und Geld in Westafrika (2009 Buchbesprechung: Katja Werthmann, Bitteres Gold: Bergbau, Land und Geld in Westafrika (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hönke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Katja Werthmann, Bitteres Gold: Bergbau, Land und Geld in Westafrika, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-89645-821-6, 260 pp.Besprechung der Monographie: Katja Werthmann, Bitteres Gold: Bergbau, Land und Geld in Westafrika, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-89645-821-6, 260 Seiten.

  15. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  16. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-11-10

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter ingredient (EBI) with a core of bitter Gentiana lutea root extract and a coating of ethylcellulose-stearate was developed and included in a vanilla microencapsulated bitter ingredient-enriched pudding (EBIP). The coating masked bitterness in the mouth, allowing the release of bitter secoiridoids in the gastrointestinal tract. A cross-over randomised study was performed: twenty healthy subjects consumed at breakfast EBIP (providing 100 mg of secoiridoids) or the control pudding (CP) on two different occasions. Blood samples, glycaemia and appetite ratings were collected at baseline and 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after breakfast. Gastrointestinal peptides, endocannabinoids (EC) and N-acylethanolamines (NAE) were measured in plasma samples. Energy intakes were measured at an ad libitum lunch 3 h after breakfast and over the rest of the day (post lunch) through food diaries. No significant difference in postprandial plasma responses of gastrointestinal hormones, glucose, EC and NAE and of appetite between EBIP and CP was found. However, a trend for a higher response of glucagon-like peptide-1 after EBIP than after CP was observed. EBIP determined a significant 30 % lower energy intake over the post-lunch period compared with CP. These findings were consistent with the tailored release of bitter-tasting compounds from EBIP along the gastrointestinal tract. This study demonstrated that microencapsulated bitter secoiridoids were effective in reducing daily energy intake in humans.

  17. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  18. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  19. An Empirical Study for the Mobile Food Trace ability: Private Trace ability System for the White Gourd in Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yu-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the food supply chain globalization became inevitable, transparency in the way agriculture was grown and handled throughout the supply chain process resulted in an important issue of ‘traceability’ in global food trade and safety for health management. Traceability in agriculture is faced with the technological challenges including food product label and identification, activity/process characterization, information systems for data capture, analysis, storage, and the integration of the overall traceable data for the supply chain, i.e., from farm to table. While some field data can be automatically acquired and transmitted by sensor networking, most agricultural activity information was recorded by manual handwriting for the traceability information systems. System architecture, operation scenarios, and the implementation examples for the mobile farming data collection system to automatically record the agricultural activities information for famers were proposed in this research. The farming information for farming activities is coded in two-dimensional labels of quick response (QR codes. By scanning the proper operation labels, the corresponding farming data can be captured and uploaded simultaneously to the back-end web server. A collaborative research project for the traceability of white gourd planting in Tianjin was performed. The system can be implemented for public traceability system data collection and importing, as well as playing the roles of a private traceability system. The consumers’ confidence for healthy food choices with clear food traceability can be improved.

  20. Antioxidant potential of bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze seeds in in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidu Kamatham A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze, is a medicinally important plant. Earlier, we have reported phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic, antimicrobial activity of bitter cumin. In this study we have further characterized the antioxidative activity of bitter cumin extracts in various in vitro models. Methods Bitter cumin seeds were extracted with a combination of acetone, methanol and water. The antioxidant activity of bitter cumin extracts were characterized in various in vitro model systems such as DPPH radical, ABTS radical scavenging, reducing power, oxidation of liposomes and oxidative damage to DNA. Results The phenolic extracts of bitter cumin at microgram concentration showed significant scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals, reduced phosphomolybdenum (Mo(VI to Mo(V, ferricyanide Fe(III to Fe(II, inhibited liposomes oxidation and hydroxyl radical induced damage to prokaryotic genomic DNA. The results showed a direct correlation between phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity. Conclusion Bitter cumin is a good source of natural antioxidants.

  1. Democracy, war and peace: the bitter laughter of Aristophanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Yazbek Rivitti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to develop a comparative study between two comedies of Aristophanes, The Acharnians and The Knights, bringing to light the building of critical thinking of Aristophanes concerning Athenian democracy of his time. The analysis of the text focuses on the convergence of both as revealing contradictions in Athenian democratic practices in times of war. This article also examines the dichotomy public / private in The Acharnians and the relationship between the people and their rulers, in The Knights. The dialogue between the two texts is explored not only in the bitter satire of Aristophanes, but in the only solution that appears in both texts regarding a time of war and a political system in crisis: the consummation of peace. 

  2. Dynamic evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensing bitter tastes is crucial for many animals because it can prevent them from ingesting harmful foods. This process is mainly mediated by the bitter taste receptors (T2R, which are largely expressed in the taste buds. Previous studies have identified some T2R gene repertoires, and marked variation in repertoire size has been noted among species. However, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of vertebrate T2R genes remain poorly understood. Results To better understand the evolutionary pattern of these genes, we identified 16 T2R gene repertoires based on the high coverage genome sequences of vertebrates and studied the evolutionary changes in the number of T2R genes during birth-and-death evolution using the reconciled-tree method. We found that the number of T2R genes and the fraction of pseudogenes vary extensively among species. Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, we showed that T2R gene families in teleost fishes are more diverse than those in tetrapods. In addition to the independent gene expansions in teleost fishes, frogs and mammals, lineage-specific gene duplications were also detected in lizards. Furthermore, extensive gains and losses of T2R genes were detected in each lineage during their evolution, resulting in widely differing T2R gene repertoires. Conclusion These results further support the hypotheses that T2R gene repertoires are closely related to the dietary habits of different species and that birth-and-death evolution is associated with adaptations to dietary changes.

  3. Comparisons of individual bitterness perception and vegetable liking and consumption among Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Tove Kjær; Nicklaus, Sophie; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the consumption of bitter and strong tasting vegetables such as cabbages and root vegetables, it is required to identify potential mediators of sociodemographic–diet relationships. In this context a consumer field studywas conducted in Denmark which comprised a semi-quantitative...... food frequency questionnaire, a bitter threshold value test kit with quinineand a preference test with two samples of carrots differing in the degree of bitterness. All tests were conducted outside the laboratory, and the subjects (n=116, aged 18 to 79) were recruited during two different events at two...

  4. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress

  5. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  6. Quality evaluation of Poza bitters, a new poly herbal formulation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    70:5) showed three spots with Rf values similar to some of references used. High performance liquid chromatography fingerprint showed two retention times of poza bitters which were not similar to those of the reference standards: hesperidin ...

  7. An Improved Method for Determination of Cyanide Content in Bitter Almond Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Liu, Lei; Li, Mengjun; Yu, Xiuzhu; Zhang, Rui

    2018-01-01

    An improved colorimetric method for determination of cyanide content in bitter almond oil was developed. The optimal determination parameters were as follows: volume ratio of hydrochloric acid to bitter almond oil (v/v), 1.5:1; holding time for hydrolysis, 120 min; and volume ratio of distillation solution to bitter almond oil (v/v), 8:1. Analytical results showed that the relative standard deviations (SDs) of determinations were less than 10%, which satisfies the test requirements. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography and measurements exhibited a significant correlation (R = 0.9888, SD = 0.2015). Therefore, the improved colorimetric method can be used to determine cyanide content in bitter almond oil.

  8. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cell responses to bitter and trigeminal stimulants in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Clapp, Tod R; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by epithelial solitary chemoreceptor (chemosensory) cells (SCCs), but the exact role of these cells in chemoreception is unclear (Finger et al. 2003). Histological evidence suggests that SCCs express elements of the bitter taste transduction pathway including T2R (bitter taste) receptors, the G protein α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and TRPM5, leading to speculation that SCCs are the receptor cells that mediate trigeminal nerve respo...

  10. A potential sex dimorphism in the relationship between bitter taste and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Emma Louise; Duesing, Konsta; Boyd, Lyndell; Yates, Zoe; Veysey, Martin; Lucock, Mark

    2017-03-22

    Bitterness is an innate aversive taste important in detecting potentially toxic substances, including alcohol. However, bitter compounds exist in many foods and beverages, and can be desirable, such as in beer. TAS2R38 is a well-studied bitter taste receptor with common polymorphisms. Some have reported relationships between TAS2R38 genotypes, bitter taste phenotype and alcohol intake, however results have been mixed. These mixed results may be explained by the varying taste properties of different alcoholic beverages or a sex dimorphism in responses. Bitter taste phenotype was assessed using PROP taste test and TAS2R38-P49A genotype was assessed by RFLP-PCR. Alcohol intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and classified by beverage type (beer, wine, spirits or mixed drinks). The relationships between bitter taste phenotype and carriage of the P allele of the TAS2R38-A49P gene and alcohol intake were assessed adjusted for and stratified by sex, and the interaction between taste and sex was evaluated. The relationship between alcohol intake and bitter taste phenotype varied by beverage type, with significant results for beer, spirits and mixed drinks, but not wine. When stratified, results varied by sex, and were only significant in males. Significant interactions were found for taster phenotype and sex (total alcohol intake and intake of beer and spirits). Results were similar for carriage of the TAS2R38-P49A P allele. Sex-specific interactions between bitter taste phenotype, TAS2R38 genotype and alcohol intake may explain variance in previous studies and may have implications for sex-specific disease risk and public health interventions.

  11. The Odorant ( R)-Citronellal Attenuates Caffeine Bitterness by Inhibiting the Bitter Receptors TAS2R43 and TAS2R46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Barbara; Brockhoff, Anne; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    Sensory studies showed the volatile fraction of lemon grass and its main constituent, the odor-active citronellal, to significantly decrease the perceived bitterness of a black tea infusion as well as caffeine solutions. Seven citronellal-related derivatives were synthesized and shown to inhibit the perceived bitterness of caffeine in a structure-dependent manner. The aldehyde function at carbon 1, the ( R)-configuration of the methyl-branched carbon 3, and a hydrophobic carbon chain were found to favor the bitter inhibitory activity of citronellal; for example, even low concentrations of 25 ppm were observed to reduce bitterness perception of caffeine solution (6 mmol/L) by 32%, whereas ( R)-citronellic acid (100 pm) showed a reduction of only 21% and ( R)-citronellol (100 pm) was completely inactive. Cell-based functional experiments, conducted with the human bitter taste receptors TAS2R7, TAS2R10, TAS2R14, TAS2R43, and TAS2R46 reported to be sensitive to caffeine, revealed ( R)-citronellal to completely block caffeine-induced calcium signals in TAS2R43-expressing cells, and, to a lesser extent, in TAS2R46-expressing cells. Stimulation of TAS2R43-expressing cells with structurally different bitter agonists identified ( R)-citronellal as a general allosteric inhibitor of TAS2R43. Further structure/activity studies indicated 3-methyl-branched aliphatic aldehydes with a carbon chain of ≥4 C atoms as best TAS2R43 antagonists. Whereas odor-taste interactions have been mainly interpreted in the literature to be caused by a central neuronal integration of odors and tastes, rather than by peripheral events at the level of reception, the findings of this study open up a new dimension regarding the interaction of the two chemical senses.

  12. Composição mineral e severidade de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Catarina' Mineral composition and bitter pit severity in 'Catarina' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Maçãs 'Catarina', colhidas na maturação comercial em pomar no município de São Joaquim-SC, foram separadas em quatro lotes de 14 frutos, de acordo com a severidade de incidência de "bitter pit": nula (nenhuma lesão/fruto, baixa (1-2 lesões/fruto, moderada (3-5 lesões/fruto e alta (6-18 lesões/fruto. Foram determinadas as concentrações de Ca, Mg, K e N na casca e na polpa de cada fruto. Foram verificadas relação linear (P 'Catarina' apples were harvested at the commercial maturity in an orchard in São Joaquim-SC and segregated in four lots of 14 fruits with different levels of bitter pit severity: null (none pit/fruit, low (1-2 pits/fruit, moderate (3-5 pits/fruit, and high (6-18 pits/fruit. Nutritional analysis (Ca, Mg, K, and N in the skin and flesh tissues were performed on individual fruits of each severity level. The average number of pits/fruit (calculated for each lot of bitter pit severity showed a negative linear relationship (P < 0.05 with the skin Ca content, and a negative linear relationship (P < 0.05 with the ratios of Mg/Ca, (K+Mg/Ca, and (K+Mg+N/Ca in the skin. For the flesh, the increasing of bitter pit severity was accompanied by significant reduction of Ca and Mg contents. The multivariate analysis (canonical discriminant analysis showed that the Mg/Ca ratio in the skin provided the best discrimination between the lots of fruit with different levels of bitter pit severity. Therefore, for 'Catarina' apples, increasing values of the Mg/Ca ratio in the skin are indicative of fruits with increasing bitter pit susceptibility.

  13. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  14. Perception of bitterness, sweetness and liking of different genotypes of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M; Gawthrop, F; Michelmore, R W; Wagstaff, C; Methven, L

    2016-04-15

    Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable, consumed across the world, containing bitter sesquiterpenoid lactone (SL) compounds that may negatively affect consumer acceptance and consumption. We assessed liking of samples with differing absolute abundance and different ratios of bitter:sweet compounds by analysing recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from an interspecific lettuce mapping population derived from a cross between a wild (L. serriola acc. UC96US23) and domesticated lettuce (L. sativa, cv. Salinas). We found that the ratio of bitter:sweet compounds was a key determinant of bitterness perception and liking. We were able to demonstrate that SLs, such as 8-deoxylactucin-15-sulphate, contribute most strongly to bitterness perception, whilst 15-p-hydroxylphenylacetyllactucin-8-sulphate does not contribute to bitter taste. Glucose was the sugar most highly correlated with sweetness perception. There is a genetic basis to the biochemical composition of lettuce. This information will be useful in lettuce breeding programmes in order to produce leaves with more favourable taste profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cell responses to bitter and trigeminal stimulants in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Clapp, Tod R; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2008-06-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by epithelial solitary chemoreceptor (chemosensory) cells (SCCs), but the exact role of these cells in chemoreception is unclear. Histological evidence suggests that SCCs express elements of the bitter taste transduction pathway including T2R (bitter taste) receptors, the G protein alpha-gustducin, PLCbeta2, and TRPM5, leading to speculation that SCCs are the receptor cells that mediate trigeminal nerve responses to bitter taste receptor ligands. To test this hypothesis, we used calcium imaging to determine whether SCCs respond to classic bitter-tasting or trigeminal stimulants. SCCs from the anterior nasal cavity were isolated from transgenic mice in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was driven by either TRPM5 or gustducin. Isolated cells were exposed to a variety of test stimuli to determine which substances caused an increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). GFP-positive cells respond with increased [Ca2+]i to the bitter receptor ligand denatonium and this response is blocked by the PLC inhibitor U73122. In addition, GFP+ cells respond to the neuromodulators adenosine 5'-triphosphate and acetylcholine but only very rarely to other bitter-tasting or trigeminal stimuli. Our results demonstrate that TRPM5- and gustducin-expressing nasal SCCs respond to the T2R agonist denatonium via a PLC-coupled transduction cascade typical of T2Rs in the taste system.

  16. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Czompa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related cardiovascular disease. Methods: Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM extract suspended in mucin–water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control. Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO and treatment (Control or BM. Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results: Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in

  17. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czompa, Attila; Gyongyosi, Alexandra; Szoke, Kitti; Bak, Istvan; Csepanyi, Evelin; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad; Lekli, Istvan

    2017-03-20

    Objective : A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM)) extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease. Methods : Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO) rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM) extract suspended in mucin-water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control). Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO) and treatment (Control or BM). Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results : Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in blood of ZO

  18. Study of the changes in the dietary fatty acids and physicochemical values of sweet and bitter apricot oils in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, H.; Hamid, S.

    2007-01-01

    The quantity of oil in local varieties of sweet and bitter apricot was found to be more than that earlier reported for the Indian varieties. Both, sweet and bitter apricot oils, were semi-drying type. Refractive index of bitter apricot oil was higher whereas, free fatty acids were more in sweet apricot oil. Amount of cyanide, cadmium, antimony, arsenic, lead and copper as well as of palmitic acid insignificantly increased with ripening, being more in bitter apricot oil. Major difference was noted in fatty acid composition. Linoleic acid was present in higher amount in sweet apricot oil (21.4%) than in bitter apricot oil (19.6%). Concentration of palmitic acid in sweet oil was 5.0%, while in bitter oil, it was 6.4%. (author)

  19. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of grafting-responsive mRNA in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Fu, Xinxing; Zhang, Li; Tang, Kai; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Hu, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-04-01

    Grafting is an important agricultural technique widely used to improve plant growth, yield, and adaptation to either biotic or abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced physiological processes remain unclear. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Grafting technique is commonly used in watermelon production for improving its tolerance to stresses, especially to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform a genome-wide transcript analysis of scions from watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks. Our transcriptome and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling data provided insights into the molecular aspects of gene regulation in grafted watermelon. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, there were 787 and 3485 genes differentially expressed in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks, respectively. These genes were associated with primary and secondary metabolism, hormone signaling, transcription factors, transporters, and response to stimuli. Grafting led to changes in expression of these genes, suggesting that they may play important roles in mediating the physiological processes of grafted seedlings. The potential roles of the grafting-responsive mRNAs in diverse biological and metabolic processes were discussed. Obviously, the data obtained in this study provide an excellent resource for unraveling the mechanisms of candidate genes function in diverse biological processes and in environmental adaptation in a graft system.

  20. Novel bitter melon extracts highly yielded from supercritical extraction reduce the adiposity through the enhanced lipid metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia is a species of edible plant known for its medicinal value towards diabetes and obesity. Due to the various compositions of bitter melon extracts (BME, the comprehensive knowledge concerning their anti-obesity effects was insufficient. Here we first introduced supercritical extraction to BME's preparation, (supercritical extraction is a relatively advanced extraction method with a better efficiency and selectivity and expected to be extensively used in future applications and the resultants were subjected to HPLC analysis, validating the presence of 42.60% of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA, cis9, trans11, trans13-18:3 and 13.17% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis9, trans11-18:2. The BMSO (bitter melon seed oil was then administered to the HFD mice, an obesity model established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet. Consequently, due to the BMSO's supplementation, the HFD mice showed a significantly decreased body-weight, Lee's index, fat index and adipose size, whereas the liver weight stayed unchanged. Meanwhile, the serum FFA (free fatty acids levels returned to normal at the dosage of 10 g/kg, and the elevated serum leptin levels were also recovered by BMSO's supplementation with moderate and high dose. These findings suggested that BMSO restored the balance between lipid intake and metabolism, which was probably mediated by leptin's variation. In summary, a detailed anti-obesity effect was described with regard to a potent CFA's (conjugated fatty acid combination offered by BME. A potential mechanism underlying BME's beneficial effects was proposed, paving the way for the better use of BME's pharmaceutical function to serve the obesity's treatment.

  1. Citric Acid Suppresses the Bitter Taste of Olopatadine Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoyama, Mai; Uchida, Shinya; Tanaka, Shimako; Hakamata, Akio; Odagiri, Keiichi; Inui, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are formulated to disintegrate upon contact with saliva, allowing administration without water. Olopatadine hydrochloride, a second-generation antihistamine, is widely used for treating allergic rhinitis. However, it has a bitter taste; therefore, the development of taste-masked olopatadine ODTs is essential. Some studies have suggested that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of drugs. However, these experiments were performed using solutions, and the taste-masking effect of citric acid on ODTs has not been evaluated using human gustatory sensation tests. Thus, this study evaluated citric acid's taste-masking effect on olopatadine ODTs. Six types of olopatadine ODTs containing 0-10% citric acid were prepared and subjected to gustatory sensation tests that were scored using the visual analog scale. The bitterness and overall palatability of olopatadine ODTs during disintegration in the mouth and after spitting out were evaluated in 11 healthy volunteers (age: 22.8±2.2 years). The hardness of the ODTs was >50 N. Disintegration time and dissolution did not differ among the different ODTs. The results of the gustatory sensation tests suggest that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of olopatadine ODTs in a dose-dependent manner. Olopatadine ODTs with a high content of citric acid (5-10%) showed poorer overall palatability than that of those without citric acid despite the bitterness suppression. ODTs containing 2.5% citric acid, yogurt flavoring, and aspartame were the most suitable formulations since they showed low bitterness and good overall palatability. Thus, citric acid is an effective bitterness-masking option for ODTs.

  2. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of bitter taste of pharmaceuticals with multisensor system employing 3 way PLS regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Blinova, Yulia; Legin, Evgeny; Seleznev, Boris; Clapham, David; Ives, Robert S.; Saunders, Kenneth A.; Legin, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chemically diverse APIs are studied with potentiometric “electronic tongue”. ► Bitter taste of APIs can be predicted with 3wayPLS regression from ET data. ► High correlation of ET assessment with human panel and rat in vivo model. -- Abstract: The application of the potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue, ET) for quantification of the bitter taste of structurally diverse active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is reported. The measurements were performed using a set of bitter substances that had been assessed by a professional human sensory panel and the in vivo rat brief access taste aversion (BATA) model to produce bitterness intensity scores for each substance at different concentrations. The set consisted of eight substances, both inorganic and organic – azelastine, caffeine, chlorhexidine, potassium nitrate, naratriptan, paracetamol, quinine, and sumatriptan. With the aim of enhancing the response of the sensors to the studied APIs, measurements were carried out at different pH levels ranging from 2 to 10, thus promoting ionization of the compounds. This experiment yielded a 3 way data array (samples × sensors × pH levels) from which 3wayPLS regression models were constructed with both human panel and rat model reference data. These models revealed that artificial assessment of bitter taste with ET in the chosen set of API's is possible with average relative errors of 16% in terms of human panel bitterness score and 25% in terms of inhibition values from in vivo rat model data. Furthermore, these 3wayPLS models were applied for prediction of the bitterness in blind test samples of a further set of API's. The results of the prediction were compared with the inhibition values obtained from the in vivo rat model

  4. Assessment of bitter taste of pharmaceuticals with multisensor system employing 3 way PLS regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa [CESAM and Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Blinova, Yulia [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Seleznev, Boris [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Clapham, David; Ives, Robert S.; Saunders, Kenneth A. [GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Legin, Andrey [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Chemically diverse APIs are studied with potentiometric “electronic tongue”. ► Bitter taste of APIs can be predicted with 3wayPLS regression from ET data. ► High correlation of ET assessment with human panel and rat in vivo model. -- Abstract: The application of the potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue, ET) for quantification of the bitter taste of structurally diverse active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is reported. The measurements were performed using a set of bitter substances that had been assessed by a professional human sensory panel and the in vivo rat brief access taste aversion (BATA) model to produce bitterness intensity scores for each substance at different concentrations. The set consisted of eight substances, both inorganic and organic – azelastine, caffeine, chlorhexidine, potassium nitrate, naratriptan, paracetamol, quinine, and sumatriptan. With the aim of enhancing the response of the sensors to the studied APIs, measurements were carried out at different pH levels ranging from 2 to 10, thus promoting ionization of the compounds. This experiment yielded a 3 way data array (samples × sensors × pH levels) from which 3wayPLS regression models were constructed with both human panel and rat model reference data. These models revealed that artificial assessment of bitter taste with ET in the chosen set of API's is possible with average relative errors of 16% in terms of human panel bitterness score and 25% in terms of inhibition values from in vivo rat model data. Furthermore, these 3wayPLS models were applied for prediction of the bitterness in blind test samples of a further set of API's. The results of the prediction were compared with the inhibition values obtained from the in vivo rat model.

  5. The repertoire of bitter taste receptor genes in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shuai; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Huanxin; Zhong, Huaming; Wei, Qinguo; Yan, Jiakuo; Li, Haotian; Liu, Guangshuai; Sha, Weilai; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-07-01

    Bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) play important roles in mammalian defense mechanisms by helping animals detect and avoid toxins in food. Although Tas2r genes have been widely studied in several mammals, minimal research has been performed in canids. To analyze the genetic basis of Tas2r genes in canids, we first identified Tas2r genes in the wolf, maned wolf, red fox, corsac fox, Tibetan fox, fennec fox, dhole and African hunting dog. A total of 183 Tas2r genes, consisting of 118 intact genes, 6 partial genes and 59 pseudogenes, were detected. Differences in the pseudogenes were observed among nine canid species. For example, Tas2r4 was a pseudogene in the dog but might play a functional role in other canid species. The Tas2r42 and Tas2r10 genes were pseudogenes in the maned wolf and dhole, respectively, and the Tas2r5 and Tas2r34 genes were pseudogenes in the African hunting dog; however, these genes were intact genes in other canid species. The differences in Tas2r pseudogenes among canids might suggest that the loss of intact Tas2r genes in canid species is species-dependent. We further compared the 183 Tas2r genes identified in this study with Tas2r genes from ten additional carnivorous species to evaluate the potential influence of diet on the evolution of the Tas2r gene repertoire. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the Tas2r genes from the 18 species intermingled across the tree, suggesting that Tas2r genes are conserved among carnivores. Within canids, we found that some Tas2r genes corresponded to the traditional taxonomic groupings, while some did not. PIC analysis showed that the number of Tas2r genes in carnivores exhibited no positive correlation with diet composition, which might be due to the limited number of carnivores included in our study.

  6. Absence of furanocoumarins in Advantra Z® (Citrus aurantium, bitter orange) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Howard; Romano, Felice

    2014-09-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) juice is known for its ability to alter drug metabolism through inhibition of the cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) system, and result in drug-food interactions that may be life threatening. The primary active ingredients in grapefruit responsible for these effects are the furanocoumarins bergapten, bergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB). Bergamottin and DHB appear to be the most important in terms of adverse drug interactions. Furanocoumarins are present in the juices and fruits of other Citrus species including C. aurantium (bitter oranges). Bergapten is the predominant furanocoumarin in bitter orange. Bitter orange extracts are widely used in products associated with weight loss, sports performance, and energy production. Questions have been raised about the potential of bitter orange extracts to cause drug interactions. This study examined the furanocoumarin content of four standardized bitter orange extracts (Advantra Z®) by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results indicated that the total furanocoumarin content of each of the four extracts was less than 20 μg/g, amounts insufficient to exert significant effects on the metabolism of susceptible drugs in human subjects at the doses commonly used for these extracts.

  7. Accumulation of Charantin and Expression of Triterpenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Do Manh; Jeon, Jin; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2017-08-23

    Charantin, a natural cucurbitane type triterpenoid, has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological functions such as anticancer, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activities. However, accumulation of charantin in bitter melon has been little studied. Here, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes involved in the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in bitter melon seedlings. A total of 88,703 transcripts with an average length of 898 bp were identified in bitter melon seedlings. On the basis of a functional annotation, we identified 15 candidate genes encoding enzymes related to triterpenoid biosynthesis and analyzed their expression in different organs of mature plants. Most genes were highly expressed in flowers and/or fruit from the ripening stages. An HPLC analysis confirmed that the accumulation of charantin was highest in fruits from the ripening stage, followed by male flowers. The accumulation patterns of charantin coincide with the expression pattern of McSE and McCAS1, indicating that these genes play important roles in charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon. We also investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon and found that red light was the most effective wavelength.

  8. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-07-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties.

  9. Determination of taste-active compounds of a bitter Camembert cheese by omission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Septier, C; Leconte, N; Salles, C; Le Quere, J L

    2001-11-01

    The taste-active compounds of a Camembert cheese selected for its intense bitterness defect were investigated. The water-soluble fraction (WSE) was extracted with pure water and fractionated by successive tangential ultrafiltrations and nanofiltration. The physicochemical assessment of these fractions led to the construction of a model WSE which was compared by sensory evaluation to the crude water-soluble extract, using a panel of 16 trained tasters. As no significant difference was perceived, this model WSE was then used directly or mixed with other cheese components for omission tests. Among the main taste characteristics of the WSE (salty, sour, umami and bitter), bitterness was found to be due to small peptides whose mass distribution was obtained by RPHPLC-MS (400-3000 Da) and whose taste properties are discussed.

  10. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine.

  11. Localization of phosphatidylinositol signaling components in rat taste cells: Role in bitter taste transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, P.M.; Verma, A.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in taste transduction we have visualized, in rat tongue, ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticular accumulation of 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding sites, and phosphatidylinositol turnover monitored by autoradiography of [ 3 H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol formed from [ 3 H]cytidine. Accumulated 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, and phosphatidylinositol turnover are selectively localized to apical areas of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, which are associated with bitter taste. Further evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in bitter taste is our observation of a rapid, selective increase in mass levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate elicited by low concentrations of denatonium, a potently bitter tastant

  12. 75 FR 17430 - Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Kern, San Luis Obispo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...] Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare... Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) located in Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, and Ventura counties of California. We... developing a CCP for Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge NWRs in Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, and...

