Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...
Warrell, D A; Fenner, P J
Travellers to tropical countries are often extremely concerned about the risk of bites and stings by venomous animals. This fear prompts many enquiries, usually at the last moment before departure, about the possibility of carrying first aid kits and antivenoms. In fact, these accidents are extremely rare because most travellers wear shoes and are far less exposed to venomous animals than indigenous peoples for whom bites and stings may be important causes of death or morbidity. PMID:8101465
... you to save the tick in a sealed container or zip-locked bag for identification later. Use ... and stings: Prevent flea infestations by treating your house (including all carpets, furniture, and pets) regularly during ...
... United States, and they like to hide in dark, quiet places like attics or garages, under porches, ... protect ourselves: Prevent flea infestations by treating your house (including all carpets, furniture, and pets) regularly during ...
Full Text Available ... Biting flies Mites Bees, wasps and hornets Spiders Ticks Fire ants Most bug bites and stings can ... red, donut-shaped rash that develops after a tick bite: This could be a sign of Lyme ...
... or Sting Information for adults A A A Insect (arthropod) bites are typically pink or red and ... round in shape. Overview Bites or stings from insects (arthropods) are very common. Most reactions are mild ...
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... relief. Oral OTC drugs, such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen, can provide relief of pain from bites and ... sneezing, wheezing, hives, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sudden anxiety, dizziness, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, and itching or swelling ...
Full Text Available ... bug bite or sting could turn into something serious – particularly if you have been bitten or stung ... bite: This could be a sign of Lyme disease, which should be treated with antibiotics. A fever ...
Full Text Available En este tema tratamos las picaduras por artrópodos. Se hace referencia a las diferencias que existen entre las picaduras de avispas y abejas, comentando la composición de venenos y las diferentes reacciones locales y generales que provocan dichas picaduras. Se exponen además las picaduras-mordeduras producidas por escorpiones, arañas, garrapatas, y animales marinos con la clínica que provocan y el tratamiento que es necesario administrar. Por último, se incluyen las mordeduras por serpientes, haciendo referencia a los tipos de ofidios más frecuentes en Navarra, la forma de diferenciar la mordedura de culebras de las víboras, la diferente clínica que provocan, y el tratamiento a aplicar.Under the heading of this subject we deal with stings by arthropods, making reference to the differences that exist between the stings of wasps and bees, commenting on the composition of the poisons and the different local and general reactions that are caused by such stings. Also discussed are the stings/bites caused by scorpions, spiders, ticks, and marine animals, with the clinical picture they provoke and the treatment that must be administered. Finally, snakebites are considered, with reference to the most frequent types of ophidia to be found in Navarra, how to differentiate between the bites of snakes and vipers, the different clinical pictures they provoke and the treatment to be applied
Avinash Agrawal; Anand Kumar; Shuchi Consul; Ambuj Yadav
Scorpion bites are common in India. Usually, these bites are harmless but sometimes have serious clinical sequelae, including death. We report herein a case of scorpion bite with electrocardiographic abnormalities simulating early myocardial infarction. Pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure accompanied these electrocardiographic changes as well as serum cardiac markers. The etiology of cardiovascular manifestations in severe scorpion sting is related to venom effect on sympathetic nerv...
... and Stings Introduction to Bites and Stings Alligator, Crocodile, and Iguana Bites Animal Bites Bee, Wasp, Hornet, ... and Stings Introduction to Bites and Stings Alligator, Crocodile, and Iguana Bites Animal Bites Bee, Wasp, Hornet, ...
Full Text Available ... could be a sign of Lyme disease, which should be treated with antibiotics. A fever with a ... fever, a bacterial infection carried by ticks, which should be treated immediately. Although most bug bites and ...
Data abstracted from 34 death certificates indicate that the three venomous animal groups most often responsible for human deaths in California from 1960 through 1976 were Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants and the like) (56 percent), snakes (35 percent) and spiders (6 percent). An average incidence of 2.0 deaths per year occurred during these 17 years, or an average death rate of 0.01 per 100,000 population per year. Nearly three times more males than females died of venomous animal bites and st...
