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Sample records for bitis gabonica rhinoceros

  1. Evolutionary analysis of novel serine proteases in the venom gland transcriptome of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.

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    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine proteases are major components of viper venom and target various stages of the blood coagulation system in victims and prey. A better understanding of the diversity of serine proteases and other enzymes present in snake venom will help to understand how the complexity of snake venom has evolved and will aid the development of novel therapeutics for treating snake bites. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four serine protease-encoding genes from the venom gland transcriptome of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros were amplified and sequenced. Mass spectrometry suggests the four enzymes corresponding to these genes are present in the venom of B. g. rhinoceros. Two of the enzymes, rhinocerases 2 and 3 have substitutions to two of the serine protease catalytic triad residues and are thus unlikely to be catalytically active, though they may have evolved other toxic functions. The other two enzymes, rhinocerases 4 and 5, have classical serine protease catalytic triad residues and thus are likely to be catalytically active, however they have glycine rather than the more typical aspartic acid at the base of the primary specificity pocket (position 189. Based on a detailed analysis of these sequences we suggest that alternative splicing together with individual amino acid mutations may have been involved in their evolution. Changes within amino acid segments which were previously proposed to undergo accelerated change in venom serine proteases have also been observed. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides further insight into the diversity of serine protease isoforms present within snake venom and discusses their possible functions and how they may have evolved. These multiple serine protease isoforms with different substrate specificities may enhance the envenomation effects and help the snake to adapt to new habitats and diets. Our findings have potential for helping the future development of improved therapeutics for snake bites.

  2. Purification and functional characterisation of rhiminopeptidase A, a novel aminopeptidase from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.

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    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is a major neglected public health issue within poor communities living in the rural areas of several countries throughout the world. An estimated 2.5 million people are bitten by snakes each year and the cost and lack of efficacy of current anti-venom therapy, together with the lack of detailed knowledge about toxic components of venom and their modes of action, and the unavailability of treatments in rural areas mean that annually there are around 125,000 deaths worldwide. In order to develop cheaper and more effective therapeutics, the toxic components of snake venom and their modes of action need to be clearly understood. One particularly poorly understood component of snake venom is aminopeptidases. These are exo-metalloproteases, which, in mammals, are involved in important physiological functions such as the maintenance of blood pressure and brain function. Although aminopeptidase activities have been reported in some snake venoms, no detailed analysis of any individual snake venom aminopeptidases has been performed so far. As is the case for mammals, snake venom aminopeptidases may also play important roles in altering the physiological functions of victims during envenomation. In order to further understand this important group of snake venom enzymes we have isolated, functionally characterised and analysed the sequence-structure relationships of an aminopeptidase from the venom of the large, highly venomous West African gaboon viper, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The venom of B. g. rhinoceros was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and fractions with aminopeptidase activities were isolated. Fractions with aminopeptidase activities showed a pure protein with a molecular weight of 150 kDa on SDS-PAGE. In the absence of calcium, this purified protein had broad aminopeptidase activities against acidic, basic and neutral amino acids but in the presence of calcium, it had only

  3. African adders: partial characterization of snake venoms from three Bitis species of medical importance and their neutralization by experimental equine antivenoms.

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    Danielle Paixão-Cavalcante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An alarming number of fatal accidents involving snakes are annually reported in Africa and most of the victims suffer from permanent local tissue damage and chronic disabilities. Envenomation by snakes belonging to the genus Bitis, Viperidae family, are common in Sub-Saharan Africa. The accidents are severe and the victims often have a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective specific therapies. In this study we have biochemically characterized venoms from three different species of Bitis, i.e., Bitis arietans, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros and Bitis nasicornis, involved in the majority of the human accidents in Africa, and analyzed the in vitro neutralizing ability of two experimental antivenoms.The data indicate that all venoms presented phospholipase, hyaluronidase and fibrinogenolytic activities and cleaved efficiently the FRET substrate Abz-RPPGFSPFRQ-EDDnp and angiotensin I, generating angiotensin 1-7. Gelatinolytic activity was only observed in the venoms of B. arietans and B. nasicornis. The treatment of the venoms with protease inhibitors indicated that Bitis venoms possess metallo and serinoproteases enzymes, which may be involved in the different biological activities here evaluated. Experimental antivenoms produced against B. arietans venom or Bitis g. rhinoceros plus B. nasicornis venoms cross-reacted with the venoms from the three species and blocked, in different degrees, all the enzymatic activities in which they were tested.These results suggest that the venoms of the three Bitis species, involved in accidents with humans in the Sub-Saharan Africa, contain a mixture of various enzymes that may act in the generation and development of some of the clinical manifestations of the envenomations. We also demonstrated that horse antivenoms produced against B. arietans or B. g. rhinoceros plus B. nasicornis venoms can blocked some of the toxic activities of these venoms.

  4. Biti pastir mladih danas

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    Attard, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Autor razmišlja kao odgajatelj koji, slijedeći svoga učitelja don Bosca, u središte stavlja odgajanika kao osobu u potrazi za smislom. Svjestan da je čovjek Božje stvorenje koje Bog ljubi, autor slijedi don Boscovu metodu i želi biti blizu mladima. To znači potaknuti u njima volju za rastom, s odvažnošću gledati prema gore i život doživljavati kao dar. Stoga pastir mladih koji odgovara na Kristov poziv i djeluje po don Boscovoj metodi, nastoji slušati pripovijedanje mladih i njihove povijesti...

  5. Parasites of rhinoceros

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    Kettnerová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focuses on parasites of rhinoceros. Thesis is in form a literary review, and is focused of parasites both in captivity and wildness. The aim of mine work was to describe the different kinds of parasites, their morphology, life cycles, and especially diseases that cause to the rhinoceros. Rhinoceros are endangered species, some of them are on the verge of extinction therefore they are in order to be saved often moved to reservations or zoos. In the new environment, they meet ...

  6. Strukturelle erforschung von wortbedeutungen am beispiel des zeitwortes biti 'sein'

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    Jože Toporišič

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Strukturell ist für mich eine solche Erforschung der Wortbedeutung, deren Befunde durch die Sprachstruktur selbst kontroliert und bestätigt werden und nicht etwa durch log(izistische oder sonstige Erwägen, die in die Sprache hineingetragen werden, statt in ihr enthalten zu sein. In diesem Sinne sei der WöSrterbuchartikel über das Zeitwort biti 'sein' im Slovar slovenskega knjižnega jezika I, Ljubljana 1970, einer formalen Kritik unterzogen.Hauptbefunde dieser Kritik sind folgende: Das Zeitwort biti sollte nur in 2, nicht in 5 Problemkreisen (der 6. ist das sog.Nestbehandelt werden.Unter I. tritt es in 3 gegenstandsbezogenen Grundbedeutungen auf, unter II.ist es reine Kopula (die aber aufgrund der Objektspräpositionen besondere Bedeutungen gewinnt.Unter I.werden unterschieden: 1. die Bedeutung des Vorhandenseins oder des Bestehens, 2. des sich Befindens, 3. des Stattfindens.Das kann mit folgenden Beispielen veranschaulicht werden: 1. ali je kak izhod 'gibt es da einen Ausgang', 2.hiša je na polju 'das Haus befindet sich auf dem Feld', 3. v Kamniku je bil semenj  'in Kamnik wurde Markttag abgehalten'. Gemeinsam haben diese Bedeutungen die Versetzungsmöglichkeit des Subjektsnominativs in inen Zustands­ genitiv, wennn biti negiert wird: 1.ali ni nobenega izhoda, 2. hiše ni sredi polja, 3.v Kamniku ni bilo semnja. Diese Ver­ setzung ist bei 2. in 3. unter gewissen Bedingungen unverbind­ lichs sredi polja ni hiša, ampak drevo (neben sredi polja ni hiše, ampak je drevo bzw. v Kamniku ni bil semenj, ampak raz­ stava (neben v Kamniku ni bilo semnja, ampak je bila razstava, was auf die syntaktische Attraktion in Bezug auf den Nominativ im zweiten Glied der Konjunktionsverbindung zurückzuführen ist. In Slovar slovenskega knjižnega jezika (ferner: SSKJ werden diese 3 Bedeutungen unpassend nur als 2 wiedergegeben, und zwar unter der Periphrase "materielles oder geistiges Vorhandensein in der Wirklichkeit" bzw."Vorhandensein in Raum und

  7. Biti bibliotekar

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    Kaljanac, Maja

    2003-01-01

    Perspective of profession by senior library science student. Who is librarian and what are the tasks. Comparison with Divine commedy - Vergilius as Librarian and User as Dante. Principles of Librarianship.

  8. On Rhinoceros simus, Burchell in the Leiden Museum

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    Jentink, F.A.

    1890-01-01

    According to Dr. P. L. Sclater (Nature, September 25, 1890, p. 520) Mr. F. Selous says in the Field of August 16 as follows: — »it was within a mile of this spot that, two years previously (i. e. in 1888), I shot two white Rhinoceroses Rhinoceros simus), the last of their kind that have been killed

  9. Putative filariosis outbreak in white and black rhinoceros at Meru National Park in Kenya.

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    Mutinda Matthew; Otiende Moses; Gakuya Francis; Kariuki Linus; Obanda Vincent; Ndeere David; Ndambiri Ephantus; Kariuki Edward; Lekolool Isaac; Soriguer Ramón C; Rossi Luca; Alasaad Samer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Habitat and food supply loss and disruption, together with man’s pursuit of the animal’s unique horn pose significant threats to the charismatic rhinoceros. Filarial worms have been thought to cause cutaneous lesions in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Kenya and South Africa, but never in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in the wild, despite the fact that the two species live often in close proximity. Stephanofilaria dinniki has been implicated in the past as t...

  10. Studies on digestive physiology and feed digestibilities in captive Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).

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    Clauss, M; Polster, C; Kienzle, E; Wiesner, H; Baumgartner, K; von Houwald, F; Ortmann, S; Streich, W J; Dierenfeld, E S

    2005-01-01

    We performed intake, digestibility and ingesta passage studies in 11 Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) from four zoological institutions, using total faecal collection for the quantification of faecal output. The regularly fed zoo ration of roughage and concentrates (ration RC) and a roughage-only ration (ration R) were used; the roughage source differed between the facilities and comprised grass hay, grass silage, straw and lucerne hay. Dry matter intake ranged between 0.8 and 1.3% of body weight on ration RC and 0.5-1.2% on ration R. Digestibility coefficients achieved were similar to those reported for horses on diets of comparable composition. Endogenous losses as determined by linear regression analysis were within the range reported for horses. Measurements of faecal volatile fatty acids, faecal lactate and faecal pH also showed similarity to similar measurements in horses. The mean retention times of fluids (Co-EDTA) and particles (Cr-mordanted fibre horse is a useful model animal for designing diets for Indian rhinoceroses. Why digestive parameters are similar between these species in spite of enormous differences in body weight and retention times remains to be answered.

  11. In Vitro Toxic Effects of Puff Adder (Bitis arietans Venom, and Their Neutralization by Antivenom

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    Steven Fernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the in vitro toxic effects of Bitis arietans venom and the ability of antivenom produced by the South African Institute of Medical Research (SAIMR to neutralize these effects. The venom (50 µg/mL reduced nerve-mediated twitches of the chick biventer muscle to 19% ± 2% of initial magnitude (n = 4 within 2 h. This inhibitory effect of the venom was significantly attenuated by prior incubation of tissues with SAIMR antivenom (0.864 µg/µL; 67% ± 4%; P < 0.05; n = 3–5, unpaired t-test. Addition of antivenom at t50 failed to prevent further inhibition or reverse the inhibition of twitches and responses to agonists. The myotoxic action of the venom (50 µg/mL was evidenced by a decrease in direct twitches (30% ± 6% of the initial twitch magnitude and increase in baseline tension (by 0.7 ± 0.3 g within 3 h of the chick biventer. Antivenom failed to block these effects. Antivenom however prevented the venom induced cytotoxic effects on L6 skeletal muscle cells. Venom induced a marginal but significant reduction in plasma clotting times at concentrations above 7.8 µg/100 µL of plasma, indicating poor procoagulant effects. In addition, the results of western immunoblotting indicate strong immunoreactivity with venom proteins, thus warranting further detailed studies on the neutralization of the effects of individual venom toxins by antivenom.

  12. Use of butorphanol during immobilization of free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

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    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Kruger, Marius; Martin, Laura; Hofmeyr, Markus; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Forty free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase in Kruger National Park, South Africa, between February and August 2009. Eighteen rhinoceros received butorphanol in the dart combination, and 22 rhinoceros had butorphanol administered intravenously within 15 min of darting. Body position, blood gas values, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature were measured at two time points after darting, approximately 10 min apart (sample 1 mean collection time after darting, 9.4 +/- 2.7 min; sample 2 mean collection time, 18.6 +/- 2.8 min). A significant number of field-captured rhinoceros remained standing at the first sample period when butorphanol was administered in the dart. Higher median values for arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in combination with lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in standing versus recumbent rhinoceros suggested improved ventilation in this posture (P < 0.05). When the effect of time, body position, and age was controlled, median values for respiratory rate, lactate, and pH were better in rhinoceros that received butorphanol in the dart (P < 0.05). There was also a trend toward higher median values for SO2 and bicarbonate in rhinoceros receiving butorphanol in the dart. Intravenous administration of butorphanol resulted in significantly decreased median PaCO2 and heart rate in recumbent rhinoceros (P < 0.05) without changes in PaO2 between sample periods 1 and 2. However, rhinoceros remained hypoxemic during the short anesthetic procedure despite butorphanol administration. Preliminary results suggest that administration of butorphanol (either in the dart or intravenously) improves some metabolic parameters in free-ranging recumbent white rhinoceros without significantly affecting ventilation. It is hypothesized that this may be due to a lighter state of immobilization. Addition of butorphanol to the dart provides handling and physiologic

  13. Castration of a Black Rhinoceros Diceros Bicornis Minor

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    V de Vos

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available A black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor in the Addo Elephant National Park was castrated in order to prevent the possibility of an aotic inducing gene to be introduced into the Addo population. The classic castration technique was used. It was subsequently found that the rhino showed a drastic change in behaviour, and is at this stage predictably timid, which is not the case with his testis carrying compeers.

  14. Investigation of acoustic sensors to detect coconut rhinoceros beetle in Guam

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    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, was accidentally introduced into Guam last year and now threatens the Island’s forests and tourist industry. These large insects can be detected easily with acoustic sensors, and procedures are being developed to incorporate acoustic technology int...

  15. Baseline Hematologic Results for Free-ranging White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

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    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Wanty, Rachel; Parsons, Sven; van Helden, Paul; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Complete blood counts (n = 115) and red blood cell analytes (n = 80) were assessed in free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) from Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Blood was collected from healthy animals immobilized between February and September 2009-11 for management purposes. Our objectives were to establish baselines for KNP's white rhinoceros population and to compare results based on sex and age group. Significant differences in total white blood cells, total eosinophils, and hemoglobin were found between adult and subadult rhinoceros. Female rhinoceros had significantly higher total white blood cells and lower hemoglobin compared with males. Hematologic analytes were similar to those published for other rhinoceros populations, although the impact of capture and sampling methods, nutritional status, and habitat should be considered when comparing data. This baseline hematology for healthy free-ranging white rhinoceros in KNP may be useful in assessing health status for translocation and medical interventions, including treatment of poaching cases.

  16. Putative filariosis outbreak in white and black rhinoceros at Meru National Park in Kenya

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    Mutinda Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitat and food supply loss and disruption, together with man’s pursuit of the animal’s unique horn pose significant threats to the charismatic rhinoceros. Filarial worms have been thought to cause cutaneous lesions in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis in Kenya and South Africa, but never in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum in the wild, despite the fact that the two species live often in close proximity. Stephanofilaria dinniki has been implicated in the past as the causal agents for such lesions. Findings In this paper we report a putative filariosis outbreak in both black and white rhinos at Meru National Park in Kenya. Four black and five white rhinos were affected by various degrees of filarioid-like lesions, while apparently all sympatric wild and domestic animals were filarial worm-free. Affected rhinos were captured and successfully treated. Comparison between the epidemiological aspects of white and black rhinoceros filariosis, and the possible relations between this outbreak and annual seasons, the presence of oxpeckers and other host species are discussed. Conclusions Our study highlights (i that filarial infection is not restricted to black rhinos, but it affects both rhinoceros species, and (ii the importance of the earlier detection and immediate treatment (capture-treat and release of filarioid infections, which is of pivotal interest for wildlife conservation, and especially the endangered and isolated white and black rhinoceros populations.

  17. Assisted reproduction in female rhinoceros and elephants--current status and future perspective.

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    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Streich, Wj; Hildebrandt, Tb

    2007-09-01

    Over the last few decades, rhinoceroses and elephants became important icons in the saga of wildlife conservation. Recent surveys estimate the wild Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephant populations to be, at most, 50 250 and 637 600 respectively. For the five rhinoceros species, black (Diceros bicornis), white (Ceratotherium simum), Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis), Javan (Rhinoceros sondaicus) and Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus Sumatrensis), the population estimates of 3610, 11 330, 2400, 60 and 300, respectively, are of even greater concern. Protected against habitat loss, poaching and left undisturbed, rhinoceros and elephants reproduce well in the wild. But small and decreasing populations make successful captive management of these taxa increasingly important. In captivity, however, most populations face possible 'extinction' because of historically poor reproductive performance. From the first descriptions of the reproductive anatomy and the oestrous cycle (Laws 1969; Kassam and Lasley 1981; Balke et al. 1988a,b; Plotka et al. 1988; Godfrey et al. 1991) to the present use of advanced assisted reproduction technologies, researchers have strive to understand the function and dysfunction of the reproductive biology of these charismatic species. This paper reviewed the current knowledge on rhinoceros and elephant reproduction biology, reproductive cycle, gestation, dystocia, reproductive pathology, oestrous induction and artificial insemination, sperm sexing, IVF and contraception, and how this knowledge is or might be used to aid species conservation for maximal reproductive efficiency and enhancement of genetic management.

  18. Three Novel Haplotypes of Theileria bicornis in Black and White Rhinoceros in Kenya.

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    Otiende, M Y; Kivata, M W; Jowers, M J; Makumi, J N; Runo, S; Obanda, V; Gakuya, F; Mutinda, M; Kariuki, L; Alasaad, S

    2016-02-01

    Piroplasms, especially those in the genera Babesia and Theileria, have been found to naturally infect rhinoceros. Due to natural or human-induced stress factors such as capture and translocations, animals often develop fatal clinical piroplasmosis, which causes death if not treated. This study examines the genetic diversity and occurrence of novel Theileria species infecting both black and white rhinoceros in Kenya. Samples collected opportunistically during routine translocations and clinical interventions from 15 rhinoceros were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a nested amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene fragments of Babesia and Theileria. Our study revealed for the first time in Kenya the presence of Theileria bicornis in white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis michaeli) rhinoceros and the existence of three new haplotypes: haplotypes H1 and H3 were present in white rhinoceros, while H2 was present in black rhinoceros. No specific haplotype was correlated to any specific geographical location. The Bayesian inference 50% consensus phylogram recovered the three haplotypes monophyleticly, and Theileria bicornis had very high support (BPP: 0.98). Furthermore, the genetic p-uncorrected distances and substitutions between T. bicornis and the three haplotypes were the same in all three haplotypes, indicating a very close genetic affinity. This is the first report of the occurrence of Theileria species in white and black rhinoceros from Kenya. The three new haplotypes reported here for the first time have important ecological and conservational implications, especially for population management and translocation programs and as a means of avoiding the transport of infected animals into non-affected areas.

  19. Radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

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    Dudley, Robert J; Wood, Simon P; Hutchinson, John R; Weller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. Here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). Computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. A single foot deemed free of pathology was radiographed using a range of different projections and exposures to determine the best protocol. 3D models were produced from the CT images and were displayed with the real radiographs to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros pes. An optimal radiographic projection was determined for each bone in the rhinoceros pes focusing on highlighting areas where pathology has been previously described. The projections deemed to be most useful were D60Pr-PlDiO (digit III), D45Pr45M-PlDiLO (digit II), and D40Pr35L-PlDiLO (digit IV). The primary beam was centered 5-7 cm proximal to the cuticle on the digit of interest. Articular surfaces, ridges, grooves, tubercles, processes and fossae were identified. The radiographic protocol we have developed along with the normal radiographic anatomy we have described will allow for more accessible and effective diagnosis of white rhinoceros foot osteopathologies.

  20. The conservation and protection of the black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in Zimbabwe

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    G.H. Tatham

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The demise of black rhinoceros populations in Africa is alarming and the overriding cause for the decline is illicit poaching for horn. In 1987 Zimbabwe hosted the largest contiguous population of 500 animals in the Zambezi Valley while the country's overall population is now estimated to be nearly 2 000 individuals. A strategy to conserve and protect the black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in Zimbabwe requires four dimensions, each dependent directly or indirectly on the other, if success is to be achieved. It includes a positive reaction by the Department of National Parks and Wild Life Management, a national reaction by the government totally committed to the protection of the species, an international reaction requiring support for the stand that Zimbabwe is taking and, finally, a system of intelligence gathering which assists the different authorities in the overall conservation strategy which is being implemented.

  1. Songlike vocalizations from a Sumatran rhinoceros calf (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)

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    von Muggenthaler, Elizabeth; Reinhart, Paul

    2003-04-01

    Within the last ten years the Sumatran rhino population has dropped 50%, and only 200-300 individuals exist, with five in captivity. Their native habitat is dense tropical forest and they are solitary, therefore much of their behavior remains unknown. Sumatrans are the smallest living rhino, standing 0.9-1.5 m tall, and are covered in coarse, reddish-brown hair. The first Sumatran rhinoceros born in captivity in 112 years, and the first calf ever recorded, is 17 months old and weighs 448 kg. At the Cincinnati Zoo this male calf was recorded from 1-3 m, using two Statham radio microphones, and one TCD-D8 Sony DAT recorder (9 Hz-22 kHz). Analysis, including power spectrums, spectrographic functions, and cross correlations were performed using National Instrument's Polynesia. Preliminary analysis indicates that the calf's vocalizations are similar in structure to adult Sumatran vocalizations, although there are some distinctions. ``Eeps'' and ``whales'' that are found in adult repertoires are produced by the calf. However, signals from the calf are higher in frequency, and the calf does not vocalize as consistently as the adults. The calf has yet to produce a ``whistle blow,'' which is an adult vocalization that has a strong infrasonic component.

  2. Black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis capture, transportation and boma management by the Natal Parks Board

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    R.R. Henwood

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The procedure used by the Natal Parks Board in the capture of black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis minor (Drummond, 1876 is outlined. It is emphasised that a successful capture operation requires careful planning and should not be attempted by the uninitiated or by parties who have little or no experience. Dosages of drugs are given, the darting and actual capture procedures highlighted, and aspects of transport and practical boma management are described.

  3. Anthropogenic influences on conservation values of white rhinoceros.

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    Ferreira, Sam M; Botha, Judith M; Emmett, Megan C

    2012-01-01

    White rhinoceros (rhinos) is a keystone conservation species and also provides revenue for protection agencies. Restoring or mimicking the outcomes of impeded ecological processes allows reconciliation of biodiversity and financial objectives. We evaluate the consequences of white rhino management removal, and in recent times, poaching, on population persistence, regional conservation outcomes and opportunities for revenue generation. In Kruger National Park, white rhinos increased from 1998 to 2008. Since then the population may vary non-directionally. In 2010, we estimated 10,621 (95% CI: 8,767-12,682) white rhinos using three different population estimation methods. The desired management effect of a varying population was detectable after 2008. Age and sex structures in sink areas (focal rhino capture areas) were different from elsewhere. This comes from relatively more sub-adults being removed by managers than what the standing age distribution defined. Poachers in turn focused on more adults in 2011. Although the effect of poaching was not detectable at the population level given the confidence intervals of estimates, managers accommodated expected poaching annually and adapted management removals. The present poaching trend predicts that 432 white rhinos may be poached in Kruger during 2012. The white rhino management model mimicking outcomes of impeded ecological processes predicts 397 rhino management removals are required. At present poachers may be doing "management removals," but conservationists have no opportunity left to contribute to regional rhino conservation strategies or generate revenue through white rhino sales. In addition, continued trends in poaching predict detectable white rhino declines in Kruger National Park by 2016. Our results suggest that conservationists need innovative approaches that reduce financial incentives to curb the threats that poaching poses to several conservation values of natural resources such as white rhinos.

  4. Anthropogenic influences on conservation values of white rhinoceros.

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    Sam M Ferreira

    Full Text Available White rhinoceros (rhinos is a keystone conservation species and also provides revenue for protection agencies. Restoring or mimicking the outcomes of impeded ecological processes allows reconciliation of biodiversity and financial objectives. We evaluate the consequences of white rhino management removal, and in recent times, poaching, on population persistence, regional conservation outcomes and opportunities for revenue generation. In Kruger National Park, white rhinos increased from 1998 to 2008. Since then the population may vary non-directionally. In 2010, we estimated 10,621 (95% CI: 8,767-12,682 white rhinos using three different population estimation methods. The desired management effect of a varying population was detectable after 2008. Age and sex structures in sink areas (focal rhino capture areas were different from elsewhere. This comes from relatively more sub-adults being removed by managers than what the standing age distribution defined. Poachers in turn focused on more adults in 2011. Although the effect of poaching was not detectable at the population level given the confidence intervals of estimates, managers accommodated expected poaching annually and adapted management removals. The present poaching trend predicts that 432 white rhinos may be poached in Kruger during 2012. The white rhino management model mimicking outcomes of impeded ecological processes predicts 397 rhino management removals are required. At present poachers may be doing "management removals," but conservationists have no opportunity left to contribute to regional rhino conservation strategies or generate revenue through white rhino sales. In addition, continued trends in poaching predict detectable white rhino declines in Kruger National Park by 2016. Our results suggest that conservationists need innovative approaches that reduce financial incentives to curb the threats that poaching poses to several conservation values of natural resources such as

  5. Anthropogenic influences on conservation values of white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sam M; Botha, Judith M; Emmett, Megan C

    2012-01-01

    White rhinoceros (rhinos) is a keystone conservation species and also provides revenue for protection agencies. Restoring or mimicking the outcomes of impeded ecological processes allows reconciliation of biodiversity and financial objectives. We evaluate the consequences of white rhino management removal, and in recent times, poaching, on population persistence, regional conservation outcomes and opportunities for revenue generation. In Kruger National Park, white rhinos increased from 1998 to 2008. Since then the population may vary non-directionally. In 2010, we estimated 10,621 (95% CI: 8,767-12,682) white rhinos using three different population estimation methods. The desired management effect of a varying population was detectable after 2008. Age and sex structures in sink areas (focal rhino capture areas) were different from elsewhere. This comes from relatively more sub-adults being removed by managers than what the standing age distribution defined. Poachers in turn focused on more adults in 2011. Although the effect of poaching was not detectable at the population level given the confidence intervals of estimates, managers accommodated expected poaching annually and adapted management removals. The present poaching trend predicts that 432 white rhinos may be poached in Kruger during 2012. The white rhino management model mimicking outcomes of impeded ecological processes predicts 397 rhino management removals are required. At present poachers may be doing "management removals," but conservationists have no opportunity left to contribute to regional rhino conservation strategies or generate revenue through white rhino sales. In addition, continued trends in poaching predict detectable white rhino declines in Kruger National Park by 2016. Our results suggest that conservationists need innovative approaches that reduce financial incentives to curb the threats that poaching poses to several conservation values of natural resources such as white rhinos. PMID

  6. Proposed conservation plan for the black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in South Africa, the TBVC* states and Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Brooks

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The conservation plan for the black rhinoceros presents specific aims and management guidelines for the conservation of the African black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in the Republic of South Africa, the TBVC states and Namibia. The adoption of this plan, and the application of the strategies described therein (managing existing populations, establishing new populations and aspects of captive breeding by the relevant conservation authorities should enhance the survival prospects of this species, both in the region and globally.

  7. The candelabra tree (Euphorbia ingens: a source of water for black rhinoceros in Liwonde National Park, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Dudley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of two rhinoceros into a 15 km2 fenced sanctuary within Liwonde National Park provided an opportunity for close observation of the animals feeding on the toxic succulent Euphorbia ingens. Feeding invariably caused the death of the plant and for plants with basal diameters between 5-17 cm, mortality ranged from 40-90 . During the severe drought of 1994 rhinoceros did not drink from the artificial waterhole from approximately 15 July to at least 23 September. As this waterhole was the only source of free water it is believed that the rhinoceros obtained their water from browsing on E. ingens.

  8. Substantial molecular variation and low genetic structure in Kenya’s black rhinoceros: implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muya, S.M.; Bruford, M.W.; Muigai, A.W.T.; Osiemo, Z.B.; Mwachiro, E.; Ouma, B.O.; Goossens, B.

    2011-01-01

    Kenya’s black rhinoceros population declined by more than 98% from 20,000 individuals in the 1970s to around 400 individuals in 1990 due to the effects of poaching, at which time the surviving individuals were isolated in a series of demographically inviable subpopulations. An initial management exe

  9. Will current conservation responses save the Critically Endangered Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Rasmus Gren; Payne, Junaidi; Ramono, Widodo;

    2016-01-01

    remain on the Indonesian island of Sumatra and show evidence of breeding. Rhino Protection Units are deployed at all known breeding sites but poaching and a presumed low breeding rate remain major threats. Protected areas have been created for the rhinoceros and other in situ conservation efforts have...

  10. Shift in black rhinoceros diet in the presence of elephant: evidence for competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietjie Landman

    Full Text Available In African large herbivore assemblages, megaherbivores dominate the biomass and utilise the greatest share of available resources. Consequently, they are considered a separate trophic guild that structures the food niches of coexisting large herbivores. However, there exists little empirical evidence on how food resources are shared within this guild, and none for direct competition for food between megaherbivores. Using the histological analysis of faeces, we explore this phenomenon for African elephant Loxodonta africana and black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis in the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, where the accumulated impacts of elephant have reduced browse availability. Despite being unable to generalise beyond our study sites, our observations support the predictions of competition theory (as opposed to optimality theory by showing (1 a clear seasonal separation in resource use between these megaherbivores that increased as resource availability declined, and (2 rhinoceros changed their selectivity in the absence of elephant (using an adjacent site by expanding and shifting their diet along the grass-browse continuum, and in relation to availability. Although black rhinoceros are generally considered strict browsers, the most significant shift in diet occurred as rhinoceros increased their preferences for grasses in the presence of elephant. We speculate that the lack of specialised grazing adaptations may increase foraging costs in rhinoceros, through reduced harvest- and handling-efficiencies of grasses. In the short-term, this may be off-set by an enhanced tolerance for low quality food and by seasonally mobilising fat reserves; however, the long-term fitness consequences require further study. Our data suggest that managing elephant at high densities may compromise the foraging opportunities of coexisting browsers. This may be particularly important in small, fenced areas and overlapping preferred habitats where impacts

  11. Acoustic detection of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Nasutitermes luzonicus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in palm trees in urban Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, R W; Moore, A

    2010-08-01

    Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes luzonicus Oshima (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The low-frequency, long-duration sound-impulse trains produced by large, active O. rhinoceros and the higher frequency, shorter impulse trains produced by feeding N. luzonicus had distinctive spectral and temporal patterns that facilitated their identification and discrimination from background noise, as well as from roaches, earwigs, and other small sound-producing organisms present in the trees and logs. The distinctiveness of the O. rhinoceros sounds enables current usage of acoustic detection as a tactic in Guam's ongoing O. rhinoceros eradication program.

  12. Transport and boma management techniques for black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis as used in the Etosha/Vaalbos operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Raath

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The translocation of six black rhinoceros from the Etosha National Park (Namibia to the Vaalbos National Park (Republic of South Africa is described. Data are provided on the transporting vehicle, the capture, transport and off-loading procedures followed while aspects of boma management are briefly dealt with.

  13. The Microbial Community in the Feces of the White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) as Determined by Barcoded Pyrosequencing Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Gaorui; Ma, Li; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2013-01-01

    As a non-ruminant herbivore, the white rhinoceros has the ability to utilize fibrous plant matter through microbial fermentation in the hindgut. So far, there has been no report using molecular techniques to study the gut microbiota of the white rhinoceros. We used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize 105,651 sequences of 16S rRNA genes obtained from fecal samples from five white rhinoceroses. Results showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in the samples, which...

  14. AcEST: BP916474 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rotein OS=Influenza A virus (strain ... 33 0.34 sp|Q6T6T2|DISG2_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-2 OS=Bitis gabonic...nfluenza A virus (strain ... 31 2.2 sp|Q6T6T3|DISG1_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-1 OS=Bitis gabonica PE... 31 2...M 137 >sp|Q6T6T2|DISG2_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-2 OS=Bitis gabonica PE=1 SV=1 Le

  15. AcEST: BP915666 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available its) Value sp|P36627|BYR3_SCHPO Cellular nucleic acid-binding protein homol... 36 0.086 sp|Q6T6T2|DISG2_BITGA Disintegrin gabon...in-2 OS=Bitis gabonica PE... 35 0.19 sp|P43064|EFG1_CANAL Enhanced filamentous growth pro...tein OS=Cand... 34 0.33 sp|Q6T6T3|DISG1_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-1 OS=Bitis gabon...p|Q6T6T2|DISG2_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-2 OS=Bitis gabonica PE=1 SV=1 Length = 128 Score = 35.0 bits (79), ...p|Q6T6T3|DISG1_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-1 OS=Bitis gabonica PE=1 SV=1 Length = 128 Score = 32.7 bits (73),

  16. AcEST: BP918719 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 031 sp|Q6T6T2|DISG2_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-2 OS=Bitis gabonica PE... 35 0.12 sp|P43064|EFG1_CANAL Enhance..... 33 0.58 sp|Q6T6T3|DISG1_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-1 OS=Bitis gabonica PE... 33 0.58 sp|P26059|NCAP_I77AE ... >sp|Q6T6T2|DISG2_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-2 OS=Bitis gabonica PE=1 SV=1 Length ...WLRDCP 276 G+ ++P P CGGDHW DCP Sbjct: 81 GSMRKPARPCPICGGDHWRVDCP 103 >sp|Q6T6T3|DISG1_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-1 OS=Bitis gabon

  17. AcEST: BP911918 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c acid-binding protein homol... 36 0.066 sp|Q6T6T2|DISG2_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-2 OS=Bitis gabonica PE...... 35 0.15 sp|Q6T6T3|DISG1_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-1 OS=Bitis gabonica PE... 33 0.73 sp|P15671|NCAP_I79A7 Nu...SSPNPRQGAECYKCGRVGHIARDCRTN 101 >sp|Q6T6T2|DISG2_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-2 OS=Bitis gabon...T6T3|DISG1_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-1 OS=Bitis gabonica PE=1 SV=1 Length = 128 Score = 32.7 bits (73), Expe

  18. Remotely piloted aircraft systems as a rhinoceros anti-poaching tool in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mulero-Pázmány

    Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a massive increase in rhinoceros poaching incidents, with more than two individuals killed per day in South Africa in the first months of 2013. Immediate actions are needed to preserve current populations and the agents involved in their protection are demanding new technologies to increase their efficiency in the field. We assessed the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS to monitor for poaching activities. We performed 20 flights with 3 types of cameras: visual photo, HD video and thermal video, to test the ability of the systems to detect (a rhinoceros, (b people acting as poachers and (c to do fence surveillance. The study area consisted of several large game farms in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. The targets were better detected at the lowest altitudes, but to operate the plane safely and in a discreet way, altitudes between 100 and 180 m were the most convenient. Open areas facilitated target detection, while forest habitats complicated it. Detectability using visual cameras was higher at morning and midday, but the thermal camera provided the best images in the morning and at night. Considering not only the technical capabilities of the systems but also the poacherś modus operandi and the current control methods, we propose RPAS usage as a tool for surveillance of sensitive areas, for supporting field anti-poaching operations, as a deterrent tool for poachers and as a complementary method for rhinoceros ecology research. Here, we demonstrate that low cost RPAS can be useful for rhinoceros stakeholders for field control procedures. There are, however, important practical limitations that should be considered for their successful and realistic integration in the anti-poaching battle.

  19. Remotely piloted aircraft systems as a rhinoceros anti-poaching tool in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Stolper, Roel; van Essen, L D; Negro, Juan J; Sassen, Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years there has been a massive increase in rhinoceros poaching incidents, with more than two individuals killed per day in South Africa in the first months of 2013. Immediate actions are needed to preserve current populations and the agents involved in their protection are demanding new technologies to increase their efficiency in the field. We assessed the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) to monitor for poaching activities. We performed 20 flights with 3 types of cameras: visual photo, HD video and thermal video, to test the ability of the systems to detect (a) rhinoceros, (b) people acting as poachers and (c) to do fence surveillance. The study area consisted of several large game farms in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. The targets were better detected at the lowest altitudes, but to operate the plane safely and in a discreet way, altitudes between 100 and 180 m were the most convenient. Open areas facilitated target detection, while forest habitats complicated it. Detectability using visual cameras was higher at morning and midday, but the thermal camera provided the best images in the morning and at night. Considering not only the technical capabilities of the systems but also the poacherś modus operandi and the current control methods, we propose RPAS usage as a tool for surveillance of sensitive areas, for supporting field anti-poaching operations, as a deterrent tool for poachers and as a complementary method for rhinoceros ecology research. Here, we demonstrate that low cost RPAS can be useful for rhinoceros stakeholders for field control procedures. There are, however, important practical limitations that should be considered for their successful and realistic integration in the anti-poaching battle. PMID:24416177

  20. Biochemical values in free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jennifer; Martin, Laura; Kruger, Marius; Hofmeyr, Markus; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    Biochemical panels were analyzed on 181 individual free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) from Kruger National Park, South Africa. These animals were immobilized between July 2006 and May 2010 for management purposes. Serum and heparinized plasma samples were analyzed using an in-house chemistry analyser (ABAXIS VetScan2). The objectives of this study were to establish biochemical references ranges for Kruger National Park's population of white rhinoceros; to assess differences in values obtained using sera or plasma; and to assess differences in values between gender and different age categories. Significant differences between plasma and serum values were found in most measured parameters except minerals (calcium and magnesium). Because all animals appeared clinically healthy at the time of blood collection, it is hypothesized that choice of anticoagulant may affect certain parameters. Comparison between age categories and gender also resulted in significant differences in a few measured parameters. Identifying differences are important when establishing baseline reference ranges for wildlife populations to allow accurate monitoring of trends that may change over time. The paucity of data on normal biochemical ranges for free-ranging white rhinoceros demonstrates the value of this study and importance of evaluating potential confounding variables.

  1. Captive breeding of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and the Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Skinner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breeding records of 40 white rhinoceros and 155 Cape buffalo were analysed. Three rhinoceros cows bred in captivity, themselves conceived for the first time at 84, 87 and 95 months of age, respectively. Rhinoceros cows breed throughout the year. There is no evidence of a relationship between calving interval and month of birth. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 34 months and there were no significant differences between bulls, cows or sex of calf. There was no difference in the sex ratio of calves born to young cows nor older cows. The male:female ratio of the calves was Younger cows did not have shorter birth intervals. Although captive Cape buffaloes breed throughout the year, there is a preponderance of births in midsummer. There was some evidence that larger cows produce heavier calves and that season of birth may influence birth weight. Male calves weighed 41.20 + 0.68 kg vs 39.00 + 0.73 kg (range 24-60 kg for female calves but this difference was not significant. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 395 days and the male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1.2.

  2. Use of urinary biomarkers of ovarian function and altrenogest supplementation to enhance captive breeding success in the Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Monica A; West, Gary D; Roth, Terri L; Lung, Nancy P

    2014-01-01

    Urinary hormone analysis was conducted on two adult female Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) that exhibited minimal or no estrual behaviors traditionally used to time breeding. Urine was collected throughout two consecutive estrous cycles to establish preliminary data on each individual's pattern and concentration of estrogen conjugates (EC) and progesterone metabolites (PdG) during follicular and luteal phases. Following preliminary endocrine analysis, urine samples were shipped on a frequent basis to verify when each female was off baseline in EC. Estrus and breeding dates were then predicted. Females were introduced to fresh male rhinoceros fecal samples daily throughout the follicular phase to potentially stimulate estrous behaviors. Despite successful assessment of follicular phase dynamics, females sometimes failed to exhibit estrus. Both females conceived following mating introductions that were timed using hormone analysis. Pregnancy was diagnosed either by endocrine analysis or rectal ultrasonography. Progestational support (altrenogest) occurred after pregnancy confirmation and varied for each female (21 and 66 days post-breeding). One female experienced early pregnancy loss and the other successfully completed a term pregnancy. These results demonstrate that a science based management strategy that relies on urinary biomarkers of ovarian function can facilitate naturally breeding captive Indian rhinoceroses.

  3. Will tree euphorbias (Euphorbia tetragona and Euphorbia triangularis) survive under the impact of black rhinoceros (Bicornis diceros minor) browsing in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilmann, L.C.; Jong, de K.; Lent, P.C.; Boer, de W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of black rhinoceros (Bicornis diceros minor) on the tree euphorbias Euphorbia tetragona and Euphorbia triangularis was studied in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa. Black rhinoceros pushed over about 5¿7% of the trees in a 2-month period. There was a preference of rhinos for smal

  4. Severe hypoxaemia in field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum and effects of using tracheal insufflation of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bush

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available White rhinoceros anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone combination develop adverse physiological changes including hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, tachycardia and hypertension. These changes are more marked in field-anaesthetised rhinoceros. This study was designed to develop a technique to improve safety for field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros by tracheal intubation and oxygen insufflation. Twenty-five free-ranging white rhinoceros were anaesthetised with an etorphine and azaperone combination for translocation or placing microchips in their horns. Once anaesthetised the rhinoceros were monitored prior to crating for transportation or during microchip placement. Physiological measurements included heart and respiratory rate, blood pressure and arterial blood gas samples. Eighteen rhinoceros were intubated using an equine nasogastric tube passed nasally into the trachea and monitored before and after tracheal insufflation with oxygen. Seven rhinoceros were not intubated or insufflated with oxygen and served as controls. All anaesthetised rhinoceros were initially hypoxaemic (percentage arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation (% O2Sa = 49 % + 16 (mean + SD and PaO2 = 4.666 + 1.200 kPa (35 + 9 mm Hg, hypercapnic (PaCO2 = 8.265 + 1.600 kPa (62 + 12 mm Hg and acidaemic (pHa = 7.171 + 0.073 . Base excess was -6.7 + 3.9 mmol/ℓ, indicating a mild to moderate metabolic acidosis. The rhinoceros were also hypertensive (systolic blood pressure = 21.861 + 5.465 kPa (164 + 41 mm Hg and tachycardic (HR = 107 + 31/min. Following nasal tracheal intubation and insufflation, the % O2Sa and PaO2 increased while blood pHa and PaCO2 remained unchanged.Tracheal intubation via the nose is not difficult, and when oxygen is insufflated, the PaO2 and the % O2Sa increases, markedly improving the safety of anaesthesia, but this technique does not correct the hypercapnoea or acidosis. After regaining their feet following reversal of the anaesthesia, the animals

  5. Japanese Interest in "Hotaru" (Fireflies) and "Kabuto-Mushi" (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, "Hotaru" and "Kabuto-mushi" in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan. PMID:26466535

  6. The microbial community in the feces of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum as determined by barcoded pyrosequencing analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaorui Bian

    Full Text Available As a non-ruminant herbivore, the white rhinoceros has the ability to utilize fibrous plant matter through microbial fermentation in the hindgut. So far, there has been no report using molecular techniques to study the gut microbiota of the white rhinoceros. We used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize 105,651 sequences of 16S rRNA genes obtained from fecal samples from five white rhinoceroses. Results showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in the samples, which were comprised largely of unclassified bacteria. The microbiota of one animal treated with drug therapy differed from those in other healthy animals, and was dominated by Aerococcus -related bacteria. The core microbiota in the healthy rhinoceros were dominated by phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, represented by the Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rikenellaceae and Prevotellaceae families. The present work provides a phylogenetic framework for understanding the complex microbial community of the rhinoceros; however, further studies are required to link the distinctive microbiota with their digestive role in the hindgut of the white rhinoceros.

  7. Law enforcement pertaining to illicit trafficking in rhinoceros horn and other trophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wright

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The effective police control of illegal traffic in game trophies, as well as the procedures used by law enforcement officers in their investigations are discussed. It is also very relevant to wildlife officers dealing with law enforcement to be aware of, and to understand the statutory restraints placed on their methods of investigation by law. Existing law enforcement bodies on the international scene are mentioned.

  8. DDE, PCBs, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in rhinoceros auklets from Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Fitzner, R.E.; Leschner, L.L.; Wilson, U.W.

    1999-01-01

    In July 1981, 5 adult rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) were captured on the ground near nesting areas on each of Protection and Destruction Islands, Washington. The birds were euthanized, and their livers and kidneys removed and analyzed. Levels (I?g / g wet weight) of DDE (0.11 to 0.95), polychlorinated biphenyls (no residue detected [ND] to 1.1), mercury (0.60 to 1.8), and lead (ND to 0.85) in livers and cadmium (9.1 to 21.9) in kidneys were similar in each colony. All concentrations were less than known effect levels.

  9. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yookyung; Lim, Sooyeon; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2016-03-01

    Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000. PMID:26981432

  10. Acoustic detection of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Nasutitermes luzonicus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in palm trees of urban Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The sou...

  11. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus

    OpenAIRE

    Yookyung Lee; Sooyeon Lim; Moon-Soo Rhee; Dong-Ho Chang; Byoung-Chan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000.

  12. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yookyung; Lim, Sooyeon; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2016-03-01

    Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000.

  13. Sex and species recognition by wild male southern white rhinoceros using contact pant calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Recognition of information from acoustic signals is crucial in many animals, and individuals are under selection pressure to discriminate between the signals of conspecifics and heterospecifics or males and females. Here, we first report that rhinos use information encoded in their calls to assess conspecifics and individuals of closely related species. The southern (Ceratotherium simum) and critically endangered northern (C. cottoni) white rhinos are the most social out of all the rhinoceros species and use a contact call pant. We found that southern white rhino pant calls provide reliable information about the caller's sex, age class and social situation. Playback experiments on wild territorial southern white rhinoceros males revealed that they responded more strongly to the pant calls of conspecific females compared to the calls of other territorial males. This suggests that pant calls are more important form of communication between males and females than between territorial males. Territorial southern males also discriminated between female and territorial male calls of northern species and reacted more intensively to the calls of northern than southern males. This might be caused by a novelty effect since both species naturally live in allopatry. We conclude that white rhinos can directly benefit from assessing individuals at long distances using vocal cues especially because their eyesight is poor. Pant calls thus likely play a significant role in their social relationships and spatial organization. In addition, better understanding of vocal communication in white rhinos might be helpful in conservation management particularly because of their low reproduction in captivity. PMID:26577089

  14. Temporal and sex-specific variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet in the central California Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Ryan D.; Beck, Jessie N.; Calleri, David M.; Hester, Michelle M.

    2015-06-01

    We used stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) and compared prey provided to chicks by each sex to evaluate seasonal and sex-specific diets in Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) in the central California Current system during 2012-2013. Mixing models indicated northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) were important prey for adults during fall/winter and juvenile rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) were important prey during incubation both years. Adult trophic level increased between incubation and chick-rearing periods in both years. During 2012, δ15N and δ13C of chick-rearing males and females differed significantly; mixing models indicated that females ate more Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and less market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) than males. Likewise, females delivered significantly more Pacific saury and less market squid to chicks than males during 2012. Chick growth (g d- 1) and chick survival to fledging were significantly lower during 2012 than 2013, likely because chicks were fed lesser quality prey or fed less frequently in 2012. Lesser body mass of females during incubation in 2012 indicated sex-specific diet differences may have been related to female energetic constraints. The observed variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet underscores the importance of managing multiple prey populations in this system so that generalist predators have sufficient resources through changing conditions.

  15. Serial temperature monitoring and comparison of rectal and muscle temperatures in immobilized free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    vdB Morkel, Peter; Miller, Michele; Jago, Mark; Radcliffe, Robin W; du Preez, Pierre; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Sefton, Jennifer; Taft, Arthur; Nydam, Daryl; Gleed, Robin D

    2012-03-01

    Control of body temperature is critical to a successful anesthetic outcome, particularly during field immobilization of wild animals. Hyperthermia associated with exertion can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening complications such as organ damage (including myopathy) and death. Methods for monitoring core body temperature must accurately reflect the physiologic status of the animal in order for interventions to be effective. The goal of this preliminary study was to compare serial rectal and muscle temperatures in field-immobilized black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and evaluate a possible association. Twenty-four free-ranging black rhinoceros were immobilized between February and March of 2010 in Ethosha National Park, Namibia. Pairwise comparisons showed a correlation of 0.73 (95% CI; 0.70-0.75) between rectal and muscle temperature measurements. Results from a multivariable model indicate that muscle temperature readings were, on average, 0.46 degrees C (95% CI; 0.36-0.57 degrees C) higher than rectal temperatures while adjusting for repeated measurements on the same rhinoceros, effect of duration of immobilization, and effect of ambient temperature on rhinoceroses' temperature readings. As immobilization time increased, muscle and rectal temperature values within an individual rhinoceros tended to equilibrate. The overall temperatures decreased by an average of 0.00059 degrees C/min (95% CI; -0.0047 to -0.0035 degrees C/min; P = 0.779). As the ambient temperature at time of immobilization increased by 1 degree C, the average rhinoceros temperature increased by 0.09 degrees C (95% CI; 0.06-0.11 degrees C, P temperature creates a potential for cellular damage leading to complications that include myopathy. Methods for monitoring rectal, muscle, and ambient temperatures should be incorporated into anesthetic monitoring protocols for large ungulates, particularly under field conditions.

  16. Japanese Interest in “Hotaru” (Fireflies) and “Kabuto-Mushi” (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenta Takada

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, “Hotaru” and “Kabuto-mushi” in Japanese Katakana script using ...

  17. The effect of physiological levels of South African puff adder (Bitis arietans) snake venom on blood cells: an in vitro model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, Morné A.; Bester, Janette; Mbotwe, Sthembile; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2016-01-01

    A significant burden of illness is caused globally by snakebites particularly by the puff adder, Bitis arietans. Presently there is no reliable and rapid method to confirm envenomation on blood chemistry; although coagulation parameters like prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio and also serum electrolytes are tested. Here, we found that direct in vitro exposure of physiological relevant whole venom levels to human healthy blood (N = 32), caused significant physiological changes to platelet activity using a hematology analyzer, and measuring occlusion time, as well as lyses time, with the global thrombosis test (GTT). Disintegrated platelets were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also confirmed the pathologic effects on erythrocytes (RBCs) (visible as eryptotic RBCs), by looking at both light microscopy and SEM. Thromboelastography showed that no clot formation in whole blood could be induced after addition of whole venom. We propose further clinical studies to investigate the use of light microscopy smears and hematology analyzer results immediately after envenomation, as a possible first-stage of clinical confirmation of envenomation. PMID:27775063

  18. How healthy are the rhinoceros populations in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Fatti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arising from a study conducted in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park by the author in the late nineties, a method is proposed for improving the estimate of the size of a wildlife population by combining data from current and past surveys. The method is based on a simple state space model which takes into account the (unknown birth rate in the population and all known losses (mortalities and relocations and gains (introductions in the population between successive surveys, as well as the errors in the survey estimates. The method is applied to the White- and Black Rhinoceros populations in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park and tentative conclusions are drawn on the health of these two populations.

  19. Serosurvey for selected viral agents in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in Kruger National Park, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Maseko, Nomkhosi; Hofmeyr, Markus; Gerdes, Truuske

    2011-03-01

    One hundred serum samples collected from free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in Kruger National Park (KNP) during the 2007 capture season were selected for measurement of antibody levels to several different vector-borne viral agents. These infectious diseases were chosen to compare with an earlier serosurvey that had been conducted in KNP in rhinos during 1987-1997. Positive antibody titers were found against epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) of deer (8%), Bluetongue (BT) (1%), and Rift Valley fever (RVF) (49%). However, none of the 100 animals tested had detected antibody levels to African horse sickness (AHS). These values were in sharp contrast to those measured in the 1987-1997 survey in KNP white rhinos (AHS 60%, EHD 30%, BT 37%, RVF 0%). Vector-borne viral infection prevalence in white rhinos in the same geographical location appears to vary over time and may be important for monitoring presence of pathogens in an ecosystem.

  20. Vesiculobullous skin reaction temporally related to firocoxib treatment in a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Elizabeth M; De Voe, Ryan S; Linder, Keith; Troan, Brigid; McCalla-Martin, Amy; Loomis, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    A 40 yr-old female white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) suffered from chronic nail-bed abscesses. Due to worsening of clinical signs, the animal's nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory treatment was switched to firocoxib. Approximately 7 days after this change, the animal developed multifocal vesicles and bullae along the lateral aspects of the thorax and abdomen, the dorsum, and the proximal limbs. Cytology and culture did not identify an infectious etiology. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a severe, subacute vesiculobullous dermatitis with intraepidermal to subepidermal clefting with areas of individual keratinocyte necrosis and minor neutrophilic epidermal infiltrates. These findings are similar to those seen in some drug reactions in people; therefore an adverse drug reaction to the firocoxib was suspected. PMID:22448531

  1. Blood meal analysis of tabanid fly after it biting the rare Sumatran rhinoceros

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan; Zainal Zahari Zainuddin; Wahap Marni; Abdul Hamid Ahmad; Laurentius N Ambu; Junaidi Payne

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a noninvasive large mammalian genetic sampling method using blood meal obtained from a tabanid fly. Methods: Blood meal was recovered from the abdomen of an engorged tabanid fly (Haematopota sp.) which was captured immediately after biting a Sumatran rhino in captivity. The blood was applied on to a Whatman FTA®blood card. Subsequent laboratory work was conducted to extract, amplify and sequence the DNA from the sample. Validation was done by sampling the hair follicles and blood samples from the rhinoceros and subjecting it to the same laboratory process. Results: BLAST search and constructed phylogenetic trees confirmed the blood meal samples were indeed from the rhino. Conclusions: This method could be used in the field application to noninvasively collect genetic samples. Collection of tabanids and other haematophagous arthropods (e.g. mosquitoes and ticks) and other blood-sucking parasites (e.g. leeches and worms) could also provide information on vector-borne diseases.

  2. Essential fatty acid profiles differ across diets and browse of black rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jacqualine B; Brown, Dan L; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2002-01-01

    In captivity, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) suffer from idiopathic skin lesions that may be linked to dietary deficiencies, in particular essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Therefore, a study was undertaken from July 1995 to May 1997 to characterize the diet of captive D. bicornis in North American zoos and measure fat and fatty acid composition in zoo diet, and African and North American browses. Descriptions of all dietary items offered to black rhinos on a daily basis were compiled from 20 North American zoos; zoo diet contained (mean +/- SE) 61 +/- 2% hay, 28 +/- 2% grain pellets, 6 +/- 1% produce, and 5 +/- 1% fresh browse, with hay and grain pellets together comprising nearly 90% of items offered. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS) was used to measure triacylglycerol equivalent (TAG), total fatty acids (TFA), and essential fatty acids (EFA) in zoo diet, and African and North American browses. North American browse contained more TAG and TFA than did zoo diet or African browse. Zoo diet contained more linoleic acid (18:2n6) and less linolenic acid (18:3n3) than either African browse corrected for degradation losses or North American browse, whether measured as weight percentage of dry sample or as weight percentage of TFA. In addition, the ratio of 18:2n6 to 18:3n3 was significantly lower in both browses than in zoo diet. There are significant nutritional differences between the major dietary components of North American captive black rhinoceros diets and native African browses that warrant further exploration given the health problems associated with this animal in captivity. PMID:11838204

  3. AcEST: BP916407 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHW5_SCHPO Putative transporter C543.05c OS=Schizosacc... 30 9.8 sp|Q6T7B7|CLEC1_BITGA C-type lectin 1 OS=Bitis gabon...6T7B7|CLEC1_BITGA C-type lectin 1 OS=Bitis gabonica PE=2 SV=1 Length = 159 Score = 29.6 bits (65), Expect =

  4. Japanese Interest in “Hotaru” (Fireflies and “Kabuto-Mushi” (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Takada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, “Hotaru” and “Kabuto-mushi” in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan.