  13. Does mere exposure mediate sensitivity to bitter taste on consumer liking and acceptability of whole grain foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health benefits of whole grains (WG) are well known, yet consumption by Americans falls far short of recommended amounts. Roughly 75% of Americans are sensitive to bitter taste, and WG are known to contain bitter tasting phenolic compounds. It has been reported that individuals with the highest se...

  14. Mary Poppins was right: Adding small amounts of sugar or salt reduces the bitterness of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Alyssa J; Stubbs, Cody A; McDowell, Elliott H; Moding, Kameron J; Johnson, Susan L; Hayes, John E

    2018-07-01

    Only a quarter of adults and 7% of children consume recommended amounts of vegetables each day. Often vegetables are not initially palatable due to bitterness, which may lead children and adults to refuse to taste or eat them. The objective of this research was to determine if very small amounts of sugar or salt (common household ingredients) could lead to significant reductions in bitterness intensity and increased hedonic ratings of green vegetable purees. For Experiment 1, three different green vegetable purees (broccoli, spinach, and kale) were prepared with different levels of sugar (0%, 0.6%, 1.2%, and 1.8%) or salt (0 and 0.2%). Samples were evaluated using standard descriptive analysis techniques with nine adults who completed more than 20 h of green vegetable specific training as a group. For Experiment 2, each vegetable puree was prepared with either 0% or 2% sugar, and bitterness was assessed via a forced choice task with 84 adults. For Experiment 3, each vegetable puree was prepared with 0%, 1%, or 2% sugar and rated for liking on standard 9 point hedonic scales by 99 adults. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that addition of small amounts of sugar and salt each reduced the bitterness (and increased sweetness and saltiness) from all three vegetables without altering other sensory properties (e.g. texture or aroma). Experiment 3 showed that adding sugar to vegetable purees increased hedonic ratings for adult consumers. We also found parents had mixed attitudes about the idea of adding sugar to foods intended for infants and toddlers. Further research on the effects of bitterness masking especially for specific populations (e.g., infants and young children or adults who have higher sensitivity to bitter taste) is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prunasin Hydrolases during Fruit Development in Sweet and Bitter Almonds1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  16. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    OpenAIRE

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna; Luiz H. Beirão; Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi

    2004-01-01

    During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition...

  17. Transcriptome analysis of bitter acid biosynthesis and precursor pathways in hop (Humulus lupulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Shawn M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter acids (e.g. humulone are prenylated polyketides synthesized in lupulin glands of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus which are important contributors to the bitter flavour and stability of beer. Bitter acids are formed from acyl-CoA precursors derived from branched-chain amino acid (BCAA degradation and C5 prenyl diphosphates from the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to obtain the transcriptomes of isolated lupulin glands, cones with glands removed and leaves from high α-acid hop cultivars, and analyzed these datasets for genes involved in bitter acid biosynthesis including the supply of major precursors. We also measured the levels of BCAAs, acyl-CoA intermediates, and bitter acids in glands, cones and leaves. Results Transcripts encoding all the enzymes of BCAA metabolism were significantly more abundant in lupulin glands, indicating that BCAA biosynthesis and subsequent degradation occurs in these specialized cells. Branched-chain acyl-CoAs and bitter acids were present at higher levels in glands compared with leaves and cones. RNA-seq analysis showed the gland-specific expression of the MEP pathway, enzymes of sucrose degradation and several transcription factors that may regulate bitter acid biosynthesis in glands. Two branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT enzymes, HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2, were abundant, with gene expression quantification by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR indicating that HlBCAT1 was specific to glands while HlBCAT2 was present in glands, cones and leaves. Recombinant HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2 catalyzed forward (biosynthetic and reverse (catabolic reactions with similar kinetic parameters. HlBCAT1 is targeted to mitochondria where it likely plays a role in BCAA catabolism. HlBCAT2 is a plastidial enzyme likely involved in BCAA biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of the hop BCATs and those from other plants showed that they group into distinct biosynthetic (plastidial and

  18. Separation of magnetic from non-magnetic information in the Bitter pattern method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, Witold

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of separating magnetic and non-magnetic contributions to the image contrast in the Bitter pattern method. With the help of the digital image difference procedure, it is demonstrated for the first time for the Bitter method that the separation is easy to achieve for relatively soft magnetic specimens, when an external field can be applied to simply produce the non-magnetic reference image of the specimen area under study. It is also shown that obtaining satisfactory results is principally impossible when removing the colloid from the specimen surface is used for the purpose of recording the non-magnetic image

  19. Effect of radiation processing on shelf life and antioxidant properties of minimally processed ready to cook (RTC) cauliflower and ash gourd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishnav, Jasraj; Tripathi, Jyoti; Variyar, Prasad S.

    2017-01-01

    The demand for minimally processed vegetables are increasing because consumers now spend less time for cooking every day due to their busy life style, while insisting on more hygienic premium quality products with minimal change in nutritional and sensory properties. Minimally processed cauliflower and ash gourd products were developed using radiation processing. Products were irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation (0.5-2.5kGy), and stored at different temperatures (4,10 and 15 °C). At optimum processing conditions (0.5 kGy; 4 °C) RTC cauliflower was analyzed for their microbial and nutritional qualities (DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and total ascorbic acid content) during a storage period of 21 days. An irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy extended the shelf life by 7 days as compared to the control which has shelf life of 14 days, along with significant increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content. While in case of RTC ash gourd, optimum processing condition (2kGy;10 ° C) improved the shelf life by 7 days in comparison to control samples which have shelflife of 5 days. Irradiated samples had total phenolic content of 103.3 ± 5.2 mg kg"-"1 and total antioxidant activity of 384.2 ± 9.7 mg kg"-"1 while corresponding values for control samples were 67.8 ± 5.4 and 115.5 ± 7.0 mg kg"-1 at the end of storage period. However no significant effect was observed in total ascorbic acid content in both the products due to radiation processing. (author)

  20. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon: A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shovic Anne C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2 analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  1. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon): A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC) before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results. PMID:21794176

  2. Postnatal development of bitter taste avoidance behavior in mice is associated with ACTIN-dependent localization of bitter taste receptors to the microvilli of taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsuko; Kondo, Kaori; Kunishima, Yoshimi; Iseki, Sachiko; Kondo, Takashi; Ota, Masato S

    2018-01-22

    Bitter taste avoidance behavior (BAB) plays a fundamental role in the avoidance of toxic substances with a bitter taste. However, the molecular basis underlying the development of BAB is unknown. To study critical developmental events by which taste buds turn into functional organs with BAB, we investigated the early phase development of BAB in postnatal mice in response to bitter-tasting compounds, such as quinine and thiamine. Postnatal mice started to exhibit BAB for thiamine and quinine at postnatal day 5 (PD5) and PD7, respectively. Histological analyses of taste buds revealed the formation of microvilli in the taste pores starting at PD5 and the localization of type 2 taste receptor 119 (TAS2R119) at the microvilli at PD6. Treatment of the tongue epithelium with cytochalasin D (CytD), which disturbs ACTIN polymerization in the microvilli, resulted in the loss of TAS2R119 localization at the microvilli and the loss of BAB for quinine and thiamine. The release of ATP from the circumvallate papillae tissue due to taste stimuli was also declined following CytD treatment. These results suggest that the localization of TAS2R119 at the microvilli of taste pores is critical for the initiation of BAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel quantified bitterness evaluation model for traditional Chinese herbs based on an animal ethology principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Jiang, Hong; Han, Li; Xiong, Xi; He, Yanan; Fu, Chaomei; Xu, Runchun; Zhang, Dingkun; Lin, Junzhi; Yang, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Traditional Chinese herbs (TCH) are currently gaining attention in disease prevention and health care plans. However, their general bitter taste hinders their use. Despite the development of a variety of taste evaluation methods, it is still a major challenge to establish a quantitative detection technique that is objective, authentic and sensitive. Based on the two-bottle preference test (TBP), we proposed a novel quantitative strategy using a standardized animal test and a unified quantitative benchmark. To reduce the difference of results, the methodology of TBP was optimized. The relationship between the concentration of quinine and animal preference index (PI) was obtained. Then the PI of TCH was measured through TBP, and bitterness results were converted into a unified numerical system using the relationship of concentration and PI. To verify the authenticity and sensitivity of quantified results, human sensory testing and electronic tongue testing were applied. The quantified results showed a good discrimination ability. For example, the bitterness of Coptidis Rhizoma was equal to 0.0579 mg/mL quinine, and Nelumbinis Folium was equal to 0.0001 mg/mL. The validation results proved that the new assessment method for TCH was objective and reliable. In conclusion, this study provides an option for the quantification of bitterness and the evaluation of taste masking effects.

  4. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of local materials in the preservation of Garcinia kola (bitter kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) was carried out using different local materials to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life. The materials were kept moist by wetting them throughout the period of study (8 weeks). The local materials used were sandy soil, jute bag, clay pot and ...

  6. Intrinsic bitterness of flavonoids and isoflavonoids and masking of their taste activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roland, W.S.U.

    2014-01-01

    Many flavonoids and isoflavonoids have been associated with beneficial health effects. Therefore, consumption of (iso)flavonoid-rich food products, and enrichment of foods with (iso)flavonoids is becoming increasingly popular. However, several (iso)flavonoids have been reported as bitter.

  7. Op het grensvlak van chemie en biotechnologie (interview met Harry Bitter)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, van J.; Bitter, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Harry Bitter, sinds twee jaar hoogleraar Biobased Chemistry & Technology aan de Wageningen Universiteit, pleit voor meer chemie en katalyse in het onderzoek naar biobased producten. ‘Mijn onderzoeksfocus ligt op hoe je de omzettingen van biomassa naar product zo optimaal mogelijk kunt uitvoeren.

  8. Extraction of bitter acids from hops and hop products using pressurized solvent extraction (PSE)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čulík, J.; Jurková, M.; Horák, T.; Čejka, P.; Kellner, V.; Dvořák, J.; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2009), s. 220-225 ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : hops * bitter acids * pressurized solvent extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  9. The effect of Yoyo bitters on the pharmacokinetics of single oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected and analyzed for paracetamol using spectrophotometric method. The values obtained for the pharmacokinetics parameters when paracetamol was administered alone falls within previously reported values. Yoyo bitters did not statistically (P>0.05) affect the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol ...

  10. Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) as an Antimicrobial Agent: Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This work investigated the effects of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) on the normal flora of the mouth. Two methods were adopted in this work. In the first method, the bacterial load of saliva samples collected after chewing Garcinia kola for days 1-5 decreased drastically when compared to bacterial load from saliva ...

  11. Notes on dredging in the Great Bitter Lake of the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1953-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the summer of 1950, the present writer spent a three weeks' holiday dredging in the Great Bitter Lake. Plans to collect specimens in that area for the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden had, unfortunately, to be drawn up somewhat hurriedly, but at least the most essential

  12. Contribution of low molecular weight phenols to bitter taste and mouthfeel properties in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between low molecular weight compounds present in wines and their sensory contribution. Six young red wines were fractionated by gel permeation chromatography and subsequently each fraction obtained was separated from sugars and acids by solid phase extraction. Wines and both fractions were in-mouth evaluated by a trained sensory panel and UPLC-MS analyses were performed. The lack of ethanol and proanthocyanidins greatly increased the acidity perceived. The elimination of organic acids enabled the description of the samples, which were evaluated as bitter, persistent and slightly astringent. Coutaric acid and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside appear to be relevant astringent compounds in the absence of proanthocyanidins. Bitter taste was highly correlated with the in-mouth persistence. A significant predictive model for bitter taste was built by means of PLSR. Further research must be carried out to validate the sensory contribution of the compounds involved in bitterness and astringency and to verify the sensory interactions observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prophylactic effect of paw-paw leaf and bitter leaf extracts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (ANOVA) and significant means separated using FLSD = LSD procedure as outlined in Obi (2002). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. In pre-soaking, paw-paw leaf (PL) extract had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the disease incidence at. 50% anthesis. Bitter leaf (BL) extract had a high signifi- cant effect (P ...

  14. Geographic differences in patterns of genetic differentiation among bitter and sweet manioc (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta; Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, E Jane; Duputié, Anne; Delêtre, Marc; Roullier, Caroline; Narváez-Trujillo, Alexandra; Manu-Aduening, Joseph A; Emshwiller, Eve; McKey, Doyle

    2013-05-01

    Manioc (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta), one of the most important tropical food crops, is commonly divided according to cyanide content into two use-categories, "sweet" and "bitter." While bitter and sweet varieties are genetically differentiated at the local scale, whether this differentiation is consistent across continents is yet unknown. • Using eight microsatellite loci, we genotyped 522 manioc samples (135 bitter and 387 sweet) from Ecuador, French Guiana, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, and Vanuatu. Genetic differentiation between use-categories was assessed using double principal coordinate analyses (DPCoA) with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Jost's measure of estimated differentiation (D(est)). Genetic structure was analyzed using Bayesian clustering analysis. • Manioc neutral genetic diversity was high in all sampled regions. Sweet and bitter manioc landraces are differentiated in South America but not in Africa. Correspondingly, bitter and sweet manioc samples share a higher proportion of neutral alleles in Africa than in South America. We also found seven clones classified by some farmers as sweet and by others as bitter. • Lack of differentiation in Africa is most likely due to postintroduction hybridization between bitter and sweet manioc. Inconsistent transfer from South America to Africa of ethnobotanical knowledge surrounding use-category management may contribute to increased hybridization in Africa. Investigating this issue requires more data on the variation in cyanogenesis in roots within and among manioc populations and how manioc diversity is managed on the farm.

  15. In vivo test of bitter (andrographis paniculata nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarmin, R.; Huda, NK; Yuniarti, E.; Violita

    2018-03-01

    Sambiloto or Bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), are often used to treat various diseases, such as influenza, cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-HIV, anti-mitotic and anti-fertility. This study aimed to determine the effects of the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm mice quality (Mus musculus L. Swiss Webster). This research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments, which are 0.0 g/b.w., (P0), 0.2 g/b.w., (P1), 0,4 g/b.w., (P3), or 0.6 g/b.w., (P4) bitter extract orally for 36 days. After treatment, the mice decapitated, dissected and collected the sperm from vas deferens. Then, the number of sperm counted by used the improved Neubauer and then stained by Eosin to count the abnormal sperm. Data analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) then DNMRT. The results showed that the average numbers of sperm are 28.80 x 105 (P0), 19.50 x 105 (P1), 12.50 x105 (P2) and 9.50 x 105 (P3). The average abnormal sperm numbers are 18.33 x 105 (P0), 22.50 x 105 (P1), 31.50 x105 (P2) and 39.33 x 105 (P3). It showed that the effective treatment to decrease sperm number was 0.2 g/b.w., of bitter extract. It can conclude that the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract decreases the quality of the ejaculated sperm of mice (Mus musculus L.)

  16. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Lower expressions of the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R in smokers: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Mieko; Takao, Tetsuya; Takao, Kyoichi; Koike, Fumihiko; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that smokers have deficit in detecting taste, particularly bitter taste, no study has investigated its biological correlate. Methods In this context, we compared the expression of the bitter taste receptor gene, taste 2 receptor (TAS2R) in the tongues of smokers and non-smokers. Tissue samples were collected from the lateral portion of the tongues of 22 smokers and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (19 males and three females) with no history of smoking...

  18. Disgust evoked by strong wormwood bitterness influences the processing of visual food cues in women: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Daniela; Giraldo, Matteo; Spiegl, Benjamin; Schienle, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The perception of intense bitterness is associated with disgust and food rejection. The present cross-modal event-related potential (ERP) study investigated whether a bitter aftertaste is able to influence affective ratings and the neuronal processing of visual food cues. We presented 39 healthy normal-weight women (mean age: 22.5 years) with images depicting high-caloric meat dishes, high-caloric sweets, and low-caloric vegetables after they had either rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea (bitter group; n = 20) or water (control group; n = 19) for 30s. The bitter aftertaste of wormwood enhanced fronto-central early potentials (N100, N200) and reduced P300 amplitudes for all food types (meat, sweets, vegetables). Moreover, meat and sweets elicited higher fronto-central LPPs than vegetables in the water group. This differentiation was absent in the bitter group, which gave lower arousal ratings for the high-caloric food. We found that a minor intervention ('bitter rinse') was sufficient to induce changes in the neuronal processing of food images reflecting increased early attention (N100, N200) as well as reduced affective value (P300, LPP). Future studies should investigate whether this intervention is able to influence eating behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ligand binding modes from low resolution GPCR models and mutagenesis: chicken bitter taste receptor as a test-case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Kruetzfeldt, Louisa-Marie; Cheled-Shoval, Shira; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-08-15

    Bitter taste is one of the basic taste modalities, warning against consuming potential poisons. Bitter compounds activate members of the bitter taste receptor (Tas2r) subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of functional Tas2rs is species-dependent. Chickens represent an intriguing minimalistic model, because they detect the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptor subtypes. We investigated the binding modes of several known agonists of a representative chicken bitter taste receptor, ggTas2r1. Because of low sequence similarity between ggTas2r1 and crystallized GPCRs (~10% identity, ~30% similarity at most), the combination of computational approaches with site-directed mutagenesis was used to characterize the agonist-bound conformation of ggTas2r1 binding site between TMs 3, 5, 6 and 7. We found that the ligand interactions with N93 in TM3 and/or N247 in TM5, combined with hydrophobic contacts, are typically involved in agonist recognition. Next, the ggTas2r1 structural model was successfully used to identify three quinine analogues (epiquinidine, ethylhydrocupreine, quinidine) as new ggTas2r1 agonists. The integrated approach validated here may be applicable to additional cases where the sequence identity of the GPCR of interest and the existing experimental structures is low.

  20. Evolution of the taste of a bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: characterization of a matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Nicklaus, S; Septier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of ripening on the taste of a typically bitter Camembert cheese. The first step was to select a typically bitter cheese among several products obtained by different processes supposed to enhance this taste defect. Second, the evolution of cheese taste during ripening was characterized from a sensory point of view. Finally, the relative impact of fat, proteins, and water-soluble molecules on cheese taste was determined by using omission tests performed on a reconstituted cheese. These omission tests showed that cheese taste resulted mainly from the gustatory properties of water-soluble molecules but was modulated by a matrix effect due to fat, proteins, and cheese structure. The evolution of this matrix effect during ripening was discussed for each taste characteristic.

  1. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions. PMID:25650336

  2. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  3. Bitter taste receptors as targets for tocolytics in preterm labor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaizhi; Lu, Ping; Delpapa, Ellen; Bellve, Karl; Deng, Ruitang; Condon, Jennifer C; Fogarty, Kevin; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Shi, Fangxiong; ZhuGe, Ronghua

    2017-09-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity, with few prevention and treatment options. Uterine contraction is a central feature of PTB, so gaining new insights into the mechanisms of this contraction and consequently identifying novel targets for tocolytics are essential for more successful management of PTB. Here we report that myometrial cells from human and mouse express bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and their canonical signaling components ( i.e., G-protein gustducin and phospholipase C β2). Bitter tastants can completely relax myometrium precontracted by different uterotonics. In isolated single mouse myometrial cells, a phenotypical bitter tastant (chloroquine, ChQ) reverses the rise in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and cell shortening induced by uterotonics, and this reversal effect is inhibited by pertussis toxin and by genetic deletion of α-gustducin. In human myometrial cells, knockdown of TAS2R14 but not TAS2R10 inhibits ChQ's reversal effect on an oxytocin-induced rise in [Ca 2+ ] i Finally, ChQ prevents mouse PTBs induced by bacterial endotoxin LPS or progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone more often than current commonly used tocolytics, and this prevention is largely lost in α-gustducin-knockout mice. Collectively, our results reveal that activation of the canonical TAS2R signaling system in myometrial cells produces profound relaxation of myometrium precontracted by a broad spectrum of contractile agonists, and that targeting TAS2Rs is an attractive approach to developing effective tocolytics for PTB management.-Zheng, K., Lu, P., Delpapa, E., Bellve, K., Deng, R., Condon, J. C., Fogarty, K., Lifshitz, L. M., Simas, T. A. M., Shi, F., ZhuGe, R. Bitter taste receptors as targets for tocolytics in preterm labor therapy. © FASEB.

  4. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production

    OpenAIRE

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2012-01-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p 

  5. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan domestic and Tibetan chicken populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan; Li, Diyan; Gaur, Uma; Wang, Yan; Wu, Nan; Chen, Binlong; Xu, Zhongxian; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The sense of bitter taste plays a critical role in animals as it can help them to avoid intake of toxic and harmful substances. Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, Tas2r2 and Tas2r7). To better understand the genetic polymorphisms and importance of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in chicken, here, we sequenced Tas2rs of 30 Sichuan domestic chickens and 30 Tibetan chickens. Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including three nonsynonymous mutations (m.359G>C, m.503C>A and m.583A>G) were detected in Tas2r1 (m. is the abbreviation for mutation); three SNPs were detected in Tas2r2, but none of them were missense mutation; eight SNPs were detected in Tas2r7 including six nonsynonymous substitutions (m.178G>A, m.421A>C, m.787C>T, m.832G>T, m.907A>T and m.943G>A). Tajima's D neutral test indicates that there is no population expansion in both populations, and the size of the population is relatively stable. All the three networks indicate that red jungle fowls share haplotypes with domestic chickens. In addition, we found that haplotypes H1 and HE1 were positively associated with high-altitude adaptation, whereas haplotypes H4 and HE4 showed a negative correlation with high-altitude adaptation in Tas2rs. Although, chicken has only three Tas2rs, our results showed that both Sichuan domestic chickens and Tibetan chickens have abundant haplotypes in Tas2rs, especially in Tas2r7, which might help chickens to recognize a wide variety of bitter-tasting compounds.

  6. Genetic analysis of the electrophysiological response to salicin, a bitter substance, in a polyphagous strain of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Iizuka

    Full Text Available Sawa-J is a polyphagous silkworm (Bombyx mori L. strain that eats various plant leaves that normal silkworms do not. The feeding preference behavior of Sawa-J is controlled by one major recessive gene(s on the polyphagous (pph locus, and several minor genes; moreover, its deterrent cells possess low sensitivity to some bitter substances including salicin. To clarify whether taste sensitivity is controlled by the pph locus, we conducted a genetic analysis of the electrophysiological characteristics of the taste response using the polyphagous strain Sawa-J·lem, in which pph is linked to the visible larval marker lemon (lem on the third chromosome, and the normal strain Daiankyo, in which the wild-type gene of pph (+(pph is marked with Zebra (Ze. Maxillary taste neurons of the two strains had similar dose-response relationships for sucrose, inositol, and strychnine nitrate, but the deterrent cell of Sawa-J·lem showed a remarkably low sensitivity to salicin. The F(1 generation of the two strains had characteristics similar to the Daiankyo strain, consistent with the idea that pph is recessive. In the BF(1 progeny between F(1 females and Sawa-J·lem males where no crossing-over occurs, the lem and Ze phenotypes corresponded to different electrophysiological reactions to 25 mM salicin, indicating that the gene responsible for taste sensitivity to salicin is located on the same chromosome as the lem and Ze genes. The normal and weak reactions to 25 mM salicin were segregated in crossover-type larvae of the BF(1 progeny produced by a reciprocal cross, and the recombination frequency agreed well with the theoretical ratio for the loci of lem, pph, and Ze on the standard linkage map. These results indicate that taste sensitivity to salicin is controlled by the gene(s on the pph locus.

  7. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

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    Ernani S. Sant’Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition of 2 and 4 % of glucose, respectively. The dark tuna meat was inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB and fermented at 10 °C for 30 days. The fermentation process was monitored through bacteriological and chemical analyses, when an increase of acidity and the corresponding decrease of pH were observed due to the prevalence of LAB. Sensorial analysis, using a test of multiple comparison, was carried out with pastes of fermented dark tuna meat and presented a significant difference when compared to the paste control, indicating the reduction of bitter taste.

  8. Orosensory-directed identification of astringent mouthfeel and bitter-tasting compounds in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Jan Carlos; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-02-27

    Application of sequential solvent extraction, followed by HPLC combined with the taste dilution analysis, enabled the localization of the most intense velvety astringent, drying, and puckering astringent, as well as bitter-tasting, compounds in red wine, respectively. Isolation of the taste components involving gel adsorption chromatography, ultrafiltration, and synthesis revealed the identification of 26 sensory-active nonvolatiles, among which several hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavon-3-ol glycosides, and dihydroflavon-3-ol rhamnosides as well as a structurally undefined polymeric fraction (>5 kDa) were identified as the key astringent components. In contradiction to literature suggestions, flavan-3-ols were found to be not of major importance for astringency and bitter taste, respectively. Surprisingly, a series of hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl esters and hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl esters were identified as bitter compounds in wine. Taste qualities and taste threshold concentrations of the individual wine components were determined by means of a three-alternative forced-choice test and the half-mouth test, respectively.

  9. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-05

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water).

  10. Overcoming chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cells: role of the bitter taste receptor T2R10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Louisa; Giese, Nathalia; Hackert, Thilo; Strobel, Oliver; Schirmacher, Peter; Felix, Klaus; Gaida, Matthias M

    2018-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are G-protein coupled transmembrane proteins initially identified in the gustatory system as sensors for the taste of bitter. Recent evidence on expression of these receptors outside gustatory tissues suggested alternative functions, and there is growing interest of their potential role in cancer biology. In this study, we report for the first time, expression and functionality of the bitter receptor family member T2R10 in both human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissue and PDAC derived cell lines. Caffeine, a known ligand for T2R10, rendered the tumor cells more susceptible to two standard chemotherapeutics, Gemcitabine and 5-Fluoruracil. Knocking down T2R10 in the cell line BxPC-3 reduced the caffeine-induced effect. As possible underlying mechanism, we found that caffeine via triggering T2R10 inhibited Akt phosphorylation and subsequently downregulated expression of ABCG2, the so-called multi-drug resistance protein that participates in rendering cells resistant to a variety of chemotherapeutics. In conclusion, T2R10 is expressed in pancreatic cancer and it downmodulates the chemoresistance of the tumor cells.

  11. Time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar (Eugenia uniflora L.) with different sweeteners: Sweetness and bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; de Lima Dutra, Mariana Borges; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-01-01

    Pitanga has been used by the Brazilian food industry mainly for juice production. This fruit shows good economic potential due to its high concentration of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the present work was to characterize the time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar sweetened with different sweeteners to verify differences on the perception of sweet and bitter tastes. The sweeteners used to replace sucrose were sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. Fifteen assessors were selected according to their discriminating capability and trained to participate in the time-intensity analysis for sweetness and bitterness. The samples prepared with sucralose and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend presented a similar sweetness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose, and the samples prepared with sucralose and aspartame presented a similar bitterness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose. Thus, sucralose would be the most suitable sweetener to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Bone marrow stromal and vascular smooth muscle cells have chemosensory capacity via bitter taste receptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy C Lund

    Full Text Available The ability of cells to detect changes in the microenvironment is important in cell signaling and responsiveness to environmental fluctuations. Our interest is in understanding how human bone marrow stromal-derived cells (MSC and their relatives, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC, interact with their environment through novel receptors. We found, through a proteomics screen, that MSC express the bitter taste receptor, TAS2R46, a protein more typically localized to the taste bud. Expression was also confirmed in VSMCs. A prototypical bitter compound that binds to the bitter taste receptor class, denatonium, increased intracellular calcium release and decreased cAMP levels as well as increased the extracellular release of ATP in human MSC. Denatonium also bound and activated rodent VSMC with a change in morphology upon compound exposure. Finally, rodents given denatonium in vivo had a significant drop in blood pressure indicating a vasodilator response. This is the first description of chemosensory detection by MSC and VSMCs via a taste receptor. These data open a new avenue of research into discovering novel compounds that operate through taste receptors expressed by cells in the marrow and vascular microenvironments.

  13. Nasal chemosensory cells use bitter taste signaling to detect irritants and bacterial signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Gulbransen, Brian D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Clapp, Tod R; Herman, Jake P; Sibhatu, Hiruy M; Churchill, Mair E A; Silver, Wayne L; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2010-02-16

    The upper respiratory tract is continually assaulted with harmful dusts and xenobiotics carried on the incoming airstream. Detection of such irritants by the trigeminal nerve evokes protective reflexes, including sneezing, apnea, and local neurogenic inflammation of the mucosa. Although free intra-epithelial nerve endings can detect certain lipophilic irritants (e.g., mints, ammonia), the epithelium also houses a population of trigeminally innervated solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) that express T2R bitter taste receptors along with their downstream signaling components. These SCCs have been postulated to enhance the chemoresponsive capabilities of the trigeminal irritant-detection system. Here we show that transduction by the intranasal solitary chemosensory cells is necessary to evoke trigeminally mediated reflex reactions to some irritants including acyl-homoserine lactone bacterial quorum-sensing molecules, which activate the downstream signaling effectors associated with bitter taste transduction. Isolated nasal chemosensory cells respond to the classic bitter ligand denatonium as well as to the bacterial signals by increasing intracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, these same substances evoke changes in respiration indicative of trigeminal activation. Genetic ablation of either G alpha-gustducin or TrpM5, essential elements of the T2R transduction cascade, eliminates the trigeminal response. Because acyl-homoserine lactones serve as quorum-sensing molecules for gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, detection of these substances by airway chemoreceptors offers a means by which the airway epithelium may trigger an epithelial inflammatory response before the bacteria reach population densities capable of forming destructive biofilms.

