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Sample records for bithynia tentaculata linnaeus

  1. Development and characterization of 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the faucet snail, Bithynia tentaculata (Gastroposa: Caenogastropoda; Bithyniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Justin P.; Lance, Stacey L.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Hagen, Chris; Laurila, Joshua; Cole, Rebecca A.; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758), a snail native to Europe, was introduced into the US Great Lakes in the 1870's and has spread to rivers throughout the Northeastern US and Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Trematode parasites, for which B. tentaculata is a host, have also been introduced and are causing widespread waterfowl mortality in the UMR. Waterfowl mortality is caused by ingestion of trematode-infected B. tentaculata or insects infected with parasites released from the snails. We isolated and characterized 17 microsatellite loci from the invasive faucet snail, B. tentaculata (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Bithyniidae). Loci were screened in 24 individuals of B. tentaculata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 6, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.050 to 0.783, and the probability of identity values ranged from 0.10 to 0.91. These new loci provide tools for examining the origin and spread of invasive populations in the US and management activities to prevent waterfowl mortality.

  2. The faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) invades the St. Louis River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European-origin faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) now numbers among the aquatic invasive species present in the St. Louis River Estuary. This snail has been in the lower Great Lakes since the early 20th century but is new to the Lake Superior basin. We found faucet snails...

  3. The non-native faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) makes the leap to Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European-origin faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) has been present in the lower Great Lakes since the late 1800s but only very recently reached Lake Superior. Surveys from 2011 through 2013 found faucet snail to be abundant and wide-spread in the St. Louis River Estuary wi...

  4. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zivkovic (Dana); R. Créton (Robbert); G. Zwaan (Gideon); W.C. de Bruijn (Wim); M.R. Dohmen (M.René)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity

  5. THE OFFICE OF THE PROTOS ARCHON IN BITHYNIA AND THRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Ruscu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the occurrence of the office of the protos archon and of the synarchia in Greek cities of the provinces of Pontus et Bithynia and of Thrace, particularly as it concerns its relevance for the relations and reciprocal influences of the two provinces.

  6. First detection in the USA: new plant pathogen, Phytophthora tentaculata, in native plant nurseries and restoration sites in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Rooney-Latham; C. L. Blomquist; T. Swiecki; E. Bernhardt; S.J. Frankel

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora tentaculata Kröber & Marwitz, has been detected in several native plant nurseries in 4 California counties and in restoration sites on orange sticky monkey flower (Diplacus aurantiacus subsp. aurantiacus (W. Curtis) Jeps. [Scrophulariaceae]), toyon (Heteromeles...

  7. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  8. Linnaeus: The Great Arranger

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , it accompanies us into ... were classifying living organisms for millennia before Linnaeus, and that taxonomy has come a long way ... classification of plants based on numbers of parts, their positions and their forms, with special emphasis on.

  9. An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (P<0.05). Different habitats had different snail diversity and species evenness, with high B.s. goniomphalos snail abundance at rice paddy habitats. The differences in snail abundance might be due to the distinct sets of abiotic water qualities associated with each habitat types. The relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails was found to be negatively correlated with that of Filopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, P<0.05), underscoring the possible influence of species interaction on B.s. goniomphalos snail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the

  10. Carl Linnaeus: pictures and propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2003-03-01

    How do scientists become famous? Carl Linnaeus was an expert at self-promotion who used portraits to gain patronage and consolidate his reputation. His sexualized classification system was hugely controversial, yet his successors celebrated him as a great hero of botany.

  11. Field parasitism of Cephonodes hylas linnaeus (lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linnaeus) were carried out at two robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex. Froehner) experimental plots at the Headquarters of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan. The parasites comprised two egg parasitoids Telenomus sp.

  12. Hippocrates of Kos, the father of clinical medicine, and Asclepiades of Bithynia, the father of molecular medicine. Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapijakis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    Hippocrates of Kos (460-377 Before Common Era, BCE) is universally recognized as the father of modern medicine, which is based on observation of clinical signs and rational conclusions, and does not rely on religious or magical beliefs. Hippocratic medicine was influenced by the Pythagorean theory that Nature was made of four elements (water, earth, wind and fire), and therefore, in an analogous way, the body consisted of four fluids or 'humors' (black bile, yellow bile, phlegm and blood). The physician had to reinstate the healthy balance of these humors by facilitating the healing work of 'benevolent Nature'. The Hippocratic Oath contains the Pythagorean duties of justice, secrecy, respect for teachers and solidarity with peers. The clinical and ethical basics of medical practice as well as most clinical terms used even today have their origins in Hippocrates. His contribution in clinical medicine is immense. Asclepiades of Bithynia (124-40 BCE) was the first physician who established Greek medicine in Rome. Influenced by the Epicurean philosophy, he adhered to atomic theory, chance and evolution, and did not accept the theory of a 'benevolent Nature'. He suggested that the human body is composed of molecules and void spaces, and that diseases are caused by alteration of form or position of a patient's molecules. Asclepiades favored naturalistic therapeutic methods such as a healthy diet, massage and physical exercise. Above all, he introduced the friendly, sympathetic, pleasing and painless treatment of patients into medical practice, influenced by the teachings of Epicurus on pleasure and friendship. He was the first who made the highly important division of diseases into acute and chronic ones and to perform an elective non-emergency tracheotomy. As the founder of the Methodic School, Asclepiades was the first known physician who spoke about what is known today as molecular medicine.

  13. Bad math in Linnaeus' Philosophia Botanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podani, János; Szilágyi, András

    2016-09-01

    In Philosophia Botanica (1751), Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) presented a calculation of the number of plant genera that may be distinguished based on his taxonomic concepts. In order to derive that number, he relied upon the organs of fructification, which represent the flower and the fruit, by selecting over 30 elements from them, and then assuming that each could vary by four dimensions. However, while Linnaeus was good in counting stamens and pistils, he and many of his followers who edited or translated Philosophia Botanica were less careful, basing their calculations of the number of possible genera on flawed assumptions, or even introducing basic arithmetic errors. Furthermore, although mathematics was quite advanced in the eighteenth century, the gap between combinatorial and botanical thinking was too deep, preventing Linnaeus to seek a reasonable solution to the problem he raised. The authors demonstrate this by a historical analysis of 15 editions of Philosophia Botanica, plus many references to it, and conclude that the desired number almost always appeared in error during the past 265 years. The German botanist J. G. Gleditsch (1714-1786) was the most successful with respect to Linnaeus' original intention. Elementary mathematics demonstrates that if Linnaeus' assumptions were taken seriously, then the possible number of genera would be astronomical. The practice he followed in Genera Plantarum (1754) shows, however, that the fructification dimensions served as a universal set for Linnaeus from which he chose only the relevant ones for describing a particular genus empirically. Based on the corrections and modifications implemented in reworked editions, we suggest an evolutionary network for the historical and modern versions or translations of Philosophia Botanica.

  14. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbluth, J.H.; Coomans, H.E.; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the

  15. Status of windowpane oyster Placuna placenta (Linnaeus) population in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Clemente, S.

    The ecological status of windowpane oyster Placuna placenta (Linnaeus) has been discussed along with its potential for commercial exploitation in Goa. P. placenta is one of the important constituents of the molluscan resources of the Indian waters...

  16. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    OpenAIRE

    Jungbluth, J.H.; Coomans, H.E.; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the distinct family Margaritiferidae. The distribution of the species is Holarctic (figs. 1-2), being known from western, northern and central Europe, and via Siberia to Japan. In North America it is ...

  17. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

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    Carlo Violani

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L., a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758, the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his correspondent in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linnaeus was able to include the new species Sciurus Glis in his 12th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1766, reporting almost verbatim a summary of Scopoli's description of the rodent. Scopoli's letter is still preserved in the Library of the Linnean Society of London. The Linnean type locality "Habitat in Europa australi" for the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis glis must therefore be restricted to "Southern Carniola, Slovenia", contra "Germany" as stated, for instance, by Miller (1912, Toschi (1965, Corbet (1978 and Storch (1978. A new name is required for the continental European form, for which M. glis germanicus ssp. nov. is here proposed. Some information on the appreciation of Myoxus glis as a delicacy ("carnes avide eduntur" in Linnaeus' words conclude the paper. Riassunto Carlo Linneo ed il Ghiro - Dopo aver descritto Mus Rattus nella decima edizione del "Systema Naturae" (1758 il naturalista svedese Carlo Linneo confessava di non essere a conoscenza del "Glis" degli antichi autori e ne suggeriva l'identificazione con la Marmotta o con il Criceto comune; è infatti noto che Myoxus glis non è diffuso in Svezia. In base ad una lettera ricevuta dal suo corrispondente in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linneo fu in grado di descrivere questa nuova specie come Sciurus Glis nella dodicesima edizione del "Systema

  18. Effect of stocking density on tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying stocking densities on the growth, survival, and yield of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus 1757) at the freshwater reservoir (average depth, 1.7 m) of the University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria, for a period of 3 months. Tilapia juvenile with a mean weight of ...

  19. The reproductive biology of Mugil cepalus (Linnaeus 1857) in Bonny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of Mugil cepalus (Linnaeus 1857) in Bonny estuary, Nigeria. I P Aleleye-Wokomad, N G Woke. Abstract. No Abstract. Animal Production Research Avancees Vol. 3 (3) 2007: pp. 200-204. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Regulatory effects of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... China. Accepted 28 March, 2012. This paper describes the results of experiments to test the effect of the larvae of Tenebrio molitor. Linnaeus on the immune systems of mice. Mice were given a ... half of hemolysis values in serum of treated mice increased compared to the control group. Furthermore, serum ...

  1. THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA LINNAEUS FROM THE CAPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA LINNAEUS FROM THE. CAPE PENINSULA, SOUTH AFRICA. I. l:ONATION, MOVEMENTS AND FEEDING. G. M. BRANCH. Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town. INTRODUCTION. The genus Patella comprises intertidal and infratidal animals, which- are important not only because ...

  2. Performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as natural coagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reports the performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as coagulant and disinfectant for water purification. The coagulation-flocculation experiment was carried out using a Phipps and Bird PB-700™ Jar Tester. Results show that coagulation depends on Fe(II) content and disinfectant on bioactive natural product ...

  3. Parasites of Periplaneta americana linnaeus "domestic cockroach" from Ica.

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    Mary Fernádez B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 244 specimens of Periplaneta americana Linnaeus from 13 localities of Ica were studied. Nematodes and protozoa were identified. They are Lophomonas blattarum, Leptomonas sp., Leidynema appendiculatum and Hammerschmidtiella diesingi. Also, parasites of man were found, three of which are pathogenic: Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp.

  4. Spatially-resolved thermoluminescence from snail opercula using an EMCCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Kook, Myung Ho; Stirling, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years opercula of the snail species Bithynia tentaculata have been shown to emit thermoluminescence (TL) signals that can be used to determine equivalent dose, and may be capable of dating events throughout the entire Quaternary period. Concentric growth lines are a notable feature of a...

  5. The first record of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758) in the North Sea with notes on recent captures of Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) in the coastal waters of the Netherlands (Pisces, Perciformes, Sparidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de S.J.; Nijssen, H.

    1976-01-01

    The capture of a live specimen of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758) is reported from the coastal waters of the Netherlands. Two specimens of Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) were recently caught in Dutch waters.

  6. A chromosomal analysis of Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 and Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Nepidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Angus

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the karyotypes and male meiosis of the Water Scorpion Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 and the Water Stick Insect Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Nepomorpha, Nepidae. A number of different approaches and techniques were tried: the employment of both male and female gonads and mid-guts as the sources of chromosomes, squash and air-drying methods for chromosome preparations, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for chromosome study. We found that N. cinerea had a karyotype comprising 14 pairs of autosomes and a multiple sex chromosome system, which is X1X2X3X4Y (♂ / X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4 (♀, whereas R. linearis had a karyotype comprising 19 pairs of autosomes and a multiple sex chromosome system X1X2X3X4Y (♂ / X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4 (♀. In both N. cinerea and R. linearis, the autosomes formed chiasmate bivalents in spermatogenesis, and the sex chromosome univalents divided during the first meiotic division and segregated during the second one suggesting thus a post-reductional type of behaviour. These results confirm and amplify those of Steopoe (1925, 1927, 1931, 1932 but are inconsistent with those of other researchers. C-banding appeared helpful in pairing up the autosomes for karyotype assembly; however in R. linearis the chromosomes were much more uniform in size and general appearance than in N. cinerea. FISH for 18S ribosomal DNA (major rDNA revealed hybridization signals on two of the five sex chromosomes in N. cinerea. In R. linearis, rDNA location was less obvious than in N. cinerea; however it is suggested to be similar. We have detected the presence of the canonical “insect” (TTAGGn telomeric repeat in chromosomes of these species. This is the first application of C-banding and FISH in the family Nepidae.

  7. Regulatory effects of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the results of experiments to test the effect of the larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on the immune systems of mice. Mice were given a decoction of T. molitor in water at doses of 1.87, 3.75 and 7.50 g/kg/d for four weeks, after which their immune function was studied. The results indicate that T. molitor ...

  8. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; de la Fuente, José

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A c...

  9. Produktivitas dan Mortalitas Periplaneta Americana (Linnaeus) (Blattaria; Blattidae) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Soekirno, Mardjan

    2003-01-01

    The study about Productivity and mortality ofPeriplaneta americana (Linnaeus)(Blattaria; Blattidae) at laboratory was done at laboratory of entomology, Center for Health Ecology Research andDevelopment, National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta. P. americanaspecimens were obtained from the result of catching cockroach at home, then being takecare in laboratory. Maintenance place used is transparent plastic tube or bowl with 3 cm diameter and6 cm high...

  10. Sobre o lectótipo de Papilio bixae Linnaeus e a designação do lectótipo de Papilio proteus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H. H. Mielke

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The lectotype of Papilo bixae Linnaeus, designated by Hemming (1964 based on the figure of Merian (1705, was found in the Wiesbaden Museum, and here with considered as such. It corresponds to Pyrrhopyge phidias bixae; Evans (1951. Two syntypes of Papilo proteus Linnaeus, 1758, were also found in the same Museum and one of them was selected as lectotype. These lectotypes are figured for the first time.

  11. Fannia flavicincta Stein (Diptera, Fanniidae: a new vector of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Barreto Espindola

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fannia flavicincta Stein, 1904 (Diptera, Fannidae is first recorded as a vector of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781. The material was collected in Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in September, 2002.Fannia flavicincta Stein, 1904 (Diptera, Fannidae é registrada pela primeira vez como vetor de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781. O material foi coletado em Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil em setembro de 2002.

  12. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

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    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  13. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; de la Fuente, José

    2011-02-10

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and oviposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  14. Histological description of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 respiratory system

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    Marla P. Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The massive agricultural expansion converted the Cerdocyon thous, a South American native predator, in vulnerable specie. Basic data, such as histological description, are important to raise awareness on animal species, helping on preservation strategies. Considering the difficult in obtain samples, as the euthanasia of wild animals for this purpose is not allowed, data on histology are very scarce or inexistent. The objective of this paper was to provide a detailed histological description of the trachea and bronchial tree of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766. The specimens (one adult male and one adult female used were provided by the Federal University of Pelotas (Pelotas, RS, Brazil Rehabilitation Center of Wild Fauna (NURFS. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and included in paraffin. After slicing, samples were stained with HE (hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid-Schiff and resorcin fuchsin. Trachea had an average diameter of 7.87mm, and approximately 57% of the mucosa ciliated pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium was composed of goblet cells, mostly in the dorsal region. Bronchia and bronchioles had a mucosal fold with higher number of goblet cells. Using all these techniques there is no great remarkable differences from C. thous trachea and lung, when compared with the previous described structures for carnivores and most mammals, except for the goblet cells “regionalization”. Described results are important to understand the animal physiological and behavioral habits, allowing the development of preservation and protection strategies.

  15. Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro; Tharlianne Alici M. de Souza; Priscilla Rosa Q. Ribeiro; Lázaro A. dos Santos; Daniela Cristina de O. Silva; Frederico O. Carneiro e Silva; Roseâmely Angélica C. Barros; Renata Graciele Zanon

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Ribeiro L.A., Souza T.A.M., Ribeiro P.R.Q., Santos L.A., Silva D.C.O., Carneiro e Silva F.O., Barros R.A.C. & Zanon R.G. [Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758.] Topografia do cone medular do Tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758). Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4):353-358, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias e Zootecnia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Fe...

  16. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz-Romero Héctor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST analysis and RNA interference (RNAi. Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160 were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group, reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  17. PRODUKTIVITAS DAN MORTALITAS PERIPLANETA AMERICANA (LINNAEUS (BLATTARIA; BLATTIDAE DI LABORATORIUM

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    Mardjan Soekirno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study about Productivity and mortality ofPeriplaneta  americana (Linnaeus(Blattaria; Blattidae  at laboratory was done at laboratory of entomology, Center for Health Ecology Research andDevelopment, National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta. P. americanaspecimens were obtained from the result of catching cockroach at home, then being takecare in laboratory. Maintenance place used is transparent plastic tube or bowl with 3 cm diameter and6 cm high up to 26 cm diameter and 26 cm high, with wood partition inside and covered by cloth orgauze. The maintenance are done in individually and colony. The observation includes the amount of egg capsules(ootheca produced by every individual female ofP. americana;the amount of nymphcracked from every egg capsule; the per month mortality from the nymph taken care colonially; theamount of individual that can reach adult stadium, and sexual comparison at adult stadium. The result of this research indicates that a female ofP. americana can produce up to 86 egg capsules. Every eggcapsule can produce 13 nymphs in average. The mortality of one month old nymph in average can reach 44.67%- 50.4%, two month old nymph in average can reach 61.33%- 62.49% and three monthold nymph in average can reach 66.72%-  68.61%. The amount of individual P. americana that canreach adult stadium is only about 20%- 30%. Comparison between sexual kinds ofP. americanaat adult stadium is very significant; the amount of female is more than the amount of male.

  18. First record of Grapsus grapsus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Brachyura: Decapoda: Grapsidae in freshwater habitat

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    Tammy Iwasa Arai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The sally lightfoot crab, Grapsus grapsus (Linnaeus, 1758, has been recorded from the oceanic islands off Brazil, as well as from the Caribbean, in coastal rocky shores in the Eastern Pacific, and in Galapagos. We report the first observation of G. grapsus in freshwater habitat, registered in a stream at Trindade Island, Brazil.

  19. Woodland Ponds as an Important Habitat of Hippeutis Complanatus (Linnaeus 1758 Occurrence - Effect of Environmental Factors and Habitat Preferences

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    Spyra Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spyra A. Woodland ponds as an important habitat of Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus 1758 occurrence - effect of environmental factors and habitat preferences. Ekológia (Bratislava, Vol. 33, No. 2, p. 101-115, 2014.

  20. Occurrence and variability of Crenicichla saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Surinam, and restriction of its typelocality (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, A.

    1986-01-01

    The South American cichlid species Crenicichla saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) is redescribed and figured. The variability of colour pattern, and raeristic and morphometric characters are recorded, based on examination of hundreds of specimens from Surinam, including the lectotype. The morphometric

  1. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753)

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Am?lia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 pi...

  2. Culex aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 (Insecta, Diptera); Proposed Validation and Interpretation Under the Plenary Powers of the Species So Named. Z.N.(S.) 1216

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-07-01

    aegypti Linnaeus in its current connotation was Dyar (H. G.) ( 1920 , Insecutor Ins&. menst. 8 : 204). Dyar’s identification of this species was not...JUL 1962 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1962 to 00-00-1962 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Culex Aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 (Insecta, Diptera... CULEX AEGYPTI LINNAEUS, 1762 (INSECTA, DIPTERA); PRO- POSED VALIDATION AND INTERPRETATION UNDER THE PLENARY POWERS OF THE SPECIES SO NAMED. Z.N.(S

  3. Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Proboscidea, Elephantidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gentry, A.; Palkopoulou, E.

    2014-01-01

    by Elephas maximus, one of the most iconic and well-known mammalian species, described and named by Linnaeus (1758) and today designating the Asian elephant. We used morphological, ancient DNA (aDNA), and high-throughput ancient proteomic analyses to demonstrate that a widely discussed syntype specimen of E.......maximus, a complete foetus preserved in ethanol, is actually an African elephant, genus Loxodonta. We further discovered that an additional E.maximus syntype, mentioned in a description by John Ray (1693) cited by Linnaeus, has been preserved as an almost complete skeleton at the Natural History Museum...... of the University of Florence. Having confirmed its identity as an Asian elephant through both morphological and ancient DNA analyses, we designate this specimen as the lectotype of E.maximus. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier...

  4. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

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    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  5. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion.

  6. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

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    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  7. Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) infectando uma tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Werneck, M.R.; Gallo, B.M.G.; Silva, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2) and liver (n=3), and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the ...

  8. Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) infecting a Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Werneck,M.R.; Gallo,B.M.G.; Silva,R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2) and liver (n=3), and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean ...

  9. Identity, biology and bionomics of the Common Mime Chilasa clytia Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

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    V.S. Revathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were made on the identity, biology and bionomics of the Common Mime Chilasa clytia Linnaeus.  Morphological details of the external genitalia were found to be useful in segregating the two forms clytia and dissimilis belonging to this species.  The biology took 32–36 days for completion.  Besides the host plants already recorded, Litsea coriacea was recorded as a new larval host plant of this butterfly.  

  10. Aves, Apodiformes, Trochilidae, Topaza pella (Linnaeus, 1758: A range reinforcement in Amazonian Brazil.

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    Davis, B. J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new distribution records for Topaza pella (Linnaeus, 1758 in the southern reaches of the AmazonBasin in Brazil. The two new localities presented for the species elucidate its range in southern Pará and northern MatoGrosso states, and in consideration of recent records elsewhere south of the Amazon River, suggest that the species is widelydistributed across suitable habitat throughout the Brazilian Amazon.

  11. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 85 - 90 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Identification of Lysozyme Activity from Two Edible Bivalves - Perna viridis... (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz) Sumita Sharma 1* , Tanu 2 and Anil Chatterji 3 1 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India 2 Banasthali Universiti, Rajasthan 3 Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu...

  12. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Belém-Costa,Andréa; Cyrino,José Eurico Possebon

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, i...

  13. Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Bionomics aspects of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos bionômicos da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758. Vinte e seis colônias foram acompanhadas entre abril de 2004 e julho de 2006, no município de Mundo Novo, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os resultados encontrados nesse estudo sugerem que o padrão fenológico de Polistes canadensis canadensis é assincrônico nessa região, com fundações e abandonos podendo ocorrer o ano todo. A duração média dos estágios imaturos foi diferente entre as estações climáticas fria-seca e úmida-quente. Diferentes substratos foram escolhidos para nidificação, contudo em ambientes que forneceram condições físicas mais homogêneas durante o dia foram encontradas as maiores freqüências de sucesso. Colônias nessa espécie são fundadas por haplometrose ou pleometrose, no entanto, o sucesso tem sido maior para colônias pleometróticas.Certain aspects of the bionomics of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied. Twenty-six colonies were observed from April 2004 through July 2006, in the municipal district of Mundo Novo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-Brazil. The results suggest that the colony phenological pattern of this species is asynchronous, and colonies may be founded or abandoned at any time of the year. The mean duration of the immature stages differed between the cold-dry and warm-rainy seasons. Colonies were founded on several different kinds of substrates, but were more successful in environments that provided more-homogeneous physical conditions during the day. Colonies in this species are founded by haplometrosis or pleometrosis, and pleometrotic colonies were more successful.

  14. Biologia reprodutiva da cobra-coral Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae, no Sudeste do Brasil Reproductive biology of the coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae in the Southeastern Brazil

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    Otávio A.V. Marques

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissection of 286 specimens of the "false" coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus, 1766, combined with data on captive individuais, provided information on the reproductive biology of this colubrid snake. Adult females (x snout-vent length = 74.5cm attain larger body size than males (x SVL = 62.6. Clutch size ranged from one to eight eggs and was correlated with maternal body size. Neonates measured 20.2-22.5cm SVL and weighed 5.1-5.8g. Males attain sexual maturity earlier than females. Reproduction seems to be aseasonal, with vitellogenesis occurring throughout the year. Apparently the growth rate of folheies decreases in the dry season, possibly due to lower tempeiatures during this period. Multiple clutches were recorded in captive snakes. Foraging strategies and availability of prey may explain continuous reproduction in E. aesculapii. However, data for other related snakes suggest that continuous reproduction is conservative in the Xenodontini.

  15. Infestação experimental em girinos de Rana catesbeiana Shaw por copepoditos de Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus (Copepoda, Lernaeidae Experimental, infestation of Rana catesbeiana Shaw tadpoles by copepodids of Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus (Copepoda, Lernaeidae

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    Maurício Laterça Martins

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, 1758 copepodids experimental contamination on the Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 ladpoles was analized. Sixty percent (12 of infested tadpoles was found parasitized. High mortality range, lower appetence, equilibrium loss and apathy were observed. The parasites showed the preference for the mouth and cloaca: in 72 hours lhe egg saes had already developed.

  16. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  17. Settling the name Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758 for the Wandering Albatross by neotypification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schodde, Richard; Tennyson, Alan J D; Groth, Jeff G; Lai, Jonas; Scofield, Paul; Steinheimer, Frank D

    2017-02-21

    On-going conflict in use of the name Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758 for different taxa of the great albatrosses (Wandering Albatross complex) is resolved by neotypification, fixing the name to the large subantarctic form formerly often known as D. chionoptera Salvin, 1896. Application of all scientific names in the complex is reviewed, an annotated synonymy for the large subantarctic form is provided, available names for smaller, temperate-zone forms are listed, and unavailable and otherwise invalid names referable to the complex are identified. Syntypes of D. chionoptera and D. spadicea J.F. Gmelin, 1789 are lectotypified as well, fixing their names as synonyms of D. exulans to prevent possible disturbance to in-use names for the smaller, temperate-zone forms.

  18. Pengelolaan Lingkungan dalam Rangka Mengantisipasi Perkembangan Hama Belalang Nomadacris succincta Linnaeus (Orthoptera: Acrididae

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    Sri Suharni Siwi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Swarming grasshopper Nomadacris succincta (Linnaeus, sinonim: Patanga succincta (L. was one of the dominant species attacked corn and soybean plantations at Jeneponto District, South Sulawesi in early 2005. The species has been identified for a long time occurred in that environment, although has never been reported before as pest of farmer's crops. For a basis of the capability in controlling the swarm grasshopper in the field, changed of increasing population hould be monitored regularly to prevent future outbreak. Information on taxonomic and ecology research of N. succincta are needed for environmental management efforts, such as change in morphology, physiology and behavior, change in host's preferences of gregarious adult, and environmental conditions i.e. climate, cultural techniques, and the death of natural enemies in the field.

  19. Tentacle cnidae of the sea anemone Metridium senile (Linnaeus, 1761 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa

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    Carina Östman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tentacle cnidae of Metridium senile (Linnaeus, 1761 were examined by light microscopy. In addition to spirocysts, feeding-tentacles had 3 nematocyst categories grouped into medium and small size-classes, including 5 types. Spirocysts dominated, especially distally, followed by medium b-mastigophores. The density of cnidae decreased towards the tentacle base. Early cnidoblasts were numerous on the tentacle tip. Late cnidoblasts appeared in a moderate number on the mid-tentacle. Catch-tentacles, found in two Metridium specimens, had a maturity gradient of isorhizas and gland cells along their length. Their tip had two distinct types of mature isorhizas in great numbers and large gland cells, but lacked spirocysts. Mature isorhizas and gland cells decreased in number towards the tentacle base. On the mid-tentacle differentiating ages of isorhizas were numerous. Ordinary feeding-tentacle cnidae, abundant at the tentacle base, decreased in number distally along the tentacle.

  20. Isospora canaria Box, 1975 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from canaries Serinus canaria Linnaeus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Bruno P; Ferreira, Ildemar; Flausino, Walter; Teixeira-Filho, Walter L; Lopes, Carlos W G

    2013-05-01

    Isospora canaria Box, 1975 (Protozoa, Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) is reported and described from canaries Serinus canaria (Linnaeus) in southeast Brazil. Its oöcysts are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 24.4 × 22.2 μm, with smooth, bilayered wall, ~1.2 μm. The micropyle and the oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 17.6 × 10.6 μm. The Stieda body is nipple-like, and substieda body is prominent and homogeneous. The sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules. The sporozoite has anterior and posterior refractile bodies and a nucleus. The report of this coccidium recovered from exotic canaries in South America is relevant to native passerines, mainly to Carduelis yarrellii, which are listed as vulnerable species by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources).

  1. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  2. A retrospective description of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H7N1/Carduelis/Germany/72) in a free-living siskin (Carduelis spinus Linnaeus, 1758) and its accidental transmission to yellow canaries (Serinus canaria Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Hönicke, A

    2005-01-01

    A haemagglutinating virus was isolated in summer 1972 from a single free-living siskin (Carduelis spinus Linnaeus, 1758) in embryonated chicken eggs. Additional cases of morbidity or mortality were not observed in the area were the sick siskin was found. The virus was characterized as an avian influenza A virus of the subtype H7N1 and designated H7N1/Carduelis/Germany/72. The virus induced following experimental inoculation of chicken embryos a high rate mortality (mean death time approximately 24 hours), formed plaques in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures without addition of trypsin and has an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 1.80. Therefore, this virus is considered as a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus. Canaries (Serinus canarius Linnaeus, 1758), that were housed in the same room with the siskin were accidentially exposed by contact to the sick siskin which resulted in virus transmission followed by conjunctivitis, apathy, anorexia and a high rate mortality.

  3. Ecological Energetics of Tropical Limpet Cellana Testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758) Living on the Rocky Shore of Ohoiwait, Southeast Moluccas, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Khouw, Abraham S

    2008-01-01

    Study on ecological energetics of tropical limpet C. testudinaria has been carried out at approximatelyone year from October 2001 to September 2002. Population energy budgets estimated on theassumption of steady state conditions for C. testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758) on the rocky shore ofOhoiwait, are presented. Large difference in population structure, and hence energetics, occurred atdifferent localities along the rocky shore. Relatively high proportions (98 %) of the assimilated energywas lo...

  4. Perbedaan respon Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), terhadap paparan anti nyamuk bakar dan bunga keluwih (Artocarpus camansi, Blanco)

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Endah Wahyuningsih; Ramauli Agustina Sihit

    2015-01-01

    The control of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) it is important to control the vector, i.e. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse). Usually, controls of these vectors are done using chemical insecticides. Research on mosquito resistance has been done, but the impact of mosquitoes that survive after synthetic (chemical) insecticides application has not been studied. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences of fecundity, fertility and vitality rate of mosquitoes that w...

  5. Reprodução de Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of the Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus in the Santa Catarina's coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O savacu Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 é uma espécie de hábitos crepusculares e noturnos, com ampla distribuição geográfica. Sua biologia reprodutiva tem sido intensivamente estudada nos países de ocorrência, entretanto, no Brasil, é comumente citada nos levantamentos de ornitólogos, mas não existem informações disponíveis sobre seu ciclo de vida. Esse trabalho objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie no litoral catarinense. As amostragens foram realizadas nos anos de 2000 a 2002 na Ilha dos Pássaros e de 2002 na Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. As maiores abundâncias de exemplares e ninhos com ovos ocorreram em outubro, sendo que o comprimento médio dos ovos variou entre 5,02 ± 0,23 a 5,07 ± 0,21 cm e o volume 31,71 ± 2,64 a 35,92 ± 3,47 cm³ e as maiores freqüências de filhotes em novembro, culminando o abandono da colônia em meados de janeiro. Foram identificados sete itens nos regurgitos dos filhotes, sendo que os peixes marinhos representaram 44,4% da massa total. O principal predador na colônia foi o urubu-comum, que atuou sobre os ovos no início da temporada e os filhotes no final.The black-crowned night heron N. nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 is a aquatic bird with twilight and night habits, with wide geographical distribution. His reproductive biology has been studied intensively at the occurrence countries, however, in Brazil, it is mentioned commonly in the ornithologists' risings, but available information don't exist on his life cycle. This work aims to contribute for the knowledge of the reproductive biology of that species in the Santa Catarina coast. The samplings were accomplished in the years from 2000 to 2002 in the Ilha dos Pássaros and of 2002 in the Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. The largest abundances of individuals and nests with eggs happened in October, and the medium length of the eggs varied between 5.02 ± 0.23 to 5.07 ± 0.21 cm and the volume 31

  6. Unraveling the karyotype structure of the spurges Euphorbia hirta Linnaeus, 1753 and E. hyssopifolia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) using genome size estimation and heterochromatin differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Karla C. B.; Pinangé, Diego S. B.; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Oliveira, Ana R.; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C.; Alves, Marccus V.; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euphorbia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most diverse and complex genera among the angiosperms, showing a huge diversity in morphologic traits and ecologic patterns. In order to improve the knowledge of the karyotype organization of Euphorbia hirta (2n = 18) and Euphorbia hyssopifolia (2n = 12), cytogenetic studies were performed by means of conventional staining with Giemsa, genome size estimations with flow cytometry, heterochromatin differentiation with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Giemsa C-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and impregnation with silver nitrate (AgNO3). Our results revealed small metacentric chromosomes, CMA+/DAPI0 heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes and CMA+/DAPI− in the distal part of chromosome arms carriers of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs). The DNA content measurements revealed small genomes for both species: Euphorbia hirta with 2C = 0.77 pg and Euphorbia hyssopifolia with 2C = 1.41 pg. After FISH procedures, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia hyssopifolia presented three and four pairs of terminal 45S rDNA sites, respectively, colocalizing with CMA+ heterochromatic blocks, besides only one interstitial pair of 5S rDNA signals. Additionally, the maximum number of active NORs agreed with the total number of observed 45S rDNA sites. This work represents the first analysis using FISH in the subfamily Euphorbioideae, revealing a significant number of chromosomal markers, which may be very helpful to understand evolutionary patterns among Euphorbia species. PMID:28123686

  7. Unraveling the karyotype structure of the spurgesEuphorbia hirtaLinnaeus, 1753 andE. hyssopifoliaLinnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) using genome size estimation and heterochromatin differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Karla C B; Pinangé, Diego S B; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Oliveira, Ana R; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C; Alves, Marccus V; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Euphorbia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most diverse and complex genera among the angiosperms, showing a huge diversity in morphologic traits and ecologic patterns. In order to improve the knowledge of the karyotype organization of Euphorbia hirta (2n = 18) and Euphorbia hyssopifolia (2n = 12), cytogenetic studies were performed by means of conventional staining with Giemsa, genome size estimations with flow cytometry, heterochromatin differentiation with chromomycin A 3 (CMA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Giemsa C-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and impregnation with silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ). Our results revealed small metacentric chromosomes, CMA + /DAPI 0 heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes and CMA + /DAPI - in the distal part of chromosome arms carriers of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs). The DNA content measurements revealed small genomes for both species: Euphorbia hirta with 2C = 0.77 pg and Euphorbia hyssopifolia with 2C = 1.41 pg. After FISH procedures, Euphorbia hirta , and Euphorbia hyssopifolia presented three and four pairs of terminal 45S rDNA sites, respectively, colocalizing with CMA + heterochromatic blocks, besides only one interstitial pair of 5S rDNA signals. Additionally, the maximum number of active NORs agreed with the total number of observed 45S rDNA sites. This work represents the first analysis using FISH in the subfamily Euphorbioideae, revealing a significant number of chromosomal markers, which may be very helpful to understand evolutionary patterns among Euphorbia species.

  8. Unraveling the karyotype structure of the spurges Euphorbia hirta Linnaeus, 1753 and E. hyssopifolia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae using genome size estimation and heterochromatin differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla C. B. Santana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae is one of the most diverse and complex genera among the angiosperms, showing a huge diversity in morphologic traits and ecologic patterns. In order to improve the knowledge of the karyotype organization of Euphorbia hirta (2n = 18 and E. hyssopifolia (2n = 12, cytogenetic studies were performed by means of conventional staining with Giemsa, genome size estimations with flow cytometry, heterochromatin differentiation with chromomycin A3 (CMA and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI and Giemsa C-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and impregnation with silver nitrate (AgNO3. Our results revealed small metacentric chromosomes, CMA+/DAPI0 heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes and CMA+/DAPI− in the distal part of chromosome arms carriers of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs. The DNA content measurements revealed small genomes for both species: E. hirta with 2C = 0.77 pg and E. hyssopifolia with 2C = 1.41 pg. After FISH procedures, E. hirta, and E. hyssopifolia presented three and four pairs of terminal 45S rDNA sites, respectively, colocalizing with CMA+ heterochromatic blocks, besides only one interstitial pair of 5S rDNA signals. Additionally, the maximum number of active NORs agreed with the total number of observed 45S rDNA sites. This work represents the first analysis using FISH in the subfamily Euphorbioideae, revealing a significant number of chromosomal markers, which may be very helpful to understand evolutionary patterns among Euphorbia species.

  9. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    purification and residues generation) have indu further research for solid ... l disposal problems. They are also separate from liquid products and can give higher activity and longer catalyst o, the need for a cheap and recyclable diesel synthesis from ... indiscriminately at many construction sites and in some instances used ...

  10. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  11. Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

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    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ribeiro L.A., Souza T.A.M., Ribeiro P.R.Q., Santos L.A., Silva D.C.O., Carneiro e Silva F.O., Barros R.A.C. & Zanon R.G. [Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758.] Topografia do cone medular do Tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:353-358, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias e Zootecnia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Rua João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG 38408-100, Brasil. E-mail: lucasassis83@yahoo.com.br The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is a representative of the Order Hairy, belonging to the family Myrmecophagidae. General approaches on the behavior, ecology and physical abilities of this animal are available in the literature. However, information regarding different aspects of the anatomy of the nervous system giant anteater are sparsely found. Therefore, the morphological knowledge of the relationship between the spinal cord and vertebral column is of great importance to the scientific, as in the various species of animals, whether domestic or not, the relations of the caudal spinal differ. This difference comes out to meet the interests of wild animal medicine, especially as support for the practice of epidural anesthesia. Thus, the objective was to describe the topography of the conus M. tridactyla, providing anatomical data as a basis for the practice of epidural anesthesia. For this study we used three specimens of giant anteater, prepared by the usual techniques in Macroscopic Anatomy, which had three sacral vertebrae and 4. Sendo que a base do cone medular foi registrada ao nível da terceira vértebra lombar (L3, com comprimento variando entre 3,5cm e 4,5cm e ápice localizando-se ao nível da segunda vértebra sacral (S2. These anatomical findings may point out as a safe place to perform epidural anesthesia

  12. Metabolic plasticity of nitrogen assimilation by Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang K.; Kraemer, George P.; Yarish, Charles

    2012-12-01

    The physical stresses associated with emersion have long been considered major factors determining the vertical zonation of intertidal seaweeds. We examined Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing thalli from the vertical extremes in elevation of an intertidal population ( i.e. upper and lower intertidal zones) to determine whether Porphyra thalli acclimate to different vertical elevations on the shore with different patterns of nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities in response to different degrees of emersion stress. We found that the nitrate uptake and NR recovery in the emersed tissues took longer in lower intertidal sub-population than in upper intertidal sub-population; and GS activity was also significantly affected by emersion and, interestingly, such an activity was enhanced by emersion of thalli from both upper and lower intertidal zones. These results suggested that intra-population variability in post-emersion recovery of physiological functions such as nutrient uptake and NR activity enables local adaptation and contributes to the wide vertical distribution of P. umbilicalis. The high GS activity during periodic emersion stress may be a protective mechanism enabling P. umbilicalis to assimilate nitrogen quickly when it again becomes available, and may also be an evidence of photorespiration during emersion.

  13. Detection of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758 (Pinnipedia, Phocidae from Elephant Island

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    Tony Silveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii in Mirounga leonina (M. leonina Linnaeus from Elephant Island, Antarctica. Methods: The animals were anesthetized, restrained, measured, weighed and had their blood collected by venipuncture of intervertebral lumbar epidural vein. Blood samples were collected from 102 individuals. Indirect hemagglutination and serum dilution at a proportion of 1:25 was used for specific immunoglobulin G anti-T. gondii detection. Results: Only one (0.98% specimen, a newly weaned calf, was seropositive. Conclusions: This study is the highest serological survey for antibody detection against T. gondii in M. leonina. The results suggest a low level of exposure to T. gondii, probably due to the absence of felids in the study area. The seropositivity presented by the elephant seal may be related to the presence of oocysts in water or cysts in their preys. Despite being reported the presence of the parasite in fish and molluscs, there are no records of tissue cysts or oocysts in squid or fish of the diet of M. leonina. Thus, further parasitological studies focused on preys of elephant seals are needed for a better understanding of infection of M. leonina by T. gondii.

  14. A note on captive breeding and reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin, Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758 is a critically endangered species, and documents on its captive breeding and reproductive parameters are scarce. MP8, kept in the Pangolin Research Base for Artificial Rescue and Conservation Breeding of South China Normal University (the PRB-SCNU, gave birth to a male offspring (MP86 on 19 October 2011. The baby pangolin was well developed, with a weight of 120 g and a total length of 23.2 cm. The gestation length of MP8 was estimated to be from 182 to 225d. Reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin are discussed based on collected data about this species. The Chinese pangolin has an obvious reproductive seasonality and its gestation length is typically six to seven months. In this observation, estrus and mating principally occurred in a one-year period from February to July. Parturition principally took place from September to February of the next year. Chinese pangolins usually give birth to one offspring at a time (n = 27. Sex ratio at birth was 0.71:1 (♀:♂, n = 12. Average weight for the reproducible females was 3.57 ± 1.38 kg (2.14–6.8 kg, n = 15. We estimated that Chinese pangolins could reach sexual maturity before they were one year old.

  15. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of Psammotettix striatus (Linnaeus) and Exitianus nanus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin; Dai, Wu

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies of insect spermatozoa indicate that these specialized cells have undergone significant morphological evolution and exhibit traits useful for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships. Although leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) are among the largest and most economically important insect families, few comparative studies of their spermatozoa have been published. Here, the ultrastructure of mature spermatozoa of two leafhoppers Psammotettix striatus (Linnaeus) and Exitianus nanus (Distant), representing two different tribes of the largest leafhopper subfamily, Deltocephalinae, was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The shape and ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the two species are very similar to those of other Cicadellidae as well as other Auchenorrhyncha, comprising a conical acrosome invaginated to form a subacrosomal space, a filiform homogeneously condensed nucleus, a lamellate centriolar adjunct connecting the nucleus with the mid-piece/flagellum, a long flagellum with a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme pattern and two symmetrical mitochondrial derivatives with an orderly array of peripheral cristae, and two drop-shaped accessory bodies. They may be distinguished by the size of the sperm, and the shape of the nucleus, accessory bodies, and paracrystalline region of mitochondrial derivatives. The fine morphology and ultrastructure of spermatozoon in P. striatus and E. nanus are illustrated, along with a brief discussion of the implications for classification and phylogenetic analyses of the subfamily. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. POPULATION AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF ROE DEER, Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus, 1758. IN THE HUNTING GROUND "CREPOLJSKO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enad Korjenić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Field research of population and reproductive growth of roe deer, Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus, 1758. in the hunting ground "Crepoljsko" lasted from January to December 2009. In the studied hunting ground two habitats (sites of roe deer Nahorevo and Bukovik have been registered with the estimated area of 1900 ha. Nahorevo covers, approximately 800 ha, and Bukovik 1100 ha. The total number of roe deer individuals in the "Crepoljsko" estimated to 103 individuals. In hunting ground Nahorevo 42 individual of roe deer of various age structure have been documented. Absolute reproductive growth of deer in this study area was six individuals or 45% of the expected (theoretical reproductive growth (60%. In hunting ground Bukovik 61 individuals have been found. Absolute reproductive growth was 9 individuals which makes 49% of theoretical reproductive growth. On the basis these results it could be concluded that the investigated habitats (sites have suitable conditions for this attractive hunting deer, as wall as for the development of hunting tourism and education. Key words: deer, population, reproduction, habitat

  17. Phenolic constituents from Alisma plantago-aquatica Linnaeus and their anti-chronic prostatitis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Sheng; Yu, Qi-Qi; Chen, Yin; Cheng, Min-Jie; Xie, Li-Ping

    2017-11-21

    The plant Alisma plantago-aquatica Linnaeus, which is widely distributed in southwest of China, is the main material of traditional Chinese medicine "Zexie". It was used as folk medicine for immune-modulation, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. Previous chemical studies on A. plantago-aquatica reported the identification of triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, steroids, alkaloids and phenolic acid. Terpenes and phenolic acid were regard as major secondary metabolites from this medicine plant. A new phenolic acid, plantain A (1), along with four known compounds (2-5) were isolated and identified from A. plantago-aquatica by extensive chromatographic and spectrometric methods. In the present study, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, PEG2 and TGF-β1 were increased in model group rats, whereas on treatment with the isolated compound (1 and 4) at 50 mg/kg, there was a significant decrease in the cytokine levels. Therefore, the anti-CNP effect of 1 and 4 may be related to their anti-inflammatory properties. A new phenolic acid and four known phenolic compounds were isolated from A. plantago-aquatica. Moreover, compounds 1 and 4 shows significant anti-chronic prostatitis activity in rats.

  18. Structural and Immunological Activity Characterization of a Polysaccharide Isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Li, Heng; Qian, Jianying; He, Yongfeng; Zheng, Jialin; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Zhenghong; Shi, Jinsong

    2015-12-29

    Polysaccharides from marine clams perform various biological activities, whereas information on structure is scarce. Here, a water-soluble polysaccharide MMPX-B2 was isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus. The proposed structure was deduced through characterization and its immunological activity was investigated. MMPX-B2 consisted of d-glucose and d-galctose residues at a molar ratio of 3.51:1.00. The average molecular weight of MMPX-B2 was 510 kDa. This polysaccharide possessed a main chain of (1→4)-linked-α-d-glucopyranosyl residues, partially substituted at the C-6 position by a few terminal β-d-galactose residues or branched chains consisting of (1→3)-linked β-d-galactose residues. Preliminary immunological tests in vitro showed that MMPX-B2 could stimulate the murine macrophages to release various cytokines, and the structure-activity relationship was then established. The present study demonstrated the potential immunological activity of MMPX-B2, and provided references for studying the active ingredients in M. meretrix.

  19. The Mediterranean stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) as habitat provider for molluscs: colony size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitacco, Valentina; Crocetta, Fabio; Orlando-Bonaca, Martina; Mavrič, Borut; Lipej, Lovrenc

    2017-11-01

    The stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) is an important Mediterranean habitat builder, whose survival is now being threatened by human activities and possibly natural events such as mass mortality and bleaching. We characterized the mollusc assemblage associated with colonies in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) and then tested whether the number of mollusc species increases in relation with colony size, following a Species-Area Relationship (SAR) model. At least 62 taxa were found in association with coral colonies, with bivalves constituting the dominant group. More than half of the 3034 specimens encountered were juveniles. Mollusc taxa richness increased with increasing C. caespitosa colony size according to the power-function model, whilst the analyses of trophic and functional groups supports the hypothesis of at least two factors underlying SAR (area per se and habitat diversity). Our results confirmed the importance of C. caespitosa for benthic communities, indicating that larger colonies support higher biodiversity, and suggesting that C. caespitosa is the most important habit builder among Mediterranean cnidarians, having also an influential function as a natural nursery ground. These results underline the necessity of new investigations aimed at filling gaps in our knowledge and planning new measures to protect the species.

  20. Post-embrionic development of the digestive tube of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus (Diptera, Cuterebridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Vieira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tube of 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 was studied anatomically. The specimens were dissected in buffer saline under a stereomicroscope, and the digestive tubes were placed on slides and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Each tube was measured using a micrometric eye piece, and drawings were made with camera lucida. The results showed that the midgut, the hindgut and the Malpighian tubules with their ducts grow gradually during the larval development. The oesophagus and the salivary glands with their ducts grow only during the moult from the 2nd to the 3rd instar. In the pupal period, salivary glands grow gradually but disappeared after the 20th day. After metamorphosis the digestive tube regressed. This is expected since adult D. hominis lives about nine days without feeding. This fly, similar to other calyptratae muscoid flies shows no vestige of a crop during all post-embrionic development, and the adult has no salivary glands.

  1. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

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    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  2. Molecular studies with Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), mosquito transmitting the dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Araruna, Felipe Bastos; de Andrade, Marcelo Souza; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Borges, Antônio Carlos Romão; do Rêgo Barros Pires Leal, Emygdia Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Dengue is an infectious viral disease, which can present a wide clinical picture, ranging from oligo or asymptomatic forms, to bleeding and shock, and can progress to death. The disease problem has increased in recent years, especially in urban and suburban areas of tropical and subtropical regions. There are five dengue viruses, called serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, and DEN-5), which belong to the Flaviviridae family and are transmitted to humans through infected mosquito bites, with the main vector the Aedes aegypti mosquito (Linnaeus, 1762). Studies performed with Ae. aegypti, aimed at their identification and analysis of their population structure, are fundamental to improve understanding of the epidemiology of dengue, as well for the definition of strategic actions that reduce the transmission of this disease. Therefore, considering the importance of such research to the development of programs to combat dengue, the present review considers the techniques used for the molecular identification, and evaluation of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti.

  3. Urban Life and Local Politics in Roman Bithynia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    Most studies of Roman local administration focus on the formal structures of power, as defined by imperial laws, urban institutions and magistracies. This book explores the interplay of formal power with informal factors such as social prejudice, parochialism and personal rivalries in the cities...... of northwestern Asia Minor from the first to the fifth centuries AD. Through a detailed analysis of the municipal speeches and career of the philosopher-politician Dion Chrysostomos, we gain an insight into the petty conflicts and lofty ambitions of an ancient provincial small-town politician and those around him...

  4. Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infecting a Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 from Brazil Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infectando uma tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Werneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2 and liver (n=3, and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the second report of members of the Spirorchiidae family in that region. In addition, E. imbricata is a new host recorded for C. stunkardi.Relata-se a ocorrência de Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 e Carettacola stunkardi Martin e Bamberger 1952, em um exemplar juvenil de tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil. Foram coletados cinco trematódeos da espécie A. caborojoensis, dois no intestino delgado e três no fígado e dois exemplares adultos de C. stunkardi no lavado corporal. Destes apenas a espécie A. caborojoensis já tinha sido relatada como parasita dessa espécie de quelônio marinho. Esta é a primeira descrição de parasitas em E. imbricata em águas brasileiras e na área do Atlântico Sul Ocidental, e o segundo relato de membros da família Spirorchiidae na mesma região.

  5. Características morfológicas da distribuição vascular cerebral de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla Morphological characteristics of the cerebral vascular distribution of Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandyr de A. Câmara Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a vascularização arterial do encéfalo do javali, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, e comparar com outras espécies. Cinco machos e cinco fêmeas foram injetados com látex colorido. O suprimento arterial do encéfalo foi descrito e análises morfológicas foram feitas. Nesta espécie o circuito arterial do encéfalo é formado por ramos da artéria carótida interna, como: as artérias comunicantes caudais, o ramo rostral, as artérias cerebrais rostrais, e artérias comunicantes rostrais.The aim this study was to verify the arterial vascularization of the wild boar brain, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, and compare with other species. Five male and five female were injected with colored latex. The arterial supply of the brain was described and were done morphological analyses. In this species the arterial circuit of the brain is formed by the internal carotid artery branches, such as: the caudal communicant arteries, rostral branch, rostral cerebral arteries and rostral communicant arteries.