  5. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild Datos de Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990

  6. The impact of the Krakatoa eruption in 1883 on the population of Rhinoceros sondaicus in Ujung Kulon, with details of rhino observations from 1857 to 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J.van. Strien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent suggestion that the entire population of the Javan Rhinoceros in Ujung Kulon National Park was annihilated by the effects of the eruption of the Krakatoa in 1883 is investigated. Based on a review of contemporary reports, it is shown that people survived the waves and remained settled in one village until 1906 when it was evacuated during a plague of tigers. The first report of a rhinoceros in the peninsula of Ujung Kulon dates from 1857 and the animals were occasionally reported from the area afterwards. There is no indication from the available estimates and sightings that rhinos were exterminated in the area. Ujung Kulon has been a protected area since 1921. Rhino numbers ranged upwards to about 40 or 50 for most of the period until 1949. The population of Rhinoceros sondaicus is not a new founder population established after the eruption of the Krakatoa in 1883.

  7. Applicability of the doubly labelled water method to the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Shirai

    2012-09-01

    The doubly labelled water (DLW method is an isotope-based technique that is used to measure the metabolic rates of free-living animals. We validated the DLW method for measuring metabolic rates in five rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata compared with simultaneous measurements using the respirometric method. We calculated the CO2 production rate of four auklets (mean initial body mass: 552 g±36 s.d. injected with DLW, using the one- and two-pool models. The metabolic rate during the 24-h measurements in a respirometric chamber for resting auklets averaged 16.30±1.66 kJ h−1 (n = 4. The metabolic rates determined using the one- and two-pool models in the DLW method for the same period as the respirometric measurement averaged 16.61±2.13 kJ h−1 (n = 4 and 16.16±2.10 kJ h−1 (n = 4, respectively. The mean absolute percent error between the DLW and respirometric methods was 8.04% using the one-pool model and was slightly better than that with the two-pool model. The differences in value between the DLW and respirometric methods are probably due to oxygen isotope turnover, which eliminated only 10–14% of the initial enrichment excess.

  8. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Roth, Terri L; Bauer, Stuart J; Lane, Adam; Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E

    2016-01-01

    A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD), or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3), including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4). Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30) and unhealthy (n = 13). A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for animal health

  9. Research into the Application of the Sterile-Male Release Technique to the Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of the Rhinoceros beetle, which causes considerable damage in palm and coconut plantations in the tropical regions of the world, meets with difficulties resulting from the habits of the insects. Chemical and biological control methods have not yet produced economically worthwhile results. It was therefore proposed, under the Joint Project established by the UN Special Fund and the South Pacific Commission for devising a method of controlling the main pest in this group, Oryctes rhinoceros, that the possibility be investigated of using against these coleoptera the technique of releasing males sterilized by radiation. Studies have been made involving the two most important species O. monoceros Ol. and O. rhinoceros L. The first stage was the development of a continuous breeding method, which had not hitherto been possible because of the large-scale slaughter arising from fungus attacks by Metarrhizium anisopliae Metsch. For the larvae the technique used involved first individual rearing, followed by group rearing tests with 100 or so insects in tanks. The average temperature in both cases was close to 30°C and the insects were fed on a mixture of rotten wood and leaf mould mixed with the faeces of domestic animals. The adults, fed on banana slices, are placed in troughs or tanks containing sieved-earth. It was thus possible to rear Oryctes in several successive cycles, avoiding the epizooic stage of Metarrhizium, with a multiplication rate from one generation to the next of close on 10, Tests on radiation sterilization procedures taking as variables the gamma-ray dose, the stage of the insect and the physiological state of the imago, showed that O. monoceros adults were sterilized by a single application of 4000 rad, with a slight reduction in their length of life. The same was true of O. rhinoceros, which however required a dose greater than 6000 rad to sterilize it. The mating urge and sexual vigour of the irradiated insects are, however, reduced

  10. Enhancing captive Indian rhinoceros genetics via artificial insemination of cryopreserved sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Monica A; Campbell, Mark K; DeChant, Christopher J; Hauser, Joe; Kottwitz, Jack; Pairan, Randal D; Shaffstall, Wendy; Volle, Kurt; Roth, Terri L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to design an artificial insemination (AI) protocol using cryopreserved spermatozoa to obtain pregnancies in captive Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis). Four methods developed varied by timing and approach, as follows; Method 1: females (n=2) were inseminated pre- and post-ovulation under general anesthesia, Method 2: females (n=2) were inseminated pre-ovulation without anesthetic via endoscopy, Method 3: females (n=1) were inseminated pre-ovulation without anesthetic via manual insertion of an insemination catheter, Method 4: females (n=2) were inseminated same as Method 3 with the addition of standing sedation. Semen deposition site varied as a result of changes in AI technology and experience. All females conceived following intrauterine AI using three methods. Four pregnancies (n=3 females) produced via Method 3 and 4 resulted in term births (n=2 male calves, n=2 female calves) at 481.8±12.8days post-AI. Unfortunately, two early pregnancy losses were documented in a fourth female conceiving via Method 2. Pregnancy rates were 0%, 22%, 17%, and 50% for Method 1-4, respectively. Method 3 and 4 rates improved to 29% and 67%, respectively when accounting for AI's conducted only on ovulatory estrous cycles. Spermatozoa (n=5 males) were cryopreserved 0.3-9.3 y prior to successful AI procedures. The lowest dose of frozen-thawed sperm resulting in conception was 500×10(6) motile sperm. Mean time from AI to ovulation in conceptive and non-conceptive cycles was 26±11.8h and 66±80.7h, respectively. PMID:27449405

  11. Standardising Home Range Studies for Improved Management of the Critically Endangered Black Rhinoceros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotz, Roan D.; Grecian, W. James; Kerley, Graham I.H.; Linklater, Wayne L.

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of recent estimations of home range sizes for the critically endangered black rhinoceros in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa, with historical estimates led reports of a substantial (54%) increase, attributed to over-stocking and habitat deterioration that has far-reaching implications for rhino conservation. Other reports, however, suggest the increase is more likely an artefact caused by applying various home range estimators to non-standardised datasets. We collected 1939 locations of 25 black rhino over six years (2004–2009) to estimate annual home ranges and evaluate the hypothesis that they have increased in size. A minimum of 30 and 25 locations were required for accurate 95% MCP estimation of home range of adult rhinos, during the dry and wet seasons respectively. Forty and 55 locations were required for adult female and male annual MCP home ranges, respectively, and 30 locations were necessary for estimating 90% bivariate kernel home ranges accurately. Average annual 95% bivariate kernel home ranges were 20.4 ± 1.2 km2, 53 ±1.9% larger than 95% MCP ranges (9.8 km2 ± 0.9). When home range techniques used during the late-1960s in HiP were applied to our dataset, estimates were similar, indicating that ranges have not changed substantially in 50 years. Inaccurate, non-standardised, home range estimates and their comparison have the potential to mislead black rhino population management. We recommend that more care be taken to collect adequate numbers of rhino locations within standardized time periods (i.e., season or year) and that the comparison of home ranges estimated using dissimilar procedures be avoided. Home range studies of black rhino have been data deficient and procedurally inconsistent. Standardisation of methods is required. PMID:27028728

  12. The incidence and use of Oryctes virus for control of rhinoceros beetle in oil palm plantations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramle, M; Wahid, M B; Norman, K; Glare, T R; Jackson, T A

    2005-05-01

    The rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, has emerged as a serious pest of oil palm since the prohibition of burning as a method for maintaining estate hygiene in the 1990s. The abundance of beetles is surprising given that the Malay peninsula was the site of first discovery of the Oryctes virus, which has been used to effect good as a biological control agent in other regions. A survey of adult beetles was carried out throughout Malaysia using pheromone traps. Captured beetles were examined for presence of virus using both visual/microscopic examination and PCR detection methods. The survey indicated that Oryctes virus was common in Malaysia among the adult beetles. Viral DNA analysis was carried out after restriction with HindIII enzyme and indicated at least three distinct viral genotypes. Bioassays were used to compare the viral strains and demonstrate that one strain (type B) is the most virulent against both larvae and adults of the beetle. Virus type B has been cultured and released into healthy populations where another strain (type A) forms the natural background. Capture and examination of beetles from the release site and surrounding area has shown that the spread and persistence of the applied virus strain is accompanied by a reduction in palm frond damage. PMID:16039309

  13. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  14. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition. PMID:27622566

  15. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S.; Doughty, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob’s correction of the Ivlev’s selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in “open” or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition. PMID:27622566

  16. AcEST: BP916298 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ts) Value sp|P36627|BYR3_SCHPO Cellular nucleic acid-binding protein homol... 37 0.050 sp|Q6T6T2|DISG2_BITGA Disintegrin gabon...in-2 OS=Bitis gabonica PE... 35 0.19 sp|P43064|EFG1_CANAL Enhanced filamentous growth prot...BLVAU Gag polyprotein OS=Bovine leukemia virus (is... 33 0.95 sp|Q6T6T3|DISG1_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-1 OS=Bitis gabon...AECYKCGRVGHIARDCRTN 101 >sp|Q6T6T2|DISG2_BITGA Disintegrin gabonin-2 OS=Bitis gabonica PE=1 SV=1 Length = 12...PAPKRPPPGPCYRCLKEGHWARDCPTKTTGPPPGPCPICKDPSHWKRDCPTLKSK 391 >sp|Q6T6T3|DISG1_BITGA Disintegrin gabon

  17. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990 hasta 2013, y

  18. Feasibility of sex-sorting sperm from the white and the black rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, Diceros bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, B; Rath, D; Mueller, P; Hildebrandt, T B; Goeritz, F; Braun, B C; Leahy, T; de Graaf, S P; Maxwell, W M C; Hermes, R

    2009-08-01

    The objective of these studies was to investigate the practicality of flow cytometric sex-sorting for spermatozoa from the white and the black rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, Diceros bicornis). In Experiment 1, four semen extenders were tested regarding their suitability for liquid preservation of spermatozoa before sorting. Dilution in MES-HEPES-based semen extender followed by incubation generated best sperm quality parameters (motility, viability, and acrosome integrity). In Experiment 2, the effect of staining method (15 degrees C for 4 to 6h during transport or 37 degrees C for 1 to 1.5h) on sort efficiency and sperm quality was investigated. Staining at 15 degrees C during transport resulted in a higher percentage of sperm samples showing a resolution of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing populations (60%) compared with that for staining at 37 degrees C after transport (33%) and resulted in superior sperm integrity after staining (43.8+/-11.3% vs. 19.6+/-12.1%). Sort rate was 300 to 700 cells/sec and sort purity, determined for one sorted sample, was 94% for X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. In Experiment 3, the highly viscous component of rhinoceros seminal plasma, which complicates the process of sperm sorting, was examined by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results suggested a 250-kDa glycoprotein (most likely originating from the bulbourethral gland) to be responsible for the characteristic viscosity of ejaculates. In Experiment 4, viscosity of seminal plasma, as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, was significantly decreased after addition of alpha-amylase or collagenase (0.5 and 3IU per 100 microL seminal plasma, respectively) by 28% and 21%, respectively, with no negative effect on sperm characteristics. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that rhinoceros spermatozoa can be successfully sorted into high-purity X- and Y-chromosome-bearing populations. Furthermore, the successful liquefaction of viscous ejaculates

  19. Measurement and characterization of a soundscape of captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) at a wildlife park conservation center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Susan M.

    Many animals, including the myopic rhinoceros, depend on hearing and smell for navigation and to interpret their environment. For them, the "soundscape" and "scentscape" are equivalent to our landscape. Noise damages humans physiologically, including reproductively, and likely damages other mammals. Rhinos vocalize sonically and infrasonically but audiograms are unavailable. Infrasonic noise tends to be chronic in urban areas, which frequently surround city zoos. Rhinos' biological and social management have been studied but little attention, if any, has been paid to their soundscapes. This project develops a standard by which such soundscapes may be measured, documented, and compared, so that once a wide range of rhino facilities have been similarly investigated, correlations could be sought between their sound metrics and the health and well-being of their animals. The interests of geographers overlap many disciplines, but the questions raised by, and the approaches of geographers frequently differ from those addressed by the original specialists, so a broader understanding of the soundscape and ways to record it may well add value to acoustic studies while simultaneously deepening geographic knowledge. This research asks: How can a soundscape of captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) be comprehensively measured and characterized? What does doing so inform about their environment of captivity? How can this method be employed to understand the contrasts of the soundscapes of captivity and natural habitats? To begin to answer these questions, the following goals are addressed: 1. To develop a series of procedures to comprehensively record, measure, analyze, and characterize a broadband white rhino soundscape; 2. To note their vocalizations, and to roughly estimate the bandwidth used by these particular animals; 3. By demonstrating that techniques and language not normally used in the discipline of Geography could broaden its scope and expand

  20. Seasonal variation of diet and faeces composition of Black Rhinoceros Diceros Bicornis in the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J Hall-Martin

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of black rhinoceros were studied in the Addo Elephant National Park, Republic of South Africa, using the "feeding track" method and recording bites taken. A total sample of 59 feeding tracks, 5 540 plants and 17 191 bites were recorded from June 1976 to March 1977. The rhino fed largely on woody shrubs but also took forbs, grass and succulent plants. During dry periods the rhino were selecting succulent plants with a high moisture content rather than woody plants. A total of 111 plant species were utilized. During dry months the feeding rate was greater than wet months. Physical analysis of faeces composition confirmed conclusions drawn from observations. Chemical analyses of faeces indicated that mean crude protein values varied with rainfall and herbage quality, ash values were strongly influenced by the intake of plant roots and dust during dry periods, acid detergent fibre was highest during unfavourable periods and low during favourable periods.

  1. Anaesthetic management of a 10-month-old white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum calf for emergency exploratory celiotomy

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    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A 10-month-old, 580 kg, hand-reared white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum calf was presented for emergency exploratory celiotomy. Anaesthesia was safely induced with three successive intravenous (IV boluses of diazepam (10 mg and ketamine (100 mg until the trachea could be intubated. Anaesthesia was adequately maintained with isoflurane-inoxygen (mean end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.1% ± 0.2% on a circle anaesthetic machine with carbon dioxide absorption and an intravenous infusion of ketamine and medetomidine at a mean rate of 0.02 mg/kg/min and 0.02 µg/kg/min, respectively. Mean values recorded during anaesthesia and surgery were heart rate (56.9 ± 11 beats/min, mean arterial blood pressure (6.16 kPa ± 1.75 kPa, end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (6.23 kPa ± 0.30 kPa. Abdominal gas distension contributed to hypoventilation that resulted in hypercapnoea, confirmed by arterial blood gas analysis (PaCO2 14.69 kPa, which required controlled ventilation for correction. Blood volume was maintained with the intravenous infusion of a balanced electrolyte solution at 10 mL/kg/h and blood pressure supported with a continuous infusion of dobutamine and phenylephrine. Duration of anaesthesia was 3.5 h. It was concluded that anaesthesia was safely induced in a compromised white rhinoceros calf with a combination of diazepam and ketamine. A constant-rate infusion of medetomidine and ketamine allowed for a reduction in the dose of isoflurane required during maintenance of anaesthesia and improved intra-operative blood pressure management.

  2. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    OpenAIRE

    P. Konwar; M.K. Saikia; P.K. Saikia

    2009-01-01

    Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic). During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other shor...

  3. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konwar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic. During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other short grasses such as Cynodon dactylon, Andropogon ssp., Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aciculatus and tender and young shoots and twigs of Schelristechya fuesche, Saccharum spontaneum, Lagerstroemia flosreginae etc. are consumed in limited portions. The rhino consumes 11 cultivated crops and vegetables, viz., Ricinus communis, Oryza sativa, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Brassica nigra, Luffa cylindrica, Luffa acutangula, Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and Ipomoea batatas etc. Highest density of food plant species observed in the study area were Cynodon dactylon (167.5/m2, Hemarthria compressa (73.75/m2, Vetiveria zizanioides (56/m2, Saccharum ravannae (51.5/m2, Pharagmites karka (50.75/m2, Leersia hexandra (46.75/m2, Brachiarea pseudointerrupta (40/m2 and Eichhornia crassipes (35/m2.

  4. Role of delinquent young "orphan" male elephants in high mortality of white rhinoceros in Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa

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    R. Slotow

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum mortality at Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa, focussing on mortality caused by African elephant (Loxodonta africana. We reconstructed records from a range of historical sources, and estimated that up to 49 rhino were killed by elephant. There was confirmed mortality in 1994 and 1996, and based on patterns, we suggest a set of rhino mortality from elephant in 1992. Both sexes and all age classes were victims. There was no significant bias to older animals, but given the rhino population structure, there was a significant bias towards males in adult deaths. The culprits were identified as young male elephants that entered musth about 10 years younger than expected, and maintained musth for a full term at first occurrence. We attributed this to the lack of a mature bull hierarchy in the park, because these elephants were the product of translocation of young animals (<10 years old remaining from culls in Kruger National Park. We emphasise the need for accurate monitoring and record keeping, and a focus on individual identification of key species in small reserves.

  5. Applying COI gene for the authentication of the rhinoceros horn and its products%基于COI基因对犀角工艺品真伪的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵竹; 宋云; 许瑾; 何增磊; 李明福

    2013-01-01

    犀角及其制品在市场上价格昂贵,准确鉴定其真伪对于维护市场秩序,打击走私,保护珍稀濒危野生动物具有重要意义.采用磁珠法提取疑似犀角工艺品A和市售仿伪工艺品B的总DNA,并选用COI基因,进行扩增、测序,在NCBI中BLAST比对,并构建系统进化树,结果表明被检测的疑似犀角工艺品A的COI基因序列与非洲黑犀的同源性高达99%,聚为一类,而市售仿伪工艺品B与家牛同源性高达100%,因此该疑似犀角工艺品A应属于非洲黑犀,市售仿伪工艺品B属于家牛.本研究首次建立了应用COI基因鉴定犀角及其制品的分子生物学方法,有利于鉴别犀角及犀角制品的真伪.%The cost of the rhinoceros hom and its products is very expensive in the market. It' s very clear that the authenticity testing of the rhinoceros horn and its products will help to keep the market order, combat smug-gling and protect the rare and endangered wild animals. The magnetic bead method was used to extract the total DNA from the potential artificial of rhinoceros horn and the artificial products in the market,the COI gene was selected to be amplified and sequenced. its sequences were Blasted in GenBank,and then the phylogenetic tree was built. The results showed that the homology of the sequence of COI gene between the potential artificial of rhinoceros horn and Diceros bicornis is 99% , and the homology of the sequence of COI gene between the ox horn and the artificial products in the market is 100% . It suggested the potential artificial of rhinoceros horn should be from Diceros bicornis, and the artificial products in the market should be from Bos taunts. This research established a new molecular biology method which was accurately reliable and utility with the COI gene to identification the rhinoceros horn and its products firstly. It can be used for the authenticity testing of rhinoceros horn to prevent poaching or smuggling the rhinoceros horn and its

  6. 二疣犀甲对不同寄主茎干的产卵选择%Oviposition selection of Oryctes rhinoceros among different host stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宝珠; 吕朝军; 李洪; 王东明; 覃伟权; 王智

    2013-01-01

    在室内采用选择行为方法,研究了二疣犀甲Oryctes rhinoceros (Linnaeus)对不同寄主茎干的产卵选择行为.结果表明,二疣犀甲对不同腐烂状态椰子茎干的产卵选择性具有明显差异,其中以半腐烂状态的茎干对二疣犀甲的产卵引诱效果最强,单雌产卵数和孵化率分别为27.06粒和87.41%,其次为完全腐烂的茎干,而健康茎干的引诱效果最差.5种不同棕榈植物的半腐烂茎干对二疣犀甲的产卵诱集结果表明,二疣犀甲在椰子和油棕茎干上的产卵量最高且差异不显著.而在不同椰子品种半腐烂茎干之间,二疣犀甲优先选择香水椰子和海南高种椰子茎干腐烂物产卵,单雌产卵量分别为28.14粒和24.25粒.在不同原因造成的死亡椰子茎干中,二疣犀甲优先选择台风折断死亡的茎干产卵,其次为染虫死亡茎干,最后为感病死亡茎干.少量的二疣犀甲幼虫粪便能诱集成虫在寄主上产卵,在粪便比例为25%时,对二疣犀甲成虫产卵诱集效果最强,单雌产卵量最高,达到34.67粒,之后随着粪便在产卵基质中比例的增加,二疣犀甲的产卵行为逐渐受到抑制,产卵量减少.%Oviposition selection of Oryctes rhinoceros among different host stem was studied in laboratory. The results showed that 0. rhinoceros had the highest oviposition preference to half - rotting stems among coconut stem with different rotting state ( fecundity per female and hatching rate were 27. 06 and 87. 41% ) , followed by fully -rotting and normal stem; Among 5 different palm stems, 0. rhinoceros selected coconut and oil palm stems firstly with non - significantly difference; Among different variety coconut stems, Aromatica green dwarf and coconut Hainan tall were more attractive than others, and fecundity per female were 28. 14 and 24.25. 0. rhinoceros showed best oviposition preference and hatchability in stem destroyed by typhoon followed pest destroyed, and stems destroyed by

  7. Extinction chronology of the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis in the context of late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions in northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.

    2012-09-01

    Megafaunal extinctions in northern Eurasia (excluding Mediterranean islands) since the Last Interglacial claimed about 37% of species with body weights >44 kg. Here we review the dating evidence for the timings of these extinctions, which were staggered over tens of millennia. Moreover, individual species disappeared at different times in different geographical areas. For example, cave bear probably disappeared ca. 30.5-28.5 ka, at approximately the onset of GS-3 (beginning of 'LGM'), whereas cave lion survived until the Lateglacial ca 14 ka. Others survived into the Holocene: woolly mammoth until ca 10.7 ka in the New Siberian Islands and ca 4 ka on Wrangel Island, giant deer to at least 7.7 ka in western Siberia and European Russia. It is evident that climatic and vegetational changes had major impacts on species' ranges, and moreover the contrasting chronologies and geographical range contractions are consistent with environmental drivers relating to their differing ecologies. However, the possible role of humans in this process has still to be satisfactorily explored. We present a detailed review of the radiocarbon record and extinction chronology of an exclusively northern Eurasian species, the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis, an animal adapted to feeding on low-growing herbaceous vegetation and a dry climate with minimal snowfall. During the Last Glacial the overall (time-averaged) range of C. antiquitatis extended across most of northern Eurasia, but the species failed to reach North America. On the basis of 233 ultrafiltered AMS radiocarbon dates, together with 50 others which pass our auditing criteria, we reconstruct a detailed chronology for this species. C. antiquitatis was widespread over most of the time span covered by radiocarbon dating, but from ca 35 ka (calibrated) it apparently contracted towards the east, culminating in its probable extinction ca 14 ka, with the latest dates from north-eastern Siberia. It disappeared from Britain, at

  8. Rhinos in the Parks: An Island-Wide Survey of the Last Wild Population of the Sumatran Rhinoceros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Pusparini

    Full Text Available In the 200 years since the Sumatran rhinoceros was first scientifically described (Fisher 1814, the range of the species has contracted from a broad region in Southeast Asia to three areas on the island of Sumatra and one in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Assessing population and spatial distribution of this very rare species is challenging because of their elusiveness and very low population number. Using an occupancy model with spatial dependency, we assessed the fraction of the total landscape occupied by Sumatran rhinos over a 30,345-km2 survey area and the effects of covariates in the areas where they are known to occur. In the Leuser Landscape (surveyed in 2007, the model averaging result of conditional occupancy estimate was ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.151(0.109 or 2,371.47 km2, and the model averaging result of replicated level detection probability p(SE[p] = 0.252(0.267; in Way Kambas National Park--2008: ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.468(0.165 or 634.18 km2, and p(SE[p] = 0.138(0.571; and in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park--2010: ψ(SE[ψ] = 0.322(0.049 or 819.67 km2, and p(SE[p] = 0.365(0.42. In the Leuser Landscape, rhino occurrence was positively associated with primary dry land forest and rivers, and negatively associated with the presence of a road. In Way Kambas, occurrence was negatively associated with the presence of a road. In Bukit Barisan Selatan, occurrence was negatively associated with presence of primary dryland forest and rivers. Using the probabilities of site occupancy, we developed spatially explicit maps that can be used to outline intensive protection zones for in-situ conservation efforts, and provide a detailed assessment of conserving Sumatran rhinos in the wild. We summarize our core recommendation in four points: consolidate small population, strong protection, determine the percentage of breeding females, and recognize the cost of doing nothing. To reduce the probability of poaching, here we present only the randomized location of site level

  9. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

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    M.W. Khudhair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  10. Sperm sex-sorting and preservation for managing the sex ratio and genetic diversity of the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Ball, R L; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Love, C C; Robeck, T R

    2015-01-01

    White rhinoceros ejaculates (n=9) collected by electroejaculation from four males were shipped (10°C, 12h) to develop procedures for the production of chilled and frozen-thawed sex-sorted spermatozoa of adequate quality for artificial insemination (AI). Of all electroejaculate fractions, 39.7% (31/78) exhibited high quality post-collection (≥70% total motility and membrane integrity) and of those, 54.8% (17/31) presented reduced in vitro quality after transport and were retrospectively determined to exhibit urine-contamination (≥21.0μg creatinine/ml). Of fractions analyzed for creatinine concentration, 69% (44/64) were classified as urine-contaminated. For high quality non-contaminated fractions, in vitro parameters (motility, velocity, membrane, acrosome and DNA integrity) of chilled non-sorted and sorted spermatozoa were well-maintained at 5°C up to 54h post-collection, whereby >70% of post-transport (non-sorted) or post-sort (sorted) values were retained. By 54h post-collection, some motility parameters were higher (Pelectroejaculates indicate acceptable fertility potential for use in AI. PMID:25497423

  11. Surgical amputation of a digit and vacuum-assisted-closure (V.A.C.) management in a case of osteomyelitis and wound care in an eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tara M; Stanley, Bryden J; Sikarskie, James G; Bohart, George; Ames, N Kent; Tomlian, Janice; Marquardt, Mark; Marcum, Annabel; Kiupel, Matti; Sledge, Dodd; Agnew, Dalen

    2011-06-01

    A 14-yr-old female eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) presented with progressive suppurative osteomyelitis in her left hind lateral toe. beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus sp. was isolated. The animal was treated with multiple systemic antibiotics, and topical wound cleansing. Repeated debridements and nail trimmings were performed for 5 mo prior to electing amputation. The toe was surgically amputated under general anesthesia between the first and second phalanges. Analgesia was diffused into the wound topically via a catheter and elastomeric pump. The open amputation site was covered with adherent drapes and a negative-pressure wound therapy device provided vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C.) for 72 hr. Three months later this animal developed a deep dermal ulcer on the lateral aspect of the right hind limb, at the level of the stifle. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. The wound was managed by initial daily lavage, followed by 1 mo of V.A.C. therapy, with 72 hr between dressing changes. Clinically, this therapy expedited the formation of healthy granulation tissue and overall healing was accelerated. The animal tolerated the machine and bandage changes well via operant conditioning. The use of negative-pressure wound therapy appeared to shorten time to resolution of slow-healing wounds in black rhinoceros. PMID:22946413

  12. Zakaj in kako biti družbeno odgovoren?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Simončič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Modern society is critical more and more to social irresponsible actions. Organizations are aware of that fact, in the strategy of its operations want to include the implementation of socially responsibleprinciples. We are interested in how various authors perceive the concept of social responsibility of organizations, what they are benefits of socially responsible organization, how organizations implement its mission, including itsexternal stakeholders involvement and how that activities affects the diversity of cultural environments. Purpose: Study and summary a portion of the available references, in which the authors for different purposes research the social responsibility of organizations. We confronted and compareddifferent viewpoints. Method: We used the method of description (description of facts and method of compilation (summary of known results of scientific research. Results: The collected references are categorized by selected areas presented the classification of the authors, which address particular areas of social responsibility, the resources classified by years of posts and articles by scientific journals. Organization: Organizations will summarize the findings and use it as a starting point for further research, evaluation and eventual optimization of existing models of the concept of corporate social responsibility. Society: Findings will be used as a keystone for further research, society will be aware of the importance of implementing the principles of social responsibility, they will meet the challenges of coexistence with the social responsible organizations. Originality: Groups, which will use the results for further empirical research, are the wider society and organizations who want to improve their image and carry out socially responsible actions. Review of articles highlights various views, which in other articles did not found. Limitations/Future Research: Review of articles was limited to some journals and includes only some of the areas of importance for understanding the problems of deployment and implementation, and the motives for corporate social responsibility. Articles, order than 15 years,not included due to lack of interest in the present circumstances. In further research it would be welcome to increase the number of analyzed articles and take focus to some more specific areas (for instance: consider implementing social responsibility of specific organizations, such as nuclear power plants, chemical industry, evaluate possible further ethical dilemmas in health care, genetic research, cybernetics, etc.

  13. İlkokuma Yazma Öğretimi Sürecinde Bitişik Eğik Yazı Ve Dik Temel Harflerle Yapılan Eğitimin Öğretmen Görüşlerine Göre Karşılaştırılması A Comparison Of Cursive Italic Writing And Basic Vertical Letters While Teaching Basal Reading And Writing Based On Teachers’ Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify teachers’ views with regard toteaching basal reading and writing with cursive italic writing and basicvertical letters. Action research that is one of the qualitative researchmethods was employed. The population of the study was consisted ofelementary 1st and 2nd graders’ teachers working in Denizli and itsdistricts. Using criterion sampling, 68 elementary teachers were askedfor their opinions. As for the data gathering instrument a survey ofopen-ended six questions developed by the researchers were used in thestudy. Open-coding method was used for data analysis. As a result ofthe analysis, it was seen that the teachers found teaching with basicvertical letters easier both in preparing students for reading and writingand in teaching writing. Furthermore, they argued that with basicvertical letters, students write more beautiful and legible. Most of theteachers participated in the study preferred basic vertical letters justbecause they found cursive italic writing more difficult in teaching basalreading and writing. A comprehensive training related to cursive italicwriting should be provided to teachers. Wider scale studies focusing onwhether teachers prefer cursive italic writing or basic vertical letters inteaching basal reading and writing. Bu araştırma ile öğretmenlerin ilkokuma yazma öğretimi sürecinde bitişik eğik yazı ve dik temel harflerle yapılan eğitim hakkındaki görüşlerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma sürecinde nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden olan durum çalışması deseni benimsenmiştir. Çalışmanın evreni Denizli il ve ilçelerindeki ilkokullarda görev yapan 1. ve 2. sınıf öğretmenlerinden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada ölçüt örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenen 63 kişiden oluşan 1. ve 2. sınıf öğretmeninin görüşüne başvurulmuştur. Veri toplama aracı olarak araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen kişisel bilgiler formu ve 6 açık u

  14. 黑夜之光——论《犀牛》中人性的毁灭与复苏%Destruction and Recovery of humanity in the Novel Rhinoceros

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪莹; 何洁芳

    2012-01-01

    欧仁·尤奈斯库的代表作之一《犀牛》,表现的是人的异化和人性丧失的问题。作者指出,在精神文明日渐衰退、人性逐渐遭到毁灭的悲剧时代,每一个人都应该自觉抵制恶性的侵袭,保全自己的人格独立和人性尊严,坚守作为人的价值,这样才能使人性复苏和回归。%Rhinoceros written by Eugene Ionesco reveals the alienation and loss of humanity. The author notes that in the age of degeneration of Spiritual civilization and destruction of humanity, people should preserve their dignity and independence of human, and resist the invasion of malignant. As long as adhering to the value of humanity, we can make it recovery and make it return to our lives.

  15. Environ: E00588 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00588 Rhinoceros bicornis, Rhinoceros simus, Rhinoceros sumatrensis horn Crude dru...g Tyrosine [CPD:C01536], Cystine [CPD:C01420], Thiolactic acid Rhinoceros bicornis [TAX:9805], Rhinoceros simus, Rhinoceros... sumatrensis, Rhinoceros [TAX:9808] Rhinocerotidae Rhinoceros bicornis, Rhinoceros simus, Rhinoceros... sumatrensis horn Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals E00588 Rhinoceros bicornis, Rhinoceros simus, Rhinoceros sumatrensis horn ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: white rhinoceros [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=NS ...

  17. MOGU LI DRVNI PEPEO I BIOGNOJIVO BITI ZNAČAJNI U EKOLOŠKOJ POLJOPRIVREDI?

    OpenAIRE

    LÉVAI, László; Veres, Szilvia; Bákonyi, Nóra; Gajdos, Éva

    2008-01-01

    Poznato je da zbog iznošenja i ispiranja kationa, intenzivno korištenje tla u poljoprivredi uzrokuje zakiseljavanje. Za popravak tla, uz vapno preporuća se i drvni pepeo. Svrha provedenog ispitivanja bila je testiranje potencijala drvnog pepela za povrat kationa u tlo bez porasta toksičnosti tla, te ispitivanje učinka biofertilizatora Phylazonita MC®. Kukuruz (Zea mays L.) i krastavci (Cucumis sativus L.) uzgajani su u hranjivoj otopini u kontroliranim uvjetima. Promjene sadržaja elemenata u ...

  18. Mortality following snake bite envenomation by Bitis arietans in an HIV positive child: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Gregory B; Street, Matthew; Ramguthy, Yammesh; Doedens, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Snake bites occur commonly in the rural areas of South Africa. Hospitals where snake bites are uncommon should always have protocols on standby in the event of such cases presenting. This is the first reported case documenting the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on snake bite in South African children.A case report and review of relevant information about the case was undertaken.We present a case of a 1-year-old child referred from a peripheral hospital following a snake bite to the left upper limb with a compartment syndrome and features of cytotoxic envenomation. The patient presented late with a wide area of necrotic skin on the arm requiring extensive debridement. The underlying muscle was not necrotic. Polyvalent antivenom (South African Institute of Medical Research Polyvalent Snakebite Antiserum) administration was delayed by 4 days after the snake bite. The patient was also diagnosed with HIV and a persistent thrombocytopenia possibly due to both HIV infection and the snake bite venom. Lower respiratory tract infections with subsequent overwhelming sepsis ultimately resulted in the child's death.The case highlights the challenge of treating a snake bite in a young child with HIV and the detrimental outcome of delayed treatment. A protocol is essential in the management of snake bites in all hospitals.Level IV, Case report.This case highlights the interaction of snake bite envenomation and HIV infection on thrombocytopenia. PMID:27399076

  19. Sexual maturation in the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Terri L; Reinhart, Paul R; Romo, John S; Candra, Dedi; Suhaery, Andriansyah; Stoops, Monica A

    2013-01-01

    To help save the Sumatran rhino from extinction, the captive breeding program must capitalize on each rhino's reproductive lifespan. Doing so requires knowing when calves are sexually mature. The goal of this study was to monitor physiological changes associated with sexual maturation in two captive born calves (one male and one female) to determine the approximate age of maturity for both sexes of this species. Fecal testosterone metabolites were monitored in the male calf from 6 months to 7 years of age, and fecal pregnane metabolites were measured in the female calf from 6 months to 5.5 years of age. In addition, rectal ultrasonography was employed to monitor changes in ovarian activity from 2 to 5.5 years of age. The male calf's fecal testosterone concentrations reached levels comparable to those detected in samples from adult males when he was 6-6.5 years of age. The first pre-ovulatory sized follicle was observed on the ovaries of the female calf when she was 4.75 years old, but fecal pregnane metabolite concentrations only reached maximum mean concentrations and variability when she was 5-5.5 years of age. Results from this study indicate that male and female Sumatran rhino calves are sexually mature at 6-6.5 and 5-5.5 years of age, respectively.

  20. Flow Visualization of Rhinoceros Beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) in Free Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Hieu Trung Tran; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon; Doyoung Byun

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings,are investigated.Visualization experiments were conducted for various flight conditions of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus:free,tethered,hovering,forward and climbing flights.Leading edge,trailing edge and tip vortices on both wings were observed clearly.The leading edge vortex was stable and remained on the top surface of the elytron for a wide interval during the downstroke of free forward flight.Hence,the elytron may have a considerable role in lift force generation of the beetle.In addition,we reveal a suction phenomenon between the gaps of the hind wing and the elytron in upstroke that may improve the positive lift force on the hind wing.We also found the reverse clap-fling mechanism of the T.dichotomus beetle in hovering flight.The hind wings touch together at the beginning of the upstroke.The vortex generation,shedding and interaction give a better understanding of the detailed aerodynamic mechanism of beetle flight.

  1. Environ: E00336 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00336 Rhinoceros unicornis, Rhinoceros sondaicus horn Crude drug Tyrosine [CPD:C01...536], Cystine [CPD:C01420], Thiolactic acid Rhinoceros unicornis [TAX:9809], Rhinoceros sondaicus [TAX:10223...3] Rhinocerotidae Rhinoceros unicornis, Rhinoceros sondaicus horn Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals E00336 Rhinoceros unicornis, Rhinoceros sondaicus horn ...

  2. Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat.

  3. Tko želi biti medijski pismen? Metode medijskih istraživanja i njihova primjena na koncept “medijske pismenosti”

    OpenAIRE

    Volčić, Zala

    2003-01-01

    Područje medijskih istraživanja bavi se pitanjima koja uključuju složeni proces konzumacije masovnih medija i njegov odnos s praksama stvaranja značenja u publici. Jedna od trajnih tema medijskih istraživanja jest pitanje moći masovnih medija, njihovih učinaka i uloge kao sredstava kulture. U nekim se pristupima masovne medije analizira tek kao propagandna sredstva s izravnim medijskim učincima. U istančanijim inačicama smatraju se snagom koja oblikuja svijest javnosti određivanjem što je vij...

  4. Polymorphisms of chemokine receptors and its ligand alleles influencing genetic suscepti-bity to HIV-1 infection in eight ethnic groups in Chinese mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Limited genetic information is available concerning the polymorphisms of HIV-1 resistant genes in indigenous Chinese populations. The aim of this study is to identify the allelic frequencies of the chemokine and chemokine receptor genes in the Chinese mainland. Genomic DNA samples extracted from whole blood of 2318 subjects were analyzed by using PCR or PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays, and further confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Higher frequencies of mutant CCR2-64I (19.15%-28.79%) and SDF1-3'A (19.10%-29.86%) alleles were found in subjects of 8 ethnic groups in the Chi-nese mainland. In contrast, the △32 mutation in CCR5 gene occurs at a very low frequency (0.0016, n=1287) in Han population. A relatively high frequency of CCR5- wt/D32 heterozygotes was observed in Uygurian and Mongolian populations. No △32 mutation allele was detected in Ti-betan and other 4 ethnic groups in Yunnan Province. There was no CCR5-m303 mutation in subjects of any ethnic group in the Chinese mainland. Our results suggest that the CCR5-△32 mutation is not a major resistant factor against HIV-1 infection and disease progression in Han, Tibetan and other ethnic groups in Yunnan Province. Whether higher frequen-cies of CCR2-64I and SDF1-3′A alleles constitute major genetic resistant factors or not remains to be clarified.

  5. Relationship between androgens, environmental factors and reproductive behavior in male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Petra; Ganslosser, Udo; Dehnhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study of the endocrine activity of free-range male white rhinos. An enzyme immunoassay to measure androgens in the feces was developed and validated to show that it can be used to study testicular activity. We identified two fecal metabolites similar to testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Several lines of evidence suggest that these metabolites clearly reflect testicular activity. Firstly, the stimulation of testicular activity with synthetic GnRH caused a 156% increase in androgen metabolite concentrations in the feces 1 day after treatment. Secondly, androgen metabolite concentrations increased with sexual maturity in rhinos, and finally there was a correlation between testosterone concentrations in plasma and androgen metabolite concentrations in feces. Using the method that we developed, it was possible to establish whether a relationship exists between androgen metabolite concentrations, the behavior and environmental factors. Adult territorial males (n = 5) had elevated androgen metabolite concentrations during months of high rainfall (September-February) compared to months of little or no rainfall (March-August). The increase in concentrations coincided with the beginning of the rainy season, suggesting a seasonal trend in reproduction. This trend was confirmed by behavior observations showing both a higher frequency of conceptions within the first 4 months of increased androgen metabolite concentrations, and a higher number of inter-sexual conflicts, reflecting the initial aggression between the sexes during the consort period. It was also evident that males accompanying a receptive female had higher fecal androgen metabolite concentrations compared to being alone. The elevated levels were likely induced by female presence.

  6. Eavesdropping on coconut rhinoceros beetles, red palm weevils, Asian longhorned beetles, and other invasive travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As global trade increases, invasive insects inflict increasing economic damage to agriculture and urban landscapes in the United States yearly, despite a sophisticated array of interception methods and quarantine programs designed to exclude their entry. Insects that are hidden inside soil, wood, or...

  7. Washington Maritime NWRC: Initial Survey Instructions for Rhinoceros Auklet Population Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Partners from Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Puget Sound University designed and manage this cooperative monitoring effort under an SUP. Design and...

  8. Tooth wear in captive rhinoceroses (Diceros, Rhinoceros, Ceratotherium: Perissodactyla) differs from that of free-ranging conspecifics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, L.A.; Müller, D.W.H.; Schwitzer, C.; Kaiser, T.M.; Codron, D.; Schulz, E.; Clauss, M.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear can affect body condition, reproductive success and life expectancy. Poor dental health is frequently reported in the zoo literature, and abrasion-dominated tooth wear, which is typical for grazers, has been reported in captive browsing ruminants. The aim of this study was to test if a si

  9. Towards establishing a rhinoceros-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-y) assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morar, D.; Schreuder, J.; Meny, M.; Kooten, P.J.; Tijhaar, E.; Michel, A.L.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causal agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), with a diverse host range, extending from livestock to domestic and captive wild animals as well as free-ranging wildlife species. In South Africa, BTB is endemic in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and the Hluluwe iMfolozi National

  10. Oral, nasal, and cutaneous eosinophilic granulomas in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis): a lesion distinct from superficial necrolytic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessier, Allan P; Munson, Linda; Miller, R Eric

    2004-03-01

    Oral, nasal, and cutaneous lesions resembling eosinophilic granulomas (EGs) were observed in eight captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis). Oral lesions were observed in all affected animals and occurred most often behind the prehensile lip. The typical clinical history of affected animals included oral bleeding or epistaxis from multilobulated, fungating, proliferative masses with areas of ulceration. Histologically, lesions were characterized by prominent infiltrates of eosinophils and rare foci of collagen degeneration on a background of marked submucosal or dermal neovascularization. Mucosal or epidermal hyperplasia was also present sometimes in association with distinctive epithelial degenerative changes consistent with superficial necrolytic dermatopathy of black rhinoceroses. Lesions of EG and superficial necrolytic dermatopathy were interpreted as being concurrently manifested in these cases. EG lesions spontaneously resolved over periods of 30 days-7 mo and were recurrent in three animals. Lesions were responsive to treatment with corticosteroids or to local cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. Two animals treated with systemic corticosteroids died of disseminated fungal infections, emphasizing that corticosteroids should be used cautiously in black rhinoceroses. PMID:15193066

  11. The rare rhinoceros beetle, Ceratophileurus lemoulti Ohaus, 1911, in French Guiana and Suriname (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae, Phileurini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Gillett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rare dynastine, Ceratophileurus lemoulti Ohaus, 1911, previously known only from French Guiana, is here reported for the first time from Suriname. All biological, distributional and temporal data available for the species in both territories are presented and discussed.

  12. Unusual mortalities of the eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) due to clostridial enterotoxaemia in Ol Jogi Pyramid Sanctuary, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndeereh, D.; Ouma, B.O.; Gaymer, J.; Mutinda, M.; Gakuya, F.

    2012-01-01

    Nine eastern black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis michaeli) developed clinical clostridial enterotoxaemia between May and July 2010 in the Pyramid Black Rhino Sanctuary within the Ol Jogi Conservancy, Laikipia, Kenya. The rhinos presented with a peracute syndrome characterised by severe abdominal pa

  13. Interaction of the elytra and hind wing of a rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) during a take-off mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seungyoung; Oh, Sehyeong; Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Boogeon; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Sun-Tae

    2015-11-01

    The elytra are a pair of hardened wings that cover the abdomen of a beetle to protect beetle's hind wings. During the take-off, these elytra open and flap in phase with the hind wings. We investigate the effect of the elytra flapping on beetle's aerodynamic performance. Numerical simulations are performed at Re=10,000 (based on the wingtip mean velocity and mean chord length of the hind wing) using an immersed boundary method. The simulations are focused on a take-off, and the wing kinematics used is directly obtained from the experimental observations using high speed cameras. The simulation result shows three-dimensional vortical structures generated by the hind wing of the beetle and their interaction with the elytra. The presence of elytra has a negative effect on the lift generation by the hind wings, but the lift force on the elytra themselves is negligible. Further discussions on the elytra - hind wing interaction will be provided during the presentation. Supported by UD130070ID.

  14. The Sumatran rhinoceros-Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (Fisher,1814) in the Gunung Leuser Natl. Park, Sumatra, Indonesia; its distribution, ecology and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, van N.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Sumatran rhino is solitary for most of its life. The home range of a rhino overlaps with the home ranges of several other rhinos and animals occasionally meet, but they do not stay together for any length of time. It may be that young sub-adults, in their first years of independence, form loose

  15. Post-release ranging behaviour of hand-raised black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe with recommendations for management of introduction to the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matipano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand-raised rhinos would preferentially settle at sites close to areas where human activity was significant. Hand-raised rhinos that attached themselves to sites of human activity tended to move less widely and to have smaller seasonal ranges than those that moved away from human settlements. These rhinos had no fear of humans and some animals would move along established roads into hostile areas outside the park. These factors made hand-raised rhinos more vulnerable to poaching than their wild counterparts. Management of hand-raised rhinos with regards to ranging behaviour is discussed in the text.

  16. Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sevket; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Varol, Baki; Ayyildiz, Turhan; Sözeri, Koray

    2011-05-01

    A recent fieldwork in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin in northeastern Turkey led us to the discovery of three vertebrate localities which yielded some limb bones of the giant rhino Paraceratherium, a crocodile tooth, and some small mammals, respectively. These discoveries allowed, for the first time to date some parts of the sedimentary units of this basin. This study also shows that the dispersal area of Paraceratherium is wider than it was known before. Eastern Turkey has several Cenozoic sedimentary basins formed during the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. They are poorly documented for vertebrate paleontology. Consequently, the timing of tectonic activities, which led to the formation of the East Anatolian accretionary complex, is not constrained enough with a solid chronological framework. This study provides the first biostratigraphic evidences for the infill under the control of the compressive tectonic regime, which built the East Anatolian Plateau.

  17. “Ovo je trebalo biti smiješno – zašto se ne smijete!” – izvođenje povijesti i turističke šetnje u Budimpešti (Sažetak)

    OpenAIRE

    Uzelac, Kristina; Nasar, Saifullah; Lacbawan jr., Macario B.

    2015-01-01

    Performativni obrat u društvenim znanostima obuhvatio je i studije o turizmu koji se u tom kontekstu promatra kao izvedbeni process. Dosadašnje studije ukazuju na određena ograničenja ovoga pristupa. Fundamentalna kritika dramaturškog pogleda jest da izvedbenost ne promatra kao niz pojavnih društvenih procesa. Na primjeru besplatnih turističkih šetnji (free walking tours) u Budimpešti, u članku se analizira turizam kao izvedbeni čin koji se realizira kombiniranjem dominantnih kulturnih kodova...

  18. A validation study of the Brief Irrational Thoughts Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Hoogsteder; I.B. Wissink; G.J.J.M. Stams; J.E. van Horn; J. Hendriks

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the reliability and validity of the "Brief Irrational Thoughts Inventory" (BITI) in a sample of 256 justice-involved youths. The BITI is a questionnaire used to determine the nature and severity of irrational thoughts related to aggressive (externalizing), sub-assertive (internal

  19. Dry season diets of sympatric ungulates in lowland Nepal: competition and facilitation in alluvial tall grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegge, P.; Shrestha, A.K.; Moe, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Based on microhistological analyses of faecal material, we compared the early dry season diets of greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis, swamp deer Cervus duvauceli and hog deer Axis porcinus, which inhabit the same alluvial grassland habitat complex in lowland Nepal. Their diets were q

  20. 75 FR 41235 - Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Species Applicant: Los Angeles Zoo; Los Angeles, CA; PRT-16655A The applicant requests a permit to export three captive-born brush- tailed bettongs or woylie (Bettongia penincillata) to the Toronto Zoo, Ontario... greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) to the Chester Zoo, Chester, UK, for the purpose...

  1. Navještaj evanđelja mladima danas

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Villanueva, Pascual

    2011-01-01

    U članku je riječ o evangelizaciji i navještaju evanđelja mladima danas. Da bi netko bio evangelizator, prvo mora biti pozvan i poslan. Za kršćane to znači i biti s Isusom, biti njegov učenik, a potom i apostol. Poput prvih učenika, i današnji apostoli pozvani su pokazivati Isusa onima koji ga žele vidjeti. Valja biti i hodati zajedno s mladima kako bi im se pomoglo da požele vidjeti Isusa i susretnu se s njim u zajednici njegovih učenika, Crkvi. Središnje mjesto u evangelizaciji pripada osob...

  2. POPs and stable isotopes in bird and forage fish tissues - Persistent organic pollutant levels in juvenile salmonids, forage fish and their avian predators from Puget Sound and the outer WA coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is examining contaminant loads of fish prey species of a resident marine bird (Rhinoceros Auklet) breeding in inland waters (Puget Sound) and in the...

  3. Diferencijalna dijagnoza vertiga

    OpenAIRE

    Demarin, Vida; TRKANJEC, ZLATKO; Aleksić-Shibabi, Anka; Uremović, Melita

    2007-01-01

    Vertigo je iluzija kretanja, najčešće rotacijskog kretanja. Vertigo je među najčešćim simptomima koji dovode bolesnike liječniku, a sa starenjem učestalost vertiga se povećava. Vertigo može biti uzrokovan poremećajima unutarnjeg uha – periferni vertigo, centralnim poremećajima – centralni vertigo, sustavnim bolestima, a može biti i psihogeni. Najčešći uzroci vertiga su benigni paroksizmalni pozicioni vertigo, akutni vestibularni neuronitis, Méniéreova bolest, migrena, anksiozni poremećaji, ve...

  4. DEFINICIJA I PODJELA ATIPIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    Šitum, Mirna; KOLIĆ, MAJA

    2013-01-01

    Prema definiciji rana je prekid anatomskog i funkcionalnog kontinuiteta tkiva, a s obzirom na tijek cijeljenja rane mogu biti akutne i kronične. Kronične rane su one koje ne zarastaju unutar predviđenog razdoblja u korelaciji s etiologijom i lokalizacijom rane, a u najkraćem razdoblju od 6 tjedana. Kronične rane mogu biti tipične i atipične. u tipične rane ubrajaju se ishemijske rane, neuropatski ulkus, venski ulkus te dva posebna entiteta: dekubitus i dijabetičko stopalo. Kronične rane na po...

  5. Histaminsko otrovanje morskom ribom

    OpenAIRE

    Nosić, M.

    2010-01-01

    Histaminsko otrovanje je kemijska intoksikacija do koje dolazi kada se u organizam unese hrana (u ovom slučaju riba) koja sadrži visoku koncentraciju histamina. Histamin se u ribi oblikuje post mortem, bakterijskom dekarboksilacijom esencijalne aminokiseline histidina. U ovom radu će se govoriti o uzrocima nastajanja histamina u ribi te o njegovu djelovanju na čovjekovo zdravlje te će ujedno biti navedeni načini prevencije ove vrste otrovanja. Ujedno će biti opisani slučajevi histaminskog otr...

  6. Vloga vohunov pri razvoju sovjetske atomske bombe : diplomsko delo visokošolskega strokovnega študija Varnost in policijsko delo

    OpenAIRE

    Križan, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Človek se je že od nekdaj zavedal, da je potrebno biti v koraku pred ostalimi, če želi biti uspešen in inovativen. Toda kako vedeti, da ni nasprotnik v razmišljanju, če ne celo v dejanjih že pred tabo? Za razblinjanje teh dvomov so tukaj nastopile osebe − vohuni, o katerih govori to diplomsko delo. Poskušala sem predstaviti pomembnost delovanja vohunov, še posebej pa sem se seveda osredotočila na njihov prispevek k razvoju sovjetske atomske bombe. Na samem začetku sem opisala pojme, ki so...

  7. UVAJANJE CELOVITIH INFORMACIJSKIH REŠITEV V MALA IN SREDNJE VELIKA PODJETJA

    OpenAIRE

    Kohek, Primož

    2011-01-01

    Uvedba ERP rešitve spada med najbolj stresne, tvegane dogodke v podjetju, saj posledično zahteva spremembe v samem poslovanju. Če se podjetja ne prilagodijo, stroški uvajanja narastejo. Uvedba ERP mora biti izredno premišljen, načrtovan projekt. Potrebno je imeti izdelano projektno taktiko in samo vodenje mora biti premišljeno in s pravo oblikovano skupino izkušenih ljudi. ERP se načrtuje dolgoročno z različnimi pristopi. Vodstvo podjetja se mora popolnoma vključiti v sam proces integracije v...

  8. Ainult üks õppekava korraga / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimus osavõturohka õppekavakonverents. Tartu Ülikooli õppekava arenduskeskuse juhataja Ain Tõnisson ja BIT-i alternatiivse õppekava üks koostajaid Urve Läänemets püüdsid tõestada oma õppekava üldosa paremust

  9. Haridustee = Education / Tiiu-Liisa Rummo-Laes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rummo-Laes, Tiiu-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Põhihariduses soolist eristumist ei ole märgata, murettekitavalt suur on poiste väljalangemine enne põhihariduse omandamist. Tütarlapsed ja noormehed üld- ja kutsehariduses, kesk- ja kõrghariduses. Noorte õppimine ja töötamine leibkonnatüübiti. Tabel, graafik, diagrammid

  10. Ortognatska kirurgija, funkcionalan ili estetski postupak

    OpenAIRE

    Uglešić, Vedran; Jokić, Davor; Knežević, Predrag; Gašparović, Stojanka

    2004-01-01

    Ortognatski kirurški zahvati mogu biti funkcionalni i estetski. Prikazani su pacijenti te ortodontske i kirurške indikacije za kirurško liječenje. U prikazu su raspravljeni primjeri preoperativnog planiranja, tijeka liječenja, rezultata i komplikacija za plastiku brade, razvoj i pomicanje donje čeljusti, razvoj gornje čeljusti i bimaksilarne zahvate.