  14. Bitter-tasting and kokumi-enhancing molecules in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Andreas Georg; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-12-22

    Sequential application of solvent extraction and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses (TDA) and comparative TDA, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments, led to the discovery of 10 C(17)-C(21) oxylipins with 1,2,4-trihydroxy-, 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy-, and 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motifs, respectively, besides 1-O-stearoyl-glycerol and 1-O-linoleoyl-glycerol as bitter-tasting compounds in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.). On the basis of quantitative data, dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, and taste re-engineering experiments, these phytochemicals, among which 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-octadeca-12-ene was found with the highest taste impact, were confirmed to be the key contributors to the bitter off-taste developed upon thermal processing of avocado. For the first time, those C(17)-C(21) oxylipins exhibiting a 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy- and a 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motif, respectively, were discovered to induce a mouthfulness (kokumi)-enhancing activity in sub-bitter threshold concentrations.

  15. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  16. An explanation for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during ripening on the tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susamci, E.; Romero, C.; Tuncay, O.; Brenes, M.

    2017-01-01

    Harvested olives require further processing to make them edible due to their content in the bitter substance oleuropein. However, some olives of the Erkence cultivar naturally de-bitter on the tree giving rise to the so-called Hurma olives. In this study, the evolution of the chemical characteristics of Erkence and Hurma olives harvested from the northeast and southwest area of trees located in the Karaburun Peninsula was assayed. It was confirmed that the oleuropein content in Hurma olives was much lower (< 2000 mg/kg fresh weight) than Erkence, which reached 35.000 mg/kg fresh weight at the beginning of the season. In addition, no free or polymerized anthocyanins were found in Hurma fruit in contrast to ripened Erkence fruit. The concentration of glucose was also lower in Hurma than Erkence olives. These results suggest that the enzymatic oxidation of oleuropein could be responsible for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during their ripening on the tree. [es

  17. From Cell to Beak: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization of Chicken Bitter Taste Thresholds

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    Shira Cheled-Shoval

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors—ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems and in-vivo (behavioral detection thresholds. ggTas2r-selective ligands, nicotine (ggTas2r1, caffeine (ggTas2r2, erythromycin and (+-catechin (ggTas2r7, and the Tas2r-promiscuous ligand quinine (all three ggTas2rs were studied. Ligands of the same receptor had different in-vivo:in-vitro ratios, and the ggTas2r-promiscuous ligand did not exhibit lower in-vivo:in-vitro ratios than ggTas2r-selective ligands. In-vivo thresholds were similar or up to two orders of magnitude higher than the in-vitro ones.

  18. From Cell to Beak: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization of Chicken Bitter Taste Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira; Behrens, Maik; Korb, Ayelet; Di Pizio, Antonella; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Uni, Zehava; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-05-17

    Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors-ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems) and in-vivo (behavioral) detection thresholds. ggTas2r-selective ligands, nicotine (ggTas2r1), caffeine (ggTas2r2), erythromycin and (+)-catechin (ggTas2r7), and the Tas2r-promiscuous ligand quinine (all three ggTas2rs) were studied. Ligands of the same receptor had different in-vivo:in-vitro ratios, and the ggTas2r-promiscuous ligand did not exhibit lower in-vivo:in-vitro ratios than ggTas2r-selective ligands. In-vivo thresholds were similar or up to two orders of magnitude higher than the in-vitro ones.

  19. Study of the effects of the casein derived bitter tastant on the melanophores in milieu with the melatonin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubashshir, Md; Ahmed, Fraz; Ovais, Mohd

    2011-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the casein derived bitter tastant Cyclo (Leu-Trp) [CLT] has an affinity or not for the particular receptors of the pineal hormone, melatonin, on the melanophores of a major carp Labeo rohita (Ham.). The bitter tastant CLT, in the dose range of 3.34×10(-16) M to 3.34×10(-4) M, has induced an aggregatory effect but not in a dose dependent manner. Binding of CLT with the receptors may vary at different concentrations. Denervation of the melanophores has shown a complete inhibition of the CLT mediated aggregation. Prazosin has partially inhibited the aggregatory effect of CLT. Moreover, the bitter tastant's response is mediated through the α2 adrenoceptors only at particular dose ranges. The MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole and the MT2 specific antagonist K185 have perfectly blocked the aggregatory effects of CLT. We have found that the CLT mediated aggregatory effect is dependent upon the release of neurotransmitters and the two subtypes of melatonin (MT) receptors (MT1 and MT2) possess a perfect affinity towards the bitter tastant CLT. Our study demands a need to further make a clinical research on the effects of bitter tastants on the physiology of the biological rhythm maintaining hormone melatonin.

  20. Validation of a paper-disk approach to facilitate the sensory evaluation of bitterness in dairy protein hydrolysates from a newly developed food-grade fractionation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Niamh M; O'Riordan, Dolores; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Cohen, Joshua L; Heymann, Hildegarde; Barile, Daniela; Dallas, David C

    2017-06-01

    Casein-hydrolysates (NaCaH) are desirable functional ingredients, but their bitterness impedes usage in foods. This study sought to validate a paper-disk approach to help evaluate bitterness in NaCaHs and to develop a food-grade approach to separate a NaCaH into distinct fractions, which could be evaluated by a sensory panel. Membrane filtration generated sensory evaluation. Bitterness differences observed in the membrane fractions using this sensory evaluation approach reflected those observed for the same fractions presented as a liquid. The flash-chromatography fractions increased in bitterness with an increase in hydrophobicity, except for the 50% EtOH fraction which had little bitterness. Amino acid analysis of the fractions showed enrichment of different essential amino acids in both the bitter and less bitter fractions. The developed food-grade fractionation system, allowed for a simple and reasonably scaled approach to separating a NaCaH, into physicochemically different fractions that could be evaluated by a sensory panel. The method of sensory evaluation used in this study, in which NaCaH samples are impregnated into paper-disks, provided potential solutions for issues such as sample insolubility and limited quantities of sample. As the impregnated paper-disk samples were dehydrated, their long storage life could also be suitable for sensory evaluations distributed by mail for large consumer studies. The research, in this study, allowed for a greater understanding of the physicochemical basis for bitterness in this NaCaH. As some essential amino acids were enriched in the less bitter fractions, selective removal of bitter fractions could allow for the incorporation of the less bitter NaCaH fractions into food products for added nutritional value, without negatively impacting sensory properties. There is potential for this approach to be applied to other food ingredients with undesirable tastes, such as polyphenols.

  1. Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: a case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae

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    de Boer Hugo J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cucurbitaceae genus Trichosanthes comprises 90–100 species that occur from India to Japan and southeast to Australia and Fiji. Most species have large white or pale yellow petals with conspicuously fringed margins, the fringes sometimes several cm long. Pollination is usually by hawkmoths. Previous molecular data for a small number of species suggested that a monophyletic Trichosanthes might include the Asian genera Gymnopetalum (four species, lacking long petal fringes and Hodgsonia (two species with petals fringed. Here we test these groups’ relationships using a species sampling of c. 60% and 4759 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA. To infer the time and direction of the geographic expansion of the Trichosanthes clade we employ molecular clock dating and statistical biogeographic reconstruction, and we also address the gain or loss of petal fringes. Results Trichosanthes is monophyletic as long as it includes Gymnopetalum, which itself is polyphyletic. The closest relative of Trichosanthes appears to be the sponge gourds, Luffa, while Hodgsonia is more distantly related. Of six morphology-based sections in Trichosanthes with more than one species, three are supported by the molecular results; two new sections appear warranted. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses suggest an Oligocene origin of Trichosanthes in Eurasia or East Asia, followed by diversification and spread throughout the Malesian biogeographic region and into the Australian continent. Conclusions Long-fringed corollas evolved independently in Hodgsonia and Trichosanthes, followed by two losses in the latter coincident with shifts to other pollinators but not with long-distance dispersal events. Together with the Caribbean Linnaeosicyos, the Madagascan Ampelosicyos and the tropical African Telfairia, these cucurbit lineages represent an ideal system for more detailed studies of the evolution and function of petal fringes in plant

  2. Model of the process with piecewise-constant extremals to minimize losses of vitamins during the melting of melons and gourds

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    E. V. Inochkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of periods of storage of fruits of gourds is an urgent task processing industry. The most developed and available for injection is a method of dehydration of raw materials due to supply of heat transfer fluids. In addition to solid dry frame in raw materials is 80–90% water. In the period of moisture removal from raw material changes of thermal-physical and structural-mechanical and physicochemical characteristics. The ratio of water and dry matter in vegetative raw materials largely determines the modes of drying and storage conditions of the finished product. During drying, there are a number of limitations: the drying temperature should not exceed the degradation temperature of vitamins and proteins, and the magnitude of course, the moisture content of the product depends on the reaction prevention malonodinitrile sugars at the critical moisture content. An important problem of the drying of production is quality control stages of drying, the dynamics of which is quite difficult to describe using mathematical models. The main factors of optimization of industrial drying processes is preservation of valuable components of the feedstock, the drying time, energy and resource conservation. Development of effective control algorithm for the process of dehydration of raw materials described in the article on the example of drying of slices of melon. Experimental approach a two-stage process of drying of melon varieties Taman, the proposed regression model with the relaxation-based on humidity and content of vitamin C from the variable in time temperature and pressure, based on the available literature and own experimental data. According to the optimal control of the drying process to search for the thermobaric regime that maximizes the vitamin C content at the end of the drying, under specified conditions, the humidity. The main findings are the solution of the problem for the case of piecewise constant temperature and pressure in

  3. Study of mechanical and morphological properties of bio-based polyethylene (HDPE) and sponge-gourds (Luffa-cylindrica) agroresidue composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escocio, Viviane A.; Visconte, Leila L. Y.; Cavalcante, Andre de P.; Furtado, Ana Maria S.; Pacheco, Elen B. A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Brazil has a remarkable position in the use of renewable energy. The potential of natural resources in Brazil has motivated the use of these renewable resources to make technologies more sustainable. From the large variety of commercially available High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) from different sources, two were chosen for investigation: one produced from sugarcane ethanol, and the other one, a conventional polyethylene, produced from fossil resources. In the preparation of the composites, sponge-gourds also called Luffa cylindrica were selectec. The main application of this product is as bath sponge, whose production generates scraps that are generally burnt. In this work, the composites were prepared by blending the sponge scrap at different proportions (10, 20, 30 and 40% wt/wt) with high density polyethylene (HDPE) from renewable source by extrusion. The melt flow index analysis of the composites was determined and specimens were obtained by injection molding for the assessment of mechanical properties such as tensile (elasticity modulus), flexural and Izod impact strengths. The microstructure of the impact fractured surface of the specimen also was determined. The results showed that the addition of sponge scrap affects positively all the properties studied as compared to HDPE. The results of tensile strength, elasticity modulus and flexural strength were similar to those observed in the literature for composites of HDPE from fossil source. The microstructure corroborates the results of mechanical properties. It was shown that the sponge scrap has potential to be applied as cellulosic filler for renewable polyethylene, providing a totally renewable material with good mechanical properties.

  4. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity.

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    Yumie Morimoto-Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA. Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional

  5. Fenugreek with reduced bitterness prevents diet-induced metabolic disorders in rats

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    Muraki Etsuko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various therapeutic effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on metabolic disorders have been reported. However, the bitterness of fenugreek makes it hard for humans to eat sufficient doses of it for achieving therapeutic effects. Fenugreek contains bitter saponins such as protodioscin. Fenugreek with reduced bitterness (FRB is prepared by treating fenugreek with beta-glucosidase. This study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of FRB on metabolic disorders in rats. Methods Forty Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with high-fat high-sucrose (HFS diet for 12 week to induce mild glucose and lipid disorders. Afterwards, the rats were divided into 5 groups. In the experiment 1, each group (n = 8 was fed with HFS, or HFS containing 2.4% fenugreek, or HFS containing 1.2%, 2.4% and 4.8% FRB, respectively, for 12 week. In the experiment 2, we examined the effects of lower doses of FRB (0.12%, 0.24% and 1.2% under the same protocol (n = 7 in each groups. Results In the experiment 1, FRB dose-dependently reduced food intake, body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT and soleus muscle weight. FRB also lowered plasma and hepatic lipid levels and increased fecal lipid levels, both dose-dependently. The Plasma total cholesterol levels (mmol/L in the three FRB and Ctrl groups were 1.58 ± 0.09, 1.45 ± 0.05*, 1.29 ± 0.07* and 2.00 ± 0.18, respectively (*; P P P  Conclusions Thus we have demonstrated that FRB (1.2 ~ 4.8% prevents diet-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and fatty liver.

  6. Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC Drugs: Time to Take a Bitter Pill

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    Geetha Mani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC drugs are an emerging public health concern in India. With one of the huge pharmaceutical sectors in the world, India has a varied prevalence of SSSFC drugs ranging from 0.04% to 34% according to various studies. Apart from severe health consequences, SSSFC drugs also weaken community's trust in the health care system. India is tackling the epidemic of SSSFC drugs through various existing and new regulatory measures. Considering the calamitous consequences of this silent epidemic, it is time to prescribe a bitter pill.

  7. Radioimmunoassay for the citrus bitter principle, naringin, and related flavonoid-7-O-neohesperidosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdan, P.S.; Weiler, E.W.; Mansell, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoassay for the citrus bitter principle, naringin, and related flavonoid-7-O-neohesperidosides is reported. The assay detects ca. 2 ng of naringin and can be used to quantify this compound in the parts per billion (ppb) range in crude grapefruit juice and extracts of other plant tissues. The antiserum used is highly reactive with the 2-rhamnosyl-1-glucopyranose at the C-7 position but not with e.g. the isomeric 6-rhamnosyl-1-glucopyranose moiety and can, thus, be used to identify the stereochemistry of this disaccharide moiety at the C-7 position of flavanoids. The assay involves a directly iodinated naringin-[ 125 I] as immunotracer. (orig.)

  8. Association of a bitter taste receptor mutation with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN

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    Wooding Stephen P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is late-onset kidney disease thought to arise from chronic exposure to aristolochic acid, a phytotoxin that contaminates wheat supplies in rural areas of Eastern Europe. It has recently been demonstrated that humans are capable of perceiving aristolochic acid at concentrations below 40 nM as the result of high-affinity interactions with the TAS2R43 bitter taste receptor. Further, TAS2R43 harbors high-frequency loss-of-function mutations resulting in 50-fold variability in perception. This suggests that genetic variation in TAS2R43 might affect susceptibility to BEN, with individuals carrying functional forms of the receptor being protected by an ability to detect tainted foods. Methods To determine whether genetic variation in TAS2R43 predicts BEN susceptibility, we examined genotype-phenotype associations in a case–control study. A cohort of 88 affected and 99 control subjects from western Bulgaria were genotyped with respect to two key missense variants and a polymorphic whole-gene deletion of TAS2R43 (W35S, H212R, and wt/Δ, which are known to affect taste sensitivity to aristolochic acid. Tests for association between haplotypes and BEN status were then performed. Results Three major TAS2R43 haplotypes observed in previous studies (TAS2R43-W35/H212, -S35/R212 and –Δ were present at high frequencies (0.17, 0.36, and 0.47 respectively in our sample, and a significant association between genotype and BEN status was present (P = 0.020; odds ratio 1.18. However, contrary to expectation, BEN was positively associated with TAS2R43-W35/H212, a highly responsive allele previously shown to confer elevated bitter sensitivity to aristolochic acid, which should drive aversion but might also affect absorption, altering toxin activation. Conclusions Our findings are at strong odds with the prediction that carriers of functional alleles of TAS2R43 are protected from BEN by an ability to detect and

  9. Effect of IL-1 and gustducin expression change on bitter taste during fever

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    Jenny Sunariani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic changes in the body, such as fever, cause inflammation, whose one of its impacts is the sense of bitterness inside the mouth. It implies in the reduction of appetite, which may finally result in the reduction of physical condition due to the inadequacy of food intake. It causes the inhibition of healing process, which reduces working productivity. The objective of this study was to identify the mechanism of bitterness due to inflammation, as proved locally in the taste buds of Wistar rats. This study was carried out experimentally using post-test only control design in experimental animals of male Wistar strain Rattus norvegicus. The animals were divided into two groups. First group served as control, while the second group received treatment with Salmonella typhimurium 0.5 ml/kg BW. Blood sample and tongue incision were taken from the animals. IL-1 was counted, and tongue incision was used for immunohistochemical staining for the variables of gustducin. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for data normality, and followed with comparative test. The discriminant analysis was also done to find the discriminant variable. It was found that there was an increase of biological response of signaling transduction of bitterness in taste buds, as indicated from the increase of gustducin in treatment group or in inflammatory fever condition as compared to control group (p < 0.05, but no change of concertation at IL-1 significan whenever there was any change of concertation by unfolding its mechanism. Further studies can be recommended to find the way to inhibit this sense of bitterness. The results are intended to overcome homeostatic disorder in the body to prevent loss of appetite, so that physical endurance can be maintained. It concluded that there is no increase of serum IL-1 expression in fever, but there is a significanly increase of taste buds gustducin. Further studies should focus on gustducin cellular role in other

  10. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  12. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

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    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  13. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  14. Animal Feeding Operations

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    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  15. Bio-active Compounds of Bitter Melon Genotypes (Momordica charantia L. in Relation to Their Physiological Functions

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    Navam S. Hettiarachchy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L is one of the most popular cooked vegetables in many Asian countries. Its experimental use in mice has indicated improvement in glucose tolerance against Type II diabetes and reduction in blood cholesterol. However, it has not been proven which alkaloids, polypeptides, or their combinations in the Bitter Melon extract are responsible for the medicinal effects. Green and white varieties of Bitter Melon differ strikingly in their bitter tastes, green being much more bitter than white. It is not yet known whether they are different in their special nutritional and hypoglycemic properties. Nutritional qualities of Bitter Melons such as protein, amino acids, minerals, and polyphenolics contents were determined using four selected varieties such as Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG], and Chinese White [CW] grown at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff [UAPB] Agricultural Research Center. Results indicated that protein levels of IW were significantly higher than IG in both flesh and seed. Methods: Four Bitter Melon varieties, Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG] and Chinese White [CW] were used for phytochemical analyses to determine protein contents, protein hydrolysis, amino acids contents, and their antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. All analyses were conducted following standard methods. Statistical analyses wereconducted using JMP 5 software package [SAS]. The Tukey’s HSD procedure was used for the significance of differences at the 5% level. Results: Moisture contents across the four varieties of Bitter Melon flesh ranged between 92.4 and 93.5%, and that of seed ranged between 53.3 and 75.9%. Protein contents of the flesh were highest in IW [9.8%] and lowest in CG [8.4%]. Seed protein contents were the highest in IW [31.3%] and lowest in IG [27.0%]. Overall, white varieties had higher protein contents than the green varieties. Compared with soy

  16. Evolution of the composition of a selected bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: release and migration of taste-active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Tournier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to add to the understanding of changes in taste that occur during the ripening of a bitter Camembert cheese by the evolution of its composition. Physicochemical analyses were performed on rind, under-rind, and center portions of a Camembert cheese selected for its intense bitterness. At each of the six steps of ripening studied organic acids, sugars, total nitrogen, soluble nitrogen, phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Pi, Cl, and biogenic amines were quantified in each portion. Changes in cheese composition seemed to mainly result from the development of Penicillium camemberti on the cheese outer layer. Migration phenomena and the release of potentially taste-active compounds allowed for the evolution of saltiness, sourness, and bitterness throughout ripening to be better understood. Apart from taste-active compounds, the impact of the cheese matrix on its taste development is discussed.

  17. Uptake of calcium-45 by apple trees at different levels of moisture in relation to the occurrence of bitter pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanekom, A.N.; Deist, J.; Blommaert, K.L.J.

    1975-01-01

    Uptake and translocation of recently absorbed Ca ( 45 Ca) and total calcium by Golden Delicious apple trees grown in sand culture at different moisture levels were investigated in relation to bitter pit. Growth and development of the trees were significantly retarded by low moisture supply. Moisture stress not only lowered calcium uptake and/or translocation but also significantly decreased the concentration of recently absorbed calcium in the different parts of the tree. Except for the leaves where moisture stress significantly decreased the total calcium concentration, it did not affect the concentration in other parts of the tree. Although the fruit contributed only 5,8% to the total calcium content of the top parts of the tree, this amount of Ca realised a sufficiently high calcium concentration in the fruit to prevent bitter pit. There was no correlation within the experimental period between moisture supply to the trees and the calcium concentration in the fruit or the incidence of bitter pit [af

  18. Origin and differential selection of allelic variation at TAS2R16 associated with salicin bitter taste sensitivity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael C; Ranciaro, Alessia; Zinshteyn, Daniel; Rawlings-Goss, Renata; Hirbo, Jibril; Thompson, Simon; Woldemeskel, Dawit; Froment, Alain; Rucker, Joseph B; Omar, Sabah A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Nyambo, Thomas; Belay, Gurja; Drayna, Dennis; Breslin, Paul A S; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-02-01

    Bitter taste perception influences human nutrition and health, and the genetic variation underlying this trait may play a role in disease susceptibility. To better understand the genetic architecture and patterns of phenotypic variability of bitter taste perception, we sequenced a 996 bp region, encompassing the coding exon of TAS2R16, a bitter taste receptor gene, in 595 individuals from 74 African populations and in 94 non-Africans from 11 populations. We also performed genotype-phenotype association analyses of threshold levels of sensitivity to salicin, a bitter anti-inflammatory compound, in 296 individuals from Central and East Africa. In addition, we characterized TAS2R16 mutants in vitro to investigate the effects of polymorphic loci identified at this locus on receptor function. Here, we report striking signatures of positive selection, including significant Fay and Wu's H statistics predominantly in East Africa, indicating strong local adaptation and greater genetic structure among African populations than expected under neutrality. Furthermore, we observed a "star-like" phylogeny for haplotypes with the derived allele at polymorphic site 516 associated with increased bitter taste perception that is consistent with a model of selection for "high-sensitivity" variation. In contrast, haplotypes carrying the "low-sensitivity" ancestral allele at site 516 showed evidence of strong purifying selection. We also demonstrated, for the first time, the functional effect of nonsynonymous variation at site 516 on salicin phenotypic variance in vivo in diverse Africans and showed that most other nonsynonymous substitutions have weak or no effect on cell surface expression in vitro, suggesting that one main polymorphism at TAS2R16 influences salicin recognition. Additionally, we detected geographic differences in levels of bitter taste perception in Africa not previously reported and infer an East African origin for high salicin sensitivity in human populations.

  19. TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms, frequency of bitter food intake, and blood biomarkers among elderly woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Stecyna, Joanna; Malinowska, Anna M; Chmurzynska, Agata

    2017-09-01

    Taste sensitivity is one of the most important biological determinants of food choice. Three SNPs of the TAS2R38 gene (rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939) give rise to two common haplotypes: PAV and AVI. These haplotypes, as well as an SNP within the CA6 gene (rs2274333) that encodes carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6), correlate with bitterness perception. The extent of consumption of bitter food may influence some health outcomes. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the impact of the TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms on the choice of bitter food, BMI, blood lipoprotein, and glucose concentrations as well as systemic inflammation in elderly women. The associations between the TAS2R38 diplotype, CA6 genotype, and the intake of bitter-tasting foods were studied in a group of 118 Polish women over 60 years of age. The intake of Brassica vegetables, grapefruit, and coffee was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical parameters were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Genotyping was performed using the high resolution melting method. We found a correlation between lipid profile, glucose and CRP levels, and frequency of bitter food intake. The AVI/AVI subjects drank coffee more frequently than did the PAV/PAV homozygotes, as did the A carriers of CA6 in comparison with the GG homozygotes. We also observed that simultaneous carriers of the PAV haplotype and A allele of TAS2R38 and CA6, respectively, choose white cabbage more frequent and had lower plasma levels of CRP and glucose than did AVI/AVI and GG homozygotes. In elderly women, the TAS2R38 and CA6 polymorphisms may affect the frequency of consumption of coffee and white cabbage, but not of other bitter-tasting foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Métodos para predição de bitter pit em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Braeburn' Methods for bitter pit prediction in Fuji and Braeburn apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sestari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram conduzidos com objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de métodos para predição da ocorrência de bitter pit em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Braeburn' em duas épocas de amostragem. Os frutos, provenientes de seis pomares distintos, três para cada cultivar, foram coletados antecipadamente (20 dias em relação à colheita e na data prevista para a colheita comercial. Os métodos de predição utilizados foram: a infiltração dos frutos com solução 0,10M MgCl2 mais 0,01% Tween-20 e 0,4M de sorbitol; b imersão dos frutos em solução com 2500nL L-1 de ethephon mais 0,01% Tween-20. Os frutos foram armazenados em atmosfera controlada (AC por cinco meses mais 12 dias, a 20°C, simulando a incidência real de bitter pit em armazenamento comercial. Cada tratamento foi constituído por quatro repetições de 25 frutos. A incidência e severidade de bitter pit, prevista por ambos os métodos foi semelhante à ocorrência real de bitter pit após o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada para cada uma das cultivares utilizadas, quando os frutos foram amostrados antecipadamente em relação à colheita comercial. Na avaliação realizada com frutos amostrados na colheita comercial, nenhum dos métodos foi capaz de prever a incidência de bitter pit após o armazenamento de maneira confiável. Para ambas as cultivares, a infiltração com magnésio e a imersão dos frutos em ethephon só são eficientes na predição da incidência de bitter pit em frutos coletados 20 dias antes da colheita comercial.Experiments were carried out with objective to evaluate the efficiency of methods for bitter pit prediction in 'Fuji' and 'Braeburn' apples sampled at two harvest dates. Fruits from 6 orchards, three for each cultivar, were sampled earlier (20 days before harvest and at commercial harvest date. The prediction methods assessed were: infiltration of apples with 0.10M MgCl2 solution containing 0.01% Tween-20 and 0.4M sorbitol; and immersion of fruits in 2

  1. In vitro evaluation of potential bitterness-masking terpenoids from the Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Fletcher, Joshua N; Lv, Wei; Deng, Ye; Vincent, Michael A; Slack, Jay P; McCluskey, T Scott; Jia, Zhonghua; Cushman, Mark; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2014-07-25

    In a screening of extracts of selected plants native to Ohio against the human bitterness receptor hTAS2R31, a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod) was determined to have hTAS2R31 antagonistic activity and, thus, was fractionated for isolation of potential bitterness-masking agents. One new labdane diterpenoid, solidagol (1), and six known terpenoids, including two labdane diterpenoids (2 and 3), three clerodane diterpenoids (6β-angeloyloxykolavenic acid, 6β-tigloyloxykolavenic acid, and crotonic acid), and a triterpenoid (longispinogenin), were isolated. Among these compounds, 3β-acetoxycopalic acid (2) was found to be the first member of the labdane diterpene class shown to have inhibitory activity against hTAS2R31 activation (IC50 8 μM). A homology model of hTAS2R31 was constructed, and the molecular docking of 2 to this model indicated that this diterpenoid binds well to the active site of hTAS2R31, whereas this was not the case for the closely structurally related compound 3 (sempervirenic acid). The content of 2 in the chloroform-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of S. canadensis was up to 2.24 g/100 g dry weight, as determined by HPLC.

  2. Some bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of the bitter almond kernel (prunus dulcis var. amara)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keser, S.; Yilmaz, O.