  6. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  7. Artrópodos asociados a Jatropha curcas Linnaeus. Funciones y estrategia para su manejo

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    O Alonso

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, Jatropha curcas Linnaeus constituye una de las plantas más investigadas a nivel mundial debido a su potencial como productora de aceite, el cual se puede transformar en biodiesel. Sin embargo, aún no se dispone de suficiente información sobre sus interacciones ecológicas con otros vegetales y animales; por lo que el conocimiento referente a los artrópodos asociados al piñón nombre común por el que se le conoce» es un requisito indispensable para el manejo adecuado del cultivo. El objetivo de este artículo es exponer los resultados de una recopilación realizada acerca de dichos organismos (insectos, ácaros y arañas, fundamentalmente, para lograr una mejor explotación de las plantaciones de este cultivo energético en Cuba. Dentro del grupo de los fitófagos se encontraron 151 especies de insectos, entre las que sobresalen las del orden Hemiptera, por ejemplo: Pachycoris klugii Burmeister (Scutelleridae y Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas; además de cuatro de ácaros. Entre los benéficos se hallaron 90 especies de insectos, cinco de ácaros y 13 de arañas depredadoras. En cuanto a las estrategias de manejo de plagas, se hace un mayor énfasis en las medidas de control químico y en algunas acciones de tipo cultural. Teniendo en cuenta estos antecedentes, en Cuba es imprescindible conocer los principales organismos asociados a dicha planta, con vistas a incorporar con mayor precisión el componente agroecológico en el manejo de las plagas, y con ello contribuir al mantenimiento de las capacidades productivas de los agroecosistemas y a su resiliencia.

  8. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species ofBromusLinnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Leonardo Luís; Mazzocato, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Juliano Lino; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus , meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length) and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa.

  9. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species of Bromus Linnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae

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    Leonardo Luís Artico

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus, meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa.

  10. Expression of three reporter genes in four cell lines developed from Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xian; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Xie, Shi-Cong; Feng, Ying

    2018-03-01

    This paper used recombinant baculoviruses that carried three reporter genes, green fluorescent protein (GFP), β-galactosidase, and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), to infect four new cell lines from Papilio demoleus Linnaeus larvae (named RIRI-PaDe-1, RIRI-PaDe-2, RIRI-PaDe-3, and RIRI-PaDe-4). The expression levels of the three recombinant proteins were detected at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h after infection and compared with Sf9 and High Five cells to evaluate the characteristics of these four cell lines as host cells. The inoculation densities of the tested cell lines were 2 × 10 4 cells/well (96-well plate) and 1 × 10 5 cells/well (24-well plate), and adding a volume of virus stock resulted in an MOI of 5.0. The results showed that the four cell lines could be infected by recombinant baculovirus and that cell lysis occurred 96 h after infection. In the four tested cell lines, only a small number of RIRI-PaDe-1 and RIRI-PaDe-3 cells expressed recombinant GFP and showed green fluorescence. The expression was much lower than that of Sf9 and High Five. Comparing the intracellular and extracellular activity of β-galactosidase indicated that the P. demoleus cell system was more suitable for the expression of secreted proteins, and its extracellular β-galactosidase level was close to that of Sf9, but the expression level of SEAP was far lower than those of Sf9 and High Five.

  11. Determination of oral bioavailability of curcuminoid dispersions and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei Shan; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing Huei

    2018-01-01

    Curcuminoid from Curcuma longa Linnaeus has been demonstrated to be effective in anti-cancer and anti-inflammation. The objectives of the present study were to prepare curcuminoid dispersion and nanoemulsion from C. longa and determine their oral bioavailabilities in rats. After curcuminoid extraction using 99.5% ethanol, bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and curcumin were separated within 10 min by high-performance liquid chromatography using an Eclipse XDB-C18 column (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile, with a flow rate of 1 mL min -1 , column temperature of 35 °C and detection wavelength of 425 nm. Curcuminoid nanoemulsion at a particle size of 12.1 nm and encapsulation efficiency 98.8% was prepared using lecithin, Tween 80 and water. A pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed that the parameters including T max , C max , t 1/2 and the area under the curve were higher for curcuminoid nanoemulsions than for curcuminoid dispersion at the same dose employed for gavage administration, whereas, for intravenous injection, an opposite trend was shown. The oral bioavailabilities of BDMC, DMC, curcumin and total curcuminoids in nanoemulsion and dispersion were 34.39 and 4.65%, 39.93 and 5.49%, 47.82 and 9.38%, and 46 and 8.7%, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate a higher oral bioavailability after incorporation of curcuminoid into nanoemulsion, facilitating its application as a botanic drug. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Bioecologia de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 em Palotina, Paraná, Brasil

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    Pinto Simone Benghi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na UFPR - Campus Palotina, no Paraná, e em três propriedades rurais do mesmo município, durante o período de novembro de 1997 a maio de 1999. O experimento foi delineado com os objetivos de avaliar: a a flutuação de larvas de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 em bovinos da raça Holandesa Preto e Branco criados no município de Palotina, e a distribuição desses ectoparasitos na superfície corporal de bovinos; e b a sazonalidade dos principais dípteros vetores de ovos de D. hominis. Para a captura dos insetos vetores, foram utilizados dois tipos de armadilhas: MAGOON e orientada pelo vento (wind oriented trap = WOT. Um total de 346 larvas foram expulsas por meio de compressão manual, sendo que a intensidade de larvas foi maior no lado esquerdo do animal, onde foi constatado um total de 240 nódulos (69,36%. Analisadas as freqüências de nódulos de berne nos animais, ficou demonstrado que houve diferença significativa (p>0,001 na tendência parasitária. Três regiões corpóreas foram mais parasitadas. A primeira é formada pelos membros torácicos, paletas e costelas; a segunda é formada pelo pescoço e flancos, e a terceira, formada pelas regiões dos membros pélvicos, barbela, ventre, cauda e tórax. Durante o período experimental foram capturados, nas armadilhas WOT e de MAGOON, 5.887 dípteros pertencentes a diferentes famílias. Verificou-se que as famílias Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae e Muscidae foram as mais prevalentes.

  13. Age, Growth and Reproduction of Coryphaena hippurus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Maltese Waters, Central Mediterranean

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    M. GATT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Age, growth and reproduction of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 collected from the Central Mediterranean in the period 2004-2010 by the traditional Maltese fish aggregating devices (FAD and surface longline fisheries were studied. The a and b parameters of the length-weight relationship for fish 11-142 cm fork length (FL (n = 4042 were determined as a = 0.018 and 0.022 with b = 2.85 and 2.79, for males and females respectively. The counting of annual increments from dorsal spines of >65 cm FL dolphinfish at X25 magnification (n = 47 permitting an age reading resolution in years  , and the counting of daily increments from sagittal otoliths of <65 cm FL dolphinfish at X400 magnification (n = 583 permitting an age reading resolution in days, were estimated; the von Bertalanffy growth model applied to these fish gave the following parameters: L∞ = 107.8 cm FL and 120.2 cm FL, and K = 1.9 yr-1 and 1.56 yr-1, for males and females respectively. The maximum age observed was 2 years. Size at 50% maturity for fish 10-131 cm FL (n = 1376 was 58.9 cm FL and 62.5 cm FL for males and females, respectively. The sex ratio for the fish sampled from the FAD fishery (10.5-131 cm FL was 1:1.54 (M:F and for dolphinfish sampled from the surface longline fishery (91-130 cm FL was 1:0.76 (M:F.  Back-calculated hatch dates from age-0 dolphinfish (n = 518 suggested that spawning occurs from June to September with the highest levels in June. This study is the first to use dorsal spines to determine the age of adult dolphinfish.

  14. Data from: Distribution of the invasive Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 and native Caprella linearis (Linnaeus, 1767) on artificial hard substrates in the North Sea: separation by habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, J.W.P.; Lengkeek, Wouter; Degraer, Steven; Kerckhof, Francis; Kirkwood, R.J.; Lindeboom, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Studying offshore natural and artificial hard substrates in the southern North Sea (51ºN–57ºN/1ºW–9ºE), the invasive introduced Japanese skeleton shrimp Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 was found to co-exist with the native Caprella linearis (Linnaeus, 1767) only on near-shore locations that had an

  15. Distribution of the invasive Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 and native Caprella linearis (Linnaeus, 1767) on artificial hard substrates in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Joop W.P.; Lengkeek, Wouter; Degraer, Steven; Kerckhof, Francis; Kirkwood, Roger J.; Lindeboom, Han J.

    2016-01-01

    Studying offshore natural and artificial hard substrates in the southern North Sea (51ºN–57ºN/1ºW–9ºE), the invasive introduced Japanese skeleton shrimp Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 was found to co-exist with the native Caprella linearis (Linnaeus, 1767) only on near-shore locations that had an

  16. EXPLORATORY CELIOTOMY IN GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA IGUANA, LINNAEUS 1758 SHOWING SIGNS OF URINARY OBSTRUCTION IN THE CITY OF CUIABÁ - MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

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    I. N. Angeli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the therapeutic and surgical protocols adopted during the clinical management of a wild green iguana (Iguana iguana iguana,Linnaeus 1758 presented for lethargy, anorexy and clinical signs of urinary obstruction. There were also explored general aspects of the species, as well as the main impairments of health and their respective diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...

  18. A hitherto unrecorded sighting of the Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India

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    Samidurai Jayakumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae is recorded for the first time in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India. As this species is recorded in other parts of Tamil Nadu, a brief sightings and distribution map is also specified.

  19. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Amélia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes. Thus, Psidium guineense has four chromosome sets, in accordance with the basic chromosome number of Psidium (x = 11). In addition, karyomorphometric analysis revealed morphologically identical chromosome groups in the karyotype of Psidium guineense. The high transferability of microsatellites (98.6%) further corroborates with phylogenetic relationship between Psidium guajava and Psidium guineense. Based on the data regarding nuclear genome size, karyotype morphometry and molecular markers of Psidium guineense and Psidium guajava (2C = 0.95 pg, 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes), Psidium guineense is a tetraploid species. These data reveal the role of euploidy in the diversification of the genus Psidium.

  20. Meiotic behaviour and its implication on species inter-relationship in the genus Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 (Zingiberaceae

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    Judith Mary Lamo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed meiotic analysis was investigated in seven species of Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 which can contribute significantly to our understanding about species inter-relationship, speciation and evolution. The species were divided into two groups viz., Group I having 2n = 42 (C. comosa Roxburgh, 1810, C. haritha Mangaly & M.Sabu, 1993, C. mangga Valeton & Zijp, 1917, and C. motana Roxburgh, 1800 and Group II with 2n = 63 (C. caesia Roxburgh, 1810, C. longa Linnaeus, 1753 and C. sylvatica Valeton, 1918. Both groups display varying degree of chromosome associations. Group I species showed the prevalence of bivalents, however occasional quadrivalents besides univalents were also encountered. About 48% of the PMCs analyzed in C. mangga showed 21 bivalents (II meiotic configurations, 32% in C. comosa and 16% in C. haritha. Group II species as expected showed the presence of trivalents besides bivalents, univalents and quadrivalents. About 32% of the PMCs analyzed at MI in C. sylvatica showed 21 trivalents (III meiotic configurations, 24% in C. longa and 8% in C. caesia. Overall, low frequency of multivalent associations as compared to bivalents indicates that Curcuma is an allopolyploid complex. Moreover, x = 21 is too high a basic number, therefore, we suggest that the genus Curcuma has evolved by hybridization of species with different chromosome numbers of 2n = 24 and 18, resulting in a dibasic amphidiploid species.

  1. Histologia do fígado de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

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    Gisele Saviani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A criação de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758 é uma atividade de grande potencial, porém não existem padrões definidos sobre a histologia do seu fígado, que é um órgão de grande importância no metabolismo. O conhecimento de sua histologia pode contribuir para a detecção de doenças e deficiências nutricionais no animal. Para este estudo foram utilizados 24 avestruzes com idades entre 12 e 18 meses (com peso médio em torno de 80 a 100 kg, provenientes do abatedouro Don Pig, em Botucatu no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria, as amostras do fígado foram processadas e observadas em microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. A hematoxilina e eosina (H.E, picrossírius, Gordon e Sweets, Sudan black e o ácido peródico de Schiff (PAS são colorações usadas respectivamente para observar a morfologia do fígado, colágeno, fibras reticulares, gordura e glicogênio. Foram encontrados os espaços portahepáticos.O glicogênio mostrou média de 5,68%, o conteúdo lipídico, média de 9,83%, o colágeno média de 14,71% e as fibras reticulares média de 5,96%. Quanto à MET notou-se no citoplasma dos hepatócitos, numerosas mitocôndrias, glicogênio, muitas gotas de gordura, alguns lisossomos, retículo endoplasmático granular ao redor das mitocôndrias, algumas células estreladas, célula em degeneração e o canalículo biliar ao centro. Provavelmente o quadro sugestivo de esteatose é resultante do estado nutricional dos animais. Estes resultados demonstraram que os hepatócitos dos avestruzes são muito similares às outras aves, como também muito semelhantes à estrutura e ultraestrutura das células do fígado de mamíferos.

  2. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL LIMITATIVE FACTORS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN EXTENSIVELY SYSTEM

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    R. C. DIMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and most common method of increasing fish is a fish breeding ponds in which the supervision of nutrition and growth of biological material. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus ruthenus Linnaeus 1785 is the 4th of sturgeon scale and economic importance as a share of production of these fish .Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of sturgeons ponds has a crucial role to obtain satisfactory yields both in qualitative and quantitative. Chemical characteristics of water were determined in laboratory ecosystems Chemistry of the Institute of Research and Development for Ecology Aquaculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Galaţi for the samples have been taken of the total water. Determination of the chemical characteristics was performed by standardized methods. Physic-chemical parameters of water were determined according to norm on the classification of surface water quality in order to establish the ecological status of water (Order no. 161/2006, for Class II of quality.

  4. Nesting and diet of Harpia harpyjaLinnaeus in the Native Community of Infi erno, Made de Dios, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Piana, Renzo P.

    2013-01-01

    El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus) es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indica...

  5. Establishment and characterization of a cell line developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei-Feng; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xian; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2013-02-01

    A new cell line named RIRI-PaDe, developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, was established in modified Grace's medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum. The cell line was incubated at 28°C and consisted of attached round and short spindle-like cells. The population doubling time was 55 h. The chromosome numbers varied widely from 24 to 136 with a mode of 59 at the 71st passage. Comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of the cell line and neonate larvae confirmed that the cell line was of P. demoleus origin. This cell line was susceptible to the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus and Apocheima cinerarius nucleopolyhedrovirus.

  6. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes.

  7. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

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    Wagner C Valenti

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW, southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L3.28. Expressions obtained for length and weight growth curves are Lt = 21 .0 (1-e-0493t and Wt= 190 (1-e-0493t3.28. respectively. A symptotic maximum length and asymptotic maximum weight are nearly attained at six and eight years old, respectively.

  8. Intestinal helminths of the white stork (Ciconia ciconia Linnaeus 1758) from an inter-route site in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Birlik, Sezen; Senlik, Bayram; Yildirimhan, Hikmet Sami

    2017-06-01

    In Turkey, a study was conducted during the years 2009-2015 to detect the gastrointestinal helminth species of 18 white storks (Ciconia ciconia Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Ciconiiformes) sampled from aquatic or swamp areas of Bursa Province, one of the inter-route sites where storks intensely stay. The results of postmortem examination revealed that 17 (94.44%) white storks harboured one or more helminth species. Eight species of helminths were detected at the following prevalence rates: Dictymetra discoidea (38.88%), Chaunocephalus ferox (37.50%), Schistocephalus solidus (27.77%), Stephanoprora (Monilifer) spinulosa (18.75%), Echinoparyphium sp. (12.50%), Tylodelphys excavata (6.25%), T. clavata (6.25%), and Syncuaria ciconiae (6.25%). This study is the first report on the presence of all the above species except T. excavata from white storks in Turkey. Stephanoprora (M.) spinulosa was found in Ciconiiform birds for the first time in this study.

  9. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina (Linnaeus)

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    Stickel, L.F.

    1950-01-01

    SUMMARY: A population study of the box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina Linnaeus) was made during the years 1944 to 1947 at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. A thirty acre area in well drained bottomland forest on the flood plain of the Patuxent River was selected for intensive study. Similarly forested land extended in all directions from the study plot. Markers were established at eighty-three foot intervals over the study plot for reference in recording locality data. Individuals were marked by filing notches in the marginal scutes according to a code system. There were 2109 collections of study area turtles. Records of collecting sites and turtle behavior showed that in the bottomlands habitat cover is utilized extensively during the day as well as at night. Turtles not actively moving about are almost always found in or around brush piles, heaps of debris, and tangles of vines and briars. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Turtles are occasionally found in the mud or water of the gullies. The commonest type of night retreat is a cavity constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. These cavities, termed 'forms,' may be used only once, but are sometimes used repeatedly, often at intervals of several days or more. Different turtles sometimes use the same form on successive nights. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. The most unfavorable influences are low temperatures and drought. On most summer days there are some active turtles but individual turtles are not active every day. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet even in favorable weather. This behavior is most pronounced in early spring and late fall when inactive days are often more numerous than active ones. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. The turtles living in the study plot retained their ranges even through a flood that completely

  10. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1949-01-01

    A population study of Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus) was made at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, from 1944 to 1947. A thirty acre area in bottomland forest was selected for intensive study. Turtles were marked by filing notches in marginal scutes according to a code. Turtles make extensive use of brushy shelter during the day as well.as at night. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Nights are usually spent in a 'form,' constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. A form may be used once or it may be used repeatedly by the same or different turtles. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet, even in favorable weather. There is no evidence for territorialism. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlap grossly. Turtles are frequently found near each other but no antagonistic behavior has been observed. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. Turtles retained their ranges even though a flood that completely covered the study area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. There was no significant difference between sizes of male and female ranges: males 33O+ 26 feet, females 37O+29 feet. A trail-laying device was used in following travel routes for 456 turtle days. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain routes. Maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks, although some turtles cover only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges. One of these turtles was followed with a trailer for 161 days in 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by

  11. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

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    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas subst

  12. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

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    Chang HB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Bin Chang,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 µg/mL, demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 µg/mL, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 µg/mL. A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 µg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.Keywords: curcuminoid extract, curcuminoid nanoemulsion, Curcuma longa Linnaeus, lung cancer cell, cell cycle, apoptosis mechanism

  13. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino anterior de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae foregut

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    Ana Maria Vieira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foregut in D. hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 as the majority of the larval Diptera somatic tissue, is made up of polytenic cells, and grows at the expenses of the polytenization of its nuclei followed by the increase in size of each cell. The oesophagus, of ectodermic origem, is interiorly covered by a chitinous squamous epithelium that rests upon a very thin basal lamina. This sheet is surrounded by thick muscle bundles. The oesophagus intussuscepts the midgut forming the cardia. The cardia, with three epithelial layers: two internal ones, of ectodermal origin and one external of endodermic origin. At the anterior portion of the cardia, between these two types of epithelium, there is a cluster of small, non polytenic cells, forming the imaginal disk of the foregut. Metamoiphosis begins at the end of the larval period with signs of nuclear degeneration of all the polytenic cells, as well as the increase in number of the imaginal disk ones. The oesophagic portion intussuscepted into the cardia, everts; its cells suffer apoptosis and are replaced by the new cells growing from the imaginal disk. The external layer cells also degenerate and are pinched off into the lumen of the very anterior portion of the midgut. The newly formed oesophagus intussuscepts "de novo" to form the two internal layers of the adult cardia. At the same time the midgut regenerative cells grow anteriorly to form the new external layer of the adult cardia.

  14. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino médio de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae midgut

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    Edy de Lello

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 midgut is internally lined by an epithelium of polytenic cells, some low others prismatic with well developed brush border. Their apical portion are enlarged by secretory vesicles, forming button-like structures that are pinched off to the lumen, some accompained by the nucleus characterizing apocrine and holocrine secretions. This epithelium is gradually renewed by small, non polytenic regenerative cells, found scattered at its basal portion. At the end of the third instar the metamorphosis begins. The epithelial cells present signs of degeneration and at the first day of pupation the regenerative cells increase in number. By the 5th day of pupation these regenerative cells, besides being increased in number, differentiate themselves into two layers: one similar to the dense conective tissue that sustainning the larval epithelium is pinched off to the midgut lumen forming the "yellow bodies"; the other, develops right under it as the imaginal epitelium. The disorganized muscles bundles of the midgut wall, are invaded by phagocytes. At the end of pupation the midgut has a low prismatic epithelium with brush-border. In the adult, the torax portion of the midgut has prismatic homogeneously basophilic epithelium while in the abdominal portion the epithelium is made of high prismatic cells full of small vacuoles. The larval midgut epithelium suffers programmed cell death non compatible with apoptose. During the metamorphosis the midgut lenght diminishes from 31mm in the larva to 14mm in the adult.

  15. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

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    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  16. Effects of seasonal variations and collection methods on the mineral composition of propolis from Apis mellifera Linnaeus Beehives

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    E. A. Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, sodium (Na, calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, and potassium (K were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, “intelligent” collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method. During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA, followed by Tukey-Kramer’s test to compare the mean values (p<0.05. The results showed that seasonal variations influence the contents of 5 minerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu, and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca.

  17. Anidamientoydieta de Harpia harpyja Linnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

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    Renzo P. Piana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indicarían una cierta preferencia para anidar en castañales. Así mismo, la información recogida ha permitido establecer que el área de anidamiento de una pareja de Águilas Arpía en la zona de estudio es de aproximadamente 4300 hectáreas. El análisis de los restos de las presas consumidas y de las egagrópilas recolectadas dentro y alrededor de la base de los nidos nos han permitido hacer una primera descripción de la dieta de la especie, la cual está compuesta principalmente por mamíferos arbóreos.

  18. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-04-20

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20-40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control.

  19. Comparative analysis of the circadian rhythm genes period and timeless in Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Culicidae)

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    Shaikevich, Elena V.; Karan, Ludmila S.; Fyodorova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nucleotide sequences of the circadian rhythm genes, period and timeless, were studied for the first time in mosquitoes Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758. In this work we evaluated variations of the studied genome fragments for the two forms of Culex pipiens (forma “pipiens” – mosquitoes common for aboveground habitats, forma “molestus” – underground mosquitoes). We compared Culex pipiens from Russia with transatlantic Culex pipiens and subtropical Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823. Our results show that intraspecies variability is higher for the gene period than for the gene timeless. The revealed substitutions in nucleotide sequences and especially in amino acid sequences grouped the individuals of the two forms into distinct clusters with high significance. The detected fixed amino acid substitutions may appear essential for functioning of the circadian rhythm proteins in Culex pipiens, and may be correlated with adaptations of the taxa within the group Culex pipiens. Our results suggest that natural selection favors fixed mutations and the decrease in diversity of the genes period and timeless in mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens f. “molestus” compared with the Culex pipiens f. “pipiens”, is probably correlated with adaptive features of Culex pipiens f. “molestus”. The studied genome regions may be considered as promising molecular-genetic markers for identification, population and phylogenetic analysis of similar species and forms of the Culex pipiens complex. PMID:28123673

  20. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of <70%, and 12 hours photophase. Fifteen hymenopteran specimens were dissected daily to evaluate their stage and development time. The phenology concluded that S. endius had a development cycle of 19 days with an incubation period of 24 hours. The development of the larvae of S. endius occurred in the subsequent eight days, during which a series of morphological alterations were observed. The pre-pupal stage occurred on the tenth day, where the movement ceased and elimination of the meconium started. The pupal stage occurred from the 11th to the 19th day, with emergence of males first, followed by female emergence approximately 24 hours later. These results allowed the evaluation of aspects of the detailed bionomics of the development of S. endius in order to record and program production of this parasitoid, thus optimizing its utilization as a biological control agent.

  1. Morphological study of epididymides in the scorpion mud turtle in natural habitat (Kinosternon scorpioides – Linnaeus, 1976

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    Diego Carvalho Viana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p153   Morphological study of the epididymis of jurará in natural habitat (Kinosternon scorpioides – Linnaeus, 1976. In the state of Maranhao, Brazil, one can find the freshwater chelonian Kinosternon scorpioides, known as scorpion mud turtle, which has social, economic, and environmental value. Twenty adult scorpion mud turtles were collected in the months of March, June, September, and December, corresponding to the two periods of the year: the rainy and dry seasons. The epididymides were collected from each animal to check the existence of reproductive seasonality. The organs were evaluated through light, scanning electron, and transmission microscopy and analyzed at the epididymal epithelium height and the tubular and luminal diameters. The epididymides were divided into rete testis, ductuli efferentes, and ductus epididymis. In the rainy season, they presented stereo ciliated pseudostratified epithelium; in the dry season, they were characterized by simple, cubic, and non-ciliated cells. The morphometry of the tubular and luminal diameters and the epididymal epithelium height showed moments of epithelial alternation over the studied periods, with the highest averages in the rainy season, within the reproductive period. Spermatozoids were observed throughout the year, although their viability couldn’t be evaluated. Taking into account the data obtained, one may claim that the scorpion mud turtle presents reproductive seasonality.

  2. Identification of two novel P450 genes and their responses to deltamethrin in the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Fan, Xing; Gao, Yanling; Yang, Jing; Qian, Jin; Fan, Dong

    2017-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, found in virtually all living organisms, play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs, pesticides, and plant toxins. In this study, we identified two novel cytochrome P450 genes from the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae Linnaeus. They were named CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 (GenBank Accession Nos.: KX008607 and JQ901385, respectively) by the P450 Nomenclature Committee. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription revealed that CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 were highly expressed in the fat bodies and were differentially expressed at different larval developmental stages. Expression levels of these two cytochrome P450 genes were up-regulated by deltamethrin. Analyses of their detoxification roles using RNA interference followed by a deltamethrin bioassay showed that larvae mortalities increased by 11.4% and 21.6%, respectively, after CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 were partially silenced. These results suggest that inhibition of the novel cytochrome P450 genes CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 could be used to increase the efficacy of cabbage moth control by deltamethrin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of Various Cancer Cells Proliferation of Bornyl Acetate and Essential Oil from Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf

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    Tunay Karan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inula species are medicinal and aromatic plants used for folk medicine extensively. In this work, hydrodistilled essential oil of Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf. analyzed by GC-MS which revealed that bornyl acetate was the major product (69.15%. Camphene was the second major compound (11.11%. Antiproliferative activity of the essential oil and bornyl acetate was investigated on HeLa (human cervix carcinoma, HT29 (human colon carcinoma , A549 (human lung carcinoma, MCF7 ( human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells and FL (human amnion cells normal cells. The cytotoxicity was executed by a Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH Cytotoxicity Detection Kit. Essential oil and bornyl acetate displayed the outstanding activities on HeLa (IC 50, 64.1, 72.0 µg/mL, HT29 (IC 50, 24.6, 60.5 µg/mL, A549 (IC 50, 28.3, 44.1 µg/mL, MCF-7 (IC 50, 66.5, 85.6 µg/mL, and FL (IC 50, 42.1, 50.6 µg/mL cell lines respectively.

  4. Modeling suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in North and South America’s coastal waters

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    Evangelista, Paul H.; Young, Nicholas E.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    We used two common correlative species-distribution models to predict suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) model were applied using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling. We compared models developed using native occurrences, using non-native occurrences, and using both native and non-native occurrences. Models were trained using occurrence data collected before 2010 and evaluated with occurrence data collected from the invaded range during or after 2010. We considered a total of 22 marine environmental variables. Models built with non-native only or both native and non-native occurrence data outperformed those that used only native occurrences. Evaluation metrics based on the independent test data were highest for models that used both native and non-native occurrences. Bathymetry was the strongest environmental predictor for all models and showed increasing suitability as ocean floor depth decreased, with salinity ranking the second strongest predictor for models that used native and both native and non-native occurrences, indicating low habitat suitability for salinities model results also suggest that red lionfish could continue to invade southern latitudes in the western Atlantic Ocean and may establish localized populations in the eastern Pacific Ocean. We reiterate the importance in the choice of the training data source (native, non-native, or native/non-native) used to develop correlative species distribution models for invasive species.

  5. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

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    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  6. The gold tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758) sensu lato (Squamata: Teiidae): evidence for an established population in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jake R.; Ketterlin, Jennifer K.; Rochford, Michael R.; Irwin, Rodney; Krysko, Kenneth L.; Duquesnel, James G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Reed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Gold tegus, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758), are generalist predators from South America and are ecologically similar to Argentine black and white tegus (Salvator merianae), a successful invader in Florida. We trapped gold tegus in Broward and Miami-Dade counties, Florida, USA. In Miami-Dade County, collection occurred from 2008 through 2016. We combined new trapping records with previous literature records. Ten gold tegus of both sexes and multiple size classes over a nine year period indicate a reproducing population in Miami-Dade County. Tupinambis teguixin is the sixth established non-native teiid species in Florida. Additionally, we report Tupinambis teguixin from Sarasota and Lee counties, Florida, USA. Determining population status in those counties requires further study. It is critical to differentiate this species fromSalvator merianae during removal efforts. The possibility of eradicating Tupinambis teguixin exists if proper identification enables reliable monitoring of the populations.

  7. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the bivalve ligament of Meretrix linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2015-12-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the bivalve ligament of Meretrix linnaeus (LML) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of LML were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the LML has complex structural colors from blue to orange in the wet state from ventral to dorsal, which are derived from the aragonite fiber diameter increases continuously from ventral to dorsal of the ligament. The reflection peak wavelength of the wet LML can blue-shift from 522 nm to 480 nm with the air drying time increased from 0 to 60 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and only a weak reflection peak at last, relevant color changes from green to light blue. The structural color in the LML is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consists of aligned aragonite fibers and proteins, in which the diameters of the aragonite fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 104±11 nm and 126±16 nm, respectively. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tune the degree of order and lattice constant of the ligament in the different wet states. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. GRAMÍNEAS TROPICALES EN EL ENGORDE DE CUYES MEJORADOS SEXADOS (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus EN LA ZONA DE LA MANÁ

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    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación de gramíneas tropicales en el engorde de cuyes en la zona de La Maná. La misma que persiguió los siguientes objetivos: Incrementar los índices productivos en cuyes (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus peruanos mejorados bajo el efecto del consumo del pasto saboya (Panicum maximun Jack, hojas de maíz (Zea mays y caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L en la zona de La Maná, y determinar la rentabilidad de los tratamientos. Se utilizaron 48 cuyes peruanos mejorados sexados de 35 días de edad con un peso promedio de 305 g. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 (sexo x 3 (gramíneas con cuatro repeticiones, dentro de un (DBCA. Para las comparaciones entre medidas se utilizó la prueba de Tukey al 0.05% de probabilidad. Para obtener la rentabilidad de los tratamientos se utilizó la Relación Beneficio–Costo. Se evaluó el: consumo de gramíneas (g, consumo de alimento (g, ganancia de peso (g, conversión alimenticia, peso vivo (g y rendimiento a la canal (%. Los cuyes machos presentaron el mayor (P0.05 no se vio afectado por el efecto del consumo de gramíneas. La mayor rentabilidad la registraron los cuyes machos alimentados con hoja de maíz + balanceado (52.4%.

  9. AKTIVITAS KUAU RAJA (Argusianus argus Linnaeus, 1766 PADA MATING RING DI HUTAN KONSERVASI KALAWEIT SUPAYANG, SOLOK, SUMATERA BARAT

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    Muhammad Rafi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A behavioral study of Great Argus Pheasants (Argusianus argus Linnaeus, 1766 at their mating ring has been done from October 2015 to January 2016 in The Kalaweit Supayang Conservasion Forest, Solok, West Sumatra. The purpose of this research is to know about activities of Great Argus Pheasant and how their activities done. Field observation in the mating ring was conducted using ten video camera traps for three months at their mating ring. Those cameras were activated for 60 seconds per session by 10 seconds intersession intervals. Behavioral data were tabulated from video records using continuous recording method. There were eight activities of Great Argus Pheasant at their mating ring which divided into individual and pairmate activities. The individual activities of male included clearing, walking, vigilance, feeding, grooming, resting, and calling. While  female activities included resting, grooming, and walking. Activity with pairmate was dancing where male performed dancing only in the present of  female. Male spent 26 times longer than females appeared at the mating ring. The peak activities at mating ring was in the morning between 7:00  and 8:00 am.

  10. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  11. Effects of culture conditions on the growth and reproduction of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (Ulvales, Chlorophyta

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    Rapeeporn Ruangchuay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, was experimentally studied to support its near optimalfarming, with potential impact in Thailand on its direct use as human food or its co-cultures in shrimp farming.Germling clusters (2 weeks old and 7.50±2.98 mm long were seeded into 500 mL flasks and biomass growth rateoptimized with respect to the main controllable factors; seedling density, salinity, light intensity, and temperature. These factorswere assumed to each have an optimal value independent of the others, and the factors were optimized one at a time. Themaximum growth at three to four weeks of cultivation was obtained at the factor levels of 0.05 gL-1, 20 ppt, 80 mol photonm-2s-1 and 25°C. Early zoosporangia were obtained from 2nd to 4th weeks. The relative growth rate ranged from 9.47 to 22.18 %day-1, and only asexual reproduction of U. intestinalis was observed under these culture conditions.

  12. Variation in the reproductive strategies of Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758 populations in the province of Gipuzkoa (Basque Country.

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    UOTILA, E., CRESPO-DIAZ, A., SANZ-AZKUE, I., RUBIO, X.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire salamander [Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758] populations show variability in their reproductive strategies across the northern Iberian Peninsula. Females can give birth to aquatic larvae (ovoviviparous mode, to metamorphosed juveniles (viviparous mode or to both aquatic and metamorphosed juveniles (intermediate mode. The reproductive modes of the populations inhabiting the Basque Country are poorly studied. The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the reproductive strategies of four fire salamander populations, belonging to the subspecies S.s.fastuosa, in the province of Gipuzkoa, Basque Country. The main focus was on an urban population inhabiting the park Mount Urgull in San Sebastián. The other three populations were located in forested mountain areas. Eighteen pregnant female salamanders were captured and kept in the laboratory until they gave birth. Females captured in the Urgull population gave birth, either to metamorphosed juveniles, or to metamorphosed juveniles and aquatic larvae. However, due to the lack of water bodies in Urgull, the fire salamanders are mostly viviparous. Two females from the other populations also gave birth to etamor-phosed juveniles and aquatic larvae, which suggests that the populations may have intermediate reproductive mode. The results of this study confirm that there can be intrapopulational variation in the reproductive modes of the S.s.fastuosa and that the intermediate (and maybe the viviparous mode might be more common than previously thought in Gipuzkoa.

  13. Accumulation of perfluorinated compounds in captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Yeung, Leo Wai Yin; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Xu, Muqi; Dai, Jiayin

    2008-11-01

    The accumulation of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the sera of captive wildlife species Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) from Harbin Wildlife Park, Heilongjiang Province, in China were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant contaminant with a mean serum concentration of 1.18 ng mL(-1) in tigers and 2.69 ng mL(-1) in lions. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the second most prevalent contaminant in both species. The composition profiles of the tested PFCs differed between tigers and lions, and the percentages of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were greater in lions than in tigers, indicating different exposures and/or metabolic capabilities between the two species. Assessments of the risk of PFC contamination to the two species were obtained by comparing measured concentrations to points of departure or toxicity reference values (TRVs). Results suggest no risk of PFOS exposure or toxicity for the two species.

  14. Size differences in the Dufour gland of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae between and within the female castes

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    Fábio Camargo Abdalla

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dufour gland is found closely associated with the sting apparatus of all hymenopteran females, playing multiple roles among bees. In Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 the gland is connected to the dorsal vaginal wall and, in queens, it produces egg-marking pheromones. In workers the function of this gland is unknown, except by its capacity to mimic the queen secretion in egg-laying workers. In an attempt to understand the development and to substantiate the present knowledge about the Dufour gland in A. mellifera, a morphometric study of the gland between and within the female castes was made. Glands of workers and queens with different ages and life stages were dissected and measured with an ocular micrometer adapted to a stereoscope. The results showed that the Dufour gland is larger in queens than in workers, and that among workers, the gland is larger in egg-laying and foragers than it is in newly emerged and nurse workers. The larger size of the gland in egg-laying queens and workers is in accordance with its role in reproduction. In forager workers the larger size of the gland suggest that, as happens in some species of bees, the gland may participate in pheromone production for nest-mate or nest-entrance recognition.

  15. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@biology-research.co [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  16. INVAZIA GHIDRINULUI – GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 ÎN FLUVIUL NISTRU (LIMITELE REPUBLICII MOLDOVA ŞI FACTORII DETERMINANŢI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru BULAT

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available În condiţiile intensificării presingului antropic în ecosistemele acvatice din Republica Moldova majoritatea speciilor stenobionte au devenit ameninţate cu dispariţia, însă unele, cu potenţial adaptiv înalt, dimpotrivă, pe fonul eliberării nişe­lor spaţiale, pot prolifera în exces şi chiar provoca efect invaziv. Pentru fluviul Nistru (limitele Republicii Moldova un exemplu elocvent este ghidrinul Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758 care, după construcţia hidrocentralei dela Novodnestrovsk (1981 a devenit o specie multidominantă, formând până la or. Soroca o populaţie locală deosebit de numeroasă.În lucrare sunt analizate particularităţile bioecologice ale ghidrinului şi sunt evidenţiaţi factorii de mediu ce au con­tribuit la invazia taxonului în fl. Nistru (limitele Republicii Moldova.THE INVASION OF THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK – GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN DNIESTER RIVER (LIMITS OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND ITS DETERINANT FACTORS Under the intensification of anthropogenic pressure in aquatic ecosystems of Republic of Moldova, most of stenobionte species became threatened with extinction, but some species, potentially high adaptive, contrast, in present demonstrates an evident biological progression, in some hydrobiotops causing a stressed invasive effect. For Dniester River (limits of Republic of Moldova three-spined stickleback – Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758 is a good example, after the construction of Novodnestrovsk hydropower (1981 became a multidominate species forming to Soroca city a particularly large local population.In this paper are analyzed bio- ecological peculiarities of three-spined stickleback and are highlighted environmental factors that contributed to taxon invasion in Dniester River (limits of Republic of Moldova.

  17. Effects of Feeding Frequency on Growth, Feed Consumption, and Body Composition in Juvenile Turbot (Psetta maxima Linnaeus, 1758) at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    TÜRKER, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile turbot Psetta maxima (Linnaeus, 1758) (15.23 ± 2.99 g) were fed to satiation with a commercial extruded feed over a 60-day period. Feeding regimens were twice a day (TD), every other day (EOD), and 2-day intervals (TDI). Fish were kept in seawater (18 ppt) at 5-7.5 °C from January 21 to March 23, 2004. Feed conversion rate (FCR) and the protein efficiency ratios (PER) were within the ranges of 1.12-1.14 and 2.26-2.29, respectively. While the maximum relative growth rate (RGR), weight...

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION: BROOD PRODUCTION AND MORTALITY RATE OF YOUNG SAÚVA QUEENS (ATTA SEXDENS LINNAEUS, 1758 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE REARED IN ARTIFICIAL COLONIES WITH MIXED SUBSTRATUM

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    J.O. Augustin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of plaster as a substratum for colonies of leaf-cutting ants in laboratory is widespread. Because Atta Fabricius, 1804 species excavate the soil in order to found new colonies in nature, we wanted to test whether mixing plaster with soil (Latossolo Vermelho would influence the number of eggs, larvae, pupae and workers in A. sexdens Linnaeus, 1758 colonies. Here we report results that possibly indicate the plaster substratum as the most suitable for rearing young A. sexdens colonies in laboratory.

  19. Report of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae in a green turtle Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae from Brazil

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    Werneck M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the occurrence of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 in a juvenile green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 found on the coast of Brazil. This parasite has been described in Caretta caretta from Egypt, France, the Mediterranean Sea, the Madeira Archipelago, the Adriatic Sea and the USA, in C. mydas from Egypt and the USA, in Eretmochelys imbricata from Cuba, in Lepidochelys olivacea from Mexico and Costa Rica and in Lepidochelys kempii from USA. This note represents the first report of E. megachondus in a green sea turtle in the South-West Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Susceptibilidad y mecanismos de resistencia a insecticidas de uso en salud pública en poblaciones naturales de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) del departamento de Casanare

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila Roldán, Susanne Carolina

    2012-01-01

    El dengue constituye un grave problema de salud pública para Casanare, Orinoquía, Colombia. La principal estrategia para el manejo de la enfermedad está dirigida al control de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) el insecto que transmiten la enfermedad. Para ello se utilizan insecticidas de síntesis química que permitan cortar la transmisión de la enfermedad durante brotes o epidemias. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar el estado de susceptibilidad a insecticidas autorizados por el Gobierno N...

  1. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos n

  2. Behavioural responses of captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submitted to antipredator training Respostas comportamentais de emas cativas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submetidas a treinamentoanti-predação

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    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have been diminishing greater rhea Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 populations throughout their natural distribution. The reintroductions of captive-born greater rheas have been tried but without success; since the individuals reintroduced were killed by predators. Captive-born animals that have been isolated from predators for many generations can lose their predator recognition abilities. To enhance the survival rates of the reintroduced animals, researchers are now using antipredator training techniques. We studied the response of 15 zoo-borne greater rheas to antipredator training. The animals were divided into three groups: two test groups and one control group. We ran 15 antipredator tests and four control testes with each group. Antipredator tests consisted of pairing a taxidermized predator model or a real predator (domestic dog with a simulation of a capture procedure. Control tests consisted of presenting the predator model (jaguar to the birds, after training but not associating it with an aversive event and recording behavioural responses. All tests were video-recorded and analysed a posteriori. Results showed that the trained rheas responded appropriately to the predators, becoming more vigilant and that there was considerable individual differences in response to antipredator training. The results demonstrated that antipredator training is effective and therefore an invaluable tool for reintroduction projects involving greater rheas. Furthermore, the methods employed in this research project should be applicable to other species of flightless birds.As atividades humanas têm diminuído as populações de emas Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 por toda sua área de distribuição. Reintroduções de emas nascidas em cativeiro têm sido tentadas, mas sem sucesso, uma vez que os indivíduos reintroduzidos são mortos por predadores. Animais nascidos em cativeiro que foram isolados de seus predadores por várias gera

  3. Fertilidade do caranguejo de mangue Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, em Iguape (São Paulo, Brasil Fertility of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, at Iguape (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gustavo Yomar Hattori

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 58 Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 ovigerous females in final embryonic stage were collected in mangrove forest at Iguape (São Paulo. Each female were kept in laboratory until the larvae hatching and had their carapace width (CW measured with caliper (0.05 mm and the larval number (LN calculated by volumetric method. The hatching rates (HR were calculated for each animal's size class (5 mm. The values of LN and CW obtained were subjected to regression analyses and the best fitting model was chosen by comparing the obtained determination coefficients (R². The fertility varied from 71,200 to 220,800 larvae (147,169 ± 32,070 larvae, corresponding to 41.7 to 76.8 mm CW (63.7±7.9 mm, respectively. The relationship LNxCW was expressed by the equation LN = 284.1CW1.5º¹ (N = 58; R² = 0.74; p < 0.01, that showed a positive correlation between the variables. Most part of ovigerous females (89.7% showed their hatching during the nightly period. A negative correlation between HR and CW was observed in these animals (p < 0.05, probably due to reduction of spermatophores in the seminal receptacle (multiparous females or due to senility in the females with large size. The biological studies of U. cordatus are very important for practices adoption that preserve and make the rational use of this recourse in Brazilian's mangrove forests.

  4. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  5. DYNAMICS OF PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS LINNAEUS, 1758 AGE STRUCTURE IN THE DNIEPER LOWER REACHES IN CONNECTION WITH FISHING

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    K. Geina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the dynamics of pike (Esox luceus Linnaeus, 1758 age structure of the Dnieper lower reaches in conditions of the modification of fishing pressure. Methodology. An analysis of fishing situation has been performed based on data of official fishery statistics. Fish sampling was done at control-observation posts of the Institute of Fisheries of the NAAS of Ukraine and directly in the fishery. Juvenile fish yield was determined using a complex of fry fishing gears using a stationary net-station. Field and cameral processing of the material was performed using generally accepted methods. Findings. A retrospective analysis of the situation in the Dnieper-Bug lower reach system clearly indicates on the presence of continuous tendency of catch decline of representative of native fish fauna – pike. With relatively uniform indices of the “yield” of its juveniles before Dnieper flow impoundment and in conditions of present time, its commercial catches significantly dropped. The dynamics of pike current age structure indicates on an increase of relative density of age groups, which form the recruitment of the commercial portion of the population (1-1+ and a decrease of importance of the component of the right side of age series. A discrepancy between the observed changes of the age group and commercial harvest quantities indicates on increased human pressure on this species. Originality. For the first, we analyzed the dynamics of fish juvenile “yield” and age structure of pike commercial stock of the Dnieper lower reaches in the river flow transformation process. Practical value. A decrease of the ichthyomass of piscivorous fishes in the Dnieper lower reaches results in changes of fish populations of littoral biotopes towards the prevalence of the dominance of coarse species that lead to a deterioration of forage availability for a number of valuable commercial species. An increase of the number of pike can regulate the strain

  6. Spatially explicit genetic structure in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759 within the framework of the monopolisation hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Lucentini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An apparent paradox is known for crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans living in inland small water bodies: a potential for wide distribution due to the presence of resting stages is coupled with marked genetic differences between nearby water bodies, with enclave distributions masking clear phylogeographic patterns. According to the monopolisation hypothesis, this is due to the accumulation of resting stages, monopolising each water body. Freshwater sponges could represent a useful system to assess the generality of the mo- nopolisation hypothesis: these organisms i live in the same habitats as crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans, ii produce resting stages that can accumulate, and iii have indeed a wide distribution. Currently, no studies on spatially explicit genetic differentiation on fresh- water sponges are available. The aim of the present study is to provide additional empirical evidence in support of the generality of the scenario for small aquatic animals with resting stages by analysing genetic diversity at different spatial scales for an additional model system, the freshwater sponge ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759. We expected that system genetic variability would follow enclave distributions, no clear phylogeographical patterns would be present, and nearby unconnected water bodies would show markedly different populations for this new model too. We analysed the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions 5.8S-ITS2-28S, the D3 domain of 28S subunit, the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI and ten specific microsatellite markers of nine Italian and one Hungarian populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequences showed no or very low genetic polymorphism, whereas high levels of differentiation among populations and a significant polymorphism were observed using microsatellites. Microsatellite loci also showed a high proportion of private alleles for each population and an overall correlation between geographic and genetic

  7. The genome structure of Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus, 1753 and an induced Arachis allotetraploid revealed by molecular cytogenetics

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    Eliza F. de M. B. do Nascimento

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peanut, Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus, 1753 is an allotetraploid cultivated plant with two subgenomes derived from the hybridization between two diploid wild species, A. duranensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994 and A. ipaensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994, followed by spontaneous chromosomal duplication. To understand genome changes following polyploidy, the chromosomes of A. hypogaea, IpaDur1, an induced allotetraploid (A. ipaensis × A. duranensis4x and the diploid progenitor species were cytogenetically compared. The karyotypes of the allotetraploids share the number and general morphology of chromosomes; DAPI+ bands pattern and number of 5S rDNA loci. However, one 5S rDNA locus presents a heteromorphic FISH signal in both allotetraploids, relative to corresponding progenitor. Whilst for A. hypogaea the number of 45S rDNA loci was equivalent to the sum of those present in the diploid species, in IpaDur1, two loci have not been detected. Overall distribution of repetitive DNA sequences was similar in both allotetraploids, although A. hypogaea had additional CMA3+ bands and few slight differences in the LTR-retrotransposons distribution compared to IpaDur1. GISH showed that the chromosomes of both allotetraploids had preferential hybridization to their corresponding diploid genomes. Nevertheless, at least one pair of IpaDur1 chromosomes had a clear mosaic hybridization pattern indicating recombination between the subgenomes, clear evidence that the genome of IpaDur1 shows some instability comparing to the genome of A. hypogaea that shows no mosaic of subgenomes, although both allotetraploids derive from the same progenitor species. For some reasons, the chromosome structure of A. hypogaea is inherently more stable, or, it has been at least, partially stabilized through genetic changes and selection.

  8. Esterase-D and chromosome patterns in Central Amazon piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 from Lake Catalão

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    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents additional genetic data on piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 complex previously diagnosed due to the presence of distinct cytotypes 2n = 58 and 2n = 60. Three esterase-D enzyme loci (Est-D1, Est-D2 and Est-D3 were examined and complemented with chromosomal data from 66 piranha specimens collected from Lake Catalão. For all specimens the Est-D1 and Est-D2 loci were monomorphic. In contrast, the Est-D3 locus was polymorphic with genotypes and alleles being differentially distributed in the previously described cytotypes and served as the basis for detecting a new cytotype (2n = 60 B. In cytotype 2n = 58 the Est-D3 locus was also polymorphic and presented Mendelian allelic segregation with four genotypes (Est-D3(11, Est-D3(12, Est-D3(22 and Est-D3(33 out of six theoretically possible genotypes, presumably encoded by alleles Est-D3¹ (frequency = 0.237, EsT-D3² (0.710 and Est-D3³ (0.053. A Chi-squared (chi2 test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was applied to the Est-D3 locus and revealed a genetic unbalance in cytotype 2n = 58, indicating the probable existence in the surveyed area of different stocks for that karyotypic structure. A silent null allele (Est-D3(0 with a high frequency (0.959 occurred exclusively in the 2n = 60 cytotype. On the other hand, the new cytotype 2n = 60 B described here for the first time was monomorphic for the presumably fixed Est-D3³ allele. The data as a whole should contribute to the better understanding the rhombeus complex taxonomic status definition in the Central Amazon.

  9. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  10. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil

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    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively. During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. RESULTS: During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970 and 48.5% (n = 1,836 of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973 and 85.6% (n = 900 of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342. The highest number of positives (70 was recorded in May, mostly (94% in storage containers. CONCLUSIONS: Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  11. First records of Calidris canutus Linnaeus, 1758 (Charadriiformes, Scolopacidae) and Trogon surrucura Vieillot, 1817 (Trogoniformes, Trogonidae) for Entre Ríos province (Argentina), and noteworthy reports of other birds in protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sarquis,Juan A.; Alonso,Julián; Giraudo,Alejandro R.; Berduc,Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    We recorded 2 new bird species in Entre Ríos province, Argentina: Calidris canutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Trogon surrucura Vieillot, 1817. In addition, we present 25 noteworthy records for bird species in El Palmar National Park, Pre Delta National Park, and other parts of the province.

  12. Coccidiosis due to Isospora curio (Trachta & Silva et al. 2006 in lesser seed-finches Sporophila angolensis (Linnaeus, 1766 at a commercial breeding facility - Case report

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    Lilian C. de S. O. Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Batista L.C. deS.O., Vasconcellos M. dosS.D., dos Passos M.M., Lopes B. doB. & Berto B.P. Coccidiosis due to Isospora curio (Trachta & Silva et al. 2006 in lesser seed-finches Sporophila angolensis (Linnaeus, 1766 at a commercial breeding facility - Case report. [Coccidiose por Isospora curio (Trachta & Silva et al. 2006 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae em Sporophila angolensis (Linnaeus, 1766 numa criação comercial - Relato de caso]. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:401-405, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: liliancsobatista@hotmail.com Monitoring of a lesser seed-finch breeding is of great importance, for even the clinically healthy animals may be infected. When coccidiosis is diagnosed early, it can often be avoided clinical signs of the disease and the number of deaths in the breeding when associated with hygiene practices in the breeding system. Despite of the low frequency of coccidiosis in the studied passerines, Isospora curio was the unique species found associated with passerines that died in the commercial breeding facility.

  13. Doplněk k poznání vodních měkkýšů Labe mezi Hřenskem a Střekovem a srovnání s malakofaunou Labe v jiných úsecích

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    Luboš Beran

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper completes knowledge on aquatic molluscs of the free flowing part of the Elbe River between Hřensko and the weir with lock in Ústí nad Labem – Střekov. Altogether, 21 species of aquatic molluscs (9 gastropods, 12 bivalves were found in 2009. Viviparus viviparus, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Bithynia tentaculata, Ancylus fluviatilis, Unio pictorum, Anodonta anatina, Corbicula fluminea, Sphaerium corneum and Pisidium supinum were the most frequently occurring molluscs found during this research. The occurrence of two endangered bivalves Pseudanodonta complanata and Pisidium moitessierianum was recorded. No significant difference from the previous author’s research was found. Molluscan communities of this part of the river were compared with those of the upper canalized part of the Elbe River which contain more species (especially gastropods living predominantly in stagnant or slowly flowing waters e. g. Stagnicola palustris, S. corvus, Lymnaea stagnalis, Planorbis planorbis, Bathyomphalus contortus, Anisus vortex, Hippeutis complanatus, Ferrissia fragilis.