  11. ODNOS STAROG I NOVOG - SKLAD, VLAST ILI KOMPROMIS

    OpenAIRE

    Vicelja, Marina

    1991-01-01

    Trg Mljekarice i dvorište koje zatvaraju Užarska i Šporerova ulica primjeri su uspješnih interpolacija novog u staro gradsko tkivo. Pravilna revalorizacija povijesnih prostora riječkog Starog grada, njihove forme i njihova sadržaja, trebala bi biti osnova projekata i koncepcija obnove stare jezgre.

  12. Characterization of load bearing metrological parameters in reptilian exuviae in comparison to precision finished cylinder liner surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Aal, H A

    2014-01-01

    Design of precise functional surfaces is essential for many future applications. In the technological realm, the accumulated experience with the construction of such surfaces is not sufficient. Nature provides many examples of dynamic surfaces worthy of study and adoption, at least as a concept, within human engineering. In this work, we probe load-bearing features of the ventral skin of snake surfaces. We examine the structure of two snake species that mainly move by rectilinear locomotion. These are Python regius (pythonidae) and Bittis gabonica (Vipridae). To this end, we focus on the load bearing characteristics of the ventral skin surface (i.e. the Rk family of parameters). Therefore, we draw detailed comparison between the reptilian surfaces and two sets of technological data. The first set pertains to an actual commercial cylinder liner, whereas, the second set is a summary of recommended surface finish metrological values for several commercial cylinder liner manufacturers. The results highlight sever...

  13. 土家族"犀牛"图腾崇拜体现的生命意识与儒家伦理思想研究——以渝东南湘鄂渝黔边区酉水流域为例%Research into life consciousness and Confucius ethics thoughts embodied by Tujia Nationality rhinoceros totem worship——Taking the border of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing and Guizhou in southeast Chongqing as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白俊奎

    2007-01-01

    土家族犀牛图腾崇拜体现了儒家伦理思想的生命意识、和谐思想、厚生意蕴、佑民情怀,这在湘鄂渝黔交界处的渝东南土家族文化、文学、田野材料及《同治增修酉阳直隶州总志》、《白民族谱》等史志文献都有表现.土家族地区如渝东南酉水流域广布"犀牛"图腾崇拜、神秘葬俗,犀牛望月、犀牛潭、犀牛洞土司坟、犀牛救民,犀牛地葬母佑子孙等民俗事象,大量出现在民间文学中,世代相传,值得深究.

  14. 商代晚期黄河以北地区的犀牛和水牛——从甲骨文中的(令)和兕字谈起%The Rhinoceros and Water Buffalo on North Place of Huanghe River in Late Shang Dynasty——From Chinese Word "Si" of Inscriptions on Bones or Tortoise Shells of the Shang Dynasty to Talk About Them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷焕章; 葛人

    2007-01-01

    @@ 商代甲骨文中的(令),常被写定为兕或(凹豖),迄今为止,众多一流专家对它的解释是见仁见智.某些最常见的解释是:犀牛、牛一样的独角兕、兕属的牛、兕(没有解释)、让人垂涎的特殊猎物、中原地区的一种野生动物等等.本文试图就此问题再作探讨.

  15. Comparison of growth characteristics of anaerobic fungi isolated from ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores during cultivation in a defined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, M J; Op den Camp, H J; Orpin, C G; Huis in 't Veld, J H; Vogels, G D

    1991-06-01

    Anaerobic fungi were isolated from rumen fluid of a domestic sheep (Ovis aries; a ruminant) and from faeces of five non-ruminants: African elephant (Loxodonta africana), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) and mara (Dolichotis patagonum). The anaerobic fungus isolated from the sheep was a Neocallimastix species and the isolates from non-ruminants were all species similar to Piromyces spp. A defined medium is described which supported growth of all the isolates, and was used to examine growth characteristics of the different strains. For each fungus the lipid phosphate content was determined after growth on cellobiose and the resulting values were used to estimate fungal biomass after growth on solid substrates. The ability of isolates from ruminants and non-ruminants to digest both wheat straw and cellulose was comparable. More than 90% and 60%, respectively, of filter paper cellulose and wheat straw were digested by most strains within 60-78 h. Growth of two fungi, isolated from rumen fluid of a sheep (Neocallimastix strain N1) and from faeces of an Indian rhinoceros (Piromyces strain R1), on cellobiose was studied in detail. Fungal growth yields on cellobiose were 64.1 g (mol substrate)-1 for N1 and 34.2 g mol-1 for R1. The major fermentation products of both strains were formate, lactate, acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. PMID:1919514

  16. COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF PLANT-CELL WALL DIGESTION IN INSECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRINS, RA; KREULEN, DA

    1991-01-01

    Although many phytophagous and wood-eating invertibrates form their own cellulases, there is an overwhelming variety of symbioses between plant- and wood-utilising insects and microorganisms. In one type of symbiosis (endosymbiosis), insects (rhinoceros beetle, cockroach, lower termites) host cellul

  17. Woolly rhino discovery in the lower Kolyma River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Lazarev, Peter A.; Sher, Andrei V.;

    2011-01-01

    A nearly complete frozen mummy of a woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis Blum., 1799) was discovered in a gold mine on the lower reaches of the Kolyma River, north–eastern Siberia. This is the first find of the whole body of woolly rhino in permafrost. A large part of the mummified body...

  18. Koncept razvoja službi logistike / Concept development of logistic services

    OpenAIRE

    Marko D. Andrejić; Vlada S. Sokolović; Marjan A. Milenkov

    2010-01-01

    Da bi logističke službe, kao deo sistema odbrane, bile efikasne i efektivne moraju biti kvalitetno organizaciono-tehnološki isprojektovane i kvalitetno vođene. Moraju da imaju dugoročni koncept razvoja sa ugrađenim organizacionim aspektom, jasno izražena težišta i prioritete u funkcionisanju, a takođe i kvalitetno definisane pokazatelje uspešnosti. Neophodno je da prate promene u bližem i daljem okruženju. Takođe, svaki proces koji je u nadležnosti logističkih službi mora biti dobro isprojekt...

  19. ZAVLAČEVANJE IZVRŠILNEGA POSTOPKA

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Diplomska naloga obravnava zavlačevanje izvršbe s strani dolžnikov. Izvršba je namreč izredno pomemben del sodnega varstva, saj mora biti strankam zagotovljeno, da lahko svoje pravice uresničijo, ne le da so jim priznane. Izvršilni postopek mora zato biti učinkovit, hiter ter mora onemogočati zavlačevanje. V diplomski nalogi je tako predstavljeno, na kakšen način dolžniki v praksi zavlačujejo postopek izvršbe, prav tako je opisan tudi sistem izvršbe v Nemčiji ter predlogi, ki bi dolžnikom one...

  20. Poremećaji hranjenja i jedenja u ranoj dojenačkoj dobi, djetinjstvu i adolescenciji

    OpenAIRE

    Vidović, Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Poremećaji hranjenja i jedenja čest su medicinski i psihološki problem u adolescenciji, a mogu se javiti u dojenačkoj dobi i ranom djetinjstvu. Uzroci nastanka poremećaja su složeni i nisu potpuno istraženi. Liječenje bi trebalo biti multidimenzionalno, budući da psihofarmaci i psihoterapija primijenjeni zajedno nisu dovoljno učinkoviti, a u najvećem broju slučajeva u liječenje moraju biti uključene obitelji. Poremećaji svojom ozbiljnošću, trajanjem i teškoćama u liječenju te posljedicama za ...

  1. VZGOJA DVEH GENERACIJ

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrož, Lidija

    2014-01-01

    Večkrat v življenju je vsak od nas že slišal, da je biti starš najtežja in najbolj odgovorna naloga. Biti ob tem še dober vzgojitelj, pa je včasih delo diplomata, prijatelja in še kaj od naštetih misli bi lahko opredelili. Vsak starš ima v sebi željo, da bi otroka vzgojil v zdravo, zadovoljno osebnost, kot radi rečemo: »da bi otrok bil lepo vzgojen«. Ker smo ljudje čuteča bitja in imamo radi svoje otroke, kakor so naši starši imeli radi nas. Ravno zadnja misel je ključna nit diplomske nal...

  2. POKAZATELJI UHRANJENOSTI I NUTRITIVNA POTPORA ADOLESCENTICA OBOLJELIH OD ANOREKSIJE NERVOZE

    OpenAIRE

    Škoro Petranović, Vedrana; Žaja, Orjena; Banjari, Ines

    2014-01-01

    Uvod: Anoreksija nervoza (AN) predstavlja trajan poremećaj odnosa prema hrani i izgledu vlastitog tijela koji dovodi do znatnog oštećenja tjelesnog zdravlja i psiho-emocionalnog funkcioniranja. Pridružene metaboličke komplikacije zbog fizioloških osobitosti razdoblja rasta i spolnog razvoja mogu biti potencijalno ireverzibilne, izvjesno i fatalne ukoliko su kasno prepoznate. Cilj: Istražiti vrijednosti antropometrijskih parametara, elektrolitska odstupanja te ispitati trajanje i broj hosp...

  3. ALTERNATIVNE SIROVINE PREHRAMBENIH VLAKANA

    OpenAIRE

    Gaćina, Nikolina

    2014-01-01

    Prehrambena vlakana su komponente hrane koja blagotvorno djeluju na zdravlje čovjeka. Njihova proizvodnja se povećava jer se dodaju hrani koja ih uobičajeno ne sadrži da bi ona postala funkcionalna. Alternativne i jeftine sirovine za dobivanje prehrambenih vlakana mogu biti i nusproizvodi prerade nekih namirnica biljnog porijekla (jabuke, grožđe, citrusi i kim) koji zaostaju nakon njihove primarne obrane.

  4. TEHNIČNA IZVEDLJIVOST IN EKONOMSKA UPRAVIČENOST PROIZVODNJE E-KOLES V SLOVENIJI

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, Matic

    2014-01-01

    Prikazana sta postopek in potek vgradnje komponent za predelavo navadnega kolesa v električno kolo. Predstavljene so vse ključne komponente električnega kolesa in njihov opis ter lastnosti in specifikacije komponent, na katere moramo biti pri izbiri pozorni. Prikazani so podatki proizvodnje, prodaje in uporabe električnih koles po svetu in v Sloveniji, kakor tudi podatki o testiranju zmogljivosti predelanega električnega kolesa.

  5. KONCEPCIJSKA STRUKTURA HRVATSKOG MODELA GLOBALNOG KOMUNIKACIJSKOG SUSTAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Grbavac, Jacinta; GRBAVAC, Vitomir; Popović, Goran

    2010-01-01

    Korisnički info sustavi u organizacijama raznih vrsta i veličina transformiraju svoje računarske resurse iz pretežno centraliziranog u distribuirani komunikacijski sustav gotovo na svim razinama. Ova nova paradigma, u biti definira ulogu velikih kompjutora unutar velikih poslovnih asocijacija kao i njihovu integraciju na nacionalnoj razini. To je, zapravo kombinacija performansi, fleksibilnost i korisničko-prijateljski odnos s malim autonomnim korisnicima od osnovnih operacija/obrada do uslug...

  6. TRAJNOSTNO TESTIRANJE MAGNETNIH STIKAL

    OpenAIRE

    Stegu, Žiga

    2011-01-01

    V podjetju Gorenje d.d. uporabljajo v gospodinjskih aparatih magnetna stikala. Stikala so uporabljena za detekcijo odprtosti vrat hladilnikov. Pomembna so za pravilno delovanje aparata, zato mora biti življenjska doba stikal v skladu z zahtevami podjetja. Z uvedbo magnetnih stikal se je pojavil problem odpovedi zaradi neznanega vzroka. Do sedaj so preverjali vpliv vibracij, vendar samo na dveh stikalih hkrati. Namen in cilj diplomske naloge je avtomatizirana meritev življenjske dobe ve...

  7. Analiza panoge in SWOT analiza na primeru podjetja Golte

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Rebeka

    2012-01-01

    Za uspešnost podjetja je pomembno, da dobro poznamo svojo panogo, v kateri delujemo, dobro moramo poznati svojo konkurenco in biti vedno korak pred njo. Podrobno poznavanje panoge same pripomore k boljšemu in kvalitetnejšemu vrednotenju podjetja. SWOT analiza je pomembna za ugotavljanje konkurenčne prednosti podjetja in je ena najpogostejših in najpopularnejših analiz. Lahko jo izvajajo posamezniki ali skupina

  8. Posodobitev spletne trgovine in povezava z Microsoft Dynamics NAV

    OpenAIRE

    RONDAIJ, TILEN

    2016-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je predstavljena posodobitev spletne trgovine slovenskega podjetja in vzpostavitev povezave med spletno trgovino in sistemom ERP Microsoft Dynamics NAV. Opisani so obstoječe stanje, povezava spletne trgovine in sistema ERP ter razlogi za posodobitev. Opravljena je podrobnejša analiza funkcionalnosti spletne trgovine, ki bi morale biti izboljšane ali dodane, kar je dodatno podkrepljeno z rezultati spletne ankete, katera se je izvedla med preteklimi kupci podjetja. Glavni ...

  9. POSPEŠENO UČENJE ROBOTOV ZA INTERAKCIJO Z OKOLJEM IN ČLOVEKOM NA PODLAGI SENZORIČNO-MOTORIČNEGA UČENJA

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Luka

    2015-01-01

    V prihodnje je premik robotov iz strukturiranih/nadzorovanih industrijskih in laboratorijskih okolij v človekov vsakdanjik neizogiben. Za uspešno vpeljavo robotov v naš vsakdanjik je treba rešiti dva osnovna problema, povezana z izvajanjem takih nalog. (1) Naloge, potrebe, orodja in okolje se razlikujejo med uporabniki. To zahteva pridobitev velike baze zelo specifičnih znanj, zato mora biti prenos znanja z uporabnika na robota enostaven, prilagodljiv in hiter. (2) Pri izvedbi ...

  10. Toponimi, ktetici i etnici u Žićima svetih otaca

    OpenAIRE

    Malić, Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Ovaj je prilog nastavak razmatranja vlastitih imena iz prethodnoga broja časopisa “Folia onomastica Croatica”, u kojem su prikazana osobna imena iz Žića svetih otaca. U navedenom su spomeniku znatno slabije zastupljena ostala vlastita imena. Među njima pretežu toponimi, a neki će od njih – vezano uz latinski predložak djela – najvjerojatnije biti jedine hrvatske potvrde.

  11. IZGRADNJA KANALIZACIJE NA OBMOČJU POSLOVNO STANOVANJSKEGA OBJEKTA GORICA V VELENJU

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhar, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Kanalizacijski sistemi so medsebojno funkcionalno povezane naprave in objekti, ki so namenjeni za odvajanje in čiščenje odpadnih voda uporabnikov. Projektirani in zgrajeni morajo biti tako, da zagotavljajo optimalen odvod odpadne in padavinske vode ob minimalnih stroških izgradnje, vzdrževanja in obratovanja. V diplomskem delu smo opisali kanalizacijski sistem v Mestni občini Velenje in prikazali postopek izgradnje ločenega sistema kanalizacije Poslovno-stanovanjskega objekta Gorica.

  12. TRANSFORMACIJSKO IN TRANSAKCIJSKO VODENJES S STRANI TOP MANAGEMENTA: PRIMER MEDNARODNE DRUŽBE X

    OpenAIRE

    Zorman, Natalija

    2013-01-01

    Zadnje čase strokovnjaki razvijajo raznovrstne multidimenzionalne modele vodenja, s katerimi si prizadevajo pripomoči k učinkovitejšemu vodenju človeškega kapitala organizacij, ki si želijo biti v koraku s časom. Eden izmed sodobno najbolj raziskovanih in veljavnih modelov vodenja enaindvajsetega stoletja, je celostni model vodenja (ang. Full Range Leadership Model - FRLM), kateri vsebuje integriran pregled komponent transakcijskega in transformacijskega vodenja, njegove meritve pa se izvajaj...

  13. UTJECAJ SOCIODEMOGRAFSKIH ČIMBENIKA NA POIMANJE ROMSKOGA RODITELJSTVA I ODRASTANJA

    OpenAIRE

    Šućur, Zoran

    2004-01-01

    Na uzorku od 800 romskih roditelja1 `eljelo se istra`iti u kojoj je mjeri poimanje romskoga roditeljstva i odrastanja uvjetovano socioekonomskim ~imbenicima kao {to su dob, ukupan broj djece, obrazovanje i stambeni status. Roditeljstvo nije analizirano na razini cjelovitoga modela, nego na razini aspekata roditeljstva i odrastanja koji mogu biti ilustrativni za romsku populaciju (stavovi roditelja o tome kada njihova djeca trebaju stupiti u brak, po~eti zara|ivati, briga ...

  14. Public health aspects of snakebite care in West Africa: perspectives from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrazaq G Habib

    2013-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a major public health problem among rural communities of the Nigerian savanna. The saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) and, to a lesser extent, the African cobras (Naja spp.) and puff adders (Bitis arietans) have proved to be the most important cause of mortality and morbidity. The main clinical features of E. ocellatus envenoming are systemic hemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock, local swelling, bleeding and, occasionally, necrosis. Bites may be complicated ...

  15. Organizacija tehnološkog procesa remonta složenih tehničkih sistema u tehničkom remontnom zavodu u Čačku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojkan M. Radonjić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Složeni tehnički sistemi (STS od ostalih tehničkih sistema (TS razlikuju se po konstrukciji i nameni, koja može biti: zaštita ljudi, materijalnih bogatstava i teritorije. Ako želimo da STS budu ispravni i imaju zadovoljavajući nivo pouzdanosti i gotovosti,  sistem remonta mora biti u stanju da podrži zahteve koji proističu iz njihove specifičnosti. Sistem njihovog remonta mora biti programiran, a upravljanje njime zasnovano na konceptu QMS (Quality management system. Organizacija remonta STS za potrebe sistema odbrane Republike Srbije, u Tehničkom remontnom zavodu u Čačku (TRZ, primer je organizacije u koju je implementiran  procesni model sistema upravljanja kvalitetom (QMS. Ovaj članak opisuje proces remonta STS u TRZ sa njegovim procesnim sistemom upravljanja kvalitetom (QMS, koji je preduslov za efikasan i efektivan proces remonta. Proces remonta prikazan je na primeru remonta guseničnog borbenog vozila. 

  16. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from extinct and extant rhinoceroses reveals lack of phylogenetic resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, Tom; Binladen, Jonas;

    2009-01-01

    several contradictory phylogenies were proposed on the basis of morphology, then apparently resolved using mitochondrial DNA fragments. RESULTS: In this study we report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the extinct ice-age woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis), and the threatened...... reconstruction of the rhinoceros phylogeny. While the six species cluster into three strongly supported sister-pairings: (i) The black/white, (ii) the woolly/Sumatran, and (iii) the Javan/Indian, resolution of the higher-level relationships has no statistical support. The phylogenetic signal from individual...... genes is highly diffuse, with mixed topological support from different genes. Furthermore, the choice of outgroup (horse vs tapir) has considerable effect on reconstruction of the phylogeny. The lack of resolution is suggestive of a hard polytomy at the base of crown-group Rhinocerotidae...

  17. A Game of Horns: Transnational Flows of Rhino Horn

    OpenAIRE

    Hübschle, A.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-sectorial regime of protection including international treaties, conservation and security measures, demand reduction campaigns and quasi-military interventions has been established to protect rhinos. Despite these efforts, the poaching of rhinos and trafficking of rhino horn continue unabated. This dissertation asks why the illegal market in rhinoceros horn is so resilient in spite of the myriad measures employed to disrupt it. A theoretical approach grounded in the sociology of mark...

  18. A serological survey of brucellosis in wild ungulate species from five game parks in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatenda R. Motsi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective serosurvey was carried out between 2009 and 2012 to detect antibodies to Brucella spp. in free-ranging African wildlife ungulates from five selected game parks in Zimbabwe. Samples were drawn from wildlife-livestock interface and non-interface areas in Zimbabwe. A total of 270 serum samples from four different species, namely African buffalo (Syncerus caffer (n=106, impala (Aepyceros melampus (n = 72, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis (n= 45 and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum (n = 47, were tested. The percentage of positive samples was 17.0% in buffalo (18/106; 95% CI: 9.72% – 24.1% and 1.4% in impala (1/72; 95% CI: 0% – 4.2%. No antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected in the two rhinoceros species. The difference in the percentage of seropositive cases between buffalo and impala was significant (p< 0.05. Seropositivity to Brucella spp. was higher (19.1% in adult buffalo compared with juveniles and sub-adults younger than six years (5.9%. Further, seropositivity was marginally higher (20.4% in animals from wildlife-livestock interface areas than in those from non-interface areas (13.45%; OR = 1.45 although the difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that brucellosis could be more widespread in buffalo and may circulate in this species independently in the absence of contact with cattle, whilst rhinoceros may be considered less susceptible to brucellosis. The role of the wildlife-livestock interface in the epidemiology of brucellosis in wildlife and livestock is probably overstated but needs to be explored further.

  19. MEDVRSTNIŠKO NASILJE V PREDŠOLSKEM OBDOBJU

    OpenAIRE

    Poklič, Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Diplomsko delo Medvrstniško nasilje v predšolskem obdobju je sestavljeno iz teoretičnega in empiričnega dela. Znotraj tega smo navedli in opisali, kaj je pojav medvrstniškega nasilja, kaj vpliva nanj, na kaj moramo biti pozorni. Pomemben poudarek smo dali tudi na vrtec, kot vzgojno-izobraževalno ustanovo in vzgojiteljico, kot pomemben dejavnik v otrokovem življenju v predšolskem obdobju. To smo v empiričnem delu tudi raziskali. Nasilje med vrstniki ni nov, je pa na žalost vedno pogostejši poj...

  20. KEMPINSKI PALACE PORTOROŽ - ENKRATNA PRILOŽNOST SLOVENSKEGA TURIZMA

    OpenAIRE

    Pondelak, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    Razvoj močnega turističnega položaja na svetovnem trgu lahko za državo predstavlja veliko prednost. Za doseganje takšnega položaja mora biti ponudba prilagojena tudi najbolj zahtevnim gostom. Prenovljeni hotel Palace predstavlja možnost razvoja turizma za najbolj zahtevne goste, saj je ponudba na najvišjem nivoju. K izboljšanju ponudbe dodatno prispeva menedžerski prevzem s strani hotelske verige Kempinski. V diplomskem delu je tako predstavljena ponudba hotela Palace in Kempinski hotelska ve...

  1. Farmakoterapija vertiga

    OpenAIRE

    TRKANJEC, ZLATKO; Aleksić-Shibabi, Anka; Demarin, Vida

    2007-01-01

    Farmakoterapija vertiga može biti simptomatska ili specifična. Ne postoji idealni lijek za liječenje vertiga. Akutni vertigo se obično liječi vestibularnim supresorima i antiemeticima. U liječenju vertiga i pridruženih simptoma najčešće se primjenjuju antikolinergici, antihistaminici, dopaminergički antagonisti i monaminergici. I neki drugi lijekovi se također primjenjuju u liječenju vertiga. Međutim, vertigo je subjektivni osjećaj, što otežava mjerenje učinka lijekova. Stoga mnogi radovi o l...

  2. IDEJNA ZASNOVA VAROVANJA GRADBENE JAME V POLHOVEM GRADCU

    OpenAIRE

    Eder, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Gradbena jama je začasen objekt, ki ga po končani gradnji zasujemo. Gradbena jama mora biti izkopana pravilno in kakovostno, v nasprotnem primeru se lahko sesuje oz. poškoduje, kar podaljša čas in poveča stroške gradenj. Ker pomeni izkop za določen objekt vedno poseg v zemljino v različnih globinah, je potrebno takšne izkope oz. gradbene jame ustrezno varovati pred porušitvijo. V geotehnični praksi se najpogosteje uporabljajo racionalne kombinacije podpornih konstrukcij s sistemskimi sidra...

  3. FENOTIPOVI ASTME I POREMEĆAJ HOMEOSTAZE IMUNOLOŠKOG SUSTAVA

    OpenAIRE

    STIPIĆ MARKOVIĆ, ASJA

    2011-01-01

    Danas razumijemo mnoge regulatorne putove u signalizaciji koja se odvija prije i poslije sinteze IgE i poznajemo učinke mnogobrojnih medijatora u alergijskog kaskadi, ali astma ipak i dalje ostaje klinički i znanstveni problem. Suvremena civilizacija zbunjuje imunološki sustav pa nastaje kompleksna interakcija između epigenetske regulacije, varijabilnih vanjskih čimbenika i različitih kombinacija parova utjecaja: gena, antigena i razdoblja života. Stoga će biti potrebno odgovoriti na pitanje ...

  4. PRODUKCIJA NIZKOPRORAČUNSKEGA VIDEOSPOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Serušnik, Matej

    2011-01-01

    Različna glasba izzove pri ljudeh različne emocije in vizualne predstave. Mnogi ljudje si ob isti glasbi predstavljajo drugačne slike, drugačne zgodbe. V diplomski nalogi obravnavamo proces produkcije nizkoproračunskega avdiovizualnega izdelka – videospota. Zanima nas, katero opremo uporabiti, da bi kljub nizkim stroškom izdelali kvaliteten in konkurenčen izdelek. Skozi raziskavo spoznamo, na katere dejavnike moramo biti pozorni skozi proces, da je naš projekt čim manj finančno in časovno obr...

  5. VPLIV KULTURE NA MEDNARODNO POSLOVANJE NA PRIMERU JAPONSKE, BRAZILIJE IN RUSIJE

    OpenAIRE

    Radej, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Kultura ima močan vpliv na mednarodno poslovanje, ima vedno večji vpliv na medkulturna pogajanja in velja za spremenljivko, ki ne sme biti zanemarjena. Kultura je celota, ki vključuje znanje, prepričanja, vrednote, moralo, zakone, običaje in je način skupnega življenja vsakega naroda. Poznavanje kulture je ključ, brez katerega podjetniki ne morejo odklepati vrat v mednarodno poslovnem okolju. V diplomski nalogi smo opredelili pojem kulture in predstavili njene značilnosti in sestavine. Op...

  6. Kulturna uvjetovanost poslovne komunikacije

    OpenAIRE

    Špiljak, Višnja

    2007-01-01

    SAŽETAK: Poslovna kultura postaje globalna i sve uniformiranija. Na međunarodnom tržištu, koje kao svoj glavni komunikacijski instrument koristi poslovni engleski jezik, ta je kultura u osnovi biti anglosaksonska. Poslovne ili komunikacijske vještine potrebne akterima na međunarodnom tržištu također slijede globalni, uniformirani obrazac, u osnovi anglosaksonski. Tako će i njihovi pisani i usmeni oblici (pregovori, sastanci, prezentacije, poslovno dopisivanje…) slijediti zadane modele, koj...

  7. POTENCIALI POVEZOVANJA SAP REŠITVE IN CRM REŠITVE NA PRIMERU PODJETJA GORENJE D.D.

    OpenAIRE

    Lešnik, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Živimo v času nenehnih sprememb. Gospodarska kriza podjetjem otežuje prodajo njihovih izdelkov. Če se želijo podjetja obdržati na trgu in prodajati svoje izdelke, morajo biti naklonjena strankam in njihovim zahtevam. Podjetja morajo nenehno stremeti k novim izboljšavam in rešitvam informacijskih sistemov, da bodo lahko ostala konkurenčna na trgu. Rešitev CRM je orodje za upravljanje odnosov s strankami. Je sistem, ki povezuje vse tiste podatke in informacije, ki smo jih doslej imeli razd...

  8. UVEDBA ODPRTOKODNEGA CRM V MANJŠEM PODJETJU

    OpenAIRE

    Špenko, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Za upravljanje odnosov s strankami mnoga majhna podjetja v začetku ne uporabljajo temu namenjenih sistemov (CRM), temveč si pomagajo s standardnimi orodji, kot so npr. imenik, koledar in e-pošta. Sorazmerno z rastjo podjetja pa običajno raste tudi število strank, opravil in informacij, ki morajo biti pregledno zabeležene in posredovane. Pojavi se torej potreba po uvedbi CRM rešitve, v kateri bi bile integrirane vse funkcije upravljanja odnosov s strankami, od komunikacije po telefonu in e-poš...

  9. Bakterijska flora zdravoga mlađa azijskoga lubina (Lates calcarifer) s naglaskom na otpornost na antibiotike i teške metale

    OpenAIRE

    S. Wei, Lee; Musa, Najiah; Wee, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Opisana je bakterijska flora te otpornost na antibiotike i teške metale bakterija izdvojenih iz mlađa slatkovodnoga azijskoga lubina (Lates calcarifer) na mrijestilištu u Terengganu u Maleziji. Istraživanje je provedeno sa svrhom da se odredi bakterijska flora u uzorcima vode na ribogojilištu azijskoga lubina kao i otpornost izdvojenih bakterija na antibiotike i teške metale. Rezultati mogu biti od koristi za uzgajivače riba pri liječenju i provođenju preventivnih mjera. Bakterije su bile izd...

  10. Od Ruhra do Bospora, europski gradovi kulture 2010. godine - Essen, Pečuh, Carigrad (Istanbul)

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Éva; Stefán, Klára; Vati, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Godina 2010. je u mnogim aspektima posebna godina, obzirom na promjene u izboru kriterija u prethodnom periodu, proširen krug mogućih kandidata za titulu grada kulture, pa je to i omogućilo da i Istanbul, grad koji praktički simbolizira cijelu Tursku, može biti među dobitnicima ovog priznanja. Iako sva tri ova grada zadovoljavaju ciljeve i očekivanja koja se traže od nositelja ove laskave titule europskog grada kulture, u nekoliko aspekata ima mjesta i kritici. Jedan od najvažnijih može se...

  11. BITCOIN – NOVA GLOBALNA VALUTA, INVESTICIJSKA PRILIKA ILI NEŠTO TREĆE?

    OpenAIRE

    Buterin, Denis; Ribarić, Eda; Savić, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Povijest bitcoina započela je 2008. godine objavom članka „Bitcoin: A Peer to-Peer Electronic Cash System“ pod pseudonimom Satoshi Nakamoto. Od tada do danas bitcoin je doživio značajne promjene obilježene naglim rastom i padom vrijednosti, praćene interesom javnosti. Bitcoin je sustav temeljen na složenim kriptografskim algoritmima, bez postojanja središnjeg autoriteta koji izdaje novac ili nadzire transakcije. Vode se rasprave može li bitcoin postati nova globalna valuta koja neće biti p...

  12. INTOLERANCIJA NA HISTAMIN – KOJE SU MOGUĆE POSLJEDICE NA KOŽI?

    OpenAIRE

    Lugović-Mihić, Liborija; ŠEŠERKO, ANA; DUVANČIĆ, TOMISLAV; Šitum, Mirna; Mihić, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Iako se intolerancija na histamin (Histamine Intolerance, HIT) ne javlja često, posljedice mogu biti teške. Intolerancija na hranu je nealergijska preosjetljivost na hranu koja ne uključuje imunološki sustav iako su simptomi slični onima kod alergijskih reakcija posredovanih IgE-om. Čini se da HIT nastaje oštećenjem aktivnosti diaminoksidaze (DAO) zbog gastrointestinalnih bolesti ili inhibicijom DAO, a u dijelu bolesnika dokazana je i genetska predispozicija. Unos hrane bogate histaminom te a...

  13. Konceptualno rješenje Vojnoga geoinformacijskog sustava Ministarstva obrane Republike Hrvatske

    OpenAIRE

    Biljecki, Zvonko; Rapaić, Mladen; Tonković, Tomislav

    2006-01-01

    Projektom "Vojni geoinformacijski sustav - VoGIS" Ministarstvo obrane Republike Hrvatske započelo je izgradnju jedinstvenoga geoinformacijskog sustava za potrebe Ministarstva obrane i Oružanih snaga, koji je usklađen s hrvatskim i međunarodnim normama u području geoinformatike, te je u potpunosti konforman standardima NATO-a. Prema Idejnom projektu, cilj VoGIS-a je uspostava geoinformacijskog sustava koji će biti osnova za razvoj svih daljnjih aktivnosti u području vojnih prostornih informaci...

  14. Kategorija brojivosti u hrvatskom jeziku

    OpenAIRE

    Znika, Marija

    2005-01-01

    Kategorija brojivosti promatra se u ovome radu kao na leksičkom značenju imenica utemeljena kategorija. Leksičko značenje imenica može biti dvojako strukturirano: kao jedinično ili kao nejedinično. Temelji se na opreci jedno ≠ mnogo. Kategorija brojivosti ima svoj sadržaj i izraz. Sadržaj kategorije brojivosti čini obilježje [± brojivo] i njegove oznake [+ brojivo] i [- brojivo]. Imenica je brojiva ako je njezin sadržaj pojmljiv kao jediničnost kojoj u opreci stoji mnogost (stol, jabuka). Ime...

  15. VAŽNOST EDUKACIJSKE INTERVENCIJE I ZNANJA RODITELJA O ATOPIJSKOM DERMATITISU KOD DJECE

    OpenAIRE

    Kotrulja, Lena; Milavić, Tina; Ožanić Bulić, Suzana; Šitum, Natalija; Bakija Konsuo, Ana; Muršić, Ivanka; Birkić Belanović, Ines; Dilenardo, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Atopijski dermatitis (AD) je kronična, recidivirajuća upalna bolest kože. Neuspjeh u liječenju AD može biti izravno povezan s neprimjerenim pridržavanjem uputa o provođenju terapije kao posljedica nedostatka informacija o bolesti i osnovnim načelima liječenja. Nekoliko studija je utvrdilo da se uspješna strategija u liječenju AD zasniva na aktivnom uključenju bolesnika u provođenje skrbi kroz informiranje i edukaciju o bolesti. Cilj ovoga istraživanja bio je procijeniti poznavanje problematik...

  16. Informacijski sistem za podporo odločanju za mala podjetja z ekološko prehrano

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Magistrsko delo se osredotoča na razvoj informacijskih sistemov za podporo odločanju za mala podjetja, ki se ukvarjajo z ekološko prehrano. Odločanje predstavlja ključno komponento uspešnosti podjetja, ki mora biti ustrezno podprto z informacijsko tehnologijo. Merjenje uspešnosti informacijskih sistemov (IS) postaja vse bolj pomembno. V magistrskem delu smo za merjenje uspešnosti sistema za podporo odločanju prilagodili posodobljen D&M model uspešnosti IS. Model uspešnosti IS za mala podjetja...

  17. Strategija razvoja ravnanja s kovinskimi odpadki

    OpenAIRE

    Leskovar, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Okolje podjetja je vedno bolj nepredvidljivo, kar se je še posebej izkazalo v primerih predelovalcev kovinskih odpadkov (v nadaljevanju PKO). PKO morajo za doseganje finančne uspešnosti dobro poznati zunanje (ožje in širše) in notranje okolje podjetja, kar zahteva nenehno budnost vodilnih, kot tudi vseh ostalih zaposlenih, ki usmerjajo poslovanje in razvoj podjetja. Budnost pomeni biti pozoren na nove strateške priložnosti, ki jih lahko najdejo na prodajnih trgih in možnih dejavnostih podjetj...

  18. Antropontologija kao novi tip ontologije

    OpenAIRE

    Çotuksöken, Betül

    2013-01-01

    Antropontologija kao filozofski diskurs razlikuje se od klasične ontologije, fenomenološke ontologije, ontologije biti i nove ontologije. Poznato je da su različiti ontološki pogledi doveli do različitih prijelomnih točaka u povijesti filozofije. Antropontologija nudi novi tip ontologije koji se ustvari usredotočuje posebice na ljudska bića kao početnu točku. Što obuhvaća filozofski napor koji nastoji analizirati veze između ljudskog bića i znanja svijeta u svjetlu antropontologije? Što antro...

  19. RAT I OKOLIŠ

    OpenAIRE

    Stanić, Sanja; Kutleša, Anja

    2008-01-01

    U radu se razmatraju utjecaji suvremenog rata na okoliš. Prvi dio rada donosi koncept rata u vidu kratkog prikaza društvene misli o ratu, te se obrazlaže pojam okoliša kao cjelokupnost prirodnog i socijalnog okruženja. Odnosi rata na okoliš analiziraju se kroz četiri konkretna rata, od kojih je kod svakoga naglašena specifična manifestacija na okoliš. Na primjeru Vijetnamskog rata ukazuje se kako destrukcija okoliša može biti u okviru ratnih operacija i poslužiti kao ratna strategija. Rat u P...

  20. UTJECAJ DETERMINIRAJUĆIH ČIMBENIKA NA IMIDŽ TURISTIČKE DESTINACIJE

    OpenAIRE

    Kesić, Tanja; Jakeljić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Imidž turističke destinacije koncept je od univerzalne važnosti ukoliko turistička destinacija želi biti konkurentna na lokalnom ili globalnom tržištu. Stoga je svrha ovog rada utvrditi i testirati determinirajuće čimbenike imidža grada Splita kao turističke destinacije na uzorku inozemnih turista. Za postizanje ove svrhe koristilo se postojećim kompleksnim modelom koji je prilagođen specifičnostima istraživane destinacije. Klasična obilježja destinacije poput zanimljivih atrakcija, kvalitetn...

  1. Pridobitev lastninske pravice na nepremičnini s priposestvovanjem v povezavi s sodno prakso

    OpenAIRE

    Boršič, Klara

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo z naslovom »Pridobitev lastninske pravice na nepremičnini s priposestvovanjem v povezavi s sodno prakso« obravnava institut priposestvovanja kot originarnega načina pridobitve lastninske pravice na nepremičninah in vsebuje pregled aktualnih sodnih odločb na tem področju. Priposestvovanje lastninske pravice na nepremičninah omogoča izpolnitev temeljnih predpostavk, in sicer dobre vere, lastniške posesti ter preteka 10 – letne priposestvovalne dobe, ki morajo biti izpolnjene ...

  2. OBLIKOVANJE ETAŽNE LASTNINE

    OpenAIRE

    Štampalija, Nuša

    2014-01-01

    Etažna lastnina je najpomembnejša in najmnožičnejša lastninska oblika. Opredeljena je kot lastninska pravica na posameznem delu zgradbe in solastninska pravica na skupnih delih. Kot lastnina na posameznem delu zgradbe predstavlja izjemo od načela "superficies solo cedit" in načela specialnosti. Da se na zgradbi lahko oblikuje etažna lastnina, mora biti mogoče oblikovati posamezne dele zgradbe kot samostojne funkcionalne celote, primerne za samostojno uporabo. Oblikovanje etažne lastnine k...

  3. 3ds Studio Max –Animacija čestica s pFlow i Krakatoa

    OpenAIRE

    Ludošan, Željka; Bernik, Andrija; Vusić, Damir

    2013-01-01

    Čestice su ključni element kod vizualnih efekata i animacije. Koriste se za simulaciju prirodnih pojava poput vatre, dima, vode, oblaka, lišća koje pada, ali i za apstraktne efekte poput magičnih pojava, traga svjetlećih točkica, neobičnih geometrijskih figura itd. Sustav čestica predstavlja upravljački kontejner koji sadrži funkcije koje obavljaju čestice i koje se obavljaju nad njima. Ti sustavi mogu doći u paketu s kompletnim 3d programom, mogu biti kao zaseban program ili kao plug-in. Nač...

  4. Laparoskopska operacija Spigelijeve hernije kroz jednu inciziju – pristup standardnim instrumentarijem

    OpenAIRE

    Car Peterko, Ana; Kirac, Iva; Filipović Čugura, Jakša; Bekavac-Bešlin, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Spigelijeva hernija je rijedak tip ventralne hernije. Uzrokovana je defektom u Spigelijevoj fasciji, a klinički se prezentira kao bolna i/ili palpabilna tvorba. Dijagnoza indicira kirurški zahvat zbog visokog rizika inkarceracije. Kirurški pristup može biti otvoren ili laparoskopski, a u oba slučaja kao metoda reparacije koristi se primarno zatvaranje defekta ili hernioplastika mrežicom, ovisno o veličini hernijskog otvora. Ovim radom predstavlja se slučaj 62-godišnje bolesnice s palpabilnom ...

  5. FOTOALERGIJSKE REAKCIJE NA LIJEKOVE

    OpenAIRE

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Lipozenčić, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Reakcije na lijekove posredovane svjetlom mogu biti fototoksične i fotoalergijske. U ovom preglednom članku prikazane su fotoalergijske reakcije na lijekove koje nastaju interakcijom lijeka i ultraljubičastog svjetla uz sudjelovanje imunosnih mehanizama. Uz osvrt na fotobiologiju te najčešće lijekove koji sudjeluju u nastanku fotoalergijskih reakcija, prikazana je imunološkapodloga tih dermatoza, klinička slika, te dijagnostički i terapijski postupak. Poznavanje potencijalnih fotoalergena i p...

  6. UPORABA MULTIVARIATNIH STATISTIČNIH METOD ZA RAZISKOVANJE ZADOVOLJSTVA ZAPOSLENIH V VISOKOTEHNOLOŠKEM PODJETJU

    OpenAIRE

    Blatnik, Staša

    2014-01-01

    Vodenje podjetja temelji na uporabi pravih informacij, ki morajo biti vodstvu na voljo ob pravem času. Pridobivanje informacij, ki odražajo dejansko stanje v podjetju, je zahteven postopek. Najprej moramo dobro definirati raziskovalni problem in na podlagi le-tega določiti konceptualne okvire raziskave. Nadalje moramo poznati teoretične osnove izvajanja raziskav, pridobivanja podatkov ter na koncu tudi teoretične in praktične osnove obdelave pridobljenih podatkov. V pričujočem delu smo om...

  7. Meje dopustnosti tajnih spletnih preiskav

    OpenAIRE

    Häußler, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Članek predstavlja nedavno sodbo nemškega Ustavnega sodišča, ki zadeva zakon o tajnih preiskavah računalnikov (t. i. »online« preiskave) s strani državnih oblasti, posebno v povezavi s terorizmom. Sodišče je menilo, da je tajno preiskovanje interneta in osebnih računalnikov v načelu dopustno, a je zakon razglasilo za protiustaven, saj ni prestal testa sorazmernosti. Glede na pomembnost podatkov, ki jih posameznik hrani na osebnem računalniku mora biti dostop do njih omejen na primere, v kater...

  8. KOJA BI SVOJSTVA MORALO ŠUMARSKO OSOBLJE POSJEDOVATI?

    OpenAIRE

    uredništvo

    2015-01-01

    Pod ovim naslovom taksator D. Ilijić u nastavcima u prva tri broja Šumarskoga lista iz 1895. god. daje odgovore na postavljeno pitanje, naglašavajući kako u svakom upravnom organizmu mora biti precizno određena sfera djelovanja pojedinih organa, sukladno njihovoj sposobnosti. Inače organizam prestaje pravilno obavljati svoje funkcije. To je razsulo i propast gospodarstva, kaže on, a posebice je to pogubno za cjelokupno gospodarstvo, jer ono „reprezentira veće glavnice“ i posljedice se tek kas...

  9. Profesionalni skepticizam revizora i rizik prijevarnog financijskog izvještavanja

    OpenAIRE

    Pretnar Abičić, Slivija

    2014-01-01

    Prijevarno financijsko izvještavanje odnosi se na namjerna pogrešna prikazivanja, značajne propuste ili objave u financijskim izvještajima sa ciljem obmane korisnika izvještaja. Učestalost prijevarnog izvještavanja je sve veća, te revizor tijekom revizije mora iskazivati skepticizam, odnosno imati ispitivački um, kritički pogled na revizijski dokaz i biti oprezan, a naročito kad razmatra i procjenjuje rizik prijevare, kako bi mogao pružiti razumno uvjerenje da izvještaji ne sadrže značajne po...

  10. Data migration from MySQL database to Percona Server and MariaDB

    OpenAIRE

    Mihelič, Mitja

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo obravnava tematiko o izvedbi migracije podatkov iz podatkovne zbirke MySQL na podatkovno zbirko MariaDB in Percona Server. Pri tem se osredotoča predvsem na posebnosti na katere je potrebno biti pozoren pri migraciji podatkov, na enakosti in razlike med omenjenimi bazami, kaj je treba popraviti v že narejenih aplikacijah, ki uporabljajo MySQL, s katerimi pastmi se bodo razvijalci srečevali pri migraciji in kakšna naj bi bila nemotena ter pravilno izvedena migracija podatkov. Pr...

  11. SPREMEMBE ZAZNAVANJA KULTURE VARNOSTI PACIENTOV V SPLOŠNI BOLNIŠNICI JESENICE

    OpenAIRE

    Kramar, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Izhodišče: Varnost pacientov mora biti prioriteta vsakega zaposlenega v zdravstvu, ki se srečuje z oskrbo pacientov ne glede na poklicno skupino in nivo delovanja. Namen: Želeli smo primerjati stopnjo zaznavanja kulture varnosti pacientov pri zaposlenih v Splošni bolnišnici Jesenice med letoma 2010 in 2013. Raziskovalna metodologija: Merski instrument je bil anketni vprašalnik Agencije za raziskave in kakovost zdravstvene obravnave. Vključenih je bilo 380 zaposlenih, vrnjenih ...

  12. Organiziranost in vloga varnostne službe v integralnem varnostnem sistemu podjetja : diplomsko delo visokošolskega strokovnega študija Varnost in policijsko delo

    OpenAIRE

    Krenker, Stojan

    2013-01-01

    Podjetje profesionalno organizira varnostno službo v integralnem varnostnem sistemu na podlagi dobro zastavljene varnostne politike. Odločitev vodstva je za katero varnostno službo se bodo odločili, slednja pa mora poskrbeti za fizično in tehnično varovanje. Vsi zaposleni morajo biti strokovno usposobljeni za delo, ki ga opravljajo. Način usposabljanja je na zunanjih institucijah, za določene potrebe pa se izvaja tudi interno strokovno usposabljanje. V svoj delokrog mora zagotoviti neprekinje...

  13. DELO NOVINARJA NA ŠPORTNEM PODROČJU

    OpenAIRE

    Dervarič, Mateja

    2009-01-01

    S pomočjo odgovorov, pridobljenih od izbranih športnih novinarjev, smo podkrepili oziroma ovrgli naša predvidevanja o tem, katere so bistvene značilnosti športnega novinarja ter kakšne so razlike med njim in novinarjem z drugega področja. Novinar se mora v vsakem trenutku zavedati svojih dolžnosti, biti mora pravičen in odkrit do javnosti in do svojih virov informacij. Imeti mora občutek za pripravo kvalitetnega novinarskega proizvoda in hkrati upoštevati tudi pravila novinarskega Kodeksa. Iz...

  14. ZLORABA BOLNIŠKEGA STALEŽA IN IZREDNA ODPOVED POGODBE O ZAPOSLITVI

    OpenAIRE

    Cunder, Ajda

    2012-01-01

    Izkoriščanje bolniškega staleža oz. njegova zloraba je ena najpogostejših kršitev iz delovnopravnega razmerja. Takšno dejanje je kršitev zadnje alineje 111. člena Zakona o delovnih razmerjih, ta pa ima za pravno posledico izredno odpoved pogodbe o zaposlitvi s strani delodajalca. Postopek pred samo odpovedjo pogodbe mora temeljiti na zakonskih podlagah, zato je pomembno, da se postopek pravilno izvede in da se delavcu omogoči zagovor. Izpolnjene morajo biti še marsikatere druge predpostavke, ...

  15. IZUM V DELOVNEM RAZMERJU IN PRAVICA DO NAGRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Slakan, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Nagrada za inovacijo mora biti vzpodbuda za inoviranje. V primerjavi s poslovno skrivnostjo so visoki stroški največja slabost patentiranja izuma, ki jih majhna in srednje velika podjetja težko zmorejo. Zakon o izumih iz delovnega razmerja določa obvezno nagrajevanje za izume ustvarjene v delovnem razmerju ter ureja druge pravice in obveznosti delodajalcev, ki izhajajo iz izumov, ustvarjenih v delovnem razmerju. Podrobnejše kriterije za odmero nagrade določa Pravilnik o nagradah za izume iz d...

  16. ZADOVOLJSTVO ZAPOSLENIH Z IZOBRAŽEVANJEM V PODJETJU X

    OpenAIRE

    Todić, Čedomir

    2014-01-01

    POVZETEK V diplomski nalogi smo se posvetili zadovoljstvu zaposlenih z izobraževanjem v Podjetju X. V današnjem času krize morajo podjetja še bolj upravičevati ceno svojih izdelkov, zato mora biti kakovost izdelkov boljša od konkurence, za dosego tega pa je treba zagotoviti nenehno izpopolnjevanje in izobraževanje zaposlenih. Namen diplomske naloge je ugotoviti, ali podjetje zagotavlja zadostno mero izobraževanja zaposlenim za njihovo delovno mesto, ter njihovo zadovoljstvo z izobraže...

  17. Ugotavljanje lažnega pričanja z opazovanjem besedne in nebesedne komunikacije : diplomsko delo univerzitetnega študija

    OpenAIRE

    Barle, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Laž je zavestno neresnična izjava, katere namen je nekoga spraviti v zmoto, pri čemer pa niti ni bistveno, ali je ta poskus uspešen ali ne. Laganje lahko ugotavljamo na več načinov, od katerih je metoda z opazovanjem najbolj praktična zato, ker jo lahko izvajamo na mestu samem, takoj, brez uporabe dodatnih analiz in naprav, pa tudi časovno in ekonomsko je najbolj ugodna. Pri opazovanju moramo biti pozorni tako na besedne kot na nebesedne znake oz. predvsem na njihovo medsebojno ujemanje. Med ...

  18. SODNO REŠEVANJE INDIVIDUALNIH DELOVNIH SPOROV

    OpenAIRE

    Kotnik, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Za delovno razmerje je značilno, da gre praviloma za trajno razmerje med delavcem in delodajalcem, za odvisno razmerje, ki se kaže v podreditvi delavca delovnemu procesu in navodilom s strani delodajalca. Hkrati gre za prostovoljno razmerje, v katerem je delavec posebej varovan, zaradi podrejenega položaja. Prav tako pa je delavčev socialni položaj in položaj njegove družine odvisen od praviloma najpomembnejšega vira dohodka iz naslova plačila za delo. V primeru delovnega spora mora biti dela...

  19. ORALNI LIHEN PLANUS I ORALNA LIHENOIDNA REAKCIJA – NOVOSTI

    OpenAIRE

    Rotim, Željko; Bolanča, Željana; Andabak Rogulj, Ana; Andabak, Matej; VUČIĆEVIĆ BORAS, Vanja; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-01-01

    Oralni lihen planus (OLP) i oralna lihenoidna reakcija (OLR) su dvije klinički i patohistološki slične bolesti. OLP je posljedica autoimunog procesa koji je posredovan T limfocitima na još uvijek nepoznati antigen, a OLR može biti uzrokovana lijekovima, dentalnim materijalima i dentalnim plakom. Cilj je ovoga preglednog rada bio istražiti Pubmed te su uključena 24 rada koja su publicirana u posljednje tri godine, a s obzirom na etiologiju, dijagnostiku i malignu alteraciju ovih bolesti. Obolj...

  20. Alati za poboljšavanje kvalitete

    OpenAIRE

    Čelar, Dražen; Valečić, Vladimir; Željezić, Dubravko; Kondić, Živko

    2014-01-01

    Kvaliteta je postala svjetski pokret i način življenja. Uspjeh organizacije najviše zavisi o kvaliteti proizvoda ili usluga. Za to najveću odgovornost snosi uprava, ali pri tome svi zaposleni moraju participirati u ostvarivanju kvalitete. Kvaliteta jest i biti će ključ za poboljšanje konkurentnosti na tržištu. Kvaliteta je značajan faktor opstanka, poslovnog uspjeha i prosperiteta poduzeća. Ključni princip sistema kvaliteta je donošenje odluka na osnovu činjenica, do kojih se dolazi prikuplja...

  1. VLOGA MANAGEMENTA PRI UVELJAVLJANJU PRAVIC OSEB Z MOTNJAMI V TELESNEM IN DUŠEVNEM RAZVOJU

    OpenAIRE

    Lešnik, Anja

    2014-01-01

    POVZETEK Zakon o pacientovih pravicah in Zakon o duševnem zdravju sta zelo pomembni listini, ki bi ju morali poznati vsi zaposleni v socialnovarstvenih ustanovah oziroma vsi, ki se ukvarjajo z osebami z motnjo v telesnem in duševnem razvoju. Vsi skupaj bi si morali prizadevati za stalno boljši standard pacientov in s tem tudi njihovih pravic. Vemo, da se bomo morali za to truditi zelo dolgo časa, vendar bi moral biti del managementa v vsaki neprofitni organizaciji usmerjen v vpeljevanje no...

  2. TRŽNO KOMUNICIRANJE IZOBRAŽEVALNIH STORITEV

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetko, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Obravnavano področje se nanaša na tržno komuniciranje izobraževalnih storitev, kjer se v praktičnem delu analizira poslovanje jezikovne šole Hiša jezikov na tem področju. Tržno komuniciranje ni le oglaševanje in prodaja storitev. Vsaka organizacija mora razumeti potrebe svojih ciljnih skupin in poiskati rešitve, katere bodo te potrebe predvsem kakovostno zadovoljile. Zaposleni v organizaciji morajo biti usposobljeni za izvedbo celotnega postopka izvajanja tržnega komuniciranja, od raziskovanj...

  3. Usporedna analiza interaktivnih mrežnih servisa

    OpenAIRE

    Stančić, Hrvoje; Crnec, Dina; Mateljan, Stjepan; Salopek, Anita; Sanković, Dijana

    2007-01-01

    Činjenica da interaktivni mrežni servisi prožimaju sva područja današnjeg života potaknula je autore da analiziraju kolaborativne medije i njihov utjecaj na moderno informacijsko društvo. U radu su prikazani rezultati dobiveni metodom usporedne analize kolaborativnih medija. Interaktivnost je pritom smatrana jednim od najvažnijih kriterija za odabir mrežnih servisa koji će biti uključeni u istraživanje. Autori su analizirali glavne karakteristike odabranih servisa, klasificiral...

  4. Novost u kontaktologiji – silikonske mekane leće. Koliko su sigurnije za pacijenta?

    OpenAIRE

    Ćuruvija Opačić, Ksenija; Šarić, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Razvoj silikonskih mekanih leća ujedinio je dobre osobine silikona: visoku propusnost za kisik i udobnost hidrogela iz mekanih kontaktnih leća. Optimizam da će time svi problemi biti riješeni nije se u cijelosti ostvario. Najveći napredak postignut je u smanjenju znakova hipoksije koja je bila relativno čest problem u nositelja standardnih mekanih leća, posebno kod produženog nošenja. No komplikacije su moguće i opisane su u literaturi. Od mehaničkih, to je pojava mucinskih loptica, lučnog ep...

  5. Mediji kao izvor ideja za oponašanje

    OpenAIRE

    Ružić, Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Svakodnevica nosi obilje stresnih situacija, što je još više karakteristika zemalja u tranziciji, od čak životno ugrožavajućih u proteklom desetljeću do egzistencijskih problema u sadašnjem trenutku. To može prouzročiti socijalno udaljavanje, krizu obiteljskih i prijateljskih odnosa, emocionalnu otuđenost i nemogućnost da se čovjek samostalno nosi s vlastitim problemima“. Prema nekim predviđanjima, depresija će, poslije koronarnih bolesti, biti po učestalosti druga bolest u svi...