    2014-01-01

    in this study, it was determined antioxidant activities and phenolic, flavonoid, phytosterol, lipid soluble vitamin and fatty acid contents of bitter almond kernel extract (bae). antioxidant activities of bae was investigated by dppho, abtso+, oho radical scavenging, metal chelating activity and determination of lipid peroxidation levels (tbars). bae was scavenged 83.49% of the abts radical, 68.34% of the hydroxyl radical, and 68.65% of the dpph radical. this extract was shown 49.36% of the metal chelating activity myricetin (1831.52 mu g/g), kaempferol (104.52 mu g/g), naringenin (2.51 mu g/g), vanillic acid (91.70 mu g/g), caffeic acid (85.92 mu g/g), ferulic acid (27.11 mu g/g) rosmarinic acid (0.95 mu g/g), hydroxycinnamic acid (1.35 mu g/g), delta-tocopherol (4.95 mg/kg), mu-tocopherol (104.15 mg/kg), vitamin k (42.25 mg/kg), beta-sitosterol (366.95 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (242.65 mg/kg) were determined in the bae. the major fatty acids were oleic acid (70.61%) and linoleic acid (20.68%) in the bae. these results indicate that bitter almond can be a good natural source of fatty acids, lipid soluble vitamins, phytosterols, flavonoid, phenolic compounds. (author)

  3. Fluorescence-based optimization of human bitter taste receptor expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Taishi; Ito, Keisuke; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Tokuda, Natsuko; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Misaka, Takumi; Nomura, Norimichi; Murata, Takeshi; Abe, Keiko; Iwata, So

    2009-01-01

    Human TAS2 receptors (hTAS2Rs) perceive bitter tastants, but few studies have explored the structure-function relationships of these receptors. In this paper, we report our trials on the large-scale preparations of hTAS2Rs for structural analysis. Twenty-five hTAS2Rs were expressed using a GFP-fusion yeast system in which the constructs and the culture conditions (e.g., the signal sequence, incubation time and temperature after induction) were optimized by measuring GFP fluorescence. After optimization, five hTAS2Rs (hTAS2R7, hTAS2R8, hTAS2R16, hTAS2R41, and hTAS2R48) were expressed at levels greater than 1 mg protein/L of culture, which is a preferable level for purification and crystallization. Among these five bitter taste receptors, hTAS2R41 exhibited the highest detergent solubilization efficiency of 87.1% in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM)/cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Fluorescence size-exclusion chromatography showed that hTAS2R41 exhibited monodispersity in DDM/CHS without aggregates, suggesting that hTAS2R41 is a good target for future crystallization trials.

  4. Dextromethorphan mediated bitter taste receptor activation in the pulmonary circuit causes vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D; Singh, Nisha; Sikarwar, Anurag S; Chakraborty, Raja; Pydi, Sai P; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Chelikani, Prashen

    2014-01-01

    Activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in human airway smooth muscle cells leads to muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This finding led to our hypothesis that T2Rs are expressed in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and might be involved in regulating the vascular tone. RT-PCR was performed to reveal the expression of T2Rs in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Of the 25 T2Rs, 21 were expressed in these cells. Functional characterization was done by calcium imaging after stimulating the cells with different bitter agonists. Increased calcium responses were observed with most of the agonists, the largest increase seen for dextromethorphan. Previously in site-directed mutational studies, we have characterized the response of T2R1 to dextromethorphan, therefore, T2R1 was selected for further analysis in this study. Knockdown with T2R1 specific shRNA decreased mRNA levels, protein levels and dextromethorphan-induced calcium responses in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells by up to 50%. To analyze if T2Rs are involved in regulating the pulmonary vascular tone, ex vivo studies using pulmonary arterial and airway rings were pursued. Myographic studies using porcine pulmonary arterial and airway rings showed that stimulation with dextromethorphan led to contraction of the pulmonary arterial and relaxation of the airway rings. This study shows that dextromethorphan, acting through T2R1, causes vasoconstrictor responses in the pulmonary circuit and relaxation in the airways.

  5. Dextromethorphan mediated bitter taste receptor activation in the pulmonary circuit causes vasoconstriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir D Upadhyaya

    Full Text Available Activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs in human airway smooth muscle cells leads to muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This finding led to our hypothesis that T2Rs are expressed in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and might be involved in regulating the vascular tone. RT-PCR was performed to reveal the expression of T2Rs in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Of the 25 T2Rs, 21 were expressed in these cells. Functional characterization was done by calcium imaging after stimulating the cells with different bitter agonists. Increased calcium responses were observed with most of the agonists, the largest increase seen for dextromethorphan. Previously in site-directed mutational studies, we have characterized the response of T2R1 to dextromethorphan, therefore, T2R1 was selected for further analysis in this study. Knockdown with T2R1 specific shRNA decreased mRNA levels, protein levels and dextromethorphan-induced calcium responses in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells by up to 50%. To analyze if T2Rs are involved in regulating the pulmonary vascular tone, ex vivo studies using pulmonary arterial and airway rings were pursued. Myographic studies using porcine pulmonary arterial and airway rings showed that stimulation with dextromethorphan led to contraction of the pulmonary arterial and relaxation of the airway rings. This study shows that dextromethorphan, acting through T2R1, causes vasoconstrictor responses in the pulmonary circuit and relaxation in the airways.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on bitter pit of apple fruits (Malus Domestica Borkh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2000-12-01

    Tow varieties of apple fruits Golden and Starking were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kGy and with 0, 1.0, 1.5 kGy respectively. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 centigrade and relative humidity of 80 to 90%. Fruit quality (firmness, skin thickness and bitter pit) and juice characteristics (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, organic acids, Ph, and viscosity), were determined during storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months). The used doses of gamma irradiation significantly decreased the percentage and intensity of bitter pit. Irradiated fruits were softer immediately after irradiation and through storage periods, there were no differences in firmness between irradiated and unirradiated fruits. Gamma irradiation increased the thickness of skin in Golden fruits and decreased it in Starking. Juice production from both varieties immediately after irradiation was not affected by gamma irradiation. However the juice produced from irradiated fruits had higher organic acids (citric and malic acids), viscosity and Ph values than the control. (author)

  7. Intensity of bitterness of processed yerba mate leaves originated in two contrasted light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rakocevic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness intensity of beverage prepared from the leaves produced on the males and females of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, grown in the forest understory and monoculture, was evaluated. The leaves were grouped by their position (in the crown and on the branch tips and by the leaf age. The leaf gas exchange, leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density were observed. Inter and intra-specific competition for light and self-shading showed the same effect on yerba mate beverage taste. All the shading types resulted in bitterer taste of the processed yerba mate leaves compared to the leaves originated under the direct sun exposure. The leaves from the plants grown in the monoculture showed less bitterness than those grown in the forest understory. This conclusion was completely opposite to the conventionally accepted paradigm of the yerba mate industries. The leaves from the tips (younger leaves of the plants grown in the monoculture resulted a beverage of softer taste; the males produced less bitter leaves in any light environment (forest understory or in the crown in monoculture. The taste was related to the photosynthetic and transpiration rate, and leaf temperature. Stronger bitterness of the leaves provided from the shade conditions was related to the decreased leaf temperature and transpiration in the diurnal scale.Mediu-se a intensidade de amargor da bebida preparada a partir de folhas da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis de diversas idades, situadas em duas posições na copa (interior e ponteiras, produzidas por plantas masculinas e femininas cultivadas na floresta antropizada e em monocultura. As trocas gasosas foliares, a temperatura de folhas e a densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos também foram medidas. Com isso verificou-se que a idéia corrente de que o sombreamento está diretamente relacionado ao sabor suave do chimarrão é completamente equivocada, já que as competições inter- e intra

  8. Bitter EJB

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce; Lee, Bob; Linskey, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Addressing the storming controversy of EJB head-on, this guide discusses framework problems and common traps that can snare unwary developers. Advice is provided for choosing persistence strategies beyond EJB entity beans and a list of several entity bean antipatterns. Also offered are session bean and messaging antipatterns and a compelling discussion about how and when to use problematic stateful session beans. Solutions to difficult problems such as effective builds and performance tuning are furnished. Designed for EJB developers, architects, programmers, and project managers, this authoritative reference attacks basic Java programming problems to establish antipatterns as a serious field for Java developers in a well-known context.

  9. Bitter Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Multimedia (Video, Images, and Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly newsletter with evidence-based information on ... require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader . NCCIH Publication No.: D390 Updated: September 2016 Print ...

  10. bitter leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIFE SCIENCE

    use of these creams may have deleterious (mutagenic) effect on the genetic material (DNA) of ... clair, Fair and white), using the modified Ames test (with and without ... revertant strains of the organism with at least three alterations in the ...

  11. Análise multivariada de atributos nutricionais associados ao "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Gala' Multivariate analysis of nutritional attributes associated with bitter pit in 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar atributos nutricionais, quantificados na polpa e na casca dos frutos, que melhor discriminam quanto à severidade de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'Gala'. Depois de quatro meses de armazenamento em atmosfera normal (0-1°C; 90-95% UR, os frutos foram separados em quatro lotes, de acordo com a severidade de incidência de "bitter pit": nula (nenhuma lesão por fruto, baixa (1-2 lesões por fruto, moderada (3-4 lesões por fruto e alta (5-13 lesões por fruto. Foram determinados os teores de Ca, Mg, K e N na casca e na polpa em frutos individuais (doze frutos de cada lote. A análise univariada mostrou que os frutos com sintomas de "bitter pit" apresentaram menor teor de Ca na casca e na polpa, maior teor de K na casca e maiores valores das relações K/Ca, Mg/Ca, N/Ca, (K+Mg/Ca e (K+Mg+N/Ca, tanto na casca como na polpa. Todavia, quando todos os atributos nutricionais avaliados na casca e na polpa foram submetidos à análise canônica discriminante (análise multivariada, a melhor discriminação entre frutos sem "bitter pit" e frutos com severidade de incidência de "bitter pit" de baixa a alta é obtida com a relação K/Ca na casca, seguido, em menor grau, pelas relações Mg/Ca e N/Ca na polpa.The objective of this work was to identify nutritional attributes, assessed in the flesh and skin tissues, that provide a better discrimination regarding bitter pit severity in 'Gala' apples. After four months in regular cold storage (0-1°C; 90-95% RH, fruits were segregated into four lots with different levels of bitter pit severity: null (none pit per fruit, low (1-2 pits per fruit, moderate (3-4 pits per fruit, and high (5-13 pits per fruit. Nutritional analysis (Ca, Mg, K and N in the skin and in the flesh tissues were performed on twelve individual fruits of each severity level. The univariate analysis showed that fruits with bitter pit symptoms had lower concentration of Ca in the skin and flesh tissues, a

  12. EFFECT OF A BITTER BOLUS ON ORAL, PHARYNGEAL AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT OF HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Tavares ALVES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. Objective To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Method Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea, and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m. Results There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. Conclusion A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus. Contexto Durante a deglutição o bolo estimula os receptores sensoriais da boca, faringe, laringe e esôfago. Os alimentos doces e sem gosto são mais aceitáveis para a deglutição do que os alimentos amargos, que tem gosto desagradável para a maioria dos indivíduos. A hipótese destes autores era que a ingestão de um bolo amargo pode alterar o trânsito oral

  13. The effect of leaf presence on the rooting of stem cutting of bitter melon and on changes in polyamine levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study was conducted to investigate the optimal hormone treatment for rooting in bitter melon and the effect of defoliation on rooting and polyamine levels. Commercial preparation (diluted 1:10 and 1: 20) gave extensive rooting within five days after treatment. The presence of leaf with the stem ...

  14. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides.

  15. First report of Colletotrichum godetiae causing bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Lans, van der A.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 418,000 tons in 2011. Symptoms of apple bitter rot were observed on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands in July 2013 after 9 months of storage in a packing house at controlled atmosphere.

  16. Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Wood, Elizabeth; Rogel Castillo, Cristian; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2013-08-14

    Amygdalin is a cynaogenic diglucoside responsible for the bitterness of almonds. Almonds display three flavor phenotypes, nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter. Herein, the amygdalin content of 20 varieties of nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds from four primary growing regions of California was determined using solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS). The detection limit for this method is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL (3 times the signal-to-noise ratio) and the LOQ is 0.33 ng/mL (10 times the signal-to-noise ratio), allowing for the reliable quantitation of trace levels of amygdalin in nonbitter almonds (0.13 mg/kg almond). Results indicate that amygdalin concentrations for the three flavor phenotypes were significantly different (p almonds are 63.13 ± 57.54, 992.24 ± 513.04, and 40060.34 ± 7855.26 mg/kg, respectively. Levels of amygdalin ranged from 2.16 to 157.44 mg/kg in nonbitter, from 523.50 to 1772.75 mg/kg in semibitter, and from 33006.60 to 53998.30 mg/kg in bitter almonds. These results suggest that phenotype classification may be achieved on the basis of amygdalin levels. Growing region had a statistically significant effect on the amygdalin concentration in commercial varieties (p < 0.05).

  17. 77 FR 21797 - Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Ventura, Kern, San Luis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-R-2011-N253: FXRS12650800000S3-112-FF08R00000] Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Ventura, Kern, San Luis... acres, primarily in Kern County and extending into San Luis Obispo and Ventura Counties. Blue Ridge NWR...

  18. The human taste receptor hTAS2R14 responds to a variety of different bitter compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Maik; Brockhoff, Anne; Kuhn, Christina; Bufe, Bernd; Winnig, Marcel; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The recent advances in the functional expression of TAS2Rs in heterologous systems resulted in the identification of bitter tastants that specifically activate receptors of this family. All bitter taste receptors reported to date exhibit a pronounced selectivity for single substances or structurally related bitter compounds. In the present study we demonstrate the expression of the hTAS2R14 gene by RT-PCR analyses and in situ hybridisation in human circumvallate papillae. By functional expression in HEK-293T cells we show that hTAS2R14 displays a, so far, unique broad tuning towards a variety of structurally diverse bitter compounds, including the potent neurotoxins, (-)-α-thujone, the pharmacologically active component of absinthe, and picrotoxinin, a poisonous substance of fishberries. The observed activation of heterologously expressed hTAS2R14 by low concentrations of (-)-α-thujone and picrotoxinin suggests that the receptor is sufficiently sensitive to caution us against the ingestion of toxic amounts of these substances

  19. Bitterness intensity prediction of berberine hydrochloride using an electronic tongue and a GA-BP neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruixin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Xiaojie; Li, Huiling; Shi, Junhan; Li, Xuelin

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the bitterness intensity of a drug using an electronic tongue (e-tongue). The model drug of berberine hydrochloride was used to establish a bitterness prediction model (BPM), based on the taste evaluation of bitterness intensity by a taste panel, the data provided by the e-tongue and a genetic algorithm-back-propagation neural network (GA-BP) modeling method. The modeling characteristics of the GA-BP were compared with those of multiple linear regression, partial least square regression and BP methods. The determination coefficient of the BPM was 0.99965±0.00004, the root mean square error of cross-validation was 0.1398±0.0488 and the correlation coefficient of the cross-validation between the true and predicted values was 0.9959±0.0027. The model is superior to the other three models based on these indicators. In conclusion, the model established in this study has a high fitting degree and may be used for the bitterness prediction modeling of berberine hydrochloride of different concentrations. The model also provides a reference for the generation of BPMs of other drugs. Additionally, the algorithm of the study is able to conduct a rapid and accurate quantitative analysis of the data provided by the e-tongue.

  20. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  1. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Fraser

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open

  2. Immunocytochemical evidence for co-expression of Type III IP3 receptor with signaling components of bitter taste transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnamon Sue C

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli into electrical signals that lead to the sense of taste. An important second messenger in taste transduction is IP3, which is involved in both bitter and sweet transduction pathways. Several components of the bitter transduction pathway have been identified, including the T2R/TRB taste receptors, phospholipase C β2, and the G protein subunits α-gustducin, β3, and γ13. However, the identity of the IP3 receptor subtype in this pathway is not known. In the present study we used immunocytochemistry on rodent taste tissue to identify the IP3 receptors expressed in taste cells and to examine taste bud expression patterns for IP3R3. Results Antibodies against Type I, II, and III IP3 receptors were tested on sections of rat and mouse circumvallate papillae. Robust cytoplasmic labeling for the Type III IP3 receptor (IP3R3 was found in a large subset of taste cells in both species. In contrast, little or no immunoreactivity was seen with antibodies against the Type I or Type II IP3 receptors. To investigate the potential role of IP3R3 in bitter taste transduction, we used double-label immunocytochemistry to determine whether IP3R3 is expressed in the same subset of cells expressing other bitter signaling components. IP3R3 immunoreactive taste cells were also immunoreactive for PLCβ2 and γ13. Alpha-gustducin immunoreactivity was present in a subset of IP3R3, PLCβ2, and γ13 positive cells. Conclusions IP3R3 is the dominant form of the IP3 receptor expressed in taste cells and our data suggest it plays an important role in bitter taste transduction.

  3. Relationship between the Amount of Bitter Substances Adsorbed onto Lipid/Polymer Membrane and the Electric Response of Taste Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Toko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness of bitter substances can be measured by the change in the membrane electric potential caused by adsorption (CPA using a taste sensor (electronic tongue. In this study, we examined the relationship between the CPA value due to an acidic bitter substance and the amount of the bitter substance adsorbed onto lipid/polymer membranes, which contain different lipid contents, used in the taste sensor. We used iso-α-acid which is an acidic bitter substance found in several foods and beverages. The amount of adsorbed iso-α-acid, which was determined by spectroscopy, showed a maximum at the lipid concentration 0.1 wt % of the membrane, and the same phenomenon was observed for the CPA value. At the higher lipid concentration, however, the amount adsorbed decreased and then remained constant, while the CPA value decreased monotonically to zero. This constant adsorption amount was observed when the membrane potential in the reference solution did not change with increasing lipid concentration. The decrease in CPA value in spite of the constant adsorption amount is caused by a decrease in the sensitivity of the membrane as the surface charge density increases. The reason why the peaks appeared in both the CPA value and adsorption amount is based on the contradictory adsorption properties of iso-α-acid. The increasing charged lipid concentration of the membrane causes an increasing electrostatic attractive interaction between iso-α-acid and the membrane, but simultaneously causes a decreasing hydrophobic interaction that results in decreasing adsorption of iso-α-acid, which also has hydrophobic properties, onto the membrane. Estimates of the amount of adsorption suggest that iso-α-acid molecules are adsorbed onto both the surface and interior of the membrane.

  4. Identification of a bitter-taste receptor gene repertoire in different Lagomorphs species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The repertoires of bitter taste receptor (T2R gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, Lepus europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi and Sylvilagus floridanus, using Oryctolagus cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of Oryctolagus cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in Romerolagus diazi and Sylvilagus floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification.

  5. Design and experimental results of the 1-T Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W. J.; Romero-Talamás, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) technical prototype of the 10 T Adjustable Long Pulsed High-Field Apparatus. BETA's final design specifications are highlighted in this paper which include electromagnetic, thermal, and stress analyses. We discuss here the design and fabrication of BETA's core, vessel, cooling, and electrical subsystems. The electrical system of BETA is composed of a scalable solid-state DC breaker circuit. Experimental results display the stable operation of BETA at 1 T. These results are compared to both analytical design and finite element calculations. Experimental results validate analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory. The theoretical steady state maxima and the limits of BETA's design are explored in this paper.

  6. A code for calculating force and temperature of a bitter plate type toroidal field coil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, U.

    1989-01-01

    To assist the design effort of the TF coils for CIT, a set of programs was developed to calculate the transient spatial distribution of the current density, the temperature and the forces in the TF coil conductor region. The TF coils are of the Bitter (disk) type design and therefore have negligible variation of current density in the toroidal direction. During the TF pulse, voltages are induced which cause the field and current to diffuse in the minor radial direction. This penetration, combined with the increase of resistance due to the temperature rise determines the distribution of the current. After the current distribution has been determined, the in-plane (TF-TF) and the out-of-plane (TF-PF) forces in the conductor are computed. The predicted currents and temperatures have been independently corroborated using the SPARK code which has been modified for this type of problem. 6 figs

  7. Analysis of a Lipid/Polymer Membrane for Bitterness Sensing with a Preconditioning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yatabe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to evaluate the taste of foods or medicines using a taste sensor. The taste sensor converts information on taste into an electrical signal using several lipid/polymer membranes. A lipid/polymer membrane for bitterness sensing can evaluate aftertaste after immersion in monosodium glutamate (MSG, which is called “preconditioning”. However, we have not yet analyzed the change in the surface structure of the membrane as a result of preconditioning. Thus, we analyzed the change in the surface by performing contact angle and surface zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS and gas cluster ion beam time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-TOF-SIMS. After preconditioning, the concentrations of MSG and tetradodecylammonium bromide (TDAB, contained in the lipid membrane were found to be higher in the surface region than in the bulk region. The effect of preconditioning was revealed by the above analysis methods.

  8. Dual functional extracellular recording using a light-addressable potentiometric sensor for bitter signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Wang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Luhang; Wu, Chunsheng; Wang, Ping

    2018-08-31

    This paper presents a dual functional extracellular recording biosensor based on a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The design and fabrication of this biosensor make it possible to record both extracellular membrane potential changes and ATP release from a single taste bud cell for the first time. For detecting ATP release, LAPS chip was functionalized with ATP-sensitive DNA aptamer by covalent immobilization. Taste bud cells isolated from rat were cultured on LAPS surface. When the desired single taste bud cell was illuminated by modulated light, ATP release from single taste bud cells can be measured by recording the shifts of bias voltage-photocurrent curves (I-V curves) when the LAPS chip is working in discrete mode. On the other hand, extracellular membrane potential changes can be monitored by recording the fluctuation of LAPS photocurrent when the LAPS chip is working in continuous mode. The results show this biosensor can effectively record the enhancive effect of the bitter substance and inhibitory effect of the carbenoxolone (CBX) on the extracellular membrane potential changes and ATP release of single taste bud cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of CBX also confirms LAPS extracellular recordings are originated from bitter signal transduction. It is proved this biosensor is suitable for extracellular recording of ATP release and membrane potential changes of single taste bud cells. It is suggested this biosensor could be applied to investigating taste signal transduction at the single-cell level as well as applied to other types of cells which have similar functions to taste bud cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti diabetic effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melone on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakaiah Vangoori, Mishra SS, Ambudas B, Ramesh P, Meghavani G, Deepika K, Prathibha A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the anti diabetic effect of the bitter melon on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental animals (rabbits. Materials and Methods: the alcohol extract of whole fruit was tested for its efficacy in Alloxan (150mg/kg induced diabetic rabbit. The diabetic rabbits were divided into 5groups. Group I (control received 2% gumacasia, groupie (positive control received standard drug Metformin (62.5mg+2%GA, group III, IV, V (T1 T2 T3 were treated orally with a daily dose of 0.5(gm 1gm, 1.5gm respectively for 35 days, for all diabetic rabbits after giving TEST,NC,PC preparations, the blood samples were collected and determined the blood glucose level 0,1,3,24hrs intervals. 0hr reading is before drug giving and remaining 3 readings after drugs giving. 24th her reading is considered as 0hr reading for the next day. Results: administration of alcohol of an extract of bitter melon produced a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels in Alloxan induced rabbits. There was a significant fall in blood sugar level in High dose (1.5GM/kg in comparison to low dose (0.5gm/kg and median dose (1gm/kg shown by LSD test. This is comparable to the effect of Metformin. Conclusion: the results of this study show that chronic oral administration of an extract of Momordica charantia fruit at an appropriate dosage may be good alternative anti diabetic agent.

  10. Ongoing ingestive behavior is rapidly suppressed by a preabsorptive, intestinal “bitter taste” cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Terry L.; Powley, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery that cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract express the same molecular receptors and intracellular signaling components known to be involved in taste has generated great interest in potential functions of such post-oral “taste” receptors in the control of food intake. To determine whether taste cues in the GI tract are detected and can directly influence behavior, the present study used a microbehavioral analysis of intake, in which rats drank from lickometers that were programmed to simultaneously deliver a brief yoked infusion of a taste stimulus to the intestines. Specifically, in daily 30-min sessions, thirsty rats with indwelling intraduodenal catheters were trained to drink hypotonic (0.12 M) sodium chloride (NaCl) and simultaneously self-infuse a 0.12 M NaCl solution. Once trained, in a subsequent series of intestinal taste probe trials, rats reduced licking during a 6-min infusion period, when a bitter stimulus denatonium benzoate (DB; 10 mM) was added to the NaCl vehicle for infusion, apparently conditioning a mild taste aversion. Presentation of the DB in isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) for intestinal infusions accelerated the development of the response across trials and strengthened the temporal resolution of the early licking suppression in response to the arrival of the DB in the intestine. In an experiment to evaluate whether CCK is involved as a paracrine signal in transducing the intestinal taste of DB, the CCK-1R antagonist devazepide partially blocked the response to intestinal DB. In contrast to their ability to detect and avoid the bitter taste in the intestine, rats did not modify their licking to saccharin intraduodenal probe infusions. The intestinal taste aversion paradigm developed here provides a sensitive and effective protocol for evaluating which tastants—and concentrations of tastants—in the lumen of the gut can control ingestion. PMID:21865540

  11. Ongoing ingestive behavior is rapidly suppressed by a preabsorptive, intestinal "bitter taste" cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Lindsey A; Davidson, Terry L; Powley, Terry L

    2011-11-01

    The discovery that cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract express the same molecular receptors and intracellular signaling components known to be involved in taste has generated great interest in potential functions of such post-oral "taste" receptors in the control of food intake. To determine whether taste cues in the GI tract are detected and can directly influence behavior, the present study used a microbehavioral analysis of intake, in which rats drank from lickometers that were programmed to simultaneously deliver a brief yoked infusion of a taste stimulus to the intestines. Specifically, in daily 30-min sessions, thirsty rats with indwelling intraduodenal catheters were trained to drink hypotonic (0.12 M) sodium chloride (NaCl) and simultaneously self-infuse a 0.12 M NaCl solution. Once trained, in a subsequent series of intestinal taste probe trials, rats reduced licking during a 6-min infusion period, when a bitter stimulus denatonium benzoate (DB; 10 mM) was added to the NaCl vehicle for infusion, apparently conditioning a mild taste aversion. Presentation of the DB in isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) for intestinal infusions accelerated the development of the response across trials and strengthened the temporal resolution of the early licking suppression in response to the arrival of the DB in the intestine. In an experiment to evaluate whether CCK is involved as a paracrine signal in transducing the intestinal taste of DB, the CCK-1R antagonist devazepide partially blocked the response to intestinal DB. In contrast to their ability to detect and avoid the bitter taste in the intestine, rats did not modify their licking to saccharin intraduodenal probe infusions. The intestinal taste aversion paradigm developed here provides a sensitive and effective protocol for evaluating which tastants-and concentrations of tastants-in the lumen of the gut can control ingestion.

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  16. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  17. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  20. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  1. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  2. Respons of Erythrocytes, Hematocrit and Hemoglobin River Catfish (Mystus Nemurus) Combination Fed Guava Leaves (Psidium Guajava) and Bitter (Andrographis Paniculata Ness)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Mesi; Lukystiowati, Iesje; Syawal, Henni

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted from April-June 2013 in the Laboratory of Aquaculture and Fish Diseases and Parasites Laboratory Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences University of Riau. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of erythrocytes, hematocrit, and blood hemoglobin river catfish (Mystus nemurus) fed a combination of guava leaves and bitter infected with the bacterium A. hydrophila. This study used 5 treatments of: negative control (without any solution guava, bitter and...

  3. Aquatic ecosystem health and trophic status classification of the Bitter Lakes along the main connecting link between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Abdallah, Hala S; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Irshad, Rizwan; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Almalki, Esam S

    2018-02-01

    The Bitter Lakes are the most significant water bodies of the Suez Canal, comprising 85% of the water volume, but spreading over only 24% of the length of the canal. The present study aims at investigation of the trophic status of the Bitter Lakes employing various trophic state indices, biotic and abiotic parameters, thus reporting the health of the Lake ecosystem according to the internationally accepted classification criteria's. The composition and abundance of phytoplankton with a dominance of diatoms and a decreased population density of 4315-7376 ind. l -1 reflect the oligotrophic nature of this water body. The intense growth of diatoms in the Bitter Lakes depends on silicate availability, in addition to nitrate and phosphate. If the trophic state index (TSI) is applied to the lakes under study it records that the Bitter Lakes have an index under 40. Moreover, in the total chlorophyll- a measurements of 0.35-0.96 µg l -1 there are more indicative of little algal biomass and lower biological productivity. At 0.76-2.3 µg l -1 , meanwhile, the low quantity of Phosphorus is a further measure of low biological productivity. In the Bitter Lakes, TN/TP ratios are high and recorded 147.4, and 184.7 for minimum and maximum ratios, respectively. These values indicate that in Bitter lakes, the limiting nutrient is phosphorus and confirm the oligotrophic status of the Bitter Lakes. The latter conclusion is supported by Secchi disc water clarity measurements, showing that light can penetrate, and thus algae can photosynthesize, as deep as >13 m. This study, therefore, showed that the Bitter Lakes of the Suez Canal exhibit oligotrophic conditions with clear water, low productivity and with no algal blooming.