  14. Larval trematode infections in freshwater gastropods from the Albufera Natural Park in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, R; Muñoz-Antolí, C; Pérez, M; Esteban, J G

    1998-03-01

    Malacological samplings were made from January 1994 to December 1996 in the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) to trace the dynamics of molluscan populations and the prevalence and intensity of infection by larval trematodes. A total of 10,533 freshwater gastropods belonging to seven species (Lymnaea auricularia, L. truncatula, L. palustris, L. peregra, Bithynia tentaculata, Physa acuta and Gyraulus chinensis) was examined, and 110 (1.04%) were found to harbour some of the nine distinguishable types of cercariae, namely four echinostome cercariae (Hypoderaeum conoideum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Euparyphium albuferensis, and Echinostoma sp.), four furcocercous cercariae, and one xiphidiocercous cercaria. This study shows that the composition of the snail and trematode communities may be determined by the particular environmental conditions present and the human intervention in the area.

  15. Um caso de albinismo em Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae na Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná A case of albinism in Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae in Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná

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    L. A. Veiga

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is a case of alhinism in lhe Peccary Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus. 1758 (Artiodaclyla. Tayassuidae. which was observed in Colônia Castelhanos. São José dos Pinhais. Paraná, in lhe Southern Bra/il. The specimen was caplured when very young. The normal peccary (Tayassu tajacu is a dark-gray animal wilh a while hand across the ehest from shoulder Io shoulder. This animal have while skin. hlued eyes bul has pigmented feet.

  16. Modification of the liver fatty acids by Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae) infusion, its possible effect on vascular reactivity in a metabolic syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zúñiga Muñoz, Alejandra; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Ulises; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Guarner Lans, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (HSL)-fed infusion on the fatty acid (FA) profile in liver of metabolic syndrome (MS) rats and its possible effect on vascular reactivity. Body mass, intra-abdominal fat, triglycerides, insulin, blood pressure, saturated, monounsaturated FA, NEFAs, Δ(9)-, Δ(6)-desaturases and vasoconstriction were increased, while vasorelaxation, polyunsaturated FA, endothelial nitric oxide and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio decreased in MS versus Control, but HSL infusion modified it and increased Δ(5)-desaturase. The results suggest that the alteration in FA liver metabolism in the MS contributes to impaired vascular reactivity, but treatment with of HSL infusion can improve this condition.

  17. SEROLOGIC RESPONSE TO CANINE DISTEMPER VACCINATION IN CAPTIVE LINNAEUS'S TWO-TOED SLOTHS ( CHOLOEPUS DIDACTYLUS) AFTER A FATAL CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS OUTBREAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie D; Cushing, Andrew C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Anis, Eman; Dubovi, Edward J

    2017-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) affects many wild and captive, nondomestic species worldwide but has not been previously reported in Xenarthra. Paucity of information on vaccination safety and efficacy presents challenges for disease prevention in captive collections. CDV infections and subsequent mortalities in five captive Linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( Choloepus didactylus) in eastern Tennessee are reported. Clinical signs included oculonasal discharge, oral ulcerations, and diarrhea, and the diagnosis was confirmed by necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction. Viral sequencing identified the strain to be consistent with a new CDV lineage currently affecting domestic dogs and wildlife in Tennessee. Seven sloths were examined and vaccinated using a recombinant CDV vaccine on days 0 and 21. Subsequent blood samples showed increased titers in 3/4 sloths. Based on the outbreak and serologic findings postvaccination without adverse effects, the authors recommend recombinant CDV vaccination in sloths exposed to known carriers of CDV.

  18. First record of phoresy of Dendrochernes cyrneus (L. Koch, 1873 (Pseudoscorpiones, Chernetidae on Cerambyx cerdo Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae and their potential value as bioindicators

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    Karpiński, L.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The first evidence of phoresy of Dendrochernes cyrneus (L. Koch, 1873 on Cerambyx cerdo Linnaeus, 1758 is documented. A critical review of all known literature reports of phoresy involving D. cyrneus is also presented. Two of these reports relate to the same observation and are the result of the systematic turmoil within the family Cerambycidae. Both species are treated as primeval forest relics and their isolated populations live in the scattered remains of the ancient forests that covered Europe in the past. We provide new information about the ecological relationships of D. cyrneus with saproxylic beetles, and discuss the ecological preferences of the two species and their role as indicators of the quality of the environment.

  19. Bioekologi vektor demam berdarah dengue (DBD serta deteksi virus dengue pada Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus dan Ae. albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae di kelurahan endemik DBD Bantarjati, Kota Bogor

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    Zahara Fadilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is a viral disease that threatened community health in Indonesia. As part of an eradication program, it is important to learn the behavioral aspect of the disease vector. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of dengue virus in Aedes spp., at Bantarjati Village, Bogor City and to learn to bioecology of. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus. Detection of dengue virus in Aedes spp. were done by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique that consist of two phase were synthesis phase and cDNA amplification and dengue virus serotipe characterization. The Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (Skuse mosquitoes were collected using the landing and resting moquito collection technique booth indoors and outdoors. The highest density of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found in April and the peak activity was occurred at 10:00-11:00 am. Dengue virus was not detected in female mosquitoes Aedes spp.

  20. Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of the digenean Enodiotrema reductum Looss, 1901 (Platyhelminthes, Plagiorchioidea, Plagiorchiidae), parasite of the green turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Quilichini, Yann; Sène, Aminata; Tkach, Vasyl V; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2012-08-01

    This study describes the ultrastructural organisation of the spermatozoon of a digenean Enodiotrema reductum (Pligiorchiida: Plagiorchiidae) from the green turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758). This is the first report of E. reductum from Senegal. The mature spermatozoon of E. reductum is filiform and exhibits two axonemes of the 9 + "1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, an extramembranar ornamentation associated with spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen, among other ultrastructural features. The spermatozoon of E. reductum is distinguished by the presence of a moniliform mitochondrion composed of a bulge associated with a long cord and of a central cytoplasmic expansion. This work represents the first utrastructural study of any representative of the large family Plagiorchiidae. Our results are compared with previously published data on spermatozoa of other digenean taxa.

  1. The morphology and histology of the male reproductive system in Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)--light and scanning electron micoscope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2013-01-01

    The male reproductive system of Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus 1758) is studied morphologically and histologically using both light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The reproductive system of the male D. baccarum consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands (mesadenia, ectadenia), a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The number of testicular follicles varies from four to six. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are fine-long and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius which is balloon-shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which connected to the aedeagus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

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    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  3. Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae

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    APT Medeiros

    Full Text Available The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

  4. Biosécurité et productivité du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 élevé en zone rurale ivoirienne

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    Kone, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant differences were observed between mean values of physic and chemical parameters of ponds water from three types of fish farming. Concerning mean values of zootechnical parameters, the fish breeding with 83% of rate compliance of biosecurity measures had registered better values of zoo technical performance with significant differences compared with others types of fish farming.

  5. Effects of intra- and interspecific competition on the sensitivity of aquatic macroinvertebrates to carbendazim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Arco, Ana Isabel; Parra, Gema; Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-10-01

    The Ecological Risk Assessment of pesticides and other potentially toxic chemicals is generally based on toxicity data obtained from single-species laboratory experiments. In the field, however, contaminant effects are ubiquitously co-occurring with ecological interactions such as species competition and predation, which might influence the sensitivity of the individuals exposed to toxicants. The present experimental study investigated how intra- and interspecific competition influence the response of sensitive aquatic organisms to a pesticide. For this, the effects of the fungicide carbendazim were assessed on the mortality and growth of the snail Bithynia tentaculata and the crustacean Gammarus pulex under different levels of intraspecific and interspecific competition for a food resource. Interspecific competition was created by adding individuals of Radix peregra and Asellus aquaticus, respectively. The interaction of competition and carbendazim exposure significantly influenced B. tentaculata growth, however, combined effects on survival and immobility were considered transient and were less easily demonstrated. Positive influence of competition on G. pulex survival was observed under low-medium carbendazim concentrations and under medium-high density pressures, being partly related to cannibalistic and predation compensatory mechanisms, enhanced under food limiting conditions. This study shows that intra- and interspecific competition pressure may influence the response of sensitive aquatic organisms in a more complex way (positive, non-significant and negative effects were observed) than just increasing the sensitivity of the studied species, as has generally been hypothesized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

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    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of V. vulpes in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of V. vulpes in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  7. A new species of western Atlantic lizardfish (Teleostei: Synodontidae: Synodus) and resurrection of Synodus bondi Fowler, 1939, as a valid species from the Caribbean with redescriptions of S. bondi, S. foetens (Linnaeus, 1766), and S. intermedius (Agassiz, 1829)

    OpenAIRE

    Frable, Benjamin W.; Baldwin, Carole C.; Luther, Brendan M.; Weigt, Lee A.

    2013-01-01

    Western Atlantic synodontid species were studied as part of an ongoing effort to reanalyze Caribbean shorefish diversity. A neighbor-joining tree constructed from cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) data revealed 2 highly divergent genetic lineages within both Synodus intermedius (Agassiz, 1829) (Sand Diver) and S. foetens (Linnaeus, 1766) (Inshore Lizardfish). A new species, Synodus macrostigmus, is described for one of the S. intermedius lineages. Synodus macrostigmus and S. intermedius differ in ...

  8. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  9. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  10. Use of space and temporal distribution of Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus in the region of Sagi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil (Sirenia, Trichechidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Paludo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 is endangered in the Brazilian Atlantic coast due to indiscriminate hunting practiced in the past, and to the low reproductive rate of the species. This work studies its use of space and temporal occurrence in the coastal area of Sagi, Northeastern Brazil. Daily observations from the beach of the animals in the sea were made during daytime from 1990 through 1993. The presence of reefs covered with marine algae is a determinant factor in the occurrence of the manatee. They were sighted feeding on algae that grow over the reefs close to beaches that were of high energy during high tide. The range used by manatees shifted according to tide. They occur in depths of 0.4 to 3.8 m; the distance from the beach varies according to the tide level. They show marked seasonality of occurrence, with higher frequencies in December - January and lowest in June - July. Two possible causes of the seasonal occurrence are discussed. Sagi is important for the conservation of the species in Northeastern Brazil as feeding and reproductive grounds.

  11. Fresh and Dry Mass Estimates of Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae Associated with Swine Decomposition in Urban Area of Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, L M; Martins, R T; Ferreira-Keppler, R L; Gutjahr, A L N

    2017-08-04

    Information on biomass is substantial for calculating growth rates and may be employed in the medicolegal and economic importance of Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758). Although biomass is essential to understanding many ecological processes, it is not easily measured. Biomass may be determined by directly weighing or indirectly through regression models of fresh/dry mass versus body dimensions. In this study, we evaluated the association between morphometry and fresh/dry mass of immature H. illucens using linear, exponential, and power regression models. We measured width and length of the cephalic capsule, overall body length, and width of the largest abdominal segment of 280 larvae. Overall body length and width of the largest abdominal segment were the best predictors for biomass. Exponential models best fitted body dimensions and biomass (both fresh and dry), followed by power and linear models. In all models, fresh and dry biomass were strongly correlated (>75%). Values estimated by the models did not differ from observed ones, and prediction power varied from 27 to 79%. Accordingly, the correspondence between biomass and body dimensions should facilitate and motivate the development of applied studies involving H. illucens in the Amazon region.

  12. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  13. A redescription of Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) (Trematoda: Aspidogastrea) from the florida pompano fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766) off the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, P V; Borges, J N; Santos, C P; Luque, J L

    2015-05-01

    A redescription of the aspidogastrean trematode Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) is provided based on examination of type material, voucher specimens available at institutional collections and newly collected specimens from the type host, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766), off the Angra dos Reis, Brazil. Partial sequence of its 28S rDNA is given. Lobatostoma kemostoma can be distinguished from the other eight species of the genus by: (1) the hindbody being longer than the ventral disc; and (2) the cephalic lobes having the same shape and size. Features observed for the first time include the number and detailed arrangement of alveoli on the ventral disc, the terminal genitalia and the ovarian complex. New illustrations and morphometric data are given. In the present survey the host specificity in the genus, the validity of some morphological features and the occurrence of an Indian species of Lobatostoma from off the Brazilian coast are discussed. A lectotype of L. kemostoma from the type series deposited at United States National Parasite Collection is also designated.

  14. Distribuição da Oviposição e Dinâmica Temporal do Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus por Meio de Ovitrampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Abstract. This study aimed to monitor the spread of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus using ovitraps and correlate the results with the climate data over a period of approximately one year in the city of Macapá, AP, Brazil. A total of 66 ovitraps were installed in four areas of the city (west, south, north and central, and replaced weekly. The eggs were counted to calculate the egg positivity index (EPI and egg density index (EDI. The EPI and EDI were compared across zones and correlated with climate data. For the period of the study, the EPI was 50.44% and the EDI was 103.79. There was no difference in EPI across different areas, and only the EDI in the central area was greater than that in the other areas. The EPI and EDI were correlated positively with rainfall and humidity minimum and negatively with maximum humidity of air and maximum and minimum temperature. The monitoring of A. aegypti using ovitraps helps the team to combat the vector, enabling them to act more effectively in areas of higher positivity. Our results indicate that Macapa is similarly infested with A. aegypti and these high levels are strongly influenced by environmental variables, being the rainiest period with the largest entomological indices.

  15. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  16. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2009-01-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  17. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2008-01-01

    Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.

  18. Some aspects on the reproductive cycle of European conger eel, Conger conger (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Anguilliformes, Congridae captured from Western Algerian coasts: a histological description of spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi-ayad Sidi-Mohammed El-Amine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the annual reproductive cycle of European conger eel (Conger conger,Linnaeus, 1758 through analysis and description of spermatogenesis. A sample of 168 males was capturedbetween September 2008 and August 2009 from the Western coast of Algeria, from Béni Saf. Fish length andweight varied between 26.20-112 cm and 0.45-3.44 kg, respectively.Condition factors (K, gonadosomatic index (G.S.I. and hepatosomatic index (H.S.I. were calculatedmonthly. Factor K reached the minimum in August/September (0.10% corresponding to reproductive periodand a maximum in January (0.18%. Although G.S.I. values revealed to be statistically not significant, therewere two peaks for G.S.I., the first in March, denoting the beginning of spermatogenesis, and the second inAugust/September, indicating the reproduction period. H.S.I. reached a peak in December (1.90%, then thevalue decreased to a minimum in April.Histological analysis of testis allowed us to distinguish 5 stages summarized as follows: Stage 1:Spermatogonia A; Stage 2: Spermatogonia B; Stage 3: Spermatocytes and spermatids; Stage 4: Spermatocytes,spermatids and spermatozoa (cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa; Stage 5: Spermatozoa(spermiogenesis or cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa.

  19. Gastrintestinal helminths Of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 -Smith, 1839 from the caatinga area of the Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto César Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 – Smith, 1839, is a medium sized canid which is found in almost every region of Brazil. It is the only registered native canid specie to be found in the semi-arid Northeastern region of the country. This study had as its objectives: the identification of the helminth fauna common to Cerdocyon thous found in the Caatinga of the state of Paraíba; and the determination of the ecological indications of helminthic infection, hoping to make a favourable addition to the understanding of this little known biome. In this study, 58 animals that were found as ‘roadkill’ on the highways in the municipality of Patos were used. The gastrointestinal helminths from these animals were colected. All the animals in this study were infected with helminths. 16 species of helminths were identified, two being trematodes, one being a cestode, one being an acanthocephalus, and the remaining twelve being nematodes. In this study a new specie, named Pterygodermatites pluripectinata n. sp. Was discovered and its host and location described.

  20. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches.

  1. Descripción osteológica del rorcual común (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the skeleton of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona We describe the osteology of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, L., registration code MZB 83-308 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona. The specimen was stranded and died on a beach in Llançà (Girona, Spain in 1862. The skeleton weighed 1,161.59 kg and measured 14. 6 m, although the live animal would have been longer because the invertebral tissue was not included in the length originally stated. The newly reconstructed skeleton includes the invertebral discs and is 17.5 m long. The skull weighs 484 kg and the condilobasal length is 431 cm ( 24. 84% of the total length, corresponding to the mean length of specimens in the Mediterranean. The vertebral column has 58 vertebra structured following the formula: C7 T14 L14 Cd23. It is 10.29 m long and weighs 470.95 kg. All the cervical vertebra are free and show dorsoventral compression, differing from the thoracic, lumbar and first caudal vertebra that are relatively uniform, and rounded. From Cd14 se onwards, the vertebra vary in shape and the relationship between width and height is greater than 1, indicating lateral compression. The lack of suture lines in the epiphysis of the ulna and radius indicates the specimen is an adult that has reached ossification maturation.

  2. New morphological data and first description of gravid female of Cucullanus bagre Petter, 1974 (Seuratoidea: Cucullanidae) from Bagre bagre (Linnaeus, 1766) (Siluriformes: Ariidae) off Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Felipe B; Vieira, Fabiano M; Luque, José L

    2014-03-01

    Cucullanus bagre Petter, 1974 (Cucullanidae) is redescribed based on the examination of newly collected material and the revaluation of type specimens, using light and for the first time scanning electron microscopy. Parasite specimens were collected from the intestine of the coco sea catfish Bagre bagre (Linnaeus) (Ariidae) off the South Atlantic coast, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Detailed morphological analysis revealed the presence of an unpaired papilla just anterior to the cloacal protrusion in male, that was overlooked in the original description. Descriptions of the adult female and eggs are provided for the first time; these gravid specimens have the general morphometry quite similar to that of juveniles. Additionally, detailed description and illustration of sclerotized plates present on the oesophastome is provided. The far posterior location of the excretory pore with thick-walled excretory duct, the conspicuous protrusions present on both anal and cloacal regions and the number and arrangement of caudal papillae in males are considered to be important diagnostic features for C. bagre. All the specimens from type material were together in one vial and not separated in two vials as stated in the original description, making it impossible to determine which is the holotype, allotype or paratypes. This is the first report of C. bagre in Brazil, which expands its geographical distribution to South Atlantic waters.

  3. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2007-01-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10 3 μGy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10 0 μGy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  4. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  5. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de

    2008-01-01

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10 3 μGy y -1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10 0 μGy y -1 , that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota

  6. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios], E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio], E-mail: Delcy@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10{sup 0} {mu}Gy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  7. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p fish exposed to vessel noise for 10 days. This study clearly highlights that anthropogenic noise negatively affects fish, and they are valuable targets for detailed investigations into the effects of this global pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon.

  8. Chemotaxonomic study of Chrysobalanus icaco Linnaeus (Chrysobalanaceae) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection fingerprint in combination with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paracampo, Nádia Elígia Nunes Pinto; Prance, Ghillean Tolmie; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; da Silva, José Alberto Fracassi

    2017-05-01

    We investigated a strategy for the chemotaxonomy study of Chrysobalanus icaco Linnaeus (Chrysobalanaceae) based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection fingerprint in combination with multivariate analysis. Two models using principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were developed, and the samples could be successfully classified into two classes: Class 1 (red morphotype) and Class 2 (white and black morphotypes). Furthermore, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the main compounds responsible for class separation. The partial least squares discriminant analysis model accurately classified the C. icaco samples using an external validation subset with prediction ability of 100% and revealed the existence of two chemotypes. The most important finding obtained in this study is that the three morphotypes distinguished by the mature fruit color (white, red, and black) are not all phytoequivalent to each other. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ultraestrutura do espermatozóide de Ucides cordatus Linnaeus (Crustacea, Ocypodidae do litoral norte do Brasil Ultrastructure of spermatozoon of the crab Ucides cordatus Linaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda of the northern littoral of Brazil

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    Edilson Matos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the crab Ucides cordatus Linnaeus, 1763 is described and illustrated. Three parts can be distinguished: 1. the elongate-ovoid acrosome located anteriorly; 2. the cytoplasmic region; and 3. the nuclear region. The acrosome is composed of a thick electron-dense wall and a less electron-dense subacrosomal space. The cytoplasm region connects the acrosome with the nucleus, and three arms filled with microtubules arise from this region. The nucleus is polymorphous. The spermatozoon of Ucides cordatus follows the general pattern described for other Decapods.

  10. Reflexos da utilização de farelo de coco na alimentação de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1857) sobre o valor nutricional do filé.

    OpenAIRE

    Omena, Cristhiane Maria Bazílio de

    2008-01-01

    The fish diet exerts a great influence on its centesimal composition as well as the content of cholesterol and fatty acids. The use of coconut meal may represent alternative source in the fish diet in view of the cost and the availability in the Northeast of Brazil. The purpose of this work was to assess the impact of the use of coconut meal in feed for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1857) on the nutritional value of fillet. 120 fingerlings of fish reversed we...

  11. On mysterious occurrence of butterflies in the genus Delias at Jinmen Islands, with clarification on the nomenclature of D. pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and D. acalis (Godart, 1819) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Feng; Huang, Hang-Chi; Lu, Chen-Chih

    2017-06-11

    In recent years, a considerable number of pierid butterflies of the genus Delias have been found from Jinmen Islands, where no available hostplants grow, rendering a proof of cross sea water migration of these butterflies. It is suggested here that these butterflies come from nearby continent of eastern China, visiting the islands for nectar acquisition in seasons when nectar is in short supply because they mostly show up in autumn months. Samples obtained during the survey contained two species, namely Delias pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and Delias acalis (Godart, 1819). Subspecific names applied to both species in eastern China appear to involve nomenclatural problems, with erroneous usage in recent literature.

  12. Una nueva especie de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del suroeste de Marruecos incluida en el grupo de M. (Eurymeloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae

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    Ruiz, José L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid hold an extense set of entomological materials collected in Morocco along the first decades of the XXth century by the preeminent naturalist M. Martínez de la Escalera. Morphological studies of the specimens of the genus Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Meloidae reveals the existence of populations morphologically differentiated along the coastal regions of Essaouira and Ifni. These populations are included within the Meloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 species group in the subgenus Eurymeloe Reitter, 1911. Their differential traits with respect to all other North African and European species of the Meloe rugosus species group are constant, and permit considering these populations as a taxonomic independent unit described herein, Meloe baamarani n. sp. This new species is characterized by having a black, opaque, general coloration all over the body and appendages; black short vestiture; broad head with broadly rounded temples, without median longitudinal groove; long antennae, with segments III to VIII subcylindrical and longer than wide; pronotum transverse, with convergent sides toward the base, without median groove; head and pronotum punctuation dense; aedeagus narrow, median lobe wide and strong, dorsally sinuous, with ventral hooks close to the apex. Meloe baamarani can be only confused on the western regions of northern Africa with Meloe mediterraneus Müller, 1925. This species shares a general appearance with M. baamarani, but differs in many morphological traits. Among those, tegument micro-reticulation, absence of median groove along the head, pronotum morphology and macrosculpture, and configuration of the male genitalia, are included.Las colecciones científicas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid albergan un extenso material entomológico recogido en Marruecos a principios del siglo XX por el insigne naturalista M. Mart

  13. A morphohistological and histochemical study of hatchery-reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecitho-exotrophic larval phase

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    Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The larval development of reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecithotrophic phase, from hatching until 5 days post-hatching (dph, and throughout the endo-exotrophic feeding phase (6-10 dph was studied by histology and histochemistry. Many crucial morphological, cellular and tissular changes were observed during both feeding phases, mostly those related to digestive and visual ontogenetic events, such as differentiation of buccopharyngeal cavity and eye development (at hatching; pigmentation and differentiation of cone-photoreceptors (4 dph; opening of the mouth and anus, appearance of intestinal valves (5-6 dph; presence of buccopharyngo-esophageal (5-6 dph and intestinal (9 dph mucous cells; folding of intestinal mucosa (6 dph; development of regional specific digestive musculature (6 dph; typical structure and functionality of the liver (sinusoids, biliary and pancreatic ducts, glycogen, protein and lipid reserves (4-6 dph; and characteristic acinar distribution pattern of eosinophilic zymogen granules of the exocrine pancreas (6 dph. Between 9 and 10 dph, the hake larvae showed evident signs of lipid absorption within enterocytes of the anterior intestinal region and a remarkable process of pynocitosis and intracellular digestion was detected in the posterior intestine (supranuclear inclusions or acidophilic protein vesicles. In hake larvae at 10 dph, a proliferation of renal tubules, spleen differentiation and gill development, as well as the presence of the first thyroid follicle, were clearly distinguished. At this time, stomach gastric gland differentiation was not detected and endocrine pancreas and gill lamellae were not evidenced. However, and interestingly, swim bladder and eyes (developing rods were well differentiated in larval development from 9 dph onwards. In summary, in European hake larval development during the endo-exogenous feeding phase and especially at 9 to 10 dph, most systems, organs

  14. Comparative biology of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae focusing on the control of Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Josiane Teresinha Cardoso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919 and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae have been observed attacking Pinus spp. in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The coccinellids, on the other hand, were found feeding on these aphids in the field, which can be regarded as potential biological control agents. The biological cycle and mortality rate of larvae of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae were evaluated using twenty larvae of each predator species fed with nymphs of Cinara. The vials with the insects were kept under 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC, with 12h photophase and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. The consumption was evaluated every 24 hours and the nymphs replaced. For C. sanguinea, the egg incubation time was 10.5, 5.0 and 4.0 days; the average larval development period was 33.3, 15.8 and 8.6 days and the larval mortality rate 20%,0% and 15%, respectively at 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC. For H. convergens, the larval development time was 41.9, 19.3 and 10.9 days at 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC, respectively. The larval mortality rate was 35%, 15% and 0% under the three temperatures. Both species developed adequately when fed nymphs of Cinara, however, C. sanguinea performed better than H. convergens, even at 15 ºC, at which temperature the biological cycles of the coccinellids are prolonged, but the temperature is favorable for the development of Cinara populations in the field.

  15. Anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig em final de gestação (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mariangela Toledo Barbino

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p97 Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de descrever a anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] em final de gestação e obter caracterizações anatômicas que possam fundamentar e auxiliar na compreensão da fisiologia da circulação fetal. Coletou-se os fetos de 3 fêmeas em final de gestação, os quais foram dissecados e retirado o fígado. Estes foram analisados, descritos e fotodocumentados macroscopicamente, por microscopia de luz em coloração HE e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O fígado dos fetos apresenta coloração castanho avermelhada e sua divisão em lobos é nitidamente observada, assim como a presença da vesícula biliar.  O fígado divide-se em lobo lateral esquerdo, lobo medial esquerdo, lobo lateral direito, lobo medial direito, lobo quadrado e lobo caudado com processos papilar e caudado Através da microscopia de luz, observa-se o tecido intensamente vascularizado sendo que, a porção esquerda do fígado recebe o sangue oriundo da placenta pela veia umbilical, e a porção direita é irrigada pela veia porta. Através desses resultados pode-se concluir que os fetos de Guinea pig possuem estruturas semelhantes anatomicamente aos de outras espécies de mamíferos.

  16. Population analysis of the javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus Linnaeus 1758 in Baluran and Alas Purwo National Parks, East Java

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    JARWADI BUDI HERNOWO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hernowo JB, Alikodra HS, Mardiastuti A, Kusmana C (2011 Population analysis of the javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus Linnaeus 1758 in Baluran and Alas Purwo National Parks, East Java. Biodiversitas 12: 99-106. The javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus have high pressure to the population and the habitat. The distribution of the bird at Java Island is clumped randomly at several types in condition of fragmented and isolated habitat and it has small individual number every unit population. Baluran and Alas Purwo National Parks are one of distribution javan green peafowl; it was chosen for study on the population analysis. The research was aimed to gain data and information on demographic population of javan green peafowl. The individual number of the bird was counted by call count transect method and councentration count. The population demographic parameter (individual number, age structure and sex ratio of javan green peafowl was analyzed. The result shown that individual number of the javan green peafowl at Baluran National Park (BNP was 69.1 birds (in 2006 and 70.5 birds (in 2007 not much differ, but it compared with the observation in1995 approximately was 117.7 birds had significant different. The green peafowl population at BNP declined around 47.50% during 12 years. Meanwhile the population at Alas Purwo National Park (APNP was 80.7 birds (in 2006 and 73.5 birds (in 2007, if compared to observation in 1998 only 43 birds and in 2006 was 80.0 birds, the population grow up 86.05% during 8 years. The age structure of population indicated that both population (BNP and APNP tend to unbalance pyramidal, where adult birds more abundance than sub adult or juvenile. The birds sex ratio at both (APNP and BNP indicated that the peafowl life in polygyny system 1 male: 4 female > 1 male: 2.5 female. Key words: .

  17. Pişirme Yöntemlerinin Karadeniz Hamsisinin (Engraulis Encrasicolus, Linnaeus 1758 Besin Kompozisyonu Üzerine Etkisi (İngilizce

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    Demet Kocatepe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Çalışmada farklı pişirme yöntemlerinin (ızgara, fırında pişirme, kızartma, mikrodalgada pişirme hamsinin (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus 1758 besin kompozisyonu üzerine etkisi araştırılmıştır. Çiğ balığın ortalama su, yağ, protein, kül, karbonhidrat içeriği ve kalori değeri sırasıyla; %62.85, %10.64, %22.71, %1.48, %2.31 ve 195.88 kcal’dir. Çiğ ve pişmiş balıklar karşılaştırıldığında pişirme yöntemlerinin balık eti besin kompozisyonu üzerine önemli derecede etkili olduğu saptanmıştır. En yüksek su kaybı kızartılan hamside bulunmuştur (%49.55. Izgarada, fırında, yağda ve mikrodalgada pişirilmiş hamsilerin ortalama protein ve yağ içerikleri sırasıyla; %25.55, %17.51; %22.58, %20.54; %24.44, %23.30; %22.63 ve %22.34’tür. Sağlıklı beslenme için en iyi pişirme metodu olarak, en yüksek protein ve en düşük yağ ve enerji içeriğine sahip olan ızgara önerilebilir.

  18. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation

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    Shanivarsanthe Leelesh Ramya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13 and adults (n = 12 of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%, followed by bacilli (15.4%. Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%, bacilli (16.7% and flavobacteria (16.7%. Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  19. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected).

  20. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-03-03

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known.

  1. Moluscos; anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle linnaeus, en la región de Santa Marta, caribe colombiano Moluscos; anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, en la región de Santa Marta, caribe colombiano

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    Reyes Rosalba

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative and quantitative study of the community of macro invertebrates associated to the submerged stilt roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753, was carried out trimonthly between December 1988 and September 1989, in three stations at the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM and three at the Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona (PNNT, Bahia de Chengue, Bahia de Nenguange, Colombian Caribbean. 181 species were determined: 99 crustaceans, 50 molluscs and 32 annellids. Most of the 26.729 individuals counted were crustaceans (12.213 moluscs (11.635 and annellids (2.881. The lowest diversity and evenness values, and the highest dominance values were found at the CGSM, while the opposite occurred at the PNNT. Moreover, cluster analysis showed that at the CGSM temporal variations in community composition were greater than spatial ones, while at the PNNT spatial differences were stronger. Other factors that could be importantin determinig community structure were detected, such as vecinity to other ecosystems and/or species- specific biological aspects as adaptations to fluctuating conditions, reproductive acti vities, feeding habits and migration to protected and shaded habitats. Se realizó un estudio trimestral cualitativo y cuantitativo de la comunidad de moluscos, anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces sumergidas del mangle rojo, Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, entre diciembre de 1988 y septiembre de 1989, en tres estaciones en la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM y tres en el Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona (PNNT, Bahía de Chengue y Bahía de Nenguange, Caribe colombiano. Se determinaron 181 especies: 99 crustáceos, 50 moluscos y 32 anélidos. En total se contaron 26.729 individuos: 12.213 crustáceos, 11.635 moluscos y 2.881 anélidos. Los valores más bajos de diversidad y equitatividad, y los mayores valores de dominancia, se encontraron en la CGSM, mientras que lo opuesto ocurrió en el PNNT. El análisis de

  2. Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in

  3. O mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus (Bivalvia, Mytilidae em cultivo na Armação do Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brasil The mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus (Bivalvia, Mytilidae in culture at the Armação of the Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Adriano W. C. Marenzi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a viabilidade do cultivo do mexilhão, P. perna (Linnaeus, 1758 no sul do Brasil, duas experiências foram executadas na Armação de Itapocoroy. Das variáveis físicas e químicas foram analisadas a salinidade, temperatura e o oxigênio, que se mostraram ideais para esta espécie e, os macronutrientes também dentro dos níveis esperados para a região, não indicando poluição orgânica no local. O crescimento médio foi de 0,58 cm/mês e o aumento do peso foi de 2,57 g/mês. Curvas de crescimento e engordas foram elaboradas tendo como base a produção biológica após 6,7 meses de cultivo. A sobrevivência após oito meses foi de 79,2% e os valores os mais elevados do índice gônodo-somático foram detectados na primavera.To verify the viability of the culture of the mussel, P. perna (Linnaeus, 1758, in the south of Brazil, two experiences had been executed in the Armação do Itapocoroy. The averages of the salinity, temperature and the oxygen had shown ideals for this species and the macronutrients are inside of the natural levels for coast areas, not indicate organic pollution in the place. The average growth was of 0,58 cm/month and the increase of the weight was of 2.57 g/month. Curves of growth and fattening had been elaborated having for result the greater biological production after 6.7 months of culture. The survival after eight months was 79.2% and the most raised values of the gonad-somatic index were detected in the spring.

  4. Synthèses enzymatiques de néoglucoconjugués catalysées par l'alpha-glucosidase purifiée de la blatte Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus

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    Kamenan A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic synthesis of neoglucoconjugates by purified α-glucosidase from cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus. Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus contains in his digestive tract an acid (pH 5,0 and mesophile (50°C α-glucosidase. This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, hydrolyses highly maltose, sucrose and p-nitrophenyl-α-Dglucopyranoside. The ability of α-glucosidase from cockroach purified to homogeneity to catalyse transglucosylation reactions was tested using maltose and saccharose as glucosyl donors and 2-phenylethanol and phenol as acceptors. The experimental conditions were optimized in relation to the time course of the reaction, pH and concentrations of glucosyl donors and acceptors. The yields in transglucosylation reactions at 37 °C were very high and could attain 67% and 48% with 2-phenylethanol and phenol respectively as glucosyl acceptors. This α-glucosidase hydrolyzed the products formed. It seems that the products formed were the phenylethyl-α-D-glucoside and phenyl-α-D-glucoside. These results suggest that α- glucosidase from cockroach is an exoglucosidase which catalyse the splitting of the α-glucosyl residue from the non reducing terminal of the substrate to liberate α-glucose. This comportment indicates that this enzyme operated by a mechanism involving the retention of the anomeric configuration. On the basis of this work, α-glucosidase from P. americana appears to be a valuable tool for the preparation of α-neoglucoconjugates.

  5. Estudo de uma população relictual de veado-campeiro, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae no municipio da Lapa, Paraná, Brasil A relictual population study of pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae at Lapa, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Fernanda Góss Braga Mauro de Moura-Britto

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was studied between August 1996 and September 1997 at Fazenda Santa Maria (25º34' and 25º36'S, 49º46'and 49º49'W at Lapa, Paraná State. During that period we have collected information on feeding habits, group composition, time of the year for birth of youngsters and time for antlers change. The presence of the animal in the area was confirmed by the finding of vestiges and visual occurrences. Animais were observed feeding on young leaves of soya been (Glicine max, oat (Avenasaliva, ryegrass (Lolium mulliflorum and barley (Hordeum vulgare. Only one female was observed feeding on dry leaves. A stag was observed feeding on a barley ear. Group's average size was 1.5 individual. Stags/female proportion was 1: 0.96. Animais displaying velvet coated antlers were observed in June and July which is in accordance with literature about antlers change in a definite period restricted to winter. Only one youngster was observed in September 1996. It is believed that the species survive in the region despite human activities through adaptation of feeding habits with the introduction of agricultura! species. This population could disappear in a few years because of the small number of individuais and their isolation.

  6. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

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    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present

  7. Controle de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 e Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 através de formulados contendo Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis em temperaturas controladas

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    João Zequi

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus and Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say are important pathogen vectors in urban environments. This study was designed to evaluate commercial formulations containing Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis de Barjac for the control of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus and to assess their efficiency as compared to manufacturers´ claims. The tested products were the liquid formulation of Aquabac® XT 1200 ITU/mg, Teknar® 3000AAU/mg, and Vectobac® AS 1200 ITU/mg, and the solid products Vectobac® WDG 3000 ITU/mg, Vectobac® Tablet 2200 ITU/mg, and the trial formulation of Biouel 500 ITU/mg. All products were tested at 25±2°C temperature and the liquid formulations were also tested at 15±2°C, 35±2°C, and at room temperature (25.37 to 28.73ºC. The experiments were conducted with 25 larvae at the early 4th stage, in 150 mL of distilled water; the dead larvae were counted 24 hours after product application. Results were analyzed using Probit to calculate CL50. The 25±2°C temperature, Vectobac WDG, and Vectobac Tablet were the most efficient in controlling Ae. aegypti, with CL50 of 0.10 (0.08 – 0.11 mg/L and 0.10 (0.09 – 0.11 mg/L, respectively. The most efficient products for Cx. quinquefasciatus were Vectobac WDG, Vectobac AS, Biouel, and Vectobac T. When the potency claimed by manufacturers was compared to our laboratory results, Biouel had the best performance for both species. Vectobac AS was the most efficient for both species of Culicidae tested at 15±2°C, 35±2°C and at room temperature (25.37 to 28.37°C. Lower product concentrations were required at 35±2°C room temperature to control Cx. quinquefasciatus than for Ae. aegypti.

  8. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA genomes of two grasshopper species Gomphocerus rufus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Primnoa arctica (Zhang and Jin, 1985) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea).

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    Sun, Huimin; Zheng, Zhemin; Huang, Yuan

    2010-06-01

    In Xia's taxonomic revision, Gomphocerus rufus (Linnaeus, 1758), Chorthippus chinensis and Phlaeoba albonema belong to the families Gomphoceridae, Arcypteridae and Acrididae, respectively; whereas in Otte's taxonomic analysis of Orthoptera, all three species belong to the subfamily Gomphocerinae, family Acrididae. We determined the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of G. rufus, compared these with 10 other caeliferan mitogenomes, and performed phylogenetic analyses in order to clarify the relationships of the three families in Xia's taxonomic revision and which study is more accurate in defining the relationships of the three families. Furthermore, the mitogenome of Primnoa arctica (Zhang and Jin, 1985) was determined. This is the first mitogenome of the subfamily Catantopinae, superfamily Acridoidea. Through the comparison of mitogenomes from six subfamilies of the superfamily Acridoidea and one species of Pyrgomorphoidea, we hope to summarize a general law on the composition of the caeliferan mitogenome. The two molecules contain the same set of mitochondrial genes for 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, 13 proteins, and a non-coding, AT-rich region. The base composition, gene order, and codon usage of the two genomes conform to those reported for other caeliferan species. Both genomes possess the rearrangement of tRNA(Lys) and tRNA(Asp). Compared with their ancestral mitogenome, this is a significant difference between the mitogenome of the suborders Caelifera and Ensifera or other Metazoa. A stem-loop structure that is similar to a previously presumed one (that probably involved in replication initiation) was found at the A+T-rich region of each mitogenome. In the phylogenetic analyses, the species from suborders Caelifera and Ensifera cluster, respectively, as monophyletic groups, and the two suborders cluster as sister groups. Within Caelifera, the subfamily Gomphocerinae appears to be a paraphyletic group in the analyses of the protein-coding gene (PCG) dataset and a

  9. Shyness and boldness in greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae: the effects of antipredator training on the personality of the birds Timidez e coragem em emas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae: os efeitos do treinamento anti-predação na personalidade das aves

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    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The shy-bold continuum is an axis of behavioural variation for some species, but the consequences of shyness and boldness in antipredatory behaviour is unknown. Bold animals have the tendency to be predated first after release in comparison to shy animals, who naturally avoid the predators. Antipredatory training has been used to enhance the defence behaviours of naive animals by various researchers around the world. For greater rheas, Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758, this kind of study is pioneer. In this study we have investigated if there are relationships between personality and performance of greater rheas in antipredatory training. We also investigated if the training procedures influenced the behaviour of the birds when presented to novel objects. Fifteen zoo-borne greater rheas were studied and 16 personality tests were run, being eight before the application of antipredator training, and eight after the training. We presented to the birds four novel objects (ball, box, bag and person and recorded their behaviour and the distance of the birds in relation to the objects. Results showed that the birds behave boldly before training and shyly after it. The antipredator training modified significantly the behaviour of the rheas, making them more careful about novel situations. Personalities affected the behaviour of the birds during antipredator training. The study of the animal personalities can be an useful tool in reintroduction programs since it helps to choose the animals with the highest chance of survival to reintroduce.O contínuo timidez-coragem é um eixo de variação comportamental para algumas espécies, mas as conseqüências da timidez e coragem no comportamento anti-predação não são conhecidas. Animais corajosos tendem a ser predados primeiramente após a reintrodução em comparação com os animais tímidos, que naturalmente evitam os predadores. O treinamento anti-predação tem sido usado para aumentar os comportamentos

  10. Eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 no controle da traça da cera Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 for control of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner no controle de Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, a 28±2ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Aplicou-se formulação comercial de B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki por meio de pulverização, imersão dos favos e também foi incorporada à dieta artificial fornecida às lagartas de terceiro ínstar da traça da cera. A aplicação do produto fitossanitário por meio da pulverização dos favos mostrou-se eficiente no controle de lagartas, atingindo níveis iguais ou superiores a 85% de mortalidade quando foram utilizados 5 g/100 mL de água. Na aplicação por imersão dos favos, todas as dosagens testadas foram eficientes atingindo até 100% de mortalidade. Adicionada à dieta artificial, a concentração com maior porcentagem de mortalidade foi de 10g/60g de dieta. Sintomas de infecção pelo B. thuringiensis foram identificados nas lagartas e o isolamento da bactéria, por meio de uma cultura de Bacillus, comprovou a causa da morte desses insetos em todas as dosagens da formulação comercial do B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki utilizadas.This research aim at evaluating the efficiency of Bacillus thruringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner in the control of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus.The experiments were conducted in the Insect Biology Laboratory of the Entomology Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil, at 28±2ºC, RH 70±10% and 12-hour photophase. Commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis. var. kurstaki was applied through spraying, comb soaking and also incorporated into the artificial diet fed to third instar caterpillars of the greater wax moth. Application of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki through the spraying of the combs was efficient for control, reaching levels

  11. Quadro citológico vaginal, concentração plasmática de progesterona durante a gestação e medidas fetais em paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 Vaginal citology, serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and fetal measurements in paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

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    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 objetivou-se descrever aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (D de prenhez diagnosticada por ultrassonografia (US, os tipos celulares do epitélio vaginal em esfregaços vaginais, relatar as condições de abertura da vulva e as características do muco vaginal, determinar a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio, e ainda, mensurar por ultrassonografia (US o diâmetro biparietal (DBP fetal aos 60 e 90 dias de prenhez. No D30, 40% das amostras exibiram células (com características estrogênicas superficiais e presença de núcleos nus. Nos D60 e D90, células parabasais, intermediárias, superficiais e naviculares estavam presentes nas mesmas proporções, mas células endocervicais foram descritas em apenas 73,9% e 69% das amostras daqueles dias, respectivamente. No D30 a maior proporção de células naviculares e superficiais diferiu (p The objective of this work was to describe in 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 at 30, 60 and 90 days (D of pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography (U.S. the cell types of the vaginal epithelium by vaginal smears, to report the vulva opening condition and the characteristics of vaginal mucus, to determine the progesterone (P4 serum concentration by radioimmunoassay, and also measure by ultrasound (U.S. the fetuses biparietal diameter (BPD at 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. At D30, 40% of the smears exhibited surface cells (with estrogenic characteristics and of naked nuclei. At D60 and D90, parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and navicular cells were present in the same proportions, but endocervical cells were described in only 73.9% and 69% of those day's smears, respectively. At D30 the highest proportion of navicular and surface cells differed (p < 0.05 compared with other cell types. The vaginal mucus was crystalline and fluid in 100% and 70% of females at D30 and D60, respectively. It was observed the vaginal vestibule open in around 50% of

  12. Flutuação populacional e previsão de gerações de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch = Populational fluctuation and generation prediction of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch

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    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, encontra-se distribuída em quase todas as partes do mundo, constituindo importante praga do pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em pomar comercial de pessegueiro localizado em Taiúva, São Paulo, durante os anos 1997 a 2003, visando obter a flutuação populacional de adultos de G. molesta relacionando-a com fatores meteorológicos. O estudo também visou determinar uma data biofix adequada para prever a ocorrência de gerações da praga por meio de um modelo de graus-dia. A amostragem da mariposa-oriental e de insetos predadores foi efetuada com armadilha plástica com suco de pêssego e armadilha adesiva amarela, respectivamente. A influência de fatores físicos e biológicos foi avaliada por análise de correlação linear simples. Os maiores picos populacionais de G. molesta ocorreram nos meses de maio, julho e outubro. As correlações obtidas sugerem que a baixa umidade ambiental pode ter sido fator de mortalidade para G. molesta. O elevado número de pulverizações de inseticida pode ter causado impacto negativo sobre inimigos naturais contribuindo para a elevada densidade do inseto-praga no período de 1998 a 1999. A data de constatação dapresença de gemas vegetativas e de flor diferenciadas no pessegueiro mostrou-se adequada para se iniciar a contagem de graus-dia para prever gerações de G. molesta. Esses resultados devem ajudar aimplementação de programas para prever picos populacionais de adultos de G. molesta visando à aplicação de inseticidas. Recomenda-se a validação do modelo de graus-dia em outras localidades para comprovar os resultados obtidos.The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, is spread around the world and is considered an important pest on peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. This work was carried out at a commercial peach orchard located in Taiúva, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to

  13. Dieta e dispersão de sementes por Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnívora, Canidae, em um fragmento florestal no Paraná, Brasil Diet and seed dispersal by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus in a forest fragment in Paraná (Carnivora, Canidae

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    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, seja um Canidae relativamente comum, não há muita informação sobre sua dieta e seu papel como dispersor de sementes nos diferentes habitats onde ocorre. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de reportar a dieta de C. thous e sua importância como dispersor e/ou predador de sementes, e ainda testar a taxa de germinação de sementes após passar pelo trato digestório do animal. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento (680 ha de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, o Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, localizado na cidade de Londrina, Paraná, sul do Brasil. A metodologia consistiu de coletas de fezes de C. thous, as quais foram analisadas em laboratório para identificar os itens consumidos. Nos testes de germinação, as sementes foram dispostas para germinar em placas de Petri com algodão umedecido em água. Noventa e três amostras fecais com 219 itens de origem vegetal e animal foram registradas, sendo 36,52% contendo restos de pequenos roedores, 24,19% de gramíneas, 13,24% de aves, 10,47% de insetos, 6,39% de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm., 4,6% de outros itens de origem animal e 4,54% de outros itens de origem vegetal. Ainda, C. thous dispersou nove espécies de plantas, com relevante importância para a germinação de algumas sementes que passaram pelo trato digestório do animal, exceto para S. romanzoffiana, cujas sementes não germinaram nas condições de laboratório. Conclui-se que, C. thous apresentou uma dieta generalista e oportunista, sobrevivendo em áreas degradadas e antrópicas, e agindo como dispersor de sementes nestes locais.Although the crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, is a relatively common Canidae, there isn't much information about its diet and its role as a seed disperser in the different habitats where it occurs. The aim of this work was to report the diet of the C. thous and its importance as a seed disperser and / or a seed predator and

  14. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  15. Preferência alimentar de adultos de Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae por diferentes híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae = Feeding preference of adults of Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae for different hybrids of Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae

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    Daniel Gandolfo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Metriona elatior Klug é potencial candidato para o controle biológico de Solanum viarum Dunal (joá-bravo, pois as larvas e adultos se alimentam de suas folhas e têm baixa taxa de dispersão. A especificidade é um forte requisito para a adequabilidade de umorganismo como agente de controle biológico, especialmente pela estratégia inundativa. Desse modo, a preferência alimentar do adulto desse inseto em laboratório foi avaliada em 14 híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (berinjela. A criação estoque foi mantida emlaboratório, com os indivíduos se alimentando de folhas do joá-bravo. O estudo foi realizado utilizando-se testes de dupla e múltipla escolha, em períodos de alimentação de 24 e 48h, oferecendo-se discos de tecido foliar, em condições de placas de Petri. As avaliaçõesda sobrevivência e consumo foliar dos insetos adultos recém-emergidos foram realizadas em folhas de joá-bravo e dos híbridos de berinjela, mantidas túrgidas pela imersão do pecíolo em água. A área foliar foi medida antes e após quatro dias de exposição ao inseto. M. elatiorapresentou preferência para alimentação, sobrevivência e consumo na planta daninha. A preferência do crisomelídeo foi maior para o híbrido ‘Minikuro Kowishiki’ de berinjela.Metriona elatior Klug is a potential biocontrol agent for Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple, because larvae and adults feed on its leaves and this species shows a low dispersion rate. Specificity plays a major role in the feasibility of an organism as abiological control agent, especially in the inundative strategy. The feeding preference of M. elatior adults was evaluated to 14 eggplant (Solanum melogena Linnaeus hybrids. Mass rearing was carried out under lab conditions, with the insect feeding directly on S. viarum leaves. The study started with dual and multiple choice tests in 24 and 48 hour feeding times, by offering leaf disks in Petri dish conditions. Survival and leaf

  16. Size distribution of the jack Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus (Actinopterygii, Carangidae in a tropical bay at Southeastern Brazil Distribuição por tamanho da palombeta Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus (Actinopterygii, Carangidae em uma baía tropical do sudeste do Brasil

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    Marcus R. da Costa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus, 1766 is the most abundant representant of the Carangidae family in the Sepetiba bay, a c.a. 450 km² semi-closed coastal area in the Southeastern Brazil. We analyze fish (number, weight and size and environmental data to assess the part of life history of this species in tropical embayment environments. Fish sampling were taken in triplicates by monthly bottom trawls, in three bay zones (inner, middle and outer, defined according to a spatial gradient of depth and salinity. Juveniles were firstly caught in the inner bay zone measuring 30-90 mm total length - TL (mode = 60 mm TL in Spring. Then they move toward the middle and outermost part of the bay in Summer-Autumn (120-180 mm TL, following a seaward migration to join the adults during the Winter. No early juveniles were recorded recruiting at sandy beaches of the Sepetiba bay, although spawning has been reported to take place at nearby coastal areas, with eggs and larvae penetrating into the innermost bay zones. At least two yearly classes coexist in the bay during the first two years. Environmental gradient of temperature, salinity, transparency, dissolved oxygen and depth are poor predictors of fish numbers and biomass, and the significant negative correlation with salinity and depth only reflect the large numbers of juveniles in the innermost part of the bay, where influence of continental drainage and sediment deposition is higher.Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus, 1766 é o representante mais abundante da família de Carangidae na Baía de Sepetiba, uma área semi-fechada com 450 Km², localizada no sudeste do Brasil. Foram analisadas as CPUEs de número, peso e tamanho, além dos dados ambientais, a fim de avaliar parte do ciclo de vida desta espécie num ambiente de baía. As amostras foram realizadas mensalmente em triplicatas através de rede de arrasto de fundo, em três zonas da baía (interna, central e externa, definidas de acordo com um

  17. Influence of hydrogen cations on kinetics and equilibria of heavy-metal sorption by algae-sorption of copper cations by the algaPalmaria palmata(Linnaeus) Weber & Mohr (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłos, Andrzej; Rajfur, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The influence of hydrogen cations on kinetics and equilibria of sorption of copper cations by the marine alga Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) Weber & Mohr was studied under static conditions. The competitive effect of the H + cations is described, which influenced the uncertainty of evaluation of the alga sorption capacity. Under static conditions, the variation of the Cu 2+ /H + concentration ratio during sorption was found nonmonotonic. The Langmuir isotherm model was used to determine the sorption capacity of the alga, namely 12.4 mg g -1 of dry algae mass. A similar value was determined from the kinetic parameters of the ionic exchange which is considered a pseudo-second-order chemical reaction. The consistent results indicated that the mathematical models used correctly described the equilibria and kinetics of the ionic exchange between algae and solutions.