Venomous and poisonous animals are a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality. This Seminar will cover selected aspects of these animals, their venoms/poisons, and their clinical impact on humankind, from a global perspective, but with a distinctive Australian flavor and a clinical emphasis. Venomous snakes are found throughout most of the world, including many oceans, and have evolved a variety of highly effective toxins and methods of delivery. Their impact on humans is considerable, most current data suggesting they cause in excess of 3 million bites per year with more than 150,000 deaths. Particularly in the rural tropics, snakebite morbidity and mortality has a significant human medical and economic toll. The major groups of snakes causing bites are the vipers, the elapids (cobra type), the sea snakes, the side-fanged vipers, and the back-fanged colubrids. Australian venomous snakes are nearly all elapids and have evolved some of the most toxic of all snake venoms. Their effects include potent procoagulants and anticoagulants, neurotoxins, myotoxins, and nephrotoxins, but a distinct absence of the major local necrotoxins found in some non-Australian elapids and many vipers. The effect of these toxins on humans is not limited to envenoming, for the toxins are proving invaluable as research tools and diagnostic agents, and may even have a future as precursors of therapeutic agents. Because of the high toxicity and diversity of Australian elapids, a variety of monovalent antivenoms have been developed. There is also a venom detection kit to determine the type of snake and allow targeted antivenom therapy. The kit has also increased information available on diagnostic patterns of envenoming for each species. Australia is also home to the world's most lethal spiders, the funnel webs of eastern Australia, as well as the red back spider, the single most common reason for antivenom treatment in Australia. The latter spiders have been accidently exported to
Lynch, James H; Verlo, April R; Givens, Melissa L; Munoz, Cesar E
The natural health threats in Africa pose daunting clinical challenges for any provider, as evidenced by the current Ebola epidemic in West Africa, but the threat is multiplied for the Special Operations provider on the continent who faces these challenges with limited resources and the tyranny of distance. The majority of operationally significant health risks can be mitigated by strict adherence to a comprehensive force health protection plan. The simplest, yet most effective, technique for preventing mosquito-borne diseases is the prevention of mosquito bites with repellent, bed nets, and appropriate clothing in addition to chemoprophylaxis. Some of the more likely or lethal infectious diseases encountered on the continent include malaria, Chikungunya, dengue, human immunodeficiency virus, and Ebola. Venomous snakes pose a particular challenge since the treatment can be as deadly as the injury. Providers supporting African operations should educate themselves on the clinical characteristics of possible envenomations in their area while promoting snake avoidance as the primary mitigation measure. To succeed in Africa, the Special Operations provider must consider how to meet these challenges in an environment where there may not be reliable evacuation, hospitalization, or logistics channels. PMID:25399379
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Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y
From 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4,228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were brought on by snakebites, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged 1 year or more, 0.9% (26/2,880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of the total number of deaths by accident. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1,280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspididae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%). PMID:12404858
Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Guerrero, R; Reyes, M; Szymanska, B
Two cases of poisoning produced by the unusual attack of colonies of insects from the family Bombidae, commonly known as bumblebees, are described. This type of poisoning may become severe toxicity and it is analyzed in the light of the latest findings. It is characterized by hemorrhagical symptoms, such as hematemesis and melaena. PMID:9842259
Full Text Available Insect bites, bee stings are the most frequently encountered. Often seen after bee stings usually only local allergic reactions. Sometimes with very serious clinical condition may also be confronted. Of this rare clinical findings; polyneuritis, parkinsonism, encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, hemolytic anemia and renal disease has. Here a rare convulsions after a bee sting is presented.