  4. Processing of visual food cues during bitter taste perception in female patients with binge-eating symptoms: A cross-modal ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienle, Anne; Scharmüller, Wilfried; Schwab, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    In healthy individuals, the perception of an intense bitter taste decreased the reward value of visual food cues, as reflected by the reduction of a specific event-related brain potential (ERP), frontal late positivity. The current cross-modal ERP study investigated responses of female patients with binge-eating symptoms (BES) to this type of visual-gustatory stimulation. Women with BES (n=36) and female control participants (n=38) viewed food images after they rinsed their mouth with either bitter wormwood tea or water. Relative to controls, the patients showed elevated late positivity (LPP: 400-700ms) to the food images in the bitter condition. The LPP source was located in the medial prefrontal cortex. Both groups did not differ in the ratings for the fluids (intensity, bitterness, disgust). This ERP study showed that a bitter taste did not decrease late positivity to visual food cues (reflecting food reward) in women with BES. The atypical bitter responding might be a biological marker of this condition and possibly contributes to overeating. Future studies should additionally record food intake behavior to further investigate this mechanism. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Indicates Association of P-Glycoprotein Substrate or Inhibitor Character with Bitterness Intensity, Measured with a Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kentaro; Mita, Suzune; Morimoto, Kaori; Haraguchi, Tamami; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Miyako; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) regulates absorption of many drugs in the gastrointestinal tract and their accumulation in tumor tissues, but the basis of substrate recognition by P-gp remains unclear. Bitter-tasting phenylthiocarbamide, which stimulates taste receptor 2 member 38 (T2R38), increases P-gp activity and is a substrate of P-gp. This led us to hypothesize that bitterness intensity might be a predictor of P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status. Here, we measured the bitterness intensity of a panel of P-gp substrates and nonsubstrates with various taste sensors, and used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status and various physical properties, including intensity of bitter taste measured with the taste sensor. We calculated the first principal component analysis score (PC1) as the representative value of bitterness, as all taste sensor's outputs shared significant correlation. The P-gp substrates showed remarkably greater mean bitterness intensity than non-P-gp substrates. We found that Km value of P-gp substrates were correlated with molecular weight, log P, and PC1 value, and the coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of the linear regression equation was 0.63. This relationship might be useful as an aid to predict P-gp substrate status at an early stage of drug discovery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Identification of the key bitter compounds in our daily diet is a prerequisite for the understanding of the hTAS2R gene polymorphisms affecting food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    In order to decode genetic variations affecting food choice and to determine whether to accept or to reject certain food products, it is a necessary prerequisite to deorphanize the hTAS2R/ligand pairs using the key bitter compounds in foods as stimuli rather than doing this either by using artificial molcules, to which the normal consumer had never been exposed, or by using food-born molecules which do not at all contribute to the overall bitterness. Therefore, the chemical structure of the most active bitter molecules in foods needs to be unequivocally determined in order to be sure that hTAS2R polymorphisms are related to the key molecules which really contribute to the overall bitterness perception of food products. As most studies focused primarily on quantitatively predominating compounds, rather than selecting the target compounds to be identified with regard to taste-activity, it seems that yet unknown components play a key role in evoking the bitter taste of food products. Driven by the need to discover the key players inducing the food taste, the research area "sensomics" made tremendous efforts in recent years to map the sensometabolome and to identify the most intense taste-active metabolites in fresh and processed foods. The present article summarizes recent studies on the identification of orphan key bitter stimuli in fresh, fermented, and thermally processed foods using carrots, cheese, and roasted coffee as examples.

  7. Quantity and quality of guinea pig (cavia porcellus) spermatozoa after administration of methanol extract of bitter melon (momordica charantia) seed and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Syafruddin; Hutahaean, Salomo; Nursal

    2018-03-01

    The discovery of male contraceptive drugs continues to be pursued, due to the few participation of men associated with the lack of contraceptive options for men. The combination of bitter melon seed methanol extract and DMPA are the options that currently apply to men. Therefore, the use of guinea pigs as experimental animals conducted research using experimental methods with complete randomized design (CRD). There are 4 control groups and 4 treatment groups. The first group, control group of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 0 week (K0), The second one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g Body Weight/day for 0 week (P0), the third one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 4 weeks (K1), the fourth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 4 weeks + Depot medroxy Progesterone Acetate (P1), the fifth one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 8 weeks (K2), the sixth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 8 weeks + DMPA (P2), the seventh one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 12 weeks (K3), the eighth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 12 weeks + DMPA (P3). Methanol extract of bitter melon seed to decrease the quantity and quality of guinea pig spermatozoa decreased significantly, i.e. viability and normal morphology of spermatozoa (p<0.05).

  8. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mancuso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (rue is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  9. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  10. Effect of short-term consumption bitter apricot seeds on the body composition in healthy population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kopčeková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of fat in different areas of the body is important since accumulation of fat within the abdominal cavity represents a much more severe cardiovascular risk than accumulation in subcutaneous adipose tissues. Apricot seeds contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds and that consumption can decrease blood pressure and total blood cholesterol levels, fight oxidative stress and maintain body weight. The aim of the study was to analyse body composition: body fat mass (BFM, fat free mass (FFM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM, body fat percentage (%BFM, visceral fat area (VFA, total body water (TBW - intracellular water (ICW and extracellular water (ECW and to evaluate the changes that occur after 6-weeks consumption of bitter apricot seeds. The study group finally consisted of 34 healthy adults volunteers (21 females and 13 males. Volunteers were recruited from the general population of Slovakia. Respondents were 23 - 65 years old, where the average age of women was 40.65 ±11.31 years and the average age of men was 36.91 ±9.98 years. All participants were asked to consume 60 mg.kg-1 of body weight of bitter apricot seeds daily during 6 weeks. Body composition was diagnosed by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA by InBody 720 (Biospace Co., Korea, which measures the total impedance at frequencies of 1, 5, 50, 100, 500, 1000 kHz. At baseline mean body weight was 85.78 ±14.66 and 62.84 ±12.19 kg in the male and female participants, respectively. After 6 weeks of consumation we observed non-significant decreasing of mean body weight. The mean BFM was 19.25 ±8.81 kg in the male group and 19.47 ±7.21 kg in the female group. After six weeks, BFM decreased non-significantly (on average 0.5 kg in both groups. The mean FFM at baseline was 43.37 ±5.98 and 66.54 ±7.98 kg in the female and male participants, respectively. The statistical analysis confirmed that the increase of FFM (43.37 ±5.98 kg to 43.56 ±5.80 kg in the

  11. Momordica charantia (bitter melon attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feher Domonkos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising epidemic of obesity is associated with cognitive decline and is considered as one of the major risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation is a critical component in the progression of several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Increased metabolic flux to the brain during overnutrition and obesity can orchestrate stress response, blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, recruitment of inflammatory immune cells from peripheral blood and microglial cells activation leading to neuroinflammation. The lack of an effective treatment for obesity-associated brain dysfunction may have far-reaching public health ramifications, urgently necessitating the identification of appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on high-fat diet (HFD-associated BBB disruption, stress and neuroinflammatory cytokines. Methods C57BL/6 female mice were fed HFD with and without bitter melon (BM for 16 weeks. BBB disruption was analyzed using Evans blue dye. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS perfused brains were analyzed for neuroinflammatory markers such as interleukin-22 (IL-22, IL-17R, IL-16, NF-κB1, and glial cells activation markers such as Iba1, CD11b, GFAP and S100β. Additionally, antioxidant enzymes, ER-stress proteins, and stress-resistant transcription factors, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 and forkhead box class O transcription factor (FoxO were analyzed using microarray, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western immunoblotting and enzymatic assays. Systemic inflammation was analyzed using cytokine antibody array. Results BM ameliorated HFD-associated changes in BBB permeability as evident by reduced leakage of Evans blue dye. HFD-induced glial cells activation and expression of neuroinflammatory markers such as NF-κB1, IL-16, IL-22 as well as IL-17R were normalized in the brains of mice supplemented with BM

  12. Lower expressions of the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R in smokers: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Mieko; Takao, Tetsuya; Takao, Kyoichi; Koike, Fumihiko; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that smokers have deficit in detecting taste, particularly bitter taste, no study has investigated its biological correlate. In this context, we compared the expression of the bitter taste receptor gene, taste 2 receptor (TAS2R) in the tongues of smokers and non-smokers. Tissue samples were collected from the lateral portion of the tongues of 22 smokers and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (19 males and three females) with no history of smoking. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the expression of TAS2R in the two groups, and the effect of aging on TAS2R expression was also assessed. TAS2R expression was significantly lower among smokers than non-smokers (t = 6.525, P vs. 2.09 ± 2.8, mean ± SD, non-smokers vs. smokers). Further, a positive correlation between age and expression of TAS2R was observed in non-smokers (r = .642, P = .001), but not smokers (r = .124, P = .584). This correlation difference was significant (Z = 1.96, P = .0496). Smokers showed a significantly lower expression of the bitter taste receptor gene than non-smokers, which is potentially caused by their inability to acquire such receptors with age because of cigarette smoking, in contrast to non-smokers.

  13. Astringency, bitterness and color changes in dry red wines before and during oak barrel aging: An updated phenolic perspective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2018-01-30

    To understand effects of using oak barrels on the astringency, bitterness and color of dry red wines, phenolic reactions in wines before and after barrel aging are reviewed in this paper, which has been divided into three sections. The first section includes an introduction to chemical reactivities of grape-derived phenolic compounds, a summary of the phenolic reactions that occur in dry red wines before barrel aging, and a discussion of the effects of these reactions on wine astringency, bitterness and color. The second section introduces barrel types that determine the oak barrel constituents in wines (primarily oak aldehydes and ellagitannins) and presents reactions between the oak constituents and grape-derived phenolic compounds that may modulate wine astringency, bitterness and color. The final section illustrates the chemical differences between basic oxidation and over-oxidation in wines, discusses oxygen consumption kinetics in wines during barrel aging by comparing different oxygen consumption kinetics observed previously by others, and speculates on the possible preliminary phenolic reactions that occur in dry red wines during oak barrel aging that soften tannins and stabilize pigments via basic oxidation. Additionally, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) addition during barrel aging and suitability of adopting oak barrels for aging wines are briefly discussed.

  14. The Gustatory Signaling Pathway and Bitter Taste Receptors Affect the Development of Obesity and Adipocyte Metabolism in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Avau

    Full Text Available Intestinal chemosensory signaling pathways involving the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, and bitter taste receptors (TAS2R have been implicated in gut hormone release. Alterations in gut hormone profiles may contribute to the success of bariatric surgery. This study investigated the involvement of the gustatory signaling pathway in the development of diet-induced obesity and the therapeutic potential of targeting TAS2Rs to induce body weight loss. α-gustducin-deficient (α-gust-/- mice became less obese than wild type (WT mice when fed a high-fat diet (HFD. White adipose tissue (WAT mass was lower in α-gust-/- mice due to increased heat production as a result of increases in brown adipose tissue (BAT thermogenic activity, involving increased protein expression of uncoupling protein 1. Intra-gastric treatment of obese WT and α-gust-/- mice with the bitter agonists denatonium benzoate (DB or quinine (Q during 4 weeks resulted in an α-gustducin-dependent decrease in body weight gain associated with a decrease in food intake (DB, but not involving major changes in gut peptide release. Both WAT and 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes express TAS2Rs. Treatment of pre-adipocytes with DB or Q decreased differentiation into mature adipocytes. In conclusion, interfering with the gustatory signaling pathway protects against the development of HFD-induced obesity presumably through promoting BAT activity. Intra-gastric bitter treatment inhibits weight gain, possibly by directly affecting adipocyte metabolism.

  15. The Herbal Bitter Drug Gentiana lutea Modulates Lipid Synthesis in Human Keratinocytes In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfle, Ute; Haarhaus, Birgit; Seiwerth, Jasmin; Cawelius, Anja; Schwabe, Kay; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Schempp, Christoph M

    2017-08-22

    Gentiana lutea is a herbal bitter drug that is used to enhance gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Recently we have shown that amarogentin, a characteristic bitter compound of Gentiana lutea extract (GE), binds to the bitter taste receptors TAS2R1 and TAS2R38 in human keratinocytes, and stimulates the synthesis of epidermal barrier proteins. Here, we wondered if GE also modulates lipid synthesis in human keratinocytes. To address this issue, human primary keratinocytes were incubated for 6 days with GE. Nile Red labeling revealed that GE significantly increased lipid synthesis in keratinocytes. Similarly, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector indicated that GE increases the amount of triglycerides in keratinocytes. GE induced the expression of epidermal ceramide synthase 3, but not sphingomyelinase. Lipid synthesis, as well as ceramide synthase 3 expression, could be specifically blocked by inhibitors of the p38 MAPK and PPARγ signaling pathway. To assess if GE also modulates lipid synthesis in vivo, we performed a proof of concept half side comparison on the volar forearms of 33 volunteers. In comparison to placebo, GE significantly increased the lipid content of the treated skin areas, as measured with a sebumeter. Thus, GE enhances lipid synthesis in human keratinocytes that is essential for building an intact epidermal barrier. Therefore, GE might be used to improve skin disorders with an impaired epidermal barrier, e.g., very dry skin and atopic eczema.

  16. Correlation of sensory bitterness in dairy protein hydrolysates: Comparison of prediction models built using sensory, chromatographic and electronic tongue data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J; Egan, T; Harbourne, N; O'Riordan, D; Jacquier, J C; O'Sullivan, M

    2014-08-01

    Sensory evaluation can be problematic for ingredients with a bitter taste during research and development phase of new food products. In this study, 19 dairy protein hydrolysates (DPH) were analysed by an electronic tongue and their physicochemical characteristics, the data obtained from these methods were correlated with their bitterness intensity as scored by a trained sensory panel and each model was also assessed by its predictive capabilities. The physiochemical characteristics of the DPHs investigated were degree of hydrolysis (DH%), and data relating to peptide size and relative hydrophobicity from size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and reverse phase (RP) HPLC. Partial least square regression (PLS) was used to construct the prediction models. All PLS regressions had good correlations (0.78 to 0.93) with the strongest being the combination of data obtained from SEC and RP HPLC. However, the PLS with the strongest predictive power was based on the e-tongue which had the PLS regression with the lowest root mean predicted residual error sum of squares (PRESS) in the study. The results show that the PLS models constructed with the e-tongue and the combination of SEC and RP-HPLC has potential to be used for prediction of bitterness and thus reducing the reliance on sensory analysis in DPHs for future food research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sweet and bitter taste of ethanol in C57BL/6J and DBA2/J mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizard, David A

    2007-01-01

    Studies of inbred strains of rats and mice have suggested a positive association between strain variations in sweet taste and ethanol intake. However, strain associations by themselves are insufficient to support a functional link between taste and ethanol intake. We used conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to explore the sweet and bitter taste of ethanol and ability to detect sucrose, quinine and ethanol in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mouse strains that are frequently used in alcohol research. The present study showed that C57BL/6J mice generalized taste aversions from sucrose and quinine solutions to 10% ethanol and, reciprocally, aversions to 10% ethanol generalized to each of these solutions presented separately. Only conditioned aversions to quinine generalized to ethanol in the DBA/2J strain but an aversion conditioned to ethanol did not generalize reciprocally to quinine. Thus, considering these two gustatory qualities, 10% ethanol tastes both sweet and bitter to B6 mice but only bitter to D2. Both strains were able to generalize taste aversions across different concentrations of the same compound. B6 were able to detect lower concentrations of quinine than D2 but both strains were able to detect sucrose and (in contrast to previous findings) ethanol at similar concentrations. The strain-dependent gustatory profiles for ethanol may make an important contribution to the understanding of the undoubtedly complex mechanisms influencing high ethanol preference of B6 and pronounced ethanol avoidance of D2 mice.

  18. Effect of Calcium Salt on Soft Rot, Bitter Pit and Physico-Chemical Properties of Stored Apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, I.; Rab, A.; Sajid, M.; Iqbal, A.; Shinwari, Z. K.; Hamayun, M.

    2016-01-01

    Postharvest losses are one of the main problems in leading fruit producing countries. Therefore, an attempt has been made to decrease the postharvest losses during apple storage. To achieve this objective, fruits were dipped in 0, 3, 6 and 9 percent CaCl/sub 2/ solution for the period of 3, 6, 9 and 12 minutes and were stored for 150 days at 5 ± 1 C with 60-70 percent relative humidity. After the storage time, fruits were analysed for percent weight loss, total sugar, bitter pit incidence, soft rot, ascorbic acid and firmness. The ascorbic acid contents and firmness of the fruits significantly increased, when the fruits were dipped in 9% CaCl/sub 2/ solution as compared to control (dipped in water). Whereas, weight loss, total sugar, bitter pit and soft rot incidences were reduced with increased concentration of CaCl/sub 2/. The firmness of the fruits dipped for 3 minutes in a CaCl/sub 2/ solution was significantly lower in comparison to the fruits dipped for 12 minutes in a CaCl/sub 2/ solution. Likewise, the weight loss, bitter pit and the soft rot incidence reduced with increase in dipping duration in CaCl/sub 2/ solution from 3 minutes to 12 minutes. (author)

  19. Haemolytic effect of saponin extract from Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) on human erythrocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.

    2001-09-01

    Leaves of Veronia amygdalina were extracted using ethanol and aqueous extraction respectively. The physico-chemical analysis of the extracts revealed that both extracts had darkish brown colour, sweetish bitter taste, pungent smell, positive froth and haemolytic test, this indicated the presence of saponin in both extracts. The result of the haemolytic assay revealed that blood group-O had the highest susceptibility to the saponin-induced haemolysis, while blood group-A had the least susceptibility to haemolysis among the blood groups tested. Genotype-AA had the highest resistant to haemolysis by Vernonia amygdalina saponin induced haemolysis, while genotype-SS had the least resistant to haemolysis among the genotype tested. Furthermore the ethanol extract had a higher haemolytic activity than the aqueous extract on the various human erythrocyte analysed. This study revealed that Vernonia amygdalina had haemolytic substance, this substance had a high haemolytic effect on blood group-O and genotype-SS. The active haemolytic substance in both extracts was identified to be saponin. (author)

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid, quantitative analysis of bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Daniel P; Andersen, David H; Beatson, Ron A; Gordon, Keith C; Perry, Nigel B

    2014-12-31

    Hops, Humulus lupulus, are grown worldwide for use in the brewing industry to impart characteristic flavor and aroma to finished beer. Breeders produce many varietal crosses with the aim of improving and diversifying commercial hops varieties. The large number of crosses critical to a successful breeding program imposes high demands on the supporting chemical analytical laboratories. With the aim of reducing the analysis time associated with hops breeding, quantitative partial least-squares regression (PLS-R) models have been produced, relating reference data acquired by the industrial standard HPLC and UV methods, to vibrational spectra of the same, chemically diverse hops sample set. These models, produced from rapidly acquired infrared (IR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman spectra, were appraised using standard statistical metrics. Results demonstrated that all three spectroscopic methods could be used for screening hops for α-acid, total bitter acids, and cohumulone concentrations in powdered hops. Models generated from Raman and IR spectra also showed potential for use in screening hops varieties for xanthohumol concentrations. NIR analysis was performed using both a standard benchtop spectrometer and a portable NIR spectrometer, with comparable results obtained by both instruments. Finally, some important vibrational features of cohumulone, colupulone, and xanthohumol were assigned using DFT calculations, which allow more insightful interpretation of PLS-R latent variable plots.

  1. As bitter as a trombone: synesthetic correspondences in nonsynesthetes between tastes/flavors and musical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2010-10-01

    In parallel to studies of various cases of synesthesia, many cross-modal correspondences have also been documented in nonsynesthetes. Among these correspondences, implicit associations between taste and pitch have been reported recently (Crisinel & Spence, 2009, 2010). Here, we replicate and extend these findings through explicit matching of sounds of varying pitch to a range of tastes/flavors. In addition, participants in the experiment reported here also chose the type of musical instrument most appropriate for each taste/flavor. The association of sweet and sour tastes to high-pitched notes was confirmed. By contrast, umami and bitter tastes were preferentially matched to low-pitched notes. Flavors did not display such strong pitch associations. The choice of musical instrument seems to have been driven primarily by a matching of the hedonic value and familiarity of the two types of stimuli. Our results raise important questions about our representation of tastes and flavors and could also lead to applications in the marketing of food products.

  2. Bitter taste receptors in the wrong place: novel airway smooth muscle targets for treating asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the classes of drugs used to treat obstructive lung diseases to achieve better outcomes. With only one class of direct bronchodilators (β-agonists), we sought to find receptors on human airway smooth muscle (ASM) that act via a unique mechanism to relax the muscle, have a diverse agonist binding profile to enhance the probability of finding new therapeutics, and relax ASM with equal or greater efficacy than β-agonists. We have found that human and mouse ASM express six bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) subtypes, previously thought only to exist in taste buds of the tongue. Agonists acting at TAS2Rs evoke profound bronchodilation via a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism. TAS2R function is not altered in asthma models, undergoes minimal tachyphylaxis upon repetitive dosing, and relaxes even under extreme desensitization of relaxation by β-agonists. Taken together, TAS2Rs on ASM represent a novel pathway to consider for development of agonists in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease.

  3. "Smooth operator": Music modulates the perceived creaminess, sweetness, and bitterness of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Wang, Qian Janice; van Ee, Raymond; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    There has been a recent growth of interest in determining whether sound (specifically music and soundscapes) can enhance not only the basic taste attributes associated with food and beverage items (such as sweetness, bitterness, sourness, etc.), but also other important components of the tasting experience, such as, for instance, crunchiness, creaminess, and/or carbonation. In the present study, participants evaluated the perceived creaminess of chocolate. Two contrasting soundtracks were produced with such texture-correspondences in mind, and validated by means of a pre-test. The participants tasted the same chocolate twice (without knowing that the chocolates were identical), each time listening to one of the soundtracks. The 'creamy' soundtrack enhanced the perceived creaminess and sweetness of the chocolates, as compared to the ratings given while listening to the 'rough' soundtrack. Moreover, while the participants preferred the creamy soundtrack, this difference did not appear to affect their overall enjoyment of the chocolates. Interestingly, and in contrast with previous similar studies, these results demonstrate that in certain cases, sounds can have a perceptual effect on gustatory food attributes without necessarily altering the hedonic experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization and transesterification of Iranian bitter almond oil for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atapour, Mehdi; Kariminia, Hamid-Reza

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the production of biodiesel using bitter almond oil (BAO) in a potassium hydroxide catalyzed transesterification reaction was investigated. The BAO was obtained from resources available in Iran and its physical and chemical properties including iodine value, acid value, density, kinematic viscosity, fatty acid composition and mean molecular weight were specified. The low acid value of BAO (0.24 mg KOH/g) indicated that the pretreatment of raw oil with acid was not required. The fatty acid content analysis confirmed that the contribution of unsaturated fatty acids in the BAO is high (84.7 wt.%). Effect of different parameters including methanol to oil molar ratio (3-11 mol/mol), potassium hydroxide concentration (0.1-1.7% w/w) and reaction temperature (30-70 o C) on the production of biodiesel were investigated. The results indicated that these parameters were important factors affecting the tranesterification reaction. The fuel properties of biodiesel including iodine value, acid value, density, kinematic viscosity, saponification value, cetane number, flash point, cloud point, pour point and distillation characteristics were measured. The properties were compared with those of petroleum diesel, EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards and an acceptable agreement was observed.

  5. “The Bitter Laughter”. When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called “just a joke effect” (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a “bitter laughter.” The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between “surface” and “deep” parody (Poggi and D’Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician’s gender. PMID:27555825

  6. "The Bitter Laughter". When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called "just a joke effect" (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a "bitter laughter." The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between "surface" and "deep" parody (Poggi and D'Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician's gender.

  7. A kinetic study of bitter taste receptor sensing using immobilized porcine taste bud tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lihui; Qiao, Lixin; Pang, Guangchang; Xie, Junbo

    2017-06-15

    At present, developing an efficient assay method for truly reflecting the real feelings of gustatory tissues is of great importance. In this study, a novel biosensor was fabricated to investigate the kinetic characteristics of the receptors in taste bud tissues sensing bitter substances for the first time. Porcine taste bud tissues were used as the sensing elements, and the sandwich-type sensing membrane was fixed onto a glassy carbon electrode for assembling the biosensor. With the developed sensor, the response currents induced by sucrose octaacetate, denatonium benzoate, and quercetin stimulating corresponding receptors were determined. The results demonstrated that the interaction between the analyst with their receptors were fitting to hyperbola (R 2 =0.9776, 0.9980 and 0.9601), and the activation constants were 8.748×10 -15 mol/L, 1.429×10 -12 mol/L, 6.613×10 -14 mol/L, respectively. The average number of receptors per cell was calculated as 1.75, 28.58, and 13.23, while the signal amplification factors were 1.08×10 4 , 2.89×10 3 and 9.76×10 4 . These suggest that the sensor can be used to quantitatively describe the interaction characteristics of cells or tissue receptors with their ligands, the role of cellular signaling cascade, the number of receptors, and the signal transmission pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Momordica charantia (bitter melon inhibits primary human adipocyte differentiation by modulating adipogenic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerurkar Vivek R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escalating trends of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes (T2D has prompted an increase in the use of alternative and complementary functional foods. Momordica charantia or bitter melon (BM that is traditionally used to treat diabetes and complications has been demonstrated to alleviate hyperglycemia as well as reduce adiposity in rodents. However, its effects on human adipocytes remain unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BM juice (BMJ on lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation transcription factors in primary human differentiating preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods Commercially available cryopreserved primary human preadipocytes were treated with and without BMJ during and after differentiation. Cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, and adipogenic genes mRNA expression was measured by commercial enzymatic assay kits and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-PCR. Results Preadipocytes treated with varying concentrations of BMJ during differentiation demonstrated significant reduction in lipid content with a concomitant reduction in mRNA expression of adipocyte transcription factors such as, peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor γ (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c and adipocytokine, resistin. Similarly, adipocytes treated with BMJ for 48 h demonstrated reduced lipid content, perilipin mRNA expression, and increased lipolysis as measured by the release of glycerol. Conclusion Our data suggests that BMJ is a potent inhibitor of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes. BMJ may therefore prove to be an effective complementary or alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans.

  9. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  10. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  11. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  12. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  13. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  17. Toroidal field magnets for ZEPHYR tape and bitter concepts conductor and insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breit, E.; Brossmann, U.; Gruber, J.E.; Haubenberger, W.D.; Jandl, O.; Kamm, S.; Mast, F.; Mukherjee, S.; Soell, M.; Springmann, E.

    1981-08-01

    The general design aspects of the Toroidal Field Magnet System for a compact ignition experiment ZEPHYR are discussed. The 17 Tesla field calls for a steel reinforcement of the copper conductor. Two different types of magnet systems, a tape magnet and a Bitter magnet, are possible. In both systems the coils will be arranged in a steel casing. Force transfer is achieved by steel wedges between the coil casings. The mechanical stresses of the magnet structure were calculated by employing finite element methods. The pulse-operated magnet system will be force-cooled by liquid nitrogen to an initial starting temperature of 80 K before each single field pulse is applied. The problems of spacer cooling as well as the finally chosen channel cooling are discussed. The steel-reinforced copper conductor was developed in collaboration with industry, resulting in a high strength (700 N/mm 2 ) copper/austenite compound. The insulation system consisting of a glass/kapton wrapping of the conductors and of vacuum impregnation with an epoxy resin has to withstand high mechanical loads and a neutron/gamma irradiation in the order of 5 x 10 9 rad. The static and cyclic fatigue strength of different insulation systems at ambient and liquid nitrogen temperature has been investigated in mechanical tests of tension, compression and shear samples. The radiation resistance of the insulation resin was tested with gamma and neutron/gamma irradiation to doses of 10 10 rad. The aspects of field diffusion in the tape magnet are given in the appendix. (orig.)