  18. Ovitrampas para Avaliação da Presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus e Aedes albopictus (Skuse no Município de Vassouras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    Alexandre Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse are vectors of many arboviruses including urban yellow fever and dengue, the latter being one of the biggest problems in the world in cities that have hot and humid climate. Having the consecutive cases of dengue in Vassouras, RJ it was important to ascertain the presence and behavior of the vector in different seasons of year and their predominance in the city. In this study we observed the presence of 10.44% Ae. aegypti and 89.56% Ae. albopictus of the 364 viable eggs and being the Matadouro neighborhood (point 4, the local with the largest presence of these culicids. These data showed that Ae. albopictus is ever more present in urban areas.

  19. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da anchova Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of metazoan parasites of bluefish Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae from the littoral of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    José Luis Luque

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five specimens of bluefish, Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus, 1766, collected at Cabo Frio (23ºS, 42ºW, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 1995 and November 1995, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Sixteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. All fish were parasitized by one or more metazoan. The digeneans were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 44.2%, followed by the helminth larval stages (cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes with 40.6%. The Simpson index for all parasite species was 0.097, indicating lack of dominance by any species in the parasite community. Microcotyle pomatomi Goto, 1899 showed the higher frequency of dominance and mean relative dominance. The parasite species of P. saltator showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. The majority of parasite species showed positive correlation between the host's total body length and prevalence or parasite abundance. Two species, Brachyphallus parvus (Manter, 1947 and Phocanema sp. have differences in their prevalences and abundances in relation to sex of the hosts. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of P. saltator was H'=1.243±0.521, with correlation with the host's total length and without difference between male and female fish. The components of the parasite community of P. saltator showed overall positive association. All pairs confonned by ectoparasites and adult endoparasites species showed signiticant positive association or covariation between their abundances. Five pairs of endoparasites larval species showed positive association or covariation, and two pairs, showed negative association and covariation. The parasite community of P. saltator was dominated by species with high prevalence values, that composed a high number of associations, thus, is considered closer to the interactive type.

  20. Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus) (Aves, Accipitridae), na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus) (Aves, Accipitridae), in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

    OpenAIRE

    Ana C. Srbek-Araujo; Adriano G. Chiarello

    2006-01-01

    A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758), na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD), região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mat...

  1. Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

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    Ana C. Srbek-Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD, região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mata de Tabuleiro, na sua maior parte bem conservada. Além da grande extensão de floresta, a rica e densa fauna de mamíferos presente nestas reservas contribuem para a permanência das harpias na região.The present communication reports an observation occurred in August 2005 of the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve (VRDNR, located in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The analysis of this and past records of the species in this reserve indicates the presence of a resident population in the region encompassed by the VRDNR and the Sooretama Biological Reserve. These two reserves total circa 46,250 ha of lowland Atlantic forest (Tabuleiros forest, which are mostly well preserved. Besides the great extension of forests, the rich and abundant mammal fauna present in these two reserves contribute to the regional permanence of the harpy eagle.

  2. The dynamicity of the mesonephros microstructure in bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system in relation to spawning migration

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    K. Heina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the mesonephros structure in the bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 during its spawning migration, to determine the perspective of the use of microanatomical monitoring data in fisheries practice for assessing the functional status of fish. Methodology. Collection of ichthyological material was carried out using permit documents of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine, while their processing was done at the Department of Aquatic Bioresources and Aquaculture of the Kherson State Agricultural University. Ichthyological material was collected using gill nets, fyke nets, beach seines. Monitoring stations were located along the spawning migration run of the bream from the Dnieper lagoon to the plavni system of the Dnieper River. Field and laboratory processing of the material was done using author’s equipment and original methods specially designed for histological diagnostics of tissues of aquatic animals. Findings. The basis of the adaptation of bream kidneys to waters of different salinities us structural irregularity of nephrons expressed in the size and structure of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules. Significant fluctuations of osmolarity parameters within the lower Dnieper area have significant effects on changes in the structure and function of nephrogenic tissue in form of the reduction in the diameter of Boumen-Shumliansky capsule by 9.0 µm. Changes of the Boumen-Shumliansky capsule diameter in fish with moderate mineralization is the range of 6.0 and 4.0 µm. The reduction in the height of epitheliocytes of proximal convoluted tubules by 3.0; 2.0 and 4.0 µm also indicate on the reduction of the functional activity of the convolute. The fluctuations of nephrogenic and homeopathic tissue ratio have a balance nature that can be related to the redistribution of these components due to the appearance of an adaptation under the effect of chloride-ions. The dislocation of ion-transporting cells near the blood

  3. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions Fenologia de Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae em condições de laboratório

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of Objetivando conhecer o ciclo de desenvolvimento de Spalangia endius sob condições de laboratório, 360 pupas de Musca domestica com idade de 24 a 48 horas foram expostas a 15 casais de S. endius por um período de 48 horas a 26 ± 2ºC. Estas pupas foram mantidas em BOD. Com mesma temperatura, umidade relativa <70% e com fotofase de 12 horas, onde diariamente dissecava-se 15 espécimes para avaliar o estágio e tempo de desenvolvimento do himenóptero. A fenologia permite concluir que S. endius apresenta um ciclo de desenvolvimento de 19 dias, cujo período de incubação foi de 24 horas, o desenvolvimento de larvas de S. endius ocorreu nos oito dias subsequentes nos quais uma série de alterações morfológicas foi observada. O estágio de pré-pupa deu-se no décimo dia onde cessa a movimentação e inicia a eliminação de mecônio. O estágio pupal ocorreu do décimo primeiro dia ao décimo nono, momento da emergência dos primeiros machos, já as fêmeas iniciaram a emergência aproximadamente 24 horas após. Estes resultados permitem avaliar aspectos da bionomia pormenorizada do desenvolvimento de S. endius para armazenar e programar a produção deste parasitóide, otimizando sua utilização como agente de controle biológico.

  4. Metazoários parasitos do coió Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Dactylopteridae do litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1320 Metazoan parasites of flying gurnards, Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Dactylopteridae from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1320

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    Andrea da Silva Cordeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito espécimes de Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus, 1758 coletados do litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (aprox. 21-23º S, 41-45º W, Brasil, desde dezembro de 2002 até janeiro de 2003, foram necropsiados para o estudo dos seus metazoários parasitos. Vinte e sete espécies de parasitos foram coletadas: 1 aspidogastreo, 15 digenéticos, 1 monogenético, 2 cestóides, 2 acantocéfalos, 4 nematóides, 1 branquíuro e 1 isópode. O acantocéfalo Rhadinorhynchus sp. foi a espécie mais dominante e prevalente. Todas as espécies encontradas constituíram primeiro registro para D. volitans. Opecoeloides sp. mostrou correlação positiva entre o comprimento total do hospedeiro e sua prevalência parasitária, enquanto para Rhadinorhynchus sp. essa correlação foi negativa. Um par de espécies de endoparasitos (Dinurus sp. – Lecithochirium sp. mostrou covariação positiva entre suas abundâncias. Como em outras comunidades parasitárias de peixes bentônicos do Rio de Janeiro, a comunidade parasitária de D. volitans é aparentemente um complexo de espécies pouco ordenado, caracterizado pela dominância de endoparasitosSeventy-eigth specimens of Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus,1758 collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23º S, 41-45º W, Brazil, from December 2002 to January 2003, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Twenty-seven species of parasites were collected: 1 aspidogastrean, 15 digenean, 1 monogenean, 2 cestodes, 2 acantocephalan, 4 nematodes, 1 branquiuran, and 1 isopod. All parasite species were recorded by the first time in D. volitans. The acanthocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. was the most dominant species with the highest prevalence in the parasite community of D. volitans. Opecoeloides sp. showed positive correlation between the host total length and parasite prevalence, while Rhadinorhynchus sp. have a negative correlation between the host´s total length and prevalence. One

  5. Avaliação hematológica e dosagem bioquímica de ALT, AST e creatinina em elefante-marinho-do-sul, Mirounga leonina (linnaeus, 1758, encontrado no litoral de Salvador, Bahia

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    Bruno Lopes Bastos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999 the Aquatic Mammals Rescue Center - AMRC has been working in the rescue and rehabilitation of stranded cetaceans and pinnipeds on the coast of Bahia, Brazil. This paper presents and analyses the blood cells count and clinical chemistry of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatinine of a southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina (LINNAEUS, 1758, found on February the 11th at Barra Beach, Salvador, BA. The specimen was an orphan male calf, with 137cm of length and estimated weight of 49kg. It presented bad nutritional conditions and a shark bite on the right shoulder area. Clinical management was performed for 56 days, anthelmintic Febendazole was utilized, and the bite was treated with iodined alcohol, Nitrofurazone solution and Kethanserin, simultaneously with Enrofloxacin 10%, Potenay®, Vitamin B Complex and Benerva®. On the 16th the animal presented a right unilateral conjuntivitis, treated with Cloranphenicol oftalmic pomade until the end of its stay in the captive. During this period a total of six blood samples were collected, three for total blood counts and the others for the biochemistry determination of ALT, AST and creatinine. According to the haematological analysis the seal developed an anaemia which was classified as microcytic and normochromic. Lymphopenia, eosinopenia and monocytopenia were also observed, possibly due to its handling and stress conditions. The clinical chemistry presented low values for AST and creatinine, although this did not represent the existence of any pathologic context or disease with clinical significance.

  6. Biodegradation of polystyrene wastes in yellow mealworms (larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus): Factors affecting biodegradation rates and the ability of polystyrene-fed larvae to complete their life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan-Shan; Brandon, Anja Malawi; Andrew Flanagan, James Christopher; Yang, Jun; Ning, Daliang; Cai, Shen-Yang; Fan, Han-Qing; Wang, Zhi-Yue; Ren, Jie; Benbow, Eric; Ren, Nan-Qi; Waymouth, Robert M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S; Wu, Wei-Min

    2018-01-01

    Commercial production of polystyrene (PS) -a persistent plastic that is not biodegradable at appreciable rates in most environments-has led to its accumulation as a major contaminant of land, rivers, lakes, and oceans. Recently, however, an environment was identified in which PS is susceptible to rapid biodegradation: the larval gut of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworms). In this study, we evaluate PS degradation capabilities of a previously untested strain of T. molitor and assess its survival and PS biodegradation rates for a range of conditions (two simulated food wastes, three temperatures, seven PS waste types). For larvae fed PS alone, the %PS removed in the short (12-15 h) residence time of the mealworm gut gradually increased for 2-3 weeks then stabilized at values up to 65%. Thirty two-day survival rates were >85% versus 54% for unfed larvae. For mealworms fed ∼10% w/w PS and ∼90% bran, an agricultural byproduct, rates of PS degradation at 25 °C nearly doubled compared to mealworms fed PS alone. Polymer residues in the frass showed evidence of partial depolymerization and oxidation. All of the tested PS wastes degraded, with the less dense foams degrading most rapidly. Mealworms fed bran and PS completed all life cycle stages (larvae, pupae, beetles, egg), and the second generation had favorable PS degradation, opening the door for selective breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parapharyngodon hugoi n. sp., a new nematode (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae) of the tree frog Trachycephalus typhonius (Linnaeus) from the Brazilian Pantanal, including a key to the congeners from amphibians of the American continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Felipe B; Campião, Karla M; Luque, José L; Tavares, Luiz E R

    2017-06-01

    A new nematode Parapharyngodon hugoi n. sp. (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae) is described parasitising the large intestine of the tree frog Trachycephalus typhonius (Linnaeus) (Anura: Hylidae) from the wetlands of Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The new species exhibits a unique structure of the posterior cloacal lip in males, which is supported by a rigid V-shaped structure. Parapharyngodon hylidae parasitic in hylid frogs, including T. typhonius, from Mexico, is the most similar congener to P. hugoi n. sp. but is distinguished from the new species by the presence of a gubernaculum (vs absence), by the lateral alae in males ending far anterior to cloacal opening (vs near to it) and because in gravid females the ovaries encircle the oesophageal corpus. Additionally, the new species differs from its congeners as well as from species of Thelandros Wedl, 1862, a very closely related genus, by the combination of features such as spicule length, number of caudal papillae, morphology of the anterior cloacal lip, which is echinate, and position of ovaries. The geographical distribution of hosts seems to play an important role in the speciation process of Parapharyngodon spp.; however, due the lack of molecular data this issue along with the validity of both Thelandros and Parapharyngodon are still questions to be solved in the future, after improvement of the genetic database. A key to the species of Parapharyngodon parasitic in amphibians from the American continent is provided.

  8. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  9. Vodní měkkýši Labe mezi Pardubicemi a Hřenskem

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    Luboš Beran

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic molluscs of the Elbe River between Němčice (near Pardubice, Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic and Hřensko (Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic at 27 localities were investigated from 1994 to 2004. Altogether 40 species (24 gastropods, 16 bivalves from 77 species known on the territory of the Czech Republic were found at sites under study. A gradual invasion of 6 non-native species (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Physella acuta, Menetus dilatatus, Ferrissia clessiniana, Corbicula fluminea and an extinction of another species (Theodoxus fluviatilis, Planorbis carinatus, Unio crassus, Pisidium amnicum were documented in comparison with historical records. Rare mussel Pseudanodonta complanata and rare pea mussel Pisidium moitessierianum were found at several localities under study and these finds document survival of these bivalves in the Elbe River. Molluscan communities of particular localities were most often usually compounded from species Viviparus viviparus (downstream of loc. 9, Bithynia tentaculata, Radix auricularia, Radix ampla, Unio pictorum, Anodonta anatina, Corbicula fluminea (downstream of loc. 8, Sphaerium rivicola (downstream of loc. 7, Sphaerium corneum s. lat., Pisidium supinum, Dreissena polymorpha.

  10. Assessing the potential for using biogenic calcites as dosemeters for luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Penkman, K.E.H.; Wintle, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium carbonate emits an intense thermoluminescence (TL) signal and previous work has explored the potential of using this signal to date both inorganic carbonates such as limestones and stalagmites and biogenic calcite produced by marine organisms. Luminescence analysis of biogenic calcites directly dates the secretion of the mineral by the organism and is therefore not reliant upon exposure of the sample to daylight. A method is outlined for using the TL signals from slug plates, from the Limacidae family, and opercula from the snail Bithynia tentaculata to construct a single-aliquot regenerative-dose growth curve. Analysis of slug plates from a number of Quaternary sites show that the equivalent dose (D e ) of a late Holocene sample is close to zero and that the D e increases with age over the last 500 ka. The TL signal from snail opercula is shown to increase up to doses over 4000 Gy. Replicate measurements from 16 opercula from a site ∼220 ka show a broad distribution. Potential causes of this scatter are discussed along with recommendations about how it could be reduced. The major challenge which remains to be solved before slug plates or snail opercula could be used to calculate ages is to develop methods for calculating the dose rate received during burial.

  11. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Delir Corrêa Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819, Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934 Freitas & Lent, 1937, Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914, Spirura guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924 Chitwood, 1938 and from the rodents Akodon cursor (Winger, 1887, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oligoryzomys eliurus (Wagner, 1845 and Oryzomys intermedius (Leche, 1886: Hassalstrongylus epsilon (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916, S. venteli Travassos, 1937, Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz & Pereira, 1935, Litomosoides carinii (Travassos, 1919 Vaz, 1934, Viannaia viannai, Hassalstrongylus epsilon, H. zeta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Stilestrongylus aculeata (Travassos, 1918 Durette-Desset, 1971 S. eta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971. Highest worm burdens and prevalences were those related to Cruzia tentaculata in marsupials. Stilestrongylus aculeata was referred for the first time in Akodon cursor.

  12. How nest translocation-time, clutch size and presence of yolkless eggs affected hatching success in Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudines: Dermochelyidae, at Projeto Tamar-Ibama, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Pont Morisso, Eduardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó el manejo de los nidos de la especie Dermochelys coriacea, utilizados por el Proyecto Tamar-Ibama entre las temporadas reproductivas de 1989/1990 a 1998/1999, para verificación del éxito de la eclosión en relación a los tiempos de traslación. El estudio se realizó en el litoral norte del Estado de Espírito Santo. Existió tendencia a que el tiempo de traslación influencie el éxito de eclosión de los nidos. Los nidos trasladados entre 6 y más de 24 horas presentaron mayor cantidad de huevos sin desarrollo embrionario. No se encontró relación entre el número de huevos inviables trasladados y el tamaño de la postura, con el porcentual de eclosión. Se sugiere que la traslación sea realizada hasta las 6 horas, o 15 días después de la oviposición. The results of managing Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 nests by Projeto TAMAR - IBAMA, in Northern Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the nesting seasons from 1989/90 to 1998/99 are analyzed. The influence of the translocation time on hatching success of the studied nests is discussed. The time translocation, in relation to natural oviposition, seems to increase the number of non-developed eggs found in each nest if translocated between 6 hours and 15 days post egg-laying. There was no relationship established between either the number of yolkless eggs in a translocated nest or the clutch size, with hatching success. The translocation of Dermochelys nests either within 6 hours or after 15 days from natural oviposition is recommended.

  13. Mode d'exploitation et durabilité de la pêche de Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 et Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 dans le lac de barrage du Sourou (Burkina Faso

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    Dialla, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mode of Operation and Sustainability of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 and Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 Fisheries in the Sourou Dam Lake (Burkina Faso. This research on fishery exploitation in the Sourou dam raises the issue of sustainable management of common property. The central hypothesis is that the effectiveness of co-management for sustainable fishing practices is related to the level of ownership of that management and actors' games by fishing communities. In analysing co-management induced effects on fishing practices and exploitation of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus species, related to its implementation in Sourou fishery, a research methodology that combines qualitative and quantitative methods is used. Socio-economic surveys were conducted with 30 fishermen in three villages bordering the fishery. Biological surveys were also conducted with catches of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus of these fishermen,. The results indicate a weak ownership of the co-management model by fishermen and the strategies of actors that consist to minimize the costs of the sustainable management of fisheries resources at individual level. Indeed, even when informed of fisheries regulations, fishermen use prohibited fishing equipment (54.1% of the catches of studied species, and fishi illegally (43.3% of the fishermen. Furthermore, significant proportions of each studied species are captured before their first maturity sizes (52.2% of C. gariepinus, 15.8% of G. niloticus and 14.3% of O. niloticus. So, the central hypothesis is verified because the weak ownership of co-management by fishing communities and the actors' strategies do not encourage them to develop a responsible behavior for sustainable fishing.

  14. The effect of Plantago major Linnaeus on serum total sialic acid, lipid-bound sialic acid, some trace elements and minerals after administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oto, Gokhan; Ekin, Suat; Ozdemir, Hulya; Levent, Abdulkadir; Berber, Ismet

    2012-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Plantago major Linnaeus (PM) extract on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA), some trace elements (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron) and mineral levels (magnesium, calcium and sodium) in Wistar albino rat administrated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Rats were divided into three equal groups (n = 6). Group I comprised the control group, group II was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg, single dose) and group III was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg single dose) and aqueous extract of PM 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days. After 60 days, statistical analyses showed that TSA and LSA levels in DMBA and DMBA + PM groups were significantly higher compared to the control group (TSA: p < 0.01, p < 0.05; LSA: p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively). Serum Zn levels were decreased in subjects treated with DMBA (p < 0.01) and DMBA + PM (p < 0.05) compared to the control group values. Serum Cu levels were increased in DMBA group and PM-treated group compared to the control group values. The results of this investigation showed that the levels of TSA and LSA changed significantly, which are sensitive markers for detecting the toxic effects of DMBA. On the other hand, observed decline in Zn levels in rats from DMBA + PM group might be due to decreased generation of free radicals and oxidative stress. Results from this study suggest that PM may be partially effective in preventing carcinogenesis initiated by environmental carcinogen DMBA.

  15. First report on the occurrence of the comb pen shell, Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus, 1767) (Bivalvia: Pinnidae) in Ulleungdo Island in the East Sea: Ecology and molecular identification of the species using COI gene sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Park, Heung-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Jeong, Eui-Young; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    Pen shell is one of the largest marine bivalves inhabiting shallow subtidal soft bottoms in the west Pacific and Indian Oceans. In Korea, the comb pen shell Atrina pectinata fisheries has been established on the south and west coasts. Recently, a pen shell population has been discovered from a subtidal sand flat (25-30 m depth) in Ulleungdo Island located in the East Sea of Korea, suggesting a potential shellfish resource in this area. In the present study, we first surveyed the population density and size of the unique pen shell using SCUBA, and identified the pen shell to species level using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) sequence. An underwater survey carried out from July to September 2013 revealed that populations of pen shell patched on subtidal sand flat at a depth of 20-25 m. Grain size analysis indicated that sand particles accounted for 99% of the 600 × 700 m sand flat. The underwater survey also indicated that density of the pen shell ranged between 6-19 ind/m2, with a mean of 11 ind/m2. Shell height (i.e. longest axis of the shell) of the pen shell on the sand flat varied between 17.2 cm to 28.8 cm, with a mean of 25.1 cm, and the age was estimated to range between 1.5-7.5 yrs, with a mean of 5 yr. COI DNA sequence obtained from the pen shell in this study showed 98.9-99.2% similarity to Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus 1767) reported from Japan. In the cluster analysis, the COI DNA sequence of the pen shells from Ulleungdo Island was grouped with A. pectinata reported from Japan and China, indicating that the pen shell discovered in this study was A. pectinata, commonly distributed on the west and south coasts of Korea.

  16. Influência do período de quiescência dos ovos sobre o ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.

  17. Preferência alimentar de adultos de Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae por diferentes híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5874 Feeding preference of adults of Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae for different hybrids of Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5874

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Metriona elatior Klug é potencial candidato para o controle biológico de Solanum viarum Dunal (joá-bravo, pois as larvas e adultos se alimentam de suas folhas e têm baixa taxa de dispersão. A especificidade é um forte requisito para a adequabilidade de um organismo como agente de controle biológico, especialmente pela estratégia inundativa. Desse modo, a preferência alimentar do adulto desse inseto em laboratório foi avaliada em 14 híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (berinjela. A criação estoque foi mantida em laboratório, com os indivíduos se alimentando de folhas do joá-bravo. O estudo foi realizado utilizando-se testes de dupla e múltipla escolha, em períodos de alimentação de 24 e 48h, oferecendo-se discos de tecido foliar, em condições de placas de Petri. As avaliações da sobrevivência e consumo foliar dos insetos adultos recém-emergidos foram realizadas em folhas de joá-bravo e dos híbridos de berinjela, mantidas túrgidas pela imersão do pecíolo em água. A área foliar foi medida antes e após quatro dias de exposição ao inseto. M. elatior apresentou preferência para alimentação, sobrevivência e consumo na planta daninha. A preferência do crisomelídeo foi maior para o híbrido Minikuro Kowishiki de berinjela.Metriona elatior Klug is a potential biocontrol agent for Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple, because larvae and adults feed on its leaves and this species shows a low dispersion rate. Specificity plays a major role in the feasibility of an organism as a biological control agent, especially in the inundative strategy. The feeding preference of M. elatior adults was evaluated to 14 eggplant (Solanum melogena Linnaeus hybrids. Mass rearing was carried out under lab conditions, with the insect feeding directly on S. viarum leaves. The study started with dual and multiple choice tests in 24 and 48 hour feeding times, by offering leaf disks in Petri dish conditions. Survival and leaf

  18. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  19. Ecologia das comunidades de metazoários parasitos, do xaréu, Caranx hippos (Linnaeus e do xerelete, Caranx latus Agassiz (Osteichthyes, Carangidae do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of metazoan parasites of the crevalle jack, Caranx hippos (Linnaeus and the horse-eye jack, Caranx latus Agassiz (Osteichthyes, Carangidae from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Luque

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty specimens of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus, 1766 and fifty-five specimens of Caranx latus Agassiz, 1831 collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23ºS, 41-45ºW, Brazil, from October 1998 to October 1999, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. All specimens of C. hippos were parasitized, and the majority of specimens of C latus (96.4% were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Nineteen species of parasites were collected in C. hippos: 5 digeneans, 5 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 2 copepods. Seventeen species of parasites were collected in C. latus: 6 digeneans, 2 monogeneans, 3 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 copepods. The endoparasites (digeneans, cestodes, and nematodes were the majoriry, 76.4% and 63.3%, of the total number of parasite specimens collected in C. hippos and C. latus, respectively. The monogeneans Allopyragraphorus hippos (Hargis, 1956 and Cemocotyle carangis (MacCallum, 1913 were the most dominant species with the highest parasitic prevalence in the parasite community of C. hippos and C. latus, respectively. The metazoan parasites of the two host species showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. Bucephalus varicus Manter, 1940. A. hippos, Protomicrocotyle mirabilis (MacCallum, 1918, Cucullanus pulcherrimus Barreto, 1918, and Lemanthropus giganteus KrΦyer, 1863 had a positive correlation only between the host's total length and abundance andlor prevalence in C. hippos. Bucephalus varicus, Tergestia pectinata (Linton, 1905, C. carangis, and Pseudoterranovo sp. had a positive correlation between the host's total length and abundance and/or prevalence in C. latus. In C. hippos, the copepod Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898 had the highest values of prevalence and abundance in the female hosts. No parasite species showed influence of the host's sex on their prevalence and abundance in C. latus. The mean diversity and the parasite species richness of the

  20. Lobo – Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Juan Carlos; Salvador Milla, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Mamíferos - Orden Carnivora - Familia Canidae en la Enciclopedia Virtual de Vertebrados Españoles, http://www.vertebradosibericos.org/. Versiones anteriores: 12-02-2004; 2-04-2008; 13-10-2011; 28-10-2011

  1. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758 (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre, 11º58'15.7"S, 68º00'22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores: Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero. Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre de Dios.

  2. Capability of Forficula auricularia linnaeus (Dermaptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les pucerons, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera : Aphididae) compte parmi les ravageurs d\\'importance économique du niébé à l\\'Est de l\\'Uganda et à l\\'Est de la République Démocratique du Congo. Le perce-oreille commun, Forficula auricularia (Dermaptera : Forficulidae) est un prédateur fréquemment rencontré dans ...

  3. C. Linnaeus' ideas concerning retribution and fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rob. V. Wikman

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available Linnæus' Nemesis divina has been interpreted in different ways. Crucial is its central problem: the ideas of fate and retribution, but these are, in turn, dependent on Linnæus' conception of God and nature and not least on his opinions concerning the unity and coherence of the natural and ethical order of the world. From whatever sources Linnæus may have derived his religious ideas and whatever changes they may have undergone, his religious attitude in face of the works of nature remained unshaken. But Linnæus' religion, as we find it fragmentarily in these literary sources, was entirely undogmatic, untheological and, from a Christian point of view, even heterodox. Partly, this was in accord with his belief in the necessary immanent coherence in the processes of nature and the concomitant idea of the righteous divine order of the world.

  4. Avaliação da eficácia do Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis no controle de formas imaturas do Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti ( Linnaeus, 1762 em ambiente de laboratório.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Barreto Espindola

    2008-03-01

    thuringiensis var. israelensis on the control of immature forms of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 in laboratoy.Abstract. Aedes aegypti is considered a cosmopolitan mosquito that lives in tropical and subtropical region. In Brazil, it´s habitat is restricted to cities and villages, living next to humans and being rarelly found in a place with low human density. This especies is the only vector of Dengue and Yellow Fever virus in all brasilian nacional territory. It´s considered one of the most important vectors relationed with the transmission of patogens to humans. The social concearn with the environment and the mosquito´s resistance to chemical insecticides, resulted on the seach of an alternative method to the control of Ae. aegypti. An entomopathogenic bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, is an alternative method control. The objective of this work was to measure the eficacy of this bacteria on the control of Ae. aegypti immature forms. In such case, 350 individuals larvae were criated in plastic glasses with 200ml of non-clorated water. In the contamination were used 5mg of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis water-dispersable grannules for each larval stage. Statistical annalises were performed by Mann-Whitney non-paramethric test. The mortality was 100%, 98%, 98%, 100% and 4%, 1st , 2nd , 3rd 4th stages and pupae, respectivelly. The mean number of live days of the contamined stages were 1,36; 2,46; 1,24; 1,22; 3,46 days. Except for the pupae, all others stages lived less longer that the control individuals (P<0,05%. B. thuringiensis var. israelensis, showed to be an effective inscticide, causing 99,5% of larvae death. And even not being abble to act in the pupae, it represents a good altrnative choice to the control of Ae. aegypti immatured forms.

  5. Biologia reprodutiva de Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus (Pisces, Osteichthyes, Tetraodontidae da gamboa do Baguaçu, Baía de Paranaguá, Paraná, Brasil Reproduetive biology of Sphoeroides testudineus (Linneus (Pisces, Osteichthyes, Tetraodontidae of the gamboa do Baguaçu, bay of Paranaguá, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rocha

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to elucidatc reproduetive aspects of Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758, Tetraodontidae. Monthly collections were accomplished for one year (November/98-October/99, in the gamboa do Baguaçu, Bay of Paranaguá with a Fyke net. The macroscopic analysis of the gonad stages allowed us to estimate the sexual proportion as 1:1 during the whole period, except in the months of May and October, when the proportions of two females for one male and two males for one female were observed respectively. The analysis of the relative frequency of the monthly gonad stages and the Curve of Maturation aided in the determination of the reproduetive period, that oceurred from September to January. Microscopic analyses of the female gonads allowed us to characterize four develo-pment phases of the ovarian follicle, six stages of ovarian development and the type of spawn, which was parceled. The first maturation for females was estimated to be betwecn 10-11 cm of length.

  6. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) (Linnaeus, 1766) in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracz, Ruth Massote; Ribeiro, Vinicius Marques Antunes; Pereira, Cintia Aparecida de Jesus; Lima, Walter Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans. In the present study, conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Confins, Minas Gerais, fresh feces from capybaras were collected from the ground near a lagoon at the edge of the Ribeirão da Mata river. These were examined using the technique of four metal sieves. F. hepatica eggs were recovered. This trematode species was confirmed by observing morphological characteristics and measuring the eggs recovered from the capybara feces, and through experimental infection of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) by miracidia from these eggs and subsequent infection of C57/BL06 mice with metacercariae originating from these infected mollusks. The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis.

  7. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758 in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Massote Dracz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans. In the present study, conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Confins, Minas Gerais, fresh feces from capybaras were collected from the ground near a lagoon at the edge of the Ribeirão da Mata river. These were examined using the technique of four metal sieves. F. hepatica eggs were recovered. This trematode species was confirmed by observing morphological characteristics and measuring the eggs recovered from the capybara feces, and through experimental infection of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 by miracidia from these eggs and subsequent infection of C57/BL06 mice with metacercariae originating from these infected mollusks. The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis.

  8. Соматические клетки мужской половой системы Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Игнатьев, Г.; Рахимов, И.; Салахов, Н.

    2014-01-01

    Введение. Изучено развитие органа движения хвоста церкарии Fasciolahepatica Linnaeus,1758 на эмбриональной стадииразвития, последующих трех днях активной части жизни и четвертого-пятого дня малоподвижного и неподвижного периода жизни. У печеночной фасциолы на стадии церкарии первыми появляются зачатки органа движения и выделительной системы....

  9. Distribución, ecología y origen de las poblaciones de Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Müller, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora en las Cordilleras Béticas Orientales (Andalucía, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrebola, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chorology and ecology of the andalusian terrestrial malacofauna (South of the Iberian Peninsula, has showed the presence of a group of climatic relicts characteristics from the Eurosiberian region, in the Eastern Betics Mountains Chains. The ecology and distribution of two of these species (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Millier, 1774: and Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeus, 1758 is exposed, being the main limiting factor the typical mediterranean summer drought. The adaptative response of these species against the scarcity of water depends on its different ecophysiologies. Vitrina pellucida (eurithermic lives in low-lands where the availability of water along the year is constant, as well as in dry soils of high mountains because of the cold weather. Cepaea nemoralis (stenothermic lives only in habitats with wet soils and heavy vegetal cover placed below 1500 m. The absence of similar vegetation over this altitude and the extreme climate conditions of the High Mediterranean Mountains prevents its appearance, contrarily to the High Eurosiberian Mountains.

    [fr]
    L'étude de la chorologie et de l'écologie de la malacofaune terrestre d'Andalousie (sud de la Péninsule Ibérique, a permis de déterminer la présence, dans les cordillères Bétiques Orientales, d'un groupe de reliques climatiques propres à la région Euro-sibérienne. L'écologie et la distribution de deux de ces espèces (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Müller, 1774 et Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeux, 1758 sont exposées ici, et on montre que le principal facteur limitant est la sécheresse estivale caractéristique du climat méditerranéen. La réponse adaptative de dex deux espèces face à la rareté de l'eau durant l'été est déterminée par leurs écophysiologies différentes, Vitrina pellucida (eurytherme utilise aussi bien les écosystèmes des terres basses là où la disponibilité en eau est constante tout au long de l

  10. Spatial (bio)accumulation of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, plasticisers, perfluorinated compounds and metabolites in river sediment, aquatic plants and benthic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John L; Hooda, Peter S; Swinden, Julian; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Organic contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other emerging contaminants (ECs) are known to persist in the aquatic environment and many are indicated as endocrine, epigenetic, or other toxicants. Typically, the study of PPCPs/ECs in the aquatic environment is limited to their occurrence dissolved in river water. In this study, accumulation and spatial distribution of thirteen PPCPs/ECs were assessed in aquatic sediment (n = 23), periphyton (biofilm, n = 8), plants Callitriche sp. (n = 8) and Potamogeton sp. (n = 7) as well as amphipod crustaceans (Gammarus pulex, n = 10) and aquatic snails (Bithynia tentaculata, n = 9). All samples (n = 65) were collected from the Hogsmill, Blackwater and Bourne Rivers in southern England. Targeted PPCPs/ECs included pharmaceuticals, plasticisers, perfluorinated compounds, illicit drugs and metabolites. Extraction from solid matrices occurred using ultrasonic-assisted extraction followed by an in-house validated method for solid-phase extraction and subsequent liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. Field-derived bioconcentration-factors and biota-sediment accumulation-factors were determined for all studied biota. Residues of studied contaminants were found in all sediment and biota. Concentrations of contaminants were generally higher in biota than sediment. Evidence suggests that the studied aquatic plants may effectively degrade bisphenol-A into its main transformation product hydroxyacetophenone, potentially mediated by cytochrome p450 and internalisation of contaminants into the cellular vacuole. A positive association between both hydrophobicity and PFC chain length and contaminant accumulation was observed in this work. Only PFCs, plasticisers and HAP were classified as either 'bioaccumulative' or 'very bioaccumulative' using BCF criteria established by guidelines of four governments. Contaminants appeared to be differentially bioaccumulative in biota, indicating

  11. Submerged terrestrial landscapes in the Baltic Sea: Evidence from multiproxy analyses of sediment cores from Fehmarnbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enters, Dirk; Wolters, Steffen; Blume, Katharina; Segschneider, Martin; Lücke, Andreas; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hübener, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    deposited during floods in old river channels of the hypothesized Dana River. Instead diatom assemblages indicate rather calm conditions. Between 9.850 and 8.900 cal. BP carbonate rich sediments were deposited under now shallow water conditions consisting of autochthonous carbonates, mollusk shells (especially Bithynia tentaculata) and oogonia of charophytes. The diatom record shows first indications of slightly brackish conditions starting ca. 10.300 cal. BP with the appearance of Mastogloia smithii which is about 2000 years older than the Littorina transgression dated in our record to around 8.300 cal. BP. This marine transgression finally inundated the inland lake and caused a rise of the water level of more than 20 m.

  12. Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seabirds are important in the dynamics of marine ecosystems because they recycle important biomass of lower trophic level organisms. Their faeces and carcasses provide important food sources for terrestrial and benthic scavengers. As a result of the abundance of food resources along the coast of Ghana, common terns ...

  13. Morphology of the paca liver (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Esper Gomes de Figueiredo Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The elements related to the morphology of the liver of paca (Cuniculus paca, the second largest rodent of the Brazilian fauna, were observed; this species present zootechnical potential. Eight animals from the animals sector of Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias – Campus of Jaboticabal – UNESP, which is duly certified by IBAMA as an experimental breeding institute, were used. Through a dissection procedure, it was found that the liver of the paca is located in the cranial portion of the abdomen, immediately after the diaphragm, to which it is connected by the triangular, coronary, and falciform ligaments, having its bigger part located right to the medium plan. The liver of this rodent presents the following lobation: right lateral lobe, right medial lobe, quadrate lobe, left medial lobe, and left lateral lobe, besides the caudate lobe formed by the papillary process of caudate lobe and the caudate process of caudate lobe. Gallbladder is located between the quadrate and right medial lobes. Fragments of this organ were collected, fixed, and histologically prepared, being the samples analyzed through light microscopy. It was microscopically observed that intralobular connective tissue is scarce, basically it consists polyhedral hepatocytes organized into cords interposed between sinusoids and the portal triads are found in the lobe, consisting of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and biliary duct.

  14. Histological description of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) respiratory system

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Marla P.; Nunes, Ana Paula; Minello, Luiz Fernando; Cruz, Luis Augusto X.; Albano, Ana Paula N.; Mondadori, Rafael G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The massive agricultural expansion converted the Cerdocyon thous, a South American native predator, in vulnerable specie. Basic data, such as histological description, are important to raise awareness on animal species, helping on preservation strategies. Considering the difficult in obtain samples, as the euthanasia of wild animals for this purpose is not allowed, data on histology are very scarce or inexistent. The objective of this paper was to provide a detailed histological des...

  15. Reproductive strategy of pouting, Trisopterus luscus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Fernández, Alexandre; Domínguez-Petit, Rosario; Saborido-Rey, Fran

    2008-01-01

    1 page.-- Published in: Comptes-Rendus / Proceedings "8th International Symposium on Reproductive Physiology of Fish (ISRPF)", Saint-Malo, France, 3-8 juin 2007, Équipe "Reproduction des Poissons" de l’INRA (éd).

  16. Topografia vertebromedular de irara (Eira barbara Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Adami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Um cadáver macho, adulto de irara (Eira barbara foi cedido pelo Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (Cetas, localizado em Salvador/Bahia, ao Setor de Anatomia Veterinária da Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Federal da Bahia. Trata-se de um mamífero carnívoro que pertence à Família Mustelidae e Subfamília Mustelinae que contém o Gênero Eira, representado apenas pela Espécie Eira barbara. Objetivamos a investigação da topografia vertebromedular do espécime e assim verificar a relação da medula espinal com o canal vertebral; a identificação, origem, emergência e quantificação dos nervos espinhais relacionados com a medula espinal. Pesquisa número 43245-1 autorizada pelo Sistema de Autorização e Informação em Biodiversidade (Sisbio-ICMBio/IBAMA. O exemplar foi fixado em solução de formaldeído a 10% e posteriormente dissecado e radiografado. Foram identificados oito pares de nervos espinhais cervicais, quatorze torácicos e na porção lombossacral da medula espinhal seis nervos espinais lombares, três sacrais e mais de três nervos espinhais caudais. O término da medula espinal ocorreu no nível quinta vértebra lombar. Os oito segmentos medulares cervicais localizaram-se entre a primeira e sétima vértebras cervicais. Os quatorze nervos espinais torácicos originaram-se na porção cranial das vértebras respectivas. Os segmentos medulares lombares, sacrais e caudais restringiram-se à região lombar da coluna vertebral. O deslocamento cranial dos segmentos medulares foi observado no oitavo cervical, terceiro, quarto e quinto lombares e todos os segmentos sacrais e caudais. As informações obtidas poderão ser utilizadas para análises comparativas com as demais espécies e com a adoção de medidas que visem proporcionar o bem-estar animal e a preservação da espécie.

  17. Reptilia, Testudines, Kinosternidae, Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1766: Distribution extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides is the only subspecies of K. scorpioides with a South American distribution.We report the third known register of this taxon for the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, representing the first record from theAripuanã River basin. This point is at 390 km and 910 km western from the two previously known records of this species inMato Grosso, reinforcing the importance of inventories of K. s. scorpioides.

  18. Morfologia da laringe em Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Souza Junior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Cerdocyon thous (cachorro-do-mato é o canídeo silvestre mais comum em território sul-americano. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a morfologia macroscópica, microscópica e comparada da laringe nesta espécie. Para tal, as laringes de dezesseis espécimes (quatro machos e doze fêmeas foram analisadas quanto à topografia, forma, morfometria, musculatura intrínseca e histologia. A laringe dispôs-se ventralmente ao áxis e foi constituída por uma cartilagem tireoide e outra cricoide (hialinas, uma epiglótica (elástica e um par de ariteoides (mistas. Um par de cartilagens sesamoides foi identificado entre os processos corniculados e a lâmina da cricoide. A morfometria revelou que a tireoide é a maior cartilagem. Não houve sinais definitivos de dimorfismo sexual na laringe de C. thous. O epitélio predominante foi do tipo pavimentoso estratificado o qual sofreu transição para pseudoestratificado cilíndrico ciliado ao nível do terço caudal da tireoide e rostral da cricoide. A laringe de C. thous mostrou semelhança com a do cão doméstico, ainda que o formato das cartilagens tenha apresentado diferenças.

  19. Potentials of Annona muricata Linnaeus (Annonaceae) as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the bioactivity of ethanolic extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) as protectant at different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00g/L). against Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea seeds. Its effect was also investigated on adult mortality, ...

  20. Topografia do cone medular do quati (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Branco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p173 A anestesia epidural é uma das técnicas anestésicas regionais mais utilizadas e com boa margem de segurança, sendo aplicada a mais de 80 anos através de inúmeras metodologias ensaiadas com o objetivo de anestesiar nervos espinhais da região lombar e sacral. Para tanto, faz-se necessário o conhecimento não só dos procedimentos anestésicos como também dos conhecimentos anatômicos da espécie a ser manipulada. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a topografia do cone medular do quati, subsidiando a realização de técnicas anestésicas nesta espécie de carnívoro silvestre. Foram utilizados três animais adultos, machos, provenientes do Criatório Científico – CECRIMPAS, da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária do Centro Universitário da Fundação de Ensino Octávio Bastos – UNIFEOB. Os animais foram fixados e dissecados em toda sua extensão medular. O cone medular tem sua base entre a 5ª e 6ª vértebras lombares e ápice na 3ª vértebra sacral, com comprimento total variando entre 5,2cm e 5,8cm. Assim, concluímos que o local mais adequado para a realização de anestesia epidural no quati é na região sacrocaudal.

  1. Red mullet Mullus surmuletus (Linnaeus 1758) is a demersal marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    evaluación. Ph. D. thesis, University of Las Palmas de Gran. Canaria: 347 pp. PAULY, D. 1980 — On the interrelationships between natural mor- tality, growth parameters, and mean environmental temper- ature in 175 fish stocks. J. Cons. perm. int. Explor.Mer. 39(2): 175–192. PAULY, D. 1983 — Length-converted catch ...

  2. Investigation of a parasitic outbreak of Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish samples were collected from impoundments in the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve in the southeastern lowveld of Zimbabwe and these included the cichlids Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis placidus and Tilapia rendalli, the cyprinids Labeo altivelis and Barbus paludinosus, the clariid Clarias gariepinus, the ...

  3. Histologia do intestino do avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Saviani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de o avestruz (Struthio camelus compartilhar muitas adaptações evolucionárias presentes em outras aves, estes animais apresentam algumas características anatômicas peculiares, como é o caso do seu tubo digestivo em que o cólon é maior que o ceco. Há algum tempo, essa ave tem sido explorada econômicamente e principalmente como fonte alternativa de proteína animal na alimentação humana. O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos histológicos do intestino de avestruzes produzidos em boas condições de manejo ambiental e nutricional. Foram utilizados 13 avestruzes, com 18 a 30 meses de idade, provenientes da empresa Brasil Ostrich, e encaminhados para o abate no Abatedouro Escola da Universidade de São Paulo, Campus Administrativo de Pirassununga. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria e evisceração, foram colhidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do intestino: duodeno, jejuno, íleo e ceco duplo. Os materiais foram processados, corados pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (H-E e examinados em microscopia de campo claro. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as vilosidades estão presentes no duodeno, porém, não existem no ceco. Dos quatro segmentos intestinais examinados, o ceco foi o que apresentou maior número de células caliciformes. Os nódulos linfáticos e os linfócitos foram observados em todos os segmentos examinados. No ceco, os nódulos linfáticos se agregam para constituir a placa de Peyer. O plano histológico dos segmentos intestinais examinados seguiu o padrão observado nos mamíferos domésticos e em outras aves. O conhecimento da histologia dos intestinos desses animais pode oferecer subsídios para a avaliação comparativa de procedimentos de manejo ambiental e nutricional que possam aumentar os níveis de produção e produtividade dessa atividade pecuária.

  4. Topografia do cone medular da paca (Agouti paca, Linnaeus - 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Regina Freixo Scavone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivamos neste trabalho determinar a esqueletopia da terminação do cone medular da paca relacionando com as vértebras lombares e sacrais, visando assim estabelecer parâmetros morfométricos e topográficos do cone medular nesta espécie. Para tanto, procedemos à dissecação, mediante incisão, rebatimento da pele, da tela subcutânea e da musculatura da região dorsal à coluna vertebral, com posterior secção e remoção dos arcos vertebrais para melhor visualização da medula espinhal. Após a individualização do cone medular, registramos os aspectos anatômicos de interesse, enfatizando seu início (base e seu término (ápice em relação às vértebras, e a partir de então efetuamos suas medidas com o auxílio de paquímetro; visando documentar nossos achados, realizamos fotografias e esquemas dos espécimes estudados.

  5. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  6. The feeding ecology of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus) from a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    . INTRODUCTION. Mugil cephalus L. ... on the food and feeding habits of mullet species in some localities of Africa sub-region ..... green algae, protozoan, detritus and particulate organic matter. No seasonal changes in the ...

  7. Threatened fishes of the world: Misgurnus fossilis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartvich, P.; Lusk, Stanislav; Rutkayová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0378-1909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : threatened fishes * Europe * Cobitidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2010

  8. Age and growth of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1958) (Perciformes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apra.v3i3.36389 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  9. Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jatropha curcas yields substantial quantity of seed oil and is growing in importance as a source of biodiesel. In Nigeria, the plant has traditionally been grown as live fences and hedge plants around homesteads and gardens to screen off unwanted sites or protect crops against roaming animals. Traditionally, growers are ...

  10. The existence of Dracunculus medinensis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Turkana, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C N

    1981-01-01

    Dracontiasis has been previously reported in southern Sudan, northern Uganda and north-west Eritrea but this is the first report of autochthonous cases in Turkana, Kenya. Five Turkana tribesmen, three females from the same family, one young boy and an adult male were being treated for guinea-worm at the dispensary in Lokichogio, northern Turkana District. The three women had recently returned from southern Sudan, where the disease is endemic, but the two male tribesmen had only lived in and around the Lokichogio region. The methods used in obtaining water from water-holes dug in dry river beds provide an ideal situation for Dracunculus transmission amongst the tribesmen; this parasite may therefore become a problem in this remote impoverished area.

  11. The mitochondrial genome of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Yao, Chengyi; Li, Lei; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Papilio demoleus (GenBank accession number KR024009) by long PCR and primer walking methods. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 15,249 bp containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The overall base composition of the genome is A (39.31%), T (41.57%), C (11.33%) and G (7.78%) with an A + T-rich region, similar to other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATG in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4, ND4L, Cob and ND1, while ATA for ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5 and ND6 genes. The stop codon was mainly TAA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes, whereas TAG was found in ND1 gene only. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et) with a length of 403 bp.

  12. THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA LINNAEUS FROM THE CAPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ralfsia is physiologically independent of the Patella, and grows far more vigorously when not grazed. Similarly the limpet can survive without this alga, except possibly when very small. P. cochlear. Stephenson (1939) has defined the different zones in the intertidal area of South African shores. Of these the Cochlear zone is ...

  13. Sex Attractant Pheromone of the Luna Moth, Actias luna (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Haynes, Kenneth F; Dossey, Aaron T; McElfresh, J Steven; Allison, Jeremy D

    2016-09-01

    Giant silk moths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) typically are not well represented as larvae or adults in community level inventories of Lepidoptera, and as a result, little is known about their population dynamics. Furthermore, in recent years, many species of silk moths appear to have experienced population declines. Volatile sex pheromones are powerful sampling tools that can be used in operational conservation and monitoring programs for insects. Here, we describe the identification of the sex attractant pheromone of a giant silk moth, the luna moth Actias luna. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses of extracts from pheromone glands of female luna moths supported the identification of (6E,11Z)-6,11-octadecadienal (E6,Z11-18:Ald), (6E)-6-octadecenal (E6-18:Ald), and (11Z)-11-octadecenal (Z11-18:Ald) as the compounds in extracts that elicited responses from antennae of male moths. These identifications were confirmed by synthesis, followed by testing of blends of the synthetic compounds in field trials in Ontario, Canada, and Kentucky, USA. Male moths were attracted to synthetic E6,Z11-18:Ald as a single component. Attraction appeared to be enhanced by addition of E6-18:Ald but not Z11-18:Ald, suggesting that the luna moth pheromone consists of a blend of E6,Z11-18:Ald and E6-18:Ald.

  14. Effects of colour on growth of Oreochromis niloticus (linnaeus 1757 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 days to determine the effects of tank colours (black, blue, pink, green and white) on growth and nutrient utilization in O. niloticus (10.0 g) fingerling. Result indicated that O. niloticus fed and raised in black and green tanks had better growth performance of 26 ± 0.19 g and 25 ± 0.19 g and ...

  15. Tantilla melanocephala (Linnaeus, 1758 (Serpientes: Colubridae en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacciali, Pier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Anteriormente se han citado para Paraguay dos ejemplares procedentes de las cercanías de Asunción (Boulenger, 1894, 1896; Peracca, 1895, sin indicar especimenes de referencia. Tanto Boulenger (1896 como Peracca (op. cit. incluyen algunos conteos de escamas de los ejemplares. Posteriormente, la especie fue citada en reiteradas ocasiones como perteneciente a la herpetofauna paraguaya (Bertoni, 1914; Schouten, 1931; Gatti, 1955; Talbot, 1979, sin precisar datos de localidad o de colecta, mientras que Bertoni (1939 la cita en "Chaco paraguayo", sin otra especificación.

  16. The status of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1975) in Lughu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The condition factor computed for male ranged from 3.5-4.0, while for females it ranged from 3.5-3.9 and for combined sexes it ranged from 3.5-4.0, which means that the fish were in stable condition. The values of fecundity obtained ranged from 189-897 eggs. This alludes that the fecundity is low. The values of feeding ...

  17. Karyotypic analysis of different populations of Carthamus tinctorius Linnaeus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Malik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Carthamus tinctorius L. were analysed. A karyotype formula for each studied population was formulated. Although all samples have 2n = 24, they could be differentiated by their karyotype formula and quantitative parameters of the karyotypes. The chromosomes were assorted into different categories on the basis of arms ratio following Levan et al. (1964. These were further subdivided into different types, on the basis of total length of the chromosomes. Based on an evolutionary point of view, variation in total chromosome length without major changes in the karyotype formula suggests that changes in the amounts of genomic DNA are proportional to the relative length of an each chromosome arm. All samples possessed symmetrical or slightly asymmetrical karyotype. The samples belonging to the same species were showing intra-specific or inter-specific chromosome polymorphism. This finding may provide useful information for Carthamus evolutionary, genetic, and breeding studies.