  6. MANAGER IN VODENJE PODJETJA

    OpenAIRE

    Pušnik, Amadeja

    2010-01-01

    V delu diplomskega seminarja sem si zastavila, da dokažem kako pomembno je vodenje v današnjem času. V vsakem podjetju se nahajajo vodje, ki se vsak dan soočajo z reševanjem različnih problemov. Ker je vsak problem bistvenega pomena za organizacijo, je pomembno, da je le- ta čim bolje razrešen. Za to skrbijo vodje, ki usmerjajo svoje sodelavce k doseganju želenih ciljev in nalog. Vsaka naloga oziroma aktivnost pa ne more biti izvedena, če v podjetju ni ustrezne komunikacije in motivacije. Kom...

  7. Epiduralni spinalni apsces nakon vađenja zuba- rijetka, ali moguće fatalna komplikacija

    OpenAIRE

    Škrobot, Renato; Macan, Darko

    2004-01-01

    Poznate su komplikacije odontogenog apscesa, a otežano gutanje kod submandibularnog ili pterigomandibularnog apscesa ozbiljan je i pažnje vrijedan znak. Ali većini liječnika nije poznato da ukočen i bolan vrat može biti pokazatelj komplikacije odontogene infekcije. Upravo je to jedan od prvih, a ujedno i glavni simptom kod epiduralnoga spinalnog apscesa. U literaturi se navodi samo nekoliko slučajeva obrađenih pacijenata s takvim apscesom. Specifičnost epiduralnog spinalnog apscesa jest št...

  8. Nevronski sistem za avtomatsko odstranjevanje ozadja pri Augerjevih spektrih:

    OpenAIRE

    Belič, Igor; Jenko, Monika; Poniku, Besnik

    2012-01-01

    Spektralno ozadje in šum sta neločljiva sestavna dela Augerjevih spektrov, ki zaradi svoje spremenljivosti onemogočata avtomatsko analizo in obdelavo spektrov. Ključni element zanesljive avtomatske analize spektrov je odstranjevanje spektralnega ozadja in šuma. To je postopek, ki mora pri svojem delovanju ohraniti večino informacij spektra, pri tem pa ne sme popačiti in spremeniti vsebine spektra, biti mora predmet temeljite študije, saj je izhodišče nadaljnje analize spektrov. Tudi samo spek...

  9. ANALIZA WELLNESS PONUDBE V IZBRANEM HOTELU NA PTUJU

    OpenAIRE

    Poljanec, Suzana

    2009-01-01

    Wellness je svetovno turistično gibanje sodobnega časa. Pomeni kakovost življenja in vključuje sestavine zdravega načina življenja. V celovito ponudbo wellnessa morajo biti vključene vse štiri temeljne sestavine - zdrava prehrana, osebna sprostitev, telesne aktivnosti in duševne aktivnosti. V diplomski nalogi sem raziskovala sedanje stanje wellness ponudbe v hotelu Mitra na Ptuju. Glavne ugotovitve raziskave so: • wellness postaja iz dneva v dan vse bolj pomemben segment turizma, sa...

  10. Pravi self - preduvjet stvaralaštva

    OpenAIRE

    Gruden, Zdenka

    2003-01-01

    Prema M. Klein, self je cjelokupno ljudsko biće, pod čime se podrazumijeva tjelesni i duševni ustroj. Duševni je ustroj sastavljen od svjesnog, predsvjesnog i nesvjesnog. Self se sastoji od ida, ega i super ega. Self reprezentacija je projekcija selfa. Self se projicira u egu, dakle u jednom svom dijelu. Ta reprezentacija selfa može biti lažna ili prava. Kada self reprezentacija odražava objektivna svojstva selfa, njega se, prema Winnicottu, može zvati pravim selfom. Težnja za istinom urođena...

  11. RADNA TERAPIJA KOD DJECE S OŠTEĆENJEM VIDA I DODATNIM POTEŠKOĆAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Jurišić, Dubravko

    2008-01-01

    Ovim se posterom želi prikazati nekoliko aspekata rada radnog terapeuta. Sam proces počinje procjenom (GOTA, GMFM 66/88), pripremom za provođenje intervencije ( određivanje ciljeva, načina provođenja radne terapije, vrste pomagala i sredstava koja će biti potrebni u radu), intervencije ( senzorička integracija, trening svakodnevnih i instrumentalnih aktivnosti, rane intervencije, vibro akustička terapija i kreativne aktivnosti) i evaluacija ( daje nam informacije o uspješnosti intervencije i ...

  12. RADNA TERAPIJA U JEDINICI NEONATALNE INTENZIVNE SKRBI

    OpenAIRE

    Jurišić, Dubravko; Popović Miočinović, Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Tridesetak posljednjih godina postoje brojna istraživanja o problemu radne terapije u jedinicima intenzivnog liječenja (JIL) djece. Radna terapija u JIL-u novorođenčadi jedan je od prvih koraka u njihovoj habilitaciji. U radu se raspravlja o brojnim aspektima radne terapije u procesu intenzivne skrbi djece najranije dobi. Radni terapeut u JIL-u mora biti educiran i imati znanja o svim područjima vezanim za JIL, tehnička znanja o opremi, procedurama, utjecaju okoline na malog bolesnika i sl. O...

  13. Komuniciranje s finančnimi javnostmi

    OpenAIRE

    Vesel, Marjeta T.

    2014-01-01

    Članek obravnava področje komuniciranja s finančnimi javnostmi kot posebno področje odnosov z javnostmi, ki po privatizaciji in uvedbi tržnega gospodarstva postaja aktualno tudi za slovenske managerje in komunikatorje. Finančne javnosti zajemajo: lastnike podjetij (delničarje) ter vse, ki vplivajo na njihova stališča in investicijske odločitve, t.j. borzne posrednike, analitike, medije in regulatorje. Namen komuniciranja s finančnimijavnostmi mora biti usklajen z osrednjim ciljem managementa ...

  14. Mollusca contagiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Husar, Karmela; Skerlev, Mihael; Husar, Darko

    2009-01-01

    Mollusca contagiosa (MC) definiramo kao čestu virusnu infekciju kože uzrokovanu Molluscipox virusom (MCV) koja se viđa u djece i odraslih. Klinički se manifestira u obliku malih, umbiliciranih papula voštana sjaja. Dok su MC relativno česta u djece od 1. do 5. godine i mogu biti smještene bilo gdje na tijelu, njihova pojavnost u odraslih uglavnom se smatra spolno prenosivom infekcijom (engl. sexually transmitted infection, STI). MCV se može prenositi direktno s osobe na osobu ili autoinokulac...

  15. Prednosti i nedostaci primjene ultrazvuka visoke snage u mljekarskoj industriji

    OpenAIRE

    Režek Jambrak, Anet; Lelas, Vesna; Herceg, Zoran; Badanjak, Marija; Batur, Verica; Muža, Mislav

    2009-01-01

    Konzerviranje hrane termičkom sterilizacijom još uvijek je najčešći oblik konzerviranja. Međutim, osim poželjnog učinka na mikroorganizme, povišena temperatura istovremeno izaziva značajne promjene na nutritivnim i organoleptičkim značajkama hrane. Gubitak kvalitete proizvoda može biti povezan s deformacijom strukture i teksture, modifikacijom makromolekula i stvaranjem novih tvari iz reakcija kataliziranih toplinom. Ultrazvuk je pritom jedna od novih metoda koja može uvelike pomoći različiti...

  16. ZAŠČITA SONČNIH ELEKTRARN PRED POSLEDICAMI UDARA STRELE

    OpenAIRE

    Mešiček, Aljaž

    2011-01-01

    Sončni generator predstavlja glavni del investicije v sončno elektrarno. Zaradi velike cene in tudi izpostavljenosti sončnega generatorja (strehe …) ga moramo dobro zaščititi pred neposrednimi udari strele. Pri dimenzioniranju strelovodnega sistema moramo biti pozorni tudi na vpliv zaščitnega sistema na sončni generator (senčenje …). Diplomsko delo opisuje zaščito sončnega generatorja pred udarom strele, probleme pri določanju in dimenzioniranju strelovodnega sistema. Opira se na veljavne ...

  17. DIFERENCIJALNA DIJAGNOZA KRONIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    Šitum, Mirna; KOLIĆ, MAJA

    2014-01-01

    Rana je prekid anatomskog i funkcionalnog kontinuiteta tkiva, a s obzirom na tijek cijeljenja rane dijelimo na akutne i kronične. kronična rana je rana koja unatoč standardnom medicinskom postupku ne cijeli očekivanom dinamikom, odnosno u užem smislu rana koja ne cijeli unutar 6 tjedana. kronične rane mogu biti tipične i atipične. u tipične rane ubrajaju se ishemijske, neurotrofičke i hipostatske rane te dva posebna entiteta: dekubitus i dijabetičko stopalo. kronične rane na potkoljenicama su...

  18. Distribucijske greške u procesu procjene performansi zaposlenih/Distribution errors in the employee performance evaluation process

    OpenAIRE

    Vesko M. Lukovac; Snežana A. Pejčić-Tarle; Milena J. Popović; Dragan S. Pamučar

    2014-01-01

    Racionalno angažovanje, usmjeravanje i razvoj, motivisanje i nagrađivanje, unapređenje organizacijske efikasnosti i poslovanja teško se može ostvariti ukoliko se ne vrši ocjenjivanje kvaliteta rada zaposlenih. U literaturi o manadžmentu ova tehnika je poznata pod nazivom 'procjena performansi zaposlenih'. Performansa ili učinak može biti bilo neki mjerljiv rezultat koji je ostvaren, bilo ponašanje ili lične karakteristike neophodne za obavljanje određene aktivnosti u definisanom periodu. U po...

  19. INŽENJERSKOGEOLOŠKE ZNAČAJKE KLIZIŠTA MLIJA I NJIHOV UTJECAJ NA INŽENJERSKE OBJEKTE (OMIŠ, JUŽNA HRVATSKA)

    OpenAIRE

    Šestanović, Slobodan; Barčot, Duško

    1998-01-01

    Za potrebe projektiranja obilaznice Omiša koja će dijelom biti temeljena na klizištu Mlija te za sigurna temeljenja obiteljskih kuća na toj padini, provedena su detaljna istraživanja, posebice inženjersko-geološko kartiranje, geofizička istraživanja, istraživačko bušenje i laboratorijska ispitivanja materijala koji klizi, U ovom radu prikazani su postignuti rezultati, a zbog brojnih oštećenja na prometnicama, zidovima i stambenim zgradama izvedenim na području Mlija i Borak, raspravljena je m...

  20. VLOGA VODITELJSTVA PRI OBVLADOVANJU INOVACIJSKEGA PROCESA

    OpenAIRE

    Trtnik, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Uspeh podjetja je v veliki meri odvisen od njegove inovativnosti in sposobnosti vpeljave novih inovacij na trg. Inovacije so ponavljajoč se proces, ki nastanejo z vztrajnim razmišljanjem in trdim delom vseh, ki so vključeni v proces. Podjetja, ki želijo biti inovativna potrebujejo inovativnega managerja, čigar vloga je, da s svojimi sposobnostmi ustvarja nove ideje, da je komunikativen in, da posledično spodbuja ustvarjalnost in inovacije. Namen diplomskega dela je opredeliti delovanje ino...

  1. SODOBNI STILI VODENJA

    OpenAIRE

    Nerat, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Način vodenja zaposlenih v podjetju je izjemnega pomena, saj bo le z dobro motiviranimi, zadovoljnimi zaposlenimi podjetje uspešno delovalo in bo hkrati inovativno ter dobro stoječe. Torej je najbolj pomemben pristop vodilnih, ki vpliva na to, da se izpolnijo zastavljeni cilji. V samem procesu vodenja je pomembna v prvi vrsti komunikacija, kjer se razvijajo ustvarjalne debate in odločitve, takoj za tem pa je pomembno tudi učenje oziroma posledično znanje. Vodje morajo biti zelo ustvarjalni, d...

  2. TRGOVINA POD KRINKOM SEKS TURIZMA U JUGOISTOČNOJ AZIJI – REAKCIJE EUROPSKE UNIJE

    OpenAIRE

    Gugić, Zrinka

    2014-01-01

    Statistika pokazuje da od ukupnog broja trgovine ljudima u svijetu, otprilike 79% otpada na žene i djecu. Ta činjenica je potaknula Europsku Uniju da se uključi u rješavanje tog problema posebno u zemljama jugoistočne Azije. Seksualno iskorištavanje žena i djece u jugoistočnoj Aziji koje je također usko povezano sa seks turizmom, predstavlja veliki problem u današnjem svijetu. Povezujući definiciju seks turizma i trgovinu ljudima, ovaj rad želi pokazati vezu između seks turizma koji može biti...

  3. VPLIV OSEBNOSTNIH LASTNOSTI NA VODENJE MSP S POUDARKOM NA KOMUNICIRANJU KOT POGOJU ZA IZOGIBANJE KONFLIKTOV V PODJETJU STONEX D.O.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Urleb, Špela

    2011-01-01

    Nikogar ni mogoče prisiliti, da prevzame položaj vodje pa čeprav je morda za takšno delovno mesto izredno sposoben. Da oseba postane uspešen vodja, mora imeti izredno močno voljo, saj se je potrebno odreči veliko stvarem, za kar mora biti osebno in moralno močna oseba, prav tako pa mora v svoje podjetje verjeti. Da podjetje deluje uspešno je izjemno pomembno, da je komunikacija med zaposlenimi in vodjo podjetja iskrena, korektna, da temelji na resničnih trditvah. Če v podjetju nastanejo konfl...

  4. UKREPI ZA ZMANJŠANJE HRUPA ZARADI CESTNEGA PROMETA

    OpenAIRE

    Šolar, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Hrup je dandanes eden najpogostejših motenj ljudi in okolice, ki negativno vpliva na človeka fizično, psihološko in sociološko. V stanovanjskih stavbah ob prometnih cestah se je hrupu cestnega prometa mogoče izogniti tako, da so bivalni prostori obrnjeni stran od zunanjih virov hrupa, okna in vrata morajo biti primerno zvočno izolirana, zemljišča v okolici oblikovana z brežinami, zidovi itd. Da se stanje hrupne obremenjenosti izboljša, se posega za raznimi gradbenimi ukrepi na in ob ce...

  5. Zadržavanje duševno bolesnih osoba u zdravstvenoj ustanovi prema pravnom uređenju u Federaciji Bosne i Hercegovine

    OpenAIRE

    Čizmić, Jozo

    2013-01-01

    Prisilna (civilna) hospitalizacija složen je društveni fenomen koji otvara brojne medicinske, etičke, pravne, ekonomske, čak i političke probleme. Služi da bi se zdravstveno stanje osobe s trajnim ili privremenim duševnim smetnjama poboljšalo ili da bi se društvo zaštitilo od osoba s duševnim smetnjama, odnosno da bi se one same zaštitile od vlastitoga ponašanja. Zbog toga je prisilna hospitalizacija neodvojiva od problema temeljnih ljudskih prava i mora biti razmatrana i u tom kontekstu. U r...

  6. PRODAJA V KLICNEM CENTRU

    OpenAIRE

    Prcić, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Moje diplomsko delo obravnava temo prodaje v klicnem centru. S tem je povezana tudi obdelava tematike komunikacije – kaj je komunikacija, kako komuniciramo ter kaj pomeni v poslovnem svetu. Opredelil bom tudi, kaj klicni center je, in njegove prednosti ter slabosti. Izvedel bom tudi praktično raziskavo, v kateri bom potrdil oziroma ovrgel hipotezi, in sicer da mora biti prodaja prek klicnega centra skrbno načrtovana s pomočjo primerne komunikacije in da so stranke že navajene na pomoč klicneg...

  7. LOGISTIČNI PROCESI V SKLADIŠČNO-DISTRIBUCIJSKEM CENTRU PETROL SKLADIŠČENJE D.O.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Voda, David

    2010-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je na kratko predstavljena »logistična podpora« delovanju skladiščno distribucijskega centra. To pomeni, da mora biti usklajen pretok informacij in blaga — od nabave blaga pri dobavitelju, preko prevzema, skladiščenja ter izdaje blaga, pa do oskrbe kupcev. V diplomski nalogi se bolj podrobno ukvarjam s »srednjim« delom te logistične poti — prevzem, skladiščenje in izdaja blaga. To so vse funkcije, ki se neposredno odvijajo v samem območju SDC-ja. Ves ta sistem ne s...

  8. Avtomatizirano objavljanje vsebin v spletnih medijih

    OpenAIRE

    VOLEK, AMBROŽ

    2016-01-01

    Spletni mediji in objavljanje vsebin v njih so ključni faktor današnje informacijske dobe. Pri ustvarjanju, objavljanju in urejanju vsebin želimo biti kar se da učinkoviti. Pri tem nam služijo razni sistemi za upravljanje vsebin, ki pa so navadno med sabo neenotni in nepovezljivi, kar zmanjšuje učinkovitost pri hkratnem delu z več različnimi sistemi. Objavljanje iste vsebine v več medijih je zamudno in nepregledno, saj mora avtor vsebino vnesti v različne sisteme in jo v primeru dopolnitev tu...

  9. PRIMERJAVA DVEH METOD ZA MERJENJE ZADOVOLJSTVA GOSTOV V HOTELIH

    OpenAIRE

    Osterc, Miša

    2016-01-01

    Zadovoljstvo gostov je ključni element za uspešen razvoj in dolgoročen obstoj kateregakoli hotelskega podjetja, zato mora biti njihovo doseganje tudi glavni cilj vsakega hotela. Pri tem je potrebno upoštevati, da zagotavljanje zadovoljstva gostov zahteva dobro poznavanje želja in pričakovanj vsakega gosta, zato je merjenje, analiziranje in spremljanje zadovoljstva eden najpomembnejših izzivov pri pripravi strategije poslovanja vsakega hotela. To velja tudi za Hotel Bioterme Mala Nedelja,...

  10. Prednosti in slabosti preoblikovanja s.p. v d.o.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Tišma, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Naloga lastnikov in vodilnih v podjetju je, da oblikuje bodočo predstavo o podjetju. Obstajati mora trajna želja po njegovi učinkovitosti, uspešnosti, poštenosti ter notranji in zunanji interes po trajnem obstoju in razvoju. Poslovanje je treba usmerjati, uravnavati in nadzirati, da lahko dosežemo zastavljene cilje, ki morajo biti skladni z vizijo in poslanstvom podjetja. Za uresničitev vizije, poslanstva in ciljev je treba sprejeti strateške odločitve, ki lahko pomembno vplivajo na poslo...

  11. MIKRORAZMNOŽAVANJE DIVLJE TREŠNJE (Prunus avium L.) IZ KLONSKE SJEMENSKE PLANTAŽE

    OpenAIRE

    TANČEVA CRMARIĆ, Olivera; Kajba, Davorin

    2016-01-01

    Velika pozornost pridaje se divljoj trešnji (Prunus avium L.) zbog plemenitog i visokovrijednog drva, ali i zbog važnosti očuvanja njezine genetičke raznolikosti. Oplemenjivanje divlje trešnje uobičajenim metodama uzgoja mogao bi biti vrlo spor proces, otežan time da je u prirodi teško dobiti redovne i dovoljne količine sjemena. Iako osnivanje klonskih sjemenskih plantaža osigurava redovitiji prinos kvalitetnog sjemena, ipak ostaje ovisnost od vremenskih prilika koje utječu na cvjetanje tj. p...

  12. O problemu čuvanja, obnove i prezentacije povijesnog tekstila velikog formata (na primjeru cehovske zastave iz Muzeja grada Koprivnice)

    OpenAIRE

    Bobnjarić – Vučković, Venija

    2012-01-01

    Muzej grada Koprivnice posjeduje zbirku zastava koprivničkih cehovskih i obrtnih udruženja. Zastave su do pohrane u Muzeju 1946. godine bile izložene u župnoj crkvi ovješene pokraj oltara. Zbog toga su bile izložene raznim nepovoljnim mikroklimatskim uvjetima (svjetlu, vlazi, mikročesticama prašine, insektima), a budući da je tekstil vrlo osjetljiva materija, na njima su nastala mnogobrojna oštećenja (mehanička, fotokemijska, kemijska, fizikalna). Pohranom u Muzeju zastave će biti očuvane od ...

  13. IMPLEMENTACIJA PORTEROVIH GENERIČKIH STRATEGIJA I POSTIZANJE KONKURENTSKIH PREDNOSTI NA PRIMJERU AUTOMOBILSKE INDUSTRIJE

    OpenAIRE

    Vrdoljak Raguž, Ivona; Tolušić, Marijan

    2012-01-01

    Predmet istraživanja ovog rada postizanje je konkuretske prednosti u automobilskoj industriji implementacijom Porterovih generičkih poslovnih strategija. Postizanje konkurentske prednosti nužno je ukoliko poduzeće želi dugoročno opstati na tržištu. Za odabir konkurentske strategije važan je relativni položaj poduzeća u industriji jer takvo pozicioniranje određuje hoće li profitabilnost poduzeća biti iznad ili ispod prosjeka industrije. Poduzeće u odnosu na konkurente primjenom Porterovih gene...

  14. Dendrološka i hortikulturna vrijednost Arboretuma Lisičine

    OpenAIRE

    Idžojtić, Marilena; Zebec, Marko; Poljak, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Prilikom podizanja arboretuma kriteriji su za izbor biljaka drugačiji nego prilikom hortikulturnoga oblikovanja nekoga prostora. Ipak, ako se osim znanstvene i edukativne funkcije vodi računa i o estetskom izgledu, arboretum će u svako doba godine biti prostor ugodan za boravak, a ne samo skupina eksperimentalnih biljaka. U radu je analizirana dendrološka i hortikulturna vrijednost Arboretuma Lisičine. Analiza je prikazana za svako od dvanaest polja u hortikulturnom dijelu, površine oko 9 ha,...

  15. Identifikacija krivotvorenih lijekova za erektilnu disfunkciju iz ilegalnog lanca opskrbe

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Siniša; MILČIĆ, NEVEN; Sokolić, Milenko; Ilić Martinac, Adrijana

    2010-01-01

    Pojava krivotvorenih lijekova u lancima opskrbe globalni je javnozdravstveni problem koji može imati ozbiljnih posljedica za pacijenta. Krivotvoreni lijekovi ne zadovoljavaju propisane standarde kakvoće te su u svrhu prijevare drugačije deklarirani u odnosu na njihov stvarni sastav i/ili podrijetlo. Mogu biti generički, ili inovativni, mogu sadržavati ispravne sastojke, ali pogrešno pakiranje, pogrešne sastojke, ne sadržavati djelatnu tvar ili ne sadržavati dovoljnu količinu djelatne tvari. U...

  16. Poljoprivreda – dionik kauzalnosti klimatskih promjena

    OpenAIRE

    JUG, Danijel

    2016-01-01

    Uz uvažavanje posebnosti pojedinih znanstvenih disciplina, pristup problematici klimatskih promjena mora biti promotren na interdisciplinarnoj razini i postavljen kao imperativ svih budućih djelovanja. Tek svekolikost ljudske misli i djela, s namjerom točnoga definiranja oblika i razine okolišnoga utjecaja pojedinih gospodarskih djelatnosti, kao i ukazivanje na njih, može rezultirati postavljanjem preciznih ishodišnih točaka s jasno vidljivim ciljem – ublaženje i prilagodba klimatskim promjen...

  17. Družbena odgovornost in varnost : diplomsko delo univerzitetnega študija

    OpenAIRE

    Gostinčar, Lucija

    2013-01-01

    Družbena odgovornost pomeni, biti odgovoren za posledice dejanj, ki jih posameznik, organizacija ali katera druga institucija pusti na družbi ali okolju. Neodgovornost, želja po dobičku vodilnih ter kriza vrednot in izobilja so pripeljali do družbeno ekonomskih problemov s katerimi se soočamo danes. Po vsem svetu se pojavljajo protesti zoper nastali položaj, tudi v Sloveniji, razlike med revnimi in bogatimi so vse večje in naravni viri so izčrpani. Vsi ti problemi pa pomembno vplivajo na krim...

  18. Jednostavna metoda procjene maksimalnog kapaciteta proizvodnje kapljevine korištenjem sustavaklipnog (plunžernog) plinskog lifta u bušotinama

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadori, Alireza; Zahedi, Gholamreza; Zendehboudi, Sohrab; Jamili, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Klipni (plunžerni) plinski lift je ciklička metoda umjetnog podizanja nafte koja koristi plunžer (klip) za uspostavljanje razdjelne površine između kapljevine akumulirane u koloni uzlaznih cijevi i ležišta ili tlaka plina u prstenastom prostoru koji će biti upotrijebljen za podizanje kapljevine u bušotinama. U ovom je radu, maksimalni mogući kapacitet proizvodnje koji će podnijeti plunžerni plinski lift za danu dubinu i dimenzije uzlazne cijevi, postavljen na kvantitativnoj osnovi pomoću j...

  19. ODREĐIVANJE LOKACIJE SMJEŠTAJA LOGISTIČKO-DISTRIBUCIJSKOG CENTRA ŠIBENIK

    OpenAIRE

    Šego, Darijo; Poljičak, Ana-Mari; Martina LJUBIĆ HINIĆ

    2016-01-01

    Logističko-distribucijski centri predstavljaju suvremeni objekt u kojem se prihvaća, čuva, dorađuje i priprema roba za daljnju distribuciju do kupca. U ovom radu biti će prikazano određivanje lokacije smještaja Logističko-distribucijskog centra Šibenik. Izgradnjom, opremanjem i puštanjem u rad Logističko-distribucijskog centra Šibenik za neprehrambene proizvode, grad Šibenik dobio bi novu vrijednost u svom gospodarskom i prometnom razvoju. Lokacija smještaja je određena na temelju vrednovanja...

  20. Analiza razvoja i okluzalne karakteristike u primarnoj denticiji kod ispitanika sa i bez zbijenosti trajnih zubi

    OpenAIRE

    Miličić, Asja; Gaži-Čoklica, Vesna; Šlaj, Mladen; Rajić, Senka

    1993-01-01

    Činjenica da se kompresija u većem broju slučajeva prvi put pojavljuje za vrijeme mjene zubi, ne isključuje mogućnost ranije pojave određenih indikatora, na temelju kojih bi se mogla predvidjeti buduća anomalija. S ciljem provjere navedene hipoteze odlučili smo odrediti faktore koji bi mogli biti relevantni za razvoj kompresije i to analizom kvalitativnih i kvantitativnih karakteristika mliječne denticije i evaluacijom utjecaja svakog pojedinog obilježja na prostorne uvjete u trajnoj dent...

  1. Primjena lasera u dezinfekciji i čišćenju korijenskih kanala zuba: pregledni rad

    OpenAIRE

    BAGO JURIČ, Ivona; Anić, Ivica

    2014-01-01

    Uspjeh endodontskog liječenja zuba ovisi o učinkovitoj dezinfekciji endodontskog prostora i prevenciji reinfekcije. Današnjim postupcima kemijsko-mehaničke obrade korijenskog kanala ne može se uvijek postići zadovoljavajuća dezinfekcija i zato cijeljenje periapikalnog procesa može biti otežano. Zbog velike energije lasera i specifične interakcije s biološkim tkivima posljednja se dva desetljeća istražuje njihova primjena u dezinfekciji i čišćenju korijenskog kanala zuba. Predstavljeni su ...

  2. Povezanost upravljanja odnosima s klijentima i tržišne vrijednosti marke

    OpenAIRE

    Mandić, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Upravljanje odnosima s klijentima predstavlja jednu od temeljnih odrednica marketinške filozofije poslovanja. Ono na prvo mjesto stavlja klijenta (kupca) i njegovo zadovoljstvo tako da sve procese unutar poduzeća usmjerava prema klijentu. Temelj upravljanja odnosima s klijentima predstavlja poznavanje klijenata kako bi im poduzeće "isporučivalo" veću vrijednost. Povezanost s klijentima pretpostavlja ispunjavanje potreba klijenata onako kako klijenti to žele, što može biti ključni izvor konkur...

  3. GENETSKI INŽENJERING I KLONIRANJE U POLJOPRIVREDI ŽIVOTINJA: BIOETIČKA BRIGA I SIGURNOST HRANE

    OpenAIRE

    W. Fox, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Uzgajanje životinja za humane medicinske i ostale komercijalne/industrijske svrhe povećava se putem dvije nove biotehnologije. Jedna je genetski inženjering, što obuhvaća razdvajanje tuđih gena u embrije ciljane životinje radi stvaranja "transgenih" životinja ili brisanje određenih gena radi stvaranja "izuzetnih" genetski modificiranih životinja. Druga je kloniranje, što uključuje uzimanje stanica iz željenog tipa životinje, koje mogu biti transgenske ili "izuzetne", ili iz konvencionalno uzg...

  4. Pomen elektronskih prevajalskih orodij na primeru slovensko-nemškega glosarja s področja računalništva

    OpenAIRE

    Nemec, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    Prevajanje je zelo kompleksen proces, v katerem mora prevajalec poznati številna področja in biti pripravljen se vedno na novo učiti. Pri svojem delu skorajda ne more več brez uporabe informacijsko-komunikacijske tehnologije, ki je v njegovo stroko vnesla številne možnosti za hitrejše in učinkovitejše, a obenem nič manj kakovostno delo. Obenem ga je naglica razvoja postavila pred nova dejstva in izzive, da med vsemi možnostmi, ki jih ima na voljo, izbere tiste najbolj primerne. Za prevajalca ...

  5. PREHRANA I DODACI PREHRANI KOD BOLESTI BUBREGA

    OpenAIRE

    Šabanović, Marizela; Cikotić, Jasmin; Jašić, Midhat; Azabagić, Almir; Miličević, Radoslav; Spaseska Aleksovska, Emilija

    2015-01-01

    Uvod: Najčešće bolesti bubrega su akutna i hronična upala ili nefritis, upala intersticija bubrega, nefrotski sindrom, bubrežni kamenci, degenerativne bolesti bubrega i bubrežni tumori. Pored općih načela pravilne prehrane kod bubreznih bolesti neophodno je voditi računa o unosu minerala, proteina i vode. Restriktivne dijete moraju biti individualno prilagođene svakom pacijentu i sprovedene uz liječnički nadzor. Danas se na tržištu nalaze i dodaci prehrani namijenjeni pacijentima koji boluju ...

  6. FREKVENČNO NASTAVLJIVA ANTENA Z VISOKIM IZKORISTKOM NA FEROELEKTRIKU

    OpenAIRE

    FURLAN, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Cilj raziskave je bil oblikovati frekvenčno in polarizacijsko prilagodljivo anteno, ki temelji na diodah z spremenljivo kapacitivnostjo (varaktorji) na podlagi tankega filma feroelektričnega materiala. Antena mora biti frekvenčno in polarizacijsko nastavljiva, poleg tega pa mora pokrivati frekvenčni pas od 7,8 GHz do 8,3 GHz, da je primerna za satelitsko komunikacijo. Frekvenčno in polarizacijsko nastavljiva antena je zasnovana kot sistem, ki vsebuje dve anteni in napajalno mrežo. Napajalna m...

  7. INTERAKCIJA TEŠKIH METALA SA SELENOM U ŽIVOTINJSKOM ORGANIZMU

    OpenAIRE

    Vukšić, Neška; Pavić, Mirela; Đidara, M.; Jurčević, J.; Šperanda, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Teški metali su prirodni sastojci Zemljine kore, ali zahvaljujući ljudskoj aktivnosti promijenio se njihov geokemijski ciklus i biokemijska aktivnost u čovjeku i životinjskim organizmima. Svaki metal (ili metaloid) može postati kontaminirajući ako se pojavljuje u obliku i koncentraciji koja štetno djeluje na čovjeka ili okoliš. Elementi poput kadmija (Cd), žive (Hg), olova (Pb) i arsena (As) kruže u prirodi u različitim oksidacijskim stanjima. U povišenim količinama mogu biti štetni, a toksič...

  8. Piramida profesionalne i poslovne odgovornosti u hrvatskoj stomatologiji

    OpenAIRE

    Cerjan-Letica, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Hrvatski stomatolozi, posebice vlasnici/nositelji privatne prakse, zakupci prostora i opreme za obavljanje privatne prakse, pa i zaposleni u privatnoj praksi - kao i njihovi kolege u europskim i ostalim razvijenim zemljama - svaki se dan suočavaju s nizom etičkih i moralnih dvojbi koje se redovito pretvaraju u višestruki sukob interesa: a) trebaju striktno slijediti i poštovati sve zakonske, etičke i druge profesionalne norme (kao i one običajima nametnute); b) moraju biti poslovno uspješ...

  9. KONCEPT NOVE EKONOMIJE I ZNAČAJ INFORMACIJSKO-KOMUNIKACIJSKE TEHNOLOGIJE U REPUBLICI HRVATSKOJ

    OpenAIRE

    Škuflić, Lorena; Vlahinić-Dizdarević, Nela

    2003-01-01

    Od devedesetih godina pa dalje sve se manje u ekonomiji problem razvitka promatra preko postavki Solowljevog modela razvitka, nego su osnovni izvori ekonomskog rasta usmjereni na tehnološke promjene, na poboljšanje inovacija i na obrazovanje radne snage koja će biti sposobna upravljati novom tehnologijom. Te postavke prema istraživanjima omogućuju ostvarivanje snažnog gospodarskog rasta bez inflacije i uz nisku nezaposlenost, i omogućuju rast proizvodnosti. Nova ekonomija znači duboke i ko...

  10. 3D geometrijsko modeliranje namještaja

    OpenAIRE

    Mijović, Budimir; Grbac, Ivica; Domljan, Danijela

    2006-01-01

    U radu je prikazan opis računalne grafike u dizajnu namještaja. Uvođenje računalne grafike u dizajn namještaja mora biti koncipirano na bazi podataka pomoću kojih se mogu proučiti elementi modela ili cijeli model. Za tu je svrhu opisan način 3D geometrijskog modeliranja namještaja. Računalnom vizualizacijom virtualnog 3D postupka u interakciji s digitaliziranim realno izvedenim namještajem i okolinom uvedeno je optimalno i ergonomsko oblikovanje i određivanje dimenzija namještaja. Radi što bo...

  11. PLAVA RIBA – PREDNOSTI ALI I NEKI RIZICI KONZUMIRANJA

    OpenAIRE

    Nosić, Mario; Krešić, Greta

    2015-01-01

    Plava riba je nutritivno izrazito vrijedna, lako probavljiva namirnica koja je izvor biološki vrijednih bjelančevina, joda i selena dok istovremeno sadrži malo masti i ima niski sadržaj kolesterola. Vrijedan je izvor višestruko nezasićenih masnih kiselina kojima se pripisuju brojni pozitivni učinci na zdravlje. Međutim uz konzumaciju plavu ribu mogu biti vezani i određeni rizici, primjerice, histaminsko trovanje. Histaminsko trovanje morskom ribom uzrokuje 5% svih oboljenja vezanih za hranu k...

  12. OCENA KAKOVOSTI VODIJ TIMA NA INTENZIVNEM ODDELKU

    OpenAIRE

    Podsedenšek, Darja

    2016-01-01

    Teoretična izhodišča: Za najboljši možni izid zdravljenja življenjsko ogroženih pacientov je potreben tim, v katerem so vsi zaposleni visoko strokovno usposobljeni, vodje pa odlikujejo sposobnosti načrtovanja, organiziranja in nadzorovanja dela, pa tudi motiviranja, komuniciranja in konstruktivnega reševanja problemov. Hkrati morajo biti tudi zanesljivi, primerno čustveno inteligentni in imeti razvito empatijo, saj naj bi bili vzor ostalim zaposlenim. Namen magistrskega dela je bil ugotoviti...

  13. USTVARJALNOST IN INOVATIVNOST KOT POGOJ ZA PREMAGOVANJE GOSPODARSKE KRIZE

    OpenAIRE

    Esih, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Ustvarjati in biti ustvarjalen. Samo to je pot, ki bi jo morala podjetja imeti. Brez ustvarjanja tudi ni idej, ki pripeljejo do inovacij. Inovacije pa so nujne za preživetje podjetja. Pri tem je pomembna ustvarjalna svoboda. Tako se včasih pojavi težava, da družba ni spodbujevalno naravnana in tako za ustvarjalca ni pozitivna in ga zavira pri ustvarjalnosti ter iskanju idej. Poznane so štiri značilne faze pri nastajanju ideje. To so: priprava, inkubacija, razsvetlitev in preverjanje. Pri...

  14. Politička instrumentalizacija filozofije u Heideggerovu tumačenju Hegela. Obrana Hegela

    OpenAIRE

    Gretić, Goran

    2011-01-01

    Autor raspravlja o Heideggerovim seminarima “O biti i pojmu prirode, povijesti i države” iz 1933/1934. te “Hegel o državi” iz 1934/1935. Ti tek nedavno objavljeni seminari bacaju posebnu svjetlost na odnos Heideggerova mišljenja i nacionalsocijalizma. U radu se prvenstveno istražuje Heideggerova interpretacija Hegelova određenja pojma, uloge i zadaće države. Autor pokazuje da Heideggerova interpretacija predstavlja pokušaj da se arbitrarnim tumačenjem Hegela opravda vlastito...

  15. Zbrinjavanje medicinskog otpada - zakonodavstvo i njegova provedba

    OpenAIRE

    Marinković, Natalija; Vitale, Ksenija; Janev Holcer, Nataša; Džakula, Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    Gospodarenje medicinskim otpadom, koji po svojim svojstvima može biti opasan i/ili inertan, u Hrvatskoj je regulirano trima temeljnim pravnim aktima: Zakonom o otpadu, Pravilnikom o vrstama otpada te Naputkom o postupanju s otpadom koji nastaje pri pružanju zdravstvene zaštite. Uz njih još su i Zakon o prijevozu opasnih tvari i Zakon o otrovima akti koji podupiru provedbu ovih propisa. Slijedom razvoja suvremenih cjelovitih sustava za gospodarenje otpadom razvijen je i cjeloviti sustav za gos...

  16. ASTEROIDI

    OpenAIRE

    Andreić, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Asteroidi su najveća mala tijela Sunčeva sustava. Danas se intenzivno proučavaju iz nekoliko razloga. Kao prvo, neki asteroidi (tzv. NEA podvrsta) mogu se sudariti sa Zemljom, a posljedice takva sudara bile bi katastrofalne. Drugo, na njih se gleda kao na potencijalni izvor materijala koji na Zemlji postaju rijetki, a koji će ionako biti potrebni za svemirske konstrukcije budućnosti. I treće, oni čuvaju tajne postanka Sunčeva sustava i njegove evolucije do danas. Na kraju, kako je nekoliko hr...

  17. VELIKI JETRENI HEMANGIOM KOMPLICIRAN TEŠKIM POLIHIDRAMNIONOM I KASABACH-MERRITTOVIM SINDROMOM

    OpenAIRE

    Alhassan, Mai M; Bassioni, Ibrahim; TIKVICA, ANA; Baderldeen, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Novorođenački jetreni hemangiom je dobroćudni tumor jetre koji može biti združen s perinatalnim komplikacijama opasnim po život, kao što su zatajenje srca ili fetalni hidrops. Opisujemo slučaj velikog jetrenog hemangioma na koji se prenatalno postavila sumnja prilikom dvodimenzionalnog ultrazvučnog pregleda u 35 tjednu trudnoće kod 24-godišnje drugorotkinje. Hemangiom je bio kompliciran ekstenzivnim polihidramnijem i Kasabach-Merrittovim sindromom. Dijete je operirano drugog dana života i dij...

  18. PRIMERJALNA ANALIZA RAČUNALNIŠKIH REŠITEV Z PODPORO RAČUNOVODSKIH SERVISOV

    OpenAIRE

    Korez, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Računovodstvo je posebna celota delov informacijskih dejavnosti, znotraj katerih se zbirajo, urejajo, obdelujejo, prikazujejo in shranjujejo podatki. Računovodstvo zasebnikov in družb je pomembno zaradi državnih oz. davčnih potreb, kot tudi zaradi interesov odločanja o poslovanju. Informacijski sistem in poslovanje podjetja morata biti usmerjena v doseganje ciljev in prilagodljiva. Pri predvidevanju spremenjenih potreb strank in pravočasnem odzivanju na nove zahteve igrajo najpomembnejšo...

  19. Računalni program za određivanje geometrijskih i hidrodinamičkih značajki brodskog vijka

    OpenAIRE

    Radonić, Mladen; Dejhalla, Roko

    2007-01-01

    U radu se razmatra izbor i optimizacija brodskog vijka te je prikazan računalni program za određivanje geometrijskih i hidrodinamičkih značajki brodskog vijka. Brodski vijak mora biti vrlo učinkovit, ne bi smio stvarati neželjene vibracije i buku te se naposljetku ne bi smjelo dopustiti erozijsko oštećenje uslijed kavitacije na krilima. Glavni zadatak projektanta jest pronaći ravnotežu između ovih zahtjeva. Početni pristup kod projekta brodskog vijka uobičajeno se temelji na rezultatima ispit...

  20. Razvoj mobilne aplikacije Interaktivni kviz za okolje Android

    OpenAIRE

    Štefanič, Klemen

    2015-01-01

    Cilj našega diplomskega dela je dodobra spoznati metodologijo izdelave in razvoja aplikacije za okolje Android. Pri tem smo upoštevali, da mora naš, sicer študijski primer aplikacije, vsebovati intuitiven in konsistenten uporabniški vmesnik, a biti dovolj robusten in zanesljiv za izvajanje spletnih storitev in prikaz informacij. Rezultat našega praktičnega dela je delujoč interaktivni spletni kviz. Tekom razvoja smo uporabljali programsko okolje Android Studio, ki podpira razvoj aplikacij s p...

  1. Katalog oružja i dodatne opreme

    OpenAIRE

    Braica, Silvio

    1996-01-01

    Zbirka oružja u Etnografskom muzeju u Splitu nakon dugog rada na determinaciji je napokon sređena i popisana u stanju u kojem je nađena 90-ih godina. Kako je muzej u nemogućnosti prezentirati eksponate zbog neadekvatne zgrade i nedostatka prostora, te zbog zaštitnih radova na samim predmetima, biti će predočen sažeti katalog cijele zbirke. Nadati se je da će stručnjacima i ovakva prezentacija pomoći pri usporedbi i radu na svojim zbirkama hladnog i vatrenog oružja, te dodatne opreme.

  2. OCENJEVANJE VELIKOSTI RASTLIN S POMOČJO DIGITALNIH POSNETKOV

    OpenAIRE

    Videc, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Tema diplomskega dela je preučiti možnost ocenjevanja velikosti rastlin s pomočjo digitalnih posnetkov zajetih z običajnim digitalnim fotoaparatom. Ti sceno digitalizirajo in jo predstavijo v slikovnem prostoru, kjer metrični podatki niso več neposredno dostopni, se pa ohranijo razmerja velikosti. V kolikor sta za izbrano sceno na voljo dve takšni slikovni predstavitvi, lahko določimo metrične lastnosti, vendar morata biti znani medsebojna oddaljenost in zorni kot kamere. Postopek v delu je r...

  3. KVALITETA ŽIVOTA I PSIHOLOŠKI ASPEKTI U BOLESNIKA S KOŽNIM VRIJEDOM

    OpenAIRE

    Šitum, Mirna; KOLIĆ, MAJA; ŠPOLJAR, SANJA

    2016-01-01

    Prema definiciji kožni vrijed (rana) je prekid anatomskog i funkcionalnog kontinuiteta tkiva. S obzirom na tijek cijeljenja, rane mogu biti akutne i kronične. Kada govorimo o utjecaju rane na kvalitetu života i psihološki status osobe, u prvom redu mislimo na utjecaj kronične rane (vrijeda). Kronične rane su one koje ne zarastaju unutar predviđenog razdoblja u korelaciji s etiologijom i lokalizacijom rane (najkraće razdoblje - 6 tjedana). Kronične rane su rastući socioekonomski problem u razv...

  4. Manipulacija rezultatima sportskih natjecanja - kaznenopravna odgovornost za kazneno djelo prijevare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matko Pajčić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manipulacija rezultatima sportskih natjecanja ima povijest vjerojatno jednako dugu kao i sport sam; međutim za pretpostaviti je da se prije radilo o rijetkim, izoliranim slučajevima. No, u novije vrijeme, a kao posljedica velike komercijalizacije sporta, takvo postupanje, koje je u pravilu koruptivne prirode, sve je učestalije. Riječ je o pojavi koja je vrlo često povezana s klađenjem, no ne nužno, budući da su prisutna i namještanja rezultata isključivo s ciljem postizanja određenog sportskog rezultata, npr. ostanka u određenom rangu natjecanja ili slično. U radu se razmatraju pojavni oblici tih radnji te mogućnosti kažnjavanja počinitelja navedenih protupravnih radnji temeljem normi kaznenog prava. Od više mogućnosti uspostavljanja kaznenopravne odgovornosti za više različitih kaznenih djela, u ovom radu će biti razmotrena samo kaznenopravna odgovornost za kazneno djelo prijevare, dok će razmatranje drugih kaznenih djela pod koja se obično povezuju s namještanjem rezultata sportskih natjecanja (primanje mita, davanje mita, udruživanje za počinjenje kaznenih djela, protupravno posredovanje, zlouporaba položaja i ovlasti i dr. biti predmet potanjeg razmatranja u posebnom radu.

  5. OSOBNI STEČAJ U HRVATSKOJ I SLOVENIJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sime Ivanjko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Postupak osobnog stečaja bez obzira na pojedina dobra ili slaba rješenja u bilo kojoj državi neće naići na opću suglasnost u društvu, a osobitom u onim društvima gdje se svako neplaćanje dugova ocjenjuje negativnim moralnim predznakom i bez obzira na realne mogućnosti dužnika da plaća svoje dugove. Posebno to važi za neplaćanje obveza u poduzetništvu. Poduzetništvo je po svojoj osnovi amoralno - što znači da ga nije moguće ocjenjivati pozitivnim ili negativnim moralnim predznakom ako se poštuju pravila poduzetništva. Tako npr. stečaj gospodarskog subjekta nije u osnovi nemoralan jer je to nužna pojava u kapitalizmu. U prosjeku je potrebno da oko 300 sudionika u poduzetništvu na njih 10 000 mora u stečaj jer inače kapitalistički sustav ne može djelovati i ne može biti efikasan. U socijalizmu nismo imali stečajeva i zato poduzetništvo nije moglo biti konkurentno s partnerima u kapitalističkim sustavima.

  6. Uloga odvjetnika u upravnom postupku; studija slučaja u području pune jurisdikcije

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Odent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uloga odvjetnika u upravnom postupku.(1 Pokreće postupak, mora imati presudnu ulogu vis-a-vis klijenta; odvjetnik ne smije biti zadovoljan s prinosima klijenta već mora istraživati dokumente i svjedočanstava; (2 Nakon postupka. Dakako, u istrazi nije gospodar postupka, ali on mora voditi računa da osigura i zadovolji rokove i uvjete koji su mu nametnuti od strane suda;(3 Aktivna uloga u ročištima, u kojoj mora biti u stanju kratko, ali snažno odgovarati izvjestitelja-zastupniku države; (4 Ima ulogu nakon donošenja odluke: objašnjenje uloge vis-a-vis klijenta; ulogu u slučaju neizvršenja kojeg uzrokuje uprava; ulogu u procjeni opravdanosti žalbe. Posebna je uloga odvjetnika iz Vijeća: (1 on opisuje posebnost uredovnog postupka; (2ima savjetodavnu ulogu; (3 objašnjava kasacijsku kontrolu(4 objašnjava spis protiv odluka Državnog vijeća; (5 pred Državnim vijećem objašnjava očekivanja u sporu.

  7. Ovarian down Regulation by GnRF Vaccination Decreases Reproductive Tract Tumour Size in Female White and Greater One-Horned Rhinoceroses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Robert; Schwarzenberger, Franz; Göritz, Frank; Oh, Serena; Fernandes, Teresa; Bernardino, Rui; Leclerc, Antoine; Greunz, Eva; Mathew, Abraham; Forsyth, Sarah; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive tract tumours, specifically leiomyoma, are commonly found in female rhinoceroses. Similar to humans, tumour growth in rhinoceroses is thought to be sex hormone dependent. Tumours can form and expand from the onset of ovarian activity at puberty until the cessation of sex-steroid influences at senescence. Extensive tumour growth results in infertility. The aim of this study was to down regulate reproductive function of tumour-diseased and infertile females to stop further tumour growth using a Gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) vaccine. Four infertile southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and three Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) with active ovaries and 2.7 ± 0.9 and 14.0 ± 1.5 reproductive tract tumours respectively were vaccinated against GnRF (Improvac®, Zoetis, Germany) at 0, 4 and 16 weeks and re-boostered every 6–8 months thereafter. After GnRF vaccination ovarian and luteal activity was suppressed in all treated females. Three months after vaccination the size of the ovaries, the number of follicles and the size of the largest follicle were significantly reduced (P<0.03). Reproductive tract tumours decreased significantly in diameter (Greater-one horned rhino: P<0.0001; white rhino: P<0.01), presumably as a result of reduced sex-steroid influence. The calculated tumour volumes were reduced by 50.8 ± 10.9% in Greater one-horned and 48.6 ± 12.9% in white rhinoceroses. In conclusion, GnRF vaccine effectively down regulated reproductive function and decreased the size of reproductive tract tumours in female rhinoceros. Our work is the first to use down regulation of reproductive function as a symptomatic treatment against benign reproductive tumour disease in a wildlife species. Nonetheless, full reversibility and rhinoceros fertility following GnRF vaccination warrants further evaluation. PMID:27403662

  8. Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    NN,

    1988-01-01

    The Pahang and Johore State Governments have agreed to declare the 92,000 hectare Endau-Rompin Forest as a State Park. It had been proposed as a National Park in 1975, but, as usual, this did not prevent logging in the core area in 1977. This was halted after considerable national protest, but logging still occurs around the fringes and between S. Kinchin and S. Kemapan. The area is not only important for its animals (largest breeding population of Sumatran rhinoceros), but also has an outsta...

  9. Universal nature of spondyloarthropathy as a reactive disease, reflecting differential sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Bruce M

    2013-01-01

    Tendency to afflict one part of the skeleton, rather than another, could be referred to as the osseotropism of the disease. That term would also include which part of the particular bone was affected. That, in addition to characteristics of erosions, facilitates distinguishing spondyloarthropathy from rheumatoid arthritis, calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease and gout. Spondyloarthropathy, however, is not limited to humans. Initially recognized in 20% of gorillas and rhesus macaques, it was subsequently identified in 25% of bears and 35% of rhinoceros. It is truly a pan-mammalian phenomenon, extending from marsupials and rodents to whales and as ancient as dinosaurs. PMID:25409665

  10. Estudio, diseño y fabricación de un bulbo convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Escámez Galián, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    [SPA]El presente proyecto expone un estudio del comportamiento del bulbo en la mar en diferentes situaciones, el efecto que este produce sobre el rendimiento propulsivo y sobre la resistencia al avance. Además, damos una síntesis de los pasos seguidos para la creación de un bulbo, utilizando el programa de diseño gráfico Rhinoceros. Y concluimos con el diseño de un bulbo de propia creación, creado a través del programa de diseño gráfico Solidwords. Citando los procesos de fabricación ut...

  11. Rash caused by Oryctes nasicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, Stefano; Fanoni, Daniele; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of rash caused by crushing of a male of Oryctes nasicornis (Linnaeus 1758) (Coleoptera, "http:// it. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Scarabaeidae" \\o "Scarabaeidae" Scarabaeidae), popularly known as "European rhinoceros beetle", on the skin of an Italian tourist who developed the reaction during a trip to Turkey. The rash appeared one hour after the crushing of the insect on the skin. The patient was observed one day later, when she returned to Italy. To our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature. PMID:26858273

  12. Ecological factors differentially affect mercury levels in two species of sympatric marine birds of the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipfner, J.M., E-mail: mark.hipfner@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, RR 1 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, BC, V4K 3N2 (Canada); Hobson, K.A., E-mail: keith.hobson@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 3H5 (Canada); Elliott, J.E., E-mail: john.elliot@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, RR 1 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, BC, V4K 3N2 (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    In 2003 and 2004, we measured mercury concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C values in the whole blood of adults of two species of seabirds, Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), during their prelaying, incubation, and provisioning periods. We also collected whole blood from the offspring of both seabirds. Among prey items, {delta}{sup 15}N values were higher in fish than in crustaceans, while {delta}{sup 13}C did not vary systematically between prey types. Mercury concentrations in prey showed little relationship with either stable isotope. In the zooplanktivorous Cassin's auklet, year, reproductive stage, and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C stable isotope values explained only 14% of the variation in mercury concentrations in adult blood, and none of these variables had a statistically significant effect. In contrast, these same variables explained 41% of the variation in mercury levels in the more piscivorous rhinoceros auklet, and all but {delta}{sup 15}N values had statistically significant effects. Mercury concentrations in adult rhinoceros auklets were higher in 2003 than in 2004; higher prior to laying than during the incubation or provisioning periods; and increased with {delta}{sup 13}C values - but in just one of two years. In both species, mercury concentrations were substantially higher in adults than in nestlings. Our results accord with previous studies in showing that mercury concentrations can vary among years, species and age classes, while the marked variation with reproductive stage is noteworthy because it is so rarely considered. Our results may help to explain the disparate conclusions of previous studies: while many factors influence mercury concentrations in marine predators, they apparently do so in a manner that defies easy characterization. We believe that there is a need for more studies that consider a range of physiological, ecological and behavioral

  13. Effective enforcement in a conservation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Ray; Arcese, Peter; Borner, Markus; Hando, Justin; Hopcraft, Grant; Loibooki, Martin; Mduma, Simon; Sinclair, Anthony R E

    2006-11-24

    Wildlife within protected areas is under increasing threat from bushmeat and illegal trophy trades, and many argue that enforcement within protected areas is not sufficient to protect wildlife. We examined 50 years of records from Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and calculated the history of illegal harvest and enforcement by park authorities. We show that a precipitous decline in enforcement in 1977 resulted in a large increase in poaching and decline of many species. Conversely, expanded budgets and antipoaching patrols since the mid-1980s have greatly reduced poaching and allowed populations of buffalo, elephants, and rhinoceros to rebuild.

  14. Mandibular 2 implant destekli overdenture protezlerde ataşmanlar üzerine gelen streslerin değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Ramoglu, Serhat; OZAN, Oğuz; Kurtulmuş Yılmaz, Sevcan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant locations on the stress around the two different attachment systems in mandibular two-implant overdentures.Materials and Methods: The data obtained from Visible Human Project were modified with the use of VRMESH and Rhinoceros 4.0 software to establish a 3D mandible model with 2 mm cortical bone covering the trabecular bone and 2 mm mucosae. 3D models (totally 6 models) of mandibular two-implant overdenture were designed ...

  15. Design of parametric software tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Mullins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    fulfilment of evidence-based design criterion regarding light distribution and location in relation to patient safety in architectural health care design proposals. The study uses 2D/3D CAD modelling software Rhinoceros 3D with plug-in Grasshopper to create parametric tool prototypes to exemplify......The studies investigate the field of evidence-based design used in architectural design practice and propose a method using 2D/3D CAD applications to: 1) enhance integration of evidence-based design knowledge in architectural design phases with a focus on lighting and interior design and 2) assess...... Modelling projects....