  18. Effect of harvest, drying and storage on the bitterness, moisture, sugars, free amino acids and phenolic compounds of jujube fruit (Zizyphus jujuba cv. Junzao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yunfeng; Ding, Tian; Wang, Wenjun; Xiang, Yanju; Ye, Xingqian; Li, Mei; Liu, Donghong

    2018-01-01

    The taste of dried jujube fruit when compared with fresh ones is less palatable, as it develops bitterness during drying and storage. Therefore, identifying the methods by which bitterness occurs is essential for developing strategies for processing and storage. Bitterness in fresh jujube fruit was negligible; however, it increased by 0.9-, 1.5- and 1.8-fold during drying and storage over 6 and 12 months. The moisture significantly decreased during harvesting and drying. Free amino acids, except proline and tyrosine, significantly decreased during drying and storage. Fructose, glucose and sucrose hardly changed during harvest, drying and storage. Titratable acidity, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents were stable during harvest and drying, but increased upon storage. Additionally, protocatechuic and ellagic acids were not detected in fresh jujube fruit, however, were found to increase during drying and storage. Bitterness in fresh jujube fruit tasted negligible because of meagre amount of phytochemicals, while the condensation effect of moisture reduction, the loss of free amino acids, and the formation of protocatechuic and ellagic acids could aggravate the bitterness of jujube fruit during drying and storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  20. Qing-Hua Granule induces GLP-1 secretion via bitter taste receptor in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junyan; Xu, Jie; Hou, Ruifang; Jin, Xin; Wang, Jingyi; Yang, Na; Yang, Li; Liu, Li; Tao, Feng; Lu, Hao

    2017-05-01

    Qing-Hua Granule (QHG), the modified formulation of a classical Chinese prescription named Gegen Qinlian Decoction, was clinically employed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, the potential mechanism is unknown. We investigate whether QHG induces GLP-1 secretion via activation of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) pathway in the gastrointestinal tract of db/db mice. The db/db mice were intragastrically (i.g.) administered QHG (low/medium/high dose) once daily for 8 weeks. GLP-1 secretion was evaluated. The bitter receptor signaling pathway, which regulates GLP-1 secretion, including TAS2R5 (a subtype of TAS2R), α-gustducin (Gαgust), 1-phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5), was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The biochemical observations of ileum and pancreas tissue were detected histopathologically. Acquity Ultra Performance LCTM - Micromass ZQ 2000 (UPLC-MS) was used for the phytochemical analysis. QHG exhibited significant and dose-dependent effect on GLP-1 secretion in db/db mice, along with significant up-regulation of TAS2R5 mRNA level and activation of TAS2R pathway (p<0.05). In addition, QHG improved the histopathological structure of ileum and pancreatic tissue. Seventeen compounds were identified in QHG. In conclusion, QHG induces GLP-1 secretion in db/db mice, most likely through the bitter taste receptor pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of Rac1 GTPase activity by quinine through G-protein and bitter taste receptor T2R4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Crystal; Jaggupilli, Appalaraju; Chelikani, Prashen; Bhullar, Rajinder P

    2017-02-01

    Rac1 belongs to the Rho family of small GTPases and regulates actin cytoskeleton reorganization. T2R4 is a bitter taste receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor family of proteins. In addition to mediating bitter taste perception from the tongue, T2R4s are found in extra-oral tissues, e.g., nasal epithelium, airways, brain, testis suggesting a much broader physiological function for these receptors. Anti-malarial drug and a bitter tasting compound, quinine, is a known agonist for T2R4, whereas BCML (Nα,Nα-Bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine) acts as an inverse agonist. Using western blot and Ca ++ mobilization assays, the effects of quinine on Rac1 activity in HEK293T cells stably expressing T2R4/Gα 16/44 , T2R4, or Gα 16/44 and transiently transfected with HA-Rac1 were investigated. Quinine treatment caused a significant reduction in the amount of active Rac1, whereas in the presence of BCML, quinine failed to cause any significant change in active Rac1. No significant change in Rac1 activity was observed in BAPTA-AM plus quinine-treated Gα 16/44 cells, suggesting possibility of a pathway in addition to the canonical Ca ++ -dependent pathway. A noticeable role for Gα 16/44 independent of T2R4 is observed in quinine-mediated Rac1 inactivation. Further, a significant difference in quinine-induced Ca ++ response in T2R4/Gα 16/44 or T2R4 cells was observed validating the partial role of calcium and importance of Gα 16/44 . This study is the first to show an inhibitory downstream action of a T2R4 agonist on Rac1 function. Further investigation will help in better understanding the downstream signal transduction network of T2R4 and its extra-oral physiological roles.

  2. Research on the Changes to the Lipid/Polymer Membrane Used in the Acidic Bitterness Sensor Caused by Preconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Harada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A taste sensor that uses lipid/polymer membranes can evaluate aftertastes felt by humans using Change in membrane Potential caused by Adsorption (CPA measurements. The sensor membrane for evaluating bitterness, which is caused by acidic bitter substances such as iso-alpha acid contained in beer, needs an immersion process in monosodium glutamate (MSG solution, called “MSG preconditioning”. However, what happens to the lipid/polymer membrane during MSG preconditioning is not clear. Therefore, we carried out three experiments to investigate the changes in the lipid/polymer membrane caused by the MSG preconditioning, i.e., measurements of the taste sensor, measurements of the amount of the bitterness substance adsorbed onto the membrane and measurements of the contact angle of the membrane surface. The CPA values increased as the preconditioning process progressed, and became stable after 3 d of preconditioning. The response potentials to the reference solution showed the same tendency of the CPA value change during the preconditioning period. The contact angle of the lipid/polymer membrane surface decreased after 7 d of MSG preconditioning; in short, the surface of the lipid/polymer membrane became hydrophilic during MSG preconditioning. The amount of adsorbed iso-alpha acid was increased until 5 d preconditioning, and then it decreased. In this study, we revealed that the CPA values increased with the progress of MSG preconditioning in spite of the decrease of the amount of iso-alpha acid adsorbed onto the lipid/polymer membrane, and it was indicated that the CPA values increase because the sensor sensitivity was improved by the MSG preconditioning.

  3. Evaluation of the effects of bitter yam tuber supplementation on serum parameters used to assess hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWAYNE K. STENNETT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides (ITIS is known to possess potent antidiabetic and hypocholesterolemic properties and can therefore be exploited for associated nutraceutical/pharmaceutical purposes. It however possesses bioactive compounds known to promote organ damage when ingested in excess. This study investigates the effects of bitter yam consumption at a concentration of 5% on liver and kidney damage/function parameters. Normocholesterolemic mice fed bitter yam supplemented diets experienced significant increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and bilirubin, magnesium and phosphorus concentrations. Significant increases were also observed in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and blood urea nitrogen concentration of the genetically modified hypercholesterolemic mice fed supplemented diets. These results suggest mild kidney damage in both mice species and a significant increase in the rate of erythrocyte haemolysis in the normocholesterolemic mice.

  4. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... button, close the clamp on the feeding set, disconnect the extension set from the button, and close ... Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born ... your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for ... care they receive. We're pioneering research to find solutions. We're empowering families with the knowledge ...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

  12. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and ... breast pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  15. Mining the bitter melon (momordica charantia l.) seed transcriptome by 454 analysis of non-normalized and normalized cDNA populations for conjugated fatty acid metabolism-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) produce high levels of eleostearic acid, an unusual conjugated fatty acid with industrial value. Deep sequencing of non-normalized and normalized cDNAs from developing bitter melon seeds was conducted to uncover key genes required for biotechnological tran...

  16. Modelling the Drying Characteristics and Kinetics of Hot Air-Drying of Unblanched Whole Red Pepper and Blanched Bitter Leaf Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the drying characteristics and kinetics of red pepper and bitter leaf under the influence of different drying temperatures. The drying experiments were carried out at dry bulb temperature of 35, 45, 55 and 75oC, respectively in an oven dryer. The results showed that as drying temperature increased, drying rate also increased and the drying time decreased. It was observed that un-sliced red pepper and sliced bitter leaf would dry within 2.5-12 h and 1.67-7 h, respectively at temperature ranging from 75 to 35oC. The drying of red pepper and bitter leaf was both in the constant and falling rate period. Four semi-empirical mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Henderson and Pabis, and Logarithmic models were fitted to the experimental drying curves. The models were compared using the coefficient of determination (R^2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data of red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively as relatively compared to other tested models. Moisture transport during drying was described by the application of Fick’s diffusion model and the effective moisture diffusivity was estimated. The value ranges from 15.69 to 84.79 × 10-9 m2/s and 0.294 to 1.263 × 10-9 m2/s for red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively. The Arrhenius-type relationship describes the temperature dependence of effective moisture diffusivity and was determined to be 37.11 kJ/mol and 32.86 kJ/mol for red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively. A correlation between the drying time and the heat transfer area was also developed.

  17. Development of aromatic hop compounds and bitterness in beer during room temperature- and cold storage based on three different hopping methods

    OpenAIRE

    Torgals, Ann Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine whether storage temperature or hopping method had influence on the aroma and bitterness in beer. The focus was set on the aroma that comes from hops, and not from yeast. The secondary objective to this study was to explore the development of the alcohol, CO2 and bitterness in the beer after priming and bottling. The thesis’ main perspective is that of home brewers, and to some extent that of microbreweries. Beer was brewed with 100 % pilsn...

  18. Modelling the Drying Characteristics and Kinetics of Hot Air-Drying of Unblanched Whole Red Pepper and Blanched Bitter Leaf Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the drying characteristics and kinetics of red pepper and bitter leaf under the influence of different drying temperatures. The drying experiments were carried out at dry bulb temperature of 35, 45, 55 and 75oC, respectively in an oven dryer. The results showed that as drying temperature increased, drying rate also increased and the drying time decreased. It was observed that un-sliced red pepper and sliced bitter leaf would dry within 2.5-12 h a...

  19. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  20. Genetic Variation in the TAS2R38 Bitter Taste Receptor and Smoking Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide S Risso

    Full Text Available Common TAS2R38 taste receptor gene variants specify the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP and structurally related compounds. Tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of chemical substances of varying structure and functionality, some of which activate different taste receptors. Accordingly, it has been suggested that non-taster individuals may be more likely to smoke because of their inability to taste bitter compounds present in tobacco smoke, but results to date have been conflicting. We studied three cohorts: 237 European-Americans from the state of Georgia, 1,353 European-Americans and 2,363 African-Americans from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS, and 4,973 African-Americans from the Dallas Biobank. Tobacco use data was collected and TAS2R38 polymorphisms were genotyped for all participants, and PTC taste sensitivity was assessed in the Georgia population. In the Georgia group, PTC tasters were less common among those who smoke: 71.5% of smokers were PTC tasters while 82.5% of non-smokers were PTC tasters (P = 0.03. The frequency of the TAS2R38 PAV taster haplotype showed a trend toward being lower in smokers (38.4% than in non-smokers (43.1%, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.31. In the DHS European-Americans, the taster haplotype was less common in smokers (37.0% vs. 44.0% in non-smokers, P = 0.003, and conversely the frequency of the non-taster haplotype was more common in smokers (58.7% vs. 51.5% in non-smokers, P = 0.002. No difference in the frequency of these haplotypes was observed in African Americans in either the Dallas Heart Study or the Dallas Biobank. We conclude that TAS2R38 haplotypes are associated with smoking status in European-Americans but not in African-American populations. PTC taster status may play a role in protecting individuals from cigarette smoking in specific populations.

  1. High genetic diversity among and within bitter manioc varieties cultivated in different soil types in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although manioc is well adapted to nutrient-poor Oxisols of Amazonia, ethnobotanical observations show that bitter manioc is also frequently cultivated in the highly fertile soils of the floodplains and Amazonian dark earths (ADE along the middle Madeira River. Because different sets of varieties are grown in each soil type, and there are agronomic similarities between ADE and floodplain varieties, it was hypothesized that varieties grown in ADE and floodplain were more closely related to each other than either is to varieties grown in Oxisols. We tested this hypothesis evaluating the intra-varietal genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among manioc varieties commonly cultivated in Oxisols, ADE and floodplain soils. Genetic results did not agree with ethnobotanical expectation, since the relationships between varieties were variable and most individuals of varieties with the same vernacular name, but grown in ADE and floodplain, were distinct. Although the same vernacular name could not always be associated with genetic similarities, there is still a great amount of variation among the varieties. Many ecological and genetic processes may explain the high genetic diversity and differentiation found for bitter manioc varieties, but all contribute to the maintenance and amplification of genetic diversity within the manioc in Central Amazonia.

  2. Effect of salinity on diazotrophic activity and microbial composition of phototrophic communities from Bitter-1 soda lake (Kulunda Steppe, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsaraev, Zorigto; Samylina, Olga; Sukhacheva, Marina; Borisenko, Gennadii; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Tourova, Tatiana

    2018-04-16

    Bitter-1 is a shallow hypersaline soda lake in Kulunda Steppe (Altai region, Russia). During a study period between 2005 and 2016, the salinity in the littoral area of the lake fluctuated within the range from 85 to 400 g/L (in July of each year). Light-dependent nitrogen fixation occurred in this lake up to the salt-saturating conditions. The rates increased with a decrease in salinity, both under environmental conditions and in laboratory simulations. The salinities below 100 g/L were favorable for light-dependent nitrogen fixation, while the process was dramatically inhibited above 200 g/L salts. The analysis of nifH genes in environmental samples and in enrichment cultures of diazotrophic phototrophs suggested that anaerobic fermenting and sulfate-reducing bacteria could participate in the dark nitrogen fixation process up to soda-saturating conditions. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that haloalkaliphilic nonheterocystous cyanobacteria (Euhalothece sp. and Geitlerinema sp.) and anoxygenic purple sulfur bacteria (Ectothiorhodospira sp.) might also play a role in the process at light conditions. The heterocystous cyanobacterium Nodularia sp. develops at low salinity (below 80 g/L) that is not characteristic for Bitter-1 Lake and thus does not make a significant contribution to the nitrogen fixation in this lake.

  3. Potential use of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) derived compounds as antidiabetics: In silico and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Ariyo, Esther Opeyemi; Akinjiyan, Moses Orimoloye; Olayeriju, Olanrewaju Sam; Lawal, Akeem Olalekan; Adanlawo, Isaac Gbadura; Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2018-05-12

    Momordica charantia (bitter lemon) belongs to the cucurbitaceae family which has been extensively used in traditional medicines for the cure of various ailments such as cancer and diabetes. The underlying mechanism of M. charantia to maintain glycemic control was investigated. GLP-1 and DPP-4 gene modulation by M. charantia (5-20% inclusion in rats diet) was investigated in vivo by RT-PCR and possible compounds responsible for diabetic action predicted through in silico approach. Phytochemicalss previously characterized from M. charantia were docked into glucacon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1r), dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP4) and Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 (TGR5) predicted using Autodock Vina. The results of the in silico suggests momordicosides D (ligand for TGR5), cucurbitacin (ligand for GLP-1r) and charantin (ligand for DPP-4) as the major antidiabetic compounds in bitter lemon leaf. M. charantia increased the expression of GLP-1 by about 295.7% with concomitant decreased in expression of DPP-4 by 87.2% with 20% inclusion in rat's diet. This study suggests that the mechanism underlying the action of these compounds is through activation of TGR5 and GLP-1 receptor with concurrent inhibition of DPP4. This study confirmed the use of this plant in diabetes management and the possible bioactive compounds responsible for its antidiabetic property are charantin, cucurbitacin and momordicoside D and all belong to the class of saponins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Establishing breast feeding in hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, J

    1988-01-01

    The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...

  5. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  6. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  7. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...... originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect...

  8. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  9. Predição de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'gala' Por meio da infiltração dos frutos com magnésio Prediction of bitter pit in 'gala'apples by means of fruit infiltration with magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O "bitter pit" é considerado um dos principais distúrbios fisiológicos pós-colheita que ocorrem em maçãs. A análise nutricional dos frutos (concentrações de Ca, Mg, K e N, normalmente utilizada na avaliação do risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit", apresenta custo elevado e tem-se mostrado pouco eficiente para este fim. Isto tem estimulado o desenvolvimento de métodos alternativos para a predição em pré-colheita do risco de ocorrência pós-colheita de "bitter pit". Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade de utilização do método de infiltração de maçãs 'Gala'com magnésio (Mg, na predição do risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Em adição a isto, os valores de Ca na casca e na polpa (mg kg-1 de peso fresco, relacionados aos diferentes níveis de severidade e incidência de "bitter pit", em frutos infiltrados com Mg ou armazenados em câmara fria, foram representados graficamente, com o objetivo de predizer o risco de "bitter pit" com base nas concentrações de Ca. Os frutos foram colhidos em pomar com histórico de elevada incidência de "bitter pit", em Lages (SC, na safra 2003/2004, de 20 plantas previamente marcadas aleatoriamente. Os frutos utilizados para a infiltração (30 frutos por planta foram colhidos 20 dias antes da maturação comercial, enquanto os frutos armazenados em câmaras frigoríficas (100 frutos por planta foram colhidos na maturação comercial. Os valores de Ca nos frutos, acima dos quais houve baixo risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit", foram similares entre frutos infiltrados e não infiltrados com Mg, correspondendo a 55 e 192 mg kg-1, na polpa e na casca, respectivamente. A concentração de Ca quantificada no tecido da casca mostrou-se melhor indicador do risco de "bitter pit" em relação ao tecido da polpa. Os dados obtidos demonstram que o método de infiltração com Mg representa uma alternativa viável visando a avaliar

  10. Orosensory detection of bitter in fat-taster healthy and obese participants: Genetic polymorphism of CD36 and TAS2R38

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karmous, I.; Plesník, J.; Khan, A. S.; Šerý, Omar; Abid, A.; Mankai, A.; Aouidet, A.; Khan, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2018), s. 313-320 ISSN 0261-5614 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : obesity * fat taste * bitter taste * genetic polymorphism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 4.548, year: 2016

  11. Genetic mapping and characterization of the globe artichoke (+)-germacrene A synthase gene, encoding the first dedicated enzyme for biosynthesis of the bitter sesquiterpene lactone cynaropicrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menin, B.; Comino, C.; Portis, E.; Moglia, A.; Cankar, K.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Lanteri, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L., Asteraceae) is a perennial crop traditionally consumed as a vegetable in the Mediterranean countries and rich in nutraceutically and pharmaceutically active compounds, including phenolic and terpenoid compounds. Its bitter taste is caused by its

  12. Rapid and sensitive ultrasonic-assisted derivatisation microextraction (UDME) technique for bitter taste-free amino acids (FAA) study by HPLC-FLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Li, Jun; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; Li, Guoliang; Song, Cuihua; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2014-01-15

    Amino acids, as the main contributors to taste, are usually found in relatively high levels in bitter foods. In this work, we focused on seeking a rapid, sensitive and simple method to determine FAA for large batches of micro-samples and to explore the relationship between FAA and bitterness. Overall condition optimisation indicated that the new UDME technique offered higher derivatisation yields and extraction efficiencies than traditional methods. Only 35min was needed in the whole operation process. Very low LLOQ (Lower limit of quantification: 0.21-5.43nmol/L) for FAA in twelve bitter foods was obtained, with which BTT (bitter taste thresholds) and CABT (content of FAA at BTT level) were newly determined. The ratio of CABT to BTT increased with decreasing of BTT. This work provided powerful potential for the high-throughput trace analysis of micro-sample and also a methodology to study the relationship between the chemical constituents and the taste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of polymer-blended quinine nanocomposite particles by spray drying and assessment of their instrumental bitterness-masking effect using a taste sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Moeko; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2017-05-01

    The development of taste-masking technologies for foods and drugs is essential because it would enable people to consume and receive healthy and therapeutic effect without distress. In the current study, in order to develop a novel method to prepare nanocomposite particles (microparticles containing bitter nanoparticles) in only one step, by using spray drying, a two-solution mixing nozzle-equipped spray dryer that we previously reported was used. The nanocomposite particles with or without poorly water-soluble polymers prepared using our spray-drying technique were characterized. (1) The organic solution containing quinine, a model of bitter compound and poorly water-soluble polymers and (2) sugar alcohol (mannitol) aqueous solution were separately flown in tubes and two solutions were spray dried through two-solution type spray nozzle to prepare polymer-blended quinine nanocomposite particles. Mean diameters of nanoparticles, taste-masking effect and dissolution rate of quinine were evaluated. The results of taste masking by taste sensor suggested that the polymer (Eudragit EPO, Eudragit S100 or Ethyl cellulose)-blended quinine nanocomposite particles exhibited marked masking of instrumental quinine bitterness compared with the quinine nanocomposite particles alone. Quinine nanocomposite formulations altered the quinine dissolution rate, indicating that they can control intestinal absorption of quinine. These results suggest that polymer-blended quinine composite particles prepared using our spray-drying technique are useful for masking bitter tastes in the field of food and pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Notes on a collection of Crustacea Decapoda from the Great Bitter Lake, Egypt, with a list of the species of Decapoda known from the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1956-01-01

    Between August 18 and September 5, 1950, Dr. C. Beets, geologist Royal Dutch Shell Oil Company, explored the aquatic fauna and flora of the Great Bitter Lake. In the course of this exploration dredge hauls were made at 47 stations, distributed all over the lake. An account of this work and a

  15. Quantitative determination of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as bitter melon, is widely cultivated in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is a common food staple; its fruits, leaves, seeds, stems, and roots also have a long history of use in traditional medicine. In the United States, dietary supplements labeled as containing bitter melon can be purchased over-the-counter and from Internet suppliers. Currently, no quantitative analytical method is available for monitoring the content of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides, the major constituents of bitter melon, in such supplements. We investigated the use of HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS for the quantitative determination of such compounds in dietary supplements containing bitter melon. Values for each compound obtained from external calibration were compared with those obtained from the method of standard additions to address matrix effects associated with ESI. In addition, the cucurbitane-type triterpene and triterpene glycoside contents of two dietary supplements determined by the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions were compared with those measured by an HPLC method with evaporative light scattering detection, which was recently developed for quantification of such compounds in dried fruits of M. charantia. The contents of five cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in 10 dietary supplements were measured using the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions. The total contents of the five compounds ranged from 17 to 3464 microg/serving.

  16. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  18. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  20. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  1. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  3. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely

  4. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  5. VEGETABLE PEELS: A PROMISING FEED RESOURCE FOR LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Emran HOSSAIN; Syeda Ayesha SULTANA; Mohammad Hasanul KARIM; Md. Imran AHMED

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different vegetable peels available in Rangunia, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Total 10 different vegetable peels i.e., Banana blossom (Musa sapientum), Bottle gourd peel (Lagenaria siceraria), Brinjal peel (Solanum melongena), Gram husk (Cicer arietinum), Green banana peel (Musa sapieutum), Green coconut peel (Cocos nucifera), Pea husk (Pisum sativum), Potato peel (Solanum tuberosum), Pumpkin peel (Cucurbita maxima), Ripe banana peel...

  6. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  7. Development of a Time-Intensity Evaluation System for Consumers: Measuring Bitterness and Retronasal Aroma of Coffee Beverages in 106 Untrained Panelists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotow, Naomi; Moritani, Ami; Hayakawa, Yoshinobu; Akutagawa, Akihito; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kobayakawa, Tatsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to develop products that are acceptable to consumers, it is necessary to incorporate consumers' intentions into products' characteristics. Therefore, investigation of consumers' perceptions of the taste or smell of common beverages provides information that should be useful in predicting market responses. In this study, we sought to develop a time-intensity evaluation system for consumer panels. Using our system, we performed time-intensity evaluation of flavor attributes (bitterness and retronasal aroma) that consumers perceived after swallowing a coffee beverage. Additionally, we developed quantitative evaluation methods for determining whether consumer panelists can properly perform time-intensity evaluation. In every trial, we fitted an exponential function to measured intensity data for bitterness and retronasal aroma. The correlation coefficients between measured time-intensity data and the fitted exponential curves were greater than 0.8 in about 90% of trials, indicating that we had successfully developed a time-intensity system for use with consumer panelists, even after just a single training trial using a nontrained consumer. We classified participants into two groups based on their consumption of canned coffee beverages. Significant difference was observed in only AUC of sensory modality (bitterness compared with retronasal aroma) among conventional TI parameters using two-way ANOVA. However, three-way ANOVA including a time course revealed significant difference between bitterness and retronasal aroma in the high-consumption group. Moreover, the high-consumption group more easily discriminated between bitterness and retronasal aroma than the low-consumption group. This finding implied that manufacturers should select consumer panelists who are suitable for their concepts of new products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of Oreochromis mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) fry. ... Weight gain, specific growth rate and gross food conversion ratio were significantly affected by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Some physical and chemical properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. seed and fatty acid composition of seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem GÖLÜKÇÜ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible part and leaves of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. are used as food or medicine to control some diseases because of its antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-hepatotoxic, antiviral, antiulcerogenic and larvicidal effects. Although fruits have considerable amount of seeds, they have not received much attention. In this study, some physical and chemical properties of the seed and also fatty acid composition of seed oil were determined. Oil content of the sample was determined by soxhlet apparatus as 26.10% in dried sample. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS and seven fatty acids were identified and their ratios were determined in this seed oil. The main fatty acid was determined as α-eleostearic (45.60%. The other fatty acids were palmitic (3.69%, stearic (28.00%, oleic (12.45%, linoleic (8.90%, arachidic (0.71% and gadoleic acids (0.65%.

  10. Development of full sweet, umami, and bitter taste responsiveness requires Regulator of G protein Signaling-21 (RGS21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Adam B; Gross, Joshua D; Kaski, Shane W; Wix, Kim; Siderovski, David P; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Setola, Vincent

    2018-04-26

    The mammalian tastes of sweet, umami, and bitter are initiated by activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the T1R and T2R families on taste receptor cells. GPCRs signal via nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis, the latter hastened by GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) that include the Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) protein family. We previously reported that RGS21, uniquely expressed in Type II taste receptor cells, decreases the potency of bitter-stimulated T2R signaling in cultured cells, consistent with its in vitro GAP activity. However, the role of RGS21 in organismal responses to GPCR-mediated tastants was not established. Here, we characterized mice lacking the Rgs21 fifth exon. Eliminating Rgs21 expression had no effect on body mass accumulation (a measure of alimentation), fungiform papillae number and morphology, circumvallate papillae morphology, and taste bud number. Two-bottle preference tests, however, revealed that Rgs21-null mice have blunted aversion to quinine and denatonium, and blunted preference for monosodium glutamate, the sweeteners sucrose and SC45647, and (surprisingly) NaCl. Observed reductions in GPCR-mediated tastant responses upon Rgs21 loss are opposite to original expectations, given that loss of RGS21 -- a GPCR signaling negative regulator -- should lead to increased responsiveness to tastant-mediated GPCR signaling (all else being equal). Yet, reduced organismal tastant responses are consistent with observations of reduced chorda tympani nerve recordings in Rgs21-null mice. Reduced tastant-mediated responses and behaviors exhibited by adult mice lacking Rgs21 expression since birth have thus revealed an underappreciated requirement for a GPCR GAP to establish the full character of tastant signaling.

  11. Response of gut microbiota and inflammatory status to bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) in high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juan; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Ying

    2016-12-24

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota. Obese SD rats (Sprague-Dawley rats, rattus norregicus) were randomly divided into four groups: (a) normal control diet (NCD) and distilled water, (b) HFD and distilled water, (c) HFD and 300mg BMP/kg body weight (bw), (d) HFD and 10mg pioglitazone (PGT)/kg bw. We observed remarkable decreases in the fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR index, serum lipid levels, and cell sizes of epididymal adipose tissues in the BMP and PGT groups after 8 weeks. BMP could significantly improve the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and local endotoxin levels compared to the HFD group (p<0.05). BMP suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by inhibiting inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) degradation and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/ p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK/p38 MAPKs) in adipose tissue. Sequencing results illustrated that BMP treatment markedly decreased the proportion of the endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens and increased butyrate producers. These results demonstrate that BMP ameliorates insulin sensitivity partly via relieving the inflammatory status in the system and in white adipose tissues of obese rats, and is associated with a proportional regulation of specific gut microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Savoring Sweet: Sugars in Infant and Toddler Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate. Conversely, inappropriate introduction of non-milk solids and beverages that are sweet at 0-4 months of age raises the newborn's risk for later obesity and may discourage the acceptance of other bitter or sour foods. Although cereals, fruits, 100% fruit juices, and some grains have naturally occurring sugars that impart sweet flavor notes, there is no clear role for added sugars between 6 and 12 months of age. Yet, 60% of infants are introduced to foods and beverages containing added sugars, threatening diet quality. Pairing foods with naturally occurring sugars, such as fruits, with foods that tend to be resisted initially, such as vegetables, can mask bitterness and promote acceptance. Utilizing the infants' extraordinary capacity for sensory-motor exploration is another strategy to expose them repeatedly to challenging tastes and flavors. The transitional year, as breast milk and infant formula are withdrawn, is a time when nutritional needs are high and diet quality often precarious. Rapid growth, along with brain and cognitive development, demand high-quality nutrition. Snacks are necessary both for energy and valuable nutrients. However, the selection of snack foods often exposes toddlers to items that offer concentrated energy with low nutrient value. Recent trends suggest a rapid fall in added sugars among infants and toddlers. Parenting practices that use small amounts of sugars to promote nutrient

  13. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  14. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  15. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  16. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  17. Radiation technology and feed production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radiation technology to prepare feeds and feed additions for cattle of non-feed vegetable blends is considered.Physicochemical foundations of radiation-chemical processes, possibilities of the use of various radiation devices are given. Data on practical realization of the technology are presented and prospects of its introduction to solve the tasks put forward by the USSR program on feed production are analyzed

  18. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  19. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  20. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  1. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  2. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. "Positive technology" thereby takes the responsible role of a "digital coach," supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the "therapeutic interaction" mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article aims to deepen the discussion

  3. A inibição na síntese de giberelina reduz o crescimento vegetativo em macieiras e proporciona controle de "bitter pit" nos frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Generoso Silveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O "bitter pit" é um distúrbio fisiológico ocasionado pela deficiência de cálcio (Ca em maçãs. No entanto, trabalhos recentes mostram que o "bitter pit" pode estar relacionado com aumento na atividade de giberelinas nas plantas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da pulverização de macieiras com um inibidor da síntese de giberelinas, o prohexadiona-cálcio (ProCa, e com giberelina GA3, no crescimento vegetativo das plantas e na ocorrência de "bitter pit". O experimento foi conduzido em um pomar localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, na safra de 2009/2010. Macieiras 'Catarina' e 'Fuji' foram pulverizadas com água (tratamento-controle, ProCa e GA3 (ambos os produtos na dose de 319 mg L-1, na queda das pétalas (15-10-2009, quando as brotações do ano estavam com 5-10 cm de comprimento, sendo repetidas após 20 dias. Foram feitas avaliações foliares (teor de clorofila, área, massa seca e área específica, em janeiro/2010, e de comprimento dos ramos do ano e de peso dos ramos podados, em maio/2010. Os frutos foram colhidos na maturação comercial, armazenados em câmara fria convencional por quatro meses (0±0,5 ºC/90-95% UR, e então avaliados quanto à ocorrência de "bitter pit" após cinco dias de vida de prateleira. Em ambas as cultivares, o crescimento vegetativo foi significativamente menor nas plantas tratadas com ProCa, e maior naquelas tratadas com GA3, comparativamente ao controle. Maçãs 'Catarina' e 'Fuji' do tratamento com ProCa apresentaram menor ocorrência de "bitter pit" após o período de armazenamento, associada aos menores teores de K, Mg e N, em relação aos teores de Ca, no tecido da casca, comparativamente ao tratamento-controle. Já o tratamento com GA3 aumentou a ocorrência de "bitter pit" em relação ao controle em ambas as cultivares.