Full Text Available Christian Müller1,*, Beatrice Großjohann1,*, Lutz Fischer2,*1Department of Medical Science and Operations, RIEMSER Arzneimittel AG, An der Wiek 7, 17489 Greifswald, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Medicine, University Greifswald, Friedrich-Loeffler-Straße 23b, 17493 Greifswald, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Swelling, pain, and pruritus are the most relevant symptoms after insect bites/stings. Glucocorticoids and antihistamines are well established in insect sting treatment. Bite Away® is a CE-certified medical device of class 2A (noninvasive device intended for administration to the body, which exchanges energy with the patient in a therapeutic manner to reduce swelling, pruritus, and pain after insect bites/stings via non-invasive administration of concentrated heat to the skin. We therefore performed a prospective, non-interventional, single-arm cohort study with 146 volunteers using the visual analog scale (VAS for insect bites/stings to study the reduction of swelling, pruritus, and pain. Demographic data, time from insect sting to treatment, number and duration of administrations of concentrated heat, relevant symptoms, and the development of a VAS score of swelling, pruritus, and pain on baseline, after 2, 5, and 10 minutes after administration, were registered.Results: In total 146 subjects with a mean age of 29.4 ± 20.7 years (range 2–81 were enrolled in the study. Ninety-three (63.7% of the subjects were stung by wasps, 33 (22.6% of the subjects were bitten by mosquitoes, and eight suffered bee stings (5.3%. VAS score swelling decreased with statistical significance after the use of Bite Away® from 4 before treatment to 2 and 1 after 2–5 and 10 minutes, respectively. VAS pain score was 6 before treatment, 2 after 2 minutes, 1 after 5 minutes, and 0 after 10 minutes (median. VAS pruritus score was only available for 52 (35.2% of the patients. The score decreased from 5 before
Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados, sob a ótica da vigilância epidemiológica dos acidentes por animais peçonhentos, quatro sistemas nacionais de informação, o SINAN (Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação, o SINITOX (Sistema Nacional de Informações Tóxico-Farmacológicas, o SIH-SUS (Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde e o SIM (Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade. Concluiu-se que esses sistemas possuem características próprias, foram criados para atender demandas diferentes e apesar de produzirem um grande volume de dados, não conseguem, ainda que analisados em conjunto, dar conta da dimensão real desses acidentes.This paper highlights the epidemiological surveillance of venomous bites and stings according to four national information systems: SINAN (National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity, SINITOX (National Information System on Poisoning, SIH-SUS (Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System, and SIM (Mortality Information System. The authors conclude that each information system has specific characteristics and addresses different demands. Although they contain large amounts of data, even if combined they fail to reflect the real magnitude of disorders caused by venomous bites and stings in the country.
Full Text Available Animal bite/sting injuries are a known source of morbidity with a significantly higher incidence among children who are most often bitten in the face, head, and neck. The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of bite/sting injuries treated at the pediatric emergency department in order to guide preventive efforts.The sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical data on all bite/sting injuries treated in one representative pediatric emergency department in Israel over a 1-year period were retrieved and analyzed. Two hundred of the 9,309 pediatric trauma cases treated in the emergency department were bite/sting injuries (2.1%. Non-Jewish patients were under-represented in this subgroup. The majority of patients were males (61.5%. Age distribution from 0–12 years was fairly even, except for an unexplained peak at 8 years. Dogs inflicted 56%, cats 11%, and hornets 9.5% of the injuries. Limbs were affected in 64% and the head and neck in 27%. Specialists, mostly plastic surgeons, were consulted in 42 cases (21%. The incidence rate for hospitalization (7% was similar to that seen in other types of injuries. Children with scorpion or hornet stings and young age were more likely to be hospitalized. Preventive and educational aspects are discussed.
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Ratti, C.; Grassi, L; Angheben, A.; Gobbo, M; L. Brugioni; R. Zandomeneghi
BACKGROUND Scorpion stings are very frequent in Centre-South America. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms are: local pain and redness, tachycardia, irritability, hypertensive crisis; but it differs with the scorpion species involved. CLINICAL CASE We describe a scorpion sting in a woman who came back from a holiday in Mexico. Consequently she had a hypertensive crisis treated with furosemide. DISCUSSION The scorpion sting can be very dangerous. There are many species which could be...
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Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are a health concern. Apidae (bees, Vespidae (hornets, yellow jackets and wasps and Formicidae (ants are medically-important stinging insects under the order Hymenoptera. Clinical features from simple skin manifestations to severe and fatal organ injury are due to the hypersensitivity reactions and/ or the toxic effects of the venom inoculated. Here we discuss on Hymenoptera stings involving apids (honey bees and vespids (wasps, hornets and yellow jackets and their effect on renal function and associated morphological changes in the kidney. Despite the differences in venom composition and quantity released per sting in two insect groups, both lead to similar medical consequences, such as localised normal allergic reactions, mild to severe anaphylaxis and shock and multiple organ and tissue injury leading to multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the unusual complications of Hymenoptera stings and has the basis of both immune-mediated and toxic effects. Evidence has proven that supportive therapy along with the standard medication is very efficient in completely restoring the kidney function without any recurrence.