  16. 美術の「タフォノミー」について : 芸術の起源をめぐって

    OpenAIRE

    小川, 勝

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of Parietal art at Chauvet, France, in 1994, for long time, has shocked the academic world of specialists for prehistoric arts. Above all, the absolute date of pigments used for confronting rhinoceros, for example, about 32,000 BP, is extraordinary against our common sense of art origin, and artistic high quality of the oldest art has needed to be explained by a proper theory. Australian Bednarik proposed the term ‘Taphonomy’ that situated the origin of art about 100,000 and mor...

  17. The $^{15}$N($\\bm\\alpha$,$\\bm\\gamma$)$^{19}$F reaction and nucleosynthesis of $^{19}$F

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmes, S.; Wilmes, V.; Staudt, G.; Mohr, P; Hammer, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    Several resonances in the $^{15}$N($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$)$^{19}$F reaction have been investigated in the energy range between 0.6 MeV and 2.7 MeV. Resonance strengths and branching ratios have been determined. High sensitivity could be obtained by the combination of the {\\sc{dynamitron}} high current accelerator, the windowless gas target system {\\sc{rhinoceros}}, and actively shielded germanium detectors. Two levels of $^{19}$F could be observed for the first time in the ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$) chan...

  18. Coprophilous ascomycetes in Kenya: Saccobolus species from wildlife dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungai PG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy, occurrence and distribution of Saccobolus species was investigated from wild herbivore dung types in Kenya. Dung samples incubated in a moist chamber culture were examined for fungi over three months. Seven species, Saccobolus citrinus, S. depauperatus, S. diffusus, S. infestans, S. platensis, S. truncatus and S. versicolor were isolated from African elephant, black rhinoceros, Cape buffalo, dikdik, giraffe, hartebeest, hippopotamus, impala, waterbuck and zebra dung. Five taxa, S. citrinus, S. diffusus, S. infestans, S. platensis and S. truncatus, are new records for Kenya. The most common taxa were S. depauperatus and S. citrinus. The diversity of coprophilous Saccobolus species in wildlife dung is very high.

  19. Rewinding the process of mammalian extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragusty, Joseph; Diecke, Sebastian; Drukker, Micha; Durrant, Barbara; Friedrich Ben-Nun, Inbar; Galli, Cesare; Göritz, Frank; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Hermes, Robert; Holtze, Susanne; Johnson, Stacey; Lazzari, Giovanna; Loi, Pasqualino; Loring, Jeanne F; Okita, Keisuke; Renfree, Marilyn B; Seet, Steven; Voracek, Thomas; Stejskal, Jan; Ryder, Oliver A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2016-07-01

    With only three living individuals left on this planet, the northern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) could be considered doomed for extinction. It might still be possible, however, to rescue the (sub)species by combining novel stem cell and assisted reproductive technologies. To discuss the various practical options available to us, we convened a multidisciplinary meeting under the name "Conservation by Cellular Technologies." The outcome of this meeting and the proposed road map that, if successfully implemented, would ultimately lead to a self-sustaining population of an extremely endangered species are outlined here. The ideas discussed here, while centered on the northern white rhinoceros, are equally applicable, after proper adjustments, to other mammals on the brink of extinction. Through implementation of these ideas we hope to establish the foundation for reversal of some of the effects of what has been termed the sixth mass extinction event in the history of Earth, and the first anthropogenic one. Zoo Biol. 35:280-292, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Translocations as experiments in the ecological resilience of an asocial mega-herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne L Linklater

    Full Text Available Species translocations are remarkable experiments in evolutionary ecology, and increasingly critical to biodiversity conservation. Elaborate socio-ecological hypotheses for translocation success, based on theoretical fitness relationships, are untested and lead to complex uncertainty rather than parsimonious solutions. We used an extraordinary 89 reintroduction and 102 restocking events releasing 682 black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis to 81 reserves in southern Africa (1981-2005 to test the influence of interacting socio-ecological and individual characters on post-release survival. We predicted that the socio-ecological context should feature more prominently after restocking than reintroduction because released rhinoceros interact with resident conspecifics. Instead, an interaction between release cohort size and habitat quality explained reintroduction success but only individuals' ages explained restocking outcomes. Achieving translocation success for many species may not be as complicated as theory suggests. Black rhino, and similarly asocial generalist herbivores without substantial predators, are likely to be resilient to ecological challenges and robust candidates for crisis management in a changing world.

  1. Cooling rate effects on the electrical properties of TiO2-based varistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooling rate effects on the microstructure development and electrical properties of TiO2 ceramics are studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Barium and bismuth were exsolved during cooling and reacted with rutile to form secondary phases, Ba2Ti9O20 and Bi2Ti4O11. Therefore, the acceptor concentration of Bi+3 (BiTi') in the rutile grain near the grain boundary areas in furnace-cooled samples were lower than that in quenched samples. As the acceptor concentration decreased, the depletion width and barrier height decreased. Consequently, the quenched samples possessed higher nonlinear exponent (α) values than furnace-cooled samples

  2. Trimeresurus venom inhibition of anti-HPA-1a and anti-HPA-1b antibody binding to human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodar, S J; Stone, D L; Sinor, L T

    1995-01-01

    A solid-phase red cell adherence assay was used to demonstrate the specific inhibitory effect of seven species of Trimeresurus snake venom on the binding of HPA-1a- and HPA-1b-specific platelet antibodies. Trimeresurus venom did not inhibit the binding of HLA-, HPA-3a-, HPA-3b-, HPA-4a-, HPA-5a-, and HPA-5b-specific platelet antibodies. Venom from other genera of snakes, including representatives from Agkistrodon, Ancistrodon, Bitis, Bothrops, Bungarus, Causus, Crotalus, Dendroaspis, Ecis, Micrurus, Naja, Notechis, Ophiophagus, Pseudechis, Sepedon (Hemachatus), and Vipera, all failed to specifically inhibit anti-HPA-1a and HPA-1b binding. These results may indicate that the component in Trimeresurus snake venom previously reported to bind to the platelet GPIIb-IIIa complex, inhibiting fibrinogen binding, binds close to the HPA-1a and HPA-1b epitopes.

  3. Politička romantika u hrvatskoj političkoj kulturi

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Davor

    1992-01-01

    Knjiga C. Schmitta "Politička romantika" ishodište je autoru o raspravi o romantici i romantičarima u sferi politike i političkog djelovanja. Autor upozorava na oprečnost i nesumjerljivost političkog djelovanja i umjetničkog prikazivanja političkog djelovanja kroz tri uvida: (1) problemi koji se mogu rješavati samo politički ne mogu se rješavati estetski, religijski ili etnički, (2) političko djelovanje ne može biti romantičarski optuživano kao uzrok etničkih, socijalnih i religijskih sukoba ...

  4. Odnos učencev razrednega pouka do naravoslovja

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatovič, Alma

    2015-01-01

    Na učenje strokovnjaki vse bolj gledajo kot na interaktivni transakcijski proces, ki je odvisen od učenca in učne situacije, predvsem pa od tega, kako so značilnosti učenca in učne situacije med seboj usklajene. Čim manjša je usklajenost med, na primer, učenčevim stilom učenja in učiteljevim stilom poučevanja, tem večja je možnost, da bo prišlo do učnih težav in šolske neuspešnosti. Zato mora biti pouk naravoslovja kakovostno pripravljen in organiziran, učitelj pa strokovno usposobljen in ust...

  5. Pronalaženje izvora onečišćenja u vodoopskrbnoj mreži

    OpenAIRE

    Kranjčević, Lado; Čavrak, Marko; Šestan, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Numeričkim hidrauličkim simulacijama mreže cijevi računaju se piezometrične visine i protoci u unutarnjim točkama cijevi i drugim hidrauličkim elementima mreže. Osim tih proračuna, cilj simulacije također može biti i širenje polutanata ili otopine u cijevnoj mreži. Širenje polutanata kroz vodnodistribucijsku mrežu cijevi uglavnom je uvjetovano svojstvima procesa miješanja u križnim cijevnim spojevima. Realno miješanje u križnom spoju nalazi se unutar pretpostavke modela potpunoga miješanja i ...

  6. Tehnike povećanja iscrpka nafte i istiskivanje korištenjem CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jabra, Mojsin; Al-Anazi, Bandar Duraya

    2010-01-01

    Tijekom godina je zanimanje za povećanjem iscrpka nafte (EOR) smanjeno zbog povećanja naftnih rezervi i proizvodnje. Ispitano je mnogo metoda, u laboratoriju i na terenu, kako bi se povećala proizvodnja nafte. Otkriće velikih naftnih polja u svijetu donijelo je na svjetsko tržište velike količine nafte. Uz to su procjene naftnih rezervi s nalazišta na Bliskom Istoku znatno povećane, što je dovelo do očekivanja da će ponuda nafte biti velika. Iako su velike količine nafte i dalje preostale u s...

  7. Izvršenje presuda u sporovima o zakonitosti ; proučavanje praktičnog slučaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Lemoyne de Forges

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Premda je to jedna od temeljnih značajka pravne države, stvarno i potpuno izvršenje upravnih presuda, kojima se poništava pojedine upravne akte, nije uvijek bilo zajamčeno u Francuskoj. Francuski je zakonodavac zbog toga bio primoran izraditi više sustava koje je stavio na raspolaganje strankama (tužiteljima za postizanje tog izvršenja i prisiliti javnu upravu da izvrši te presude, štoviše da sankcionira fizičke osobe koje sprječavaju to izvršenje. Ovi će sustavi biti predmetom ispitivanja kroz dva konkretna slučaja iz francuske upravnosudske prakse, tj. kroz jednu presudu upravnog suda i kroz jednu odluku žalbenog upravnog suda.

  8. MOŽEMO LI SPRIJEČITI ČEDOMORSTVO?

    OpenAIRE

    Katalinić, Sanja; Frković, Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Čedomorstvo (aktivno i pasivno) se definira kao ubojstvo novorođenčeta od strane majke, unutar 24 sata od rođenja. Dokazano je da je čedomorstvo nastalo kao rezultat međusobne interakcije socijalnih, kulturoloških i individualnih karakteristika majki. Radi se obično o adoelscenticama i mladim ženama, ali čedomorke mogu biti i žene u srednjim godinama života. Negiranje trudnoće je važan čimbenik rizika čedomorstva. Može li se čedomorstvo spriječiti? U potpunosti ne, no s obzirom da su adolesce...

  9. MOŽE LI BIOMASA POKRENUTI ENERGIJSKU TRANZICIJU U HRVATSKOJ I JUGOISTOČNOJ EUROPI?

    OpenAIRE

    Domac, Julije; Risović, Stjepan; Šegon, Velimir; Pentek, Tibor; Šafran, Branimir; Papa, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    Šumska biomasa predstavlja važan izvor energije, čijem bi se korištenju u budućnosti trebalo posvetiti znatno više pozornosti. Biomasa u svojim tradicionalnim oblicima je i dalje vrlo važan izvor energije u većini zemalje Jugoistočne Europe, te će u doglednoj budućnosti i dalje biti tako. Međutim, sve se više koristi ne samo za proizvodnju toplinske energije, već za proizvodnju električne i rashladne energije, i to se smatra kao važan dio energijske tranzicije koja je obećavajući model ...

  10. Kronologija od izlaska iz Egipta do babilonskog sužanjstva

    OpenAIRE

    Neuffer, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Kao i svi drugi drevni izvještaji i biblijski sadrže probleme. Prije svega izvještaji su često nepotpuni. Drugo, ne možemo uvijek biti sigurni da poznajemo metodu kojom su ljudi onog vremena vršili računanje. Na primjer, jesu li godinu računali s početkom u proljeće ili u jesen, ili se u frazi kao što je "tri godine" rabilo uključivo računanje. Osim toga, nije uvijek moguće uskladiti biblijsku sa svjetovnom kronologijom. Zbog ovih i drugih razloga koje bismo mogli navesti, nije moguće izr...

  11. Trgovačka društva u energetskom pravu Republike Hrvatske

    OpenAIRE

    Brnabić, Ratko; Ivkošić, Marko

    2013-01-01

    U radu se raspravlja o važnim pitanjima u svezi s pravnim položajem trgovačkih društava koja obavljaju energetske djelatnosti. Tu bi djelatnost mogli obavljati i trgovci- fizičke osobe, ali zbog osobne izloženosti razumljivo je da će glavni nositelji biti društva kapitala, a prvenstveno društvo s ograničenom odgovornošću. Iako je tu još uvijek riječ o pravnim oblicima uređenima Zakonom o trgovačkim društvima, na njih se kao lex specialis primjenjuju odredbe energetskih zakona. Odredbe tih pro...

  12. Sumarexem í hestum: Tjáning á ofnæmisvökum úr smámýi (Culicoides obsoletus) í skordýrafrumum og hreinsun próteina

    OpenAIRE

    Tinna Björg Úlfarsdóttir 1990

    2014-01-01

    Sumarexem er húðofnæmi af gerð I í hrossum með framleiðslu á IgE. Exemið orsakast af biti smámýs (Culicoides tegundir) en í munnvatnskirtlum flugnanna eru prótein sem verða ofnæmisvakar í sumum hestum. Smámýið lifir ekki á Íslandi og þess vegna þekkist sjúkdómurinn ekki hérlendis. Öll hrossakyn geta fengið exemið en það er sérlega algengt í hestum fæddum á Íslandi sem fluttir eru út. Þetta verkefni er hluti af stærra samstarfsverkefni milli Keldna og Háskólans í Bern í Sviss sem hefur það mar...

  13. VPLIV ZADOVOLJSTVA IN USPEŠNOSTI ZAPOSLENEGA NA KAKOVOST DELOVNEGA ŽIVLJENJA

    OpenAIRE

    Holsedl, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Kakovost življenja je pomembna vrsta razsežnosti, ki se spreminja ves čas in ni obravnavana tako, da bi ostala skozi celotno obdobje nespremenjena. Ljudje smo namreč tisti, ki odločamo o kakovosti svojega življenja, zato so naši cilji in odločitve še toliko bolj pomembni. Vsak posameznik s svojim načinom razmišljanja in s svojo sposobnostjo poskrbi, da bo v življenju srečen in zadovoljen, kar vodi h kakovostnemu življenju. Ker ima vsak pravico biti srečen, si vsak sam postavlja cilje in odloč...

  14. Površina ili površnost?

    OpenAIRE

    Marasović, Špiro

    2004-01-01

    Budući da se u posljednje vrijeme vodila velika rasprava o ispuštanju izričitoga spominjanja Božjega imena, odnosno kršćanstva u preambuli Ustava EU-a, autor u ovom članku istražuje o kojem i kakvom je to kršćanstvu riječ kad se govori o njemu kao jednom od konstitutivnih dijelova europske kulture i civilizacije, odnosno, pita se kakvo bi kršćanstvo trebalo biti da bi i bilo autentično i unaprijed društveno relevantno. Da bi došao do zadovoljavajućega odgovora, on članak dijeli u tri dijela. ...

  15. Križevačka tvrđava i utvrde Križevačke kapetanije

    OpenAIRE

    Kruhek, Milan

    2001-01-01

    Zadaća je ovog rada odrediti i povijesno značenje i graditeljsku vrijednost križevačkih utvrda i utvrda Križevačke kapetanije. U tom traganju za povijesnom slikom i obrambenim značenjem križevačkih utvrda od najveće će nam koristi biti crteži i opisi krajiških vojnih inženjera i stratega, tim više što su sačuvani graditeljski ostaci i onih najvećih utvrda toliko neznatni, da bi samo na temelju takvih ostataka bilo nemoguće rekonstruirati pravu predodžbu njihova povijesnog izgleda, procijen...

  16. PERCEPCIJA BOLI U UVJETIMA RAZLIČITE RAZINE DISTRAKCIJE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanec, Dragutin; MILJAK, Tomislav; FABER, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja bio je provjeriti neke postavke o ulozi odvraćanja pažnje od bolnoga podraživanja kao mogućega kognitivno-bihevioralnog postupka smanjenja boli. Pošlo se od pretpostavke da će više distrakcije dovesti do većega analgetskog efekta te da će on biti izraženiji kod slabijega podraživanja. U istraživanju je sudjelovalo 30 sudionika, koji su podijeljeni u dvije skupine. Jedna je skupina bila podraživana slabijim električnim podražajima koji su bili na grani...

  17. Segmentacija potrošača prema razini ekološke odgovornosti

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Ne može se više dovesti u pitanje činjenica da postoji ekološki odgovoran segment potrošača na tržištu. Međutim, ulaskom sve većeg broja ponuđača upravo na to zeleno tržište, više nije dovoljno samo biti svjestan te činjenice, nego su potrebne i složene strategije segmentacije, ciljanja i pozicioniranja. U ovom radu nastojalo se pružiti teoretsku podlogu za razumijevanje ključnih pojmova vezanih uz segment zelenih potrošača, a prikupljanjem sekundarnih podataka iz dostupne literature i pretho...

  18. Petrićevo razumijevanje astrologije u Deset dijaloga o povijesti

    OpenAIRE

    karasman, Ivana Skuhala

    2012-01-01

    U svojem djelu Deset dijaloga o povijesti, koje je objavljeno 1560. godine, Petrić je obradio i neke astrološke teme. U trećem dijalogu, onom koji je naslovio »Il Contarino, overo che, sia l’historia« (»Contarino ili što je povijest«), tako je iznio poznatu tezu da je pomoću astrologije bila predviđena propast svijeta, prvo poplavom, a zatim požarom. Naime, prema astrološkoj tradiciji, Bog je Adamu prenio tajne astrologije te je on promatrajući nebo predvidio da će Zemlja biti uništena vodom ...

  19. Istraživanje utjecaja fizičkih svojstava stijena na promjene propusnosti: analiza slučaja razvoja heterogenosti ležišta

    OpenAIRE

    Benzagouta, Mohammed Said

    2013-01-01

    Različiti čimbenici imaju utjecaj na petrofizičke značajke ležišta i njihov razvoj. Istraživanja su pokazala da su za provjeru značajki ležišta, heterogenosti i najvažnije propusnosti, najvažnija teksturna i fizička svojstva stijena. Varijacije u rasporedu veličine zrna i njihov razmještaj je jedan od čimbenika odgovornih za neusklađenost petrofizičkih značajki i u osnovi propusnosti i heterogenosti. Tako i u ovoj studiji slučaja, procjena kvalitete ležišta može biti podržana različit...

  20. ANTE GLAVIČIĆ, ČUVAR I PROMICATELJ SENJSKE POVIJESNE I KULTURNE BAŠTINE – DRAGI SENJANIN I PRIJATELJ

    OpenAIRE

    BEKAVAC LOKMER, FILA; LOKMER, JURAJ

    2013-01-01

    U nizu velikana senjske povijesti i čuvara hrvatske baštine ističe se osebujni lik Senjanina Ante Glavičića, kustosa i dugogodišnjega ravnatelja Gradskoga muzeja Senj. Živeći i radeći u sredini iz koje je ponikao i u kojoj je teško biti "prorok u svome zavičaju" učinio je više nego mnogi na razini Hrvatske, koji su imali puno bolje uvjete, političke podrške i sve druge okolnosti. Posvetivši svoj cjelokupni privatni i javni život senjskoj kulturno-povijesnoj, a time i hrvatskoj baštini djelova...

  1. Proces eliminacije zraka i čvrstih čestica u hidrauličkom rezervoaru

    OpenAIRE

    Tič, Vito; Lovrec, Darko

    2013-01-01

    Kontaminacija hidrauličke tekućine široko se definira kao bilo koja supstanca koja utiče na pravilno funkcioniranje hidrauličkog sistema. Hidraulička tekućina može biti kontaminirana zrakom, čvrstim česticama, vodom, i stranim tekućinama. Kontaminacija može uzrokovati brojne probleme uključujući oštećenje komponente, neprihvatljivu buku, lošu dinamiku komponenti i tešku degradaciju tekućine. Rad je usredotočen na dva glavna kontaminanta koja bi trebalo uzeti u obzir prilikom dizajniranja hidr...

  2. RODNE RAZLIKE I PREDIKTORI PARTNERSKOG NASILJA U MLADENAČKIM VEZAMA

    OpenAIRE

    AJDUKOVIĆ, Dean; Löw, Ajana; Sušac, Nika

    2011-01-01

    U cilju utvrđivanja raširenosti i čestine nasilja u romantičnim vezama adolescenata i mogućnosti njegovog predviđanja pomoću varijabli koje teoretski mogu biti povezane s nasilnim ponašanjima, ispitano je 623 učenika trećih razreda iz 14 srednjih škola u različitim dijelovima Hrvatske. U uzorku prosječne dobi 16,8 godina zastupljeno je 55,7% mladića. Instrument sadrži pitanja o sociodemografskim podacima i iskustvu veze u posljednjih 6 mjeseci te sedam upitnika: Skalu pogrešnih uvjerenja o kv...

  3. İSRAİL/YAFA'DAKİ OSMANLI MİMARİ ESERLERİ ÜZERİNE GÖZLEMLER / OBSERVATIONS ON OTTOMAN ARCHITECTURAL WORKS IN JAFA/ISRAEL

    OpenAIRE

    Bayhan, Ahmet Ali

    2010-01-01

    Bugün İsrail'in eski ve önemli kentlerinden birisi olarak bilinen ve TelAviv'ebağlı bir yerleşim yeri olan Yafa'da, özellikle XIX. yüzyılda inşa edilmişOsmanlı eserleri mevcuttur. Bu makalede Yafa'dan Bahr Camii (Camiu'l-Bahr,Deniz Camii), Mahmudiye Camii (Yafa Ulu Camii), Cebeliye Camii, Sıksık Camii,Acemi Camii, Hasan Bey Camii, Ebu Nabbut Sebili, Mahmudiye Camii'ne BitişikSebil, Süleyman Paşa Sebili, Eski Saray (Eski Hükümet Binası), Yeni Saray (YeniH&uum...

  4. Ustav Republike Hrvatske i najviše vrednote ustavnog poretka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsen Bačić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ustavne vrednote su kao ekstenzije javnog razuma (public reason na odlučujući način odredile razvitak, prirodu i život klasične i suvremene ustavnosti. Pozicionirane kao ''ustavne suštine'' (constitutional essentials s integrativnom funkcijom one ne prestaju biti predmetom ekstenzivnog i ostrašćenog tumačenja. U tekstu autor iznosi i razmatra vezu između konstitucionalizma i ustavnih vrednota uz prethodne nužne napomene koje se tiču osnovnih pitanja o vrednotama, njihovom značaju u razvitku komparativnog konstitucionalizma, te posebno o njihovom mjestu, ulozi i smislu njihovog postojanja u kontekstu suvremenog transnacionalnog i nacionalnog ustavnog prava.

  5. Programiranje u AutoCAD-u (C#)

    OpenAIRE

    Glasinovic, Frane

    2011-01-01

    Programski paket AutoCAD ima veliki broj ugrađenih alata pa biste pomislili da u AutoCAD-u postoje funkcije za sve što vam padne na pamet. To je donekle i istina, ali ponekad ćete se naći u situaciji da ugrađeni alati jednostavni nisu ono što tražite. Nekada ćete poželjeti automatizirati ponavljajući proces ili pristupiti rješavanju problema na način koji više odgovara specifičnim okolnostima. U ovakvim slučajevima znanje iz programiranja biti će više nego dobrodošlo. U samo par linija ...

  6. Raspodjela ekoloških niša između sedam simpatričkih lacertidnih gušterica u Peloponeškom gorju

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Werner; Beyerlein, Petra

    1999-01-01

    Svih sedam lacertidnih vrsta zabilježenih za Peloponez mogu se naći na vrlo malom području u Arkadijskom gorju na poluotoku Peloponezu. Dosad je na području Sredozemlja poznat samo jedan primjer takve jedinstvene raznolikosti na tako malom prostoru. Takva gustoća zahtijeva zauzeće različitih ograničenih ekoloških i etoloških niša sa strane svih sedam vrsta i zbog toga staništa moraju biti raznolika. U radu se raspravlja o toj podijeljenosti niša, kao i o ekološkim zahtjevima i etološkim r...

  7. PRIPOVIJEDANJE KAO METODA POUČAVANJA ENGLESKOG KAO STRANOG JEZIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    Kao jedna od najstarijih ljudskih vještina koja potječe još iz prapovijesti, pripovijedanje je vještina koja se služi pamćenjem a ne čitanjem. To umijeće uključuje dva ključna elementa – odabir i predaju. Veliki je broj nastavnika engleskog jezika zainteresiran za ovu vještinu kao metodu poučavanja stranog jezika. Uspješan pripovjedač odabire prikladne priče i mora biti vješt izvođač jer je izvedba ključna i od pripovjedača zahtijeva i pripremu i probu. Pripovijedanje je originalan način pouč...

  8. Primjena modela izračuna troškova u vrednovanju šuma UŠP Požega

    OpenAIRE

    Posavec, Stjepan; Zelić, Juraj; Fliszar, Ivica; Beljan, Karlo

    2011-01-01

    U neposrednoj suradnji s Razvojnom službom i drugim stručnjacima Hrvatskih šuma d.o.o. Zagreb te Šumarskoga fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu dogovoreno je istraživanje problema utvrđivanja vrijednosti šumskih sastojina i određivanja cijene drva na panju za glavne vrste drveća. Problemi gospodarenja šumom uključuju mnogo različitih varijabli. One mogu biti biološke kao što su rast i prirast te vrsta tla, ekonomske kao što su cijena drva i trošak rada i socijalne kao što su ekološki zakoni. U ra...

  9. PRIMERJAVA IZRAČUNA SENČENJA SONČNE ELEKTRARNE Z MERITVAMI

    OpenAIRE

    Železnik, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Izkoriščanje sonca je v zadnjem času vedno bolj pogosto. Sonce, večni jedrski reaktor, je praktično neizčrpen vir obnovljive energije. Čist in donosen vir, ki nam lahko zagotovi pomemben del energije za naše potrebe. Energija, ki jo sonce seva na zemljo, je 15.000 krat večja od energije, kot jo porabi človek. To je energija, ki se obnavlja, ne onesnažuje okolja in je hkrati brezplačna. Zato, mora biti cilj izkoriščati to energijo v največjem možnem obsegu. Da bi sonce lahko čim boljše izkori...

  10. Plućni tumorleti s okolnim fibroznim tkivom – suspektni karcinom: prikaz slučaja i pregled literature

    OpenAIRE

    Alerić, Ivan; Mosler, Domagoj; Seiwerth, Sven; Mlinarević Polić, Ines; Lazić Mosler, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Plućni tumorleti su malene, često višestruke nodularne proliferacije plućnih neuroendokrinih stanica te su čest slučajni nalaz kod kroničnih upalnih plućnih bolesti. Također se mogu naći u normalnom plućnom parenhimu te kao jedan dio kontinuuma poznatog kao difuzna idiopatska hiperplazija plućnih neuroendokrinih stanica. U mnogim slučajevima oni su slučajni histološki nalaz bez značenja ili kliničkih posljedica, a mogu biti i povezani s vrlo sporom progresijom opstruktivnog ili miješanog opst...

  11. KLASIČNI NAČINI PRERADE RIBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kalember, Đurica; Jelen, Tatjana

    1998-01-01

    Prodaja ribe čini veliku poteskoću u opskrbi ribom današnjega stanovništva, iako je ona vrlo vrijedna prehrambena namirnica. Klasična ponuda svježe ribe sve manje ima utjecaja na ionako malu njezinu potrošnju. Stoga se treba podsjetiti na klasične načine prerade ribe, koji, iako već gotovo zaboravljeni, mogu bitno povećati izbor ribe i mjesta njezine prodaje. Nakon čišćenja i rezanja ribe, koji su primaran postupak u njenoj preradi, na red dolazi soljenje, nakon čega slana riba može biti zavr...

  12. Istraživanje učinka alkalne hidrolize otpada životinjskog porijekla kao predtretmana proizvodnji bioplina

    OpenAIRE

    Kalambura, Sanja; Čikić, Ante; DUNĐER, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Otpad je jedan od ključnih problema moderne civilizacije i predstavlja rezultat našeg načina života. Nakon pojave goveđe spongiformne encefalopatije, te zabrane hranjenja životinja mesnim koštanim brašnom razvijaju se nove tehnologije prerade životinjskog otpada i njegova upotreba u energetske svrhe. Neki dijelovi ovog otpada, kao mozak i leđna moždina, visoko su rizične tvari i mogu biti zaraženi prionima, te je njihovo zbrinjavanje moguće isključivo u strogo kontroliranim uvjetima. Pomoću o...

  13. KONGENITALNA CISTIČNA ADENOMATOIDNA MALFORMACIJA

    OpenAIRE

    VLADAREANU, Radu; Pelinescu-Onciul, Dimitrie; Zvânca, Mona; Mihalescu, Doina

    2007-01-01

    Cistična adenomatoidna malformacija pluća (CACM) je rijetka bolest s pojavnošću od 1/25 000 do 1/35 000 trudnoća, razvojna pogrješka koja nastaje preraštanjem terminalnih respiratornih mjehurića. Prenatalna dijagnoza se zasniva na ultrazvučnom prikazu hiperehogenog tumora pluća, koji može biti mikrocističan i makrocističan. Pri bolesti može nastati pomak medijastinuma, fetalni hidrops ili polihidramnios. Ishod je loš u bilateralnim slučajevima, u onima s hipolazijom pluća i fetalnim hidropsom...

  14. Učinkovitost metode brain gym u radu s djecom sa specifičnim teškoćama u učenju

    OpenAIRE

    Zrilić, Smiljana; Marasović, Deniza; Perović, Anamarija

    2009-01-01

    U radu je predstavljena metoda Brain Gym te učinkovitost njezine primjene u radu s djecom sa specifi čnim teškoćama u učenju. Premda se učenici sa specifi čnim teškoćama u učenju često tretiraju kao neuspješni, praksa je pokazala da oni u pravilu nisu neuspješni u izvršavanju svih zadataka, u snalaženju u svim situacijama, da nisu neuspješni uvijek i sa svim ljudima. Okolina mora biti motivirajuća, na što najviše mogu utjecati učitelji, primjenjivanjem specifi čnih nastavnih metoda sa svrhom ...

  15. The diagnosis and management of snakebite in dogs - a southern African perspective : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Leisewitz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cases of snakebite envenomation are frequently presented to veterinary practitioners in southernAfrica. Despite this, no published guidelines exist onhowthis medical emergency should be managed. Southern African snake venoms can be classified into 3 main types based on the main mechanism of venom action and clinical presentation. A polyvalent antivenom is manufactured in South Africa and contains antibodies against the most important southern African snake venoms. The cytotoxic venoms are represented mainly by the puff-adder (Bitis arietans, Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossabica, black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis (in the Western Cape and Namibia and the stiletto snake (Atractaspis bibronii. These venoms may cause dramatic local swelling, high morbidity and low mortality and infrequently require the use of antivenom for survival (the only cytotoxic venoms used to prepare the antivenom are the puff-adder and Mozambique spitting cobra. The neurotoxic venoms (represented chiefly by the non-spitting cobras and mambas cause high mortality due to rapid onset of paresis and require antivenom and mechanical ventilatory support which is life-saving. The boomslang (Dispholidus typus and the vine snake (coagulopathic venom rarely bite humans but dogs may be bitten more frequently. These venoms cause a consumption coagulopathy and successful treatment of boomslang bites requires the use of snake species-specific monovalent antivenom. There is no antivenom available for treating vine snake (Thelotornis capensis, berg adder (Bitis atropos, night adder (Causus spp., stiletto snake and other lesser adder bites. There are some important differences between the way snakebites are managed in humans and dogs.

  16. Nudivirus Genomics: Diversity and Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jie Wang; John P. Burand; Johannes A. Jehle

    2007-01-01

    Nudiviruses represent a diverse group of arthropod specific, rod-shaped and dsDNA viruses. Due to similarities in pathology and morphology to members of the family Baculoviridae, they have been previously classified as the so-called "non-occluded" baculoviruses. However, presently they are taxonomically orphaned and are not assigned to any virus family because of the lack of genetic relatedness to Baculoviridae,. Here, we report on recent progress in the genomic analysis of Heliothis zea nudivirus 1 (HzNV-1), Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV), Gryllus bimaculatus nudivirus (GbNV) and Heliotis zea nudivirus 2 (HzNV-2). Gene content comparison and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the viruses share 15 core genes with baculoviruses and form a monophyletic sister group to them. Consequences of the genetic relationship are discussed for the classification of nudiviruses.

  17. Hydrodynamic body shape analysis and their impact on swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Zeng; Zhan, Jie-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the hydrodynamic characteristics of different adult male swimmer's body shape using computational fluid dynamics method. This simulation strategy is carried out by CFD fluent code with solving the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using the RNG k-ε turbulence closure. The water free surface is captured by the volume of fluid (VOF) method. A set of full body models, which is based on the anthropometrical characteristics of the most common male swimmers, is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. The analysis of CFD results revealed that swimmer's body shape has a noticeable effect on the hydrodynamics performances. This explains why male swimmer with an inverted triangle body shape has good hydrodynamic characteristics for competitive swimming. PMID:26898107

  18. Investigations of astrophysically interesting nuclear reactions by the use of gas target techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.W. [Inst. fuer Strahlenphysik, Univ. Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    A brief review of the common properties of windowless and recirculating gas targets is presented. As example the Stuttgart gas target facility Rhinoceros in the extended and in the supersonic jet mode with its properties and techniques is explained, also with respect to gas purification techniques. Furthermore several typical experiments from the field of nuclear astrophysics with characteristic results are described (D({alpha},{gamma}){sup 6}Li, {sup 15}N({alpha},{gamma}){sup 19}F, {sup 16}O(p,{gamma}){sup 17}F, {sup 16}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 20}Ne, {sup 20}Ne({alpha},{gamma}){sup 24}Mg, {sup 21}Ne({alpha},n){sup 24}Mg, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne, {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne). In several cases the experimental sensitivity could be raised by up to a factor of 10{sup 6}. (orig.)

  19. Piroplasm parasites of white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum in the Kruger National Park, and their relation to anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Govender

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a larger survey to map the geographical distribution of Babesia and Theileria parasites in the southern African rhinoceros population, white rhinoceroses were sampled during routine immobilisations in the Kruger National Park. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse line blot (RLB hybridisation assays were used to screen for the presence of piroplasms and complete blood counts were used to assess associated changes in clinical parameters. Of the 195 rhinoceroses sampled, 71 (36.4 % tested positive for the presence of Theileria bicornis, with no significant change in the haematological parameters measured, while 18 (9.2 % tested positive for Theileria equi. None of the rhinoceroses sampled tested positive for Babesia bicornis, a parasite associated with mortalities in black rhinoceroses.

  20. Piroplasm parasites of white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) in the Kruger National Park, and their relation to anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, D; Oosthuizen, M C; Oosthuisen, M C; Penzhorn, B L

    2011-03-01

    As part of a larger survey to map the geographical distribution of Babesia and Theileria parasites in the southern African rhinoceros population, white rhinoceroses were sampled during routine immobilisations in the Kruger National Park. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) hybridisation assays were used to screen for the presence of piroplasms and complete blood counts were used to assess associated changes in clinical parameters. Of the 195 rhinoceroses sampled, 71 (36.4 %) tested positive for the presence of Theileria bicornis, with no significant change in the haematological parameters measured, while 18 (9.2 %) tested positive for Theileria equi. None of the rhinoceroses sampled tested positive for Babesia bicornis, a parasite associated with mortalities in black rhinoceroses.

  1. A simple framework for integrated design of complex architectural forms

    CERN Document Server

    Svoboda, Ladislav; Zeman, Jan; Kurilla, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a newly developed methodology and a software tool for parametric design of complex architectural objects, so called digital or algorithmic forms. In order to provide a maximally flexible solution, the proposed design philosophy yields two open source utilities Donkey and MIDAS written in Grashopper algorithm editor and C++, respectively, that are to be linked with a scripting-based architectural modellers Rhinoceros(C), AutoCAD(C) and the open source Finite Element solver OOFEM. The emphasis is on the mechanical response of designed objects in order to provide architects with a consistent learning framework and wise insight into structural behaviour of their artworks. As demonstrated on several case studies, the combination of the utilities may handle objects of considerable structural complexity and boosts the algorithmic architectural design in terms of accelerating the process of finding procedural design parameters from orders of weeks to days or hours.

  2. 3D numerical simulation analysis of passive drag near free surface in swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jie-min; Li, Tian-zeng; Chen, Xue-bin; Li, Yok-sheung; Wai, Wing-hong Onyx

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k- ɛ turbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer's arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.

  3. 3D Numerical Simulation Analysis of Passive Drag near Free Surface in Swimming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹杰民; 李天赠; 陈学彬; 李毓湘; 韦永康

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k-εturbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer’s arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.

  4. The Sarmatian vertebrates from Draxeni (Moldavian Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Codrea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle Miocene (Sarmatian vertebrates had been unearthed at Draxeni (Vaslui district. The site is located in the northern area of the Moldavian Platform. There, the sand belonging to Şcheia Formation (Bessarabian is mined in a restricted open pit. This sand is related to a littoral environment (shoreface and foreshore. Some of its levels are rich in mollusc debris. Vertebrate remains, carried into the Bessarabian brackish basin are present too, but in smaller amounts. Mastodon, rhinoceros, hipparionine, tortoise remains had been collected there over several years. All teeth and bones are isolated and bear the marks of intensive rolling by waves and currents. This assemblage is typical for the top of Bessarabian in Moldavia, i.e. soon after the first hipparionine invasion in this part of the Europe. This assemblage can be related to the base of MN 9 unit.

  5. Investigations of astrophysically interesting nuclear reactions by the use of gas target techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the common properties of windowless and recirculating gas targets is presented. As example the Stuttgart gas target facility Rhinoceros in the extended and in the supersonic jet mode with its properties and techniques is explained, also with respect to gas purification techniques. Furthermore several typical experiments from the field of nuclear astrophysics with characteristic results are described (D(α,γ)6Li, 15N(α,γ)19F, 16O(p,γ)17F, 16O(α,γ)20Ne, 20Ne(α,γ)24Mg, 21Ne(α,n)24Mg, 18O(α,n)21Ne, 17O(α,n)20Ne). In several cases the experimental sensitivity could be raised by up to a factor of 106. (orig.)

  6. The larger mammal fauna from the Lower Paleolithic Schöningen Spear site and its contribution to hominin subsistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Buhrs, Elfi; Verheijen, Ivo

    2015-12-01

    The locality Schöningen (Germany) is an important source of knowledge about Lower Paleolithic hominin subsistence. The locality includes a series of sites dated to the late Middle Pleistocene with a Holsteinian (MIS 11) and Reinsdorf Interglacial (MIS 9) age. One of the youngest sites is Schöningen 13 II-4, the Spear Horizon site also known as the Horse Butchery site. The organic remains excavated here are exceptionally well-preserved as they were embedded in anaerobic, waterlogged sediments in an area where the groundwater is rich in calcium carbonate. The fossil assemblage is ideal for the study of patterns in hominin interference with the mammalian species encountered at the site. The vertebrate record is extensive and very diverse. The fossil larger carnivore guild of the Spear Horizon faunal assemblage includes saber-toothed cat, fox, and wolf. Herbivores are represented by an elephant species, two equid species, two rhinoceros species, two cervid species, and two large bovid species. Evidence of hominin interference presents itself as either marks on skeletal remains related to the use of bones as knapping tools or hammers, or as marks that indicate butchering activities such as skinning, dismembering, defleshing, filleting, and marrow extraction. The humerus of the saber-toothed cat clearly shows that the bone has been used as a knapping tool. The fossil remains of the other larger carnivores do not show any signs of hominin interference or exploitation. This also applies to the limited number of elephant and rhinoceros remains found at the site. The large horse Equus mosbachensis dominates the larger mammal record and played a major role in hominin subsistence. Marks on the horse bones indicate that a large number of carcasses have been butchered. Traces on the fossil remains of both red deer (Cervus elaphus) and the large bovids also indicate exploitation by Lower Paleolithic hominins. PMID:26607346

  7. Status Identification and Prediction of Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong Wildlife Corridor of Assam, India, Using Geospatial Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Bhavna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to discover the impacts of various developmental activities on the Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong wildlife corridor of Assam, India, using geospatial technology; as well as to predict the future status of the wildlife corridor by using the Cellular Automata Markov Model. Due to various anthropogenic activities the condition of the natural corridor has deteriorated, and in recent years many wild animals have been killed by road traffic accidents; in particular, greater one-horned (Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis are killed indiscriminately by the poachers, having been deviated from their regular routes. Changes were evident during the two decades between 1990 and 2010, when a large number of dense forest areas were converted to open forest, combined with losses of areas of scrub and marshy land. The area under agriculture and plantation crop increased along with the grassland during the decades. It has been found that the forests in Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong corridor are fragmented, and the area within the corridor is shrinking. There is considerable increase in patchiness, proportion of edge, and a perforated reduction of core areas within the corridor. The predicted land use/cover map of Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong corridor shows expansion of agricultural land, as well as plantation areas. It is estimated that only 25.66 percent of the present dense forest and 20.72 percent of open forest will remain by 2030, while areas under agriculture and plantation will increase by 33.91 and 5.33 percent, respectively.

  8. İŞGÖREN SEÇİM SÜRECİNDEKİ KRİTİK FAALİYETLERİN ANALİTİK HİYERARŞİ SÜRECİ İLE DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan TEMİZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Proje, zaman, kaynak ve para gibi kısıtları olan, belirli bir amacı başarmak için başlangıç ve bitiş sürelerine sahip ve öncelik ilişkileri olan bir takım faaliyetlerden oluşan bir süreçtir. İşgören seçimi her işletme için hayati bir öneme sahiptir. Bu süreç, işletmenin ihtiyaçlarına uygun işgücünü bulma ve işletmeye dahil etme faaliyetlerinden oluşan bir proje gibi düşünülebilir. Bu çalışmada bir fast food işletmesinin müdür adayı işe alım süreci incelenmiştir. İşgören seçim sürecinde işletme tarafından uygulanan faaliyetlerin öncelik ilişkileri kullanılarak proje planlama tekniklerinden Kritik Yol Yöntemi (CPM ile projenin şebekesi çizilmiş, tüm faaliyetler için en erken başlama, en erken bitiş, en geç başlama, en geç bitiş süreleri, toplam boşluklar ve serbest boşluklar hesaplanmış, kritik faaliyetler bulunmuştur. Daha sonra kritik faaliyetlerden bazılarının önceliklerini (göreli önemlerini bulmak için Analitik Hiyerarşi Süreci (AHS kullanılmıştır. ABSTRACT: Project is a process, which has restrictions such as time, resource and money, consisting of a set of activities that have starting and finishing time and precedency relations in order to achieve a specific purpose. Personnel selection has a vital importance for every business. This process can be considered as a project that consists of activities such as finding correct labour force and incorporating them to the organization. In this study personnel selection process of fast food organization was examined. By using precedence relationships of activities, pursued by organization in the personnel selection process, network of project is drawn via Critical Path Method (CPM, which is one of the project planning techniques, earliest start and earliest finish times, latest start and latest finish times, total and free float of all activities were calculated and critical activities were found. Then

  9. Passives in South Asian Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha CHANDRA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Haspelmath (2010 debates whether universal (descriptive categories of the types that generativists (cf. Newmeyer, 2007 envisage are real and needed for cross-linguistic studies. Instead every language has its own unique set of categories. We raise doubt on this “categorial particularism” position by drawing on underlying similarities of passive constructions of three South Asian languages - Oriya (Indo-Aryan, Malayalam (Dravidian and Kharia (Austro-Asiatic. Unlike English-type passives, they retain subject properties for their logical subjects and object properties for their logical objects, suggesting commonalities that a “categorial particularism” approach would not allow us to posit. Our further contention is that like English passives, they too satisfy Shibatani’s (1985 minimal condition for passives – the underscoring or the optionality of agents. Passive voice must therefore be a universal found in all languages primarily resulting in the optionality of agents. We also show how adopting this approach helps us re-analyse Meitei and Ao (Tibeto-Burman as languages involving passives. ----- Haspelmath (2010 se v svoji razpravi sprašuje, ali so univerzalne kategorije, ki jih obravnavajo generativisti (prim. Newmeyer, 2007, resnične in potrebne za medjezikovne raziskave. Namesto tega naj bi imel vsak jezik svoje lastne kategorije. Članek se ne strinja s konceptom “specifičnih kategorij”, kar prikaže na primeru podobnih pasivnih konstukcij v treh jezikih Južne Azije: v indoarijskem jeziku orija, dravidskem jeziku malajalam in avstroazijskem jeziku karija. Z razliko od pasivov, ki so značilni za angleščino, pasivi v teh jezikih ohranjajo značilnosti osebka za logične osebke in značilnosti predmeta za logične predmete. V okviru koncepta “specifičnih kategorij” to ne bi smelo biti mogoče. Sledi utemeljitev, da enako kot v angleščini tudi tu omenjene oblike pasiva ustrezajo mininalnim pogojem za pasiv, kot jih

  10. In Situ Fabrication of Bi2Ti2O7/TiO2 Heterostructure Submicron Fibers for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Di; Yang, Hu; Tu, Yafang; Tian, Yu; Cai, Yaxuan; Hu, Zhenglong; Zhu, Xiaolong

    2016-12-01

    A facile two-step synthesis route combining electrospinning and hydrothermal techniques has been performed to obtain Bi2Ti2O7/TiO2 heterostructured submicron fibers. Bi2Ti2O7 nanosheets were grown on the surface of TiO2 submicron fibers. The density of the nanosheets increased with higher precursor concentration of the Bi/Ti reaction raw materials. UV-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicated that the absorption spectrum of the Bi2Ti2O7/TiO2 composite extended into the visible-light region. Photocatalytic tests showed that the Bi2Ti2O7/TiO2 heterostructures possess a much higher degradation rate of rhodamine B than the unmodified TiO2 submicron fibers under visible light. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the synergistic effect between improved visible-light absorption and the internal electric field created by the heterojunctions. The effective separation of photogenerated carriers driven by the photoinduced potential was demonstrated by the photoelectrochemical analysis. PMID:27071680

  11. Međunarodna organizacija kao korisnik strane vojne baze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kinder

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strana vojna baza podrazumijeva točno određeni dio državnog područja neke države na kojemu su, na temelju njezina pristanka, strane vojne snage relativno trajno stacionirane radi provedbe vojnih aktivnosti, pri čemu država korisnik, odnosno njezine vojne snage, imaju isključivi nadzor nad područjem baze. Mada se u ulozi domaćina i korisnika strane vojne baze tradicionalno pojavljuju države kao subjekti međunarodnoga prava, korisnik strane vojne baze može biti i međunarodna organizacija. U dosadašnjoj praksi kao korisnik strane vojne baze, u ograničenoj mjeri, pojavljuje se UN, dok strane vojne baze uspostavljene pod okriljem NATO-a, mada znatno raširenije, redovito pripadaju državama članicama, a ne NATO-u kao međunarodnoj organizaciji.

  12. Isaac Asimov: Kraj / S engleskog preveo Emil Šprljan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Asimov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mislite li da možemo naučiti živjeti tako da napustimo ideju o svijetu nakon smrti, o nepovredivosti majčinstva, svetosti spolnosti, zatrovanost nacionalizmom, žeđ za beskonačnom slobodom i poštovanje industrije u zamjenu za ograničenje rađanja sa svrhom očuvanja ljudske vrste pri čemu bi se seks upražnjavao za zabavu, a sve to podrazumijevalo bi postojanje svjetske vlade, kontroliranu ekologiju i obrazovanje iz zabave?I da sve to moramo učiniti prije isteka dvadesetog stoljeća?Pa, baš i ne moramo. Samo, ukoliko to ne učinimo, naša će civilizacija biti uništena za trideset godina. I to je sve.Između ostalog, po zanimanju sam prorok. To jest, predskazujem budućnost i plaćen sam za to.Naravno, postoji tu i jedna kvaka. Nisam varalica, stoga je moja korisnost i više nego upitna. Kako ne prelazim rukom preko kristalne kugle, ne pružam usluge pratitelja kroz svijet duhova, nemam dara za otkrivenja i potpuno sam lišen mistične intuicije, nikome ne mogu reći koji će konj pobijediti na utrci, ili vara li nekoga žena, ili koliko će živjeti.

  13. Artvin-Saçinka yöresindeki orman ve otlak arazilerinde bazı toprak özelliklerinin yükselti ve derinlik kademelerine göre değişiminin irdelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan Yüksel, Esin

    2009-01-01

    Araştırma alanı, Türkiye'nin Doğu Karadeniz Bölgesi'nde Artvin'e yaklaşık 32 km. mesafede bulunan Saçinka Yöresi'ndeki Godrahav Deresi Havzasının sınırları içerisinde bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Artvin-Saçinka yöresi, Godrahav Deresi Yağış Havzası sınırları içerisinde bulunan orman ve hemen bitişiğindeki ormandan dönüştürülen otlak alanlarında toprakların bazı fiziksel, hidro-fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri ile aşınım eğilimlerinin arazi kullanım şekline, yükselti kademelerine ve derinlik k...

  14. Fenomen “krov” u sociolingivstici (s romanskim primjerima

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    Žarko Muljačić

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Autor primjenjuje pojam "krova” i “natkrivanja" (njem. Dach, Überdachung na polju romanske lingvistike. Otkriva pritom razne tipove “natkrivenih” idioma i klasificira, služeći se njihovlm oprekama, romanske jezike po izgradjenosti" (njem. Ausbausprachen, tal. lingue per elaborazione uključivši u zajednicu romanskih jezika po izgradjenosti i kreolske jeiike s romanskom leksičkom bazom. Ta se klasifikacija zasniva in ultima linea na postojanju   (ili nepostojanju nekog "krova" i na diferencijaciji tipova "krova" koji može biti lingvistički   više ili manje srodan, "jednostavan" ili dvostruk. Već je Heinz Kloss, njemački sociolog, politolog i sociolingvist, ustanovio da "nenatkriveni" dijalekti i isto takvi kreolski jezici imaju više šansi da se osamostale i razviju u jezike po izgradjenosti od svojih "natkrivenih" "kolega". Autor je posao još jedan korak dalje. Preformulirao je Klossovu opoziciju na način da ona može zahvatiti i "male" jezike koji nisu "natkriveni" istorodnim jezikom po izgradjenosti (na pr. sardski i okcitanski i koji, za razliku od "nenatkrivenih" dijalekata (kao korsički, ne posjeduju nigdje na svijetu neku zemlju u kojoj funkcionira kao službeni jezik idiom baziran na istom diasistemu. Tako preformulirana opozicija br. 3 i opozicije br. 2 i 1 (druga je bila jasno formulirana u Klossovim djelima, prva je bila samo kratko i letimično spomenuta i kasnije zaboravljena omogućile su autoru njegovu klasifikaciju koja vrijedi i za druge jezične grupacije i razlikuje, zbog svoje ternarne primjene; devet podtipova, od kojih svi ne moraju svuda postojati (na pr., nema slavenskih kreolskih jezika koji bi bili "izgradjeni". u diskusiji o kriterijima i o kontaktima odnosno sukobima raznih jezika u romanskim zemljama i u "mješovitim" zemljama autor razlikuje situaciju u zemljama koje su do ·pred kratko vrijeme imale centralističko državno uredjenje (Francuska, Španjolska, Italija i u zemljama drugog

  15. Izbor optimalnog puta za kretanje organizovanog kolonskog saobraćajnog toka na osnovu rezultata modeliranja / Choosing an optimal route for organized vehicle movement based on modeling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir S. Gordić

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available U toku planiranja i praktične realizacije zadataka jedinica Vojske SCG često se javlja problem izbora optimalnog puta između dva mesta (čvora na putnoj mreži. Kriterijumi optimizacije mogu biti različiti. Ovaj projekat treba da omogući brzo i lako određivanje optimalnog puta, primenom dinamičkog programiranja (DP, uz korišćenje Belmanovog (Bellman, algoritma u zavisnosti od izabranog kriterijuma -parametra. Kriterijum optimizacije je minimalno vreme kretanja (putovanja, koje je dobijeno imitacionim modeliranjem kolonskog saobraćajnog toka. Razrađeni algoritam omogućuje izbor optimalnog puta, za bilo koja dva čvora na mreži. / During the planning and practical realization of Serbian & Montenegro units' tasks a problem -which often occurs is choosing an optimal transport route between two places (nodes. Optimization criteria can be various. This project should enable quick and easy defining of an optimal route, applying dynamic programing (DP using Bellman's algorithm depending on chosen criteria - parameter. Optimization criteria represent minimum movement time (traveling, which are taken from imitational modeling of a traffics queue flow. Operating algorithm enable choosing an optimal transport route, for any two nodes on a road map.