  4. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Diefenbach

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the “therapeutic interaction” mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article

  5. Comparison of the effect of lavender and bitter orange on anxiety in postmenopausal women: A triple-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh; Kamalifard, Mahin; Namadian, Mahsa

    2018-05-01

    This trial compared the effects of lavender and bitter orange on anxiety in postmenopausal women. This trial was conducted in 2015. Eligible postmenopausal women were allocated into one of two intervention groups or a control group (n = 52 per group) in a 1:1:1 ratio using a randomized block design. Intervention groups received 500 mg capsules containing only bitter orange or lavender flower powder, and the control group received 500 mg capsules containing starch. The Spielberger's State -Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used before and eight weeks after starting the intervention. Data analyses were based on intention to treat. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant difference in mean state anxiety (P = 0.254) and trait anxiety (p = 0.972) score among the three groups before the intervention. The general linear model, adjusted for baseline state and trait anxiety scores and confounding factors, showed significant differences among the groups in the mean state anxiety (P = 0.010) and trait anxiety (p = 0.041) score after eight weeks of treatment. Bitter orange significantly reduced the mean state-anxiety scores compared with the control group [Adjusted Mean Difference (aMD): -1.99 (95% Confidence Interval, -3.64 to -0.34)]. Lavender significantly reduced the mean state-anxiety scores compared with the control group as well [aMD: -2.45 (95% CI -4.13 to -0.77)] and Bitter orange significantly reduced the mean trait-anxiety scores compared with the control group [aMD: -1.76 (95% CI -3.45 to -0.06)]. Lavender significantly reduced the mean trait-anxiety scores compared with the control group as well [aMD: -2.05 (95% CI -3.76 to -0.33)]. There was no significant difference between bitter orange and lavender groups after intervention in the mean trait-anxiety (p = 0.731) or state-anxiety (p = 0.578) scores. The positive effect of bitter orange and lavender on anxiety in postmenopausal women suggests that they can be used to

  6. The Potential and Challenges of Digital Well-Being Interventions: Positive Technology Research and Design in Light of the Bitter-Sweet Ambivalence of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Along with the dissemination of technical assistance in nearly every part of life, there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support well-being and human flourishing. “Positive technology” thereby takes the responsible role of a “digital coach,” supporting people in achieving personal goals and behavior change. The design of such technology requires knowledge of different disciplines such as psychology, design and human-computer interaction. However, possible synergies are not yet used to full effect, and it needs common frameworks to support a more deliberate design of the “therapeutic interaction” mediated through technology. For positive technology design, positive psychology, and resource oriented approaches appear as particularly promising starting point. Besides a general fit of the basic theoretical conceptions of human change, many elements of established interventions could possibly be transferred to technology design. However, besides the power of focusing on the positive, another psychological aspect to consider are the bitter components inherent to change, such as the confrontation with a negative status quo, threat of self-esteem, and the effort required. The present research discusses the general potential and challenges within positive technology design from an interdisciplinary perspective with theoretical and practical contributions. Based on the bitter-sweet ambivalence of change as present in many psychological approaches of motivation and behavior change, the bitter-sweet continuum serves as a proxy for the mixed emotions and cognitions related to change. An empirical investigation of those factors among 177 users of self-improvement technologies provides initial support for the usefulness of the bitter-sweet perspective in understanding change dynamics. In a next step, the bitter-sweet concept is transformed into different design strategies to support positive change. The present article aims to deepen the

  7. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  8. Wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandari, Hanumanth Rao; Sankarasubramanian, G; Kumar, A Praveen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the existing feeds in use at the GMRT Observatory and details the ongoing development of next generation wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT. The existing feeds include: feed with folded thick dipoles (for 150 MHz), dipole-disc feed (for 325 MHz), dual-band coaxial feed (for 233 MHZ and 610 MHz), and corrugated horn feed (for 1400–1450 MHz). The new broadband feeds covered in this paper are: cone-dipole feeds for 250–500 and 500–1000 MHz, wideband horn feed for 550–900 MHz, and dual ring feed for 130–260 MHz. Design techniques and performance results for these are described.

  9. A low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope capable of microscopy and spectroscopy in a Bitter magnet at up to 34 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W; Singh, S; Rossi, L; Gerritsen, J W; Hendriksen, B L M; Khajetoorians, A A; Christianen, P C M; Maan, J C; Zeitler, U; Bryant, B

    2017-09-01

    We present the design and performance of a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope (STM) which operates inside a water-cooled Bitter magnet, which can attain a magnetic field of up to 38 T. Due to the high vibration environment generated by the magnet cooling water, a uniquely designed STM and a vibration damping system are required. The STM scan head is designed to be as compact and rigid as possible, to minimize the effect of vibrational noise as well as fit the size constraints of the Bitter magnet. The STM uses a differential screw mechanism for coarse tip-sample approach, and operates in helium exchange gas at cryogenic temperatures. The reliability and performance of the STM are demonstrated through topographic imaging and scanning tunneling spectroscopy on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite at T = 4.2 K and in magnetic fields up to 34 T.

  10. Genetic Sensitivity to the Bitter Taste of 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP and Its Association with Physiological Mechanisms Controlling Body Mass Index (BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly J. Tepper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP is considered a marker for individual differences in taste perception that may influence food preferences and eating behavior, and thereby energy metabolism. This review describes genetic factors that may contribute to PROP sensitivity including: (1 the variants of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor with their different affinities for the stimulus; (2 the gene that controls the gustin protein that acts as a salivary trophic factor for fungiform taste papillae; and (3 other specific salivary proteins that could be involved in facilitating the binding of the PROP molecule with its receptor. In addition, we speculate on the influence of taste sensitivity on energy metabolism, possibly via modulation of the endocannabinoid system, and its possible role in regulating body composition homeostasis.

  11. Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) Extract Inhibits Tumorigenicity and Overcomes Cisplatin-Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cells Through Targeting AMPK Signaling Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Mingo M H; Ross, Fiona A; Hardie, D Grahame; Leung, Thomas H Y; Zhan, Jinbiao; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Chan, David W

    2016-09-01

    Objective Acquired chemoresistance is a major obstacle in the clinical management of ovarian cancer. Therefore, searching for alternative therapeutic modalities is urgently needed. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a traditional dietary fruit, but its extract also shows potential medicinal values in human diabetes and cancers. Here, we sought to investigate the extract of bitter melon (BME) in antitumorigenic and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells. Three varieties of bitter melon were used to prepare the BME. Ovarian cancer cell lines, human immortalized epithelial ovarian cells (HOSEs), and nude mice were used to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity, cisplatin resistance, and tumor inhibitory effect of BME. The molecular mechanism of BME was examined by Western blotting. Cotreatment with BME and cisplatin markedly attenuated tumor growth in vitro and in vivo in a mouse xenograft model, whereas there was no observable toxicity in HOSEs or in nude mice in vivo Interestingly, the antitumorigenic effects of BME varied with different varieties of bitter melon, suggesting that the amount of antitumorigenic substances may vary. Studies of the molecular mechanism demonstrated that BME activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in an AMP-independent but CaMKK (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase)-dependent manner, exerting anticancer effects through activation of AMPK and suppression of the mTOR/p70S6K and/or the AKT/ERK/FOXM1 (Forkhead Box M1) signaling cascade. BME functions as a natural AMPK activator in the inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth and might be useful as a supplement to improve the efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Changes in taste sensation of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy, as well as levels of malondialdehyde serum in radiographers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agniz Nur Aulia

    2016-06-01

    on the effects of radiation on cancer patients show that radiation can cause an increase in bitterness and metal taste [in cancer patients] leading to discomfort in the oral cavity. In body, free radicals then can cause lipid peroxidation process. Lipid peroxidation is an oxidative destruction of polyunsaturated fatty acid producing malondialdehyde (MDA. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effects of radiation on changes in the taste sensation of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy as well as the levels of MDA serum in radiographers. Method: This study was an observational laboratory research using post- test control design. Samples were selected using simple random sampling technique. The samples were seven radiographers who have been working for five years in the laboratory and radiographic units in Surabaya. Result: Based on the results of statistical tests, it showed that there were no differences in the sensitivity of all tastes between the groups tested. Moreover, the results also depicted considerable value for the sour taste was 0.550, the saltiness was 0.775, the sweetness was 0.294, the bitter taste was 0.065, the umami taste was 0.705, and the spicy taste was 0.319 (p>0.05. However, the dramatic increase was higlighted in levels of MDA serum with a significant value of 0.065 (p>0.005. Conclusion. There were no changes in the sensitivity of sour, salty, sweet, bitter, umami, and spicy tastes, but there was a significant increased in level of MDA serum in the radiographers compared to the control group.

  13. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  14. [Puppy feeding in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B

    2009-11-01

    In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.

  15. Coarse-grained/molecular mechanics of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor: experimentally-validated detailed structural prediction of agonist binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Marchiori

    Full Text Available Bitter molecules in humans are detected by ∼25 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. The lack of atomic resolution structure for any of them is complicating an in depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying bitter taste perception. Here, we investigate the molecular determinants of the interaction of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor with its agonists phenylthiocarbamide (PTC and propylthiouracil (PROP. We use the recently developed hybrid Molecular Mechanics/Coarse Grained (MM/CG method tailored specifically for GPCRs. The method, through an extensive exploration of the conformational space in the binding pocket, allows the identification of several residues important for agonist binding that would have been very difficult to capture from the standard bioinformatics/docking approach. Our calculations suggest that both agonists bind to Asn103, Phe197, Phe264 and Trp201, whilst they do not interact with the so-called extra cellular loop 2, involved in cis-retinal binding in the GPCR rhodopsin. These predictions are consistent with data sets based on more than 20 site-directed mutagenesis and functional calcium imaging experiments of TAS2R38. The method could be readily used for other GPCRs for which experimental information is currently lacking.

  16. Combination of an e-nose, an e-tongue and an e-eye for the characterisation of olive oils with different degree of bitterness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apetrei, C., E-mail: apetreic@ugal.ro [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, European Excellence Research Centre for Environmental Problems, ' Dunarea de Jos' University of Galati (Romania) (Spain); Apetrei, I.M.; Villanueva, S. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Sciences Faculty, University of Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Saja, J.A. de, E-mail: sajasaez@fmc.uva.es [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Sciences Faculty, University of Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Gutierrez-Rosales, F., E-mail: rosales@cica.es [Instituto de la Grasa de Sevilla, CSIC, Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero, 4, Sevilla, E-41012 (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@dali.eis.uva.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Po del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-03-17

    An electronic panel has been used to characterise the organoleptic characteristics of twenty-five extra virgin olive oils from varieties Hojiblanca, Picual and Arbequina, with different degree of bitterness. The method consists in the combination of three systems: electronic nose, electronic tongue and electronic eye. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA), where PC1, PC2 and PC3 explained 59% of the total variance between the samples, has demonstrated that the capability of discrimination of the combined system is superior to that obtained with the three instruments separately. This improvement is due to the increased information extracted from each sample. Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) has allowed separation of the groups in function of olive variety with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) lower than 0.099. Using PLS1 and PLS2 regression models, good correlations have been found between the signals obtained from the electronic tongue and the polyphenolic content (measured by chromatographic methods) or the bitterness index (scored by a panel of experts) with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9 in calibration and validation. These preliminary results indicate that the combination of an e-nose, an e-tongue and an e-eye can be a useful tool for the analysis of olive oil bitterness.

  17. Combination of an e-nose, an e-tongue and an e-eye for the characterisation of olive oils with different degree of bitterness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apetrei, C.; Apetrei, I.M.; Villanueva, S.; Saja, J.A. de; Gutierrez-Rosales, F.; Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic panel has been used to characterise the organoleptic characteristics of twenty-five extra virgin olive oils from varieties Hojiblanca, Picual and Arbequina, with different degree of bitterness. The method consists in the combination of three systems: electronic nose, electronic tongue and electronic eye. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA), where PC1, PC2 and PC3 explained 59% of the total variance between the samples, has demonstrated that the capability of discrimination of the combined system is superior to that obtained with the three instruments separately. This improvement is due to the increased information extracted from each sample. Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) has allowed separation of the groups in function of olive variety with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) lower than 0.099. Using PLS1 and PLS2 regression models, good correlations have been found between the signals obtained from the electronic tongue and the polyphenolic content (measured by chromatographic methods) or the bitterness index (scored by a panel of experts) with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9 in calibration and validation. These preliminary results indicate that the combination of an e-nose, an e-tongue and an e-eye can be a useful tool for the analysis of olive oil bitterness.

  18. Increased eating control and energy levels associated with consumption of bitter orange (p-synephrine extract: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaats GR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gilbert R Kaats,1 Robert B Leckie,2 Nate Mrvichin,1 Sidney J Stohs3 1Integrative Health Technologies, Inc., 2R.B. Leckie Research Consultants, San Antonio, TX, 3Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Abstract: Using a placebo-controlled double-blinded 30-day protocol, 40 overweight adults were asked to consume a chocolate-flavored chew 15–30 min before their two largest meals of the day. The chews contained either a placebo or an “active” product (100 mg of a bitter orange extract, standardized to 51.5 mg p-synephrine. Subjects completed a 13-item Weight Control Support Scale (WCSS containing eating control, energy level, and palatability subscales daily throughout the study. All 40 subjects completed the study. No adverse effects were reported in either the placebo or active groups. As compared to placebo, subjects consuming the active product reported statistically more (p≤0.001 positive responses on the WCSS as well as on each of the three subscales. This study suggests that, as compared to a placebo control, consuming a chew containing bitter orange extract (51.5 mg p-synephrine 15–30 min before the two largest meals of the day resulted in a statistically significant greater and more positive response to eating/appetite control and a weight-control support scale. Keywords: bitter orange extract, p-synephrine, Citrus aurantium, appetite suppression, energy, safety

  19. Efeito do tamanho de fruto e do método de extração na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de porongo Effect of fruit size and extraction method on the physiological quality of bottle gourd seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    1997-03-01

    temperatura, umidade e aeração. germinam após terem atingido 43,4% de umidade.Bottie gourd - Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl - the fruits harvested from a farm localed in Restinga Seca county, were used to evaluate seeds in the Seed Laboratory of the Federal University of Santa Maria. The effect of fruit size on seed physiological quality was studied using seeds from ten large, medium and small bottle gourd fruits. Fruits were characterized by the length, the diameter. the shell thickness, and by the number of seeds. The seeds were characterized by the length, the width, the thickness, and the weight of 1000 seeds. Water fermentation during 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours and dipping in HCl solution by 10, 20, and 30% during 30 minutes were used to compare methods of extracting seeds from medium bottle gourd fruits stored for 60 days. The manual extraction of seeds was considered as the control treatment. The physiological quality of the seeds was evaluated by the germination and the first counting test and averaging time of germination parameters. Results indicated that the size of botlle gourd fruit can be characterized either by the length or the width. Lighter seeds with smaller width and thickness were extracted from smaller fruits. The treatment with HCl solution specially on 20 and 30% concentration was not efficient for the extracting bottle gourd seeds because the cleaning process was more difficult and qffècted negatively seed germination and the vigor. The results show that as the size of the fruits increase the number and weight of seeds also increase without changing the ability to produce normal seedlings. The cleaning process of bottle gourd seeds in HCl solution reduces their vigor. The best period of fermentation of seeds was observed in water at 25°C for 72 hours, however, the period from 48 to 96 hours improved their physiological quality and also facilitated the cleaning process. The bottle gourd seeds germinate in environment with 43.4% of humidity

  20. Outbreak of mass sociogenic illness in a school feeding program in northwest Bangladesh, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak. METHODS: We defined case-patients as students from affected schools reporting any two symptoms including abdominal pain, heartburn, bitter taste, and headache after eating biscuits on the day of illness. We conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions with students, teachers, parents and community members to explore symptoms, exposures, and community perceptions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among case-patients to determine the symptoms and ascertain food items eaten 12 hours before illness onset, and microbiological and environmental investigations. RESULTS: Among 142 students seeking hospital care, 44 students from four schools qualified as case-patients. Of these, we surveyed 30 who had a mean age of 9 years; 70% (21/30 were females. Predominant symptoms included abdominal pain (93%, heartburn (90%, and bitter taste (57%. All students recovered within a few hours. No pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or Salmonella spp. were isolated from collected stool samples. We found no rancid biscuits in schools and storage sites. The female index case perceived the unusually darker packet label as a "devil's deed" that made the biscuits poisonous. Many students, parents and community members reported concerns about rumors of students dying from biscuit poisoning. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery of symptoms; female preponderance; inconsistent physical, microbiological and environmental findings suggested mass sociogenic illness rather than a foodborne or toxic cause. Rumours of student deaths heightening community anxiety apparently propagated this

  1. Automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.; Bona, F.; Dejachy, G.

    1963-01-01

    An automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device has been developed (and used) in the framework of corrosion tests realized with constantly renewed uranium hexafluoride. The issue was to feed liquid nitrogen to a large capacity metallic trap in order to condensate uranium hexafluoride at the exit of the corrosion chambers. After having studied various available devices, a feeding device has been specifically designed to be robust, secure and autonomous, as well as ensuring a high liquid nitrogen flowrate and a highly elevated feeding frequency. The device, made of standard material, has been used during 4000 hours without any problem [fr

  2. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...

  3. “The Bitter laughter ”. When parody is a moral and affective priming in political persuasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca D'Errico

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humour studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation , currently explained by referring to the so called just a joke effect (Nabi, 2007. Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a bitter laughter. The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behaviour (a discourse, text, body movement, song that imitates a communicative behaviour or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between surface and deep parody (Poggi and D’Errico, 2013, with the former simply imitating behaviours actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician’s gender.

  4. Conceptual design of a Bitter-magnet toroidal-field system for the ZEPHYR Ignition Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.D.; Bobrov, E.S.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Davin, J.M.; Erez, E.

    1981-05-01

    The following problems are described and discussed: (1) parametric studies - these studies examine among other things the interdependence of throat stresses, plasma parameters (margins of ignition) and stored energy. The latter is a measure of cost and is minimized in the present design; (2) magnet configuration - the shape of the plates are considered in detail including standard turns, turns located at beam ports, diagnostic and closure flanges; (3) ripple computation - this section describes the codes by which ripple is computed; (4) field diffusion and nuclear heating - the effect of magnetic field diffusion on heating is considered along with neutron heating. Current, field and temperature profiles are computed; (5) finite element analysis - the two and three dimensional finite element codes are described and the results discussed in detail; (6) structures engineering - this considers the calculation of critical stresses due to toroidal and overturning forces and discusses the method of constraint of these forces. The Materials Testing Program is also discussed; (7) fabrication - the methods available for the manufacture of the constituent parts of the Bitter plates, the method of assembly and remote maintenance are summarized

  5. Evaluation of Mucociliary Clearance by Three Dimension Micro-CT-SPECT in Guinea Pig: Role of Bitter Taste Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jose Luis; Ortiz, Amparo; Milara, Javier; Armengot, Miguel; Sanz, Celia; Compañ, Desamparados; Morcillo, Esteban; Cortijo, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Different image techniques have been used to analyze mucociliary clearance (MCC) in humans, but current small animal MCC analysis using in vivo imaging has not been well defined. Bitter taste receptor (T2R) agonists increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and cause bronchodilation but their effects in vivo are not well understood. This work analyzes in vivo nasal and bronchial MCC in guinea pig animals using three dimension (3D) micro-CT-SPECT images and evaluates the effect of T2R agonists. Intranasal macroaggreggates of albumin-Technetium 99 metastable (MAA-Tc99m) and lung nebulized Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were used to analyze the effect of T2R agonists on nasal and bronchial MCC respectively, using 3D micro-CT-SPECT in guinea pig. MAA-Tc99m showed a nasal mucociliary transport rate of 0.36 mm/min that was increased in presence of T2R agonist to 0.66 mm/min. Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were homogeneously distributed in the lung of guinea pig and cleared with time-dependence through the bronchi and trachea of guinea pig. T2R agonist increased bronchial MCC of Tc99m albumin nanocolloids. T2R agonists increased CBF in human nasal ciliated cells in vitro and induced bronchodilation in human bronchi ex vivo. In summary, T2R agonists increase MCC in vivo as assessed by 3D micro-CT-SPECT analysis.

  6. Low oxygen treatment prior to cold storage decreases the incidence of bitter pit in 'Golden Reinders' apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Jesús; Fernández, Victoria; López, Paola; Peiró, Jose María; Blanco, Alvaro

    2010-02-01

    The effect of subjecting 'Golden Reinders' apples to a low O(2) pre-treatment (LOT; 1-2% O(2)) was evaluated as a strategy to decrease the rate of bitter pit (BP) incidence after standard cold storage (ST). Immediately after harvest, apples were stored for 10 days at 20 degrees C under low O(2). Thereafter, apples were cold-stored (0-4 degrees C) for 4 months and changes were monitored in terms of BP incidence, fruit quality traits and mineral element concentrations. After 4 months cold storage, LOT apples presented a 2.6-fold decrease in the rate of BP incidence (14%) versus the values obtained for standard cold-stored fruits (37% BP incidence). LOT increased flesh firmness, total soluble solids and titratable acidity as compared to the quality traits determined for cold-stored fruits. Lower cortex Ca and Mg concentrations as compared to ST apples were determined in association with LOT, 2 months after cold storage. Application of a LOT prior to cold storage may be a promising strategy to reduce the incidence of BP and preserve fruit quality, which should be further investigated.

  7. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and some physiological parameters of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) under salinity and chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mahsa; Heidari, Mostafa; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter. Salinity and chromium enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities like catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and sodium content in leaves. However salinity and chromium treatments had no effect on potassium, phosphorus in leaves, soluble carbohydrate concentration in leaves and root, but decreased the carotenoid content in leaves. On increasing salinity from control to 8 ds m(-1) chlorophyll a, b and anthocyanin content decreased by 41.6%, 61.1% and 26.5% respectively but chromium treatments had no significant effect on these photosynthetic pigments.

  8. Riboflavin accumulation and characterization of cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Sang Un

    2012-12-05

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the universal precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide--cofactors that are essential for the activity of a wide variety of metabolic enzymes in animals, plants, and microbes. Using the RACE PCR approach, cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (McLS) and riboflavin synthase (McRS), which catalyze the last two steps in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, were cloned from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a popular vegetable crop in Asia. Amino acid sequence alignments indicated that McLS and McRS share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes and carry an N-terminal extension, which is reported to be a plastid-targeting sequence. Organ expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT PCR showed that McLS and McRS were constitutively expressed in M. charantia, with the strongest expression levels observed during the last stage of fruit ripening (stage 6). This correlated with the highest level of riboflavin content, which was detected during ripening stage 6 by HPLC analysis. McLS and McRS were highly expressed in the young leaves and flowers, whereas roots exhibited the highest accumulation of riboflavin. The cloning and characterization of McLS and McRS from M. charantia may aid the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crops.

  9. Breast feeding in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Hussein, H B

    1977-04-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding is investigated in relation to duration of breastfeeding without supplementation and the age when solids were first introduced in the infant's diet. The study also evaluates the awareness of the mothers of the benefits of breast milk. 461 mothers were interviewed in May 1976 by 3 doctors including the author. 95% (438) were found to breastfeed their babies at least once or twice a day. However, only 18% (86) of the mothers were fully breastfeeding up to 3 months and 9% (45) were breastfeeding without added solids up to 6 months. A disappointing finding was the introduction of solid foods by 78% (351) of the mothers before the end of the 3rd month; of these, 117 or 25% have introduced the solids as early as the 1st 6 months. Only 5% (23) were artificially feeding their infants. 86% (399) agreed that breast milk was the best milk for their children but only 277 (59%) agreed that infection occurs less frequently in breastfed than bottlefed children. 65% (302) were aware that solids should be introduced after 6 months to the infant's diet. Only 48% (222) were aware that a well-balanced diet is essential for an adequate supply of breast milk. Although 50% (232) reported that they were advised by nurses or bidans to breastfeed their children, only 37% (172) were given instructions on the technique of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding programs launched by the Ministry of Health should promote breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months duration and discourage early complement feeding and introduction of solids to infants less than 6 months of age.

  10. Clarification of the Etiology of Glomerella Leaf Spot and Bitter Rot of Apple Caused by Colletotrichum spp. Based on Morphology and Genetic, Molecular, and Pathogenicity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eugenia; Sutton, Turner B; Correll, James C

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT Morphological characteristics and vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of 486 isolates of Glomerella cingulata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and C. acutatum collected from apple leaves with Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) symptoms and fruit with bitter rot symptoms in the United States and Brazil were studied. From this collection, 155 isolates of G. cingulata (93 from fruit, 61 from leaves, and 1 from buds), 42 isolates of C. gloeosporioides from fruit, and 14 isolates of C. acutatum (10 from fruit and 4 from leaves) were studied using mitochondrial (mt)DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) haplotypes. A subset of 24 isolates was studied by examining the sequence of a 200-bp intron of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GDPH) nuclear gene. In addition, 98 isolates were tested for pathogenicity on leaves of cvs. Gala and Golden Delicious in the greenhouse, and 24 isolates were tested for pathogenicity on fruit of cv. Gala in growth chambers. In total, 238 and 225 isolates of G. cingulata were separated into four distinct morphological types and six VCGs, respectively. Five morphological types and six VCGs were identified among 74 and 36 isolates of C. gloeosporioides, respectively. Three morphological types and four VCGs were identified among 74 and 23 isolates of C. acutatum, respectively. Seven different mtDNA RFLP haplotypes were observed within isolates of G. cingulata, two within isolates of C. gloeosporioides, and two within isolates of C. acutatum. Phylogenetic trees, inferred based on maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods using the intron sequence, produced similar topologies. Each species was separated into distinct groups. All isolates tested were pathogenic on fruit, though only isolates with specific VCGs and haplotypes were pathogenic to leaves. Vegetative compatibility was a better tool than molecular characters for distinguishing isolates of G. cingulata pathogenic on both leaves and fruit from the ones

  11. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.

  12. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean daily live mass gain was, however, 174 g/day (20,5%) more for the Large White boars and feed conversion16,5% ... of protein and fat in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed ..... regulation of growth and production.

  13. AUTOMATION OF IN FEED CENTERLESS GRINDING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Piyusha P. Jadhav*, Sachin V. Lomte, Sudhir Surve

    2017-01-01

    In-feed centerless grinding technique offers a major contribution to the industries. This is the alternative in-feed centerless grinding technique using regulating wheel. Mainly centerless grinding is divided in three types, and those are End feed, in-feed and through feed Centerless grinding. This paper mainly deals with low cost automation on in-feed Centerless grinding machine using regulating wheel suitable for multiple in-feed type jobs. It deals with the development of a Centerless grin...