  18. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-04-01

    The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g ± 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0°C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.

  19. Identification of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isoelectric focusing methodology using LKB 2117 Multiphor 11 electrofocusing apparatus was used for electofocusing and identification of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zilli. The electrographs of the two species suggest clear protein differences producing species specific patterns. There were variations in the protein ...

  20. Visón europeo – Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761)

    OpenAIRE

    Palazón, Santiago; Salvador Milla, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Mamíferos - Orden Carnivora - Familia Mustelidae en la Enciclopedia Virtual de Vertebrados Españoles, http://www.vertebradosibericos.org/. Versiones anteriores: 29-04-2003; 3-02-2004; 20-12-2004; 25-04-2008; 29-04-2008; 6-10-2010

  1. Effect of stocking density on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... experiment and at harvest) from each treatment were analysed in replicates for their proximate composition. There were no significant ... index, crude protein, crude fat, and ash composition of the fish carcass (at harvest). As stocking ... eight 1 m3 experimental bamboo cages at the University of Agriculture ...

  2. The Habitat of Yellow Mouth Turban Turbo Chrysostomus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekendarsi, E.

    2018-03-01

    In general, yellow mouth turban snail Turbo chrysostomus L. 1758 was found in intertidal and coral reef area. This animal is active at night (nocturnal) and settles the coral reef-flats area to do its activity as substrate. In doing its activity, yellow mouth turban snail can be found in the depth of 50 cm until 4 m of tidal area. The adult yellow mouth turban snails are found in great number at intertidal area’s border and at coastal area of coral reef-flats. Methodology that was used in this study is visual analysis (descriptive method), and divided into two parameters which were observed, i.e. abiotic and biotic. Abiotic components that were measured are; Oxygen (ppm), pH, Water Temperature (°C), Salinity (ppm), Ammonia (mg/L), Nitrate (mg/L), Nitrite (mg/L), and Calsium Carbonat (mg/L).Whereas, biotic components that were measured are; substrates, seaweeds, other organisms, and epilithon. The observation’s result of yellow mouth turban snail’s environmental condition showed: abiotic condition of the waters consists of oxygen 3-5 ppm, seawater pH 7-8, seawater temperature 23-26°C, and the salinity of 32-33 ppm. The Habitat of yellow mouth turban snail settled the reef-flats area that is overgrown covered by seaweed Sargassum sp. as the place to do its activity.

  3. Performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as natural coagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    industrial applications or treatment of wastewater to make it acceptable for release or reuse. The type and .... beakers mixing paddle and a gauge for revolution per minutes. (rpm). Three experiments were performed ..... McGraw Hill Publishing Company, 4th Ed., New York. Forkard G, Sutherland J (2003). Development of ...

  4. The feeding ecology of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus) from a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus L.) was investigated in the Lagos Lagoon (high brackish) habitat in Nigeria from February 2004 – January 2006. The highest number of empty stomachs was recorded in October 2004, while the lowest was in December 2005. The highest number of empty stomachs was recorded ...

  5. Cycloartane triterpenoids from the aerial parts of Cimicifuga foetida Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Yin; Zhang, Xian-Min; Li, Yan; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Jian-Chao; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2011-08-01

    Cycloartane triterpenoids, 2',24-O-diacetylisodahurinol-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, 24-O-acetylisodahurinol-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, 12β-hydroxy-25-anhydrocimigenol, cimigenol-12-one, 12β-hydroxy-15-deoxycimigenol, 2'-O-acetyl-24-epi-cimigenol-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, 2'-O-acetylcimigenol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, 25-anhydrocimigenol-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, 2',23-O-diacetylshengmanol-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, and 2',24-O-diacetyl-25-anhydrohydroshengmanol-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, together with eight known compounds, were isolated from aerial parts of Cimicifuga foetida. Their structures were determined by application of spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Biological evaluation of the compounds against human HL-60, SMMC-7721, A549, SK-BR-3, and PANC-1 cell lines indicated that three of these compounds exhibited broad-spectrum and moderate cytotoxic activities, with IC₅₀ values ranging from 6.20 to 22.74 μM. By comparing previous cytotoxic testing data and bioassay results from this study, preliminary structure-activity relationships of compounds with a c imigenol-skeleton can be proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. NILOTICUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) EFFETS DE L'HORMONE : 17-A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans le but de comparer les effets de la 17-a-méthyltestostérone sur les performances zootechniques des souches « Bouaké » (0,011 ± 0,002 g) et « Akosombo » (0,01 ± 0,002 g), deux lots témoins (1 et 2) et deux essais (3 et 4) ont été constitués en triplicata, pour chaque souche. La densité de stockage était de 300 ...

  7. Uniparidade em pacas criadas em cativeiro (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766 Uniparity in pacas bred in captivity (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante quatro anos foram detectadas 25 prenhezes, em 13 diferentes pacas, por meio de ultra-sonografia. Após a detecção ultra-sonográfica, as fêmeas foram separadas em baias individuais para o nascimento dos filhotes e aí mantidas até o desmame. Houve nascimento de apenas um animal por parto, ressaltando a característica reprodutiva de uniparidade, o que sugere a tendência de nascimento de apenas um filhote por parto, nessa espécie.During four years 25 pregnancies were detected in 13 different pacas by means of ultrasonography at a wild animal section. After ultrasound detection, females were separated in individual sets for delivering and kept until weaning of newborns. Only one newborn by delivery occurred, remarking the reproductive characteristic of uniparity, what suggests the trend of only one newborn in each delivery.

  8. Physiological-biochemical status of perch (Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758 and roach in conditions (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758 of excessive anthropogenic pressure on the body of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martseniuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish during the spring and summer period the physiologically-biochemical response of fish to the effect of excessive anthropogenic contamination on the indicators of the maintenance of hormones and glucose in their blood plasma, and the possibility of using these indicators to assess the ecological status of the water body. Methodology. Two Lakes in the city of Kyiv were selected for research, which are characterized by various hydrochemical and toxicological indices. These water objects were Lake Kyrylivske (Opechen Upper – a water body from the system of Lakes Opechen (polluted by the water body and Lake Babyne that is on Trukhanov Island (relatively clean Lake, control. Fishing was carried out in the early spring and in the middle of the summer by hook fishing gear. In laboratory conditions, the total content of thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and cortisol in blood plasma of fish was determined by enzyme immunoassay, using commercial T3-EIA, T4-EIA sets (NPL Granum, Ukraine and DS-EIA-Steroid-Cortisol ("Diagnostic Systems" NGO, Russia using the Rayto RT-2100C EIA Analyzer. The glucose content was determined by spectrophotometrically glucose oxidase method using standard commercial kits "Filisit-Diagnostika" (Ukraine. Statistical data was processed using the programs Statistica 10.0 and Excel programs from the Microsoft Office suite. Findings. In the spring, excessive anthropogenic pressure on the Lake Kyrylivske causes an energy imbalance in fish, which causes the deceleration of catabolic reactions in their tissues. In this period, the perch and roach react to the conditions of existence in the Lake Kyrylivske increase in the content of cortisol in the blood compared with fish from the Lake. Babyne, what can be their reaction to excessive anthropogenic stress. Also, during this period, the low content of thyroxin and triiodothyronine in the perch from the Lake Kyrylivske was noted compared with the Lake. Babyne, which is probably caused by changes in the oxygen and temperature regime during spawning. Increase of thyroxine content in roach from Lake Kyrylivske during the summer period with respect to fish from the Lake Babyne may indicate an increase in the negative effects of toxic substances on the physiological state of fish as water temperature rises. At the perch from the Lake Kyrylivske content of T3 and T4 in 1.19 and 6.22 times, respectively is higher, than that of fish from the Lake Babyne, which is associated with enhanced processes of generating energy in his body, as a result of increased activity of redox reactions, as well as different degrees of oxygen consumption by tissues under complicated conditions of existence. In the summer, in the roach from the Lake Babyne content of cortisol is 2.05 times higher than that of roach of Lake Kyrylivske, which may be the result of a violation of the mobilization of energy compounds by the organism of this species from the Lake Kyrylivske The content of glucose in the blood plasma of the perch from the Lake Kyrylivske was 10.5 mmol/L in the summer, which is 1.43 times higher than that of fish from the Lake Babyne. Such a buildup of glucose can be a mechanism for counteracting toxic substances in the environment. Decrease of glucose content in roach from Lake Kyrylivske is probably the consequence of increased its utilization to ensure the energy homeostasis of the organism under similar conditions of existence. Originality. Inter-species and inter-season differences in the content of hormones in perch and roach, which were under the influence of anthropogenic loading on the water bodies of the metropolis, were established. Practical Value. The obtained results suggest that the characteristics of the thyroxine, triiodothyronine and cortisol content can be characterized by the physiological state of fish, as well as the ecological state of the most water bodies.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758), Trichuris trichiura (Linnaeus, 1771) and HBV infections in Southwestern China: a community-based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peng-Lei; Zhou, Yi-Biao; Chen, Yue; Yang, Ya; Shi, Yan; Gao, Jian-Chuan; Yihuo, Wu-Li; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2015-12-24

    Intestinal helminths do not cause severe diseases in general, however, when combined with other diseases such as immunodeficiency diseases, there would be massive complications. Infections with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) may lead to immunological disturbances and defects of cellular immunity and there is a need of clarification whether HBV infections are associated with infections with intestinal helminths. A community-based cross sectional study was conducted in Tezi town, Puge County of the Liangshan Prefecture, southwestern China from October 23rd to November 3rd, 2014. Four hundred and thirty eight people (median age = 37 years, IQR = 22-49) were enrolled in this study. Modified Kato-Katz thick smear was used to detect intestinal helminths. HBV DNA was quantified to confirm HBV infection. Among the 438 participants, 9.1%, 13.5% and 30.6% were infected with HBV, A. lumbricoides (L., 1758) and T. trichiura (L., 1771), respectively; 7.1% (30/438) were infected with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and 2.3% (10/438) were co-infected with HBV and A. lumbricoides. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (21-30 years versus >50 years: OR = 6.66, 95% CI = 2.15-20.68), drug abuse (OR = 6.96, 95% CI = 1.11-43.90), A. lumbricoides infection (OR = 3.60, 95% CI = 1.48-8.75), fertilization with faeces after disposal (OR = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.04-0.47) and working on a farm (OR = 4.59, 95% CI = 1.44-14.63) were significantly associated with HBV infection. Having toilets at home was negatively related to A. lumbricoides infection (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27-0.98) and T. trichiura infection (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28-0.80). Ascaris lumbricoides was independently associated with HBV infection, and faeces might be the medium of HBV transmission. Improving hygiene conditions and habits are essential to reduce the risks of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections.

  10. BIOMETRY OF PACA NEWBORNS BRED IN CAPTIVITY(AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766 NOTA CIENTÍFICA: BIOMETRIA DOS NEONATOS DE PACA CRIADOS EM CATIVEIRO (AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Carlos Canola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Biometry provides important data on weight and length of wild animal newborns. After ultrasound pregnancy detection, 22 female pacas were separated in individual bails and kept until weaning of newborns. Newborns were measured with a metric tape (between the tips of the muzzle rostrally and the tail distally and weighted in a digital weight scale. Considering males and females, the average newborn length (average length ± standard deviation was 33.37 ± 0.57cm. Among males, the average weight was 33.30 ± 0.52 cm and among females 33.45 ± 0.62cm. Considering males and females, newborns weighted (average weight ± standard deviation 741.14 ± 51.23g. Among males, average weight was 717.75 ± 49.06g and among females 764.53 ± 53.40g. Female newborns are higher and heavier than males, but averages of weight and length of males and females did not differ themselves by the Tukey test (P<0.05.

    Key-words: Agouti paca, biometry, newborns.

    A biometria proporciona dados importantes no peso e comprimento de neonatos de animais selvagens. Após detecção ultra-sonográfica da prenhez, 22 pacas fêmeas foram separadas em baias individuais e mantidas até o desmame dos filhotes. Os neonatos eram medidos com uma fita métrica flexível (entre as extremidades do focinho e da caudal e então pesados em balança digital de precisão. Considerando-se machos e fêmeas, o comprimento dos neonatos (comprimento ± desvio padrão foi 33,37 ± 0,57 cm. Entre os machos, o comprimento médio foi 33,30 ± 0,52 cm e entre as fêmeas foi de 33,45 ± 0,62 cm. Em relação ao peso e considerando-se machos e fêmeas, os neonatos pesavam (peso ± desvio padrão 741,14 ± 51,23g. Entre os machos, o peso médio foi 717,75 ± 49,06g e entre as fêmeas 764,53 ± 53,40g. Os neonatos fêmeas são maiores e mais pesados que os neonatos machos de paca, mas as médias de peso e de comprimento de machos e fêmeas não diferiram entre si, pelo teste de Tukey (P<0.05.

    Palavras-chaves: Biometria, neonatos, agouti paca.

  11. Age determination and validation on otoliths for two sympatric species, Mullus barbatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Mullus surmuletus (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Adriatic Sea

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    Sanja Matić-Skoko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In last few years, there is a strong need to establish a reliable method for age determination and validation on otoliths for Mullidae species in the Mediterranean Sea. In total, 387 specimens of Mullus surmuletus (TL 6.8 to 32.9 cm and 620 specimens of M. barbatus (TL 8.1-22.0 were analyzed. The annual periodicity of annulus deposition was supported by the otolith marginal increment analysis. The annual growth was verified using edge-type analysis. The proportion of otoliths with opaque margins was the highest (>80% in the winter period (December-March. The monthly mean marginal increment showed a single minimum in May and June for M. barbatus and M. surmuletus, respectively. Age validation was done by daily ring counting. A distance measurements analysis revealed that first regular ring appears at distance of 0.78 mm (± 0.104 SD from otolith nucleus and fish age of about 0.83 years for M. surmulets. For M. barbatus first ring appear at 0.70 mm ((± 0.100 SD at age of 0.92 years. The age analysis revealed 4 and 6 age classes for M. barbatus and M. surmuletus, respectively. Predominance of younger age classes (1+ and 2+ was observed for both species. All measured otolith morphometric parameters were linear with fish age. The most precise age estimations were obtained from the otolith width, followed by the otolith length and mass. The growth parameters were estimated by the fit of the Von Bertalanffy growth function. Although, the growth of both species was rapid up to 2 years of age and then slowed, M.barbatus exhibited faster growth. Considering the identified biological differences and their implications, existing management should be complemented by a more holistic, ecosystem approach to regulations, considered separately for each species in order to assure effective conservation measures for this economically and ecologically important fish species.

  12. COMPARISON OF CHITIN STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THREE COMMON WASP SPECIES (Vespa crabro LINNAEUS, 1758, Vespa orientalis LINNAEUS, 1771 and Vespula germanica (FABRICIUS, 1793)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bağrıaçık, Nil; Seyyar, Osman; Baran, Talat

    2015-08-01

    There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mammalia, Myrmecophagidae, Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Cervidae, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758): contribution to the knowledge of the historical distribution in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tortato, Fernando; Althoff, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports historical records of Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the north plateau of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, thus contributing to the knowledge about the distribution of these species. The possible causes of the extinction of Ozotoceros bezoarticus are also discussed as well as management tactics to conserve these species in southern Brazil.

  14. Descriptive macroscopic anatomy of the central nervous system six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcintus, Linnaeus, 1758 and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Silva Araújo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Armadillos of the species Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcintus are xenarthrico is a mammal that inhabits fields and has several eating habits. This study proposes to analise the macroscopic anatomy of the nervous system of the armadillo peba, enabling comparisons with other mammals. Three animals of each species were to donated ICMBio - Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity, the Serra da Capivara National Park, authorized by SISBIO 22826-01, victims of poaching and they had died. The animals were stored in Histology and Embryology Laboratory of the Morphology Department of Health Sciences Center of the Federal University of Piauí. Initially, they were fixed with 10% buffered formalin for 24 hours and then dissected for observation of the organs forming the central nervous system. The central nervous system Armadillo consists of the brain and spinal cord. The macroscopic morphology, the central nervous system Armadillo resembles those of other mammals, however, anatomical features found in the brain and spinal cord suggest a higher olfactory expression and motor skills.

  15. Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Scotia Arc, South Atlantic Ocean. I. The genus Alcyonium Linnaeus, 1758

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, C.; Ramil, F.; Ofwegen, van L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Three new species of Alcyonium collected by the Spanish Antarctic Expeditions "Antártida 8611" and "Bentart 95" are described and figured: Alcyonium paucilobulatum, A. grandis and A. southgeorgiensis. Another two species, A. antarcticum Wright & Studer, 1889, and Alcyonium sollasi Wright & Studer,

  16. Two Records of large specimens of Fire Salamander Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Caudata in Bulgaria

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    ALEXANDER PULEV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two particularly large specimens of Fire Salamander have been registered in southwestern Bulgaria in late winter/early spring. Both of them are adult females with total body length 231 mm, and 219 mm. The two specimens recorded are the largest ones found in Bulgaria so far. Their dimensions are impressive for the entire range of the species. Both specimens have been found during the day in a sunny and dry weather, which has not been registered by other researchers in the cold half of the year in Bulgaria. The winter activity of the species has been confirmed.

  17. Age and growth in Phocoena phocoena Linnaeus, 1758 (Cetacea, Odontoceti) from the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utrecht, van W.L.

    1978-01-01

    Data and material are collected from 106 Harbour Porpoises (P. phocoena) from the southern part of the North Sea. All animals are accidentally caught or found stranded. The greatest length for males in the sample is 151 cm, for females 186 cm. For detailed analysis of body measurements, 30 males and

  18. Modeling the effect of climate change to the potential invasion range of Piper aduncum Linnaeus

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    J.C. Paquit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of invasive plant species on biodiversity is one of most important subject of inquiry at present. In many parts of the world, the alarming spread of these plants has been documented. Knowing that climate exerts a dominant control over the distribution of plant species, predictions can therefore be made to determine which areas the species would likely spread under a climate change scenario and that is what this study aims to tackle. In the current study, a total of 211 species occurrence points were used to model the current and projected suitability of Piper aduncum in Bukidnon, Philippines using Maxent. Results revealed that the suitability of the species was determined primarily by climatic factors with Bio 18 (precipitation of the warmest quarter as the strongest influencing variable with a mean percent contribution of 22.1%. The resulting model was highly accurate based on its mean test Area Under Curve that is equal to 0.917. Current prediction shows that suitable areas for Piper are concentrated along the southern portion of Bukidnon. Only 9% of the province is suitable for the species at present but is predicted to increase to 27% because of climate change. The central and southwestern parts of the province are the areas of high threat for invasion by Piper.

  19. Cardiovascular flukes (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) in Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758 from the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Erica; Negrisolo, Enrico; Cassini, Rudi; Garofalo, Luisa; Poppi, Lisa; Tessarin, Cinzia; Marcer, Federica

    2017-10-10

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents one of the most important neritic foraging grounds for the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta L. in the Mediterranean Sea. Four genera of blood flukes with variable prevalence and pathogenic impact have been reported worldwide in this species. Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Amphiorchis Price, 1934 are the only two genera reported in Mediterranean waters; however, updated data describing spirorchiidiasis in the central and eastern Mediterranean and infection prevalence are still lacking. This work aimed to investigate the presence and pathology of spirorchiidiasis in C. caretta in the Mediterranean Sea. One hundred sixty-eight animals stranded along the northwestern Adriatic coast between 2009 and 2015 were submitted to necropsy and subsequent analyses for the detection of adult flukes, detection of eggs in the faeces and spleen and histopathology. Molecular analyses were carried out on hosts (mitochondrial D-loop) and parasites (28S gene and ITS2 spacer) to trace the turtle origins and identify the fluke phylogenetic relationships. Spirorchiidiasis was detected in 16.7% of the animals. Hapalotrema mistroides (Monticelli, 1899) and Neospirorchis sp. were found in twenty-six and ten cases, respectively. Adult flukes were found in six cases, while eggs were detectable through copromicroscopic examination for all infected turtles, and the results for the detection of eggs in the spleen agreed with the copromicroscopic analysis. Only mild lesions were observed. Eggs of types 1 and 3 were grossly visible in the gastrointestinal mucosa, vasculitis was rarely observed in the heart and great vessels, and multifocal granulomas were widespread in the tissues. Molecular identification unambiguously assigned the spirorchiid samples to H. mistroides and Neospirorchis sp. Genetic characterization of loggerhead mtDNA pointed to a Mediterranean origin of the turtle hosts. This survey provides new data on the spread of spirorchiidiasis in the Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtle population and reports for the first time the presence of Neospirorchis spp. in this basin. The infections did not have a causal effect on the death nor a strong impact on the general health status of the animals.

  20. Monogenoidea en Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766 de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana

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    Leslie Córdova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la diversidad de parásitos monogenoideos como un carácter indepen- diente, esperando que por su alta especifi cidad, éstos parásitos puedan caracterizar las poblaciones de sus hospederos, la piraña blanca, Serrasalmus rhombeus . El estudio se llevó acabo en cuatro sub-cuencas de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana (Iténez, Beni, Madre de Dios e Ichilo; se obtuvie- ron 1135 parásitos, los cuales fueron agrupados en seis géneros y once especies: Anacanthorus jegui, A. amazonicus , A. rondonensis, A. gravihamulatus, A. sciponophallus, Anacanthorus sp.1 , Anacanthorus sp.2 , Anacanthorus sp.3 ; Notothecium deleastum, N. deleastoideum, Notozothecium teinodendrum; Mymarothecium galeolum; Anphithecium diclonophallum y Enallothecium aegidatum. La elevada diversidad de parásitos encontrada puede deberse a que existe o existió un complejo de especies o poblaciones diferenciadas de Serrasalmus rhombeus.

  1. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da veia cava de paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

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    Sérgio Pinter Garcia Filho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A paca (Cuniculus paca é o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira. Apresenta carne de excelente qualidade, o que incentiva a criação comercial. Além disso, este animal pode tornar-se uma opção válida em experimentação embora poucas sejam as informações detalhadas sobre sua morfologia. Assim, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções cranial e caudal da veia cava de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas excedentes do plantel do Setor de Animais Silvestres do Departamento de Zootecnia da FCAV-Unesp. Os segmentos venosos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram mensuradas as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia e analisou-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva, teste "T" pareado (p<0,05. Em relação à espessura das túnicas estudadas, comprovou-se que os valores da espessura das túnicas íntima, média e adventícia, para todos os animais, foram significativamente maiores no segmento cranial. As camadas das paredes dos vasos apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente devido a uma adaptação à exigência funcional.

  2. Antibiotic resistance and restriction endonucleases in fecal enterococci of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandžurová, A; Hrašková, I; Júdová, J; Javorský, P; Pristaš, P

    2012-07-01

    Two hundred eighty-four isolates of enterococci from feces of wild living chamois from alpine environments were tested for sensitivity to three antibiotics. Low frequency of resistance was observed in studied enterococcal populations (about 5 % for tetracycline and erythromycin and 0 % for ampicillin). In six animals, the population of enterococci lacked any detectable resistance. Our data indicated that enterococcal population in feces of the majority of studied animals did not encounter mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance probably due to spatial separation and/or due to low exposure to the antibiotics. Based on resistance profiles observed, three populations were analyzed for the presence of restriction endonucleases. The restriction enzymes from two isolates-31K and 1K-were further purified and characterized. Restriction endonuclease Efa1KI recognizes CCWGG sequence and is an isoschizomer of BstNI. Endonuclease Efc31KI, a BsmAI isoschizomer, recognizes the sequence GTCTC and it is a first restriction endonuclease identified in Enterococcus faecium. Our data indicate that restriction-modification (R-M) systems do not represent an efficient barrier for antibiotic resistance spreading; enterococcal populations colonized by antibiotics resistance genes were also colonized by the R-M systems.

  3. Parasites and pathological condition in Green mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus, 1758 from western Johor Straits, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur-Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2018-04-01

    This study describes the parasites and pathological condition of infected organ of the green mussel Perna viridis from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly in November and December 2013. Histopathology techniques using Masson's Trichrome staining protocol were performed and the thin sections were observed under light microscope. Result showed that gonad was the most infected organ followed by the digestive tubule, adductor muscle, intestine and mantle tissue. The parasites (apicomplexa) such as spore-like Nematopsis, macrogamont-like coccidian, mature oocyst-like coccidian, unidentified coccidian and protozoan were found in the adductor muscle, gonad and mantle. Meanwhile, the pathological conditions were found in all infected organs except the gill, such as particular melanin deposits in cytoplasm, Rickettsia-like or Chlamydiae organism and bacteria-like inclusions. Haemocytic infiltrations were found in the surrounding connective tissues of all infected organs. However, these light infections are not causing morbidity and mortalityof the green mussel P.viridis. This study provides baseline information on health profile of the green mussel P.viridis. Further investigations are needed particularly on parasite species identification and their ecology. Understanding of the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  4. DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD COUNT OF TENCH Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758 IN CONDITIONS OF THERMAL STRESS

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    Edhem Hasković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Defining the physiological feature provides an understanding of functional adaptation of species to its ecological niche as well as the various forms of stress factors. This paper gives an overview of changes in certain forms of leukocytes (WBC differential under the influence of thermal stress (increased temperature. In our experiment, we used 46 specimens of tench (Tinca tinca fished in the Jablanica Lake reservoir. Specimens had previously been adapted in specially prepared tanks for 20 days.  The control group of animals (16 was exposed to constant water temperature of 10 0C, while in the treated groups (30, the water temperature was gradually risen to 28 0C and, as such, held for 30 minutes. All specimens were aged 2+ and 3+.It was found that the thermal regime change causes adaptive response of tench specimens by increasing the number of neutrophils and pseudoeosinophils but reduction in the number of lymphocytes. Observed were statistically significant differences in the number of segmented granulocytes, pseudoeosinophils and lymphocytes between the control and the experimental group. However, a significantly higher number of segmented granulocytes and pseudoeosinophils was at the experimental group, while in the control group a number of lymphocytes was significantly higher compared with the experimental group. Neither form of leukocytes showed any significant difference between males and females of the experimental group. It is interesting to note that among individuals from both the control and experimental group, eosinophils and monocytes were rarely noticed, while basophils were not found at all. Key words: thermal stress, tench, Tinca tinca, pseudoeosinophils

  5. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus under various dietary conditions

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    Paul A. Ayayee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, fed low-quality (LQD and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA. We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.

  6. Eryx jaculus (Linnaeus, 1758: a new species for the Italian herpetofauna (Squamata: Erycidae

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    Gianni Insacco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a population of the Javelin sand boa Eryx jaculus in Sicilia is here reported for the first time. Observations of live snakes and road-killed individuals have been obtained from the region of Licata (Province of Agrigento, in the southern part of Sicily. Data on the distribution and pholidosis from four specimens are presented. The large area of occurrence of the snake in Sicily, that bears also a local vernacular name suggests an ancient origin of the colonization. The presence of this species, increases the numbers of snakes living in Italy.

  7. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae), curcumin and resveratrol as alternative medicinal agents against metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Ruiz-Ramírez, Angélica; Baños, Guadalupe; El-Hafidi, Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is an obesity-associated collection of disorders, each of which contributes to cardiovascular risk. For patients with MS, it is difficult to follow a diet/exercise regime that would improve their symptoms. Therefore, the investigation of agents that may deal with its more serious aspects is an important medical field for research. Numerous experimental studies have confirmed the important role of medicinal plants or their active components in the prevention and treatment, and in lowering risk factors of MS. As oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the association between obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant components like polyphenols might be useful as a treatment for MS. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L (HSE), rich in several polyphenols, is commonly and effectively used in native medicines against hypertension, diabetes and liver disorders. HSE has also shown therapeutic promise in the prevention of MS in patients, probably due to its polyphenol content. Curcumins, derived from the spice turmeric, and resveratrol, polyphenols found in grapes and red wine respectively, in addition to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, inhibit preadipocyte proliferation, de novo lipogenesis and fat accumulation in liver. Thus, due to their efficacy in the regulation of multiple targets, polyphenols have received considerable interest as potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of MS. This review discusses the therapeutic use of HSE, as well as curcumin and resveratrol, in the context of obesity as an initiator of insulin resistance and hypertension, the two main features of MS, together with the underlying mechanisms of action.

  8. Arterial anatomosurgical segments of the mammary glands in dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, C.R.; Miglino, M.A.; Santos, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty mammary complexes (sixty antimers) from cross bred multiparous bitches, were injected with latex and then studied by means of radiology and dissection. The different anatomo-surgical arterial segments thus obtained were identified and designated according to the anatomical zone of irrigation of each mammary gland as follows: 1. Thoracic segment, by means of the fourth and fifth perforant arteries, penetrates the first mammary gland in 85% of the cases; 2. Thoracoabdominal segment, by means of the sixth and seventh perforant arteries, penetrates the second mammary gland in 48.33 % of the cases. This segment can also be divided as follows: 2.1. Retrograde branches of the cranial superficial epigastric artery that penetrates the second mammary gland in about 51.66% of the cases, as the toracoabdominal cranial segment; 2.2. Terminal branches of the last artery penetrate the third mammary gland in 73.32% of the cases, as the toracoabdominal caudal segment. 3. Inguinoabdominal segment may also possess two sub-- segments: 3.1. Caudal superficial epigastric artery with primary branches penetrating the fourth mamma and the ventral labial branches, penetrating the fifth mamma in 96.66% of the cases, as inguinoabdomninal caudal segment. 3.2. Terminal branches of the caudal superficial epigastric artery penetrates the third mamma in 51.66% of the cases as inguinoabdominal cranial segment. The anastomosis observed in 78.33% of the cases may not have significance in mastectomy [pt

  9. First report of Anatoecus dentatus in domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Linnaeus, 1978 from Southern India

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    Jeyathilakan N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infection is one of the prime causes for morbidity and mortality of ducks in India. Ducks have the habit of wading through the water resources especially paddy fields and feeding on snail which favours occurrence of various parasites. Among the parasites, lice infestation affects growth and productivity of ducks by way of irritation. Lice are well adapted as external parasites and usually are more a nuisance than a threat to their hosts. A nomadic farmer from Mannargudi area of Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu, India who had a flock of 1600 ducks reported continuous death of 700 ducks within a period of one month and brought a dead duck to Dept. of Veterinary Pathology for postmortem examination. Examination of entire body of duck prior to necropsy revealed the presence of live lice in the hairs around the junction of beak and head. About 7 lice specimens were collected and brought to Dept. of Veterinary Parasitology for identification. The lice specimens were processed and identified as Anatoecus dentatus based on the presence of ‘tin opener’ shaped effracter in the male genitalia. This is the first report of occurrence of these lice in ducks from Southern India.

  10. Data on the Wintering of the Rook, Corvus frugilegus Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Corvidae in Plovdiv, Bulgaria

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    Dobromir Dobrev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we report a short summary on the wintering of the Rook in the town of Plovdiv. During our field study we estimated that no less than 29 706 ± 8722 Rooks are roosting in Plovdiv. Our findings revealed that the number of wintering individuals of this species has increased in a ten years period by 35 times in comparison to a previous study and reached a maximum in February when 59 280 Rooks were counted. Further investigation on that matter is needed so that the wintering pattern of the Rooks could be revealed entirely.

  11. Histopathological analysis of tilapia gills (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J E; Christofoletti, C A; Marcato, A C C; Marinho, J F U; Fontanetti, C S

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane vinasse is one of the main residues generated by the transformation of cane into ethanol. Because of the high organic content (COD), high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), low pH, the large amount that this residue is generated (15l for every liter of ethanol produced) and their use as fertilizer on the sugarcane crop, this residue is potentially polluting to the soil ecossystem and by percolation to water ecossystem too. Thus, this study aimed to assess the toxicity of vinasse by analyzing Oreochromis niloticus gills exposed to different dilutions (1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%) in two bioassays. The gills were collected, fixed and analyzed using ultra morphological, histological, and histochemical techniques. After exposure to the vinasse, a statistically significant reduction of the ridges present on the surface of pavimentous cells was observed in one of the bioassays; such structures are responsible for mucus retention, which helps to protect the tissue. In addition, an intumescence of the cells was observed in the treatments with vinasse as well as an increase in the amount of chloridric cells. Some striking tissue changes detected in the treatments were epithelial detachment and loss of integrity of secondary lamellae, causing their rupture and consequent hemorrhage. In the first bioassay, the amount of these changes was statistically significant at the 5% dilution, and the focus of hemorrhage was significant at all dilution ratios. In the second bioassay, the epithelial disorganization was statistically significant only at the 2.5% dilution of vinasse. Moreover, for both bioassays performed, a significant increase in mucous cells was observed when compared with the control. Our results demonstrate the toxic action of sugarcane vinasse, which caused histopathological changes in the exposed animals at all four dilution tested. This highlights the need for caution in the disposal of sugarcane vinasse on the soil, especially due to its capacity for being leached or percolated into water resources, which could seriously damage aquatic fauna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vectorial competence of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus 1762 Rio de Janeiro Strain, to Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy 1856

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    Maria Lúcia Serrão

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy 1856, a nematode parasite, is the etiologic agent of canine heartworm disease and mosquitoes are essential intermediate hosts. Mosquito susceptibility to the worms differ with species, strains and also among individuals of the same strain. To evaluate the degree of susceptibility of Rio de Janeiro laboratory raised strain of Aedes aegypti, we fed mosquitoes on canine blood with different densities of microfilariae (mf. There was no significant difference in the rate of development among the three different densities of mf. Infective larvae were found in the head and proboscis of all mosquitoes provided bloodmeals with different densities of mf after the 11th day post-infection. The infection rate of mosquitoes after ingestion of blood containing 3,000 mf/ml, 5,000 mf/ml and 7,000 mf/ml were 55.3%, 66.7% and 100%, respectively. The vector efficiency indices ranged from 1.6 to 9.3. The finding of L3 stage larvae, high infection rates and vector efficiency indices suggest that Ae. aegypti, Rio de Janeiro laboratory strain, is a potential vector of D. immitis, although of low efficiency.

  13. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758: registro de caso

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    Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de iguana verde o Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012, con talla de 43 cm y peso de 60 g.

  14. Histology and ultrastructure of the integumental chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) (Linnaeus, 1758) skin

    OpenAIRE

    Szyd?owski, Pawe?; Madej, Jan Pawe?; Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between the arrangement of dermal chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) skin and the formation of wild-type colouration, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of chromatophores. The samples of the tokay gecko skin were collected from wild-type colouration adult specimens. Morphology and distribution of chromatophores was determined by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The present study revealed that orange/red coloured skin ...

  15. Histology and ultrastructure of the integumental chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) (Linnaeus, 1758) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowski, Paweł; Madej, Jan Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between the arrangement of dermal chromatophores in tokay gecko ( Gekko gecko ) skin and the formation of wild-type colouration, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of chromatophores. The samples of the tokay gecko skin were collected from wild-type colouration adult specimens. Morphology and distribution of chromatophores was determined by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The present study revealed that orange/red coloured skin of G. gecko contained erythrophores, which were located under basement membrane, and usually comprised deeper situated iridophores and melanophores which were form single layer with iridophores or were occupying the deepest region of dermis. In orange/red coloured skin, erythrophores were the predominant chromatophores. However in blue areas these cells occurred in small numbers or were not noticed at all. In blue pigmented areas predominated iridophores and melanophores. Iridophores were found just under basement membrane, but this superficial location of iridophores occured only in areas without erythrophores. Distribution of erythrophores, melanophores, and iridophores determines the characteristic blue colour of the tokay gecko skin with orange/red dots on the whole body.

  16. Rearing of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758

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    Souza Cecília Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Lymnaea columella, collected in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was reared in our laboratory. The aim of the current study was to standardize a rearing and maintenance technique. Two kinds of diet were tested: fresh lettuce (A and rodent ration + 10% CaCO3 plus fresh lettuce (B. The age for the beginning of oviposition ranged from 27 to 57 days. Ten days after oviposition at 24.7°C, 100% eclosion occurred. The complete life cycle varied from 37 to 67 days. The average numbers of eggs per egg mass were 26.3 and 31.1 with diets (A and (B, respectively. The lettuce and ration fed snails presented a increased growth although the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mortality rate varied from 40 to 64% after 90 days. The maximum longevity was 183 days, 21.5 mm length and 11 mm wide. The methodology to mass breed and maintain these snails was found to be suitable in the laboratory

  17. Screening of antibacterial drugs from marine gastropod Chicoreus ramosus (Linnaeus, 1758

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    Pasiyappazham Ramasamy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the antibacterial drugs from different solvent extracts of tissue and egg of marine gastropods Chicoreus ramosus against clinically isolated human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Different solvent extracts of Chicoreus ramosus was screened for their activity against Vibrio parehaemolyticus (J13300, Aeromonus hydrophilla (IDH1585, Salmonella typhi (C6953, Salmonella paratyphi A (C6915, Vibrio cholerae (IDH5439 and Escherichia coli (H10407 using standard well diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration. Results: The study revealed that the acetone and chloroform extract of both the tissues and egg inhibited the growth of the tested pathogenic bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both the extract ranged from 4 to 12 mg/mL. Conclusions: These results suggest that marine gastropods tissue and egg extract contains comparatively good antibacterial activity.

  18. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758.

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    Neil Crooks

    Full Text Available The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle. No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle. Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species.

  20. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) as biological indicator for environmental pollution in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltai, Miklós; Markov, Georgi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim were to establish the metal (Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, and Pb) levels of red fox liver and the kidney samples (n = 10) deriving from central part of Hungary and compare the results with other countries' data. According to our results the concentrations of residues of the targeted elements (mg/kg dry weight) in liver and kidney samples were, respectively in liver: Cu: 21.418, Zn: 156.928, Ni: 2.079, Co: 1.611, Pb: 1.678 and Cd: 0.499; and kidney samples: Cu: 9.236; Zn: 87.159; Ni: 2.514; Co: 2.455; Pb: 2.63 and Cd: 0.818. Pb levels of Hungarian red fox liver samples significantly exceed the values of Italian specimens' samples, whilst the same element's concentrations of Hungarian red fox kidney samples were higher than the results published in Germany.

  1. A case of partial melanism in Lacerta agilis (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolinský, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, 1-2 (2016), s. 110-112 ISSN 1013-4425 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Lacerta agilis * partial melanism * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2016

  2. Jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758 roadkill in Brazilian Atlantic Forest and implications for species conservation

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    AC Srbek-Araujo

    Full Text Available AbstractWe report the roadkill of a jaguar in one of the longest highways in Brazil (BR-101, in the stretch where this road crosses one of the most important Atlantic Forest remnants in the country: the Linhares-Sooretama block. The jaguar population present in this area represents the very last in entire Espírito Santo state. There is an approved project to the lines duplication of the entire BR-101 Highway and the company responsible by the work has already started the first activities in the state. However, there is no environmental impact assessment already done neither planning for the implementation of measures to avoid or reduce the roadkill risk in the region. Thus, to minimize the impacts associated with the BR-101, we do not recommend its lines duplication along the 15 km stretch traversing the Linhares-Sooretama block. In addition, alternatively, we suggest the deviation of the current route of the BR-101 Highway or the construction of overpasses to fauna in the most critical points, interspersing these overpasses with electronic speed monitoring devices and warning and educational plates.

  3. Anatomical aspect of the hard palate of the Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1766 primates

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    Andréia Luciana Martins Ramos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen hard palates of neotropical primates were studied (Cebus apella, fixed on formaldehyde (10% and preserved in ethylic alcohol (70%, collected according to the International Bioethics Committee. The animals were supplied by the Medicine College Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnica of the University of São Paulo in 1994. They originated from the São Paulo Zoo. They had died naturally. Measurement (in centimeters of the viscerocranium (8 adults and 6 young animals was made, including palatine length (PL, interpremolar distance (ID, intermolar distance (ID, interorbital distance (IDi, and midface height (MH. The palatine anatomy showed complete right crests (7.64 to 1.22, complete left crests (8.07 to 1.71, incomplete right crests (1.71 to 1.43, and incomplete left crests (1.64 to 1.3. The diasten between the lateral incisive teeth was the main anatomical landmark for the anterior end of the crest, and the landmark for the posterior end was the second molar teeth for all the specimens. The palate is very peculiar: mild concave, from the dental arcade to the median line, covered by the non-pigmented mucous tissue, with osseous structure composed of horizontal layers of the maxilar and palatine bones; sub mucous tissue attached to the periosteum and mucous tissue showing relatively prominent palatine crests. The crests appear as a rigid elevation of the mucous tissue, with some variations at the antimers. It may be concluded that the length of the hard palate is strongly related to the maturity of the animal, relative to the interorbital distance, and that the latter is also related to the length of the palate and the labial opening.

  4. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  5. Secondary production of Gammarus pulex Linnaeus in small temperate streams that differ in riparian canopy cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, R.J.M.; Gardeniers, J.J.P.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Variation in the amount of riparian canopy cover affects bioenergetic processes in streams. Effects of canopy opening on environmental parameters including water temperature and the quality and quantity of food resources (leaf litter and/or associated biofilm) are likely to influence detritivore

  6. Comparative Analysis of Nutritional Value of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, Nile Tilapia, Meat from Three Different Ecosystems

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    Fanuel Jim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of protein, lipid, and mineral content of fish meat is necessary to ensure that it meets requirements for food regulations and commercial specifications. The objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of Oreochromis niloticus (L., Nile tilapia, under three different ecosystems: (1 high pollution and high density of Eichhornia crassipes, that is, water hyacinth (Lake Chivero, (2 medium pollution and medium density of water hyacinth (Lake Manyame, and (3 low pollution and low density of water hyacinth (Lake Kariba. Dry matter, protein, lipids, and ash were evaluated by proximate analysis. Minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and pH was determined by a pH meter. Lake Kariba fish had the highest percentage of dry matter, protein, and ash. These qualities were correlated to low levels of pollutants and high oxygen content in the harvest waters. The phosphorus content of fish from Lake Chivero was very high, in tandem with phosphate levels in the harvest waters. In addition, water from Lake Chivero had an alkaline pH, high nitrate, and low oxygen content. The results suggest that effluent from sewage works and fertilizer industries caused pollution and proliferation of water hyacinth, contributing to pervasion of the chemical composition of fish.

  7. TOPOGRAFIA VÉRTEBRO-MEDULAR EM SAGUI-DE-TUFO-BRANCO (Callithrix jacchus, LINNAEUS 1758

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    Luana Célia Stunitz da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of spinal cord morphological studies, their applicability in clinical veterinary during cerebrospinal fluid punction, location of nervous injuries in spinal levels, and epidural anesthesia, this study aimed at analyzing and describing the spinal cord and vertebral-medullary topography in the primate Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset. Ten adult specimens, 5 females and 5 males, with 170g-300g were used. The animals came from a wildlife breeding center and died of natural causes. After fixation in 10% formaldehyde solution, the animals were incised at the dorsal midline, from foramen magnum to the tail base, with removal of epaxial muscles and vertebral arches to expose the spinal cord. Total length measurements from the spinal cord, medullary cone and cervical and lumbar intumescences were performed, as well as skeletopie of all structures. Based on the analyzed material and the technique apllied we concluded that the spine of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus presents standard morphometric and morphological characteristic, and through the medullary cone morphological description, between L2-L5, we suggest that epidural anesthesia in this species should be performed at lumbosacral region.

  8. Morphological variations and sexual dimorphism in Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824 and Chelonoidis denticulata (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudinidae

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    MS Barros

    Full Text Available Chelonoidis Dcarbonaria and C. denticulata are two tortoises which are widely distributed Brazil. Although they occur sympatrically in different areas, C. carbonaria prefers open areas, while C. denticulata chooses forest areas. Significant morphological variations can be observed in these species due to the fact that they occupy a vast and environmentally diverse area. Data on shell shape of captive individuals reveal important differences between the two species, mainly in the plastron scutes, carapace width, and head length. Variation in shape is greater in C. carbonaria than in C. denticulata, which may be associated to a more elaborate and complex mating ritual. The shell shape in C. denticulata is more elongated than in C. carbonaria due to ecological habits. These aspects lead to a greater restriction in shape, limiting variation and dimorphism. In C. carbonaria, the shell opening is larger than in C. denticulata, which affords greater variation in shape. A more elongated shell facilitates movements of C. denticulata in densely forested areas. Yet, this characteristic reduces shell opening, lessening the possibilities of variation in form.

  9. A new species of Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 (Hem. Aphididae collected on Gymnophyton Clos (Apiaceae in Argentina

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    Sara I. López Ciruelos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. (Aphididae, Aphidinae is described from apterous and alate viviparous females collected on Gymnophyton polycephalum (Apiaceae in localities of the Argentinean provinces of La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza. A table with differences of the apterous viviparous females of the new species from the species of Aphis and its close genera Andinaphis and Protaphis known in South America is presented. http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4834FEF4-171C-4EBD-BF91-2137B517491E

  10. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, JUN 30 2015 (2015), 033 ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Central Europe * Danube River basin * Elbe River basin * Oder River basin * fish * host specificity * parasite fauna * species diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.271, year: 2015

  11. Effects of Low Levels of Zinc on the Ovarian Development of Tilapia nilotica Linnaeus

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    Virginia Cariño

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight to ten days posthatch fry of Tilapia nilotica Linn. were exposed to sublethal levels of zinc, 2 mg/l and 5 mg/l. After 30 days, ovarian differentiation occurred in the unexposed fry while gonadal anlage of zinc-exposed fry contained still undifferentiated primordial germ cells (PGC. Normal oogenesis was exhibited by the unexposed ovaries after 57 days. Zinc caused alterations in the egg membrane layers. Histopathological changes as degeneration and hyperemia in treated ovaries were observed under the light and electron microscope.

  12. Population Biology of Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus (Echinodermata in Seagrass Beds of Southern Guimaras, Philippines

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    Joshua Militar Regalado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla is a major grazer found in seagrass beds of southern Guimaras, Philippines. Monthly length-frequency data from January 2008 to June 2009 were used to estimate the growth, recruitment pattern and mortality rate with the use of FiSAT II. The estimated values for the Von Bertalanffy growth parameters L(n/k(asymptotic length and K (growth coefficient were 114.2 mm and 1.08 respectively. Monthly densities ranged from 0.06 to 0.58 per m² with a mean value of 0.26 per m². Monthly biomass ranged from 4.1 to 49.5 grams per m² with a mean value of 21.15 grams per m². T. gratilla density and biomass were observed to be highest during the month of November 2008. The recruitment pattern showed a major broad peak and a minor peak separated by four months. Total mortality (Z from the length-converted catch curve was computed to be 4.74 per year.

  13. First record of the German cockroach Blattella germanica Linnaeus, 1767 in Coquimbo, Coquimbo Region, Chile

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    Natalia Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the first formal record of the German cockroach in Coquimbo and La Serena, Coquimbo Region, northern Chile. Here, I also briefly discussed the sanitary implications that the occurrence of this insect could have in the Coquimbo Region.

  14. Anomalies in the dentition of the Fox, Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758), from continental western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Sinkeldam, E.J.

    1969-01-01

    While studying skulls of Foxes from western Europe for taxonomical purposes, the authors were struck by the high percentage of skulls not showing the normal tooth-formula. However, after a literature survey, it became clear this phenomenon is not rare in Canidae (Colyer, 1936; Hall, 1940; Reinwaldt,

  15. [New record of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), in the urban area of La Pedrera, Amazonas, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Gil, Yesika; Brochero, Helena

    2008-12-01

    Before 2005, Aedes aegypti had not been recorded in the Colombian province of Amazonas. Because this species has been increasing its range throughout Colombia, an entomological surveillance program has been routinely directed toward detecting it presence in Amazonas by the Amazonas State Health Authority. Surveillance data were used as the basis for recording Aedes aegypti in Amazonas Province. Household surveys of Ae. aegypti larvae were conducted by trained personnel belonging to the Amazonas State Health Authority. The following standard larval indices were estimated: house index (HI)--the percentage of premises with positive containers, the container index (CI)--the percentage of positive containers among the water-holding containers, and the Breteau index (BI)--the number of positive containers per 100 premises. Residents were questioned concerning their perception of mosquito presence in their houses. Subsequently, control activities were undertaken to reduce the mosquito's infestation. Aedes aegypti was found in the urban area of the village of La Pedrera. During the first household survey, the indices were HI=29.6%, CI=9.0% and, BI=40.8%. After control activities, these values decreased; however, elimination of the infestation was not possible in this geographical area. The community recognizes the mosquito immature forms in water containers in houses and associated them as vectors of several diseases. The presence of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the village La Pedrera was verified. Aedes albopictus was not found in this area.

  16. Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1766. Primer registro para la provincia del Chaco (República Argentina

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    Calamante, Cinthia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available República Argentina, provincia del Chaco, Departamento General Güemes, ruta Juana Azurduy km 98 (25°28'50"S; 61°37'10"W. Fecha de colección: 12 de diciembre de 2008. Colectores: José Luis Acosta, Cinthia Calamante, Soledad Palomas y Roberto Aguirre. Se colectó un ejemplar macho adulto con una longitud del caparazón (LC de 15,2 cm, que fue depositado en la Colección Herpetológica de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste bajo el número UNNEC 10976 y cuya identidad fue verificada por la Lic. Blanca B. Álvarez.

  17. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  18. Parasite protozoa of importance in public health picked up by Musca domestica Linnaeus in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Martín; Martínez, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo investiga los protozoarios parásitos de importancia para la salud pública transportados por Musca domestica. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre los meses de junio y diciembre de 1998, en los distritos de Comas y San Juan de Lurigancho de la provincia de Lima. Se estudiaron 3014 moscas colectadas en la basura acumulada en la vía pública de los pueblos jóvenes de los distritos mencionados. Las capturas se agruparon en lotes constituidos por un promedio de 30 moscas. Se estudia...

  19. The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio Linnaeus) observed in mangroves in St. John, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C.S.; Pietsch, T.W.; Randall, J.E.; Arnold, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio), the only pelagic member of the frogfish family Antennariidae, is considered an obligate associate of floating mats of the brown algae Sargassum natans and S. fluitans (Adams 1960; Dooley 1972; Pietsch and Grobecker 1987). Between February and April 2010, 20 of these fish were observed in three mangrove-fringed bays in Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, St. John, US Virgin Islands. All of them were clinging to clumps of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera growing on the submerged prop roots of red mangrove trees (Rhizophora mangle) distributed along an estimated total of 2,160 mof shoreline (Fig. 1). All of the fish were at a depth of less than 0.5 meters. Two individuals were seen on one prop root, but the other 18 were solitary. Their estimated standard lengths ranged from about 20 to 100 mm. Littler and Littler (2000, p. 295) published a photograph of one individual in blades of the green alga Ulva lactuca growing on a prop root in Belize. This is the first report of the Sargassum Frogfish living in association with attached algae.

  20. Aspects of spermatogenesis and microscopic testicular morphology in Greater Rhea, Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo E. Freneau

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to study the microscopic morphology of the testicular parenchyma of Rhea americana birds. Fifty-four 2.5±0.5 year-old male adults bred in captivity. were used. During commercial slaughter, samples of testis were collected in November/2005, December/2006 and May/2007, in order to compare possible differences. The samples underwent optical microscopy analysis and measurements of seminiferous tubule (ST total diameters, lumen, epithelium thickness and the relative volume of parenchyma. The ST had circular form in transverse cross sections. November/2005 and December/2006 samples had many types of germinative cells and spermatozoa in lumen, but in May/2007 the samples of epithelium were poor regarding meiotic and mitotic pictures, and it was difficult to find any spermatozoon; in many tubules the lumen was inexistent or diminished. In December/2006 and May/2007 the averages were: tubule diameter 110.3 and 5.3mμ, lumen 52.4 and 4.5mμ, epithelium thickness 57.8 and 0.7mμ respectively. The volumetric proportions were: seminiferous epithelium 75.6 and 75.9, cysts in epithelium 2.1 and 1.0, ST 93.3 and 84.0, interstitium 6.2 and 15.6 respectively. The sperm reserves were: 19.7±2 and 0±0 x109 sperm cells in December 2006 and May 2007 respectively. Microscopic measures of seminiferous tubules, spermatic cells and diameter of the nuclei were presented. These data confirm reproductive seasonality, with breeding season in spring-summer with sperm production. A great variation n parenchyma, when compared breeding was noticeable.