  16. [Mortality from snake bites, wild and domestic animal bites and arthropod stings in the savannah zone of eastern Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2002-08-01

    From 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4,228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were brought on by snakebites, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged 1 year or more, 0.9% (26/2,880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of the total number of deaths by accident. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1,280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspididae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%). PMID:12404858

  17. High mortality from snakebite in south-eastern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2001-01-01

    Over 24 years, from 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were caused by snakebite, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged > or = 1 year, 0.9% (26/2880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of total deaths by accidents. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspidae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%). PMID:11579888

  18. Public health aspects of snakebite care in West Africa: perspectives from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Abdulrazaq G

    2013-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a major public health problem among rural communities of the Nigerian savanna. The saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) and, to a lesser extent, the African cobras (Naja spp.) and puff adders (Bitis arietans) have proved to be the most important cause of mortality and morbidity. The main clinical features of E. ocellatus envenoming are systemic hemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock, local swelling, bleeding and, occasionally, necrosis. Bites may be complicated by amputation, blindness, disability, disfigurement, mutilation, tissue destruction and psychological consequences. Antivenom remains the hallmark and mainstay of envenoming management while studies in Nigeria confirm its protection of over 80% against mortality from carpet-viper bites. However, the availability, distribution and utilization of antivenom remain challenging although two new antivenoms (monospecific EchiTab G and trispecific EchiTab ICP-Plus) derived from Nigerian snake venoms have proven very effective and safe in clinical trials. A hub-and-spoke strategy is suggested for broadening antivenom access to endemic rural areas together with instituting quality assurance, standardization and manpower training. With the advent of antivenomics, national health authorities must be aided in selecting and purchasing antivenoms appropriate to their national needs while manufacturers should be helped in practical ways to improve the safety, efficacy and potential coverage against snake venoms and pricing of their products. PMID:24134780

  19. Identification of cDNAs encoding viper venom hyaluronidases: cross-generic sequence conservation of full-length and unusually short variant transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert A; Ibison, Frances; Wilbraham, Davina; Wagstaff, Simon C

    2007-05-01

    The immobilisation of prey by snakes is most efficiently achieved by the rapid dissemination of venom from its site of injection into the blood stream. Hyaluronidase is a common component of snake venoms and has been termed the "venom spreading factor". In the absence of nucleotide or protein sequence data to confirm the functional identity of this venom component, we interrogated a venom gland EST database for the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus (Nigeria), using the gene ontology (GO) term "carbohydrate metabolism". A single hyalurononglucosaminadase-activity matching sequence (EOC00242) was found and used to design PCR primers to acquire the full-length cDNA sequence. Although very different from the bee venom and mammalian hyaluronidase sequences, the E. ocellatus sequence retained all the catalytic, positional and structural residues that characterise this class of carbohydrate metabolising hydrolases. An extraordinarily high level of sequence identity (>95%) was observed in analogous venom gland cDNA sequences isolated (by PCR) from another saw-scaled viper species, E. pyramidum leakeyi (Kenya), and from the sahara horned viper, Cerastes cerastes cerastes (Egypt) and the puff adder, Bitis arietans (Nigeria). Smaller amplicons, lacking hyaluronidase catalytic residues because of 768 bp or 855 bp central deletions, appear to encode either truncated peptides without hyaluronidase activity, or are non-translated transcripts because they lack consensus translation initiating motifs. PMID:17210232

  20. Contribution of stable isotopes (C,N,S) in collagen of late Pleistocene large mammal trophic ecology and landscape use: a case study in Goyet and Scladina cave (30-40,000 years BP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Germonpré, Mietje

    2010-05-01

    Two Belgian caves yielded very rich large mammal associations dating around 30 to 40,000 years ago: Goyet and Scladina cave (layer 1A). These sites are only 5 km apart but the cave entrances open on different valleys, in a quite diverse landscape ranging between open, unprotected uplands, steep cliffs and sheltered sun-exposed gorges, with the larger Meuse valley nearby. This mosaic scenery permitted during the Last Glacial a rich diversity of fossil flora and fauna. The faunal association includes a large diversity of taxa including Aurochs Bos primigenius, steppe bison Bison priscus, reindeer Rangifer tarandus, giant deer Megaloceros giganteus, horse Equus ferus, woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis, woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, cave bear Ursus spelaeus, brown bear Ursus arctos, wolf Canis lupus, cave lion Panthera leo spelaea, and cave hyaena Crocuta crocuta spelaea. All the 90 studied bones and teeth yielded collagen with excellent collagen preservation, allowing reliable investigations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic biogeochemistry. The combination of three different isotopic tracers allows to deciphering the effects of food selection and landscape use by different herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. This is the first study to include sulfur isotopic signatures in the study of late Quaternary large mammal palaeobiology. This new tracer yields evidence on mobility and differences in pasture areas, as different geological bedrock may exhibit various sulfur isotopic signatures that will pass on the herbivores and further on their predators. Using this feature in addition to the trophic information provided by carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures, it appears that for some species present in both sites, such as horse and woolly rhinoceros, the individuals found in each site probably did not use the same pasture areas. This seems to also the case for the overwhelmingly vegetarian cave bears. In addition, individuals from the same species

  1. Digital surveillance: a novel approach to monitoring the illegal wildlife trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Sonricker Hansen

    Full Text Available A dearth of information obscures the true scale of the global illegal trade in wildlife. Herein, we introduce an automated web crawling surveillance system developed to monitor reports on illegally traded wildlife. A resource for enforcement officials as well as the general public, the freely available website, http://www.healthmap.org/wildlifetrade, provides a customizable visualization of worldwide reports on interceptions of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. From August 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, publicly available English language illegal wildlife trade reports from official and unofficial sources were collected and categorized by location and species involved. During this interval, 858 illegal wildlife trade reports were collected from 89 countries. Countries with the highest number of reports included India (n = 146, 15.6%, the United States (n = 143, 15.3%, South Africa (n = 75, 8.0%, China (n = 41, 4.4%, and Vietnam (n = 37, 4.0%. Species reported as traded or poached included elephants (n = 107, 12.5%, rhinoceros (n = 103, 12.0%, tigers (n = 68, 7.9%, leopards (n = 54, 6.3%, and pangolins (n = 45, 5.2%. The use of unofficial data sources, such as online news sites and social networks, to collect information on international wildlife trade augments traditional approaches drawing on official reporting and presents a novel source of intelligence with which to monitor and collect news in support of enforcement against this threat to wildlife conservation worldwide.

  2. The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java. PMID:27667928

  3. Development of a Titanium Plate for Mandibular Angle Fractures with a Bone Defect in the Lower Border: Finite Element Analysis and Mechanical Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rangel Goulart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to develop a plate to treat mandibular angle fractures using the finite element method and mechanical testing. Material and Methods: A three-dimensional model of a fractured mandible was generated using Rhinoceros 4.0 software. The models were exported to ANSYS®, in which a static application of displacement (3 mm was performed in the first molar region. Three groups were assessed according to the method of internal fixation (2 mm system: two non-locking plates; two locking plates and a new design locking plate. The computational model was transferred to an in vitro experiment with polyurethane mandibles. Each group contained five samples and was subjected to a linear loading test in a universal testing machine. Results: A balanced distribution of stress was associated with the new plate design. This plate modified the mechanical behavior of the fractured region, with less displacement between the fractured segments. In the mechanical test, the group with two locking plates exhibited greater resistance to the 3 mm displacement, with a statistically significant difference when compared with the new plate group (ANOVA, P = 0.016. Conclusions: The new plate exhibited a more balanced distribution of stress. However, the group with two locking plates exhibited greater mechanical resistance.

  4. Daylight Design of Office Buildings: Optimisation of External Solar Shadings by Using Combined Simulation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrating daylight and energy performance with optimization into the design process has always been a challenge for designers. Most of the building environmental performance simulation tools require a considerable amount of time and iterations for achieving accurate results. Moreover the combination of daylight and energy performances has always been an issue, as different software packages are needed to perform detailed calculations. A simplified method to overcome both issues using recent advances in software integration is explored here. As a case study; the optimization of external shadings in a typical office space in Australia is presented. Results are compared against common solutions adopted as industry standard practices. Visual comfort and energy efficiency are analysed in an integrated approach. The DIVA (Design, Iterate, Validate and Adapt plug-in for Rhinoceros/Grasshopper software is used as the main tool, given its ability to effectively calculate daylight metrics (using the Radiance/Daysim engine and energy consumption (using the EnergyPlus engine. The optimization process is carried out parametrically controlling the shadings’ geometries. Genetic Algorithms (GA embedded in the evolutionary solver Galapagos are adopted in order to achieve close to optimum results by controlling iteration parameters. The optimized result, in comparison with conventional design techniques, reveals significant enhancement of comfort levels and energy efficiency. Benefits and drawbacks of the proposed strategy are then discussed.

  5. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed.

  6. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Abdelgawad

    Full Text Available Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM, a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls.

  7. Chemically mediated group formation in soil-dwelling larvae and pupae of the beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2014-09-01

    Many insects form groups through interactions among individuals, and these are often mediated by chemical, acoustic, or visual cues and signals. In spite of the diversity of soil-dwelling insects, their aggregation behaviour has not been examined as extensively as that of aboveground species. We investigated the aggregation mechanisms of larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus, which live in groups in humus soil. In two-choice laboratory tests, 2nd- and 3rd-instar larvae gathered at conspecific larvae irrespective of the kinship. The ablation of maxillae, which bear chemosensilla, abolished aggregation behaviour. Intact larvae also exhibited aggregation behaviour towards a larval homogenate. These results suggest that larval aggregation is mediated by chemical cues. We also demonstrated that the mature larvae of T. dichotomus built their pupal cells close to a mesh bag containing a conspecific pupal cell, which indicated that larvae utilize chemical cues emanating from these cells to select the pupation site. Thus, the larvae of T. dichotomus may use chemical cues from the conspecifics in two different contexts, i.e. larval aggregation and pupation site selection. Using conspecific cues, larvae may be able to choose suitable locations for foraging or building pupal cells. The results of the present study highlight the importance of chemical information in belowground ecology.

  8. Identification of toxigenic Microcystis strains after incidents of wild animal mortalities in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholster, Paul J; Myburgh, Jan G; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy; Botha, Anna-Maria

    2009-05-01

    The eutrophic process potentially caused by a high urine and faecal load resulting from an unusually high hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibious) density in the Nhlanganzwane Dam, Kruger National Park, South Africa, triggered a chain of events characterised by an increase in the growth of primary producers (Microcystis aeruginosa). This increase in M. aeruginosa biomass was followed by bio-intoxication incidents in wild animals. In this study, we determine if a M. aeruginosa bloom with a total microcystin level of 23,718microgl(-1) have been responsible for mortalities of megaherbivores in the Nhlanganzwane Dam. We further use microcystin molecular markers derived from the mcy gene cluster to identify potentially toxigenic environmental Microcystis strains in the dam during the occurrence of animal intoxications. The estimated total microcystin-LR daily intake by an adult male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) from cyanobacterial-contaminated water of the dam during the toxic event was an order of magnitude higher (754.29microgkg(-1)bw) in comparison with the lowest observed adverse effecting level (LOAEL) value measured for pigs in a previous study by other authors. In this study the presence of toxic cyanobacterial strains was confirmed with the use of molecular markers that detected the presence of the mcy gene cluster responsible for the production of toxin by M. aeruginosa.

  9. Eco-epidemiological and pathological features of wildlife mortality events related to cyanobacterial bio-intoxication in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bengis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, several clustered, multispecies, wildlife mortality events occurred in the vicinity of two man-made earthen dams in the southern and south central regions of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. On field investigation, heavy cyanobacterial blooms were visible in these impoundments and analysis of water samples showed the dominance of Microcystis spp. (probably Microcystis aeruginosa. Macroscopic lesions seen at necropsy and histopathological lesions were compatible with a diagnosis of cyanobacterial intoxication. Laboratory toxicity tests and assays also confirmed the presence of significant levels of microcystins in water from the two dams. These outbreaks occurred during the dry autumn and early winter seasons when water levels in these dams were dropping, and a common feature was that all the affected dams were supporting a large number of hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibius. It is hypothesised that hippopotamus’ urine and faeces, together with agitation of the sediments, significantly contributed to internal loading of phosphates and nitrogen – leading to eutrophication of the water in these impoundments and subsequent cyanobacterial blooms. A major cause for concern was that a number of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum were amongst the victims of these bio-intoxication events. This publication discusses the eco-epidemiology and pathology of these clustered mortalities, as well as the management options considered and eventually used to address the problem.

  10. The UF Family of hybrid phantoms of the pregnant female for computational radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to assess in utero radiation doses and related quantities to the developing fetus should account for the presence of the surrounding maternal tissues. Maternal tissues can provide varying levels of protection to the fetus by shielding externally-emitted radiation or, alternatively, can become sources of internally-emitted radiation following the biokinetic uptake of medically-administered radiopharmaceuticals or radionuclides located in the surrounding environment—as in the case of the European Union’s SOLO project (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations). The University of Florida had previously addressed limitations in available computational phantom representation of the developing fetus by constructing a series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms at eight different ages and three weight percentiles. Using CT image sets of pregnant patients contoured using 3D-DOCTORTM, the eight 50th percentile fetal phantoms from that study were systematically combined in RhinocerosTM with the UF adult non-pregnant female to yield a series of reference pregnant female phantoms at fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. Deformable, non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces were utilized to alter contoured maternal anatomy in order to (1) accurately position and orient each fetus and surrounding maternal tissues and (2) match target masses of maternal soft tissue organs to reference data reported in the literature. (paper)

  11. 海南省椰子病虫害的监测与调查%Monitor and survey of pest insects and deseases of coconut trees in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明光; 韩玉春; 李伟东; 刘福秀; 徐卫; 敖苏; 汪兴鉴

    2010-01-01

    通过近2年来对海南省椰子作物病虫害的野外监测、调查和室内鉴定的结果表明,目前在海南省椰子作物上发生的病虫共有37种,其中害虫30种,病害7种.主要病虫种类包括椰心叶甲(Brontispa longissima Gestro)、红棕象甲(Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Fabricius)、二疣犀甲(Oryctes rhinoceros L.)、椰花四星象甲(Diocalandra frumenti Fabricius)、红脉穗螟(Tirathaba rufivena Walker)、椰子泻血病[Ceratocystis paradoxa(Dade)Mor]、椰子灰斑病(Pestalotia palmarum Cooke)、椰子芽腐病(Phytophthora palmivora Butler)和椰子干腐病(Paecilomyces varioti Bainier)等,其中椰心叶甲、红棕象甲、二疣犀甲、椰花四星象甲和椰子泻血病对海南椰子树危害最为严重,应重点予以防控.

  12. Accuracy of a newly developed cone-beam computerized tomography-aided surgical guidance system for dental implant placement: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Sema; Kamburoğlu, Kivanç; Özen, Tuncer

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the accuracy of the cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT)- aided StentCad Beyond surgical guidance system and to compare bone-supported and tooth/bone-supported guidance by using this system in dental implant placement ex vivo. Five cadaver mandibles were scanned using an Iluma CBCT scanner. After scanning, DICOM slices were transferred to the StentCad Beyond implant simulation software, which was used for preoperative implant planning. Using the StentCad Beyond guidance system, 9 implant drills were inserted using a bone-supported guidance system and 11 using a tooth/bone-supported guidance system. Mandibles were scanned again and these data were transferred to the StentCad Beyond software. Pre- and postoperative information was superimposed using the Rhinoceros version 4 software program, and deviations between planned and actual drill positions were calculated for each implant. In addition, differences between bone-supported and tooth/bone-supported guidance systems were analyzed by t-test, with a significance level of P .05); however, statistically significant differences between groups were found in mean horizontal coronal deviation (P = .016) and mean horizontal apical deviation (P = .047). The StentCad Beyond system was found to be a reliable guide for placing implants ex vivo.

  13. Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanyan, Sergey L.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Karhu, Juha A.; Possnert, Göran; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold D.

    2008-07-01

    We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of the radiocarbon dates are published here for the first time. Of the124 radiocarbon dates on mammoth bone, 106 fall between 3700 and 9000 yr ago. We believe these dates bracket the period of mammoth isolation on Wrangel Island and their ultimate extinction, which we attribute to natural causes. The absence of dates between 9-12 ka probably indicates a period when mammoths were absent from Wrangel Island. Long bone dimensions of Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island indicate that these animals were comparable in size to those on the mainland; although they were not large animals, neither can they be classified as dwarfs. Occurrence of mammoth Holocene refugia on the mainland is suggested. Based on other species of the Mammoth fauna that have also been radiocarbon on Wrangel Island, including horse, bison, musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, it appears that the mammoth was the only species of that fauna that inhabited Wrangel Island in the mid-Holocene.

  14. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Salmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed.

  15. PARAMETRIC MODELING, CREATIVITY, AND DESIGN: TWO EXPERIENCES WITH ARCHITECTURE’ STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Florio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reflect on the use of the parametric modeling in two didactic experiences. The first experiment involved resources of the Paracloud program and its relation with the Rhinoceros program, that resulted in the production of physical models produced with the aid of the laser cutting. In the second experiment, the students had produced algorithms in the Grasshopper, resulting in families of structures and coverings. The study objects are both the physical models and digital algorithms resultants from this experimentation. For the analysis and synthesis of the results, we adopted four important assumptions: 1. the value of attitudes and environment of work; 2. the importance of experimentation and improvisation; 3. understanding of the design process as a situated act and as a ill-defined problem; 4. the inclusion of creative and critical thought in the disciplines. The results allow us to affirm that the parametric modeling stimulates creativity, therefore allowing combination of different parameters, that result in unexpected discoveries. Keywords: Teach-Learning, Parametric Modeling, Laser Cutter, Grasshopper, Design Process, Creativity.

  16. Serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and -3 in eight hoofstock species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Kristen E; Goodman, Danielle; Maclure, Rebecca M; Penfold, Linda M; Zinn, Steven A

    2011-01-01

    The somatotropic axis, which includes growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), is involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism. Measures of the somatotropic axis can be predictive of nutritional status and growth rate that can be utilized to identify nutritional status of individual animals. Before the somatotropic axis can be a predictive tool, concentrations of hormones of the somatotropic axis need to be established in healthy individuals. To begin to establish these data, we quantified IGF-I, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 in males and females of eight threatened hoofstock species at various ages. Opportunistic blood samples were collected from Bos javanicus (Java banteng), Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci (bongo), Gazella dama ruficollis (addra gazelle), Taurotragus derbianus gigas (giant eland), Kobus megaceros (Nile lechwe), Hippotragus equines cottoni (roan antelope), Ceratotherium simum simum (white rhinoceros), and Elephas maximus (Asian elephant). Serum IGF-I and IGFBPs were determined by radioimmunoassay and ligand blot, respectively. Generally, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were greater in males, and IGFBP-2 was greater in females. In banteng (P = 0.08) and male Nile lechwe (P elephants (P < 0.05) and antelope (P = 0.08), IGFBP-2 were greater in females. Determination of concentrations of hormones in the somatotropic axis in healthy animals makes it possible to develop models that can identify the nutritional status of these threatened hoofstock species. PMID:20853408

  17. Effects of private-land use, livestock management, and human tolerance on diversity, distribution, and abundance of large african mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaird, Margaret F; O'brien, Timothy G

    2012-12-01

    Successful conservation of large terrestrial mammals (wildlife) on private lands requires that landowners be empowered to manage wildlife so that benefits outweigh the costs. Laikipia County, Kenya, is predominantly unfenced, and the land uses in the area allow wide-ranging wildlife to move freely between different management systems on private land. We used camera traps to sample large mammals associated with 4 different management systems (rhinoceros sanctuaries, no livestock; conservancies, intermediate stocking level; fenced ranches, high stocking level; and group ranches, high stocking level, no fencing, pastoralist clan ownership) to examine whether management and stocking levels affect wildlife. We deployed cameras at 522 locations across 8 properties from January 2008 through October 2010 and used the photographs taken during this period to estimate richness, occupancy, and relative abundance of species. Species richness was highest in conservancies and sanctuaries and lowest on fenced and group ranches. Occupancy estimates were, on average, 2 and 5 times higher in sanctuaries and conservancies as on fenced and group ranches, respectively. Nineteen species on fenced ranches and 25 species on group ranches were considered uncommon (occupancy ecotourism benefits, forging agreements to maintain wildlife habitat and corridors, resolving land-ownership conflicts, restoring degraded rangelands, expanding opportunities for grazing leases, and allowing direct benefits to landowners through wildlife harvesting. . PMID:23082891

  18. Protein sequence evidence for monophyly of the carnivore families Procyonidae and Mustelidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, W W

    1986-05-01

    The amino acid sequence of the eye lens protein alpha-crystallin A of the ring-tailed cat, Bassariscus astutus, has been determined. The sequence of the Bassariscus alpha A chain, which is 173 residues long, was compared with the previously determined set of 41 mammalian alpha A sequences. Among the investigated carnivores (dog, cat, sloth bear, American mink, gray seal, and California sea lion) the Bassariscus alpha A sequence exclusively shares two amino acid replacements with the alpha A chain of the mink, Mustela vison: 7 His----Gln and 61 Ile----Val. The Mustela and Bassariscus alpha A sequences differ at only three positions and have no replacements in common with any of the other investigated carnivore alpha A chains. Furthermore, the replacement 7 His----Gln has only been found in three-toed sloth, whereas 61 Ile----Val occurs scattered in three other taxa: pig, rhinoceros, and prosimians. It thus is most parsimonious to join Bassariscus and Mustela--and consequently their respective families, Procyonidae and Mustelidae--as sister groups in the phylogenetic tree of mammalian alpha A sequences. PMID:3444403

  19. Procedure for the systematic orientation of digitised cranial models. Design and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, M; Baena, S; Marín, J J; Arredondo, J M; Auría, J M; Sánchez, B; Tardío, E; Falcón, L

    2015-12-01

    Comparison of bony pieces requires that they are oriented systematically to ensure that homologous regions are compared. Few orientation methods are highly accurate; this is particularly true for methods applied to three-dimensional models obtained by surface scanning, a technique whose special features make it a powerful tool in forensic contexts. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a systematic, assisted orientation method for aligning three-dimensional cranial models relative to the Frankfurt Plane, which would be produce accurate orientations independent of operator and anthropological expertise. The study sample comprised four crania of known age and sex. All the crania were scanned and reconstructed using an Eva Artec™ portable 3D surface scanner and subsequently, the position of certain characteristic landmarks were determined by three different operators using the Rhinoceros 3D surface modelling software. Intra-observer analysis showed a tendency for orientation to be more accurate when using the assisted method than when using conventional manual orientation. Inter-observer analysis showed that experienced evaluators achieve results at least as accurate if not more accurate using the assisted method than those obtained using manual orientation; while inexperienced evaluators achieved more accurate orientation using the assisted method. The method tested is a an innovative system capable of providing very precise, systematic and automatised spatial orientations of virtual cranial models relative to standardised anatomical planes independent of the operator and operator experience.

  20. Herds overhead: Nimbadon lavarackorum (Diprotodontidae, heavyweight marsupial herbivores in the Miocene forests of Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Black

    Full Text Available The marsupial family Diprotodontidae (Diprotodontia, Vombatiformes is a group of extinct large-bodied (60-2500 kg wombat-like herbivores that were common and geographically widespread in Cenozoic fossil deposits of Australia and New Guinea. Typically they are regarded to be gregarious, terrestrial quadrupeds and have been likened in body form among placental groups to sheep, rhinoceros and hippopotami. Arguably, one of the best represented species is the zygomaturine diprotodontid Nimbadon lavarackorum which is known from exceptionally well-preserved cranial and postcranial material from the middle Miocene cave deposit AL90, in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland. Here we describe and functionally analyse the appendicular skeleton of Nimbadon lavarackorum and reveal a far more unique lifestyle for this plesiomorphic and smallest of diprotodontids. Striking similarities are evident between the skeleton of Nimbadon and that of the extant arboreal koala Phascolarctos cinereus, including the powerfully built forelimbs, highly mobile shoulder and elbow joints, proportionately large manus and pes (both with a semi-opposable digit I and exceedingly large, recurved and laterally compressed claws. Combined with the unique (among australidelphians proportionately shortened hindlimbs of Nimbadon, these features suggest adept climbing ability, probable suspensory behaviour, and an arboreal lifestyle. At approximately 70 kg, Nimbadon is the largest herbivorous mammal to have occupied the forest canopies of Australia - an ecological niche that is no longer occupied in any Australian ecosystem and one that further expands the already significant niche diversity displayed by marsupials during the Cenozoic.

  1. VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE OF LAOKHOWA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY IN ASSAM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeeb Kumar Nath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The protective areas like National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and reserve forests have attracted worldwide attention to study vegetation, floral diversity and other wild lives for its conservation, sustainable use and also for proper management of bioresources. Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary has most ideal habitat for Indian one horned rhinoceros and is one of its representative area in Brahmaputra flood plain. The sanctuary is one of the rich and ecological habitat for the wild variety of animals and plants species .The natural vegetation of the area is mainly contributed by forests of tall trees, grassland and wetland vegetation. The woodland provides food and shelter to a variety of animals and the grassland is the haven for a variety of herbivores. Besides these the wetlands and aquatic bodies provides food and shelter to avifauna, fish fauna and other wildlife. The present paper deals with the vegetation present in the sanctuary. The vegetation comprises (a Low alluvial savannah woodland (Salmaria – Albizzia(b Western Wet alluvial grasslands (c Riparian Fringing Forests (d Barringtonia Swamp forests (e Wetlands (f Plantation areas (g Degraded Forests. About 40 sq km areas is grassland; 6 sq km area is occupied by alluvial grassland in the Sanctuary.

  2. On the discovery of a cave lion from the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, I. V.; Tiunov, A. V.; Levchenko, V. A.; Chernova, O. F.; Yudin, V. G.; Bertuch, F.; Shidlovskiy, F. K.

    2015-06-01

    An incomplete postcranial skeleton (67 elements) of a cave lion, a lower jaw and a bundle of fine yellowish hair were found by a local resident in 2008 and 2009 washed out from the perennially frozen Pleistocene sediments in the lower reaches of the Malyi Anyui River (western Chukotka). This is the first skeleton of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss) to be found in Russia. The bone sizes are similar to finds of cave lion bones known from N-E Russia, but larger than East Beringian and smaller than West European ones. The remains have been studied using a variety of methods, including morphology, morphometry, SEM-examination, AMS-dating, and isotopic study, which included examination of over 100 samples of various members of the mammoth faunal assemblage (mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, bison, horse, bear, etc.). The results showed that the northeastern Asian cave lion hunted mainly bison and horses, but not reindeer, unlike its Western Europe counterpart. Bone and claw sheath dating showed an unexpectedly old geochronological age of over 61,000 years (OZQ290, OZQ291), while the hair was dated 28,690 ± 130 (OZQ292), which makes its affinity with the same individual as the skeleton questionable. Further studies to investigate possible unremoved contamination and obtain more reliable date are planned.

  3. Digital surveillance: a novel approach to monitoring the illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonricker Hansen, Amy L; Li, Annie; Joly, Damien; Mekaru, Sumiko; Brownstein, John S

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of information obscures the true scale of the global illegal trade in wildlife. Herein, we introduce an automated web crawling surveillance system developed to monitor reports on illegally traded wildlife. A resource for enforcement officials as well as the general public, the freely available website, http://www.healthmap.org/wildlifetrade, provides a customizable visualization of worldwide reports on interceptions of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. From August 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, publicly available English language illegal wildlife trade reports from official and unofficial sources were collected and categorized by location and species involved. During this interval, 858 illegal wildlife trade reports were collected from 89 countries. Countries with the highest number of reports included India (n = 146, 15.6%), the United States (n = 143, 15.3%), South Africa (n = 75, 8.0%), China (n = 41, 4.4%), and Vietnam (n = 37, 4.0%). Species reported as traded or poached included elephants (n = 107, 12.5%), rhinoceros (n = 103, 12.0%), tigers (n = 68, 7.9%), leopards (n = 54, 6.3%), and pangolins (n = 45, 5.2%). The use of unofficial data sources, such as online news sites and social networks, to collect information on international wildlife trade augments traditional approaches drawing on official reporting and presents a novel source of intelligence with which to monitor and collect news in support of enforcement against this threat to wildlife conservation worldwide. PMID:23236444

  4. Evolutionary Conservation in Genes Underlying Human Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Michelle Ogawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many psychiatric diseases observed in humans have tenuous or absent analogs in other species. Most notable among these are schizophrenia and autism. One hypothesis has posited that these diseases have arisen as a consequence of human brain evolution, for example, that the same processes that led to advances in cognition, language, and executive function also resulted in novel diseases in humans when dysfunctional. Here, the molecular evolution of genes associated with these and other psychiatric disorders are compared among species. Genes associated with psychiatric disorders are drawn from the literature and orthologous sequences are collected from eleven primate species (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, macaque, baboon, marmoset, squirrel monkey, and galago and thirty one non-primate mammalian species. Evolutionary parameters, including dN/dS, are calculated for each gene and compared between disease classes and among species, focusing on humans and primates compared to other mammals and on large-brained taxa (cetaceans, rhinoceros, walrus, bear, and elephant compared to their small-brained sister species. Evidence of differential selection in primates supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia and autism are a cost of higher brain function. Through this work a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the human brain, the pathophysiology of disease, and the genetic basis of human psychiatric disease is gained.

  5. Serum and Plasma Cholinesterase Activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture (Gyps coprotheres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri

    2016-04-28

    Vulture (Accipitridae) poisonings are a concern in South Africa, with hundreds of birds dying annually. Although some of these poisonings are accidental, there has been an increase in the number of intentional baiting of poached rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae) and elephant (Elephantidae) carcasses to kill vultures that alert officials to poaching sites by circling overhead. The primary chemicals implicated are the organophosphorous and carbamate compounds. Although most poisoning events can be identified by dead vultures surrounding the scavenged carcass, weak birds are occasionally found and brought to rehabilitation centers for treatment. The treating veterinarian needs to make an informed decision on the cause of illness or poisoning prior to treatment. We established the reference interval for serum and plasma cholinesterase activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture ( Gyps coprotheres ) as 591.58-1,528.26 U/L, providing a clinical assay for determining potential exposure to cholinesterase-depressing pesticides. Both manual and automated samplers were used with the butyrylthiocholine method. Species reference intervals for both serum and plasma cholinesterase showed good correlation and manual and automated measurements yielded similar results.

  6. A recombinant nucleocapsid-based indirect ELISA for serodiagnosis of Rift Valley fever in African wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) based on the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNp) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) was evaluated for the detection of specific serum IgG antibody in African wildlife. Data sets derived from field-collected sera (n = 918) in Africa (antelopes = 570, black rhinoceros = 43, common zebra = 24, elephant = 73, giraffe = 81, grevy zebra = 78, warthog = 49) were categorised according to the results of a virus neutralisation test (VNT). At cut-offs optimised by the two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis, the diagnostic sensitivity of the I-ELISA was 100% and diagnostic specificity ranged from 99.8% to 100% while estimates for the Youden's index (J) and efficiency (Ef) ranged from 0.99 to 1 and from 99.7% to 100%, respectively. The rNp-based I-ELISA is highly accurate, safe, and offers a single assay format for rapid detection of IgG antibody to RVFV in sera of different wildlife species. (author)

  7. Serum and Plasma Cholinesterase Activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture (Gyps coprotheres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri

    2016-04-28

    Vulture (Accipitridae) poisonings are a concern in South Africa, with hundreds of birds dying annually. Although some of these poisonings are accidental, there has been an increase in the number of intentional baiting of poached rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae) and elephant (Elephantidae) carcasses to kill vultures that alert officials to poaching sites by circling overhead. The primary chemicals implicated are the organophosphorous and carbamate compounds. Although most poisoning events can be identified by dead vultures surrounding the scavenged carcass, weak birds are occasionally found and brought to rehabilitation centers for treatment. The treating veterinarian needs to make an informed decision on the cause of illness or poisoning prior to treatment. We established the reference interval for serum and plasma cholinesterase activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture ( Gyps coprotheres ) as 591.58-1,528.26 U/L, providing a clinical assay for determining potential exposure to cholinesterase-depressing pesticides. Both manual and automated samplers were used with the butyrylthiocholine method. Species reference intervals for both serum and plasma cholinesterase showed good correlation and manual and automated measurements yielded similar results. PMID:26981685

  8. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed. PMID:27433470

  9. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed. PMID:27433470

  10. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed.

  11. Zebra Alphaherpesviruses (EHV-1 and EHV-9): Genetic Diversity, Latency and Co-Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Damiani, Armando; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Strauss, Günter; Szentiks, Claudia A.; East, Marion L.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    Alphaherpesviruses are highly prevalent in equine populations and co-infections with more than one of these viruses’ strains frequently diagnosed. Lytic replication and latency with subsequent reactivation, along with new episodes of disease, can be influenced by genetic diversity generated by spontaneous mutation and recombination. Latency enhances virus survival by providing an epidemiological strategy for long-term maintenance of divergent strains in animal populations. The alphaherpesviruses equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and 9 (EHV-9) have recently been shown to cross species barriers, including a recombinant EHV-1 observed in fatal infections of a polar bear and Asian rhinoceros. Little is known about the latency and genetic diversity of EHV-1 and EHV-9, especially among zoo and wild equids. Here, we report evidence of limited genetic diversity in EHV-9 in zebras, whereas there is substantial genetic variability in EHV-1. We demonstrate that zebras can be lytically and latently infected with both viruses concurrently. Such a co-occurrence of infection in zebras suggests that even relatively slow-evolving viruses such as equine herpesviruses have the potential to diversify rapidly by recombination. This has potential consequences for the diagnosis of these viruses and their management in wild and captive equid populations. PMID:27657113

  12. Návrh mechanismu pro zajištění pronace a supinace protézy horní končetiny

    OpenAIRE

    Rebenda, David

    2014-01-01

    Cílem této práce je návrh mechanismu pro zajištění pronace a supinace protézy horní končetiny a jeho následná realizace v podobě funkčního vzorku. Práce ve své teoretické části shrnuje základní typy amputací předloktí horní končetiny a jejich vliv na omezení rotace předloktí. Dále popisuje základní rozdělení protéz horní končetiny a typů pohonů. Konstrukční návrh včetě kompletní výkresové dokumentace je zpracován v programech Autodesk Inventor Professional 2013 a Rhinoceros 5.0 SR8. Prototyp ...

  13. Using ACTH Challenges to Validate Techniques for Adrenocortical Activity Analysis in Various African Wildlife Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Armstrong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring adrenocortical activity using fecal hormonal analysis can provide information on how environmental changes are affecting non-domestic species health and success in the field; however, this noninvasive method needs proper validation to ensure that analysis reflects true physiological events. Our objectives were to use adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH challenges as a physiological validation method to test the suitability of a new corticosterone enzyme immunoassay (EIA to accurately assess the adrenocortical activity using fecal samples in four African wildlife species-the black rhinoceros (rhino; Diceros bicornis, African elephant (Loxodonta africana, chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes and African lion (Panthera leo krugeri. In the rhino and elephant, fecal Glucocorticoid metabolites (GC surged 75 and 51 h post-ACTH injection, respectively. In the chimpanzee, fecal GC metabolites peaked at 29 h post-injection. And the lion had a peak of fecal GC at 24 h post-ACTH. This study determined that adrenocortical activity was reflected in concentrations of fecal GC metabolites suggesting that this corticosterone EIA is an effective technique for the monitoring stress in four African species.

  14. One sententional model with the prepositional accusativ AS proleptic subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    copulative-adjectival structure biti siguran (be certain, biti ubeđen (be assured and the verbs verovati (believe, misliti (think; then the verb of fictitious cognition uobražavati (imagine; the verbs of speaking pričati (talk and, used in that meaning, the verbs čuti (hear, čitati (read, then kazati (say, šuškati ‘speak quietly’ (whisper, sumnjati (doubt, nagađati (suspect; and at the end the verbs of fear: brinuti se ‘fear’ (worry, bojati se (fear, pribojavati se (have fears, plašiti se (fear, strepeti (fear for, strahovati (be apprehensive. Since with these verbs the complement proposition acquires various features when it comes to factivity, this sentential model is analyzed from that perspective, too. Finally, the paper also discusses the frequency of negative / positive characterization of the referent of the proleptic subject.

  15. Elektromagnetni top - istraživački projekat ili uskoro u upotrebi? / Electromagnetic gun: Still just a research project or the reality of the operational use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena P. Bakić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Više od jednog veka istraživači u mnogim zemljama sveta bave se istraživanjem i razvojem elektromagnetnog (EM topa koji bi bio u mogućnosti da lansira projektil vrlo velikim brzinama. U publikovanoj stručnoj literaturi veći broj radova odnosi se na teorijska razmatranja pojedinih fenomena električnog pogona projektila i na hardverska rešenja električnih uređaja i komponenata, a manje su dostupni javnosti radovi koji se odnose na borbenu upotrebu, koncepciju rešenja i mogućnosti primene takvog oružja u borbenim sistemima vojske. U radu se ukazuje na osnovne probleme projektovanja takvog sistema naoružanja i saopštavaju se informacije na osnovu kojih se može proceniti da li će, kada i na kakvoj platformi EM top biti uveden u operativnu upotrebu. / For more than a century researchers in many countries have been engaged in research and development of electromagnetic (EM guns in order to launch projectiles with very high speed. In published sources many papers are related to theoretical considerations of certain phenomena of electrically driven projectiles and hardware solutions for electrical devices and components required for projectile launching. The works related to the philosophy of combat use, the concept of solutions and possibilities of application of such weapon systems are, however, less available to the public. The intention of the authors of this paper is to point out the basic problems of designing such weapon systems, and to give the readers the information on the basis of which they can assess whether it is possible, when and on what kind of platform for the EM gun to be approved for the operational use.

  16. Evidence for improved cardiac performance after beta-blockade in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, A; Nigri, A; Gioffrè, P A

    1976-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the acute haemodynamic effects of bunitrolol (0-2-hydroxy-3-(tert.butylamino)-propoxy)-bity. Right and left heart catheterization was performed in eleven patients with documented coronary artery disease. After bunitrolol (10 mg i.v.), there was a statistically significant decrease in left ventricular and aortic systolic pressures left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, aortic diastolic and mean pressures, pressure-rate product and compliance index (delta P/delta V). Left ventricular dp/dt, left ventricular dp/dt over isovolumic pressure, systemic resistance and heart rate tended to decrease, stroke volume and left ventricular stroke work index tended to increase, without statistical significance. Cardiac index showed individual variations, the mean values for the group being unchanged. Correlation of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and left ventricular stroke work index showed a shift toward improved ventricular function curve in most cases, deterioration in no instance. Supine exercise was performed in ten patients. Angina occurred in nine patients; in five only before and in four before and after beta-blockade. Post-drug exercise heart rate, pressure-rate product and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were significantly lower, the latter also in the four patients who still presented exercise angina. It is concluded that certain beta-blockers can improve cardiac performance at rest and during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease. This is explainable on the basis of a more favourable balance between oxygen supply and demand, together with a less marked negative inotropic effect due to the partial agonist activity of the agent used in the study. PMID:18374

  17. Prometni koridorji in poselitev v regiji. Navezovanje poselitve na javni promet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Sašek Divjak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Navezovanje poselitve na javni promet na regionalni in mestni ravni je osnovna vsebina tega prispevka. Kot je značilno za zahodno Evropo, se tudi v Sloveniji v širših zaledjih večjih mest pojavljajo izraziti poselitveni pritiski in problemi, ki so vezani na razvoj suburbanizacije. V območjih regionalnih središč, kjer so močni prometni tokovi s pogostimi zastoji motornega prometa, bi moral biti javni promet osnova prometnega sistema. Pomemben je tudi pri konsolidaciji večjih gravitacijskih območij, zlasti somestij. Vendar pa ugotavljamo, da vzporedno s povečano rabo osebnega avtomobila upada uporaba javnih transportnih sredstev. Zato sedanje stanje zahteva sanacijo transportnih sistemov in primerno zgostitev poselitve, vezano predvsem na razvoj javnega prometa. To pa lahko dosežemo le s sinergetskim povezovanjem razvoja javnega potniškega prometa in prostorskega načrtovanja v trajnostno usmerjen poselitveni sistem. Na območju ljubljanske funkcijske regije smo še posebej obdelali povezovanje poselitve z regionalnim sistemom javnega prometa, predvsem s predvideno regionalno lahko železnico oziroma tramvajskim sistemom na ožjem mestnem območju. Predstavljen je model decentralizirane zgostitve poselitve. Na osnovi študije o konceptu razvoja naselij v koridorjih tirnega prometa je bil narejen predlog za potencialne možnosti zgostitve poselitve v ožjih območjih postaj primestne železnice v severnem delu regije od Črnuč do Kamnika.

  18. Socijalni dijalog u profesionalnom sportu – nogomet kao model za druge kolektivne profesionalne sportove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Smokvina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available U radu autor analizira izvore europskog prava na temu socijalnog dijaloga u sportu s posebnim osvrtom na izvore tzv. „mekog prava“. Poštujući načelo autonomije sportskih udruženja i temeljnih gospodarskih sloboda unutarnjeg tržišta Europske unije (dalje: EU, europski socijalni dijalog snažno poduprt od strane institucija EU postaje sve važnijim čimbenikom u reguliranju odnosa, pa tako i radnopravnih odnosa, u profesionalnom sportu.Naglasak će biti i na autonomnim aktima sportskih udruženja (FIFA, UEFA i dr., sportskih liga, odnosno udruženja klubova (kao predstavnika poslodavaca i sindikata sportaša (nacionalnih sindikata, te udruženja FIFPro, kao predstavnika radnika, u prvom redu odgovarajućih sporazuma, odnosno kolektivnih ugovora u profesionalnom sportu, kako bi se pokazala primjena navedenog instituta na regionalnoj i nacionalnoj razini. Komparativno-pravno autor će napraviti analizu kolektivnog radnog prava u profesionalnom nogometu s posebnim osvrtom na Republiku Hrvatsku i prijedlozima de lege ferenda.Nogomet je uzet kao model ne zbog svoje popularnosti, već isključivo iz razloga što je u navedenom sportu socijalni dijalog dostigao najvišu razinu i putem njega možemo slobodno reći danas postepeno idemo ka stvaranju pravnog okvira za socijalni dijalog na razini čitavog sporta na području Europske unije.

  19. U traganju za povijesnim, kulturnim i umjetničkim identitetom umjetnika Schiavona: crtice iz povijesti njihove recepcije u 16. i 17. stoljeću

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Prijatelj Pavičić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autorica pokazuje kako su uz trojicu poznatih likovnih umjetnika Schiavona, Andreu Meldolu (Andriju Medulića, Nicolu dell'Arca i Julija Klovića, u historiografiji i književnosti XVI. i XVII. stoljeća bili povezivani neki od identitetskih stereotipa koji su se i inače tada u književnosti i historiografiji povezivali uz Slavene, Ilire, Dalmatince, Morlake i Hrvate. Primjerice, kvalifikativ „barbarski“ koji se u bolonjskoj historiografiji XVI. st. povezuje uz Nicolu dell'Arca, predstavlja jednu od takvih nekoć uvriježenih stereotipnih skjavonskih karakteristike. U prvom dijelu rada autorica se bavi interpretacijama hrvatskog i makedonskog identiteta (porijekla slavnoga minijaturiste Julija Klovića u XVI. st., u djelima Klovićevih suvremenika poput Giorgia Vasarija i Francisca de Holande, te tijekom XIX. i XX. st, u radovima Ivana Kukuljevića Sakcinskoga, Ivana Goluba i Milana Pelca. Posebna se pažnja posvećuje danas dominantnoj hipotezi da bi „makedonstvo“ Julija Klovića moglo biti izmišljeno s ciljem posvjedočenja njegove umjetničke i rodne ukorijenjenosti u antičko tlo. U drugom se dijelu obrađuju zapisi o Andrei Meldoli i Nicoli dell'Arca u djelima talijanskih historiografa Girolama Borsellija, Cherubina Cherardaccija, Carla Ridolfija i Marca Boschinija, koji su pokušavali stilske specifičnosti kod ove dvojice umjetnika tumačiti kao posljedicu njihovog genotipa i fenotipa. Autorica se posebice osvrće na pojavu ideologema o barbarskom karakteru Nicole dell'Arca u zapisima Girolama Borsellija (kraj XV. st. i Cherubina Cherardaccija (XVI. st..

  20. Venom lethality and diet: differential responses of natural prey and model organisms to the venom of the saw-scaled vipers (Echis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, D P; Barlow, A; Wüster, W

    2012-01-01

    The composition of snake venoms shows a high degree of variation at all taxonomic levels, and natural selection for diet has been implicated as a potential cause. Saw-scaled vipers (Echis) provide a good model for studying this phenomenon. The venoms of arthropod feeding species of Echis are significantly more toxic to natural scorpion prey than those of species which feed predominantly upon vertebrate prey. Although testing venom activity on natural prey is important for our understanding of the evolution of venom, natural prey species are often difficult to obtain in sufficient numbers for toxinological work. In order to test the viability of using cheaper and more easily available model organisms for toxicity assessments in evolutionary research, and the extent to which toxicity of arthropod-eating Echis venoms is increased to arthropods in general or targeted to certain groups, we conducted median lethal dosage (LD(50)) and time to death trials using the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) as a model arthropod, rarely consumed by wild Echis. The venoms of arthropod specialist Echis were found to be significantly more toxic to locusts than the venom of a vertebrate feeding outgroup (Bitis arietans), and one arthropod specialist venom was found to be more toxic than those species which feed upon arthropods infrequently or not at all. The venoms of arthropod specialists were also found to cause death and incapacitation faster than the vertebrate feeding outgroup. Despite some similarity of trends, there are considerable differences between the response of natural prey (scorpions) and a model arthropod (locust) to the venoms of Echis species. This suggests that when possible, natural prey rather than convenient model organisms should be used to gain an understanding of the functional significance of variation in venom composition in snakes. PMID:22079297

  1. »Kommunikation und Kybernetik in Einzeldarstellungen”. Herausgegeben von H. Wolter und W. D. Keidel. Band 2: Structural Linguistics and Human Communication. An Introduction into the Mechanism of Language and the Methodology of Linguistics By Bertil Malmbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Muljačić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Za razliku od priručnika istog pisca New Trends in Linguistics. An Orientation, Stockholm-Lund 1964 (koji predstavlja dotjerani i ažurirani prijevod švedskog originala iz 1959. god. i o kome v. recenziju koju smo objavili u »ZFLMS« X, Novi Sad 1967, str. 181-188, ova je odlična monografija namijenjena uzem krugu čitalaca koji već imaju dovoljnih znanja iz lingvistike i fonetike ili iz društvenih i prirodnih nauka, kojima su od koristi tekovine i metode suvremene lingvistike (psihologija, fonijatrija, logoterapija, metodika učenja stranih jezika, nauka o komunikacijama i sl.. Autor, ugledni romanist i profesor fonetike na sveučilištu u Lundu, a od nedavna i na Sorbonni, svijestan je opasnosti da će lingvistika, prikazana prvenstveno kao znanost koja studira jezično komuniciranje ljudi, nužno morati da se pozabavi i vrlo širokim krugom problema pa će tako neka poglavlja ispasti za jedne čitaoce prekomplicirapa a za druge preelementarna. Drugačije međutim nije moglo biti ako se željelo na relativno malenom prostoru prikazati tako različite pojmove kao sto su fonemi i značenje, decibeli i jezicna promjena, knjizevni stil i govorne smetnje. Metodski pristup gradi i kompozicija sasvim su drugačiji nego u New Trends in Linguistics. Dok su tamo poglavlja posvečena pojedinim lingvističkim školama i pravcima (a samo indirektno i nekim skupinama problema ukoliko se neka škola uglavnom njiina bavila, ova je monografija obrađena problemski.

  2. Fluorometric assay using naphthylamide substrates for assessing novel venom peptidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparello-Clemente, Elaine; Silveira, Paulo Flávio

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we examined the feasibility of using the fluorometry of naphthylamine derivatives for revealing peptidase activities in venoms of the snakes Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops insularis, Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bitis arietans, of the scorpions Tityus serrulatus and Tityus bahiensis, and of the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Loxosceles intermedia. Neutral aminopeptidase (APN) and prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP IV) activities were presented in all snake venoms, with the highest levels in B. alternatus. Although all examined peptidase activities showed relatively low levels in arthropod venoms, basic aminopeptidase (APB) activity from P. nigriventer venom was the exception. Compared to the other peptidase activities, relatively high levels of acid aminopeptidase (APA) activity were restricted to B. arietans venom. B. arietans also exhibited a prominent content of APB activity which was lower in other venoms. Relatively low prolyl endopeptidase and proline iminopeptidase activities were, respectively, detectable only in T. bahiensis and B. insularis. Pyroglutamate aminopeptidase activity was undetectable in all venoms. All examined peptidase activities were undetectable in T. serrulatus venom. In this study, the specificities of a diverse array of peptidase activities from representative venoms were demonstrated for the first time, with a description of their distribution which may contribute to guiding further investigations. The expressive difference between snake and arthropod venoms was indicated by APN and DPP IV activities while APA and APB activities distinguished the venom of B. arietans from those of Brazilian snakes. The data reflected the relatively uniform qualitative distribution of the peptidase activities investigated, together with their unequal quantitative distribution, indicating the evolutionary divergence in the processing of peptides in these different

  3. Desertification of subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Are there alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, G I; Knight, M H; de Kock, M

    1995-01-01

    The Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket (ECST) froms the transition between forest, semiarid karroid shrublands, and grassland in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Undegraded ECST forms an impenetrable, spiny thicket up to 3 m high consisting of a wealth of growth forms, including evergreen plants, succulent and deciduous shrubs, lianas, grasses, and geophytes. The thicket dynamics are not well understood, but elephants may have been important browsers and patch disturbance agents. These semiarid thickets have been subjected to intensive grazing by domestic ungulates, which have largely replaced indigenous herbivores over the last 2 centuries. Overgrazing has extensively degraded vegetation, resulting in the loss of phytomass and plant species and the replacement of perennials by annuals. Coupled with these changes are alterations of soil structure and secondary productivity. This rangeland degradation has largely been attributed to pastoralism with domestic herbivores. The impact of indigenous herbivores differs in scale, intensity, and nature from that of domestic ungulates. Further degradation of the ECST may be limited by alternative management strategies, including the use of wildlife for meat production and ecotourism. Producing meat from wildlife earns less income than from domestic herbivores but is ecologically sustainable. The financial benefits of game use can be improved by developing expertise, technology, and marketing. Ecotourism is not well developed in the Eastern Cape although the Addo Elephant National Park is a financial success and provides considerable employment benefits within an ecologically sustainable system. The density of black rhinoceros and elephant in these thickets is among the highest in Africa, with high population growth and the lowest poaching risk. The financial and ecological viability of ecotourism and the conservation status of these two species warrant expanding ecotourism in the Eastern Cape, thereby reducing the probability of

  4. Effects of private-land use, livestock management, and human tolerance on diversity, distribution, and abundance of large african mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaird, Margaret F; O'brien, Timothy G

    2012-12-01

    Successful conservation of large terrestrial mammals (wildlife) on private lands requires that landowners be empowered to manage wildlife so that benefits outweigh the costs. Laikipia County, Kenya, is predominantly unfenced, and the land uses in the area allow wide-ranging wildlife to move freely between different management systems on private land. We used camera traps to sample large mammals associated with 4 different management systems (rhinoceros sanctuaries, no livestock; conservancies, intermediate stocking level; fenced ranches, high stocking level; and group ranches, high stocking level, no fencing, pastoralist clan ownership) to examine whether management and stocking levels affect wildlife. We deployed cameras at 522 locations across 8 properties from January 2008 through October 2010 and used the photographs taken during this period to estimate richness, occupancy, and relative abundance of species. Species richness was highest in conservancies and sanctuaries and lowest on fenced and group ranches. Occupancy estimates were, on average, 2 and 5 times higher in sanctuaries and conservancies as on fenced and group ranches, respectively. Nineteen species on fenced ranches and 25 species on group ranches were considered uncommon (occupancy wildlife and uncertain land tenure dampen many owners' incentives to tolerate wildlife. We suggest national conservation strategies consider landscape-level approaches to land-use planning that aim to increase conserved areas by providing landowners with incentives to tolerate wildlife. Possible incentives include improving access to ecotourism benefits, forging agreements to maintain wildlife habitat and corridors, resolving land-ownership conflicts, restoring degraded rangelands, expanding opportunities for grazing leases, and allowing direct benefits to landowners through wildlife harvesting. .

  5. A Study on Faunal Remains from the Yuxi Site%玉溪遗址动物骨骼初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静芳; 袁东山

    2012-01-01

    Located in Three Gorges Area, this site is dated from middle and late Neolithic to Shangand Zhou period. The Number of Identified Specimens is 7755 at the site, which represents 28 species. They are Cervus unicolor, Muntiacus reeves, Bubalus bubalus, Sus domestica, Selenaretos thibetanus, Aretonyx eollaris, Canis familiaris, Felis bengalensis, Felis silvestris, Panthera tigris, Paguma larvata, Rhinoceros sp., Hystrix hodgsoni, Rhizomys sp., Macaca mulatta, Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cteno- pharyngodon ideUus, Silurus asotus, Acipenser sp., Chinemys reevesi, Trionychidae indet, AVES,and MOLLUSCA. Among these species, pigs and dogs are domesticated, while others are all wild animals. According to the statistic result of modification marks on animal bones, it is speculated that the process of dismembering animals and the procedure of manufacturing awl-shaped bone tools occurred at the site. The wild species suggest that the climate of the site might be subtropical at that time.%三峡地区的玉溪遗址跨越了新石器时代中晚期和商周时期,出土了丰富的动物骨骼。动物群包括28个种,其中猪、狗为家养动物,其余为野生动物。通过对动物骨骼上人工痕迹的观察统计,复原了肢解动物的程序以及“锥形器”的制作流程。野生动物则指示了遗址周围为亚热带气候。

  6. Relaxin: a hormonal aid to diagnose pregnancy status in wild mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfelt, Don R; Peter, Augustine T; Beg, Mohd A

    2014-12-01

    In the beginning of 1960s, seminal studies characterizing circulating concentrations of immunoreactive relaxin in companion dogs and evaluating the differences in concentrations among pregnant, nonpregnant, and pseudopregnant bitches indicated the potential for relaxin to be applied clinically as a diagnostic aid to detect pregnancy status in wild animal species. A brief historical overview of the nature of relaxin and early work to develop and validate immunologic methods to analyze relaxin in the blood of rodents and pigs is initially discussed, which is followed by a summary of the development and validation of relaxin immunoassays to diagnose pregnancy in companion dogs and cats. Thereafter, observation of the pregnancy-specific increase in circulating concentrations of relaxin in laboratory, companion, and farm animal species leads to discussion on the application of radioimmunoassays, enzyme immunoassays, and a rapid immunomigration assay to diagnose pregnancy in wild terrestrial (e.g., wolves, lions, elephants, rhinoceros, panda) and marine (e.g., seals, dolphins) mammal species. A reference table is included with a comprehensive list of numerous species and essential reagents that have been used in various in-house and commercial immunoassays to successfully analyze relaxin quantitatively and qualitatively in blood (serum or plasma) and to some extent in urine. Although the detection of relaxin concentrations has the potential to aid in the diagnosis of pregnancy in many wild animal species, there are challenges in other species. Future efforts should focus on validation of nonradiolabeled relaxin immunoassays for broader application among species and improving techniques (e.g., extraction, purification) to analyze relaxin in samples other than blood (e.g., urine, feces, saliva, blow, skin, blubber) that can be collected in a less-invasive or -stressful manner and processed accordingly for basic and applied purposes, especially with application toward

  7. Development of a 9-months pregnant hybrid phantom and its internal dosimetry for thyroid agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of fetal radiosensitivity, the estimation of internal dose received by a fetus from radiopharmaceuticals applied to the mother is often important in nuclear medicine. A new 9-months pregnant phantom based on magnetic resonance (MR) images tied to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantom has been developed. Maternal and fetal organs were segmented from a set of pelvic MR images of a 9-months pregnant subject using 3D-DOCTORTM and then imported into the 3D modeling software package RhinocerosTM for combining with the adult female ICRP voxel phantom and further modeling. Next, the phantom organs were rescaled to match with reference masses described in ICRP Publications. The internal anatomy of previous pregnant phantom models had been limited to the fetal brain and skeleton only, but the fetus model developed in this study incorporates 20 different organs. The current reference phantom has been developed for application in comprehensive dosimetric study in nuclear medicine. The internal dosimetry calculations were performed for thyroid agents using the Monte Carlo transport method. Biokinetic data for these radiopharmaceuticals were used to estimate cumulated activity during pregnancy and maternal and fetal organ doses at seven different maximum thyroid uptake levels. Calculating the dose distribution was also presented in a sagittal view of the pregnant model utilizing the mesh tally function. The comparisons showed, in general, an overestimation of the absorbed dose to the fetus and an underestimation of the fetal thyroid dose in previous studies compared with the values based on the current hybrid phantom. (author)

  8. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  9. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Ward

    Full Text Available Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI. The aims of this study were to (1 investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2 determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3 explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis, eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii, and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93. A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated

  10. Relaxin: a hormonal aid to diagnose pregnancy status in wild mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfelt, Don R; Peter, Augustine T; Beg, Mohd A

    2014-12-01

    In the beginning of 1960s, seminal studies characterizing circulating concentrations of immunoreactive relaxin in companion dogs and evaluating the differences in concentrations among pregnant, nonpregnant, and pseudopregnant bitches indicated the potential for relaxin to be applied clinically as a diagnostic aid to detect pregnancy status in wild animal species. A brief historical overview of the nature of relaxin and early work to develop and validate immunologic methods to analyze relaxin in the blood of rodents and pigs is initially discussed, which is followed by a summary of the development and validation of relaxin immunoassays to diagnose pregnancy in companion dogs and cats. Thereafter, observation of the pregnancy-specific increase in circulating concentrations of relaxin in laboratory, companion, and farm animal species leads to discussion on the application of radioimmunoassays, enzyme immunoassays, and a rapid immunomigration assay to diagnose pregnancy in wild terrestrial (e.g., wolves, lions, elephants, rhinoceros, panda) and marine (e.g., seals, dolphins) mammal species. A reference table is included with a comprehensive list of numerous species and essential reagents that have been used in various in-house and commercial immunoassays to successfully analyze relaxin quantitatively and qualitatively in blood (serum or plasma) and to some extent in urine. Although the detection of relaxin concentrations has the potential to aid in the diagnosis of pregnancy in many wild animal species, there are challenges in other species. Future efforts should focus on validation of nonradiolabeled relaxin immunoassays for broader application among species and improving techniques (e.g., extraction, purification) to analyze relaxin in samples other than blood (e.g., urine, feces, saliva, blow, skin, blubber) that can be collected in a less-invasive or -stressful manner and processed accordingly for basic and applied purposes, especially with application toward

  11. A high density SNP array for the domestic horse and extant Perissodactyla: utility for association mapping, genetic diversity, and phylogeny studies.