  14. Best-feeding the baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Best-feeding the baby. Human infants should be fed their own mothers' breast- milk. Where this is unavailable, replacement feeding becomes necessary. Through the ages and right up to the present, human milk has been supplied by other lactating women within or from outside the family. Donated breast-milk has been ...

  15. A History of Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  16. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  17. Foraging response and acclimation of ambush feeding and feeding-current feeding copepods to toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jiayi; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    reticulatum. We hypothesize (1) that ambush feeders are less affected by toxic algae than feeding-current feeders, (2) that copepods acclimate to the toxic algae, and (3) that phytoplankton cells previously exposed to copepod cues elicit stronger responses. Both copepod species consumed the toxic algae...... to examine the response and temporal acclimation (5 d) of two copepods with different foraging behaviors to toxic dinoflagellates. Feeding-current feeding Temora longicornis and ambush feeding Acartia tonsa were offered three strains of toxic Alexandrium tamarense and a nontoxic control Protoceratium...... at a reduced rate and there was no difference in their net-response, but the mechanisms differed. T. longicornis responded in strain-specific ways by reducing its feeding activity, by rejecting captured algae, or by regurgitating consumed cells. A. tonsa reduced its consumption rate, jump frequency, and jump...

  18. Energy intake and diet selection during buffet consumption in women classified by the 6-n-propylthiouracil bitter taste phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaie, Yasmine; Koelliker, Yvonne; Hoffman, Daniel J; Tepper, Beverly J

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to a variety of energy-dense foods promotes increased energy intake and adiposity. Taste blindness to the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been associated with increased adiposity in women and might be linked to an increased energy intake and greater selection of dietary fat. We investigated whether PROP nontaster (NT) women would consume more fat and energy in a buffet setting than medium taster (MT) or supertaster (ST) women. Seventy-five non-diet-restrained, lean, young women [mean ± SEM BMI (in kg/m²): 21.5 ± 0.6; age: 26.1 ± 1.3 y) ate lunch and dinner in the laboratory for 3 consecutive days under the following 2 conditions: ad libitum control meals (CONTs) or high-variety buffet meals (BUFFs). A standard breakfast was consumed each day of the study (4 - d washout between conditions). NTs and MTs consumed more energy and fat (as the percentage of energy) from BUFFs than did STs (P daily energy intakes in these 2 groups of women during BUFFs (2149 ± 49 kcal/d for NTs and 2209 ± 48 kcal/d for MTs compared with 1933 ± 50 kcal/d for STs; P kcal/d during BUFFs than during CONTs. In addition, compared with STs, NTs and MTs consumed more added fats and sweets (servings/d; P daily energy than do ST women when eating in a buffet setting, which is a common type of dietary exposure. This increase in energy intake over time could contribute to a positive energy balance and increased adiposity previously reported in these women.

  19. Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Hsun Tsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser. leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1 and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2 by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections.

  20. Bitter melon juice exerts its efficacy against pancreatic cancer via targeting both bulk and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Deepanshi; Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Sushil; Wempe, Michael F; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2018-05-04

    Pancreatic cancer (PanC) is one of the deadliest malignancies worldwide and frontline treatment with gemcitabine becomes eventually ineffective due to increasing PanC resistance, suggesting additional approaches are needed to manage PanC. Recently, we have shown the efficacy of bitter melon juice (BMJ) against PanC cells, including those resistant to gemcitabine. Since cancer stem cells (CSCs) are actively involved in PanC initiation, progression, relapse and drug-resistance, here we assessed BMJ ability in targeting pancreatic cancer-associated cancer stem cells (PanC-CSCs). We found BMJ efficacy against CD44 + /CD24 + /EpCAM high enriched PanC-CSCs in spheroid assays; BMJ also increased the sensitivity of gemcitabine-resistant PanC-CSCs. Exogenous addition of BMJ to PanC-CSC generated spheroids (not pre-exposed to BMJ) also significantly reduced spheroid number and size. Mechanistically, BMJ effects were associated with a decrease in the expression of genes and proteins involved in PanC-CSC renewal and proliferation. Specifically, immunofluorescence staining showed that BMJ decreases protein expression/nuclear localization of CSC-associated transcription factors SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG, and CSC marker CD44. Immunohistochemical analysis of MiaPaCa2 xenografts from BMJ treated animals also showed a significant decrease in the levels of CSC-associated transcription factors. Together, these results show BMJ potential in targeting PanC-CSC pool and associated regulatory pathways, suggesting the need for further investigation of its efficacy against PanC growth and progression including gemcitabine-resistant PanC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Reflections of Cultural Memory in the Island of Disputes: Reading Durrell’s Bitter Lemons of Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiray Cevik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The clean reading of Durrell’s Aegean travelogues favors the elaboration of memories of travels, a proper circumstance of getting involved in the cultural milieu of the island of Cyprus. Lawrence Durrell’s travel book Bitter Lemons of Cyprus (1957, which is based on his three-year stay on the island, a sojourn which coincided with the enosis crisis along with value, personal and cultural conflicts shows how representations of cultural and political conflicts are inextricably linked to representation of modern oriental thought. He sees the clashes of tension in living styles of bi-polar society, characters and British politics even though he claims to keep away from British politics. Island’s cultural ideology of ‘melting pot’ has been replaced by bi-culturalism in the recent decades.  The novel is an embodiment of cultural identities in cleavages surviving for recognition which also demonstrates a need for the construction of an egalitarian bi-communal society. The novel is told of in various perspectives of ethnicities that are used as tools for cultural integration, preservation of identity and culture by the images of prominent figures from respective ethnicities. These perspectives formed mainly under Durrell’s orientalist viewpoint fill the novel through the cultural memory construed writer’s sovereign Western consciousness out of whose unchallenged centrality on Oriental perspective emerged. Durrell filters his experiences through cultural memory after the return to England. Thus, in this paper cultural memory as Durrell reflects on a tri-partite basis will be analyzed in terms of conflicts, stereotypes, identity crisis, clashes and hopes for negotiations.

  2. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)

  3. China Report, Red Flag, Number 4, 16 February 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-12

    bitter gourd, towel gourd, cucumbers and eggplants were usually in short supply, but since the reforms, the supply has doubled and redoubled. As network...diversified operations such as processing pickled products, processing bean products, preparing soy-sauce meat products and so on. This will enrich the...the theory of neovitalism, represented by the German biologist Driesch. He conducted experiments on sea urchin embryos and demonstrated that a

  4. Effects of feed forms, levels of quantitative feed restriction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Data were collected on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost benefits were calculated. Data were subjected to ... Keywords: Broilers, carcass, performance, quantitative feed restriction ...

  5. Association analysis of bitter receptor genes in five isolated populations identifies a significant correlation between TAS2R43 variants and coffee liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Traglia, Michela; Robino, Antonietta; Willems, Sara M; Pistis, Giorgio; d'Adamo, Pio; Amin, Najaf; d'Eustacchio, Angela; Navarini, Luciano; Sala, Cinzia; Karssen, Lennart C; van Duijn, Cornelia; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Coffee, one of the most popular beverages in the world, contains many different physiologically active compounds with a potential impact on people's health. Despite the recent attention given to the genetic basis of its consumption, very little has been done in understanding genes influencing coffee preference among different individuals. Given its markedly bitter taste, we decided to verify if bitter receptor genes (TAS2Rs) variants affect coffee liking. In this light, 4066 people from different parts of Europe and Central Asia filled in a field questionnaire on coffee liking. They have been consequently recruited and included in the study. Eighty-eight SNPs covering the 25 TAS2R genes were selected from the available imputed ones and used to run association analysis for coffee liking. A significant association was detected with three SNP: one synonymous and two functional variants (W35S and H212R) on the TAS2R43 gene. Both variants have been shown to greatly reduce in vitro protein activity. Surprisingly the wild type allele, which corresponds to the functional form of the protein, is associated to higher liking of coffee. Since the hTAS2R43 receptor is sensible to caffeine, we verified if the detected variants produced differences in caffeine bitter perception on a subsample of people coming from the FVG cohort. We found a significant association between differences in caffeine perception and the H212R variant but not with the W35S, which suggests that the effect of the TAS2R43 gene on coffee liking is mediated by caffeine and in particular by the H212R variant. No other significant association was found with other TAS2R genes. In conclusion, the present study opens new perspectives in the understanding of coffee liking. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of the TAS2R43 gene in coffee hedonics and to identify which other genes and pathways are involved in its genetics.

  6. Association analysis of bitter receptor genes in five isolated populations identifies a significant correlation between TAS2R43 variants and coffee liking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pirastu

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages in the world, contains many different physiologically active compounds with a potential impact on people's health. Despite the recent attention given to the genetic basis of its consumption, very little has been done in understanding genes influencing coffee preference among different individuals. Given its markedly bitter taste, we decided to verify if bitter receptor genes (TAS2Rs variants affect coffee liking. In this light, 4066 people from different parts of Europe and Central Asia filled in a field questionnaire on coffee liking. They have been consequently recruited and included in the study. Eighty-eight SNPs covering the 25 TAS2R genes were selected from the available imputed ones and used to run association analysis for coffee liking. A significant association was detected with three SNP: one synonymous and two functional variants (W35S and H212R on the TAS2R43 gene. Both variants have been shown to greatly reduce in vitro protein activity. Surprisingly the wild type allele, which corresponds to the functional form of the protein, is associated to higher liking of coffee. Since the hTAS2R43 receptor is sensible to caffeine, we verified if the detected variants produced differences in caffeine bitter perception on a subsample of people coming from the FVG cohort. We found a significant association between differences in caffeine perception and the H212R variant but not with the W35S, which suggests that the effect of the TAS2R43 gene on coffee liking is mediated by caffeine and in particular by the H212R variant. No other significant association was found with other TAS2R genes. In conclusion, the present study opens new perspectives in the understanding of coffee liking. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of the TAS2R43 gene in coffee hedonics and to identify which other genes and pathways are involved in its genetics.

  7. Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J vary in sensitivity to a subset of bitter stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Theodore M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common inbred mouse strains are genotypically diverse, but it is still poorly understood how this diversity relates to specific differences in behavior. To identify quantitative trait genes that influence taste behavior differences, it is critical to utilize assays that exclusively measure the contribution of orosensory cues. With a few exceptions, previous characterizations of behavioral taste sensitivity in inbred mouse strains have generally measured consumption, which can be confounded by post-ingestive effects. Here, we used a taste-salient brief-access procedure to measure taste sensitivity to eight stimuli characterized as bitter or aversive in C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 mice. Results B6 mice were more sensitive than D2 mice to a subset of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP, and MgCl2. D2 mice were more sensitive than B6 mice to the bitter stimulus raffinose undecaacetate (RUA. These strains did not differ in sensitivity to cycloheximide (CYX, denatonium benzoate (DB, KCl or HCl. Conclusion B6-D2 taste sensitivity differences indicate that differences in consumption of QHCl, PROP, MgCl2 and RUA are based on immediate orosensory cues, not post-ingestive effects. The absence of a strain difference for CYX suggests that polymorphisms in a T2R-type taste receptor shown to be differentially sensitive to CYX in vitro are unlikely to differentially contribute to the CYX behavioral response in vivo. The results of these studies point to the utility of these common mouse strains and their associated resources for investigation into the genetic mechanisms of taste.

  8. Impact of selected coagulants and starters on primary proteolysis and amino acid release related to bitterness and structure of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial research, it is still difficult to produce high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coagulants, bovine chymosin (BC) and camel chymosin (CC) having different proteolytic activities and two starter cultures, an O-culture (O...... cheeses with BC had a higher amount of peptides released by chymosin, e. g. the bitter peptide beta-casein (f193-209) or by starter proteases from the chymosin-produced peptide alpha(s1)-CN (f1-23). BC cheeses were also judged to be softer by the sensory panel. Cheeses containing the OLb-culture had...

  9. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  10. Feeding device for rotary retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, T W.S.

    1923-04-25

    A horizontal rotary retort is heated externally with a feeding-worm or the like for distilling coal, oil shale, etc. It is characterized in that the shaft of the feeder moves adjustably lengthwise, so that, under the hopper more or less of the worm comes for action on the feed, so that the hopper is withdrawn through the retort while it projects into the retort and is secured in a position against the rotation.

  11. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  12. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  13. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  14. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  15. Feeding the Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  16. Complementary Feeding: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Mary; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Domellöf, Magnus; Embleton, Nicholas; Fidler Mis, Nataša; Hojsak, Iva; Hulst, Jessie M; Indrio, Flavia; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Molgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This position paper considers different aspects of complementary feeding (CF), focussing on healthy term infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these recommendations: Timing: Exclusive or full breast-feeding should be promoted for at least 4 months (17 weeks, beginning of the 5th month of life) and exclusive or predominant breast-feeding for approximately 6 months (26 weeks, beginning of the 7th month) is a desirable goal. Complementary foods (solids and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula) should not be introduced before 4 months but should not be delayed beyond 6 months. Infants should be offered foods with a variety of flavours and textures including bitter tasting green vegetables. Continued breast-feeding is recommended alongside CF. Whole cows' milk should not be used as the main drink before 12 months of age. Allergenic foods may be introduced when CF is commenced any time after 4 months. Infants at high risk of peanut allergy (those with severe eczema, egg allergy, or both) should have peanut introduced between 4 and 11 months, following evaluation by an appropriately trained specialist. Gluten may be introduced between 4 and 12 months, but consumption of large quantities should be avoided during the first weeks after gluten introduction and later during infancy. All infants should receive iron-rich CF including meat products and/or iron-fortified foods. No sugar or salt should be added to CF and fruit juices or sugar-sweetened beverages should be avoided. Vegan diets should only be used under appropriate medical or dietetic supervision and parents should understand the serious consequences of failing to follow advice regarding supplementation of the diet. Parents should be encouraged to respond to their infant's hunger and satiety queues and to avoid feeding to comfort or as a reward.

  17. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  18. Bitter receptor gene (TAS2R38) P49A genotypes and their associations with aversion to vegetables and sweet/fat foods in Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Shee-Xuen; Lee, Pui-Leng; Law, Huey-Yi; Say, Yee-How

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the bitter receptor gene (TAS2R38) was identified to be responsible for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) bitter sensitivity. Its two predominant haplotypes at three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are found to be definitive for the PTC status, which the ProAlaVal and AlaValIle haplotypes are associated with tasters and non-tasters, respectively. TAS2R38 haplotypes have been reported to influence food preferences (like cruciferous vegetables and fat foods) and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We examined, in 215 Malaysian subjects (100 males, 115 females), the association of the P49A SNP of TAS2R38 with anthropometric measurements and aversion to a list of 36 vegetables, 4 soy products, green tea and 37 sweet/fat foods. The subjects were successfully genotyped as 110 PA, 81 PP and 24 AA (with the A49 allelic frequency of 0.37), by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Ethnicity (Malay, Chinese or Indian), but not gender, was associated with the P49A TAS2R38 genotypes (pfoods, were associated with the P49A genotypes (pfoods in the sampled Malaysian subjects, and this suggests the existence of other possible factors influencing food selection among Malaysians.

  19. Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldız, Gülsüm; Sekeroglu, Nazım; Kulak, Muhittin; Demirkol, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per  plant), number of seeds (30.2  per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli.

  20. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  1. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including

  2. Breast feeding: is it vital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasir, F A

    1990-12-01

    Human milk is the natural food of infants. It is a naturally balanced diet which meets the needs of the newborn. No artificial food can compare with human milk's natural, nutritional, and anti-infective properties. Various agencies have therefore strongly advocated every infant's right to be breast fed. For example, the International Confederation of Midwives at their 1984 meeting recommended that breast feeding be undertaken for at least 6 months especially in areas of the world where the incidence of infant mortality, morbidity, and malnutrition is high. The majority of women should be able to breast feed even if malnourished, and providing food for a lactating woman is less expensive than providing artificial formula for her baby. In some Western countries, breasts are seen more as sex symbols than sources of nourishment for infants. Women in developing countries should instead retain their tradition of breast feeding in the best interest of both their children and society.

  3. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...

  4. Taught by bitter experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elf, Nikolaj Frydensbjerg

    2017-01-01

    The development of students’ writer identities is always unique and at the same time socially and culturally typified. This study explores an adolescent Danish student’s development of writer identity. More specifically, it is a case study of Amalie’s development of writer identity during four...

  5. Identificação pré-colheita do risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" em maçãs 'gala' por meio de infiltração com magnésio e análise dos teores de cálcio e nitrogênio nos frutos Preharvest identification of bitter pit risk in 'gala' apples by fruit infiltration with magnesium and analysis of fruit contents of calcium and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O "bitter pit" é um distúrbio fisiológico pós-colheita em maçãs, ocasionado pela deficiência de Ca e agravado pela presença de elevados níveis de Mg, N e K nos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade prática da infiltração de maçãs 'Gala' com Mg, visando a avaliar, em pré-colheita, o risco de ocorrência de "bitter pit" durante o armazenamento refrigerado, bem como a identificar os atributos minerais do fruto associados à ocorrência do distúrbio. Em 50 talhões de pomares localizados no município de Fraiburgo-SC, foram coletadas amostras de 25 frutos / talhão, cerca de 20 dias antes do início da colheita comercial, sendo os mesmos infiltrados a vácuo com Mg e avaliados quanto à incidência (% e severidade (manchas / fruto de "bitter pit". Nos mesmos talhões, na maturação comercial, foram coletadas amostras de 120 frutos / talhão, sendo que 100 frutos foram armazenados em câmara fria convencional durante quatro meses (0 ± 0,5ºC e 90-95% UR, e 20 frutos foram utilizados para a análise mineral (teores de Ca, Mg, K e N. Cinco dias após a remoção da câmara fria, os frutos foram avaliados quanto à incidência (% e severidade (manchas / fruto de "bitter pit". Houve correlação linear altamente significativa (r² = 0,69; pBitter pit is a postharvest physiological disorder in apples, related to Ca deficiency, and aggravated by high levels of Mg, N, and K in the fruits. This work was carried out to assess the practical viability of 'Gala' apples infiltration with Mg, for preharvest identification of bitter pit risk during cold storage, as well as, to identify the mineral attributes associated with the occurrence of the disorder. Fruits were sampled in 50 plots of apple orchards located in Fraiburgo, SC (Southern Brazil. Samples of 25 fruits / plot were harvested about 20 days before commercial harvesting, and then vacuum infiltrated with Mg and assessed for incidence (% and severity (pits / fruit of

  6. infant feeding issues implications of formula feeding to reduce hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-03

    Aug 3, 2004 ... exclusive bottle-feeding is, in theory, negligible. However, .... †Independent sample t-tests; categorical variables were tested using the X2-test. TABLE I. RESULTS FOR FIT ... increase the risk of diarrhoeal events.9. Frequent ...

  7. Feeding habits and comparative feeding rates of three southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food utilization by three arboreal squirrels was studied with regard to feeding habits and efficiency, food preferences and chemical analyses of the food. Food selected in the field by the two forest subspecies the Ngoye red squirrel Paraxerus palliatus ornatus and the Tonga red squirrel, P. p. tongensis are listed.

  8. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati......We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey...... cells have short intense leakage burst, only a very small fraction of prey cells would be available to the copepod at any instance in time and, thus would be inefficient at low prey concentration. Finally, we report a few new observations of prey capture in two species of copepods, Temora longicornis...... and Centropages hamatus, offered a 45-μm sized dinoflagellate at very low concentration. The observed short prey detection distances, up to a few prey cell radii, are consistent with mechanoreception and we argue briefly that near-field mechanoreception is the most likely and common prey perception mechanism...

  9. The influence of supplementary feeding to ewes and creep feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARIN KOEP

    2015-03-24

    Mar 24, 2015 ... Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must recognise the authors and the South African. Journal of Animal Science. .... mix (lick) supplied to producing SA. Mutton Merino ewes and creep feed for suckling lambs grazing wheat stubble during the dry summer period.

  10. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  11. Salmonella Radicidation of Dry Mixed Feeds and Feed Ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossel, D. A.A. [Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research TNO, Zeist (Netherlands); San Marcos University, Lima (Peru)

    1967-11-15

    Feed components contaminated with salmonellae act as vehicles in the transmission of these bacteria to slaughter animals and hence to meat and poultry. Terminal decontamination of ingredients or mixed feed seems required because sanitary improvements in processing, bagging and storage do not always appear effective in considerably reducing salmonella contamination rates. Experiments were carried out to assay the decontamination effect of pelletization of mixed feed. Enumeration of enterobacteriaceae was used as the analytical criterion. It appeared that a temperature over 80 Degree-Sign C generally led to five decimal reductions in enterobacteriaceae counts; however, also currently used lower temperatures may bring about two decimal reductions only. Following earlier experiments with fish meal, range finding tests on the decontamination of mixed feed with {sup 60}Co gamma rays were also performed. To achieve five decimal reductions in the counts of the most resistant enterobacteriaceae which were encountered about 0.5 Mrad was required; survival curves were generally not linear, so that overall effective dose had to be used as a parameter. Feeding experiments with rats, using 35% fish meal irradiated at 0.8 Mrad in the diet for two years, demonstrated that neither losses of nutritive value nor the occurrence of orally toxic factors is effected by such an irradiation treatment. It is recommended that pilot plant tests be carried out. In these tests an attempt should be made to combine improved sanitation and pelletizing with a terminal radiation treatment of the bagged material with the lowest dose required. Such tests should preferably be carried out in suitable areas of countries like Peru or Chile. A brief outline is given of the development work and training of scientific and technical staff that should be carried out during the installation of such a pilot plant. (author)

  12. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R. [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore (India). Div. of Entomology and Nematology

    2006-07-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers ({approx} 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval

  13. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers (∼ 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval-pupal parasitoid

  14. Flemingia macrophylla in goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel das Neves Oiticica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.

  15. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  16. Food and feed safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  17. International trade of animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2018-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  18. Hilly grasses and leaves: a promising unconventional feed resource for livestock.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain M.E.; Karim M.H.; Ahmed M.I.; Sultana S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different hilly grasses and leaves available in Bandarban areas of Bangladesh. Total 10 different hilly grasses and leaves such as Bottle gourd leaf (Lagenaria siceraria), Castor bean leaf (Ricinus communis), Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), Dhol kolmi (Ipomoea carnea), Giant reed leaf (Arundo donax), Hilly grass (Cynodon dactylon), Pithraj leaf (Aphanamixis polystachya), Sal leaf (Shorea robusta), Shegun leaf (Tectona grandis...

  19. Anti-cancer stemness and anti-invasive activity of bitter taste receptors, TAS2R8 and TAS2R10, in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoona Seo

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB originates from immature neuronal cells and currently has a poor clinical outcome. NB cells possess cancer stem cells (CSCs characteristics that facilitate the initiation of a tumor, as well as its metastasis. Human bitter taste receptors, referred to as TAS2Rs, are one of five types of basic taste receptors and they belong to a family of G-protein coupled receptors. The recent finding that taste receptors are expressed in non-gustatory tissues suggest that they mediate additional functions distinct from taste perception. While it is generally admitted that the recognition of bitter tastes may be associated with a self-defense system to prevent the ingestion of poisonous food compounds, this recognition may also serve as a disease-related function in the human body. In particular, the anti-cancer stemness and invasion effects of TAS2Rs on NB cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, endogenous expression of TAS2R8 and TAS2R10 in SK-N-BE(2C and SH-SY5Y cells was examined. In addition, higher levels of TAS2R8 and TAS2R10 expression were investigated in more differentiated SY5Y cells. Both TAS2Rs were up-regulated following the induction of neuronal cell differentiation by retinoic acid. In addition, ectopic transfection of the two TAS2Rs induced neurite elongation in the BE(2C cells, and down-regulated CSCs markers (including DLK1, CD133, Notch1, and Sox2, and suppressed self-renewal characteristics. In particular, TAS2RS inhibited tumorigenicity. Furthermore, when TAS2Rs was over-expressed, cell migration, cell invasion, and matrix metalloproteinases activity were inhibited. Expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, a well-known regulator of tumor metastasis, as well as its downstream targets, vascular endothelial growth factor and glucose transporter-1, were also suppressed by TAS2Rs. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that TAS2Rs targets CSCs by suppressing cancer stemness characteristics and NB

  20. Study of the magnetic microstructure of high-coercivity sintered SmCo5 permanent magnets with the conventional Bitter pattern technique and the colloid-SEM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, Witold

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic microstructure of high-coercivity sintered SmCo 5 permanent magnets was studied with the conventional Bitter pattern technique, and also for the first time with the colloid-scanning electron microscopy (colloid-SEM) method. Both techniques were supported by digital image acquisition, enhancement and analysis. Thanks to this, it was possible to obtain high-contrast and clear images of the magnetic microstructure and to analyze them in detail, and consequently also to achieve improvements over earlier results. In the thermally demagnetized state the grains were composed of magnetic domains. On the surface perpendicular to the alignment axis, the main domains forming a maze pattern and surface reverse spikes were observed. Investigations on the surface parallel to the alignment axis, especially by the colloid-SEM technique, provided a detailed insight into the orientation of grains. The alignment of grains was good, but certainly not perfect; there were also strongly misaligned grains, although generally very rare. In most cases the domain structures within grains were independent of their neighbors, but in some cases (not so rare) the domain walls were observed to continue through the grain boundaries, indicating significant magnetostatic interaction between neighboring grains. Studies of the behavior of the magnetic microstructure under the influence of an external magnetic field, performed for the first time on the surface parallel to the alignment axis (with the conventional Bitter pattern method), showed that the domain walls move easily within the grains and that the magnetization reversal mechanism is mainly related to the nucleation and growth of reverse domains, i.e. that sintered SmCo 5 magnets are nucleation-dominated systems. Groupwise magnetization reversal of adjacent magnetically coupled grains was observed, an unfavorable effect for high-coercivity magnets. Images obtained by the colloid-SEM technique and the conventional Bitter pattern

  1. Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of zooplankton feeding behavior on vertical flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Boutorh, Julia; De La Rocha, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of ......Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles...

  2. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  3. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent [Bucyrus, KS; Yerganian, Simon Scott [Lee's Summit, MO

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE INHIBITIVE ACTION BETWEEN THE BITTER ORANGE LEAF EXTRACT AND ITS CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT LINALOOL ON THE MILD STEEL CORROSION IN HCL SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Abdel-Gaber

    Full Text Available Bitter orange, Citrus Aurantium (CA, extract and one of its chemical constituents, Linalool, have been evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.5 mol L-1 hydrochloric acid (HCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and atomic force spectroscopy (AFM techniques. Functional groups of CA and Linalool were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance studies showed that CA and Linalool act as mixed type inhibitors. The activation parameters showed that the corrosion inhibition takes place by spontaneous physical adsorption on the mild steel surface. Thermodynamic-kinetic model and Flory-Huggins isotherms were used to investigate the adsorption characteristics of CA and Linalool. The surface morphologies of mild steel specimens were studied using AFM, in which the surface roughness of the metal specimens on a micro scale was characterized.

  5. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  6. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  7. Carbon source feeding strategies for recombinant protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... protein expression with the influence of the carbon source feeding ... in the culture media, increasing the peroxisomes numbers ...... source, temperature, pH, O2, methanol feeding strategy) ..... Catabolite Inactivation in Yeast.

  8. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach

  9. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula - buying, preparing, storing, and feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  10. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2016-01-01

    Version 5\\ud Background\\ud \\ud Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud \\ud To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis v...

  11. Does breast-feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M. H.; Ott, P.; Juul, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  12. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  13. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  14. Mechanisms of Feeding Deterrence by Ziziphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-30

    number) e mechanism of feeding deterrence by ziziphins for sout rn armyworms ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) was investigated using bo long... Spodoptera eridania , to investigate the mechanisms of feeding deterrence by ziziphins extracted from the leaves of • .Ziziphus jujuba. Evaluation...Videotape Analysis of Feeding Suppression in the Southern Armyworm ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Produced by Extracts of the

  15. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... hazards present in animal feeds pose a threat to human health. Public concern on health matters related to food has ... meat, milk or eggs (Park and Laing, 1993; Dorner et al.,. 1994). ... are used in animal feed production (yellow whole maize, sifted ... number of fungal species than processed food and feed.

  16. The Hungry Worm Feeds the Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onrust, J.; Piersma, T.

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are important prey for many birds. Based on theirown feeding ecology, earthworms can be separated into two ecotypes: the detritivoresthat feed on organic material and the geophages that feed on soil particlesand organic matter. Detritivores collect their food on the surface

  17. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure...

  18. Parent-reported feeding and feeding problems in a sample of Dutch toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with

  19. Gender-specific feeding rates in planktonic copepods with different feeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...... in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male...

  20. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.