  1. Utilization of shrimp industry waste in the formulation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Cavalheiro, José Marcelino; Oliveira de Souza, Erivelto; Bora, Pushkar Singh

    2007-02-01

    A rapid expansion of fisheries is demanding an adequate supply of efficient, nutritious and inexpensive fish feed, because feed contributes highly to the cost of fish production. Shrimp head, a waste product from the shrimp export industry qualifies as an economical, abundant and good quality protein source for fish feeds. In the present work, shrimp head silage powder, which contained approximately 40% protein, was used as a substitute for fish flour. Four feeds, in the form of pellets, were prepared by substituting shrimp head silage for fish flour at 0%, 33.3%, 66.6% and 100% dietary levels. Other ingredients such as corn, soy, bovine blood, cassava and corn cob flours, soy oil, vitamin premix, salt, and other components also were used in the formulation. A commercial fish feed was used as the control. The proximate composition of these feeds did not differ significantly at p>0.05, except for the protein content of the control feed, which was about 30.6% versus 35.4-36.9% protein in the other diets. No significant differences (p>0.05 level) in weight and length of juveniles fed with the different feeds during a period of 60 days were observed. In all cases, an excellent correlation (0.9950-0.9996) between weight and length of juveniles was observed. No significant difference in growth of juveniles fed on R1, R2, R3, or R4, or the control feed, was observed. Similarly, the proximate analyses of the flesh of juveniles did not present significant differences (p>0.05). The result of the study indicates that the shrimp head silage could replace fish flour as an ingredient in tilapia feed with economic advantages and without sacrificing the quality of the feed.

  2. Morphological and histological study of the forewing of Orthezia urticae (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Franielczyk-Pietyra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wings of Orthezia urticae males were studied. Both ventral and dorsal surfaces of wings were examined under light and scanning electron microscopes. The structure regarded as vein cubitus anterior turned out to be a reinforcement element only. Two elements known as radius sector and media are almost transparent depressions in the wing membrane. Veins at the margin of the fold of the wing anal lobe were not confirmed. Studies indicated a row of sensilla cupola at the beginning of the subcostal ridge. Cross sections of the wing membrane showed a two-layered membrane. The presence of two veins was confirmed in a common stem – subcostal and radius. The change of common stem shape was described. Neither tracheae nor nerves were observed. This is the second paper on cross-sections of wing within Sternorrhyncha.

  3. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Forneris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by H. irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of H. irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes. In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of H. irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B. All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination.

  4. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobiairritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Natalia S; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A; Basso, Alicia L

    2015-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobiairritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobiairritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobiairritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobiairritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published "standard" karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination.

  5. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Forneris,Natalia; Otero,Gabriel; Pereyra,Ana; Repetto,Gustavo; Rabossi,Alejandro; Quesada-Allué,Luis; Basso Abraham,Alicia

    2015-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobiairritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobiairritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobiairritans, as previously described using...

  6. Oxygen dynamics around buried lesser sandeels Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus 1785): mode of ventilation and oxygen requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W; Stahl, Henrik J; Steffensen, John F

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen environment around buried sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) was monitored by planar optodes. The oxygen penetration depth at the sediment interface was only a few mm. Thus fish, typically buried at 1-4 cm depth, were generally in anoxic sediment. However, they induced an advective transport...... down along the body, referred to as ;plume ventilation'. Yet, within approximately 30 min the oxic plume was replenished by oxygen-depleted water from the gills. The potential for cutaneous respiration by the buried fish was thus of no quantitative importance. Calculations derived by three independent...... methods (each with N=3) revealed that the oxygen uptake of sandeel buried for 6-7 h was 40-50% of previous estimates on resting respirometry of non-buried fish, indicating lower O(2) requirements during burial on a diurnal timescale. Buried fish exposed to decreasing oxygen tensions gradually approached...

  7. Manganese effects on haematopoietic cells and circulating coelomocytes of Asterias rubens (Linnaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oweson, Carolina; Skoeld, Helen [Department of Marine Ecology, Goeteborg University, Kristineberg 566, 45034 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden); Pinsino, Annalisa; Matranga, Valeria [Istituto di Biomedicina e Immunologia Molecolare ' A. Monroy' , Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Hernroth, Bodil [The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Kristineberg 566, 45034 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden)], E-mail: bodil.hernroth@marecol.gu.se

    2008-08-29

    Manganese (Mn) is a naturally abundant metal in marine sediments where it mainly occurs as MnO{sub 2}. During hypoxic conditions it is converted into a bioavailable state, Mn{sup 2+}, and can reach levels that previously have shown effects on immune competent cells of the crustacean, Nephrops norvegicus. Here we investigated if Mn also affects circulating coelomocytes and their renewal in the common sea star, Asterias rubens, when exposed to concentrations of Mn that can be found in nature. When the sea stars were exposed to Mn it accumulated in the coelomic fluid and the number of circulating coelomocytes, in contrast to what was recorded in Nephrops, increased significantly. By using the substitute nucleotide, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU, for tracing cell division and by recording mitotic index by nuclei staining, we found that Mn induced proliferation of cells from a putative haematopoietic tissue, the coelomic epithelium. In addition, the haematopoietic tissue and coelomocytes showed stress response in terms of changes in HSP70 levels and protein carbonyls, as judged by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Measurement of dehydrogenase activity, using MTS/PMS, revealed that Mn showed cytotoxic properties. We also found that the phagocytotic capacity of coelomocytes was significantly inhibited by Mn. It was concluded that the exposure of A. rubens to Mn induced renewal of coelomocytes and impaired their immune response.

  8. Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

  9. Gross morphology and anatomy of the large intestine of the paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Paes Bürger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the potential of using the paca as livestock involves understanding the morphophysiology of its digestive tract so its nutrition can be properly managed. The morphological and anatomical aspects of the large intestine of this species were investigated by inspecting material that was fresh and fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde. The material was provided by the Setor de Animais Selvagens do Departamento de Zootecnia da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal – UNESP (FCAV – UNESP. The large intestine of the paca is formed by cecum, colon and rectum, and is located in the abdominal and pelvic cavity near the third or fourth lumbar vertebrae. It was found, in the 10 samples analyzed, that there was no change in the pattern of this arrangement and that this pattern resembles that of mammals in general.

  10. Larval habitats and distribution patterns of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Akratanakul, Pongthep; Nettanomsak, Sommawan; Huntamai, Sataporn

    2003-09-01

    This study was conducted to survey larval breeding habitats and to obtain larval abundance during the dry period covering all 5 geographical zones of Thailand. Our results indicated Aedes aegypri is prevalent all over the country, whereas Aedes albopictus is more restricted to the remote area of the south. Water storage containers, especially water jars, served as a main larval breeding habitats of Ae. aegypti, whereas broken cans and plastic containers are considered primary breeding sites for Ae. alpopictus during the dry period. In addition, Aedes larval indices, container index (CI), house index (HI), and Breteau index (BI) were measured. CI and HI values from the central part were significantly higher than those from other areas (pAedes mosquitos in Thailand. Systematic vector control and vector surveillance programs by public health organizations, if practical, should be continuously conducted to reduce or prevent dengue risk.

  11. Mating behaviour and gamete release in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758) held in captivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z.; Duncan, N.

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to describe the reproductive behaviour of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in captivity. Twenty-four mature gilthead seabream, divided in two tanks, were utilized for the present study. Reproductive behaviour was recorded using submersibles cameras. A total of 67 spawning events were analysed. The mean duration time that gilthead seabream spent spawning was 54 ± 4 min/day, during which mean number of individual spawning events was 5.6 ± 0.2. The mean volume of eggs produced by both broodstocks was 405 ± 13.4 mL with a fertilization rate of 91.6 ± 0.4%. The reproductive behaviour began with a schooling behaviour and then forming light aggregations. From an aggregation or an encounter while swimming freely a female initiated a spawning rush followed by one or more males to gametes liberation. The spawning rush was brief, 1.6 ± 0.5 sec, over an approximately 1.7 ± 0.2 m distance from the tank bottom to the water surface. Pair spawning, between a single female and male, was the most common (71.6%). Group spawning was less common and involved a single female spawning with two males (22.5%) or three males (4.9%). Spawning rushes involving more than one female were not observed. Gilthead seabream in the present study presented a tendency to pair spawn and eggs collected as a “spawn” were actually the sum of many separate spawning events over a short time period. This is the first description of gilthead seabream spawning and the findings help to understand microsatellite based observations of spawning kinetics. (Author)

  12. Anatomy and morphometric aspects of the trachea of Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758: knowledge for emergency procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane L. Pinheiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the morphological characteristics of the trachea of Saimiri sciureus through quantification and measurement of the cartilaginous rings, providing information to facilitate the election of more appropriate endotracheal tube, laryngeal mask or tracheostomy tube for anesthetic and emergency procedures, as it is a species of Neotropical primates most commonly used as biological models, and little is known about their morphology. Nine animals were investigated, being 4 adults and 5 young acquired from the Centro Nacional de Primatas (National Primate Center - CENP - Ananindeua - PA, which died from natural causes and then fixed in aqueous buffered formalin 10%. Saimiri sciureus trachea comprises an average of 32.8 incomplete rings and an average length of 3.74 cm in young animals, while in adults it demonstrated an average of 30.25 rings and average length of 3.67 cm. The shape of the light and its proportion varied along the trachea. Endotracheal tube with a diameter the 2.0 - 2.5mm, laryngeal mask number 1.0 or tracheostomy tube neonatal Shiley number 3.0, can be placed in animals weighing 600g - 1.2 Kg. Given the great importance of the species studied, which is widely used as a biological model, the detailing on the morphology and morphometry of tracheal animal studies provides new approaches needed in respiratory emergency, as well as, facilitates the development of future anesthetic protocols.Estudou-se as características morfológicas da traqueia do Saimiri sciureus através da quantificação e mensuração dos anéis cartilaginosos, a fim de fornecer informações que facilitem a eleição mais adequada de sonda endotraqueal, máscara laríngea ou cânula de trasqueostomia para procedimentos anestésicos e de emergência, visto que é uma das espécies de primatas neotropicais mais comumente utilizadas como modelos biológicos e pouco se sabe sobre sua morfologia. Foram utilizados nove animais, sendo quatro adultos e cinco jovens, oriundos do Centro Nacional de Primatas (CENP - Ananindeua - PA, os quais vieram a óbito por causas naturais e, posteriormente, foram fixados em solução aquosa de formol tamponado a 10%. A traqueia do Saimiri sciureus é composta por uma média de 32, 8 anéis incompletos nos animais jovens e comprimento médio de 3, 74cm, já os adultos apresentam uma média de 30, 25 anéis e comprimento médio de 3, 67cm. A forma da luz e suas proporções variaram ao longo da traqueia. Sonda endotraqueal com diâmetro de 2, 0 - 2, 5mm, máscara laríngea número 1, 0 ou cânula de traqueostomia neonatal Shiley número 3, 0, podem ser colocados em animais pesando 600g - 1, 2 K. Dada a grande importância da espécie estudada, que é amplamente utilizada como modelo biológico, o detalhamento sobre o estudo da morfologia e morfometria traqueal animal, fornece novas abordagens necessárias em emergência respiratória, bem como facilita o desenvolvimento de futuros protocolos anestésicos.

  13. Manganese effects on haematopoietic cells and circulating coelomocytes of Asterias rubens (Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oweson, Carolina; Skoeld, Helen; Pinsino, Annalisa; Matranga, Valeria; Hernroth, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a naturally abundant metal in marine sediments where it mainly occurs as MnO 2 . During hypoxic conditions it is converted into a bioavailable state, Mn 2+ , and can reach levels that previously have shown effects on immune competent cells of the crustacean, Nephrops norvegicus. Here we investigated if Mn also affects circulating coelomocytes and their renewal in the common sea star, Asterias rubens, when exposed to concentrations of Mn that can be found in nature. When the sea stars were exposed to Mn it accumulated in the coelomic fluid and the number of circulating coelomocytes, in contrast to what was recorded in Nephrops, increased significantly. By using the substitute nucleotide, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU, for tracing cell division and by recording mitotic index by nuclei staining, we found that Mn induced proliferation of cells from a putative haematopoietic tissue, the coelomic epithelium. In addition, the haematopoietic tissue and coelomocytes showed stress response in terms of changes in HSP70 levels and protein carbonyls, as judged by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Measurement of dehydrogenase activity, using MTS/PMS, revealed that Mn showed cytotoxic properties. We also found that the phagocytotic capacity of coelomocytes was significantly inhibited by Mn. It was concluded that the exposure of A. rubens to Mn induced renewal of coelomocytes and impaired their immune response

  14. Influence of recovery method and centrifugation on epididymal sperm from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; da Silva, Andréia Maria; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; da Silva, Mariana de Araújo; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation.

  15. Ultrassonografia abdominal de tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika R. Lopes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A ultrassonografia é um método de imagem não invasivo e uma ferramenta importante para o diagnóstico de uma variedade de enfermidades de animais. Neste trabalho foi realizada a técnica de ultrassonografia transabdominal em cinco tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, dois machos e três fêmeas, pertencentes ao Zoológico da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso e acompanhada a necrópsia de um animal morto de causas naturais. Os animais do zoológico foram anestesiados com Tiletamina e Zolazepam (Zoletil® e mantidos em plano anestésico com Isofluorano. Foram realizadas varreduras com transdutor linear (LA332 multifrequencial de 3,0 a 11 MHz do fígado, vesícula biliar, estômago, baço, rins, bexiga e testículos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que existem semelhanças entre a arquitetura esplênica, a textura e ecogenicidade hepática, a posição e a aparência ultrassonográfica da vesícula biliar quando comparado com a dos caninos. Existem diferenças como localização renal, localização dos testículos, espessura da parede do estômago e presença de liquido livre anecóico entre o estômago, baço e rim esquerdo em todos os animais estudados.

  16. Anatomy description of cervical region and hyoid apparatus in living giant anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naida C. Borges

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The giant anteater has specific anatomical adaptations resulting from its ant and termite feeding habits. The unique arrangement of its hyoid apparatus is essential for the ingestion of food. However, its description in the literature is based on fragments and fossils, making it difficult to determine existing anatomical details in live animals. Imaging techniques, which enable the topographical anatomy of animals to be examined noninvasively, provide essential information for the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. The aim of this study is to describe the bone contours in the hyoid apparatus of the giant anteater by means of radiographic and tomographic images. Giant anteaters of varying ages from the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS-GO were used, seven for X-ray exams and two adults for CT exams. The hyoid elements in all the animals were evaluated using the two imaging techniques, and were visualized in the cervical region of C2 to C6, which comprises three paired bones (stylohyoid, epihyoid, ceratohyoid and one unpaired bone (basihyoid. The presence of air in the oropharynx enabled the assessment of soft tissue structures in this region, such as the epiglottis and the soft palate. CT axial sections are of limited usefulness for evaluating the hyoid bones, but enable assessments of the basihyoid bone and its characteristic V-shape. Thus, to analyze the hyoid region in anteaters based on radiographic and tomographic images, one must keep in mind that the stylohyoid, epihyoid and ceratohyoid bones are situated ventrally to the C2 to C5 vertebrae and that the basihyoid at the level of C5-C6 demarcates the transition between the nasopharynx and the trachea. The nasopharynx and oropharynx extend from C1 to C5, and the trachea begins at the level of C6.

  17. [Species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Fagner Luiz da C; Almeida, Katyane de S; Zanetti, André S; do Nascimento, Adjair A; Machado, Cé Lio R; Machado, Rosangela Z

    2006-01-01

    The parasitism of the two giant anteaters adults (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), one male and one female, infected naturally with Eimeria escomeli, E. tamanduae e E. marajoensis was related in the present research. In E. escomeli oocysts were 23.9 +/- 1.89 by 19.7 +/- 1.60 microm and its sporocysts were 11.47 +/- 1.25 by 6.48 +/- 0.80 microm. In E. tamanduae oocysts were 23.52 +/- 0.95 by 20.59 +/- 0.92 microm and its sporocysts were 12.19 +/- 0.65 by 7.15 +/- 0.55 microm. In E. marajoensis oocysts were 13.5 +/- 1.7 by 13.1 +/- 1.8 microm and its sporocysts were 7.4 +/- 0.58 by 5.4 +/- 0.8 microm. Eimeria escomeli was described before parasitizing giants anteater from Bolivia, and it was point out as the first time in Brazil. The presence of E. tamanduae and E. marajoensis parasitizing giant anteaters indicate the possibility of having co-infection of them among animals of the family Myrmecophagidae.

  18. Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 of the brazilian cerrado: hematology and storage effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is a vulnerable species because of progressive habitat destruction, mostly affected by wildfires and car accidents. The increasing number of animals that are attended by wildlife rescue centres reinforces the need of knowledge about haematological parameters, especially for those that inhabit Brazilian cerrado biome. For this purpose and in order to establish reference values for this species and also to compare them with previous studies, haematological analysis of captive giant anteaters from Brazilian cerrado were performed. Moreover, the alterations of blood samples after 24 and 48 hours of storage at refrigeration temperatures (4oC and preserved with two different EDTA concentrations (5% and 10% were studied. Means and standard deviations of haematological parameters analysed immediately after collection were: RBC: 2,07 x106/μL ± 0,40; hematocrit: 38,08%± 5,93; haemoglobin: 11.33g/dL±2.15; MCV:186.52 fL±21.72; MCHC: 29.68g/dL±2.56; MCH: 55.08pcg±5,94; total leucocytes: 8.142/μL±2.441; neutrophils: 5.913/μL±2.168; lymphocytes: 1.460/μL±740; eosinophil: 522/μL±385; monocytes: 247/μL±176; thrombocytes: 123.458/μL±31.362 and total plasma protein: 6.23g/dL±0.49. This data shows evidence of the existence of important differences between these values and others from other areas, either from Brazil or from other South American countries. Those variations might be connected to environment, genetic, nutritional and/or management factors. Regarding the storage effect analysis, it can be concluded that in giant anteaters, haematological analysis can be performed until 24h after collection without any significant alterations on the haematological parameters, except for thrombocytes. Concerning the different EDTA concentrations, it can be concluded that there are no quantitative differences in haematological variables. Nevertheless, relevant morphologic alterations in blood cells can be observed after a 24h storage period, being most noticeable in the leucocytes. Those alterations can lead to misinterpretation of the results, interfering diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

  19. Monogenean parasites of Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus introduced into the River Durance, France

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlátová, Lucie; Ondračková, Markéta; Přikrylová, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2015), s. 323-330 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : non-native fish * invasive species * parasites * sunfish * Monogenea * host introductions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2015

  20. Morphology and topography of the external male genital organs of spotted paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spotted paca (Cuniculus paca is a rodent species from the family Cuniculidae, found in South America, from the Orinoco River Basin to Paraguay. Although widely studied with regard to its morphological and reproductive aspects, still there’re no records on the morphology of the male reproductive system in this species. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate not only the macro and microscopic anatomy of the external genital organs in this species, but also their topography. We studied the external genital organs of 10 adult spotted pacas; 5 specimens, fixed in a 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution, were macroscopically studied and from 5 specimens we collected fragments from the reproductive system, for microscopic analysis. The testicles showed a parenchyma structured in seminiferous tubules and the germinal epithelium rested on its basal membrane. These organs were located in the abdominal cavity, the inguinal path, or within the scrotum. Penis, fibroelastic, was located in the pubic region, in caudal direction. Its glans, coated by keratinized epithelium, were covered by the prepuce and, below this, we identified a slender cartilaginous structure with serrated edges. A couple of bone spurs was located into a bag ventral to the urethra, whose mucosa was lined by transitional epithelium. The epididymal duct was balled up in the head, had a body and tail, and its head was lined by pseudo-stratified stereociliated epithelium, and the tail by simple cubic epithelium; from this, the deferent duct stemmed, lined by columnar stratified epithelium.

  1. Aspects regarding the profile of intestinal microbiota on wild populations of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus, linnaeus, 1758

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    Lucian OPREA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to examinate the profile of intestinal microbiota of sterlet from the Danube River. Genomic DNA was extracted from each gut fish and polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of PCR amplified 16S rDNA to characterise the variability of bacterial populations, the results showed different microbial profiles for 50% of fish. These results demonstrate the potential of PCRDGGE-based analysis for identification of gut microbiota and could contribute to a better understanding of fish ecology.

  2. Larval development in the sand crab Emerita emerita (Linnaeus, 1758) (Anomura Hippoidea), reared in the laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israel, S.; Murugan, T.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Subramoniam, T.; Munuswamy, M.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Larval stages of the intertidal anomuran sand crab, Emerita emeritus (L., 1767) were reared in the laboratory up to the megalopa stage under conditions of 32� salinity, 25-27�C and a 12 : 12 hours light : dark cycle. A total of six zoeal stages and a megalopa stage were recorded with the average

  3. Morfologia, ultraestrutura e morfometria do tegumento da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

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    José G.M.P. Isola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a falta de informações detalhadas sobre a morfologia da paca, sendo o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira, de excelente qualidade de carne e, dada a importância do tegumento comum, inclusive para o bom manejo em cativeiro, e até mesmo estudos como uma opção de animal de experimentação, descreveu-se a morfologia, morfometria e a ultraestrutura da pele de oito pacas (Cuniculus paca machos e fêmeas, mediante a análise comparativa de segmentos cutâneos das regiões cervical, dorsal e medial do carpo. Observaram-se macroscopicamente as características da pelagem. Parte dos segmentos das regiões cutâneas foi analisada à microscopia de luz e parte, à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras da derme, epiderme, camada córnea, perfis das fibras de colágeno da derme reticular e a área dos perfis das células das glândulas sebáceas repletas. Analisaram-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva e teste "T" (p<0,001. A coloração da pelagem da paca é castanho avermelhado com cerdas organizadas em grupos. A arquitetura da cútis e os anexos cutâneos se assemelham aos dos mamíferos em geral, embora haja ausência de glândulas sudoríparas. De acordo com a analise morfométrica, pôde-se inferir que a arquitetura da cútis de pacas machos e fêmeas apresenta diferenças quando comparada entre os sexos e também em um mesmo animal, diferenciando-se entre diversas regiões corpóreas.

  4. Morfologia do sistema genital feminino da paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766

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    Ana Carolina Gonçalves dos Reis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi caracterizada a morfologia macroscópica do genital feminino, de seis exemplares adultos de paca (Cuniculus paca, mediante dissecação das cavidades abdominal e pélvica imediatamente após o óbito. Os ovários apresentam forma ovoide, achatados dorso-ventralmente, de coloração amarela esbranquiçada com pequenos pontos avermelhados em sua superfície; têm localização sublombar, caudal aos rins; estão envoltos por uma rasa bolsa ovárica e fixados pelo mesovário; a tuba uterina é um órgão par, de aspecto sinuoso, contínua aos ovários, estando inserida na mesossalpinge e se estendendo até o início de cada corno uterino correspondente. Os cornos uterinos retilíneos fixam-se à parede abdominal pelo mesométrio e se unem pelo ligamento intercornual na altura da entrada da pelve, onde se posicionam dorsalmente à vesícula urinária; duas cevices estão presentes, embora o septo uterino que as separa seja incompleto, caracterizando presença de dois óstios uterinos internos e um único óstio uterino externo, considerando-se este útero como duplo incompleto. A vagina é um órgão tubular que se posiciona ventral ao reto e dorsal à vesícula urinária e à uretra, não se verificou a presença de vestíbulo e a vagina e a uretra não possuem ponto comum de convergência, abrindo-se, cada uma delas, diretamente na região vulvar, que se apresenta plana, com reduzidos lábios vulvares, apenas o clitóris de forma cônica é pouco proeminente e apresenta duas estruturas pontiagudas em sua região distal. Não se verificaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas mensurações realizadas nos ovários, tubas uterinas e cornos uterinos, ao se comparar os antímeros direito e esquerdo.

  5. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide.

  6. Gross morphology and morphometry of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758 female genital organs

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    Erika Branco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the genital organs of four specimens of young female of Saimiri sciureus was investigated. The animals were bred in captivity at the Centro Nacional de Primatas and had died from natural causes. The vulva was limited by the labium minus and presented a well-developed clitoris which seemed to represent a rudimentary penis. The vaginal vestibule was the first cavity and was very short, presenting a thick muscular wall which extended from the vulva comissure to the vaginal ostium. The vagina was constituted by an elongated and dorsally flattened muscular tube with a thin wall between the vaginal vestibule and cervix. The cervix was short with well-developed musculature. The uterus was simple, presenting a global fundus located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. The uterine tubes were elongated and rectilinear, connected to the ovaries which were large, ellipsoid in shape, and presented a smooth surface.

  7. Oral susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus to Zika virus.

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    MeiZhi Irene Li

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate.To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29 °C and 70-75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe. The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose(50 (TCID(50 assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%; and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective.This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV.

  8. Site-attachment behaviour of Oblada melanura (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Sparidae benthic larvae: a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Kiparissis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The site-attachment behaviour of O. melanura settlers was examined in an estuarine area of western Greece. The approach that was followed included underwater assignments of shoal identities and continuous recording of specific behavioural traits. Variations between ontogenetic stages with respect to the pattern of residence at the sites were quantified via an index (the residence-persistence index (RPI devised for this purpose. Our findings suggest that this species initiates settlement in small shoals that occupy specific sites at the substratum where they reside for various days. This behavioural trait is stage-specific and gradually diminishes as the fish complete metamorphosis, while at the same time they change their social organisation. Such an ontogeny-dependent site-attachment behaviour has not been described before and is markedly different from that described for other members of the Sparidae family.

  9. Gallus gallus domesticus Linnaeus, 1758: Keep safe your domestic fowl from your domestic foul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Biswas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Universally, today the ill effects of pesticides/insecticides in agricultural practices have been well realized due to which a certain percentage of health cautious human population has started to prefer the eco-friendly agricultural products inspite of its high cost. On the other side, majority of us consume protein-rich foods, mainly from animal origin, viz., meat from various origins (goat, sheep, birds, pigs, fish and seafood/shellfish, milk and eggs to obtain our nutritional requirements instantly. Food safety and its systematic distribution are now a days an issue of international concern. The negligence in such issues has resulted various serious consequences especially when the food is of animal origin.

  10. Partição de recursos florais de espécies de Sida Linnaeus e Malvastrum coromandelianum (Linnaeus Garcke (Malvaceae entre Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae e Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Eucerini Floral resource partitioning on Sida Linnaeus and Malvastrum coromandelianum (Linnaeus Garcke (Malvaceae between Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae and Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Eucerini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Ferreira Morato

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The flowering pattern and the visiting bee species on Sida spp. and Malvastrum coromandelianum (L. Garcke were studied in a restricted area at the campus of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. There were differences among plant species but not among individuals in relation to the flowering time along the day and the time at which the flowers were visited by bees. Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure, 1944 and Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira, 1962 were the most frequent visitors. Both species foraged on flowers for nectar and pollen. C. anomalus visited mainly plants with anthesis in the morning and M. cnecomala plants with anthesis in the afternoon. This fact sugests that those species of bees may be showing contrasting foraging strategies and can share the floral resources of Sida and Malvastrum. The males of C. anomalus mate on flowers of Sida and exhibit a behavior known as rendevouz pollination.

  11. Anatomia microscópica e ultraestrutura do joelho da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Alessandra Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A paca (Cuniculus paca, um dos maiores roedores da fauna brasileira, possui características inerentes à sua espécie que podem contribuir como uma nova opção de animal experimental; assim, considerando-se que há crescente busca por modelos experimentais apropriados para ortopedia e pesquisas cirúrgicas, foram analisados e descritos em detalhes a anatomia microscópica e ultraestrutural do joelho desse roedor. Os ligamentos colaterais são constituídos por feixes de fibras colágenas arranjadas paralelamente e com trajeto ondulado. Os fibroblastos formavam fileiras paralelas às fibras colágenas; quanto aos ligamentos colaterais, estes apresentaram citoplasma imperceptível à avaliação por microscopia de luz, entretanto, em análise ultraestrutural verificou-se vários prolongamentos citoplasmáticos. Microscopicamente, as estruturas presentes no joelho da paca assemelham-se às dos animais domésticos, roedores e lagomorfos.

  12. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

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    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  13. Rapid assessment of the sex of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs and larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbová, Iva; Neven, L. G.; Bárcenas, N. M.; Gund, N. A.; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 4 (2009), s. 249-261 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1860 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 58-5352-4-F004; International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 12055/R; Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food(DE) 05OE023/2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * molecular markers * period gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2009

  14. MUSCULAR ANATOMY OF THE PECTORAL AND FORELIMB OF Caiman crocodilus crocodilus (LINNAEUS, 1758) (CROCODYLIA: ALLIGATORIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Campos Lima; Anastácia Vale Leite; André Luiz Quagliatto Santos; Dayane Kelly Sabec-Pereira; Eugênio Gonçalves Araújo; Kleber Fernando Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Among the Brazilian crocodilian, Caiman crocodilus crocodilus is widely distributed, given its adaptation to diverse habitats and their generalist diet. Information about the reproductive and ethological character of this species is abundant, whereas morphological data are still scarce. This study aimed to identify and report the muscles and their origin and the insertion into the pectoral and forelimb of C. crocodilus crocodilus. We used two male specimens, adults, belonging to the collectio...

  15. ANATOMIA MUSCULAR DO MEMBRO TORÁCICO DE Caiman crocodilus crocodilus (LINNAEUS, 1758) (CROCODYLIA: ALLIGATORIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Fabiano Campos; Leite, Anastácia Vale; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Sabec-Pereira, Dayane Kelly; Araújo, Eugênio Gonçalves; Pereira, Kleber Fernando

    2016-01-01

    v. 17, n. 2, p. 285-295, abr./jun. 2016. Dentre os crocodilianos brasileiros, Caiman crocodilus crocodilus apresenta ampla distribuição, haja vista sua adaptação a habitats diversificados e sua dieta generalista. Informações de caráter etológico e reprodutivo acerca desta espécie são abundantes, enquanto dados morfológicos são ainda escassos. Objetivou-se identificar e relatar os músculos e suas origens e inserções nos segmentos da cintura e membro torácico de C. crocodilus cro...

  16. Identification key to species of the flying lizard genus Draco Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Agamidae in Thailand

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    Nattawut Srichairat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A species identification key of flying lizards in the genus Draco from Thailand was constructed based on 521 preserved specimens from collections during 1967–2012 in the Natural History Museum (THNHM, National Science Museum, Technopolis, Pathum Thani, Thailand. Regardless of sexual characters, four characters were used to identify Draco spp. lizards: 1 nostril direction; 2 type of tympanum; 3 pattern of patagium; and 4 snout with or without a series of scales forming a Y-shaped figure. The specimens were identified into nine species—Draco blanfordii, Draco fimbriatus, Draco maculatus, Draco maximus, Draco melanopogon, Draco obscurus, Draco quinquefasciatus, Draco taeniopterus and Draco volans.

  17. POSSIBILITIES OF CULTIVATION OF CHAMELEA GALLINA (LINNAEUS, 1758 CLAM ALONG EASTERN ADRIATIC COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Dupčić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Chamelea gallina clam is among 16 shellfish species commonly present on Croatian fish markets. In the year 2000, European fishermen collected 39,819 tons of this species. The most abundant settlements of Chamelea gallina are situated along western Adriatic coast, however, there are settlements along eastern Adriatic coast especially in the estuaries of Neretva and Cetina, Nin and Novigradsko more areas, as well as along the coasts of islands; Brač, Rab and Susak. Ecological parameters affect growth rates, reproduction and mortality. Due to great temperature oscillations insufficient spat recruitment occurs on occasion. Temperature values determine the time and the intensity of spawning. Hatcheries insure constant and secure spat resource. Adults from brood stock mature during conditioning process, after which they are transferred into spawning tanks for fertilization. Brood stock, larvae, and spat are fed by cultured phytoplankton species.

  18. New metacestodes of gryporhynchid tapeworms (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) from Mozambique, Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Boane, C.; Saraiva, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2008), s. 315-320 ISSN 1525-2647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cestode larvae * Gryporhynchidae * morphology * freshwater fish Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2008

  19. Pertumbuhan dan Perkembangan Larva Musca Domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) dalam Beberapa Jenis Kotoran Ternak

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Rosyad, Abdul; Kinasih, Ida

    2013-01-01

    House fly (Musca domestica) is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly's life history. The research is focused on the development of house fl...

  20. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan larva Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) dalam beberapa jenis kotoran ternak

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani Eka Putra; Abdul Rosyad; Ida Kinasih

    2015-01-01

    House fly (Musca domestica) is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly’s life history. The research is focused on the development of house fl...

  1. Arranjos configurados pelos nervos do plexo braquial no urubu (Coragyps atratus foetens -Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Rodrigues Reina Moreira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo anatômico da origem e distribuição do plexo braquial no urubu (Coragyps atratus foetens foi efetuado em 14 animais, adultos,machos e fêmeas oriundos da região de Araçatuba (SP. Após a fixação em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10,00%, realizou-se a dissecação bilateral da origem dos plexos braquiais e sua distribuição. A análise permitiu verificar, que o plexo braquial do urubu, possui quatro troncos, os quais originam-se dos ramos ventrais dos nervos espinhais cervicais onze (C11, doze (C12 e treze (C13 e dos ramos ventrais dos nervos espinhais torácicos um (T1 e (T2 em 100% dos casos em ambos antímeros. O primeiro tronco parte de C11 nos antímeros direito e esquerdo, e da margem cranial do cordão dorsal partem os nervos subescapular, subcoracoescapular e supracoracóide; em ambos antímeros (100%. O segundo tronco origina-se de C12 em ambos antímeros, dando origem ao cordão dorsal, dele partem os nervos axilar, radial e anconeal (100%. O terceiro tronco do plexo origina-se unicamente de C13 (100% e o quarto tronco de T1 em ambos antímeros (100%. Os troncos de C12, C13 e T1 unem-se dando origem ao cordão ventral, o qual partem os nervos medianoulnar que se divide em mediano e ulnar e os nervos peitorais (100%. T2 emite filamentos que se unem à raiz nervosa de T1, sendo um filamento (35,55% e dois filamentos (64,29% no antímero direito, enquanto que no esquerdo um filamento (42,85%, dois filamentos (50% e três filamentos (7,15%

  2. External Morphology of Adult Citrus Butterfly, Papilio memnon (Linnaeus, 1758) and Seasonal Abundance of the Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ni Win

    2005-10-01

    Sexual dimorphism is obvious in Papilio memnon. The female adult resembles that of Papilio polytes another citrus butterfly species. However, marked difference is observed in the size and red spots on the base of the forewing. The adult male P. memnon is blue black in colour and red spots are present on the base of the underside of both for and hind wings. The win span of sexes ranges from 120mm to 150mm. The breeding season is from end of June to early part of January, the peak being in the month of November. The recorded diagnostic external features of this studied species are described supported by scaled photographs. Seasonal abundance of this species is also mentioned. It is learnt through the internet that a mounted specimen of this species fetched $2.95 in Malaysia. It is therefore concluded that successful rearing of this species in captivity could be of benefit to the country.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758 Living in San Carlos (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Eduardo Troncoso Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies about seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Chile; therefore, this article aims to determine seroprevalence in cats in the district of San Carlos, by ELISA Immuno- Comb® serological technique, and, at the same time, to examine association with variables of sex, age, diet, and habitat. To the effect, 60 cats over 2 months old were randomly sampled. Sera were analyzed using the ELISA ImmunoComb® Biogal Toxo & Chlamydia test kit, which detects specific immunoglobulin G-type antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 100%. The study evidenced that 29 individuals were positive (48.3% seroprevalence; when broken down by gender this corresponded to 9 males and 20 females (39.1% and 54%, respectively. By age, seropositivity was higher in the “Adult” group (76.7%, followed by groups “Over 7 years” (50% and “Young” (25%. With respect to diet, higher seropositivity was obtained in animals fed on mixed diet, as opposed to commercial diet (60% vs. 47.2%. By variable habitat, 16 indoor and 13 outdoor cats were positive (45.7% and 52%, showing statistically significant difference only for the variable age (p < 0.05. Finally, through relating age with seropositivity, a negative correlation was evidenced (r = –0.3, indicating that older individuals had lower seroprevalence. The results show the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats.

  4. Physiological responses of reared sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758) to an Amyloodinium ocellatum outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, M.; Schrama, D.; Soares, F.

    2017-01-01

    . ocellatum outbreak. Using 2D-DIGE, immunological and haematological analysis and in response to the A. ocellatum contamination we have identified several proteins associated with acute-phase response, inflammation, lipid transport, homoeostasis, and osmoregulation, wound healing, neoplasia and iron transport...

  5. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C P Ferreira

    Full Text Available Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva, two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1 and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2: Control (undisturbed, Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM, Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM. Treatments (always one week apart were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment. Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations. Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median at the peak (after 3-9 h, and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural disorders and stress in this bird species, and could also help in their captive management.

  6. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  7. Fecal Ciliate Composition of Domestic Horses (Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758) Living in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek

    2015-11-03

    Species composition and distribution of intestinal ciliates were investigated in the feces from 15 domestic horses living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. Twenty-three species belonging to 14 genera were identified. This is the first study on intestinal ciliates in domestic horses living in Kyrgyzstan. The mean number of ciliates was 14.1 ± 6.8 x10(4) cells ml(-1) of feces and the mean number of ciliate species per host was 6.0 ± 3.2. No endemic or new species were detected. Blepharocorys was the major genus as these ciliates were detected in high proportions. In contrast Holophryoides, Allantosoma were only observed at low frequencies. Recorded ciliate species in this investigation had almost the same characteristics as those described in previous studies. There was no important geographic variation in the intestinal ciliate fauna of equids.

  8. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1987-01-01

    12 new species and 3 new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards from Greece and Turkey are described or defined. The new taxa are: T. (L.) montifer tasucuensis, T. (L.) musensis, T. (L.) vermooleni, T. (L.) lyrion, Tipula (Lunatipula) paravelox, T. (L.) soosi izmirensis, T. (L.) brinki, T. (L.)

  9. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1979-01-01

    Eight new species and three new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards are described and their affinities are discussed. The new taxa are: Tipula (Lunatipula) rocina from Spain, T. (L.) antichasia, T. (L.) hera, T. (L.) klytaimnestra, T. (L.) pythia. T. (L.) caudispina parnonensis, T. (L.) penelope

  10. Preparation and characterization of a Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussel reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson Goncalves

    2010-01-01

    The use of certified reference materials in chemical analysis is an important requirement in quality assurance systems, as it allows the validation of analytical methods and the realization of the metrological traceability of results. Then, it is possible to obtain valid and comparable results not only in space, but also in time. In this study, all the steps for the preparation of a national mussel reference material were attained, from the collection of the bulk material to processing steps such as freeze-drying, grinding, bottling and sterilization. Internationally accepted principles were applied for the homogeneity and stability assessment of the material, using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry as analytical techniques. By means of a collaborative program with participation of Brazilian and foreign laboratories, the chemical characterization of the material was performed. Element content in the mass percentage to mg kg -1 range was determined for 47 elements and some radionuclides, naturally present in the material. With the application of suitable statistical treatment to the data, it was considered that the content of 11 of those elements may be certified: As, Ca, Cl, Co, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, Th and Zn. This study may be considered an important step in the national metrological development, as it shows that the production and characterization of biological reference materials, mussel in particular, is feasible in Brazil, as a tool for quality assurance of environmental and nutritional studies performed in the country. (author)

  11. Thymallus thymallus (Linnaeus, 1758, Ecological Status in Maramureş Mountains Nature Park (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtean-Bănăduc Angela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thymallus thymallus is considered a species of significant protective importance within the Vişeu Watershed. The state of habitats characteristically inhabited by Thymallus thymallus within the Maramureş Mountains Nature Park is balanced between reduced (one third of the lotic sectors where the species was identified, average (one third and good (one third. The excellent conservation status is currently missing for populations of this fish in the Vișeu Basin.

  12. Life history of the common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Actinopterygii: Sparidae from southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Coelho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus, is a commercially important seabream for coastal fisheries in the north and central eastern Atlantic. Age, growth and reproductive aspects of the southern Portuguese population were estimated by analysing 386 specimens ranging in total length (TL from 12.0 to 44.8 cm. Ages were estimated by counting growth bands on otoliths and verified by marginal increment analysis, with specimens ranging in age from 1 to 21 years. The von Bertalanffy growth function was selected as the most adequate model to fit this species' growth, with the estimated parameters being Linf = 47.14 cm TL, k = 0.084 year-1 and t0 = -4.42 year. The gonads were analyzed macroscopically over a one-year period and the reproductive spawning season found to occur from March to July. The length at first maturity for males occurs at 17.58 cm TL and 1.15 years while females mature at slightly smaller sizes (17.29 cm TL and younger ages (1.04 years. The results presented in this study are important for comparing this population's parameters with those of other populations of the same species occurring in other areas, as well as for future studies, for assessing eventual changes in population parameters over time.A bica, Pagellus erythrinus, é uma espécie comercialmente importante para as pescarias costeiras do norte e centro este Atlântico. A idade, crescimento e aspectos reprodutivos da população que ocorre no sul de Portugal foram estudados através da análise de 386 exemplares com comprimentos totais (TL entre 12.0 e 44.8 cm. A idade foi estimada pela contagem de bandas de crescimento nos otólitos e verificada pela análise do incremento marginal, tendo-se observado exemplares entre os 1 e 21 anos. A curva de crescimento de von Bertalanffy foi o modelo mais adequado para explicar o crescimento desta espécie, tendo estimado Linf = 47.14 cm TL, k = 0.084 ano-1 e t0 = - 4.42 ano. As gónadas foram analisadas macroscopicamente ao longo do período de um ano e determinou-se que a desova ocorre entre Março e Julho. A primeira maturação dos machos ocorre aos 17.58 cm TL e 1.15 anos enquanto as fêmeas maturam com tamanhos (17.29 cm TL e idades (1.04 anos ligeiramente menores. Os resultados apresentados são importantes para a comparação desta população com populações de outras regiões, assim como para a comparação com estudos futuros, para a determinação de eventuais alterações nos parâmetros populacionais ao longo do tempo.

  13. Ground temperatures in ice-cemented ground at Linnaeus Terrace, Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Soil temperatures were measured with Campbell 107 soil thermistors. Thermistors were placed at 0, 17, 23 (just above the ice-cemented permafrost) and 40 cm depth. To...

  14. Trophic discrimination factor and the significance of mangrove litter to benthic detritivorous gastropod, Ellobium aurisjudae (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hong Wooi; Sasekumar, A.; Ismail, Mohamad Hanif; Chong, Ving Ching

    2018-01-01

    In stable isotope analysis, the estimation of proportional contribution of carbon and nitrogen from mangrove to benthic invertebrates requires knowledge of the food-consumer trophic discrimination factor (Δ δ13C and Δ δ15N). This study tested the hypothesis that the mangrove gastropod Ellobium aurisjudae can assimilate low quality refractory mangrove litter and aimed to determine the trophic discrimination values (TDV) of C and N isotopes between gastropod and the mangrove producer. The mean Δ δ13C for gastropods fed senescent leaves of the mangrove Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb) Wight & Arn and decomposing mangrove (unknown species from the same site) wood were estimated at 5.3 ± 0.3‰ and 3.2 ± 0.5‰ respectively, whereas for Δ δ15N, these values were 4.2 ± 0.2‰ and 6.0 ± 0.2‰ respectively. The gastropod assimilated refractory carbon from mangrove leaf and wood litter with 49% and 18% efficiency respectively. Rearing experiment of gastropods (n = 25) fed only mangrove wood litter over 5months in the laboratory, showed mean weight increments of 14.8-74.4% depending on the initial animal weight. Significant deviation of the TDVs for E. aurisjudae from the generalized discrimination values for herbivory underscores the need to use specific TDV for the detritivory link.

  15. Effects of glyphosate herbicide on the gastrointestinal microflora of Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Ronald P; McDermid, Karla J; Muehlstein, Lisa; Balazs, George H

    2018-02-01

    In Hawaii, glyphosate-based herbicides frequently sprayed near shorelines may be affecting non-target marine species. Glyphosate inhibits aromatic amino acid biosynthesis (shikimate pathway), and is toxic to beneficial gut bacteria in cattle and chickens. Effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria in marine herbivorous turtles were assessed in vitro. When cultures of mixed bacterial communities from gastrointestinal tracts of freshly euthanized green turtles (Chelonia mydas), were exposed for 24h to six glyphosate concentrations (plus deionized water control), bacterial density was significantly lower at glyphosate concentrations≥2.2×10 -4 gL -1 (absorbance measured at 600nm wavelength). Using a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay, the growth of four bacterial isolates (Pantoea, Proteus, Shigella, and Staphylococcus) was significantly inhibited by glyphosate concentrations≥1.76×10 -3 gL -1 . Reduced growth or lower survival of gut bacteria in green turtles exposed to glyphosate could have adverse effects on turtle digestion and overall health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by {sup 60}CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Gisela A.; Pusceddu, Fabio H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto, E-mail: gisela.martini@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to {sup 60}Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  17. Mercury in the sea turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1958 from Ceará coast, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés F. Bezerra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury concentrations in carapace fragments of the green turtle Chelonia mydas from the Ceará coast in NE Brazil are reported. Concentrations varied from As concentrações de Hg em fragmentos de carapaça de Chelonia mydas no litoral do Ceará, nordeste do Brasil, são reportadas. Concentrações variaram de <0,34 a 856,6 ng.g -1 em peso seco, e foram maiores (média de 154,8 ng.g -1 em peso seco em indivíduos juvenis (n = 22, enquanto que as menores concentrações (média de 2,5 ng.g -1 em peso seco foram observadas em indivíduos adultos/sub-adultos (n = 3. Houve uma correlação negativa significativa entre tamanho do animal e concentração de Hg provavelmente devido a diferença de dieta entre juvenis e sub-adultos/adultos. Fragmentos de carapaça, que constituem substratos não-invasivos e não letais, podem ser importantes para fins de monitoramento ambiental dessas espécies ameaçadas de extinção.

  18. Seminal plasma and sperm proteome of ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Herlon Victor Rodrigues; Rodriguez-Villamil, Paula; Magalhães, Francisco Felipe de; Nunes, Thalles Gothardo Pereira; Freitas, Luana Azevedo de; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; Moura, Arlindo A; Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado da

    2018-04-15

    Ring-tailed coati is listed as a species of least concern in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, however, there has been a sharp decline in their population. The present study was conducted to evaluate the major proteins of both seminal plasma and sperm in ring-tailed coatis. Semen sample was collected from three adult coatis and evaluated for their morphological characteristics. Further, the sample was centrifuged to separate spermatozoa from seminal plasma, and then stored in liquid nitrogen. The seminal plasma and sperm proteins were subjected to one-dimensional (1-D) sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and identified by mass spectrometry. Gene ontology and protein networks were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. Based on sperm concentration and average protein content of the semen, the concentration of protein/spermatozoon was found to be 104.69 ± 44.43 μg. The analysis of SDS-PAGE gels showed 20.3 ± 3.1 and 17 ± 2 protein bands/lane for seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. In-gel protein digestion and peptide analysis by mass spectrometry revealed 238 and 246 proteins in the seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. The gene ontology analysis revealed that the proteins of seminal plasma mainly participated in cellular (35%) and regulatory (21%) processes. According to their cellular localization, seminal plasma proteins were categorized as structural (18%), extracellular (17%), and nuclear (14%) proteins with molecular functions, such as catalytic activity (43%) and binding (43%). The sperm proteins were also involved in cellular (38%) and regulatory (23%) processes, and mainly categorized as extracellular (17%), nuclear (13%), and cytoplasmic (10%) proteins. The major molecular functions of the sperm proteins were catalytic activity (44%) and binding (42%). These results indicated that the seminal plasma of ring-tailed coati has an array of proteins that can potentially modulate several sperm functions, from sperm protection to oocyte binding. However, further studies are necessary to interpret the roles of these major seminal plasma proteins in coatis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The diet of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus 1758) off the Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M R; Martins, H R; Pascoe, P

    1993-01-29

    Stomach contents from 17 sperm whales, 15 males and two females, caught during commercial activities in 1981-1984 in the Azores region were identified and measured. A total of 28,738 cephalopods and 16 fish were represented in the collections. In addition, there were tunicates in two whales and man-made products in three whales. None of the stomachs were empty. Flesh was present in 94.1% and indigestible fragments alone, including mandibles (beaks) of cephalopods, were present in 5.9% of the stomachs. Twelve species of cephalopod were represented by flesh and 40 species were represented by lower beaks. The cephalopod families contributing food to the whales in this region are, in order of their contribution by estimated mass, the Octopoteuthidae (39.8%), the Histioteuthidae (32.7%), the Architeuthidae (12.1%), the Lepidoteuthidae (4.5%), the Ommastrephidae (3.4%), the Pholidoteuthidae (2.1%), the Cycloteuthidae (1.9%), the Cranchiidae (1.7%) and eight other families each contributing less than 1% by mass. Presence of Gonatus beaks in the stomachs show which whales have migrated southwards to the Azores just prior to capture and the presence of a large Megalocranchia species possibly shows which whales have migrated from higher latitudes off Iceland. However, the presence of Teuthowenia maculata shows which whales came north from the West coast of Africa, just prior to capture. The modal mass of cephalopods consumed is 400-450 g which represents 0.00001 of the whales' body mass. 77.5% of the species eaten have luminous organs and 82% of the species are neutrally buoyant. It seems likely that the sperm whale is obtaining 77% of its food by swimming through luminous shoals of slow-swimming, neutrally bouyant squids and only about 23% by chasing faster swimming, larger cephalopods. Cephalopods not previously recorded from the North Atlantic are Onychoteuthis boreali-japonicus, and Histioteuthis bonnellii corpuscula. Histioteuthis ?miranda may have been collected by the whales much further south than the Azores. Species not recorded previously in the diet of sperm whales in the North Atlantic are Ommastrephes bartrami, Gonatus steenstrupi, Histioteuthis ?miranda, H. bonnellii corpuscula, H. meleagroteuthis, Discoteuthis laciniosa, Mastigoteuthis species, Chiroteuthis species, ?Helicocranchia, Liocranchia reinhardti, and ?Liguriella.

  20. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan larva Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae dalam beberapa jenis kotoran ternak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Eka Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available House fly (Musca domestica is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly’s life history. The research is focused on the development of house fly larvae reared with different livestock manures, such as cow, chicken, and horse. As comparison, rice bran were used as control. Results showed that larvae reared with horse manure has the shortest development time (5 days, with lowest larval survival rate (30%, pupal weight (6.8 ± 0.141 g, and weight of female imago (4.9 ± 0.14 g. This finding indicates the lowest nutrition value of horse manure for house flies larvae. Further research is needed to find the effect of manure to variables that directly influence population growth, such as fecundity of female flies and egg survivorship. These additional information on life history will help the design of appropriate house fly population management program for animal farm.

  1. Chemical composition of flesh of diploid and triploid population of tench (Tinca tinca, Linnaeus 1758)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, H.; Vorlová, L.; Svobodová, Z.; Flajšhans, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2005), s. 213-219 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : tench * genome polyploidy * dry matter Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2005

  2. Morfologia e topografia do baço da paca ( Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella F. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A paca é um grande roedor, presente em parte do território brasileiro e na América Latina, cuja importância está na crescente produção comercial de carne exótica e na pesquisa científica como um promissor modelo experimental. Assim, este trabalho objetivou-se descrever a morfologia e a topografia do baço da paca (Cuniculus paca. Foram utilizadas cinco pacas adultas, machos e fêmeas, fixadas em formaldeído a 10% e armazenados em solução salina a 30% para sua conservação. Na paca, o baço tem sua localização relacionada ao estômago, ao fígado, ao rim esquerdo, ao pâncreas e ao omento maior. Possui forma irregular, sendo mais longo do que largo, possui coloração avermelhada-escura e textura lisa. Quanto à descrição histológica, apresenta cápsula de tecido conjuntivo denso que emitiu trabéculas que se projetam no parênquima. A cápsula e as trabéculas apresentam fibras musculares lisas. O parênquima è composto pela polpa branca e polpa vermelha, esta última formada por seios e cordões esplênicos.