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    Molly E McCue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ∼43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50-100 kb and reached background levels within 1-2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R and defining a conserved haplotype of ∼750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species.

  12. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered species: correlations with physiologic events and use as a marker of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bernard G; Brown, Janine L; Roth, Terri L; Czekala, Nancy

    2005-05-01

    Many mammalian species are facing extinction due to problems created by human encroachment, agriculture, pollution, and willful slaughter. Among those at risk are the Asian and African elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, and giant panda. Conservation groups try to save species in the wild by preserving habitat and limiting animal-human conflicts, often with limited success. Another alternative is to preserve the extant gene pool through captive breeding as a hedge against extinction. Measurement of circulating reproductive hormones is impractical for most wildlife species; determination of urinary or fecal hormone metabolites provides a more viable approach. To aid breeding management, one important tool is the ability to diagnose and monitor pregnancy, especially in species with long gestations (e.g., rhinos over 15 mo and elephants over 20 mo). Unfortunately, measuring progestins often is not useful diagnostically, because concentrations are similar during at least part of the pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase in some species (e.g., elephants, rhinoceroses, and giant pandas). As serum relaxin reliably distinguishes between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in bitches, relaxin measurement might also provide a method for detecting a successful pregnancy in endangered species. Appropriate immunoassay reagents have enabled the estimation of relaxin concentrations in the serum of elephants and rhinos and the determination of pregnancy establishment and the outcome. Relaxin was also detected in panda serum and urine. However, the extreme variability of the time between observed mating and parturition and the confounding factors of delayed implantation, pseudopregnancy, and frequent fetal resorptions made it impossible to use the panda relaxin data as a specific marker of pregnancy. PMID:15956734

  13. Flow structures around a flapping wing considering ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Truong, Tien; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Min Jun; Park, Hoon Cheol; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-07-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been great interest in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping flight, namely the two flight modes of hovering and forward flight. However, there has been little focus on the aerodynamic characteristics during takeoff of insects. In a previous study we found that the Rhinoceros Beetle ( Trypoxylusdichotomus) takes off without jumping, which is uncommon for other insects. In this study we built a scaled-up electromechanical model of a flapping wing and investigated fluid flow around the beetle's wing model. In particular, the present dynamically scaled mechanical model has the wing kinematics pattern achieved from the real beetle's wing kinematics during takeoff. In addition, we could systematically change the three-dimensional inclined motion of the flapping model through each stroke. We used digital particle image velocimetry with high spatial resolution, and were able to qualitatively and quantitatively study the flow field around the wing at a Reynolds number of approximately 10,000. The present results provide insight into the aerodynamics and the evolution of vortical structures, as well as the ground effect experienced by a beetle's wing during takeoff. The main unsteady mechanisms of beetles have been identified and intensively analyzed as the stability of the leading edge vortex (LEV) during strokes, the delayed stall during upstroke, the rotational circulation in pronation periods, and wake capture in supination periods. Due to the ground effect, the LEV was enhanced during half downstroke, and the lift force could thus be increased to lift the beetle during takeoff. This is useful for researchers in developing a micro air vehicle that has a beetle-like flapping wing motion.

  14. Detecting inter-cusp and inter-tooth wear patterns in rhinocerotids.

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    Lucy A Taylor

    Full Text Available Extant rhinos are the largest extant herbivores exhibiting dietary specialisations for both browse and grass. However, the adaptive value of the wear-induced tooth morphology in rhinos has not been widely studied, and data on individual cusp and tooth positions have rarely been published. We evaluated upper cheek dentition of browsing Diceros bicornis and Rhinoceros sondaicus, mixed-feeding R. unicornis and grazing Ceratotherium simum using an extended mesowear method adapted for rhinos. We included single cusp scoring (EM(R-S to investigate inter-cusp and inter-tooth wear patterns. In accordance with previous reports, general mesowear patterns in D. bicornis and R. sondaicus were attrition-dominated and C. simum abrasion-dominated, reflecting their respective diets. Mesowear patterns for R. unicornis were more attrition-dominated than anticipated by the grass-dominated diet, which may indicate a low intake of environmental abrasives. EM(R-S increased differentiation power compared to classical mesowear, with significant inter-cusp and inter-tooth differences detected. In D. bicornis, the anterior cusp was consistently more abrasion-dominated than the posterior. Wear differences in cusp position may relate to morphological adaptations to dietary regimes. Heterogeneous occlusal surfaces may facilitate the comminution of heterogeneous browse, whereas uniform, broad grinding surfaces may enhance the comminution of physically more homogeneous grass. A negative tooth wear gradient was found in D. bicornis, R. sondaicus and R. unicornis, with wear patterns becoming less abrasion-dominated from premolars to molars. No such gradients were evident in C. simum which displayed a uniform wear pattern. In browsers, premolars may be exposed to higher relative grit loads, which may result in the development of wear gradients. The second premolar may also have a role in food cropping. In grazers, high absolute amounts of ingested abrasives may override other

  15. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Saragusty, Joseph; Stoops, Monica A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare. PMID:24671211

  16. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hermes

    Full Text Available In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare.

  17. A rhinocerotid skull cooked-to-death in a 9.2 Ma-old ignimbrite flow of Turkey.

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    Pierre-Olivier Antoine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preservation of fossil vertebrates in volcanic rocks is extremely rare. An articulated skull (cranium and mandible of a rhinoceros was found in a 9.2±0.1 Ma-old ignimbrite of Cappadocia, Central Turkey. The unusual aspect of the preserved hard tissues of the skull (rough bone surface and brittle dentine allows suspecting a peri-mortem exposure to a heating source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe and identify the skull as belonging to the large two-horned rhinocerotine Ceratotherium neumayri, well-known in the late Miocene of the Eastern Mediterranean Province. Gross structural features and microscopic changes of hard tissues (bones and teeth are then monitored and compared to the results of forensic and archaeological studies and experiments focusing on heating effects, in order to reconstruct the hypothetical peri-mortem conditions. Macroscopic and microscopic structural changes on compact bones (canaliculi and lamellae vanished, as well as partial dentine/cementum disintegration, drastic enamel-dentine disjunctions or microscopic cracks affecting all hard dental tissues (enamel, cementum, and dentine point to continued exposures to temperatures around 400-450°C. Comparison to other cases of preservation of fossil vertebrates within volcanic rocks points unambiguously to some similarity with the 79 AD Plinian eruption of the Vesuvius, in Italy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A 9.2±0.1 Ma-old pyroclastic density current, sourced from the Çardak caldera, likely provoked the instant death of the Karacaşar rhino, before the body of the latter experienced severe dehydration (leading to the wide and sustainable opening of the mouth, was then dismembered within the pyroclastic flow of subaerial origin, the skull being separated from the remnant body and baked under a temperature approximating 400°C, then transported northward, rolled, and trapped in disarray into that pyroclastic flow forming the pinkish Kavak-4

  18. Size- and condition-dependent predation: a seabird disproportionately targets substandard individual juvenile salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Strahan; Hipfner, J Mark; Trudel, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Selection of prey that are small and in poor body condition is a widespread phenomenon in terrestrial predator-prey systems and may benefit prey populations by removing substandard individuals. Similar selection is widely assumed to operate in aquatic systems. Indeed, size-selective predation is a longstanding and central tenet of aquatic food web theory. However, it is not known if aquatic predators select prey based on their condition or state, compared to their size. Surprisingly, no comparable information is available for marine systems because it is exceedingly difficult to make direct observations in this realm. Thus the role of body condition in regulating susceptibility to predation remains a black box in the marine environment. Here we have exploited an ideal model system to evaluate selective predation on pelagic marine fish: comparing characteristics (fork length, mass corrected for fork length) of fresh, whole, intact juvenile Pacific salmon delivered by a seabird to its single nestling with salmon collected concurrently in coastal trawl surveys. Three species of juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are consumed by provisioning Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca nionocerata); an abundant, colonial, pursuit-diving seabird. Samples were collected from multiple colonies and fisheries surveys in coastal British Columbia in two years. As predicted, Auklets preyed on small individuals in poor condition and consistently selected them at levels higher than their relative availability. This is the first study to provide direct evidence for both size- and condition-selective predation on marine fish in the wild. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point in evaluating how selective predation may structure or influence marine fish populations and bridges a fundamental incongruity between ecological theory and application; although "bigger is better" is considered a fundamental tenet of marine food webs, marine predators are often assumed to consume

  19. Using seabird habitat modeling to inform marine spatial planning in central California's National Marine Sanctuaries.

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    Jennifer McGowan

    Full Text Available Understanding seabird habitat preferences is critical to future wildlife conservation and threat mitigation in California. The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of seabird habitat selection within the Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries to identify areas for targeted conservation planning. We used seabird abundance data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies Program (ACCESS from 2004-2011. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to model species abundance and distribution as a function of near surface ocean water properties, distances to geographic features and oceanographic climate indices to identify patterns in foraging habitat selection. We evaluated seasonal, inter-annual and species-specific variability of at-sea distributions for the five most abundant seabirds nesting on the Farallon Islands: western gull (Larus occidentalis, common murre (Uria aalge, Cassin's auklet (Ptychorampus aleuticus, rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata and Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus. The waters in the vicinity of Cordell Bank and the continental shelf east of the Farallon Islands emerged as persistent and highly selected foraging areas across all species. Further, we conducted a spatial prioritization exercise to optimize seabird conservation areas with and without considering impacts of current human activities. We explored three conservation scenarios where 10, 30 and 50 percent of highly selected, species-specific foraging areas would be conserved. We compared and contrasted results in relation to existing marine protected areas (MPAs and the future alternative energy footprint identified by the California Ocean Uses Atlas. Our results show that the majority of highly selected seabird habitat lies outside of state MPAs where threats from shipping, oil spills, and offshore energy development remain. This analysis accentuates the need for innovative marine

  20. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  1. Human-Friendly Design of Virtual System “female Body-dress”

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    Guo Mengna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development efforts focused on the computer simulation of garments, which depend on the material's physico-mechanical properties. It intends to achieve the best possible and realistic simulations of garments, which are available for pressure prediction. In this manner, 3D garment virtual technology improvements allow the visualization of pressure areas with values where the fabric might be too tight against the body. Although the purposes of simulation graphics were acceptable, the accuracy for apparel shaping is not enough to meet the needs of Virtual Prototyping and CAD utilization especially while the fabric properties system design was inadequate. Moreover, the existing pressure simulation is intended to simply predict the pressure index or how the textile deformation extend, which are deficient in real human's perception. In this research, the 3D shapes belonging to typical female bodies and dresses made of different fabrics were obtained by 3D body scanners (ScanWorX and TELMAT. Through reconstruction for the 3D torso shapes, the volumetric eases between body and dress were calculated by means of a software Rhinoceros. A new approach for the selection of textile properties based on the Kawabata Evaluation System (KES was proposed to investigate its relations with dress shaping and pressure comfort. Finally, fabric properties tested by the KES-F system were compared with volumetric eases, objective pressure indexes and subjective comfort scores to reveal the relations how the fabric properties have impacts on dress outside shaping and inside pressure comfort of a female body. In this manner, the human-friendly CAD instead of mechanical approach existing before has been presented as a new approach to promote the construction of a realistic system for the 3D simulation optimization.

  2. Geometric documentation of underwater archaeological sites

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    Eleni Diamanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry has often been the most preferable method for the geometric documentation of monuments, especially in cases of highly complex objects, of high accuracy and quality requirements and, of course, budget, time or accessibility limitations. Such limitations, requirements and complexities are undoubtedly features of the highly challenging task of surveying an underwater archaeological site. This paper is focused on the case of a Hellenistic shipwreck found in Greece at the Southern Euboean gulf, 40-47 meters below the sea surface. Underwater photogrammetry was chosen as the ideal solution for the detailed and accurate mapping of a shipwreck located in an environment with limited accessibility. There are time limitations when diving at these depths so it is essential that the data collection time is kept as short as possible. This makes custom surveying techniques rather impossible to apply. However, with the growing use of consumer cameras and photogrammetric software, this application is becoming easier, thus benefiting a wide variety of underwater sites. Utilizing cameras for underwater photogrammetry though, poses some crucial modeling problems, due to the refraction effect and further additional parameters which have to be co-estimated [1]. The applied method involved an underwater calibration of the camera as well as conventional field survey measurements in order to establish a reference frame. The application of a three-dimensional trilateration using common tape measures was chosen for this reason. Among the software that was used for surveying and photogrammetry processing, were Site Recorder SE, Eos Systems Photomodeler, ZI’s SSK and Rhinoceros. The underwater archaeological research at the Southern Euboean gulf is a continuing project carried out by the Hellenic Institute for Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A. in collaboration with the Greek Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, under the direction of the archaeologist G

  3. Some avian and mammalian hosts of Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; MacIvor, K M; Petney, T N; De Vos, V

    1987-09-01

    Large numbers of birds, wild mammals and domestic stock from a variety of localities within the Republic of South Africa were examined for infestation with the ixodid ticks Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum. Every warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli), impala (Aepyceros melampus) and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) from the Kruger National Park in the north-eastern Transvaal Lowveld was infested with A. hebraeum. In the eastern Cape Province every helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), scrub hare (Lepus saxatilis) and kudu from the Andries Vosloo Kudu Reserve; all but 1 of the 22 domestic cattle examined on the farm "Bucklands"; and all Angora goats plus nearly all Boer goats examined on the farm "Brakhill" were infested with this tick. Most animals examined appeared to be good hosts of the immature stages, and the larger the host species the greater the chances of it harbouring large numbers of adult ticks. The largest animals examined, such as eland, buffalo, giraffe and rhinoceros, harboured very large numbers of adult A. hebraeum. No adult A. marmoreum was recovered from any host. However, 50% or more of helmeted guinea fowl and kudu from the Andries Vosloo Kudu Reserve; helmeted guinea fowl, scrub hares and eland (Taurotragus oryx) from the Mountain Zebra National Park; helmeted guinea fowl, kudu, domestic sheep, goats and cattle on the farm "Bucklands", and caracal (Felis caracal) from the Cradock and Southwell areas of the eastern Cape Province were infested with immature A. marmoreum. In the Bontebok National Park in the south-western Cape Province more than 35% of scrub hares, vaal ribbok (Pelea capreolus) and bontebok (Damaliscus dorcas dorcas) were infested with immature ticks. PMID:3329327

  4. Feather corticosterone reveals stress associated with dietary changes in a breeding seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Alexis; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Dale M; Sato, Nobuhiko; Ito, Motohiro; Callahan, Matt; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Hatch, Scott; Elliott, Kyle; Slater, Leslie; Takahashi, Akinori; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Changes in climate and anthropogenic pressures might affect the composition and abundance of forage fish in the world's oceans. The junk-food hypothesis posits that dietary shifts that affect the quality (e.g., energy content) of food available to marine predators may impact their physiological state and consequently affect their fitness. Previously, we experimentally validated that deposition of the adrenocortical hormone, corticosterone, in feathers is a sensitive measure of nutritional stress in seabirds. Here, we use this method to examine how changes in diet composition and prey quality affect the nutritional status of free-living rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata). Our study sites included the following: Teuri Is. Japan, Middleton Is. central Gulf of Alaska, and St. Lazaria Is. Southeast Alaska. In 2012 and 2013, we collected "bill loads" delivered by parents to feed their chicks (n = 758) to document dietary changes. We deployed time-depth-temperature recorders on breeding adults (n = 47) to evaluate whether changes in prey coincided with changes in foraging behavior. We measured concentrations of corticosterone in fledgling (n = 71) and adult breeders' (n = 82) feathers to determine how birds were affected by foraging conditions. We found that seasonal changes in diet composition occurred on each colony, adults dove deeper and engaged in longer foraging bouts when capturing larger prey and that chicks had higher concentrations of corticosterone in their feathers when adults brought back smaller and/or lower energy prey. Corticosterone levels in feathers of fledglings (grown during the breeding season) and those in feathers of adult breeders (grown during the postbreeding season) were positively correlated, indicating possible carryover effects. These results suggest that seabirds might experience increased levels of nutritional stress associated with moderate dietary changes and that physiological responses to changes in prey composition

  5. 尼泊尔用于缓解人与野生动物冲突之电篱笆经济效用分析%EconomicAnalysis ofElectricFencing forMitigating Human-wildlifeConlfict in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saraswoti SAPKOTA; Achyut ARYAL; Shanta Ram BARAL; Matt W. HAYWARD; David RAUBENHEIMER

    2014-01-01

    人与野生动物冲突是全世界自然保护工作所面临的最大挑战之一。为降低这些冲突的影响,各国采取了各种保护策略,但这些策略常常得不到足够的监测,其效力也得不到充分的评估。近年来,作为降低人与野生动物冲突的一项措施,尼泊尔各保护区周围建起了电篱笆。到目前为止,未见有其他针对保护工作中采用电篱笆的成本效率及其功效开展分析的研究。本研究的目的是检验尼泊尔近年来设立于旺国家公园东区的电篱笆的成本效率。印度犀牛(Rhinoceros unicornis)、野猪(Sus scrofa)、亚洲象(Elephas maximus)、老虎(Panthera tigris)是该国家公园周边缓冲区涉及人与野生动物冲突的主要物种,这里建有电篱笆。电篱笆使庄稼受损减少78%,家畜损失减少30%-60%。研究区的人类死亡数未表现出显著下降,而是继续维持较低数值。我们的分析表明,至2009/2010财政年度,电篱笆成本的总净现值,卡根社区(KMUC)为1517959尼泊尔卢比(21685美元),姆瑞加社区(MKUC)为3530075卢比(50429美元);而净现收益,卡根社区为16301105卢比(232872美元),姆瑞加社区为38304602卢比(547208美元)。至2009/2010基准财政年度,电篱笆的成本-效益比率,卡根社区为10.73,姆瑞加社区为10.85。这些结果表明,在大型哺乳动物出没的保护区周围,电篱笆计划在降低人与野生动物冲突方面,既有经济效益,又有很好的社会效益。%Human-wildlife conflict is one of the biggest conservation challenges throughout the world. Various conservation strategies have been employed to limit these impacts, but often they are not adequately monitored and their effectiveness assessed. Recently, electric fencing has been constructed as a means to mitigate human-wildlife conlfict surrounding many Nepalese protected areas. To date, there are no

  6. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions for the University of Florida paediatric hybrid computational phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Florida has developed a set of computational phantoms which originated from real human anatomy in the form of computed tomography (CT) image sets. The organ shapes, orientation, and placement of the internal anatomy were directly determined from these image sets, imported into a 3D graphics program Rhinoceros, and scaled to ICRP reference values. Rhinoceros employs a method of volume description called non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces. Any given volume is described by the boundary created by these surfaces. The surfaces themselves are easy to manipulate, so non-reference body morphometries are readily modeled. The majority of the gross human anatomy was created using NURBS surfaces, but the skeleton was treated separately due to its complexity. A skeletal model with delineated cortical bone and spongiosa/medullary cavity regions was created and imported into Rhinoceros and left in polygon mesh format. Surfaces are initially in polygon mesh format when imported. They are subsequently converted to NURBS surfaces. The result was a model which combines the anatomic realism of actual human anatomy with the simple deformability of stylized models. This class of phantom was termed the ''hybrid'' phantom. Male and female models were created for the ICRP reference ages of newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, and 15 years. The process for performing internal dosimetry for non-skeletal anatomy is relatively straight forward. Using MCNPX 2.6, radiation transport is performed, and the energy deposited in any given target organ is tallied and divided by the total energy emitted from any given source organ and the target organ's mass. This calculation yields the specific absorbed fraction or SAF, which contains the critical geometric information needed to perform accurate dose calculations for any nuclear medicine procedure. Coupled with the total number of transformations in the source organ and the radionuclide's radiation energies and yields, a

  7. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    there are no records of indirectly dated hyena and lion remains being younger then even Aurignacian/Early Gravettian (35.000-28.000 BP). Those largest Late Quaternary predators must have got extinct in northern Germany with the Late Weichselian/Wuermian extending Skandinavian Glacier, which reached northern Europe between Hamburg and Berlin its maximum extension about 24.000 BP (Skupin et al. 1993). The two largest predators of the Late Quaternary of Europe seem to have been well represented in the Gravettian and up to Magdalénian Late Palaeolithic of southern Europe, in which mainly lions, but only rarely hyenas are well documented within the cave and mobile art (e.g Breuil 1952, Begouen and Clottes 1987, Chauvet et al. 1995, Diedrich and Rathgeber in review, Diedrich 2005). Hyenas and lions must have been represented in the Gravettian, Early and Middle and possibly even ?Late Magdalenian in southern Europe, which must have resulted from a southern migration of those predators during the Late Weichselian/Wuermian together with the megafauna and humans. The disappearance of hyenas and lions also correlate with the extinction of mammoth and woolly rhinoceros in northern Germany. The large mammals such as elephants and rhinoceroses were highly important for hyenas and lions during the Late Quaternary. Hyenas had a systematic scavenging strategy on both large prey which was even "transferred" until today compared to modern spotted hyenas and lions of Africa (Diedrich 2010d, e, in prep). Where those Late Quaternary giant mammals such as woolly mammoth and woolly rhinoceros were absent in middle mountainous regions (e.g. Sauerland Karst, Harz Mountain Karst, Bohemian Karst, Thuringian Karst) those had to kill other medium sized animals such as horse or steppe bison and those in larger amounts (Diedrich 2008, 2010c). Woolly rhinoceros and woolly mammoth seem to be not known in northern Germany after Aurignacian/?Early Gravettian times (Sauerland Karst and Münsterland Bay

  8. ZNAČAJ DJETETOVOG DOŽIVLJAJA I OPISA RODITELJA U SOCIJALNOPEDAGOŠKOM DIJAGNOSTICIRANJU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonija Žižak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Saznanja o roditeljima djece s poremećajima u ponašanju, odnosno o roditeljima djece za koju je sustav socijalne skrbi preuzeo brigu i smjestio ih u dječje domove u pravilu dolaze od stručnjaka i obojena su njihovom perspektivnom, teorijama i saznanjima. Nasuprot tome, u znanstvenoistraživačkom projektu «Socijalnopedagoška dijagnoza – participacija korisnika u procesu procjene potreba i planiranja intervencija» u fokusu proučavanja je perspektiva korisnika, djece i mladih. Korisnička perspektiva postignuta je tako da su posebno pripremljeni stručnjaci višekratno razgovarali s četrdesetero djece/mladih osoba u dobi od 12 do 20 godina smještenih u stambenoj zajednici (13, odnosno na dijagnostici u centru za odgoj (27, te u skladu sa zahtjevima kvalitativne metodologije snimljene razgovore kasnije prepisali, analizirali i s korisnicima provjerili. Razgovor je vođen u onom razdoblju njihovog života kad je donošena odluka o tome gdje će ti mladi ljudi/djeca ubuduće živjeti, odnosno u kakav oblik tretmana će biti upućeni. U polustrukturiranom intervjuu djeca/mladi su govorili o različitim područjima i temama iz svog života uključujući doživljaje i stavove o vlastitim roditeljima.Cilj ovog rada je prepoznavanje obrazaca u opisivanju i doživljavanju majke, oca, očuha i obitelji u cjelini te razmatranje značenja raspona doživljavanja i opisivanja roditelja za kvalitetu socijalnopedagoške dijagnostike. Pokazalo se da su roditelji za mlade vrlo važna tema koju u svojoj samoprezentaciji bogato elaboriraju. Opis oca je bogatiji od opisa majke. Gledano na grupnoj razini, doživljaj roditelja ima obilježja cjelovitosti i unutrašnje konzistentnosti. Ta i druga u radu elaborirana saznanja mogu značajno oplemeniti dijagnostički proces jer u prvi plan uvode perspektivu korisnika.

  9. Pismenost nakon decentralizacije. Nudi li Mreža novi oblik pismenosti?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Peović Vuković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rad će postaviti pitanje nudi li danas Mreža alat za “osnaživanje čitatelja”, kako je najavljivala hipertekstualna teorija devedesetih. Interaktivnost kao “prirodan” oblik pismenosti postala je ideologem razumijevanja elektroničke pismenosti. No je li danas uistinu riječ o demokratizaciji čitanja-pisanja putem odabira smjera, “kretanja” virtualnim prostorom teksta? Rad će naglasiti razliku između Web 2.0 žanrova i koncepcije hiperteksta te razliku tekstualne i vizualne pismenosti. Ono što ćemo ovdje nazvati “topografskom proizvodnošću” bitno se razlikuje od “distributivne proizvodnosti” kakvu danas susrećemo na Mreži. Mreža nije orijentirana isključivo na proizvodnju virtualnog dérivea, trodimenzionalnog prostora kretanja, već je riječ prvenstveno o komunikacijskom kanalu. Umjesto topografije, za Mrežu će biti ključno povezivanje bilo kojih dviju točaka i uspostavljanje kanala “distribucije”. Temelj distributivne strukture jesu mrežni protokoli, prvenstveno TCP/IP protokol koji omogućava peer-to-peer, izravnu komunikaciju dvaju računala. Kanali neovisne distribucije postojali su i ranije, prvenstveno u polju alternativnih ili opozicijskih kultura u obliku DIY praksi, no domet njihove distributivne mreže bio je slab. Mreža je kanal do sada nezamislive fleksibilne distribucije, nehijerarhijski kanal koji (digitalnoj proizvodnji pripaja dodatnu vrijednost. Politička, ekonomska i kulturalna pitanja redefinirana su arhitekturom te protokolima koji tu arhitekturu definiraju. Protokoli su pravila koja su podređena socijalnom konsenzusu. U tom smislu politička teorija novih medija mora napustiti mit “osnaživanja čitatelja” i krenuti prema složenom tipu materijalne analize ili analize arhitekture te socijalnih pravila koja tu arhitekturu definiraju. Proizvodno-distribucijski subjekti i tekstovi naseljavaju sve mrežne komunikacijske kanale. Bloganje, Twitteranje, Facebookanje, Flickeranje

  10. ANALYSIS OF RAINSTORMS ASSOCIATED WITH SIMILAR TRACK TROPICAL CYCLONES HAITANG (0505) AND BILLS (0604)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhen-shou; CHEN Xuan-miao; NI Dong-hong; JI Chun-xiao; XIE Hai-hua

    2009-01-01

    It is generally thought that the influence of comparable track typhoons is approximately similar,but in fact their wind and especially their rainstorm distribution are often very different. Therefore,a contrastive analysis of rainstorms by tropical cyclones (TCs) Haitang (0505) and Bilis (0604),which are of a similar track,is designed to help understand the mechanism of the TC rainstorm and to improve forecasting skills. The daily rainthll of TC itaitang (0505) and Bills (0604) is diagnosed and compared.The result indicates that these two TCs have similar precipitation distribution before landtall but different precipitation characteristics after landthll. Using NCEP/GFS analysis data,the synoptic situation is analyzed; water vapor transportation is discussed regarding the calculated water vapor flux and divergence.The results show that the heavy rainfall in the Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces associated with Haitang (0505) and Bitis (0604) before landlhll results ti'om a peripheral easterly wind,a combination of the tropical cyclone and the terrain. After landthll and moving far inland of the storm,the precipitation of Haitang is caused by water vapor convergence carried by its own circulation; it is much weaker than that in the coastal area. One of the important contributing thctors to heavy rainstorms in southeast Zhejiang is a southeast jet stream,which is maintained over the southeast coast. In contrast,the South China Sea monsoon circulation transports large amounts of water vapor into Bills - when a water-vapor transport belt south of the tropical cyclone significantly strengthens - which strengthens the transport. Then,it causes water vapor flux to converge on the south side of Bilis and diverge on the north side. Precipitation is much stronger on the south side than that on the north side. After Bilis travels far inland,the cold air guided by a north trough travels into the TC and remarkably enhances precipitation. In summary,combining vertical wind shear

  11. Distribucijske greške u procesu procjene performansi zaposlenih/Distribution errors in the employee performance evaluation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesko M. Lukovac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Racionalno angažovanje, usmjeravanje i razvoj, motivisanje i nagrađivanje, unapređenje organizacijske efikasnosti i poslovanja teško se može ostvariti ukoliko se ne vrši ocjenjivanje kvaliteta rada zaposlenih. U literaturi o manadžmentu ova tehnika je poznata pod nazivom 'procjena performansi zaposlenih'. Performansa ili učinak može biti bilo neki mjerljiv rezultat koji je ostvaren, bilo ponašanje ili lične karakteristike neophodne za obavljanje određene aktivnosti u definisanom periodu. U poslednje vrijeme razvija se poseban menadžerski pristup - 'upravljanje uspješnošću' (Performance Management sa ciljem da se procjena performansi i upotreba rezultata procjene u rukovođenju, čiji je cilj unapređenje performansi - uspješnosti zaposlenih, integrišu. S obzirom na to da je procjena performansi zaposlenog najčešće rezultat subjektivnog suda procjenjivača o kvalitetu njegovog rada, mora se voditi računa o mogućim greškama koje karakterišu takav način prosuđivanja. Postoji više tipova grešaka koje procjenjivači mogu počiniti prilikom procesa procjene performansi zaposlenih, a u ovom radu prikazan je pristup identifikaciji i umanjenju distribucijskih grešaka procjenjivača, kao najrasprostranjenijih u organizacijama sa većim brojem zaposlenih. / It is difficult to achieve rational engagement, directing and developing, motivating, rewarding, and improving organizational efficiency, without the evaluation of the quality of job performance of employees. In management literature, this technique is known as 'employee performance evaluation'. Performance or productivity may be either a measurable result that has been achieved, or behaviour or personal characteristics necessary for performing certain activities in a defined period of time. Recently, a special management approach 'performance management' has been developed, in order to integrate the performance evaluation and the use of assessment results in management

  12. Projekt języka czarnogórskiego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Molas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Draft of the Montenegrin languageThe authors of the grammar of the Montenegrin language (Gramatika crnogorskoga jezika, Podgorica 2010 have constructed a linguistic system which definitely stands apart from other standards which grew out from the Shtokavian dialects. Such elements as phonemes |ś| and |ź|, potencijal imperfekta, the negative form of the verb biti, the doublets of the forms of the verb htjeti // šćeti, lexemes with results of iotacismes make up – against the Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian languages – a separate system both in terms of quality and quantity: potentially they are so frequent that would radically change the picture of Montenegrin texts with regard to the “classic” Shtokavian languages/dialects.In addition, the authors have managed to not go too far and have avoided a temptation to introduce into the system more specific characteristics, which have not been used by the modern language for a long time, such as, for example, the expanded form of the adjectival conjugation of the Njegošowski type: momci prsih vatrenijeh czy raniš od Vidova dana junačkijem i konjskijem mesom gavranove i mrke vukove! or phoneme |з|.In addition, it would also be difficult to specify the elements, which would prove unequivocally the tendency of the proposed Montenegrin standard becoming similar to one of the remaining Shtokavian languages.The weakness of the project is its potential nature. In case of the grammar, one cannot speak about the descriptive nature thereof. It is a proposal of the norm and the standard, which can genuinely come into existence solely given the support of the political elites and on the basis of their introduction into the educational and administrative system, as well as – which is most probably the most important and the most difficult aspect – given the goodwill of the decisive majority of the users of the Montenegrin language, which at the current point is rather out of the question.

  13. Café Modra propast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rožić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mamica se opet bavila svojim brkovima, jak miris voska, kovrče pare iznad lonca. Bila je grozno opsjednuta uklanjanjem dlaka; ovo joj je bilo drugi put u tjedan dana. Pribor razbacan po pultu u prednjem dijelu kafea, ljepljive posudice voska među prašnjavim staklenkama za slatkiše, drveni štapići vire iz posude za žličice za kavu. "Uz malo sreće, ti ovo nećeš morati raditi", rekla je nanoseći zlaćanu smjesu iznad gornje usnice. Pogledala se u zrcalu na reklami Coca-Cole koja je visjela na zidu s brodskim podom i pritisnula komad gaze na usta dok se tekućina ne stvrdne. "Vidi me, ja sam Sicilijanka. Prekrivena dlakama koje ne želim, kao Turkinje, kao Grkinje. Ali ti si Irkinja, Majella, i bjelja od toga ne možeš biti. 'Trebaju ti samo dvije generacije da se asimiliraš.' To mi je rekao tvoj stari nono kad si se rodila. 'Sad si Irkinja, Bonfilia. I imaš irsku bambinu kao dokaz.'" Uprla je štapićem u mene. "Ali nisam postala plavuša zbog tebe, je l' da?" Moj je nono sjedio u stražnjem dijelu prostorije, u separeu uz prozor. Ustajao je u četiri svakog jutra, dolazio u gaćama i naopako okrenutom vunenom džemperu i sjedio u kafeu. Nije se micao do osam uvečer, jeo je mliječne kekse i smrdio na pišalinu, kako obično mirišu devedesetogodišnjaci. Ponekad si je umišljao stvari; vikao na ljude kojih nema, bijesno mahao rukama. Mamica je rekla da ponovno proživljava dane u talijanskoj mornarici kada se borio u Španjolskom građanskom ratu. Uopće nije obraćao pažnju na nas jer se u njegovoj šašavoj glavi još nismo ni rodile. Ni mi nismo previše obraćale pažnju na njega, pa zato nismo ni primijetile da je prošli tjedan imao drugi moždani udar.

  14. Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus envenoming in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S Abubakar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358. METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial, "EchiTAb Plus-ICP" (ET-Plus equine antivenom made by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was compared to "EchiTAb G" (ET-G ovine antivenom made by MicroPharm, which is the standard of care in Nigeria and was developed from the original EchiTAb-Fab introduced in 1998. Both are caprylic acid purified whole IgG antivenoms. ET-G is monospecific for Echis ocellatus antivenom (initial dose 1 vial and ET-Plus is polyspecific for E. ocellatus, Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans (initial dose 3 vials. Both had been screened by pre-clinical and preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety studies. Patients who presented with incoagulable blood, indicative of systemic envenoming by E. ocellatus, were recruited in Kaltungo, north-eastern Nigeria. Those eligible and consenting were randomly allocated with equal probability to receive ET-Plus or ET-G. The primary outcome was permanent restoration of blood coagulability 6 hours after the start of treatment, assessed by a simple whole blood clotting test repeated 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hr after treatment. Secondary (safety outcomes were the incidences of anaphylactic, pyrogenic and late serum sickness-type antivenom reactions. FINDINGS: Initial doses permanently restored blood coagulability at 6 hours in 161/194 (83.0% of ET-Plus and 156/206 (75.7% of ET-G treated patients (Relative Risk [RR] 1.10 one-sided 95% CI lower limit 1.01; P = 0.05. ET-Plus caused early reactions on more occasions than did ET-G [50/194 (25.8% and 39/206 (18.9% respectively RR (1.36 one-sided 95% CI 1.86 upper limit; P = 0.06. These reactions were classified as severe in 21 (10.8% and 11 (5.3% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: At these doses, ET-Plus was

  15. Analysis of camelid antibodies for antivenom development: Neutralisation of venom-induced pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Darren A N; Owen, Timothy; Wagstaff, Simon C; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Harrison, Robert A

    2010-09-01

    Camelid IgG has been reported to be less immunogenic, less able to activate the complement cascade and more thermostable than IgG from other mammals, and has the ability to bind antigens that are unreactive with other mammalian IgGs. We are investigating whether these attributes of camelid IgG translate into antivenom with immunological and venom-neutralising efficacy advantages over conventional equine and ovine antivenoms. The objective of this study was to determine the preclinical venom-neutralising effectiveness of IgG from camels immunised with venoms, individually or in combination, of the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus, the puff adder, Bitis arietans and the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis - the most medically-important snake species in West Africa. Neutralisation of the pathological effects of venoms from E. ocellatus, B. arietans and N. nigricollis by IgG from the venom-immunised camels, or commercial antivenom, was compared using assays of venom lethality (ED(50)), haemorrhage (MHD) and coagulopathy (MCD). The E. ocellatus venom ED(50), MHD and MCD results of the E. ocellatus monospecific camel IgG antivenom were broadly equivalent to comparable ovine (EchiTAbG, MicroPharm Ltd, Wales) and equine (SAIMR Echis, South African Vaccine Producer, South Africa) antivenoms, although the equine antivenom required half the amount of IgG. The B. arietans monospecific camel IgG neutralised the lethal effects of B. arietans venom at one fourth the concentration of the SAIMR polyspecific antivenom (a monospecific B. arietans antivenom is not available). The N. nigricollis camel IgG antivenom was ineffective (at the maximum permitted dose, 100 mul) against the lethal effects of N. nigricollis venom. All the equine polyspecific antivenoms required more than 100 microl to be effective against this venom. The polyspecific camel IgG antivenom, prepared from five camels, was effective against the venom-induced effects of E. ocellatus but not against that of B. arietans

  16. General characterization of venom from the Moroccan snakes Macrovipera mauritanica and Cerastes cerastes

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    N Oukkache

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophidian envenomation accidents constitute a serious public health problem in many countries around the globe. Over 5 million such accident cases occur each year causing more than 100,000 deaths. In Africa, more than 20,000 deaths per year are registered while 400,000 envenomation victims retain severe and permanent functional sequelae. In Morocco, snakebites are frequent and of greater severity in children. They occur mostly in rural areas. The incidence of these bites remains poorly understood and vastly underestimated. The epidemiological data are not well known due to the absence of a national registry, whereas a significant proportion of envenomations receive only traditional treatment methods in non-medical intensive care. This prompted us to investigate the enzymatic and biological properties of venom biochemical constituents from two of the most dangerous snake venoms in Morocco: Cerastes cerastes (Cc and Macrovipera mauritanica (Mm. Also, we studied the immune cross-reactivity of Cc and Mm venoms in comparison to that of another important dangerous Moroccan viper, Bitis arietans (Ba, to identify the best candidates (venom or a mixture of venoms for producing the most efficient and protective antivenom. In the present study, we report a preliminary venom characterization of Cc and Mm and the cross-reactivity that may exist between their venoms and Ba. These venoms are known to be highly toxic and contain several proteins that differ by molecular weights. Interestingly, both Cc and Mm venoms are characterized by intense hemorrhagic and phospholipase A2 activities and their ability to degrade the α and γ chains of fibrinogen. They display very low proteolysis through the casein test. After injection into mice, Cc and Mm induce myonecrosis in skeletal muscles, which most likely reflects direct action of myotoxins and indirect action of hemorrhagic molecules present in these venoms. In mice, this myonecrosis diminishes serum creatine

  17. Susceptibility of Diabetic Heart to Catecholamine-induced Arrhythmias is Independent of Contractile Dysfunction

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    Adameova Adriana

    2014-06-01

    čanih smrti u dijabetesu ne mora biti povezana sa odgovorom na kateholamine.

  18. Koncept razvoja službi logistike / Concept development of logistic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Andrejić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Da bi logističke službe, kao deo sistema odbrane, bile efikasne i efektivne moraju biti kvalitetno organizaciono-tehnološki isprojektovane i kvalitetno vođene. Moraju da imaju dugoročni koncept razvoja sa ugrađenim organizacionim aspektom, jasno izražena težišta i prioritete u funkcionisanju, a takođe i kvalitetno definisane pokazatelje uspešnosti. Neophodno je da prate promene u bližem i daljem okruženju. Takođe, svaki proces koji je u nadležnosti logističkih službi mora biti dobro isprojektovan i upravljiv. Važan uslov za prevođenje logističkih službi iz jednog stanja u drugo jeste posmatranje odbrane i logistike odbrane i Vojske na načelima i logici sistemskog, a povremeno i situacionog pristupa. Polazna osnova za ostvarenje velikog stepena jedinstva unutar sistema logistike jeste definisanje koncepta razvoja službi logistike sa ugrađenim organizacionim aspektom, koji treba da razume i prihvati logistički sistem pri misaonom poimanju i operativnom delovanju. / In order to be efficient and effective, logistic services, as a part of the defence system, has to be designed and organized in a high-quality way. They must have a long-term development concept with built-in organizational aspects, clearly expressed focuses and priorities in the functioning and well-defined indicators of quality performance. In order to reach the required operational capabilities and the desired state of the logistics, it is necessary to achieve a philosophical, intellectual, doctrinal, technical and operational unity within the logistic system and then with the other subsystems of defense, in accordance with the needs of practice, the requirements of modern times and trends. The starting point for achieving a high degree of unity within the Army logistics is the definition of the concept of the development of logistic services with a built-in organizational aspect, as an intellectual conceptual sketch containing the guidelines and

  19. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Matthew R; Geyer, John W; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Aris, John P [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shifrin, Roger Y, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-08-07

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations

  20. High-latitude steppe vegetation and the mineral nutrition of Pleistocene herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, S. P.; Davydova, A.; Makarevich, R.; Loranty, M. M.; Boeskorov, G.

    2014-12-01

    High-latitude steppes were widespread and zonal in the Late Pleistocene and formed a landscape basis for the Mammoth Biome. Now the patches of these steppes survived on steep slopes under southern aspects. These steppes serve as unique information sources about the Late Pleistocene "Mammoth" steppe. Numerous data obtained by palynological, carpological, and DNA analysis of plant remains from feces and stomach contents of Pleistocene herbivore mummies, as well as from buried soils and enclosing deposits show that they are similar to modern steppe plant assemblage in taxa composition. Plant's nutrient concentrations are of fundamental importance across Pleistocene grass-rich ecosystems because of their role in the support of large herbivores. The average weight of an adult mammoth skeleton (about 0.5 tons) and of a woolly rhinoceros (about 0.2 tons) clearly suggests this. Detailed studies on fossil bone remains showed mineral deficiency in large Pleistocene herbivores. A three-year study of ash and mineral contents of two types of relict steppe vegetation at the Kolyma Lowland, Arctic Siberia has been carried out. Nowadays refugia of similar vegetation are located not far (1 - 15km) from the Yedoma permafrost outcrops were abundant fossil remains are found. Dominant species of the steppe vegetation were sampled. Preliminary studies indicate that the ash-content varied 1.5-2 times in speceies of steppe herbs. The Ca, P, Mg, K element contents was higher for most steppe species than in the local herbaceous vegetation, especially in Ca and P. One of the most important elements of the mineral nutrition, the phosphorus, was always found in higher concentrations in the steppe vegetation than in plants of recently dominant landscapes of the study area. It should be noted that the mineral nutrient content of the modern steppe vegetation of Siberian Arctic is comparable to that of the recent zonal steppe of Transbaikal Region. This study supports the hypothesis that

  1. Automatic Reconstruction of 3D Building Models from Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Meouche, R.; Rezoug, M.; Hijazi, I.; Maes, D.

    2013-11-01

    With modern 3D laser scanners we can acquire a large amount of 3D data in only a few minutes. This technology results in a growing number of applications ranging from the digitalization of historical artifacts to facial authentication. The modeling process demands a lot of time and work (Tim Volodine, 2007). In comparison with the other two stages, the acquisition and the registration, the degree of automation of the modeling stage is almost zero. In this paper, we propose a new surface reconstruction technique for buildings to process the data obtained by a 3D laser scanner. These data are called a point cloud which is a collection of points sampled from the surface of a 3D object. Such a point cloud can consist of millions of points. In order to work more efficiently, we worked with simplified models which contain less points and so less details than a point cloud obtained in situ. The goal of this study was to facilitate the modeling process of a building starting from 3D laser scanner data. In order to do this, we wrote two scripts for Rhinoceros 5.0 based on intelligent algorithms. The first script finds the exterior outline of a building. With a minimum of human interaction, there is a thin box drawn around the surface of a wall. This box is able to rotate 360° around an axis in a corner of the wall in search for the points of other walls. In this way we can eliminate noise points. These are unwanted or irrelevant points. If there is an angled roof, the box can also turn around the edge of the wall and the roof. With the different positions of the box we can calculate the exterior outline. The second script draws the interior outline in a surface of a building. By interior outline we mean the outline of the openings like windows or doors. This script is based on the distances between the points and vector characteristics. Two consecutive points with a relative big distance will form the outline of an opening. Once those points are found, the interior outline

  2. 内蒙古鄂尔多斯市乌兰木伦旧石器时代中期遗址

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志浩; 侯亚梅; 杨泽蒙; 甄自明; 刘扬; 包蕾; 杨俊刚; 白林云; 张立民

    2012-01-01

    The Ulan Moron Site located in Ordos City, Inner Mongolia consists of Loc. 1, Loc. 2 and Loc. 3. In Loc. 1, totally 2780 stone artifacts and 3423 mammalian fossils were obtained together with fire-use remains by a rescue excavation in 2010 and a formal excavation in 2011. Dating result for Loc. 1 from ^14C and OSL methods is 70 - 30 ka BP, meaning that this site belongs to middle Paleolithic Age. A primary study shows that the site was deposited in situ. The characteristics of lithic assemblage are quite similar to the middle Paleolithic cultures in Europe. The mammalian fauna are the part of Sjara-osso fauna of the late Pleistocene Epoch in North China. Large amounts of bone artifacts and fragmentary bones including those with obvious cutting marks indicates their close relationship with hu- man behavior. In a trench of Loc. 2 one trace of rhinoceros footprint was discovered in addition to some stone artifacts and fossils. The Ulan Moron Site is an important discovery of middle Paleolithic Age in China. All these evidences provide good materials for the comparative study of human behavioral adap- tation and modern human origin.%一、遗址概况 乌兰木伦遗址位于内蒙古鄂尔多斯市康巴什新区康巴什2号桥以东约300米,地处康巴什新区景观河岸。乌兰木伦河属黄河干流水系,是一条季节性河流,源于内蒙古鄂尔多斯市柴登乡巴定沟畔,自西北向东南流经鄂尔多斯市进入陕西神木县境内。遗址即发现于该河左岸充填第四纪堆积物的古河道支流中。

  3. SU-E-J-93: Development of Pre-Contoured Human Model Library in DICOM-RT Format for the Epidemiological Study of the Radiotherapy Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prior to 3D conformal radiation therapy planning, patient anatomy information was mostly limited to 2D beams-eye-view from the conventional simulator. To analyze the outcomes of such treatments for radiation late effects, 3D computational human models are often used in commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs). However, several underlying difficulties such as time-consuming manual delineation procedures of a large number of structures in the model have always limited its applications. Primary objective of this work was to develop a human model library for the epidemiological study by converting 3D-surface model organs to DICOM-RT format (DICOM-RT structure) using an in-house built software. We converted the ICRP reference human models to DICOM-RT models, which can be readily adopted for various dose calculations. Methods: MATLAB based code were utilized to convert the contour drawings extracted in text-format from the 3D graphic-tool, Rhinoceros into DICOM-RT structure format for 50 different organs of each model using a 16GB dual-core processor. The conversion periods were measured for each DICOM-RT models, and the reconstructed structure volumes were validated against the original 3D-surface models in the TPS. Ten reference hybrid whole-body models (8-pediatric and 2-adults) were automatically processed to create DICOM-RT computational human model library. Results: Mean contour conversion period was found to be 580 (N=2) and 394.5 (N=8) seconds for 50 organs in the adult and pediatric models respectively. A good agreement for large organs (NRMSD <1.0%) and small organs (NRMSD <7.7%) was also observed between the original volumes and corresponding DICOM-RT structure volumes of the organs. Conclusion: The ICRP reference human models were converted into DICOM-RT format to support the epidemiological study using a large cohort of conventional radiotherapy patients. Due to its DICOM-compatibility, the library may be implemented to many other different

  4. SU-E-J-93: Development of Pre-Contoured Human Model Library in DICOM-RT Format for the Epidemiological Study of the Radiotherapy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyakuryal, A; Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); Lee, C [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pelletier, C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Jung, J [East Carolina Univ, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prior to 3D conformal radiation therapy planning, patient anatomy information was mostly limited to 2D beams-eye-view from the conventional simulator. To analyze the outcomes of such treatments for radiation late effects, 3D computational human models are often used in commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs). However, several underlying difficulties such as time-consuming manual delineation procedures of a large number of structures in the model have always limited its applications. Primary objective of this work was to develop a human model library for the epidemiological study by converting 3D-surface model organs to DICOM-RT format (DICOM-RT structure) using an in-house built software. We converted the ICRP reference human models to DICOM-RT models, which can be readily adopted for various dose calculations. Methods: MATLAB based code were utilized to convert the contour drawings extracted in text-format from the 3D graphic-tool, Rhinoceros into DICOM-RT structure format for 50 different organs of each model using a 16GB dual-core processor. The conversion periods were measured for each DICOM-RT models, and the reconstructed structure volumes were validated against the original 3D-surface models in the TPS. Ten reference hybrid whole-body models (8-pediatric and 2-adults) were automatically processed to create DICOM-RT computational human model library. Results: Mean contour conversion period was found to be 580 (N=2) and 394.5 (N=8) seconds for 50 organs in the adult and pediatric models respectively. A good agreement for large organs (NRMSD <1.0%) and small organs (NRMSD <7.7%) was also observed between the original volumes and corresponding DICOM-RT structure volumes of the organs. Conclusion: The ICRP reference human models were converted into DICOM-RT format to support the epidemiological study using a large cohort of conventional radiotherapy patients. Due to its DICOM-compatibility, the library may be implemented to many other different

  5. The Demise of the Circumboreal Mammoth Steppe as an Ecological Regime Shift: Drivers and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, D. H.; Groves, P.; Grosse, G.; Gaglioti, B.; Kunz, M.

    2011-12-01

    During the last ice age, the now-vanished Mammoth Steppe stretched from the Yukon westward to Europe and supported a unique guild of megafauna grazers including mammoth, bison, saiga, wooly rhinoceros, caribou, muskox, and horse. The detailed vegetational composition of this extinct biome remains uncertain because of its large size and temporal complexity during multiple climatic shifts. Grasses and sedges were prominent, and Mammoth Steppe vegetation was probably more spatially variable than the tundra and taiga vegetation that replaced it. The environmental factors that maintained the Mammoth Steppe and dictated its variability over time and space are poorly understood. Here we present evidence for an expanded version of the "Schweger Hypothesis", the idea that large regions of the Mammoth Steppe were created and maintained by processes associated with aeolian sediment activity that was driven by enhanced pressure gradients in the full-glacial atmosphere and by increased continentality caused by lowered sea level. Increased seasonal swings in climate plus stronger winds interacted to promote the widespread occurrence of steppe-like vegetation that grew on relatively inactive and marginal dune and loess deposits. Subsequent periods of resumed aeolian deposition or reworking would have inhibited thick organic horizon development which are largely absent from full glacial mammoth steppe. New mapping of sand dune systems in Siberia and improved chronological control over dune fields in Alaska demonstrate the presence of large dune fields and loess belts in the regions occupied by the Mammoth Steppe during the Last Glacial Maximum. In regions of north Siberia, intense periglacial weathering and local transport of sediments also contributed to development and maintenance of the Mammoth Steppe. Local areas where aeolian sediment activity persists today such as active dune fields and loessal soils share several characteristics with the mammoth steppe such as the

  6. Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabird population trends in the California current system (1985-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, David G.; David Hyrenbach, K.

    2010-03-01

    To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the California current system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (May-June) upwelling season over 22 yr (1985-2006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most extreme in diving species with higher energy expenditure during foraging. We related variation in individual species abundance (number km -2) to seasonally lagged (late winter, early spring, late spring) and concurrent ocean conditions, and to long-term trends (using a proxy variable: year) during a multi-decadal period of major fluctuations in the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). We considered both remote (Multivariate ENSO Index, PDO) and local (coastal upwelling indices and sea-surface temperature) environmental variables as proxies for ocean productivity and prey availability. We also related seabird trends to those of potentially major trophic competitors, humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae) and blue ( Balaenoptera musculus) whales, which increased in number 4-5-fold midway during our study. Cyclical oscillations in seabird abundance were apparent in the black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), and decreasing trends were documented for ashy storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma homochroa), pigeon guillemot ( Cepphus columbus), rhinoceros auklet ( Cerorhinca monocerata), Cassin’s auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and western gull ( Larus occidentalis); the sooty shearwater ( Puffinus griseus), exhibited a marked decline before signs of recovery at the end of the study period. The abundance of nine other focal species varied with ocean conditions, but without decadal or long-term trends. Six of these species have the largest global populations in the CCS, and four are highly

  7. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations in

  8. Molecular evolution of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA in Ungulata (mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douzery, E; Catzeflis, F M

    1995-11-01

    The complete 12S rRNA gene has been sequenced in 4 Ungulata (hoofed eutherians) and 1 marsupial and compared to 38 available mammalian sequences in order to investigate the molecular evolution of the mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA molecule. Ungulata were represented by one artiodactyl (the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, suborder Suiformes), two perissodactyls (the Grevy's zebra, Equus grevyi, suborder Hippomorpha; the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, suborder Ceratomorpha), and one hyracoid (the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax dorsalis). The fifth species was a marsupial, the eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Several transition/transversion biases characterized the pattern of changes between mammalian 12S rRNA molecules. A bias toward transitions was found among 12S rRNA sequences of Ungulata, illustrating the general bias exhibited by ribosomal and protein-encoding genes of the mitochondrial genome. The derivation of a mammalian 12S rRNA secondary structure model from the comparison of 43 eutherian and marsupial sequences evidenced a pronounced bias against transversions in stems. Moreover, transversional compensatory changes were rare events within double-stranded regions of the ribosomal RNA. Evolutionary characteristics of the 12S rRNA were compared with those of the nuclear 18S and 28S rRNAs. From a phylogenetic point of view, transitions, transversions and indels in stems as well as transversional and indels events in loops gave congruent results for comparisons within orders. Some compensatory changes in double-stranded regions and some indels in single-stranded regions also constituted diagnostic events. The 12S rRNA molecule confirmed the monophyly of infraorder Pecora and order Cetacea and demonstrated the monophyly of the suborder Ruminantia was not supported and the branching pattern between Cetacea and the artiodacytyl suborders Ruminantia and Suiformes was not established. The monophyly of the order Perissodactyla was evidenced

  9. 实现LED矩形均匀照明的透镜设计%Lens design for uniform illumination of rectangle area with LED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李竞

    2011-01-01

    Lens for uniform illumination of rectangle area with LED light source was designed. Based on differential geometry, a series of partial non-linear equations were constructed. According to the conservation law of energy, energy mapping relations between the source and the target plane were constructed. The points of the surface were obtained by solving the equations with fourth order Runge-Kutta formulas, and the desired free-form surface was got by curve fitting with Rhinoceros software. With ray tracing in ASAP software, the result indicates that the optical efficiency is more than 94. 01%, and the illumination uniformity of the predetermined illumination area on the target plane is better than 92. 73%. The continuity of the free-form surface was also analyzed, and the result shows that the continuity of the freeform surface is determined by energy mapping relations.%随着大功率LED发射光强的不断提高,采用单粒LED为光源的照明系统已得到普遍应用.设计一种以LED为光源实现矩形均匀照明的透镜,根据微分几何的理论建立透镜面型所满足的微分方程,然后根据能量映射关系和能量守恒定律建立面型与目标面坐标点之间的关系,并通过四阶龙格-库塔法求解微分方程得到面型数据,利用所得的面型数据在三维建模软件Rhinoceros中构建出所求透镜面型,并将透镜导入ASAP进行模拟.模拟结果表明:该光学系统效率达到94.01%,目标面照度均匀性优于92.73%.最后分析了自由曲面的连续性,指出能量映射关系决定着自由曲面的连续性.