  3. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p43 Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  4. Reproductive cycle and sex reversal of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758) in gulf of Tunis (Central Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrad, R.; Cherif, M.; Gharbi, H.; Jarboui, O.; Missaoui, H.

    2010-01-01

    Dans ce travail, nous étudions le cycle sexuel et l’inversion sexuelle du pageot commun Pagellus erythrinus dans le golfe de Tunis. De février 2003 à janvier 2004, un total de 807 individus ont été échantillonnés mensuellement à partir des opérations de chalutage benthique. La longueur totale varie de 7,6 à 28,5 cm. L’espèce a été caractérisée par un hermaphrodisme protérogyne. Le sex-ratio (femelles / mâles) a été de 2,78. La saison de ponte s’étend d’avril à octobre et princi...

  5. Inorganic, organic, and encapsulated minerals in vegetable meal based diets for Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Domínguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Substituting fishmeal (FM with vegetable meal (VM can markedly affect the mineral composition of feeds, and may require additional mineral supplementation. Their bioavailability and optimal supplementation levels depend also on the form of delivery of minerals. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different delivery forms of three major trace elements (Zn, Mn and Se in a marine teleost. Gilthead sea bream juveniles of 22.5 g were fed a VM-based diet for 12 weeks that was either not supplemented with these minerals or supplemented with inorganic, organic, or encapsulated inorganic forms of minerals in triplicate and compared to a FM-based diet. Our results showed that mineral delivery form significantly affected the biochemical composition and morphology of posterior vertebrae. Supplementation of VM-based diets with inorganic forms of the target minerals significantly promoted growth, increased the vertebral weight and content of ash and Zn, enhanced bone mineralization and affected the vertebral shape. Conversely, encapsulation of inorganic minerals reduced fish growth and vertebral mineral content, whereas supplementation of organic minerals, enhanced bone osteogenesis by upregulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp2 gene and produced vertebrae with a larger length in relation to height. Furthermore, organic mineral forms of delivery downregulated the expression of oxidative stress related genes, such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn sod and glutathione peroxidase 1 (gpx-1, suggesting thus that dietary minerals supplemented in the organic form could be reasonably considered more effective than the inorganic and encapsulated forms of supply.

  6. Nanomechanical properties of wing membrane layers in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Caitlin S; Xu, Alan K; Swartz, Sharon M; Gibson, Lorna J

    2015-03-01

    Many insect wings change shape dynamically during the wingbeat cycle, and these deformations have the potential to confer energetic and aerodynamic benefits during flight. Due to the lack of musculature within the wing itself, the changing form of the wing is determined primarily by its passive response to inertial and aerodynamic forces. This response is in part controlled by the wing's mechanical properties, which vary across the membrane to produce regions of differing stiffness. Previous studies of wing mechanical properties have largely focused on surface or bulk measurements, but this ignores the layered nature of the wing. In our work, we investigated the mechanical properties of the wings of the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) with the aim of determining differences between layers within the wing. Nanoindentation was performed on both the surface and the interior layers of cross-sectioned samples of the wing to measure the Young's modulus and hardness of the outer- and innermost layers. The results demonstrate that the interior of the wing is stiffer than the surface, and both properties vary across the wing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Elusive Parnassius mnemosyne (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae: habitat selection, sex determination and sex ratio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašánek, Petr; Bartoňová, Alena; Marec, František; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 180 (2017), s. 561-569 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA AV ČR IAA600960925; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-13713S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Papilionidae * habitat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2016

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS IN BLUE-FRONTED PARROT (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayssa Marley Nóbrega da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetic procedures are commonly used in domestic and wild birds, because of its low cost and fast induction, as long as applied with great precision, which requires specific anatomical knowledge of the site of incision. This study aimed to establish the origin and distribution of the brachial plexus of the Blue-fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva by anatomic dissection of the skin and musculature of 22 specimens (17 males and 5 females from the Wild Animals Screening Center of the Federal District after death by natural causes. The dissection work promoted the isolation of the forming roots of the brachial plexus, as well as its ramifications. The brachial plexus was formed by four trunks, including the ventral spinal cord rami segments from C9 to C10, C10 to C11, C11 to T1 and T1 to T2, which joined into a short common trunk, branched into dorsal and ventral cords. The thin nerves subcoracoideus and subscapularis and the branch to the scapulohumeralis muscle originated from the common trunk. The dorsal cord originated the anconeal, axillaris and radialis nerves, while the ventral cord gave origin for the pectoralis cranialis, pectoralis caudalis, coracobrachialis and medianoulnaris. These branches innervated the muscles of the extensor and flexor compartments of the forelimb, pectoral muscles and overlying skin.

  9. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João C P; Fujihara, Caroline J; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Pantoja, José C F; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3-9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural disorders and stress in this bird species, and could also help in their captive management.

  10. Anatomy of the heart of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758])

    OpenAIRE

    Mariangela de Toledo Barbino; Claudia Marinovic Oliveira; Erika Toledo Fonseca; Phelipe de Oliveira Favaron; Márcio Nogueira Rodrigues; Maria Angélica Miglino

    2011-01-01

    This study has been developed in order to describe the anatomy of the heart of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeu,1758]) fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Fetuses have been collected from three female in late gestation, which were described and photographed macroscopically, trhough light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microscopy. The fetal heart is divided into four...

  11. Anatomy of the heart of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela de Toledo Barbino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has been developed in order to describe the anatomy of the heart of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeu,1758] fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Fetuses have been collected from three female in late gestation, which were described and photographed macroscopically, trhough light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microscopy. The fetal heart is divided into four cavities, it is surrounded by the pericardium, and it has three layers: epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. Foramen ovale has a great importance in the fetal circulation, but it could not be visualized in sections carried out in this study. Through these results we conclude that the hearts of Guinea pig fetuses differ from those of other species in structures such as the cranial vena cava, which is not divided into left and right, and that the walls thickness of left and right ventricles does not differ significantly.

  12. Perkembangan dan Kandungan Nutrisi Larva Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus (Diptera: Stratiomyidae pada Bungkil Kelapa Sawit

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    RACHMAWATI RACHMAWATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hermetia illucens, is used as a reducing agent of palm kernel meal (PKM, as well as one of alternative protein sources for aquaculture purposes. Information about biology of H. illucens is absolutely required in mass production. The objectives of these researches were to study the development of H. illucens including the effect of supplementary food to the adult, and nutrient content of the immature stage. The sample of 20 larvae from each 3 replicates were measured and weighed on 0-19th day (larva and 24th day (pupa from egg hatching. H. illucens adults were fed by water and honey 5% (v/v. Eggs were collected and counted. Nutrient content of immature stage: 5, 10, 15, 20 days old (larvae, and 25 days old (prepupae reared on PKM were analyzed proximately. Dry matter was determined by weight loss on drying at 105 oC during overnight. Crude protein was determined by Kjeldahl procedure (N x 6.25, crude fat by soxhlet (ether extract, crude ash by determining the residue after heating at 550 oC for 4–5 h. Data were analyzed descriptively by average from triplicate. The development of H. illucens was shorter than those in previous studies as the differences of abiotical factor. PKM was a suitable medium for development. It was better, however, to fed the adult with honey since it could enhance the fecundity. The young larva certainly contained the best quality of nutrition. To meet the quantity of mass production, however, the use of the elder larva (bigger was suggested.

  13. Origins, distributions, and ramifications of the femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

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    Roseâmely Angélica de Carvalho-Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of nerves making up the lumbosacral plexus is extremely important, because it relates the various evolutionary aspects of animals’ posture and locomotion. Taking into account that the femoral nerve is the largest one in the cranial part of the lumbosacral plexus, one aimed to describe the origins, distributions, and ramifications of femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, comparing them to the literature describing domestic and wild animals, in order to establish correlations of morphological similarities and provide the related areas with means. One used three specimens, prepared through an injection of 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution via femoral artery, for their conservation and posterior dissection. The origins in the right and left antimeres took place in the ventral braches of lumbar spinal nerves 1, 2, and 3. The distributions and ramifications were observed for the major and minor psoas, lateral and medial iliac, pectineus, adductor magnus, sartorius, and femoral quadriceps muscles. Having the origins of the M. tridactyla femoral nerves as a basis, a reframing was observed due to the variance in the number of lumbar vertebrae (L1, L2, and L3. However, a partial morphological similarity was kept with regard to the distributions and ramifications, when compared to the domestic and wild animals taken into account in this study.

  14. The unique sound production of the Death's-head hawkmoth ( Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Gunnar; Fischer, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav; Kleinteich, Thomas; Kühn, Bernhard; Neubert, David; Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wurdinger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    When disturbed, adults of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae: Acherontia atropos) produce short squeaks by drawing in and deflating air into and out of the pharynx as a defence mechanism. We took a new look at Prell's hypothesis of a two-phase mechanism by providing new insights into the functional morphology behind the pharyngeal sound production of this species. First, we compared the head anatomy of A. atropos with another sphingid species, Manduca sexta, by using micro-computed tomography (CT) and 3D reconstruction methods. Despite differences in feeding behaviour and capability of sound production in the two species, the musculature in the head is surprisingly similar. However, A. atropos has a much shorter proboscis and a modified epipharynx with a distinct sclerotised lobe projecting into the opening of the pharynx. Second, we observed the sound production in vivo with X-ray videography, mammography CT and high-speed videography. Third, we analysed acoustic pressure over time and spectral frequency composition of six A. atropos specimens, both intact and with a removed proboscis. Single squeaks of A. atropos last for ca. 200 ms and consist of an inflation phase, a short pause and a deflation phase. The inflation phase is characterised by a burst of ca. 50 pulses with decreasing pulse frequency and a major frequency peak at ca. 8 kHz, followed by harmonics ranging up to more than 60 kHz. The deflation phase is characterised by a less clear acoustic pattern, a lower amplitude and more pronounced peaks in the same frequency range. The removal of the proboscis resulted in a significantly shortened squeak, a lower acoustic pressure level and a slightly more limited frequency spectrum. We hypothesise that the uptake of viscous honey facilitated the evolution of an efficient valve at the opening of the pharynx (i.e. a modified epipharynx), and that sound production could relatively easily have evolved based on this morphological pre-adaptation.

  15. First record red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1785 in the Mediterranean Sea

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    Mevlüt Gürlek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A single male specimen of red lionfish Pterois volitans was recorded for the first time in 13 May 2016 from the Iskenderun Bay, North-eastern Mediterranean, Turkey. The present paper also reports the first record of the red lionfish P. volitans along the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. Westward Extension of the Lionfish Pterois volitans Linnaeus, 1758 along the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gokoglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One red lionfish (Pterois volitans was caught in the Gulf of Antalya on October 15th 2016. The present study, seconf record of P. volitans was reported in the coast of the Antalya Bay, Turkey. Our study shows that P. volitans westward extension along to Turkey Mediterranean coasts.

  17. Retention and removal 137Cs in Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) in dressing and cooking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.; Nakahara, N.; Nakamura, R.

    2004-01-01

    Japanese catfish contaminated by 137 Cs have been used to investigate how the dressing and cook-ing method affect the removal of radioactivity from the fish. During the dressing, 6.0% of the initial 137 Cs activity was removed by washing the live fish, further 30.3% of the activity relative to washed fish was removed by discarding the non-edible body parts (skeletons, fins, visceral mass, liver, kidney etc.) and washing the chopped fish. Fish curry was cooked using various spices, green-stuffs and vegetable oil following a method commonly used in South East and East Asian countries. The cooking process removed a further 61.6% of the 137 Cs activity relative to the activity in dressed fish. Taken together, this normal domestic fish dressing and culinary process removed 74.7% of the initial 137 Cs activity present in the live fish. During the cook-ing, the radioactivity removed from the fish pieces was found to distributed over the ingredients of the curry. The cooked fish pieces retained an average, 38.5% of the radioactivity present in the dressed raw fish pieces. Among the ingredients, the gravy was found to contain an average of 34.8% of the activity of the dressed fish. The activity in green-stuffs was found to vary from 4.0% (in cauliflower) to 7.2% (in potato). It may be concluded that normal home preparation and culinary processes removed the radio-activity from the fish to a great extent. In addition, discarding the gravy and green-stuffs of the curry further reduce the radioactivity intake into the human body. (author)

  18. Otoliths of the wolf-fishes (genus Anarrhichas Linnaeus, 1758) from the Northern Atlantic (Pisces, Perciformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.

    1964-01-01

    While working at the Rijksinstituut voor Visserijonderzoek (R.V.I.O.) at IJmuiden, I received through the courtesy of Mr. C. van Delft some specimens of the three northern Atlantic species of wolf-fishes. At IJmuiden they are brought in by commercial trawlers. The only data in the literature known

  19. Prevalence of Cercariae Infection in Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758 in NorthWest of Iran

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    Abbas Imani-Baran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pond snail Lymnaea auricularia serves as an intermediate host for many digenian species. In West Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran, the cercariae infection investigation was undertaken in L. auricularia from May to November 2010. Of 6759 collected Lymnaeid snails, 370(5.5% L. auricularia snails were identified. Cercariae infection was found in a number of 276 (74.56 % snails. The results showed that removed cercariae from L. auricularia belonged to Echinostomcercariae (96.38 % and Furcocercariae (3.62 % which were found in two out of 28 sites during the course of study. In summer and fall, the highest prevalence of cercariae infection was recorded for both identified cercariae. It is concluded that L. auricularia could be an important intermediate host of large group digenian trematodes in the region, which is necessary to take consideration in the control program of trematode infection.

  20. Thermotelemetric study on the hibernation of a common hamster, Cricetus cricetus (Linnaeus, 1758), under natural circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, R.E.M.B.; Gelder, van J.J.; Lenders, A.

    1989-01-01

    By means of radio-thermotelemetry a study was made of the thermoregulatory patterns during hibernation of a common hamster, Cricetus cricetus (L., 1758) under natural conditions. In the euthermic state, body temperature (Tb) fluctuated between 36.4 and 38.6°C with Tb higher than 37.0°C probably

  1. Frequency sensitivity and directional hearing in the gleaning bat, Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, R B; Guppy, A; Anderson, M E; Schlegel, P

    1989-01-01

    1. The neural audiogram of the common long-eared bat, Plecotus auritus was recorded from the inferior colliculus (IC). The most sensitive best frequency (BF) thresholds for single neurones are below 0 dB SPL between 7-20 kHz, reaching a best value of -20 dB SPL between 12-20 kHz. The lower and upper limits of hearing occur at 3 kHz and 63 kHz, respectively, based on BF thresholds at 80 dB SPL. BF threshold sensitivities are about 10 dB SPL between 25-50 kHz, corresponding to the energy band of the sonar pulse (26-78 kHz). The tonotopic organization of the central nucleus of the IC (ICC) reveals that neurones with BFs below 20 kHz are disproportionately represented, occupying about 30% of ICC volume, occurring in the more rostral and lateral regions of the nucleus. 2. The acoustical gain of the external ear reaches a peak of about 20 dB between 8-20 kHz. The gain of the pinna increases rapidly above 4 kHz, to a peak of about 15 dB at 7-12 kHz. The pinna gain curve is similar to that of a simple, finite length acoustic horn; expected horn gain is calculated from the average dimensions of the pinna. 3. The directional properties of the external ear are based on sound diffraction by the pinna mouth, which, to a first approximation, is equivalent to an elliptical opening due to the elongated shape of the pinna. The spatial receptive field properties for IC neurones are related to the directional properties of the pinna. The position of the acoustic axis of the pinna and the best position (BP) of spatial receptive fields are both about 25 degrees from the midline between 8-30 kHz but approach the midline to 8 degrees at 45 kHz. In elevation, the acoustic axis and the BP of receptive fields move upwards by 20 degrees between 9-25 kHz, remaining stationary for frequencies up to 60 kHz. 4. The extremely high auditory sensitivity shown by the audiogram and the directionality of hearing are discussed in terms of the adaptation of the auditory system to low frequencies and the role of a large pinna in P. auritus. The functional significance of low frequency hearing in P. auritus is discussed in relation to hunting for prey by listening and is compared to other gleaning species.

  2. Biometry of the myocardial bridges in mules (Equus caballys x Equus asinus – Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz C. Ribeiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the frequency, width and localization, especially as regards the position and vessel localization, of the myocardial bridges over the ventricular branches of the left and right coronary arteries in mules, through biometric analyses. This information can assist in the understanding of cardiac diseases, especially those associated with animal coronary circulation, and may help to explain the importance and functionality of the myocardial bridges in animals. Mules (n = 30 were used as a model because they are often subjected to exhausting traction exercises. Myocardial bridges were found in 76.6% of the hearts. The number of myocardial bridges ranged from one to seven, and they were most frequently found in the apical portion of the heart (37.5% and in equal frequency on the branches of the left and right coronary arteries.

  3. Intestinal ciliate composition found in the feces of the Cypriot wild donkey, Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Göçmen, Bayram

    2010-01-01

    Species composition and distribution of large intestinal ciliates was investigated in the feces from 13 Cypriot wild donkeys, free-living in the Karpaz national park, Northern Cyprus. We identified 16 ciliate genera and 22 species. This is the first report on intestinal ciliates in Cypriot wild donkeys, and no endemic species were observed. The genus Cycloposthium occurred in all animals. The mean number of ciliates was 3.0+/-2.5 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) of feces and the mean number of ciliate species per host was 6.5+/-4.8. Characteristics of the wild donkey ciliates was almost identical to those reported in other equids from various regions around the world. We thus conclude that there is no pronounced geographic variation in the intestinal ciliate fauna of equids. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758 in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Alborz Protected Area. Our investigation showed that plant materials composed the main proportion of food items of the brown bears in the spring until mid-summer. Insects, especially ants were predominantly eaten in the first half of summer. As approaching to hibernation period in late autumn, fruits played the main role of bear food items having high fat content. We never witnessed bear attack on wild herbivores. Furthermore, we never found remains of wild herbivores except a few livestock remains in brown bear scats during our survey period. Accordingly, we concluded that brown bears were almost herbivorous in the Central Alborz Protected Area. We never found any bear scats or fresh signs in three consecutive years, between first of December until mid of March. Also, no direct sighting of brown bear was reported to us by local people and game keepers within the mentioned period. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the brown bears hibernate for a period of 3-3.5 months in winter in the Central Alborz Protected Area.

  5. Flux of certain radionuclides in the blood-clam Anadara granosa Linnaeus under environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, B.; Patel, S.; Balani, M.C.; Pawar, S.

    1978-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of the radionuclides cesium-137, cerium-144, and ruthenium-106, and of the product nuclide cobalt-60, by arcid clams (Anadara granosa L.) in the Bombay, India, harbor was monitored from 1970-76. During the study period, the input of low level radioactive waste decreased by more than 20 times. The arcid clam showed an affinity for all three radionuclides and cobalt-60. On reaching maximum accumulation, the levels of the radionuclides decreased exponentially with time although the radioactivity was still present in sediments. The ecological half-life for cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 was 3-6 times longer, and that of cesium-137 significantly shorter, than their biological half-lives. Data on tissue distribution and rates of loss of radionuclides are presented. The bioaccumulation of the activation product cobalt-60 was independent of ambient concentration and temperature, unlike that of the three radionuclides. (7 graphs, 28 references, 7 tables)

  6. The lumbosacral plexus of the red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-rumped agouti is a small-sized wild rodent, belonging to the Dasyproctidae family, with great zootechnical potential, and it adapts well to captivity. In order to contribute to the species biology, this study describes the origin of the nerves forming the lumbosacral plexus. Twelve animals (six males and six females were used, from previous experiments. The animals were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and eviscerated after 72 hours. Then, the major and minor psoas muscles were retracted, exposing the nerves forming the plexus. Cotton soaked with 20-volume hydrogen peroxide was placed on these nerves, remaining for 12 hours straight for bleaching and subsequent dissection. The topographical relations of the lumbosacral plexus were grouped into tables and arranged in terms of simple percentage. In 7 cases (58.34%, the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti stemmed from the ventral roots of the last 4 lumbar nerves and the first 3 sacral nerves (Type I – L4-S3, in 4 animals (33.33% it stemmed from L5-S3 (Type II, and in 1 case (8.33% it stemmed from L5-S4 (Type III. The nerves participating of the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti were: lateral femoral cutaneous, genitofemoral, femoral, obturator, sciatic, cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, and pudendal nerve. The origin of the lumbosacral plexus and the spinal nerves making up this plexus in red-rumped agoutis were similar to that described in other rodents, such as rock cavy, lowland paca and spix's yellow-toothed cavy.

  7. Gross Anatomy of Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758) Mouth and Pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the mouth and pharynx of the pampas deer, and to consider its evolutionary feeding niche according to those characteristics. Gross dissections of the mouth and pharynx were performed in 15 animals, 10 adult females and five young animals under 1 year (three males and two females), all dead by causes unrelated to this anatomical region. The upper lip entered in the constitution of a pigmented nasolabial plane. The masseter muscles weighed 43.8 ± 3.5 g and represented 0.23% of body weight, which corresponds to ruminants of feeders intermediate to grazers and browsers. Parotid glands represented 0.08% of the body weight, characteristic that also categorize the pampas deer as belonging to the intermediate feeding group. The dental formula was the same of the domestic ruminants. The upper incisors and canines were absent, and instead of them, there was a dental pad (Pulvinus dentalis). The upper canine teeth were present only in the deciduous dentition. The existence of a brachydont dentition turns Ozotoceros very vulnerable to continuous use as there is no compensatory teeth growth. The particular anatomy of the mouth and lips of this animal was adapted to a very selective feeding, taking highly nutritious sprouts beyond plant category. In conclusion and in addition to previous studies of anatomy of the digestive organs in this species, pampas deer may be categorized as belonging to the intermediate type of feeding. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of free amino acids and their ranking order was the same as in extracts of food pellets, but at much higher concentrations. Based on the free amino acid content, the mussel extract should have stimulated feeding. This indicates that the mussel extract contained compounds that acted as feeding deterrents in omnivorous crucian carp that do not feed on blue mussels in their natural environment. Previous studies have shown that blue mussel extracts act as feeding stimulants in several bottom feeding carnivorous fish. We finally tested betaine (100 mM but the molecule had no significant stimulating effect that has been observed in some other fish species.

  9. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hematimetria manual e automática em jaguatiricas (Leopardus pardalis - Linnaeus, 1758

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    T.D.P. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Aparelhos de automação, cujo uso está estabelecido na hematologia dos animais domésticos, ainda não são empregados rotineiramente em felídeos selvagens. Esse estudo objetivou avaliar a técnica automatizada na contagem de células sanguíneas de jaguatiricas (Leopardus pardalis, comparando-a com a técnica manual. Foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas de oito jaguatiricas, que se submeteram à contagem de eritrócitos, leucócitos, plaquetas e à determinação do volume globular pelo método manual padrão e por meio do aparelho BC - 2800 VET® com a configuração para gatos domésticos. Os resultados foram avaliados por meio do teste t para dados pareados, e as técnicas submetidas à análise de correlação de Pearson. A técnica automatizada demonstrou resultados estatisticamente semelhantes para eritrócitos e leucócitos. Apenas para volume globular houve diferença significativa entre as técnicas manual e automatizada, mas a correlação foi alta. Apesar de não haver diferença significativa entre as técnicas para plaquetas, a correlação foi baixa. Conclui-se que o aparelho BC - 2800 VET® com a configuração para gatos domésticos é uma técnica confiável na realização do eritrograma e do leucograma para jaguatiricas. Para a determinação do parâmetro volume globular, o aparelho pode ser utilizado, desde que se faça a correção. Para a contagem de plaquetas, a técnica manual é recomendada.

  11. Protacanthamoeba bohemica n. sp., isolated from the liver of tench, Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Veverková-Fialová, M.; Fiala, Ivan; Dvořáková, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2005), s. 369-376 ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : amphizoic amoebae * Protacanthamoeba bohemica * morphology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.987, year: 2005

  12. Ultraestructura de esporofitos jovenes de Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus C. Agardh (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales

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    César A. Córdova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el desarrollo anatómico de esporofitos jóvenes de Macrocystis pyrifera obtenidos a partir de cigotos en cultivos de laboratorio. Los talos eran monostromáticos luego de dos semanas de crecimiento y las células eran similares entre sí, fotosintéticas y conectadas por campos de puntuación primarios. A las cinco semanas, los talos eran poliestromáticos y estaban diferenciados internamente en meristodermo, corteza y médula. Filamentos cribosos longitudinales aparecieron en la médula, desarrollándose de la corteza interna y rodeados por una matriz intercelular. Cada elemento criboso presentaba un núcleo, cloroplastos y varios plasmodesmos, los cuales estaban distribuidos más o menos al azar en paredes transversales o agrupados en campos de puntuación primarios en paredes longitudinales. Luego de nueve semanas, los talos eran más gruesos y estaban diferenciados morfológicamente en una lámina, estípite y grampón rizoidal. Además de los filamentos cribosos, aparecieron filamentos menores o «hifas» en la médula. Se discute el desarrollo del esporofito joven y la relación de nuestras observaciones con estudios en otras algas pardas.

  13. The recent population expansion of boarfish, Capros aper (Linnaeus, 1758): Interactions of climate, growth and recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Julie Olivia; Hüssy, Karin; Farrell, E.D.

    2014-01-01

    index only, suggesting spatial connectivity between the Celtic Sea and the Bay of Biscay. The age distributions were similar in both areas and despite the boarfish's longevity of >30 years, are dominated by the age classes corresponding to the years with high recruitment, suggesting that increased...

  14. A study of feeding in some inshore reef fish of the Natal Coast, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detailed quantitative investigation of the feeding habits of seven important Natal inshore reef fish (Epinephelus andersoni Boulenger, 1903, Coracinus multifasciatus (Pellegrin, 1914), Pomadasys olivaceum Day, 1875, Diplodus sargus Linnaeus, 1758, Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1766), Acanthurus triostegus Linnaeus, 1758 ...

  15. Primer registro de Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758 para el departamento de La Paz, Bolivia. Comentarios sobre la extensión de la distribución geográfica para Plica umbra (Linnaeus 1758, (Squamata: Tropiduridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de la especie Plica plica y tres de Plica umbra fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Todos los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Capital de Provincia Ixiamas, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas, Cantón Ixiamas, Capital de Cantón Tahua.

  16. Atividade larvicida do óleo de Anacardium humile Saint Hill sobre Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Karla Rejane de Andrade Porto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial do cajuzinho do cerrado (Anacardium humile sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti. Os extratos hexânico, etanólico, aquoso e o óleo das folhas foram obtidos do material vegetal coletado em fragmento de cerrado. Estes foram testados nas concentrações 1%; 0,5%, 0,25%, 0,125%, 0,05% e 0,0125% diluídas em dimetil sulfóxido 1%. A contagem das larvas mortas foi realizada após 24 horas. Utilizou-se o método Probit de análise para obtenção das CL50 e respectivos intervalos de confiança. Conclui-se que apenas o óleo extraído de folhas de Anacardium humile causa 100% de mortalidade em larvas de 4º estádio de Aedes aegypti nas concentrações até 0,125%, o que parece indicar que os ingredientes ativos estão na fase mais apolar. O que indica a potencialidade de uso da planta como larvicida de Aedes aegypti, entretanto, novos testes deverão ser conduzidos utilizando outros órgãos vegetais, assim como outros métodos e solventes utilizados na extração.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC50 and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods and solvents for the extraction.

  17. Do captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae remember antipredator training? Emas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae se lembram do treinamento anti-predação?

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    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The antipredator training is a powerful tool now being used to help the reintroduced animals to recognise and escape from their predators. Testing the memory capacity of the animals after antipredator training is important to evaluate if the application of the training is worthwhile. A group of 15 captive-born greater rheas was studied at Belo Horizonte Zoo. Eight birds were antipredator trained and seven birds were not. After the end of the antipredator training sessions, we run four memory tests at 40, 55, 70 and 88 days after training was completed. The memory tests consisted of showing a predator model to the rheas and recording their behavioural responses. It was measured the capacity of antipredator information storage, the influence of the group size on the behaviour of the birds and the influence of the antipredator training on the elicitation of the correct behavioural responses of the birds when confronted by a predator. The results showed that the rheas retained predator recognition for almost three months, that the group size affected the responses of the birds (more defence behaviours expressed when tested alone and that the antipredator training is essential to elicit the adequate antipredatory responses, since untrained birds behaved in a tranquil manner when confronted by a predator model. We concluded that antipredator training is worthwhile for future reintroduction programs for greater rheas, since their memory capacity is considerable.O treinamento anti-predação é uma ferramenta poderosa usada atualmente para ajudar os animais reintroduzidos a reconhecer e escapar de seus predadores. Testar a capacidade de memória dos animais após o treinamento é importante para se avaliar a validade de sua aplicação. Um grupo de 15 emas nascidas em cativeiro foi estudado no zoológico de Belo Horizonte. Oito aves foram treinadas contra predadores e sete não. Após o término dos treinamentos, foram realizados quatro testes de memória após 40, 55, 70 e 88 dias. Os testes de memória consistiam em apresentar um modelo de predador para as emas e anotar as respostas comportamentais exibidas. Foram medidas a capacidade de memória das aves, a influência do tamanho do grupo no comportamento das aves e a influência do treinamento anti-predação na estimulação de respostas comportamentais adequadas. Os resultados mostraram que as emas retiveram a capacidade de reconhecimento do predador por quase três meses após o término dos treinamentos, que o tamanho do grupo afeta as respostas das aves (mais comportamentos de defesa quando sozinhas e que o treinamento anti-predação é essencial para estimular uma resposta comportamental adequada, uma vez que o grupo não treinado se comportou tranqüilamente perante o predador. Conclui-se que o treinamento anti-predação é válido para futuros programas de reintrodução de emas, uma vez que a capacidade de memória dessas aves é considerável.

  18. TRIPS (THYSANOPTERA ASOCIADOS A AGALLAS DE Ficus benjamina (LINNAEUS, 1767 (MORACEAE EN LA REGIÓN CENTRAL DE COLOMBIA GALL THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA OF Ficus benjamina (LINNAEUS, 1767 (MORACEAE IN CENTRAL REGION OF COLOMBIA

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    Paula Sepúlveda Cano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia han sido utilizados ampliamente árboles de Ficus benjamina como ornamentales en zonas verdes urbanas. En los últimos años, se ha observado en estas plantas un incremento en los síntomas de ataque de trips (hojas plegadas y necrosadas; pero a pesar de ello, es poco lo que se conoce sobre las especies que se encuentran presentes. Por esta razón, se realizó un reconocimiento de la entomofauna en varias ciudades del país, encontrando las especies de trips Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi Retana, 2006 (fitófago y Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, 1896 (depredador, ambas reportadas por primera vez para Colombia. Adicionalmente, se recolectó el chinche depredador Montandoniola moraguesi (Puton asociado a estas agallas. Se presentan las diagnosis de las dos especies de trips apoyadas en fotografías de microscopía electrónica, con el ánimo de mostrar en detalle la morfología de estos insectosThe ficus tree Ficus benjamina has been introduced in Colombia as an ornamental in urban settings. In the last years an increment on symptoms of thrips attack (rolled and necrotic leaves have been more evident; however, little is known about the species of thrips causing such damage. This work is a preliminary survey in several cities of Colombia. The species of thrips resgistered were: Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi Retana, 2006 (phytophagous and Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, 1896 (predator. Also was found a predatory true bug Montandoniola moraguesi (Puton associated with the galls produced by thrips. Some SEM photographs are present to show morphology details of two species of thrips associated with this tree.

  19. Criadouros de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 em bromélias nativas na Cidade de Vitória, ES Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 breeding sites in native bromeliads in Vitória City, ES

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    José Benedito Malta Varejão

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns insetos transmissores de doenças procriam exclusivamente nas proximidades das residências. O Aedes aegypti, responsável por epidemias de dengue em cidades brasileiras, representa sério risco também para a febre amarela. Com o insucesso da campanha de erradicação do inseto, justifica-se a busca de criadouros fora do alcance das medidas de controle atualmente adotadas. Na Cidade de Vitória, ES, investigou-se a ocorrência de criadouros de Aedes aegypti na água coletada em bromélias nativas, sobre as rochas. Paralelamente, avaliou-se a infestação predial nas áreas urbanas contíguas. Em quatro das cinco áreas investigadas foram encontradas larvas de culicídeos nas bromélias, sendo que em duas foi identificado Aedes aegypti. A presença dos criadouros em bromélias não guardou relação com a infestação predial nas áreas próximas. Torna-se necessário definir se os criadouros em bromélias constituem focos primários do Aedes aegypti, ou se representam uma conseqüência da elevada infestação urbana.Some insects that are vectors of human diseases have accompanied man in his migrations throughout the world and breed exclusively in the proximity of human dwellings. The mosquito Aedes aegypti has been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Brazil and its presence also constitutes a serious risk for future outbreaks of urban yellow fever. The failure of campaigns to eradicate this species justifies the search for alternative breeding sites, which may be beyond the reach of present control measures. In this study the occurrence of Aedes aegypti breeding sites in native bromeliads on rocky slopes was investigated in five areas of Vitória, capital of the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo, ES. Water contained in the bromeliads was collected with the aid of a suction apparatus to search for culicid larvae. The degree of infestation of buildings in adjacent urban areas was evaluated simultaneously. Culicid larvae were found in bromeliads in four of the five areas investigated, Aedes aegypti being present in two areas. The presence of breeding sites in bromeliads was not related to indices of infestation of buildings in adjacent areas. Further studies are necessary to define whether breeding sites in bromeliads constitute primary foci of Aedes aegypti, or are a consequence of high infestation levels in urban areas.

  20. Edad y crecimiento del pez espada (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 en el Pacífico suroriental (Diciembre 1994-Septiembre 1996 Age and growth of swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 in the southeastem Pacific (December 1994-September 1996

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    Javier Chong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la edad y crecimiento del pez espada en el área de pesca del océano Pacífico suroriental frente a la costa de Chile, mediante el conteo y medidas de anillos en secciones transversales de la segunda espina de la aleta anal. El examen del borde de las secciones y el análisis del incremento marginal permitió establecer la formación de un anillo de crecimiento anual. Los parámetros de crecimiento del pez espada fueron estimados utilizando medidas de longitud retrocalculada proporcional a la edad, mediante regresiones no lineales para medidas de longitud de la mandíbula inferior horquilla y radio de la espina, a la edad actual y pretérita. En estas relaciones se emplearon dos modelos: (i el modelo I correspondiente a una relación lineal y (ii el modelo II a una relación potencial. Este último fue seleccionado ya que presentó un mejor ajuste y el valor t o de la ecuación de crecimiento de von Bertalanffy, fue más cercano al origen. El test multivariado (T² de Hote-lling mostró diferencias significativas en el crecimiento entre sexos, lo que fue corroborado por la prueba de Chen. Los parámetros de crecimiento en longitud para machos fueron: longitud asintótica (L∞ = 275,1 cm; coeficiente de crecimiento (K = 0,1774 año-1 y edad longitud cero (t o = -2,1076 año. En hembras la L∞ = 304,7 cm; K = 0,1533 año-1 y t o = -2,0571 año. En el crecimiento en peso sólo se estimó el peso asintótico (W∞ mediante la relación longitud de la mandíbula inferior horquilla-peso total, siendo 278,7 kg en machos y 406,7 kg en hembras.Swordfish age and growth of were determined in the fishing área of the southeastem Pacific off the Chilean coast by counting and measuring the rings in cross sections of the second spine of the anal fin. The examination of the edge of the sections and the analysis of the marginal increment allowed us to establish the formation of one growth ring per year. The swordfish growth parameters were estimated using back calculated length data proportional to the age, which was obtained from nonlinear regressions for lower jaw-fork length (LJFL measurements and spine radius at the present and previous ages. Two models were used for these rela-tionships: (i linear correlation (model I and (ii potential correlation (model II. The latter was selected be-cause of its better fit and because the to valúes in the von Bertalanffy growth equation are closer to the origin. Hotelling's multivariate test (T² showed significant differences in growth between males and females; this was corroborated by Chen's test. The growth parameters in terms of length for males were: asymptotic length (L∞ = 275.1 cm, growth coefficient (K = 0.1774 year-1 , and age at zero length (t o = -2.1076 year. For fe-males, the parameters were: L∞ = 304.7 cm, K = 0.1533 year-1, and t o = -2.0571 year. For the growth parameters in terms of weight, only the asymptotic weight (W∞ was estimated using the LJFL vs. total weight rela-tionship. This was 278.7 kg for males and 406.7 kg for females.

  1. Influência de diferentes dietas na sobrevivência larval do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 = Influence of different diets in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 larval survival

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    Edson Pereira dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar diferentes dietas na larvicultura do pitu, Macrobrachium carcinus, visando melhorar o desempenho da produção de pós-larvas. As larvas (estádios V-VI foram estocadas em 24 recipientes circulares de 20 litros, com sistemas de recirculação de água e aeração, nos quais foram estocadas 25 larvas/litro. Foram adotados quatro tratamentos (correspondentes às dietas e seis repetições: 1 filé de peixe (Dp; 2 filé de peixe + biomassa de artêmia adulta (DpB; 3 dieta formulada (Df; e 4 dieta formulada+ biomassa de artêmia adulta (DfB. As dietas foram ofertadas quatro vezes ao dia (07, 10, 13 e 16 horas durante 49 dias. No final do cultivo, as taxas de sobrevivência média das larvas foram 3,47; 7,40; 14,83 e 7,57%, respectivamente, para os tratamentos Dp, DpB, Df e DfB. No tratamento Dp obteve-se a menor sobrevivência (p ≤ 0,05. A maior sobrevivência (p ≤ 0,05 foi obtida com a dieta Df (14,83%, que se apresenta como a alternativa mais apropriada para a produção de pós-larvas de M. carcinus. Entretanto, o uso de biomassa deartêmia adulta pode resultar na melhoria da taxa de sobrevivência quando associada a filé de peixe.This work aimed to evaluate different diets in Macrobrachium carcinus larval culture in order to improve the performance of prawn postlarvaeproduction. Twenty-four 20 L circular recipients provided of water recirculating and aeration systems were used, where 25 larvae per liter were stocked (stages V-VI. Four treatments (related to diets and six replicates were adopted: 1 Fish flesh (Ff; 2 Fish flesh+ adult Artemia biomass (FfB; 3 Formulated diet (Fd; and 4 Formulated diet + adult Artemia biomass (FdB. The diets were offered four times a day (07:00, 10:00, 13:00 and 16:00 hrs during 49 days. At the end of culture, the average of larval survival rates were3.47, 7.40, 14.83 and 7.57%, respectively for Ff, FfB, Fd and FdB treatments. Ff treatment obtained the lowest survival (p ≤ 0.05. The highest survival (p ≤ 0.05 was obtained with the Fd diet (14.83% that has shown to be the most appropriated alternative to use in M.carcinus hatchery. However, the use of adult Artemia biomass can provide better survival rates when associated with fish flesh.

  2. Composiçăo da entomofauna em povoamentos de Pinus taeda Linnaeus, com diferentes manejos de plantas invasoras, e efeito de temperatura no armazenamento de ovos de Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) /

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Venicio Borges da

    2005-01-01

    Orientadora : Lucia Massutti de Almeida Dissertaçăo (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Cięncias Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduaçăo em Ciencias Biológicas (Entomologia). Defesa: Curitiba, 2005 Inclui bibliografia Área de concentraçăo: Entomologia

  3. Bioquímica plasmática de cascavéis (Caudisona durissa LINNAEUS, 1758 em cativeiro Blood biochemical parameters from captivity rattlesnake (Caudisona durissa LINNAEUS, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acidentes com seres humanos envolvendo a espécie Caudisona durissa possuem a mais alta taxa de letalidade dentre os viperídeos brasileiros. Ressalta-se então a importância para a saúde pública da criação dessa espécie em cativeiro para produção de soro antiofídico. No entanto, essa atividade ainda hoje encontra alguns desafios como a instalação de doenças no plantel, evidenciando a importância de estudos sobre a fisiologia de serpentes. Dessa forma, foram realizadas análises de bioquímica plasmática em 53 serpentes da espécie Caudisona durissa, mantidas em cativeiro. Foram utilizadas amostras de plasma com heparina e as dosagens bioquímicas realizadas em aparelho automatizado (Ciba Corning - Express Plus®. Os resultados e seus respectivos desvios-padrões foram: uréia -1,32mg dL-1 (±1,1; ácido úrico - 2,08mg dL-1 (±1,4; creatinina - 0,52mg dL-1 (±0,2; proteína total - 3,7g dL-1 (±0,7; albumina - 1,62g dL-1 (±0,4; globulinas - 2,08g dL-1 (±0,5; cálcio - 15,25mg dL-1 (±2,8; fósforo - 4,61mg dL-1 (±1,9; colesterol - 171,58mg dL-1 (±52,7; triglicerídeos - 19,29mg dL-1 (±14,3; fosfatase alcalina - 31,04U L-1 (±12,4; aspartato aminotransferase (AST - 22,25U L-1 (±11,4; alanina aminotransferase (ALT - 7,11U L-1 (±5,4 e Amilase - 1385,23U L-1 (±568,7. Foram calculados os seguintes índices: relação uréia/creatinina - 2,5 e relação cálcio/fósforo - 3,3. O conjunto de resultados das análises bioquímicas do sangue das cascavéis em cativeiro pode servir como referência para apoio diagnóstico na espécie estudada e para outros trabalhos com o mesmo caráter de observação.Human accidents involving rattlesnake Caudisona durissa have the highest fatality rate among the Brazilian Viperidae family. Breeding this specie in captivity in order to produce antivenoms is very important to public health. Nevertheless, there are some challenges that this activity must face, like the onset of diseases on the breeding stock, justifying the importance of studying these snakes' physiology. Blood biochemical analysis of 53 Caudisona durissa was performed using plasma samples in an automated equipment (Ciba Corning - Express Plus®. Mean values and its respective Standard deviations are: blood urea nitrogen (BUN -1.32mg dL-1 (±1.1; uric acid - 2.08mg dL-1 (±1.4; creatinine - 0.52mg dL-1 (±0.2; total protein - 3.7g dL-1 (±0.7; albumin - 1.62g dL-1 (±0.4; globulins - 2.08g dL-1 (±0.5; calcium - 15.25mg dL-1 (±2.8; phosphorus - 4.61mg dL-1 (±1.9; cholesterol - 171.58mg dL-1 (±52.7; triglycerides - 19.29mg dL-1 (±14.3; alkaline phosfatase - 31.04U L-1 (±12.4; aspartate aminotransferase (AST - 22.25U L-1 (±11.4; alanin aminotransferase (ALT 7.11U L-1 (±5.4; amylases - 1385.23U L-1 (±568.7. The following indexes were calculated: BUN/creatinine ratio - 2.5 and calcium/phosphorus ratio -3.3. Rattlesnake blood biochemical results above could be used as reference in clinical evaluation for captivity C. durissa.

  4. A brief note on the sleeping habits of the giant anteater - Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus (Xenarthra, Myrmecophagidae Breve nota sobre hábitos de dormir do tamanduá-bandeira - Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus (Xenarthra, Myrmecophagidae

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    Ísis Meri Medri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific literature on giant anteaters states that the animal sleeps with its tail folded over its body to conserve body temperature. However, observations of this species in natural habitats indicate variations in this behavior, depending on the ambient temperature.A literatura científica sobre tamanduá-bandeira afirma que o animal dorme com sua cauda dobrada sobre o corpo para conservar a temperatura corporal. Entretanto, observações desta espécie em hábitats naturais indicam variações neste comportamento, dependendo da temperatura ambiente.

  5. TOPOGRAFIA DAS INTUMESCÊNCIAS CERVICAL E LOMBAR EM GATOS SEM RAÇA DEFINIDA (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 TOPOGRAPHY OF THE CERVICAL AND LUMBAR INTUMESCENSES IN THE DOMESTIC WITHOUT RACE CAT (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Rosana Marques Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram obtidas informações sobre as intumescências cervical (IC e lombar (IL de gatos sem raça definida, analisando trinta animais, post-mortem, adultos. Removeram-se a pele e a musculatura dorsal da coluna vertebral para expor a medula espinhal e seus envoltórios por meio de secção dos arcos vertebrais, evidenciando-se a IC e a IL. Fez-se a mensuração da IC e IL e sua relação com as vértebras cervicais (C, torácicas (T e lombares (L para obter a esqueletopia. A IC apresentou-se com o tamanho variando de 3,30-8,00 cm, sendo que em nove animais (30,00 ± 8,36% este foi entre 5,00-5,50 cm. A IL apresentou-se com o tamanho variando de 2,90-5,70 cm, e em 21 animais (70,00 ± 8,36% este foi de 3,00-4,50 cm. A esqueletopia dessas estruturas foi variável: em dezesseis animais (53,33 ± 9,10% a IC iniciou-se na vértebra C3 e a IL, em 23 animais (76,67 ± 7,72% na L4. Os finais da IC e da IL ocorriam em doze animais (40,00 ± 8,94% na vértebra T1 e em 24 (80,00 ± 7,30% ao nível da vértebra L6, respectivamente.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Gatos, medula espinhal, intumescência, topografia There were analyzed the cervical (CI and lumbar intumescences (IL of 30 post mortem domestic without race cats of both sexes. The dorsal skin and muscles from the vertebral column were removed to expose the spinal cord and its wrappers were visualized when the vertebral arcs were sectioned, exposing the CI and LI. The CI and LI where measured up and their relationship with cervical (C, thoracic (T and lumbar (L vertebrae were analyzed to get their skeletopy. The length of the CI presented a variation from 3.30-8.00 cm, with a higher frequency of 9 animals (30.00 ± 8.36% presenting 5.00-5.50 cm. The length of the LI presented a variation from 2.90-5.70 and the higher frequency observed was 21 animals (70.00 ± 8.36% presenting 3.00-4.50 cm. Their skeletopy were also variable: in 16 animals (53.33 ± 9.10% the CI began at the C3 and the LI began at the L4 in 23 animals (76.67 ± 7.72%. Their ends were also variable, since the CI and the LI ended in 12 animals (40.00 ± 8.94% the T1 and in 24 (80.00 ± 7.30% at the L6 vertebrae, respectively.

    KEY WORDS: Cats, intumescences, spinal cord, topography.

  6. ANÁLISE DA ORIGEM E DISTRIBUIÇÃO DOS NERVOS PERIFÉRICOS DO PLEXO BRAQUIAL DA PACA (Agouti paca, LINNAEUS, 1766 ORIGIN AND DITRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS PERIPHERAL NERVES OF PACA (Agouti paca, LINNAEUS, 1766

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    Sílvia Helena Brendolan Gerbasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O plexo braquial é um conjunto de nervos que surge na região medular cervicotorácica e que se distribui pelos membros torácicos e porção interna do tórax. O plexo braquial de oito pacas foi dissecado para evidenciação da origem e distribuição de seus nervos. O nervo supraescapular distribuía-se para os músculos supra e infra-espinhal, e o subescapular para o músculo subescapular. O nervo axilar ramificava-se para os músculos redondo maior, subescapular, redondo menor e deltóide. Os nervos ulnar e mediano ramificavam-se para a musculatura do antebraço, e o musculocutâneo para os músculos coracobraquial, bíceps braquial e braquial. O nervo radial abrangia o músculo tríceps braquial, tensor da fáscia do antebraço e ancôneo. O nervo torácico longo e o toracodorsal emitiam ramos para o músculo grande dorsal, e o torácico lateral para o músculo cutâneo do tronco. Os nervos peitorais craniais ramificavam-se no músculo peitoral profundo, e os nervos peitorais caudais distribuíam-se para o músculo peitoral superficial. O plexo braquial da paca é formado por doze pares de nervos com origens distintas, os quais surgem do quinto par de nervos cervicais até o segundo par de nervos torácicos, não havendo troncos ou cordões na formação destes.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Agouti paca, distribuição, plexo braquial, sistema nervoso. The brachial plexus is a set of nerves originated in the cervicothoracic medular region and distributed in the thoracic limbs and inner thorax. The brachial plexus of eight pacas was dissected for study on the nerves origin and distribution. The suprascapular nerve went through the supra and infraspinal muscles and the subscapular gave off on the subscapular muscle. The axilar nerve was distributed on the teres major, subscapular, teres minor and deltoid muscles. The ulnar and the median nerves branched off on the forearm musculature, and the musculocutaneous branched on the coracobrachial, biceps brachial and brachial muscles. The radial nerve went through the triceps brachial, tensor fasciae latae and anconeus muscles. The long thoracic and the thoracodorsal nerves branched on the latissimus dorsi muscle, and the lateral thoracic gave off on the trunk cutaneous muscle. The cranial pectoral nerves branched on the deep pectoral muscle and the caudal pectoral nerves gave off on the superficial pectoral muscle. The brachial plexus of pacas is formed by 12 pairs of nerves presenting different origins, which arose from ventral roots from the fifth pair of cervical to the second pair of thoracic nerves, not occurring trunks or cords in those formation.
    KEY  WORDS: Agouti paca, brachial plexus, distribution, nervous system.

  7. Avaliação da resposta inflamatória hematológica em cascavéis (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 inoculadas com BCG Assessment of blood inflammatory response in BCG stimulated rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A criação de serpentes peçonhentas em cativeiro para produção de soros antipeçonhas possui crescente importância para a saúde pública devido ao aumento do número de notificações de acidentes ofídicos a cada ano no Brasil. Iniciado no século XX, ainda hoje essa atividade apresenta alguns desafios como a instalação de doenças no plantel. O hemograma é um exame de triagem clínica que auxilia no diagnóstico de diversas moléstias que acometem diferentes espécies de animais, no entanto ainda pouco estudado em serpentes. A caracterização das alterações hematológicas em cascavéis inoculadas experimentalmente com BCG pode servir de base na utilização deste exame no auxílio ao diagnóstico de infecções bacterianas na espécie. Dessa forma, foram realizados exames hematológicos em 10 serpentes da espécie Crotalus durissus pertencentes ao plantel da Divisão de Herpetologia do Instituto Vital Brazil. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos (Grupos 1 e 2, homogêneos entre si em relação ao peso e proporção sexual. Os dois grupos foram inoculados com BCG e submetidos à coleta de sangue antes da inoculação e em três momentos pós-inoculação (3º, 5º, e 7º dias para o Grupo 1 e 11º, 17º e 21º dias para o Grupo 2. O hemograma foi realizado por método semidireto pela utilização de líquido de Natt e Herrick e as lâminas foram coradas pelo Giemsa. Observou-se anemia discreta, com redução dos valores de concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e da hemoglobina globular média no Grupo 1 que foi relacionada à doença inflamatória. A trombocitopenia observada no Grupo 2 sugeriu a atuação deste tipo celular em processos inflamatórios. Um único animal do Grupo 1 apresentou granulocitose e alguns animais apresentaram discreta azurofilia. Observaram-se alterações morfológicas nos leucócitos. Os granulócitos apresentaram granulações grosseiras e os azurófilos apresentaram aumento de tamanho e grandes vacúolos. De forma geral, a inoculação de BCG em cascavéis desencadeia respostas inflamatórias hematológicas caracterizadas pela participação de trombócitos, granulócitos e azurófilos.The high demand for anti-venom production in response to the increased number of cases of snakebite envenomation highlights the importance of raising and breeding venomous snakes in captivity. Knowledge of types of venoms and anti-venoms is of great interest to public health. The maintenance of venomous serpents in captivity started in the early twentieth century, but still nowadays it is a challenge to manage and prevent diseases in captive fauna. Hematology is commonly used for general health assessment and illness detection. However, data on serpent blood analysis are still scarce. Alterations in hematological parameters were experimentally induced in rattlesnakes by the inoculation of BCG. Based on this, hemograms can be used as a health auxiliary diagnosis method for bacterial diseases in this species. In this study, blood samples were taken from 10 healthy specimens of rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus born and bred in captivity in the Herpetological Division of Vital Brazil Institute. Animals were divided into two groups (group 1 and 2 with similar live weight and sex proportion, and were then inoculated subcutaneously with BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Blood samples were taken before and after inoculation at three experimental times (days 3, 5 and 7 for group 1 and days 11, 17 and 21 for group 2. Hematological analysis was performed through semi-direct technique, blood samples were diluted in Natt and Herrick solution and smears were stained by Giemsa. Serpents from group 1 developed discrete anemia due to the inflammatory syndrome, and showed significant decrease of MCH and MCHC. Granulocytes were characterized by the presence of rough granules. The azurophils varied in shape and size and showed large amount of cytoplasmic vacuoles. The thrombocytopenia observed in group 2 suggests that these cells participate in the inflammatory process. A single individual from group 1 showed granulocytosis and a few animals showed a discrete azurophilia. In general, BCG inoculation unleashes hematological inflammatory responses characterized by the presence of thrombocytes, azurophils and granulocytes cells.