  10. Serodiagnosis of Rift Valley fever in African wildlife using a recombinant nucleocapsid-based indirect ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) have been found in many wildlife species but their importance in the epidemiology of the disease during the inter-epidemic and epidemic periods, and including their possible specific role in the cryptic maintenance of the virus is not elucidated. A recently developed indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) based on recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNp) of RVF virus was reported to have high analytical accuracy for the detection of IgG antibody in African buffalo sera. An indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) based on the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNp) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) was evaluated for the detection of specific serum IgG antibody in African wildlife. Data sets derived from field-collected sera (n = 877) in Africa (antelopes = 529, black rhinoceros = 43, common zebra = 24, elephant = 73, giraffe = 81, grevy zebra = 78, warthog = 49) were categorized according to the results of a virus neutralization test. Dose response curves using different dilutions of sera known to be positive or negative in the virus neutralisation test had the expected analytical slope and the I-ELISA clearly differentiated between different levels of specific IgG antibody against RVFV in African wildlife. At cut-offs optimised by the two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis, the diagnostic sensitivity of the I-ELISA was 100% and diagnostic specificity ranged from 99.8% to 100% while estimates for the Youden's index (J) and efficiency (Ef) ranged from 0.99 to 1 and from 99.7% to 100%, respectively. The rNp-based I-ELISA is highly accurate, safe, and offers a single assay format for rapid detection of IgG antibody to RVFV in sera of different wildlife species. This study confirm previous findings that the rNp-based I-ELISA accurately identifies sera with different concentrations of specific IgG antibodies to RVF virus, and compared to virus neutralization test it has very high diagnostic performance in various wildlife animal species. As a

  11. Spatio-temporal variation in prevalence of Rift Valley fever: a post-epidemic serum survey in cattle and wildlife in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Wesula Lwande

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a fatal arthropod-borne zoonotic disease of livestock and humans. Since the identification of RVF in Kenya in the 1930s, repeated epizootics and epidemics coinciding with El Niño events have occurred in several locations in Africa and Saudi Arabia, causing mass deaths of livestock and humans. RVF is of great interest worldwide because of its negative effect on international livestock trade and its potential to spread globally. The latter is due to the increasing incidence of extreme climatic phenomena caused by global warming, as well as to the increase in global trade and international travel. How RVF is maintained and sustained between epidemics and epizootics is not clearly understood, but it has been speculated that wildlife reservoirs and trans-ovarian transmission in the vector may be important. Several studies have examined the role of wildlife and livestock in isolation or in a limited geographical location within the one country over a short time (usually less than a year. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-RVF antibodies in cattle and several wildlife species from several locations in Kenya over an inter-epidemic period spanning up to 7 years. Methods: A serological survey of immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies to RVF using competitive ELISA was undertaken on 297 serum samples from different wildlife species at various locations in Kenya. The samples were collected between 2008 and 2015. Serum was also collected in 2014 from 177 cattle from Ol Pejeta Conservancy; 113 of the cattle were in close contact with wildlife and the other 64 were kept separate from buffalo and large game by an electric fence. Results: The seroprevalence of RVF virus (RVFV antibody was 11.6% in wildlife species during the study period. Cattle that could come in contact with wildlife and large game were all negative for RVFV. The seroprevalence was relatively high in elephants, rhinoceros, and buffalo, but

  12. The influence of elastic modulus of inlay materials on stress distribution and fracture of premolars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Akf; Xavier, Ta; Noritomi, Py; Saavedra, G; Borges, Als

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence the width of the occlusal isthmus and inlay material had on the stress distribution, displacement, and fracture resistance of upper human premolars. For this in vitro test, 35 intact upper premolars (UPM) were selected and five were kept intact for the control group (group I). The remaining 30 were divided into two experimental groups (n=15) according to the width of isthmus: conservative (CP) and extensive preparation (EP), one third and more than two thirds of cuspal distance, respectively. Five teeth from each experimental group were left without restoration for negative controls (CPnc and EPnc), and the remaining 10 in each group were subdivided according to the inlay material (resin or ceramic): group CPr, CP + indirect resin; group CPc, CP + ceramic; group EPr, EP + indirect resin; and group EPc, EP + ceramic. The cemented inlays were loaded in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The fractured specimens were analyzed with stereomicroscopy, and the values of the fracture resistance evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey test. For the finite element analyses, an average UPM for each group was modeled in Rhinoceros CAD software and imported to Ansys 13.0. An average of 320,000 tetrahedral elements and 540,000 nodes for the seven models were performed using the same experimental simulation setup for each. The models were constrained on the base, and a displacement of 0.02 mm was applied to keep a linear behavior for the analysis. A von Mises stress and total displacement fields were used for the coherence test and the maximum principal stress fields were used for mechanical behavior comparisons. Group I (161.73 ± 22.94) showed a significantly higher mean value than the other experimental groups (EPc: 103.55 ± 15.84; CPc: 94.38 ± 12.35; CPr: 90.31 ± 6.10; EPr: 65.42 ± 10.15; CPnc: 65.46 ± 5.37; EPnc: 58.08 ± 9.62). The stress distribution was

  13. DOPRINOS RAZVIJENOSTI MOTORIČKIH SPOSOBNOSTI KOD SAVLADAVANJA SKIJAŠKE TEHNIKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Cigrovski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovim istraživanjem utvrđen je uticaj motoričkih sposobnosti na proces učenja alpskog skijanja. Takođe, cilj ovog istraživanja bio je utvrditi uticaj određenih morfoloških karakteristika na savladavanje skijaških znanja. Na početku istraživanja ispitanici su bili testirani pomoću testova za procjenu: ravnoteže, agilnosti, eksplozivne i statičke snage, frekvencije pokreta, te fleksibilnosti. Nakon procjene motoričkih sposobnosti, ispitanicima su utvrđene osnovne morfološke karateristike, te su pristupili školi alpskog skijanja u trajanju od sedam dana. Po završetku učenja alpskog skijanja svi ispitanici demonstrirali su sedam elemenata skijaške tehnike ispred pet nezavisnih ispitivača. Analiza rezultata pokazala je kako agilnost pozitivno utiče pri učenju svih ispitanih elemenata skijaške tehnike (kosi spust, β = 0,38; β = 0,26; zavoj ka padini, β = 0,33; β = 0,23; osnovni zavoj, β = 0,18; paralelni zavoj, β = 0,32; vijuganje, β = 0,34. Rezultati ispitanika u testu izdržaj u čučnju kojim se procjenjuje statička snaga nogu pozitivno utiče kod učenja zavoja ka padini (β = 0,19, osnovnog zavoja (β = 0,35, te paralelnog zavoja (β = 0,27. Test za procjenu ravnoteže (ravnotežni položaj lijeve noge uzdužno značajno utiče pri učenju osnovnih elemenata skijaške tehnike (kosi spust u desnu stranu, β = 0,23; kosi spust u lijevu stranu, β = 0,28; zavoj ka padini u lijevu stranu, β = 0,24. Tjelesna visina skijaša početnika negativno utiče na efikasnost usvajanja skijaških znanja (β = -0,5, što znači da će višim skijašima biti teže usvajati skijaška znanja u odnosu na niže skijaše. S obzirom na rezultate ovog istraživanja moguće je istaknuti agilnost, statičku snagu, te ravnotežu kao one motoričke sposobnosti koje najviše doprinose skijaškim početnicima prilikom učenja skijaške tehnike.

  14. Arapski masdar u svetlosti teorije o vrstama reči

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Tanasković

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Podela jezičkih jedinica na vrste ili klase stara je koliko i sama lingvistika. Na njenom usavršavanju predano i uporno je radeno tokom čitave istorije nauke o jeziku, a kroz taj rad došlo se do čitavog niza značajnih opštelingvističih saznanja. Tradicionalna podela reči na vrste potiče još od antičkih filosofa, prvenstveno Aristotela, a izgrađivana je uglavnom u funkciji sistematizovan. ta građe koju so pružali indoevropski jezici. Iako su do danas stvoreni različiti tipovi klasifikacije, od logičkih do krajnje formalističkih, može se reći da potpuno zadovoljavajuća rešenja u ovoj složenoj oblasti nisu mogla biti pronađena, jer je po pravilu prednost kod svake pojedine klasifikacije davana jednoj određenoj grupi kriterijuma, morfološkim, sintaksičkim ili semantičkim, a ređe i funkcionalnim. U celini se može zapaziti dominacija formalnih kriterijuma. Na primeru »maşdara«, oblika iz arapskog jezika, koji nosi i glagolske i imenske osobine i obeležja, moguće je sagledati neke od problema podele reči na vrste, kao i nemoć izvesnih tradicionalnih klasifikacionih sistema. »Maşdar« je blizak infinitivu i glagolskoj imenici indoevropskih jezika, pa je u svetlu te analogije uglavnom i razmatran, kako u arabistici, tako i šire, u semistici, bez potrebne analize njegove stvarne prirode. Klasična arapska gramatička nauka posmatra »maşdar« kao glagolsku reč u okviru svoje tripartitne podele reči na vrste (ime - glagol - čestica, ali ga donekle i izdvaja iz razloga formalne i semantičke specifičnosti ovog oblika. »Maşdar« i druge slične jezičke jedinice sinkretičkog karaktera upućuju na potrebu uspostavljanja izvesne hijerarhije klasifikacionih kriterijuma, tačnije, dva nivoa posmatranja, pri čemu bi prednost trebalo dati kategorijalnom sadržaju pojedine reči, tj. njenoj glagolskoj ili imenskoj semantici, a zatim bi u granicama te primarne podele trebalo izvršiti što iscrpniju i svestraniju

  15. Neki problemi pri prevođenju moderne poezije promatrani kroz teoriju konceptualne integracije

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Cimer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Straußeneimondaber ich finde nichts mehrnichts mehr an Buchstaben im Wortmache so ähnlichwie Luftgang ohne Seiles fällt nichts mehraber nichts ist eben auchZaungrenzeund LebenMittelstelzengangder Strauß legt seine Eier in den Himmelfast Massenproduktionkugelrunde Stundenmit Haut auf wirren ÜberzugHände greifen leerwenn nicht duaber das kann nicht –Angsttauchen mit Höhengangund die Hand als Schalewer fängt, – verliert!Mjesec od nojevog jajetaali nema ničeg višeničeg više u slovima riječičinim sličnokao hod po zraku bez konopcaništa više ne padaali i ništa jestgranica od ogradei životsredinom na štulamanoj liježe svoja jaja u nebogotovo masovna proizvodnjasati okrugli poput loptes kožom na neurednoj presvlaciruke posežu u praznoako nisi tiali to ne može –uron u strah s letom u visinei ruka poput ljusketko ulovi, – izgubi!Prevođenje poezije oduvijek se smatralo osobitom temom unutar ionako složenog područja književnog prevođenja. Budući da poezija predstavlja književni oblik u kojem su sadržaj i forma nerazdvojno povezani, jasno je zašto ona predstavlja najzahtjevniji oblik prevoditeljske aktivnosti. Problematičnu točku pri prevođenju poezije predstavlja činjenica da ona daje izrazito “zgusnutu” i kompaktnu formu te da jezik poezije uglavnom počiva na konotacijama, a ne na denotacijama. Noviji pristupi prevođenju prepoznaju da su nekadašnja protivljenja prevođenju poezije, to jest isticanja njezine neprevodivosti, zapravo bila usmjerena na nemogućnost potpunog prenošenja svih aspekata izvornog poetskog djela u ciljni jezik i njegovu kulturu i tradiciju (neprevodivost poezije isticali su, primjerice, T. S. Eliott: “[poezija je] stalni podsjetnik na sve ono što se može reći samo na jednom jeziku”, Roman Jakobson: “poezija je po definiciji neprevodiva” ili Nabokov: “pjesma ne može biti prevedena, reproducirana ni iznova oblikovana na ciljnom jeziku” (svi navedeni citati te citati

  16. Izlaganje na javni uvid podataka o nekretninama i utvrđivanje prava na zemljištu u funkciji uspostave jedinstvenog registra zemljišta i prava na zemljištu u Brčko distriktu BiH : Public presentation of data on real-estate and determination of rights in function of the establishment of a single registry of real-estate and real rights to real-estate in the Brcko district of B&H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Latifović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zakon o registru zemljišta i prava na zemljištu Brčko distrikta Bosne i Hercegovine je propisao uspostavu jedinstvene evidencije nekretnina i stvarnih prava na nekretninama u Brčko distriktu Bosne i Hercegovine. Poslovi uspostave jedinstvene evidencije, u segmentu izlaganja na javni uvid podataka o nekretninama i utvrđivanje prava, su povjereni Vijeću za izlaganje podataka o nekretninama i utvrđivanje prava na zemljištu Brčko distrikta Bosne i Hercegovine. Autor se, u ovom radu, uz nezaobilazan kraći prikaz historijata javnih evidencija na nekretninama u Bosni i Hercegovini, bavi organizacijom, nadležnostima i načinom rada Vijeća za izlaganje podataka o nekretninama i utvrđivanje prava na zemljištu Brčko distrikta BIH. Nakon što bude uspješno okončan projekat izlaganje podataka o nekretninama i utvrđivanje prava na zemljištu u Brčko distriktu BiH, svi geodetsko – katastarski podaci o nepokretnostima kao i podaci o njihovom pravnom statusu će biti vođeni u Registru zemljišta i prava na zemljištu Osnovnog suda Brčko distrikta BiH. : The Law of Land Registry and Rights over Land of the Brčko District of B&H stipulated the establishment of a single registry of real-estate and real rights to real-estate in the Brčko District of B&H. Activities of the establishment of a single registry, in the segment of public presentation of data on real-estate and determination of rights, were entrusted to the Council for Presentation of Data on Real-estate and Establishment of Rights to Land of the Brčko District of B&H. In this paper, the author presents the inevitable short overview of the history of real-estate registries in Bosnia and Herzegovina and he also deals with organization, competencies and manner of work of the Council for Presentation of Data on Real-estate and Establishment of Rights to Land of the Brčko District of B&H. After a successful completion of the project of presentation of data on real-estate and

  17. Effect of Lysophosphatidylcholine on ATP and ρ-Nitrophenyl Phospha te Hydrolysis by the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase from Soybean Hypocotyls%溶血卵磷脂对大豆下胚轴质膜 H+-ATPaseATP和对-硝基苯磷酸水解活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱全胜; 张楠

    2001-01-01

    The stimulatory effect of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) on ATP and ρ-nitrop henyl phosphate (PNPP) hydroly sis by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) hypocotyls was studied. Results showed that lyso-PC stimulated the hydrolysis o f ATP; ATP hydrolysis was enhanced dramatically when lyso-PC was withi n 0-0.03 %, and increased slightly when lyso-PC was higher than 0.03%. At the concentrati on of 0.03%, lyso-PC stimulated ATP hydrolysis by 80.5%. Kinetics analysis showe d that Vmax increased from 0.46 μmol Pi·mg-1 protein·mi n-1 to 0 .87 μmol Pi·mg-1 protein·min-1 while Km increased from 0. 88 m mol/L to 1.15 mmol/L under lyso-PC treatment. The optimum pH of ATP hydrolysis w as shifted from 6.5 to 7.0. Moreover, it was found lyso-PC enhanced the inhi biti on of ATP hydrolysis by hydroxylamine. In the presence of 200 mmol/L hydroxylami ne, ATP hydrolysis was inhibited by 74.4%, while it was inhibited by 84.4% when treated with lyso-PC. However, PNPP hydrolysis and the inhibitory effect of vana date were not affected by lyso-PC. The above results indicated that the kinase d omain might be an action site or regulatory region of the C-terminal autoinhibit ory domain in the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase.%研究了溶血卵磷脂(lysophosphatidylcholine, lyso-PC)对大豆(Glycine max (L.) Merr.)下胚轴质膜H+-ATPase ATP 和对-硝基苯磷酸(ρ-nitrophenyl phosphate, PNPP )水解的影响.结果显示,lyso-PC 可以刺激ATP水解活力,当lyso-PC 浓度在0~0.03%范围时,ATP水解活力明显提高,lyso-PC浓度高于0.03%后增加缓慢;当lyso-PC浓度为0.03% 时, ATP水解活力提高80.5%.动力学分析表明,lyso-PC处理可以使ATP水解的Vmax 从0.46 μmol Pi·mg-1 protein·min-1升高到 0.87 μmol Pi·mg -1 protein·min-1;使Km从0.88 mmol/L升高到1.15 mmol/L. 最适pH 也从6.5变为7.0.实验还发现lyso-PC可以促进羟胺对ATP水解的抑制作用,lyso-PC处理后ATP 水解被羟胺(200 mmol

  18. Evacuation from tunnels - an example of the Straževica tunnel / Эвакуация из тоннеля – на примере тоннеля Стражевица / Evakuacija iz tunela - primer tunela Straževica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoje B. Jevtić

    2016-07-01

    уационные ситуации и минимальный расчет времени для эвакуационных мероприятий на примере тоннеля Стражевица 772 м. / Tuneli su objekti sagrađeni za različite svrhe. Mogu biti putnički, železnički, tuneli za podzemne železnice i služiti za slične namene. Njihove dimenzije postaju sve veće zahvaljujući tehnološkim poboljšanjima. Uzimajući u obzir činjenicu da mnogo ljudi i vozila kontinualno prolazi kroz ove objekte, postavilo se pitanje o mogućojevakuaciji u slučaju katastrofa, kao što su požar ili eksplozija. Iskustva govore da je mnogo ljudi izgubilo život jer nisu mogli biti evakuisani ili je evakuacija zbog nekog razloga kasnila. U ovom radu opisuje se moguća evakuaciona situacija i izračunava minimalno vreme potrebno za evakuaciju u tunelu Straževica koji je dugačak 772 m.

  19. COMERCIO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN COLOMBIA WILDLIFE TRADE IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Javier Mancera Rodríguez

    2008-12-01

    , extractive use, as well as the dynamics of its legal and illegal trade in the country and the development and promotion of sustained productive alternatives. The secondary information of Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial, Regional Corporations, Urban Environmental Authorities, Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo Rural - INCODER, Police Authorities, Institutes of Research, Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales-DIAN, Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo and PROEXPORT and others was analyzed. In Colombia , the trade of wildlife species is mainly the extraction of individual for the illegal trade, that has generated imbalances in the natural populations and has deteriorated the ecosystems dynamics. The legal trade of wildlife is based on the production of a few species mainly the cayman (Cayman crocodilus, the water pig (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, near 200 species of ornamental fishes, the black tegu (Tupinambis nigropunctatus, the green iguana (Iguana iguana, the boa constrictor (Boa constrictor, rhinoceros beetles (Dynastes Hercules and butterflies. In the country, there is not exact information on numbers of individual captured in control operatives of illegal traffic of fauna, and knowledge of the dynamics of this illegal trade does not exist.

  20. Messenger RNAs encoding the beta subunits of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) luteinizing hormone (gpLH) and putative chorionic gonadotropin (gpCG) are transcribed from a single-copy gpLH/CGbeta gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, G B; Heilman, D F; Hoss, A J; Bunick, D; Lund, L A

    2001-06-01

    Neither gene locus nor gene sequence characterizations have been reported for the beta subunits of guinea pig (gp) LH and putative gp chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Descriptions of this locus would allow comparison with functionally relevant molecular genetic features of other species' homologous loci including the single-copy equid LH/CGbeta gene and the primate LHbeta-CGbeta gene cluster locus. Contiguous cDNA and genomic DNA fragments spanning the entire mature coding sequence of gpLHbeta mRNA, gpCGbeta mRNA and a homologous gpLH/CGbeta gene were amplified using PCR methodologies. With the exception of one silent mutation, the two cDNA and the genomic sequences were identical where they overlapped. Comparison of guinea pig coding sequence with LHbeta, CGbeta and LH/CGbeta sequences of other vertebrate species revealed the following order of similarity expressed as per cent coding sequence identity: rhinoceros LHbeta (83.6%)>pig LHbeta (81.8%)>donkey LH/CGbeta=bovine LHbeta (81.5%)> horse LH/CGbeta (80.6%)>dog LHbeta (79.7%)>human LHbeta (78.2%)>rat LHbeta (77.9%)>human CGbeta (75.8%)>turkey LHbeta (52.7%); values that are generally consistent with recently postulated phylogenetic relationships. Like the consensus mammalian LHbeta gene, the 5'-flanking region of the gpLH/CGbeta gene contains a single TATA sequence 37 bp upstream of the translation start codon. The first in-frame stop codon occurred at codon position +122 which is consistent with the 121 amino acid residue length of the consensus mammalian mature LHbeta peptide. To estimate gene copy number, full-length gpLHbeta cDNA was radiolabeled and hybridized to Southern blots of guinea pig genomic DNA digested with a panel of six restriction endonucleases. The resulting simple hybridization pattern strongly suggested that there is a single-copy gpLH/CGbeta gene. Northern analysis of total pituitary RNA using the same probe indicated that gpLHbeta transcript size is indistinguishable from that of consensus

  1. 濒危野生动植物药材非法贸易调查%Survey on Illegal Trade in Endangered Medicinal Species in China’s Traditional Chinese Medicine Wholesale Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹峰; 梦梦; 徐玲; 刘定震

    2015-01-01

    对10个药材市场上的沉香、冬虫夏草、肉苁蓉、蛤蚧、乌梢蛇、蕲蛇、金钱白花蛇、玳瑁、熊胆、麝香、虎骨、豹骨、犀牛角、羚羊角和穿山甲片等15种常用或曾用的濒危物种药材进行实地调查,结果表明:对国家明令禁止贸易的濒危物种药材公开摆卖现象并不突出,但其地下交易具有普遍性;虎豹骨和犀牛角的贸易已非常少见,仅0.8%和1.4%的药材经营者声称有售,而且他们都提及了贸易禁令,显示出从业人员较强的保护意识;“中国野生动物经营利用管理专用标识制度”的推行,在一定程度上遏制了标识物种药材的非法贸易;药市上部分濒危物种药材来自境外,走私现象依然存在。针对调查中存在的问题,建议修改和完善相应的法律法规、加大执法能力建设和打击力度、加强贸易和市场的监测、开展公众教育,以遏制药用濒危野生动植物药材的非法贸易。%In this survey,10 Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM)wholesale markets in China were visi-ted and 15 endangered medicinal species were recorded.The species include Aquilaria Spp.,Cordyceps sinensis,Cistanche Spp,Gekko gecko,Zaocys dhumnades,Agkistrodon acutus,Bungarus multicinctus, Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata)shell,Bear (Ursus thibetanus and U.arctos)bile,Musk (Moschus spp.),Tiger(Panthera tigris)bone,Leopard (Panthera pardus,Neofelis nebulosa and Uncia uncia,) bone,Rhino(Rhinoceros spp.)horn,Saiga(Saiga tatarica)horn and Pangolin(Manis spp.)scale.The investigation shows that the open illegal wildlife trade is not serious,however it is still common in black market.Very little tiger bone,leopard bone and rhino horn was found,only 0.8% and 1.4% dealers claimed to have tiger bone and rhino horn for sale,all of them mentioned the 1993 trade ban.The imple-mentation of Special Mark System of China Wildlife Management and Utilization has succeeded in de-creasing the

  2. 古代造物设计考古与民族风格——以"獬豸""唐卡""须弥台"为维度%Ancient Artifi cial Design and National Style--Based on The Dimensions of "Haetae", "Thang-ga" and "Meru Terrace"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄震云

    2015-01-01

    Haetae originaly refers to Fude Ram, a cattle-like beast with one horn. It is a mythical animal that is able to vanquish demons and monsters. The exaggeratedfi gure has no common in both physique and spirit, sharing the same form and diferent essence with the rhinoceros. As a symbol of justice and law, Haetae fuly demonstrates diachronic features of cultural creativity, namely, changes through time, not characteristics of a particular time. Thang-ga is famous for itsfl orid color, romantic softness and luxurious harmony. The Goddess of Mercy, painted on the scrol, revealing colective memory Tang emperor''s civilization. The reason that Thang-ga is developed is that Princess Wencheng married Songtsan Ganbo, the chief of Tubo Kingdom (part of Tibet now). Yufu (Chinese traditional clothes) in Tang Dynasty has completely changed the way in which Tubo express color. The artistic form of Thang-ga shows slope of cultural afusion, and it is not natural but rational. The making of Buddha in kangxi and Qianlong times of the Qing Dynasty is the most sophisticated throughout history. Buddha is mainly made of brass, because gold plating or gilding is quite popular during Kangxi and Yongzheng''s reign. However, statues in the palace are only gold-decorated the body, without the outer clothing, presenting sharp contrast of colors. The diference in statues lies more in economic condition than aesthetic reasons.%獬豸最初的本意是一角的福德羊,引申出降妖除魔功能,成为神羊,还有的造型夸张,脱离了羊的神形,和犀牛异 质同构,成为中国司法公平的象征獬豸,充分体现文化创意形成的历时性也就是线性,而不是岁月轮形特征.唐卡色彩艳丽纯正,柔和浪漫,和谐大气,尤其是观音形象,显示出对大唐文明的集体记忆.唐卡的产生和形成的契机是文成公主入藏,唐代的舆服文化彻底改变了吐蕃的色彩表现传统.唐卡的艺术表现规律体现了文化流向具有坡度的特征,

  3. Hybrid computational phantoms of the male and female newborn patient: NURBS-based whole-body models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    phantom is performed in three steps: polygonization of the voxel phantom, organ modeling via NURBS surfaces and phantom voxelization. Two 3D graphic tools, 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and Rhinoceros(TM), were utilized to polygonize the newborn voxel phantom and generate NURBS surfaces, while an in-house MATLAB(TM) code was used to voxelize the resulting NURBS model into a final computational phantom ready for use in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations. A total of 126 anatomical organ and tissue models, including 38 skeletal sites and 31 cartilage sites, were described within the hybrid phantom using either NURBS or polygon surfaces. A male hybrid newborn phantom was constructed following the development of the female phantom through the replacement of female-specific organs with male-specific organs. The outer body contour and internal anatomy of the NURBS-based phantoms were adjusted to match anthropometric and reference newborn data reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in their Publication 89. The voxelization process was designed to accurately convert NURBS models to a voxel phantom with minimum volumetric change. A sensitivity study was additionally performed to better understand how the meshing tolerance and voxel resolution would affect volumetric changes between the hybrid-NURBS and hybrid-voxel phantoms. The male and female hybrid-NURBS phantoms were constructed in a manner so that all internal organs approached their ICRP reference masses to within 1%, with the exception of the skin (-6.5% relative error) and brain (-15.4% relative error). Both hybrid-voxel phantoms were constructed with an isotropic voxel resolution of 0.663 mm-equivalent to the ICRP 89 reference thickness of the newborn skin (dermis and epidermis). Hybrid-NURBS phantoms used to create their voxel counterpart retain the non-uniform scalability of stylized phantoms, while maintaining the anatomic realism of segmented voxel phantoms with respect to organ shape, depth and

  4. Late Quaternary Megafaunal Extinctions in Northern Eurasia: Latest Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Anthony

    2010-05-01

    Anthony J. Stuart1 & Adrian M. Lister2 1 Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK. Email: tony.s@megafauna.org.uk 2 Department of Palaeontology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. Email: a.lister@nhm.ac.uk. The global extinction of many spectacular species of megafauna (large terrestrial mammals, together with a few large reptiles and birds) within the last c. 50,000 years (Late Quaternary) has been attributed on the one hand to ‘overkill' by human hunters and on the other to environmental change. However, in spite of more than half a century of active interest and research the issue remains unresolved, largely because there are insufficient dated records of megafaunal species for most parts of the world. Northern Eurasia is an especially fruitful region in which to research megafaunal extinctions as it has a wealth of megafaunal material and crucially most extinctions occurred well within the range of radiocarbon dating. Our approach, in a series of projects over the last decade funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), involves amassing radiocarbon dates made directly on megafaunal material from across the entire region: a) by submitting a substantial number of samples (so far c. 500 dates) for AMS dating at Oxford (ORAU); b) obtaining AMS dates from colleagues working on aDNA projects; and c) carefully screening (‘auditing') dates from the literature. The dates (calibrated using OxCal) are plotted as time-sliced maps and as chronological/geographical charts. In our previous work we targeted a range of extinct species from Northern Eurasia: woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, giant deer, cave bear (in collaboration with Martina Pacher), cave lion, and spotted hyaena (which survives today only in Sub-Saharan Africa). By this means we have established a reliable chronology for these extinctions which we are able to compare with the climatic, vegetational and

  5. De Rocinante al rinoceronte: la historia natural y el 'Quijote'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pardos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende, siquiera someramente, ofrecer una panorámica general de la situación de las ciencias biológicas, entonces «historia natural», en los tiempos del 'Quijote'. Y ello tanto en Europa, con figuras como Fuchs o Gessner, como en España, con los Laguna, Fernández, Oviedo y Acosta, entre otros. Se analizan las relaciones e influencias mutuas entre la historia natural y la Corona, con su doble papel impulsor y represor. Otro tanto con la Iglesia, parte fundamental del Estado y rectora y garante de la «pureza» del pensamiento, científico o no. No se intenta presentar de forma exhaustiva o pormenorizada cuantos animales y plantas aparecen en el 'Quijote', sino analizar algunos detalles desde el prisma de un biólogo. Así, se intenta esclarecer la relación entre las cigüeñas y las lavativas, la presencia de cuervos y murciélagos en la cueva de Montesinos, los nombres comunes de los animales en la época, las sabogas de Sancho, las hayas que nunca existieron o los azores y la cetrería. ¿Y qué sabía Teresa Panza, mujer de Sancho, de los avestruces? Así, a través del 'Quijote', se intenta vislumbrar al menos cuál era el conocimiento que la sociedad en general tenía, a caballo entre los siglos XVI y XVII, de lo que hoy llamamos biodiversidad. -------------------------------------------- From Rocinante to rhinoceros: natural history and 'Don Quixote'. This article seeks to offer a sweeping overview of the status of the biological sciences —or "natural history," as they were then called— when 'Don Quixote' was written. Its aim is to cover Europe, with figures such as Fuch or Gessner, as well as Spain, with the Lagunas, Fernandez, Oviedo, and Acosta, among others. The interactions and mutual influences between natural history and the monarchy, in its dual role as promoter and suppressor, are examined. The same is done with the Church, which was a fundamental component of the State and the overseer and guarantor of

  6. Les Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia, Perissodactyla miocènes et pliocènes des Tugen Hills (Kénya

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    Guérin, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 70 determinable and usable rhinoceros remains belonging to nine species were yielded by 26 Miocene and Pliocene sites from the Tugen Hills (Kenya, namely Cheboit, Kapsomin, Kipsaraman and Tabarin. Such a material allows a better knowledge of the anatomy of these species. It is now possible to distinguish the postcranial skeleton of Aceratherium acutirostratum from that of Dicerorhinus leakeyi. The cranial and dental anatomy of Paradiceros mukirii is better known. The temporal extension of Chilotheridium pattersoni and Paradiceros mukirii are increased. Ceratotherium praecox is the most frequent rhino from the Uppermost Miocene onwards. Diceros bicornis is known since 6 My, about at the same time the first C. praecox. Diceros cf. pachygnathus is identified in the Lukeino and Mabaget Formations, and the geographical extension of this group of species is much increased. The Hominid Orrorin tugenensis is associated with rhinoceroses in four sites of the Lukeino Formation; Ceratotherium praecox is present in three of them, alone in Kapcheberek, associated one time (Tabarin with D. bicornis and in another one (Cheboit with Brachypotherium lewisi; at Aragai the sole rhino is Diceros cf. pachygnathus. All these rhinos contribute to assign to Orrorin a variable but mostly open and rather wet palaeoenvironment.

    [fr] Plus de 70 restes déterminables appartenant à neuf espèces de Rhinocerotidae ont été recueillis dans 26 gisements miocènes et pliocènes des Tugen Hills, les plus riches étant Cheboit, Kapsomin, Kipsaraman et Tabarin. Ce matériel permet d’accroître sensiblement nos connaissances sur l’anatomie de ces espèces. Il est désormais possible de distinguer le squelette post-crânien de Aceratherium acutirostratum de celui de Dicerorhinus leakeyi; l’anatomie crânienne et dentaire de

  7. O morfematskoj alternaciju talijanskom glagolu

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    Tekavčić Tekavčić

    1972-12-01

    koje se osnivaju na konsonantskim alternacijama, rezultat su širokog kompleksa fonematskih procesa koji nazivamo palafalizacijom, kao i nekih drugih procesa (npr. razvoja bilabijalnih konsonanata, u glagolu DEBERE. Ti su fonematski procesi doveli do koegzistencije dvaju, triju, pa čak i četiriju oblika, a to znači do različitih tipova morfematske alternacije (s alomorfima u komplementarnoj, a u određenim slučajevima i fakultativnoj distribuciji. Posebno mjesto u tom sklopu pojava zauzimaju glagoli leksem kojih u latinskom, a djelomično i danas, završava na /n/ i /1/ (VENIRE, PONERE, SALIRE, VALERE itd.. Pod utjecajem različitih analogija, ovi su glagoli razvili oblike na -ngo, -nga, -ngono, -lgo, -lga, lgono, i to ne samo u talijanskom nego i u dnrg·im romanskim jezicima (španjolski, provansalski. Promatrajući razvoj i sudbinu pojedinih tipova morfematske alternacije, autor konstatira da su se najbolje održali oni tipovi alternacije koji (posredno ili neposredno uposluju velarne konsonante, dok pokazuju tendenciju nestajanja tipovi u kojima sudjeluju dentali (konkretno npr. /d/gg/. Po autorovu mišljenju vitalnost i održanje morfematskih alternacija u glagolskom sistemu pokazuju određene podudarnosti s onima u imeničkom sistemu (imenica, pridjev: upravo oni tipovi alternacija u koje ulaze velari (/k/č/, /g/g/ očuvani su do danas i u imeničkom sistemu talijanskog književnog jezika. Autor na kraju uspoređuje talijanski jezik s rumunjskim kao predstavnikom balkanskog latiniteta i jezikom, koji je vrlo bogat različitim tipovima alternacija, kao i sa španjolskim, predstavnikom zapadne Romanije i iberskog latiniteta, u kome su alternacije znatno siromašnije. I u oba ta jezika opaža se stanovita podudarnost između bogatstva i vitalnosti pojedinih tipova alternacija u glagolskom i u imeničkom sistemu. Taj paralelizam ne može, naravno, biti apsolutan, jer u jeziku djeluju kasnije i brojni drugi faktori, ali je ipak dovoljno jasan da se nedvojbeno mo

  8. Sintaksa i semantika u suprotan koordinacije i zamjene

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    Pavao Tekavčić

    1978-12-01

    , ma è simpatica odmah shvatiti kao adverzativna, Laura non è bella ma simpatica ima sasvim jasno supstitutivno značenje. Ista se razlika opaža u jezicima koji za oba značenja upotrebljavaju uglavnom samo jedan veznik, npr. u francuskom (mais i u engleskom (but. Čak ni tamo gdje se razlika može i formalno izraziti, kao u talijanskom (però – bensì i hrvatskosrpskom (ali - nego, elipsa drugoga pomoćnog glagola nije moguća ako je odnos adverzativan a prvi član negiran: *Laura non è bella però simpatica, *Laura nije lijepa ali simpatična, Slično je i u imperativnim rečenicama, gdje npr. nije moguće kazati *Non essere timido pero prudente, *Ne budi plašljiv ali oprezan, nego valja ponoviti pomoćni glagol (Non essere timido, però prudente, *Ne budi plašljiv, ali budi oprezan. Neprihvatljivost elipse drugoga pomoćnog glagola u tim rečenicama u vezi je prvenstveno s topikalizacijom pojedinih dijelova rečenice: dok su u supstitutivnim rečenicama topikalizirana oba člana (jer se jedan nadomještava drugim, a ne glagol 'biti', u adverzativnim rečenicama topikaliziiran je upravo on, jer se njima kazuje da drugi član, iako u kontrastu s prvim, ipak postoji. Razlika se opaža vrlo jasno ako se adverz. i supstit. rečenice rastavena dvije nezavisne, iz kojih (transformacijom koordinacije proizlaze: Laura nije lijepa. Simpatična je. (naglašeni su pridjevi; odnos je supstitutivan Laura nije lijepa. Simatična jést. (naglašen je glagol jest; odnos je adverzativan. Ako su u takvoj rečenici pridj evi suprotni, naglašavanje glagola izaziva komičan efekt (Nije Lijepa. Ružna jést, jer insistira na onome, što je kazano već prvim članom. Na kraju se ukratko razmatra odnos adverzativnih i dopusnih rečenica (ove druge su označeni član i odnos supstitutivnih rečenica i onih .s invece (ove druge su označeni član prema supstitutivnima, jer ne kazuju samo da se ne dogadja nešto već nešto drugo, nego sugeriraju da se ono prvo moralo dogoditi: Nije

  9. Okuma Yazma Öğretimi Yöntemleri Ve “Ses Temelli Cümle Yöntemi” Uygulaması The Methods Of Teaching Reading And Writing In Turkish: Practice The Phonetic Based Method

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    Raşit KOÇ

    2012-12-01

    ğrenmede ve bu işi zevkli bir alışkanlığa dönüştürmede okuma ve yazma öğretiminde nasıl bir yol izleneceği de önem kazanmaktadır.Ülkemizde dünyadaki gelişmelere paralel olarak okuma yazma öğretiminde kullanılan yöntemler de zaman içerisinde değişmiştir. Okuma yazma öğretiminde uzun süre harf yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Harf yöntemini sırasıyla ses yöntemi, hece yöntemi kelime ve cümle yöntemi izlemiştir.Davranışçı kuram merkeze alınarak hazırlanmış olan eski Türkçe programı öğrencileri ezbere sevk ettiği, etkili ve kalıcı bir okuma alışkanlığı kazandırmada yeterli olmadığı için eleştirilere muhatap olmuştur. Zaman zaman revizyon geçiren eski program 2005 yılında yerini yeni programa bırakmıştır.Temel felsefesini yapılandırmacı yaklaşımın oluşturduğu yeni Türkçe programında okuma yazma öğretim yöntemi olarak ses temelli cümle yöntemi benimsenmiştir. Bu yöntemle beraber dik temel harflerle yapılan yazı öğretimi yerine bitişik eğik yazı kullanılmaya başlanmıştır.Bu çalışmada, okuma yazma öğretiminde günümüze kadar kullanılan yöntemler ve bu yöntemlerin faydalı ve sakıncalı yönleri belirtildikten sonra yeni hazırlanan Türkçe programında yer alan ses temelli cümle yöntemiyle ilgili düşüncelere yer verilecektir.

  10. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are vital to sustainable agriculture in most developing countries. In Asia, in general, the integration of livestock, fish and crops has proved to be a sustainable system through centuries of experience. Traditional use of dung for manuring the fields and bullocks for ploughing is the 'biodynamic farming', which has special significance in dry land agriculture comprising about 65 percent of India's cropped area. Gene-based technologies will be useful for developing special draught breeds of cattle so that their valuable source of energy remains available especially to the small and marginal farmers. Further, the livestock in the developing countries form an essential part of an integrated agricultural system and, therefore, development strategies for gene-based applications should consider the total production system (i.e., breeding fodder and forage crops, animal and crop disease and pest management etc). The gene-technologies of relevance to the developing countries are (i) rumen molecular techniques for reducing methane production and for increasing protein and energy supply; ruminant food stuffs currently used in India and a few other developing countries are fibrous, low in nitrogen, and contain anti-nutritive factors, (ii) improving animal productivity in developing countries by manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression of key metabolic hormones and enzymes for a long period after birth in cattle, (iii) genetic resistance to Helminthes in sheep, and (iv) molecular methods of diagnosis, molecular epidemiology and treatment of swine fever. Although not gene-based, artificial insemination (AI) for genetic improvement of dairy cattle and buffalo, and embryo-transfer (ET) for rapid multiplication of elite cattle are also relevant. Cloning (of the 'Dolly' - the sheep kind) will be useful to revive the rare and endangered animal species such as one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, wild buffalo and dugongs in India, for restoring

  11. Prilog unapređenju rada i upravljanja u Vojnoj akademiji i na Univerzitetu odbrane / Contribution to work and management improvement in the Military Academy and the University of Defence / Повышение эффективности работы Военной академии и Университета обороны

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    Marko D. Andrejić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Obimne i dinamične organizacione promene koje su u poslednjih nekoliko godina sprovođene u oblasti odbrane zahvatile su i oblasti visokog obrazovanja i naučnoistraživačkog rada vezanog za odbranu. Nastojao se formirati novi, integrisani naučni i obrazovni sistem, harmonizovan sa nacionalnim sistemom, koji će biti samoobnovljiv i delom samoodrživ, te kao takav biti koristan ne samo sistemu odbrane već i široj društvenoj zajednici. Da bi se operacionalizovala osnovna zamisao osnovan je Univerzitet odbrane, kao državni univerzitet i institucija integrativnog karaktera u kojoj se odbrana izučava i istražuje na naučnim osnovama. Analizom funkcionisanja Univerziteta odbrane na nečelima i logici sistemskog i situacionog pristupa, kroz sagledavanje postojećih načina rada, trenutnih mogućnosti, potreba i očekivanih rezultata, može se uočiti da postoje mogućnosti za opšte unapređenje postojećeg stanja i za postizanje višeg nivoa organizacionih performansi. Mogućnosti za unapređenje stanja postoje u oblasti usklađivanja postojeće i nacionalne normativno-zakonske regulative, zatim organizacije, organizacione kulture, u oblasti tehnologije rada, kvaliteta i raspodele, u funkcijama i procesima, kao i u domenu pojedinačnih elemenata sistema. / Robust and dynamic organizational changes that have been carried out in defense in recent years affected the field of higher education and scientific research related to defense . A creation of a new, integrated research and education system, harmonized with the national system, is underway. Such a system will be resilient and partly self-sustainingt and useful not only for the defense area, but also for the wider community. Introduction Higher education is a very important part of the strategy of power and the influence of a real defense system. Creativity as a basic resource produces innovations which can enhance and improve the defense system. Organizational changes in the country over

  12. Türkiye ve Bulgaristan’da İlkokuma Yazma Sürecinde Öğrencilerin Ürettikleri Yazıların Okunaklılık Bakımından İncelenmesi Investigation of Manuscript Legibility Produced by students in the Process of Early Writing-Reading in Turkey and Bulgaria

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    İbrahim COŞKUN

    2013-09-01

    , 6 kız öğrencinin veBulgaristan’daki veriler ise 2012-2013 Öğretim Yılında başkent Sofya’dabirinci sınıfa devam eden 15 (8 kız, 7 erkek öğrencinin yazıörneklerinden toplanmıştır. Her iki ülkeden alınan yazı örneklerindeharf, hece, kelime, cümle ve metin aşamalarının olmasına dikkatedilmiştir. Okunaklılığın ölçütleri belirlenirken yerli ve yabancı literatürtaranmış ve kriterler buna göre belirlenerek araştırmacı tarafından“uygun”, “geliştirilmeli” ve “yetersiz” şeklinde derecelendirilmiştir.Araştırmada veriler araştırmacıyla birlikte 5 alan uzmanı tarafındananaliz edilmiştir. Veriler araştırmacı tarafından okunaklılık kriterlerinegöre ayrı ayrı analiz edilip puanlayıcılar arasındaki güvenirlik katsayısı.87 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Analiz sonuçları; nitel verilerinsayısallaştırılmasında kullanılan yüzde ve frekans ile ifade edilmiş veöğrenci yazılarından doğrudan alıntılar yapılarak yorumlanmıştır. Yazıörnekleri; yazının satıra doğrusal olarak yerleştirilmesi, kelimeler arası boşluk, harfler arası boşluk, harfi formatına uygun üretme, bitişiklik ve eğiklik olmak üzere altı ana kategoride incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın bulgularının; yazı ve yazma araştırmacılarına, okuma yazma dokümanlarını hazırlayanlara ve materyal tasarımcılarına, sınıf öğretmenlerine ve sınıf öğretmeni adaylarına önemli katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.

  13. Forenzika elektronske pošte

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    Milorad S. Markagić

    2013-10-01

    ešće obavlja putem instant poruka. Radnici u okviru firme međusobno razgovaraju instant porukama, a veoma se često koriste i za lične međusobne razgovore. Osobe međusobno razmenjuju poruke koje putuju preko servera, a princip rada skoro je identičan kao princip rada elektronske pošte, sa osnovnom razlikom, da se odvija u realnom vremenu. Zaključak Današnja tehnologija omogućava promenu i manipulaciju digitalnim medijem na načine koji su pre nekoliko godina bili nemogući. Buduća tehnologija gotovo će sigurno omogućiti manipulacije digitalnih medija na način koji se danas čini nemogućim. Kako tehnologija nastavlja svoju evoluciju, biće sve važnije da  digitalna forenzika održi korak sa tim razvojem. Kako se razvijaju tehnike i metode za otkrivanje računarskih prevara, razvijaće se i nove sofisticiranije metode izrade falsifikata koje će biti teže otkriti. 

  14. Lociranje opasnih materija sa konstantnim i promenljivim radijusima uticaja / Locating dangerous goods with constant and variable impact radii / Размещение опасных материалов с постоянным и переменным радиусом воздействия

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    Branka S. Dimitrijević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Donošenje odluka o prostornom raspoređivanju opasnih materija neophodno je zbog minimiziranja rizika po okolinu. U ovom radu razmatran je problem lociranja različitih vrsta opasnih materija (sa različitim karakteristikama. One mogu biti locirane unutar poznatog diskretnog skupa potencijalnih lokacija skladišta, pod uslovom da budu zadovoljena minimalna bezbednosna rastojanja između odabranih lokacija. Minimalno bezbednosno rastojanje je posledica postojanja verovatnoće da opasne materije neželjeno deluju na objekte u okolini. Cilj je da se istovremeno maksimizira uskladištena količina različitih opasnih materija, vodeći računa o minimalnim bezbednosnim rastojanjima. Za neke opasne materije minimalno bezbednosno rastojanje je konstantna vrednost, koja zavisi samo od karakteristika opasnih materija. Sa druge strane, minimalno bezbednosno rastojanje može da varira u zavisnosti od količine opasne materije i njenih ostalih karakteristika. Za ova dva tipa minimalnih bezbednosnih rastojanja predloženi su modeli mešovitog celobrojnog programiranja. Ovi modeli zasnovani su na lokacijskom problemu nepokrivanja, pa se mogu tretirati i kao njegova modifikacija i proširenje. Verifikacija modela sprovedena je i ilustrovana na generisanom hipotetičkom primeru čiji su rezultati prikazani. / Making decisions about dangerous goods positioning is crucial when it is necessary to minimize environmental risks. In this paper, a specific problem of locating various kinds of dangerous goods (with different characteristics has been considered. Such goods should be located in a known discrete set of potential storage sites, under condition of the minimum safety distance (MSD between selected locations. The existence of the MSD is a consequence of the possibility that dangerous goods transfer their undesirable effects to the objects in the neighborhood. The objective here is to maximize the quantity of different kinds of dangerous goods stored meanwhile

  15. Poboljšanje sinhronizacije signala u softverskom GPS prijemniku / Improvement of signal synchronization in GPS software receiver / Улучшение синхронизации сигнала в программируемом GPS приемнике

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    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2015-10-01

    тношением сигнал-по- мехи. Для улучшения синхронизации отслеживаемого сигнала со стороны приемника, мы рекомендуем использовать non-data-aided (NDA фазовый компаратор.. Основываясь на практической обра- ботке GPS сигналов, можно сделать вывод, что применение ал- горитма NDA обеспечивает большую устойчивость к внезапным изменениям в частоте входного сигнала по сравнению с приме- няемыми в настоящее время фазовыми дискриминаторми с фазо- вым контуром Costas. Кроме того, на основании проведенного анализа было показано, что предложенное решение позволяет обеспечить стабильность работы, особенно для сигналов с низ- ким отношением сигнал-помехи. / Prepoznavanje navigaocionih bita u GPS prijemniku realizuje se kroz procese praćenja i detekcije signala. U procesu praćenja signala lokalno generisani signal mora biti sinhronizovan sa primljenim signalom. Karakteristika Costasove fazne petlje, koja se najčešće koristi za sinhronizaciju signala, jeste podložnost uticaju izvora grešaka. Rezultantne greške praćenja faze značajne su u prisustvu slabog ulaznog signala, kao, na primer, kod signala sa malim odnosom signal–šum. Radi pobolj- šanja sinhronizacije omogućavanja praćenja signala koji emituje strane prijemnika, predlažemo upotrebu non-data-aided (NDA fazni estimator. Na osnovu praktične obrade GPS signala pokazano je da primena NDA algoritma omogućava veću otpornost na iznenadne promene frekvencije ulaznog signala u odnosu na do sada primenjivani fazni

  16. Aerodynamic airfoil at critical angles of attack / Аэродинамические характеристики крыла при критическом угле атаки / Aerodinamičke karakteristike aeroprofila pri kritičnim napadnim uglovima

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    Čedomir Lj. Kostić

    2016-07-01

    чреждений. / Prilikom konstrukcije vazduhoplova ne sme se zanemariti ponašanje letelice u ekstremnim, odnosno blisko ekstremnim uslovima leta, kakav je let pri kritičnim napadnim uglovima, gde se normalan let može lako preobratiti u prevučen let. U ovom radu naglašeni su bitni činioci koji utiču na ponašanje aeroprofila u letu pri kritičnim napadnim uglovima. Na osnovu dostupnih eksperimentalnih rezultata i proračuna izvršena je analiza ponašanja aeroprofila u zavisnosti od uslova strujanja (kategorisanih prema Mahovom i Rejnoldsovom broju, oblika aeroprofila, dinamike priraštaja napadnog ugla, opstrujavanja aeroprofila sa povećanjem napadnog ugla nakon dostizanja kritične vrednosti, kao i uticaja površinskih neravnina aeroprofila pri kritičnim napadnim uglovima. Prikazano je i fizičko tumačenje pada uzgona i pojave prevučenog leta. Detaljno je opisan nastanak otcepljenja strujanja oko aeroprofila i izvršena kategorizacija aeroprofila prema tipu otcepljenja i njegovom ponašanju pri kritičnim napadnim uglovima opstrujavanja. Cilj ovog rada jeste da na savremenim osnovama aerodinamike prikaže i obrazloži problematiku i najznačajnije osobenosti opstrujavanja aeroprofila pri kritičnim napadnim uglovima, da dâ praktične preporuke prilikom izbora aeroprofila, a može biti koristan i pilotima, inženjerima i istraživačima.

  17. Uvođenje jedinstvenog komunikacijskog informacionog sistema E-112 / Introduction of the unified communications information system E-112 / Внедрение единой коммуникационно-информационной системы Е-112

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    Drage T. Petreski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uvođenje evropskog broja za hitne događaje 112 u Republici Makedoniji treba da omogući poboljšanje, koje će biti implementirano, uređeno i u saglasnosti sa evropskom zakonodavnom regulativom. Dokaz za to jesu brojni benefiti ostvareni tokom višegodišnjeg postojanja broja 112 u državama članicama Evropske unije. Ovaj broj predstavlja integrisanu i jedinstvenu funkcionalnu i informatičko-komunikacijsku celinu. Njegovo uvođenje treba da bude podržano najnovijom tehnologijom informatičko-komunikacijskih rešenja, hardverske opreme, kao i softverskih rešenja prilagođenih uslovima države. Biće objedinjena sadašnja četiri telefonska broja za hitne događaje, koji su pod kontrolom Ministarstva policije (192, lokalnih protivpožarnih jedinica (193, Hitne medicinske pomoći (194 i Centra za upravljanje krizom (195. Predviđa se da brojevi budu zamenjeni uključivanjem u rad i potpunom implementacijom evropskog broja za hitne događaje 112 u integrisan informatičko-komunikacijski sistem. / The introduction of the European emergency number 112 in the Republic of Macedonia should provide benefits that will be implemented and regulated in accordance with the European legislative framework. This number has already provided numerous benefits to all member states of the European Union. Its implementation should be supported by the introduction of the latest technology information and communication solutions, hardware and software solutions tailored to the situation in the country. It will replace four current phone numbers for emergency calls that are a responsibility of the Ministry of Interior (192, local fire units (193, emergency care (194 and the Center for Crisis Management (195. These numbers are planned to be replaced by the European emergency number 112 together with its full implementation into the integrated information - communication center. / Внедрение единого европейского номера 112 по

  18. Prikazi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drahomira Gavranović

    2012-02-01

    nazivom U potrazi za našom pisanom baštinom: izazovi, perspektive, pitanja. Autor prikazuje stanje rukopisnih zbirki u zemljama istočne i jugoistočne Europe (Armenija, Bugarska, Rumunjska, Albanija, Makedonija i Hrvatska. U radu se govori o postupcima zaštite, digitalizacije i katalogizacije te mogućnostima provedbi znanstvenih istraživanja na dosad potpuno nepoznatim zbirkama. Autor daje primjere istraživanja koja bi se mogla provoditi na tim vrijednim rukopisnim zbirkama, od istraživanja načina čitanja samih rukopisa do istraživanja fragmenata, vodenih žigova, palimpsesta i sl. Rad je ovo koji otvara mnoga zanimljiva istraživačka pitanja. Autorica J. Lakuš izradila je rad pod naslovom Stare knjige, bibliografija i njezine istraživačke mogućnosti. Autorica nas u svome radu upoznaje s istraživanjima u području historijske bibliografije, unutar kojeg se knjiga promatra u širem kontekstu te se, osim uobičajenih bibliografskih podataka, bilježe npr. i podaci o posvetama, knjižarskim oglasima, cijeni knjige, vlasništvu i drugim zanimljivostima na knjigama i u njima. S obzirom da se knjigom bave različiti korisnici koji imaju različite potrebe (knjižničari, bibliografi, povjesničari..., autorica drži da bi bibliografije trebale biti prilagođene njihovim potrebama. Treći rad u ovoj cjelini posvećen je knjižarskim katalozima. Autorica E. Netchine u radu pod naslovom Knjižarski katalozi u zbirci Nacionalne knjižnice Francuske u Parizu: znanstveni opis zbirke efemerne građe donosi izvrstan primjer dobre prakse. Vrlo je malo istraživanja posvećeno proučavanju knjižarskih kataloga i stoga je ovaj rad iznimno značajan za sve koji se žele baviti tom temom. Nacionalna knjižnica Francuske objavila je znanstveni opis svoje zbirke knjižarskih kataloga tiskanih u Europi u razdoblju od 1473. do 1810. godine. Iznimno je to djelo koje čini polazište mnogim budućim istraživačima ove efemerne građe. Jedna od tema unutar druge cjeline ovoga