  8. Habitat use and relative abundance of the Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Cuniculidae and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Guatopo National Park, Venezuela

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    Elinor Jax

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina are affected by habitat loss and hunting.  In Venezuela, their conservation status is unknown, even within protected areas.  The objective of this study was to estimate the relative abundance, activity patterns, habitat use, and effect of human activities on these species in Venezuela.  To achieve this, 26 camera-trap stations (20.8km2 were established in Guatopo National Park between February and April 2011, characterization of the habitat was undertaken and occupancy models were created.  The relative abundance of the Spotted Paca was 1.62 captures/100trap-nights, with a fully nocturnal activity pattern.  The relative abundance of the Red-rumped Agouti was 2.32 captures/100trap-nights, with a pronounced diurnal activity pattern. The occupation probability of the Red-rumped Agouti (0.61 SE 0.02 was higher than that of the Spotted Paca (0.27 SE 0.02. Spotted Pacas were mainly found in areas with mature forest and high tree density, whereas the  Red-rumped Agoutis were most frequently found in valleys with little disturbed forest.  A positive correlation was found between illegal hunting activities and areas occupied by the Spotted Paca.  It is important to strengthen the park control measurements to reduce illegal hunting of Spotted Pacas.

  9. Human pseudomyiasis caused by Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae in Goiás Pseudomiíase humana causada por Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae em Goiás

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    Marco Tulio A. Garcia-Zapata

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to register the first proven cases of human pseudomyiasis due to Eristalis tenax in Goiás State, Brazil, underscoring their clinical manifestations and direct relationship with hygiene. The taxonomic identification of the instars was done according to the descriptions and keys presented by James (1947, Hartley (1961 and Guimarães & Papavero (1999. Two cases were observed. In both cases there was no evidence of apparent mental disturbance. The clinical picture of these cases was self limited. The water supply, sewer system, socioeconomic level and habits of the suspect species of the flies are criteria that should be investigated.O presente trabalho visa registrar os primeiros casos evidenciados de pseudomiíases humanos por Eristalis tenax no estado de Goiás, Brasil, destacando suas manifestações clínicas e suas relações diretas com os hábitos higiênicos. A identificação taxonômica das larvas foi realizada com base nas descrições e chaves apresentadas por James (1947, Hartley (1961 e Guimarães & Papavero (1999. Observaram-se dois casos. Em ambos não havia evidência de pertubações mentais claras. O quadro clínico de ambos os casos era mesmo limitado. O abastecimento de água, o nível sócio-econômico e o hábito das espécies das moscas são critérios que devem ser considerados na investigação.

  10. Hemi-ovariossalpingohisterectomia em pacas prenhes e posterior ocorrência de prenhez (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766 Hemiovarysalpingohysterectomy in pregnant pacas and further occurrency of pregnancy (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766

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    Fabrício Singaretti de Oliveira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi descrita a hemi-ovariossalpingohisterectomia em cinco pacas prenhes mantidas em cativeiro no Setor de Animais Silvestres da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil, a fim de observar futura prenhez no corno restante. A tranqüilização foi obtida após aplicação de azaperone (4mg/kg seguida da aplicação de sulfato de atropina (0,06mg/kg e da associação de cloridrato de quetamina (20mg/kg e cloridrato de xilazina (1,5mg/kg, ambos na mesma seringa, para indução da anestesia. A anestesia geral foi obtida mediante inalação de halotano por máscara. Por meio de laparotomia mediana, foram retirados o corno uterino prenhe, o ovário e a tuba uterina, todos do mesmo antímero. Antibióticos (30.000UI/kg de três penicilinas e 12,5mg/kg de duas estreptomicinas e analgésico (0,02mg/kg de buprenorfina foram aplicados imediatamente após a cirurgia, sendo repetidos após dois dias. Todas as aplicações foram feitas por via intramuscular. Apesar da permanência de apenas um ovário após a cirurgia, nova prenhez ocorreu no corno restante nas cinco fêmeas submetidas à cirurgia, com o nascimento de filhotes (apenas um por parto após 215, 248, 276, 302 e 310 dias da hemi-ovariossalpingohisterectomia.The hemiovarysalpingohysterectomy in five captive pregnant pacas kept on the Wild Animal Section at the College of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences (FCAV-UNESP in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, was conducted aiming at verifying the further occurrence of pregnancy on the remaining uterine horn. The tranquilization was achieved by using azaperone (4mg/kg and consequent application of atropine sulphate (0.06mg/kg and the association of ketamine (20mg/kg and xylazine (1.5mg/kg cloridrates, on the same syringe, for induction of anesthesia. The general anesthesia was performed via a face mask with halothane. By means of median laparotomy, the uterine horn with the fetus, the ovary and the uterine tube, all from the same antimere, were taken out. Antibiotics (30,000IU/kg of three penicillins and 12.5mg/kg of two streptomycins and analgesic (buprenorfine 0.02 mg/kg were injected immediately after surgery and repeated after two days. All injections were made intramuscularly. In spite of the permanence of only one ovary after surgery, new pregnancy occurred in the remaining uterine horn in the five females which went through surgery, and the birth (solely one by delivery happened 210, 248, 276, 302 and 310 days after the hemiovarysalpingohysterectomy.

  11. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks Caracterização química e efeito acaricida do óleo essencial de Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae em carrapatos

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    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT and the larval packet test (LPT were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide.O controle de carrapatos que causa impacto na produção de bovinos possui importância econômica para a cadeia produtiva. Neste trabalho objetivou-se testar a atividade acaricida do óleo essencial das folhas e caules de Tagetes minuta contra várias espécies de carrapatos brasileiros, incluindo Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense e Argas miniatus. A composição química do óleo foi determinada por GC-MS e análises de espectroscopia de RMN, que revelaram a presença de monoterpenos. Na avaliação destas substâncias no controle do carrapato foram empregados os testes de imersão de adulto (TIA e o de pacote de larvas (TPL para o extrato de óleo de T. minuta nas concentrações de 2,5%; 5%; 10%; 20% e 40%. Os resultados do TPL e TIA demonstraram que o óleo essencial na concentração de 20% de T. minuta apresenta eficácia superior a 95% nas quatro espécies de carrapato. Estes resultados sugerem que o óleo essencial de T. minuta pode ser usado como um acaricida eficaz e com baixo impacto ambiental.

  12. Lectin-Induced Mucus Release in the Urn Cell Complex of the Marine Invertebrate Sipunculus nudus (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, S V

    1979-11-09

    The mucociliary urn cell complex of the marine coelomate Sipunculus nudus secretes mucus 4 to 5 minutes after being exposed to Lotus tetragonolobus and Ricinus communis I agglutinins. Surface binding of both lectins is confined to the secretory area of the urn cell complex and, like the release of mucus, is inhibited by the specific saccharides L-fucose and D-galactose or by incubation in L-fucosidase and D-galactosidase. Mucus secretion may therefore be initiated by the interaction of mucus-releasing stimuli with fucosyl or galactosyl residues of specific membrane receptors.

  13. [Phylogeography and phenotypic diversity of the pumpkinseed Sunfish Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) of the Northern Black Sea Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slynko, E E; Novitsky, R A; Bangs, M R; Douglas, M R; Douglas, M E; Khrystenko, D S; Kasyanov, A N; Slynko, Yu V

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the origin and the genetic and morphological diversity of the pumpkinseed sunfish, a North American invader that is actively expanding its range in the Northern Black Sea Coast. Based on an analysis of variability of the nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA cyt b locus, it was found that all populations of the Northern Black Sea Coast (basins of Dnieper, Dniester, and Danube rivers) are represented by one haplotype. Intraspecific variability is absent. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that the most related haplotype is in a population of pumpkinseed sunfish from New Germany Lake in the Potomac Riverbasin (Maryland, United States), which makes it possible to consider it a parent of the investigated populations. Morphological variation oin countable traits was highly homogeneous. Significant differentiation of a sample from the population of the Dnieper Reservoir from the populations of the Danube and Dniester was found for plastic traits of both the body and cranium. Analysis of the trajectories of development showed that the Dnieper is inhabited by a "pelagic" morpho-ecological form of pumpkinseed sunfish, while the Dniester and Danube is inhabited by a "littoral" form. It is suggested that the success of the settlement of this North American species in the Northern Black Sea Coast does not depend on the origin or the level of its genetic diversity but is instead likely to be ensured by the realization of its available discrete morpho-ecological variability.

  14. Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2014-03-01

    This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem.

  15. FIRST ISOLATION OF VIBRIO PROBIOTICUS FROM THE GUT OF PORTUNUS PELAGICUS (LINNAEUS, 1758 AND ITS PROBIOTIC COMPETENCY AGAINST SHELLFISH PATHOGENS

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    Mhd Ikhwanuddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Vibrio probioticus was isolated from the gut of female Portunus pleagicus, identified through 16S rDNA gene sequencing, and was evaluated for its probiotic features. The probiont was tested in co-culture assay at various concentrations against three target shellfish pathogens including V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus and Pseudoalteromonas piscicida. In a co-culture assay it was apparent that the V. probioticus had shown to outcompete the growth of tested pathogenic bacteria due to its antibacteriocin properties. Different ratios produced different effect on tested pathogens, however, the highest ratio (pathogen:probiont was more effective in suppressing the pathogen. A maximum inhibition growth was recorded for V. harveyi and P. piscicida. The probionts could further be tested in vivo culture environment to understand the effectiveness in microbial control of P. pelagicus larviculture and other aquaculture species.

  16. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vreysen, M. J. B.; Carpenter, J. E.; Marec, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2010), s. 165-181 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : area-wide integrated pest management * codling moth * genetic sexing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.276, year: 2010

  17. Rediscovery of the Yellow-bellied Sea Snake, Hydrophis platurus (Linnaeus, 1766) in Máncora, northern Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñones, Javier; Burneo, Karla; Barragan, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the Yellow-bellied Sea Snake (Hydrophis platurus) in the Southeast Pacific is rarely reported, with only one confirmed observation from northern Perú made in the early 1950s. We present new information based on a live-stranded specimen recently found in Peruvian waters, having washed ashore at Máncora (04.1255° S, 81.0958° W) in northern Perú on 12 July 2012. This stranding was associated with a Modoki El Niño warm event, since positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies ...

  18. Hydroyeast Aquaculture® as a reproductive enhancer agent for the adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrim, Ahmed I; Khalil, Fathy F; Hassan, Montaha E

    2015-04-01

    Tilapias are becoming increasingly popular culture fish because of their superior culture adaptability. In recent years, there has been a great interest in the use of probiotics in fish aquaculture. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of dietary graded levels (0, 5, 10, and 15 g/kg commercial diet, referred to treatments numbers T1, T2, T3, and T4, for males and T5, T6, T7, and T8 treatments for females) of a new probiotic Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) on hematological and biochemical parameters, serum sex hormones, and the reproductive efficiency parameters of the adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus for 8 weeks. Results revealed that high levels of probiotics diet, 15 g (T4, ♂) and 10 g (T7, ♀) probiotic/kg diet, significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced the physiological responses (hematological as well as serum biochemical parameters) together with, reproductive performances (sex hormones, testes and sperm quality parameters, absolute and relative fecundity, and ovarian measurements). Therefore, it could be conclude that Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) is useful at levels of 15 g (T4) and 10 g (T7)/kg diet in improving the reproductive efficiency of adult O. niloticus males and females, respectively. Thus, the use of Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) may be economically important for fish hatcheries.

  19. Histopathological Effects on Gills of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) Exposed to Pb and Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Edison; Campos-Garcia, Janaína; Martinez, Diego S T; da Silva, José Roberto M C; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz; Rezende, Karina F O

    2016-12-01

    The effect of heavy metal in fish has been the focus of extensive research for many years. However, the combined effect of heavy metals and nanomaterials is still a new subject that needs to be studied. The aim of this study was to examine histopathologic alterations in the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to determine possible effects of lead (Pb), carbon nanotubes, and Pb+carbon nanotubes on their histological integrity, and if this biological system can be used as a tool for evaluating water quality in monitoring programs. For this, tilapia were exposed to Pb, carbon nanotubes and Pb+carbon nanotubes for 4 days. The main alterations observed were epithelial structure, hyperplasia and displacement of epithelial cells, and alterations of the structure and occurrence of aneurysms in the secondary lamella. The most severe alterations were related to the Pb+carbon nanotubes. We conclude that the oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced the acute lead toxicity in Nile tilapias. This work draws attention to the implications of carbon nanomaterials released in the aquatic environment and their interaction with classical pollutants.

  20. Bogas - Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758 - from the Biscay to the North Sea in 2500 BC and 18980 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Jonsson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los hallazgos del pez espárido boga (Boops boops en los concheros neolíticos de Suecia. La distribucion de los tamaños de los peces hallados indica que existía en el Mar del Norte en este periodo una población reproductora. Las temperaturas del mar eran más altas que hoy. La pesca de la boga indica el uso de redes u otras artes de pesca. Las excavaciones recientes en yacimientos tanto antiguos como nuevos indican que los concheros son intencionales, es decir, estructuras rituales más que amontonamientos comunes. Se subraya la necesidad de nuevas colecciones comparativas y la integración de arqueozoólogos en las excavaciones

  1. Techno-Economic Models for Optimised Utilisation of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus under an Out-Grower Farming Scheme in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Osei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Techno-economic models for optimised utilisation of jatropha oil under an out-grower farming scheme were developed based on different considerations for oil and by-product utilisation. Model 1: Out-grower scheme where oil is exported and press cake utilised for compost. Model 2: Out-grower scheme with six scenarios considered for the utilisation of oil and by-products. Linear programming models were developed based on outcomes of the models to optimise the use of the oil through profit maximisation. The findings revealed that Model 1 was financially viable from the processors’ perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg. All scenarios considered under Model 2 were financially viable from the processors perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg; however, at seed price of $0.085/kg, financial viability was achieved for both parties. Optimising the utilisation of the oil resulted in an annual maximum profit of $123,300.

  2. Modelling the Diel Vertical Movement of Swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 Based on Temperature and Depth Recorder Data

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    Bram Setyadji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the vertical distribution of large pelagic fish, swordfish in particular, could improve our knowledge on its fisheries strategy, management and resource conservation. However the methods often require expensive tools and resources, which probably most scientists from the development countries couldn’t afford. Thus developing model on the diel vertical movement behavior of swordfish using number of hook between float (HBF and complete-set temperature and depth recorder (TDR data could be an alternative. In general context, capture depth distributions are a good indicator of the natural depth distribution of the fish if the entire depth range of the species is targeted by longline gear. The proposed sinusoidal model suggested that swordfish showed a diel pattern in depth distribution, marked by remained in the surface and mixed layer waters at night and dived into deeper waters during the day. Keywords: swordfish, behavior, HBF, TDR, sinusoidal model

  3. Effect of brine and dry salting methods on the physicochemical and microbial quality of chub (Squalius cephalus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Arzu BINICI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study, looks at the physicochemical and microbiological quality changes that occur due to different salting techniques (20% salt concentration of chub (Squalius cephalus and when stored in 4 ± 0.5 °C. Samples of fish from each group was taken on the 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120th day and was analyzed for nutritional component (crude protein, lipid, moisture, crude ash, pH value, salt content and the microbial flora (total mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, total coliform, total psychrophilic aerobic bacteria count, yeast and mould. It was determined that crude protein, lipid, crude ash and salt amounts in the group where dry salting method was applied were higher than the group where brine salting occurred, in addition protein and lipid values decreased as storage period was longer (P < 0.05. It was determined that there is an increase in total aerobic mesophilic, psycrophile bacteria and enumeration of yeast and mould as storage period increased, while coliform bacteria decreased (P < 0.05.

  4. The relationship between acoustic habitat, hearing and tonal vocalizations in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mario Rivera Chavarría

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus is an endangered marine mammal that inhabits the Caribbean Sea and riverine systems in Central America. Their acoustic behavior is relevant for individual identification, mating and parental care. Manatees produce tonal sounds with highest energy in the second harmonic (usually 5 kHz, and their audiogram indicates sensitivity from 0.3 kHz to 90 kHz with lowest thresholds in the 16 to 18 kHz range. We recorded manatees in the San San River, a highly polluted riverine system in Panama, using a stereo array. Frequency transmission experiments were conducted in four subhabitats, categorized using riverine vegetation. Incidental interactions of manatees and small motorboats were examined. Acoustic transmission was linearly related to tonal vocalization characters: correlations were stronger in freshwater than in transition and marine environments. Two bands, 0.6 to 2 kHz and 3 to 8 kHz, attenuate similarly in all subhabitats, and these bands encompass F0 (tone and peak frequency respectively of manatee tonal calls. Based on our data we conclude that frequency transmission depends mainly on river depth and bottom characteristics, also motorboat sounds mask signals from 3.5 kHz to 8 kHz, which overlaps the peak frequency of tonal calls. In spite of differences between acoustic transmission in subhabitats of the San San River, manatees utilize bands that transmit efficiently in all subhabitats.

  5. Effects of abiotic factors on the foraging activity of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 in inflorescences of Vernonia polyanthes Less (Asteraceae

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    Luis Henrique Soares Alves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the foraging activity of Apis mellifera under the influence of abiotic factors has not been fully elucidated. Knowing the interactions between bees and plants with beekeeping relevance is fundamental to develop management strategies aimed at improving the beekeeping productivity. In this way, this study aimed to determine the foraging schedule of A. mellifera and to assess the influence of environmental factors on the foraging on inflorescences of Vernonia polyanthes. The study was conducted in the rural area of Valença, Rio de Janeiro State. Visits of A. mellifera workers to V. polyanthes inflorescences occurred from 9 am to 4 pm, especially between 11 am and 3 pm. Among the abiotic variables, relative humidity (rs = -0.691; p < 0.0001 and temperature (rs = 0.531; p < 0.0001 were correlated with foraging activity. Increase in temperature and decrease in humidity resulted in increased frequency in bee foraging activity, accounting for 46.9% of the activity in A. mellifera. This study provides subsidies to the development of apiculture, emphasizing the importance of V. polyanthes as a food resource during winter, representing a good alternative to increase the productivity, especially in areas of grasslands or abandoned crops, where ‘Assa-peixe’ is abundant.

  6. An anthocyanin-rich extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa linnaeus inhibits N-nitrosomethylurea-induced leukemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Chang; Huang, Hui-Pei; Chang, Yun-Ching; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-02-19

    A previous study reported that anthocyanins from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) showed significant anticancer activity in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. To explore the antitumor effect of anthocyanin, a roselle bioactive polyphenol in a rat model of chemical-induced leukemia was assayed. Anthocyanin extract of roselle (Hibiscus anthocyanins, HAs) was supplemented in the diet (0.1 and 0.2%). This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of HAs on N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced leukemia of rats. The study employed male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48), and leukemia was induced by intravenous injection of 35 mg kg(-1) body weight of NMU dissolved in physiologic saline solution. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 12): control, NMU only, and HAs groups that received different doses of HAs (0.1 and 0.2%) daily, orally, after NMU injection. After 220 days, the animals were killed, and the following parameters were assessed: morphological observation, hematology examination, histopathological assessment, and biochemical assay. When compared with the NMU-only group, HAs significantly prevented loss of organ weight and ameliorated the impairment of morphology, hematology, and histopathology. Treatment with HAs caused reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, uric acid, and MPO. Also, the results showed that oral administration of HAs (0.2%) remarkably inhibited progression of NMU-induced leukemia by approximately 33.3% in rats. This is the first report to demonstrate that the sequential administration of HAs followed by NMU resulted in an antileukemic activity in vivo.

  7. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus aqueous extracts attenuate the progression of renal injury in 5/6 nephrectomy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seujange, Yuyen; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Yisarakun, Waranurin; Khawsuk, Witoon; Meepool, Ardool; Phamonleatmongkol, Ponlapat; Saechau, Walai; Onlamul, Winita; Tantiwarattanatikul, Pansa; Oonsook, Worapong; Eiam-Ong, Somchai; Eiam-Ong, Somchit

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (HS) is a tropical wild plant with antioxidant, antibacterial, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering properties. In several animal models, HS aqueous extracts reduced the severity of the multi-organ injuries such as hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. One of the multiorgan injuries is chronic kidney disease (CKD), which results from the loss of nephron function. HS was used in a 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) rat model to determine if it could attenuate the progression of CKD. HS (250 mg/kg/day) or placebo was orally administered to 5/6 Nx male Sprague-Dawley rats. The Nx+HS group had fewer renal injuries as measured by blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and renal pathology when compared with the Nx group. In order to determine which property of HS, either vasodilatory and/or antioxidant, was important in attenuating the progression of CKD, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. In the Nx+HS group, the SBP and the serum levels of MDA were significantly lower at Week 7. In conclusion, through either antihypertensive and/or antioxidant properties, HS was able to attenuate the progression of renal injury after 5/6 Nx. Hence, HS should be considered as one of the new, promising drugs that can be used to attenuate the progression of CKD.

  8. Antifungal activity, mode of action and anti-biofilm effects of Laurus nobilis Linnaeus essential oil against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Larissa Rangel; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Ferreira, Gabriela Lacet Silva; Freires, Irlan Almeida; de Carvalho, Fabíola Galbiatti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2017-01-01

    The present study demonstrated the antifungal potential of the chemically characterized essential oil (EO) of Laurus nobilis L. (bay laurel) against Candida spp. biofilm adhesion and formation, and further established its mode of action on C. albicans. L. nobilis EO was obtained and tested for its minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC/MFC) against Candida spp., as well as for interaction with cell wall biosynthesis and membrane ionic permeability. Then we evaluated its effects on the adhesion, formation, and reduction of 48hC. albicans biofilms. The EO phytochemical profile was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The MIC and MFC values of the EO ranged from (250 to 500) μg/mL. The MIC values increased in the presence of sorbitol (osmotic protector) and ergosterol, which indicates that the EO may affect cell wall biosynthesis and membrane ionic permeability, respectively. At 2 MIC the EO disrupted initial adhesion of C. albicans biofilms (p0.05). When applied for 1min, every 8h, for 24h and 48h, the EO reduced the amount of C. albicans mature biofilm with no difference in relation to nystatin (p>0.05). The phytochemical analysis identified isoeugenol as the major compound (53.49%) in the sample. L. nobilis EO has antifungal activity probably due to monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in its composition. This EO may affect cell wall biosynthesis and membrane permeability, and showed deleterious effects against C. albicans biofilms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Three centuries of temperature records in Scotland preserved in sclerochronological archives from freshwater pearl mussels, Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, C. L., ,, Dr; Fallick, A. E., ,, Prof.

    2009-04-01

    Bivalves are natural indicators of environmental variability as they reflect environmental conditions such as temperature in growth bands within the shell. During the winter period in temperate climes, shell growth ceases owing to the low water temperature and limited food supply. This hiatus is revealed by chemical staining as a very distinct etch-resistant band - termed the winter line. Winter lines alternate with less etch-resistant bands thus providing a chronology for any analyses which can be correlated to other proxy series and instrumental data. Freshwater pearl mussels have also been shown to form their shells in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with the ambient water thus fluctuations in water temperature can be constrained from the ^18Ocarbonatedata. As long as the date of collection is known, annual growth increments provide a precise dating tool for isotope samples and allow the allocation of precise calendar years to each part of the shell. Measurements of consecutive increments serve as records of isotopic composition from which derived temperatures may be correlated with other sample series and annual instrumental records, giving a high resolution proxy for temperature for a given region. ....... The use of live-collected M. margaritifera shells is now prohibited in the UK due to the mussel's rarity and its protection under the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981) and the European Union Habitats and Species Directive (EUHSD). Museum collections of freshwater pearl mussels thus provide an invaluable resource, with many collections in UK museums having been live-collected during 19th century. As M. margaritifera is one of the longest-lived invertebrates, attaining an age of up to 140 years, sclerochronological and ^18Oaragonite data have the potential to provide terrestrial climate records on the centennial scale. The use of museum specimens has the potential to establish a composite three hundred year record of Scottish environmental change. Shells from several localities in Scotland dating from the late 1700s to the present were sampled and the results compiled to construct a composite record of temperature change prior to and during the anthopogenically-induced contribution to climate change. The breadth of the collections used and the sampling protocol employed allows the examination of intra-individual and intraspecific variability in ^18Oaragonite data from contemporaneous individuals from the same locality. Results have implications for the use of archaeological and subfossil shells in the reconstruction of past climates.

  10. Origens e ramificações do plexo braquial no cachorro-do-mato Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766

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    Paulo Souza Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de descrever a origem e ramificação dos nervos de vinte plexos braquiais de cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. Dez animais da espécie, obtidos post mortem por atropelamento em rodovias, foram utilizados para o estudo, de acordo com a autorização do IBAMA/SISBIO nº33667-1. Depois de coletados, os cadáveres foram fixados em solução de formaldeído a 50% e conservados por pelo menos 14 dias em solução de formaldeído a 10% antes das dissecções. Após remoção da pele, incisões na musculatura peitoral e afastamento dos membros, acessou-se o espaço axilar e os nervos do plexo tiveram seu trajeto dissecados individualmente até sua inserção muscular. Para melhorar a visualização dos ramos ventrais cervicais e torácicos que originavam cada nervo, removeram-se a musculatura que encobria os forames intervertebrais, os processos transversos e os corpos vertebrais ventralmente, expondo inclusive a medula espinhal. Registros fotográficos e desenhos esquemáticos documentaram a origem e ramificação dos nervos. Os vinte plexos braquiais foram resultantes das conexões entre os ramos ventrais dos três últimos nervos espinhais cervicais (C6, C7 e C8 e do primeiro torácico (T1. Estes ramos derivaram os nervos supra-escapular, subescapular, axilar, musculocutâneo, radial, mediano, ulnar para a musculatura intrínseca e os nervos braquiocefálico, toracodorsal, torácico lateral, torácico longo, peitoral cranial e peitoral caudal para a musculatura extrínseca do membro torácico. Constatou-se que os ramos ventrais de C7 foram os que mais contribuíram na formação de nervos (61,5%, seguido de C8 (55,4%, de T1 (41,2% e de C6 (30,8%. O teste t de comparação entre as médias, ao nível de significância de 5%, não demonstrou diferenças na origem do plexo quando comparados os antímeros e os sexos. Do total dos 260 nervos dissecados, 68,8% foram originados pela combinação de dois ou três ramos, enquanto apenas 31,2% tiveram formação por um único ramo. A combinação entre C8 e T1 foi a que mais formou nervos para o plexo (23,8% nesta espécie. Quando comparadas a origem, ramificação e área de inervação do plexo braquial do C. thous com outras espécies domésticas e silvestres, verificou-se maior semelhança com o cão doméstico. Os resultados deste estudo podem embasar o diagnóstico de disfunções neuromusculares, as técnicas de bloqueios anestésicos e análises morfofuncionais comparativas envolvendo esta espécie.

  11. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea, a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

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    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  12. An unusual nine-ocellated common torpedo, Torpedo torpedo(Linnaeus, 1758) (Chondrichthyes: Torpedinidae), from southern France

    OpenAIRE

    CAPAPÉ, Christian; GUÉLORGET, Olivier; VERGNE, Yvan; QUIGNARD, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    A nine-ocellated Torpedo torpedo, caught off the Languedoc coast in southern France (northern Mediterranean) is described in this paper. This is the greatest number of ocellae recorded to date in this species.

  13. Effect of copper on the characterization of proteins in the Spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus (Linnaeus,1758

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    Maharajan Athisuyambulingam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is most toxic metal in marine organisms. Characterization of protein occurring in the metabolically active tissues of muscle (MU, hepatopancreas (HP and gills (GL of the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus on exposure to two sub-lethal doses (9.55 and 19.1 µg/l of copper were studied for 28 days of exposure (DoE. The electrophoretic pattern of muscle, hepatopancreas and gill proteins revealed 12, 8 and 8 slow moving bands (control. The number of bands decreased to 8 and 7, 6 and 5, 6 and 4 after 7 days of exposure to 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. After 28 days, the protein bands decreased to 7 and 6, 5 and 4, 4 and 4 at 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. Present study to indicate that to avoid the Cupro-Nickel coil in lobster holding centers in chiller plants used for cooling of water was found to be responsible for the mortality of lobsters during live transportation.

  14. Effects of CO2-driven acidification of seawater on the calcification process in the calcareous hydrozoan Millepora alcicornis (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Marangoni, Laura Fernandes; Calderon, Emiliano Nicolas; Marques, Joseane Aparecida; Duarte, Gustavo Adolpho Santos; Pereira, Cristiano Macedo; e Castro, Clovis Barreira; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-12-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to intensify due to increasing levels in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 ( pCO2). This could negatively affect major calcifying reef organisms. In this study, the effects of different levels of CO2-driven acidification of seawater (control: pH 8.1; moderate: pH 7.8; intermediate: pH 7.5; and severe: pH 7.2) on the net calcification rate and activity of enzymes related to the calcification process (Ca-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase) were evaluated in the calcareous hydrozoan Millepora alcicornis. The experiment was run for 30 d using a marine mesocosm system. Net calcification ratio was significantly reduced in hydrocorals exposed to intermediate seawater acidification for 16 d and to severe seawater acidification for 16 d or 30 d, compared to animals at control conditions. However, only hydrocorals exposed to severe seawater acidification showed lower net calcification rates than those exposed to control conditions for 30 d. In accordance, the activities of enzymes involved in the calcification process markedly increased in hydrocorals exposed to reduced pH. Ca-ATPase seemed to be more sensitive to seawater acidification than carbonic anhydrase as it increased in hydrocorals exposed to intermediate and severe seawater acidification for 30 d, while carbonic anhydrase activity was only stimulated under severe seawater acidification. Therefore, our findings clearly show that the hydrocoral M. alcicornis is able to cope, to some extent, with long-term CO2-driven acidification of seawater (pH ≥ 7.5). In addition, they show that Ca-ATPase plays a key role in the maintenance of calcification rate under scenarios of moderate and intermediate levels of seawater acidification. However, the observed increase in Ca-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase activity was not enough to compensate for the effects of CO2-driven reduction in seawater pH on the net calcification rate of the hydrocoral M. alcicornis under a scenario of severe ocean acidification (pH 7.2).

  15. Morfologia dos órgãos genitais externos do macho de cutia (Dasyprocta aguti. Linnaeus, 1766

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    Danilo José Ayres de Menezes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados vinte e três cutias (D. aguti, machos, adultos, adquiridos em criatórios científicos, legalmente licenciados pelo IBAMA, da Universidade Federal do Piauí - UFPI, Teresina, PI e da Escola Superior Agrícola de Mossoró - ESAM, Mossoró, RN, com o objetivo de descrever morfologicamente os órgãos genitais masculinos externos, abordando aspectos histológicos e macroscópicos destes órgãos. Foi realizada a dissecação dos órgãos genitais externos dos espécimes. Fragmentos foram coletados e submetidos ao processamento histológico de rotina para inclusão em parafina, os quais foram cortados e corados pelos métodos de H/E e Tricômico de Masson e observados em microscópio de luz. Os resultados mostraram que o pênis destes animais possui características do tipo fibrocavernoso, com grande quantidade de estruturas queratinizadas no seu ápice. No terço médio do pênis da cutia foi evidenciado uma flexura peniana em forma de "U" deitado; a glande do pênis encontra-se revestida por uma epiderme queratinizada contendo espículas córneas; um osso peniano substituindo o corpo cavernoso e um saco suburetral ventral, com dois longos esporões córneos no seu interior, estão presentes no pênis desses espécimes. Na região escrotal não se observa limites externos nítidos do escroto. Dorsalmente, abaixo da lâmina interna do prepúcio, próximo ao óstio prepucial, verifica-se um par de glândulas prepuciais.

  16. Population and prey of the Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758 (Carnivora: Felidae in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh

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    M.M.H. Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The results from intensive small scale surveys are often difficult to extrapolate to wider spatial scales, yet an understanding at such scales is critical for assessing the minimum densities and populations of rare and wide ranging species. In this paper, the minimum size of population and minimum density estimates of Bengal Tigers Panthera tigris tigris and its prey were conducted from 2005 to 2007 using camera traps for 90 days and using distance sampling surveys for over 200 days, respectively. The results were extrapolated from the core study area in Katka-Kochikhali, southeastern Sundarbans, to five additional sites using indices of abundance. With the use of 10 camera-traps at 15 trap-points, field data provided a total of 829 photos, including seven photos of five individual tigers. A total of 5.0 (SE = 0.98 tigers (adults and sub-adults are thus estimated in the core area with an estimated density of 4.8 tigers/100km2. Distance sampling surveys conducted on large mammalian prey species obtained an overall density estimate of 27.9 individuals/km2 and a biomass density of 1,037kg/km2. Indices of abundance were obtained by using tiger track sighting rates (number of tracks/km of riverbank and the sighting rates of the prey species (number of prey/km of riverbank in the core area and in five additional sites across the region. The densities of tiger tracks and sighting rates of prey were strongly correlated suggesting a wide scale relationship between predator and prey in the region. By combining the estimates of absolute density with indices of abundance, an average of 3.7 tigers/100km2 across the region is estimated, which given an area of 5,770km2, predicts a minimum of approximately 200 tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

  17. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus 1758) in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, van M.G.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study describes habitat choice of the Surinam black spider monkey ( Atelespaniscuspaniscus ) and clarifies complex temporal and spatial effects of food sources on the behaviour of a group of spider monkeys in a 350 ha study area in

  18. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the black spider monkey [Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus 1758] in Surinam

    OpenAIRE

    van Roosmalen, M. G. M.

    1985-01-01

    This study describes habitat choice of the Surinam black spider monkey ( Atelespaniscuspaniscus ) and clarifies complex temporal and spatial effects of food sources on the behaviour of a group of spider monkeys in a 350 ha study area in central Surinam in terms of food category, food plant identity and phenology, and in terms of quantity, density and dispersion of the most important of these food sources. It recognizes the fundamental i...

  19. First report of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus,1758 (Trematoda: Digenea in Argentina

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    Prepelitchi Lucila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8% were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.

  20. Size at morphological maturity of Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 (Brachyura, Ocypodidae in the Laranjeiras Bay, Southern Brazil

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    Glaucia Dalabona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometry and maturity of Ucides cordatus were analyzed with males and females collected during one year on a monthly basis at Laranjeiras Bay, Paraná State, Brazil. Carapace length, chelipeds propodus length and abdominal width were measured and related to carapace width to verify sexual dimorphism and size at morphological maturity of each sex. Carapace and propodus length of larger and smaller cheliped presented difference between sexes, confirming the use of both as secondary sexual characters. MATURE II program indicated 44mm and 43mm of carapace width to represent the size at sexual maturity of males and females, respectively.Análises de crescimento relativo foram realizadas para exemplares de Ucides cordatus, coletados mensalmente durante um ano na Baía das Laranjeiras, sul do Brasil. O comprimento da carapaça, o comprimento do própodo dos quelípodos e a largura do abdome tiveram suas medidas relacionadas à largura da carapaça, para verificar o dimorfismo sexual e o tamanho na maturidade morfológica. O comprimento da carapaça e do própodo dos quelípodos maior e menor apresentaram padrões de crescimento diferenciados entre os sexos, indicando serem caracteres sexuais secundários para a espécie. O programa MATURE II indicou os tamanhos de 44 e 43mm de largura de carapaça para a maturidade sexual morfológica de machos e fêmeas, respectivamente.

  1. Sighting of Red-breasted Parakeet Psittacula alexandri (Linnaeus, 1758 (Psittaciformes: Psittaculidae from Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda John

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Red-breasted Parakeet is one among the most widespread parakeets of the world.  The ‘Near Threatened’ bird has been in pet trade for long and is already known as a feral bird from major cities in India.  The biodiversity of India has been threatened by many alien invasive species and some have been of a serious threat to native species pushing them to extinction.  Though Red-breasted Parakeet with a limited population in many of the cities is of no immediate threat, an increase in population can be of serious threat to native bird species.  In this paper, we report the new sighting of Red-breasted Parakeet from Vellayani-Punjakari wetlands, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala and discuss the possible threats this particular species can impart to the native bird diversity. 

  2. Ultrastructure of sperm of the Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus, Linnaeus, 1766) observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavi, M; Kailasam, M; Mohanlal, D L

    2015-02-01

    An investigation was conducted to understand the sperm cell morphology and ultrastructure of Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The present study reveals that the sperm of S. argus can be differentiated into three major parts - an acrosome-less spherical head, a short mid-piece, and a cylindrical flagellum. The scat sperm cell had a mean total length of 21.32 ± 1.80 μm with the presence of ovoid electron-dense nucleus. The mean length and width of ovoid nucleus measured 1.44 ± 0.34 and 1.54 ± 0.33 μm, respectively. The structural characteristics of the nucleus were found to be a shallow axial nuclear fossa and centriolar complex. The two centrioles were positioned nearly perpendicular to each other with a conventional "9 + 0" pattern in the proximal centriole. The short mid-piece was located laterally to the nucleus and contains 5 or 6 spherical and unequal-sized mitochondria. The mitochondria were separated from the axoneme by a cytoplasmic canal. The flagellum was inserted at the base of the nucleus with the presence of an axoneme structure of 9 + 2 paired micro tubules. The sperm flagellum had short irregular lateral fins. The present study reveals that Spotted scat sperm can be categorized as being of a "primitive or ect-aquasperm type" and belongs to the teleostean "type I" sperm. This is the first report on the morphology and ultrastructure of sperm in Scatophagidae family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cabral Caldeira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species. A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.53 kg, with approximately 0.068% allocated to the testicular mass and 0.042% specifically to seminiferous tubules, which represented 87.5% of the testicular parenchyma. The albuginea comprised 12.5% of the testicular mass. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules was 236 µm, and the mean thickness of the seminiferous epithelium was 62.9 µm. Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores.

  4. SEM studies on immature stages of the drone flies (diptera, syrphidae): Eristalis similis (Fallen, 1817) and Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Hurtado, Pilar; García-Gras, Elena; Rojo, Santos

    2013-08-01

    Adult drone flies (Syrphidae: Eristalis spp.) resemble male honeybees in appearance. Their immature stages are commonly known as rat-tailed maggots due to the presence of a very long anal segment and a telescopic breathing tube. The larvae are associated with decaying organic material in liquid or semi-liquid media, as in the case of other saprophagous eristalines. Biological and morphological data were obtained from both laboratory cultures and sampling in the field. Drone flies are important pollinators for wild flowers and crops. In fact, mass rearing protocols of Eristalis species are being developed to be used as efficient alternative pollinators. However, deeper knowledge of larval morphology and biology is required to improve artificial rearing. The production quality control of artificial rearing must manage the consistency and reliability of the production output avoiding, for example contamination with similar species. This article presents the first description of the larva and puparium of E. similis, including a comparative morphological study of preimaginal stages of the anthropophilic and ubiquitous European hoverfly species E. tenax. Scanning electron microscopy has been used for the first time to describe larvae and puparia of both species. Moreover, the preimaginal morphology of E. similis has been compared with all known descriptions of the genus Eristalis. The main diagnostic characters of the preimaginal stages of E. similis are the morphology of the anterior spiracles (shape of clear area and arrangement of facets) and pupal spiracles (length, shape, and arrangement of tubercles). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

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    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  6. Record number of Yellow-billed Oxpeckers Buphagus africanus Linnaeus, 1766 (Aves: Passeriformes: Buphagidae foraging on a single host

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    Diogo Verissimo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2016, we observed a group of Yellow-billed Oxpeckers foraging on a single male Giraffe, in the Savuti area of Chobe National Park, Botswana.  From photographic evidence we estimate the Oxpecker group numbered between 51 and 60, the highest number on record for a single host. 

  7. Morphology and histology of the female reproductive system of the mangrove land crab, Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 (Brachyura: Ocypodidae

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    Flávia Duarte Ferraz Sampaio

    Full Text Available This study provides a detailed description of the macro- and microscopic anatomy of the female reproductive system of the mangrove land crab, Ucides cordatus. A total of 277 females were collected between October 1998 and September 1999 in mangroves of the Victoria Bay, State of Espírito Santo, Southeast Brazil. The reproductive system of this species is composed of two ovaries united together by a bridge, present in the form of an H when viewed dorsally, and two seminal receptacles. Histological analysis revealed the following six stages of oocyte development: I. young germ cells (oogonias; II. oocytes of the germinative centers; III. oocytes with lipid vitellogenesis; IV. vitellogenic oocytes with lipid and protein; V. oocytes with completed vitellogenesis; and VI. oocytes in hyalinization. The anatomy of the ovary is characterized by the following six stages of development: I. immature; II. at maturity; III. mature; IV. partly spawned; V. fully spawned; and VI. in recovery. Reproduction was observed in summer, and the results suggesting that this species showed multiple spawnings.

  8. A Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Mackenzie River delta, Northwest Territories, Canada (Notes on Cetacea, Delphinoidea VIII)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Sergeant, D.E.; Hoek, W.

    1977-01-01

    A Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, taken from near Shallow Bay, Mackenzie River Delta, Northwest Territories (68°48’ N 136°35’ W) in July 1973 represents a range extension 800 km eastwards from the previous extreme northeastern record on the north Alaskan coast. All 12 Harbour Porpoises so far

  9. A synthesis of the early life history of the anglerfish, Lophius piscatorius (Linnaeus, 1758) in northern British waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hislop, J.R.G.; Gallego, A.; Heath, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    and an examination of the geographical distribution of pelagic and demersal anglerfish. Otolith incremental analysis indicates that the pelagic phase is relatively long(ca. 120 days) and growth during the first year of life is rapid. A particle tracking model predicts that pelagic post larvae of known age caught...

  10. Characterization of the cellular damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 hepatocytes

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    Giuseppe Crescenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. is one of the most intensively farmed fish spe- cies in the Mediterranean, greatly studied for the relevant economic value, although its sensitivity to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 has to be investigated, yet. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro evalua- tion of cytotoxic potential of AFB1 on S. aurata hepatocytes in order to grade the range of AFB1 toxicity, and the boundary between acute and long-term toxicity. Primary monolayer cultures of hepatocytes from S. aurata juveniles were treated with a wide range of concentrations from 5x103 ng/ml to 2x10 2x10-5 ng/ml of AFB1 for a different period of exposure (24, 48, 72 hours. The cytotoxic activity was characterized by MTT reduction assay. After each exposition hepatocytes were examined for morphologic alterations and apoptosis induction. AFB1 exposure significantly reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-depend- ent manner. Dose-response curves obtained after 24, 48 and 72 hrs revealed that prolonged exposure times lead to a significant increase of the toxicpotencyofAFB toxic potency of AFB AFB1. Ourresultsdemonstratethat Our results demonstrate that S. aurata hepatocytes are highly sensitive to AFB1 exposure. Such scientific findings could provide new insights to investigate the real impact of aflatoxin on marine farmed fish.

  11. Efficiency in pollen foraging by honey bees: Time, motion and pollen depletion on flowers of Sisyrinchium palmifolium Linnaeus (Asparagales: Iridaceae

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    Breno M. Freitas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees depend on flower resources (nectar and pollen to supply individual and colony needs. Although behavioural studies already assessed optimum foraging patterns of bumblebees, honey bees foraging behavioural patterns have been poorly assessed. We used Sysirinchium palmifolium L. (Iridaceae, a low-growing, abundant and anthophilous grassland flower to test the hypotheses that Apis mellifera workers would i spend more time, ii visit a greater number of flowers, and iii travel greater distances within patches of S. palmifolium which were newly opened or not been visited by other pollinators when compared to foraging on patches that were available to pollinators during its whole blooming period (only one day. In two different sunny days, we measured bee activities in an area opened for visitation during the whole anthesis (OP plot treatment and another opened for visitation only half of anthesis (CL plot treatment. We observed bees spending more time, visiting more flowers and travelling more in S. palmifolium CL treatment than the OP plot treatment. Previous studies already showed bees alter their foraging behaviour in the lack of resources. Honey bees are able to remember the period of the day when resources are usually the higher, they probably detect the most promising period to gather resources on S. palmifolium flowers. Since A. mellifera is a pollinator with a wide-distribution and is considered an important cause of changes on native pollinator communities, we support additional studies evaluating its foraging behaviours to better understand how it explores flower resources.

  12. Eggs viability of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae) under different environmental and storage conditions in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Pinheiro, V C; Dasso-Pinheiro, W; Trindade-Bezerra, J M; Tadei, W P

    2017-01-01

    The viability of Aedes aegypti eggs was assessed in the Amazon region. The eggs were maintained under different conditions: indoors (insectarium) and outdoors (natural environment), as well as in different storage types (plastic cup, paper envelope, plastic bag) for different days. Egg viability was measured as the mean of hatchings observed from egg-bearing sheets of filter paper immersed in water, using three sheets randomly selected from each storage type and at both sites. There were significant differences in the viability of Ae. aegypti eggs with respect to the location (F=30.40; DF=1; P<0.0001), storage type (F=17.66; DF=2; P<0.0001), and time of storage (F=49.56; DF=9; P<0.0001). The interaction between storage site versus storage type was also significant (F=15.96; DF=2; P<0.0001). A higher hatching mean was observed for the eggs kept in the insectarium than for those outdoors (32.38 versus 7.46). Hatching rates of egg batches stored for 12 to 61 days ranged between 84 and 90%. A reduction was observed between 89 and 118 days, with values of 63 and 48%, respectively. With respect to type of storage, mean egg hatching was higher for the eggs in plastic cups (44.46). It was concluded that the viability of the eggs of Ae. aegypti in the Amazon region remains high up to 4 months, after which it declines drastically, although in this study hatching occurred for up to 8 months in very low percentages.

  13. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMNAEIDAE (MOLLUSCA, BASOMMATOPHORA), INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA, DIGENEA) IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'ávila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions. PMID:24879003

  14. Genetic diversity in the lion (panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758)) : unravelling the past and prospects for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertola, Laura Diana

    2015-01-01

    Insights into the spatial distribution of genetic diversity is key for understanding the evolutionary history and for effective species conservation. For the lion, all African populations are considered to belong to one subspecies, while the Asiatic subspecies is confined to a single population in

  15. Genetic diversity in the lion (panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758)): unravelling the past and prospects for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Bertola, Laura Diana

    2015-01-01

    Insights into the spatial distribution of genetic diversity is key for understanding the evolutionary history and for effective species conservation. For the lion, all African populations are considered to belong to one subspecies, while the Asiatic subspecies is confined to a single population in India. However, it is suggested that the genetic diversity is greater than the taxonomy implies. Notably the West and Central African lion represents a unique clade, which is relevant because the po...

  16. The sighting of Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata (Linnaeus (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae after a gap of 112 years in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A female Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata was sighted in Saatvoini Beel on February 10, 2014. The female of this species was characterized by grey head, with a white ring around the eye which continued as a streak behind it. In India Mandarin Duck is vagrant and there were very few reported records from India. In 1902, Baker reported six individuals Mandarin Duck on the Subansiri River, Assam. The present sighting of this species from Baksa district is the first reliable record of this species in Assam after a gap of 112 years. 

  17. Effects of fasting and refeeding on the metabolic functions of the turtle Kinosternon scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1766 raised in captivity

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    Antonia S. Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic responses of adult and young freshwater Kinosternon scorpioides turtles raised in captivity were evaluated. Two experiments were performed: a blood metabolite changes caused by food deprivation, and b liver and muscle glycogen and total lipid differences after fasting and refeeding. Blood glucose concentration of young animals was susceptible to food deprivation. In both groups this metabolite decreased after 30 days of fasting. Feeding for 15 days did not recover blood glucose. Total seric proteins were not affected by food deprivation. Fasting decreased blood urea nitrogen and the highest difference was found around 30 days. Uric acid increased in young animals after 60 days of fasting. Triacylglicerol decreased after 15 days of fasting and refeeding for 15 days recovered the pre-fasting levels. Free fatty acid plasma tended to increase around 15 days of fasting. Liver glycogen decreased at day 15 of fasting, being stable thereafter while muscle glycogen decreased at a slower rate. Total liver lipid stabilized after 30 days and then decreased 70% after 60 days of fasting. Muscle lipids remained stable throughout fasting. It could be concluded that fasting of Kinosternon scorpioides led to metabolic adaptations similar to the one reported from reptiles and fish.

  18. Morphology of the first zoea of the shamefaced crab Calappa granulata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Brachyura, Calappidae obtained in the laboratory

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    Torres, P.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The first zoeal stage of the calappid crab Calappa granulata is described and illustrated from laboratory-reared material obtained from an ovigerous female captured in the western Mediterranean. The morphology of this larval stage is clearly different from previous description from plankton-collected specimens attributed to this species. The present stage is compared with those previously described from other species of the genus Calappa.En el presente trabajo se describe el primer estadio larvario del cangrejo Calappa granulata. Las larvas se obtuvieron a partir de una hembra ovígera capturada en el Mediterráneo occidental. La morfología de la primera zoea es claramente diferente a la anterior descripción realizada a partir de ejemplares obtenidos en el plancton, y que fue atribuida a C. granulata. La primera zoea de esta especie es comparada con la de otras especies descritas del género Calappa.

  19. People’s attitudes toward Striped Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Hyaenidae conservation in lowland Nepal

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    Shivish Bhandari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore people’s attitudes toward Striped Hyaena conservation in lowland Nepal.  Structured questionnaire sheets were used to collect information on major threats, human casualties, and people’s perception towards Hyaenas and other carnivores.  People’s perceptions toward Hyaenas and conservation were overall positive.  During the study, 400 people were interviewed and questionnaire sheets were filled.  It was discovered that 63% had a positive attitude toward the Hyaenas.  On the other hand, 37% of the people had a negative attitude regarding the species’ conservation.  It was found that local people had understood various aspects of Hyaena ecology.  Sixty-five percent of the people responded that the Hyaena entered human populated areas due to an absence of food in the natural forests and habitat degradation.  A total of 19% of the respondents reported killing carnivores including the Hyaena due to human-carnivore conflicts.  

  20. The influence of a light and dark cycle on the egg laying activity of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Luana Cristina Farnesi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The epidemiological importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti as a vector of multiple human pathogens has generated a growing number of studies on the physiology and behaviour of its blood-feeding females. The activity of oviposition is one of the critical elements contributing to the expansion of Ae. aegypti's populations. Although there is a vast literature about oviposition behaviour, significant specific knowledge about egg viability and female fertility under light and dark conditions is still lacking. OBJECTIVES We studied, in controlled laboratory conditions, the effect that light and dark cycles have on the efficiency of oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. METHODS Physiological assays were performed using synchronised eggs obtained from forced egg laying. The number and viability of eggs was analysed under three different light/dark regimes: LD12:12 (12 h of light and 12 h of dark, DD (constant darkness and LL (constant light. FINDINGS and CONCLUSIONS Our results show that females prefer to lay their eggs in dark conditions, but maximising the number and viability of eggs requires the occurrence of a light/dark cycle. Ongoing research on this theme has the potential of contributing to the proposition of new strategies for control based on the failure of egg laying and hatching.