In most patients, wasp stings cause local reactions and rarely anaphylaxis. Acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis are unusual complications of wasp stings. We report a case of acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis secondary to multiple wasp stings. A 55-year-old farmer developed multi organ dysfunction with acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis 3 days after he had sustained multiple wasp stings. The etiology of acute kidney injury is probably both rhabdomyolysis and acute tubular necrosis....
Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Turner, Helen C.; Winkel, Ken
Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp. (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment. PMID:21824077
... excessive or harsh discipline or exposure to physical violence. Parents should remember that children who are teething might also bite. Biting is the most common reason children get expelled from day care. What to ...
Cem Sahin; Ethem Acar; Halil Beydilli; Kadir Ugur Mert; Fatih Akin; Ibrahim Altun
The majority of scorpion stings are generally seen with a set of simple clinical findings, such as pain, oedema, numbness, and tenderness in the area of the sting. However, occasionally events, such as toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, acute pulmonary oedema, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), which occur in scorpion sting cases are a significant problem which determine mortality and morbidity. The case presented here was a 38-year-old man who developed acute toxic myocardi...
Full Text Available Wasp sting is a relatively common arthropod assault, but is sometimes fatal because of anaphylaxis. Rhabdomyolysis is a serious condition, with destruction of striated muscles, and can be induced by various causes such as drugs, heart attacks, CRASH syndrome, and viper bites. Mass envenomation by multiple wasp stings can also cause rhabdomyolysis followed by acute renal failure, although it is extremely rare. We herein report a case who had an anaphylaxis-like reaction and rhabdomyolysis due to multiple wasp stings.
It is well known that abnormal animal behaviour is affected by both environment and genetics. This thesis aimed to use behavioural observations as well as gene expression measurements to explore how animals that perform and receive tail biting (pigs) and feather pecking (laying hens) differ from individuals that are not involved in these behaviours. In study I, the results suggested that tail biting is related to other abnormal behaviours. Pigs performing a high frequency of tail bi...
Rupp, Robert M.
Relevant information concerning bee stings is provided. Possible reactions to a bee sting and their symptoms, components of bee venom, diagnosis of hypersensitivity, and bee sting prevention and treatment are topics of discussion. The possibility of bee stings occurring during field trips and the required precautions are discussed. (KR)
Full Text Available Although most of the scorpion stings are harmless, deadly species of scorpions may cause multiorgan failure, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and pulmonary edema. The cases should be observed in the emergency department against the possibility of development of systemic effects. Fatal complications, in particular such as pulmonary edema, and myocarditis should be considered. In this study, a case of myocarditis and pulmonary edema was detected on the patient who had applied to the emergency department due to a scorpion sting is presented.
Zengin, Suat; Al, Behçet; Oktay, Mehmet Murat; Kilic, Hasan
Scorpion stings are common in many regions of the world, particularly in rural areas. While most of the stings are harmless and tend to be milder, some stings rarely have severe clinical course, including neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory system complications. Although there are many studies in the literature related to the scorpion sting, data on effects of scorpion stings in pregnant woman are very little. The authors have not come across any case report of eclampsia as a complic...
Mao, Chen; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Chen, Kuo-Tai
An ocular jellyfish sting is an ophthalmic emergency and is rarely reported in the medical literature. With the evolution of aquatic activities and entertainment in recent decades, we anticipate that more patients with ocular jellyfish stings may be taken to the emergency department. However, most physicians are unaware of the typical presentations, suitable treatments, prognosis, and possible complications of ocular jellyfish stings. We reported 2 cases with ocular jellyfish stings and collected cases series from literature review. The most common clinical features of ocular jellyfish stings were pain, conjunctival injection, corneal lesion, and photophobia. All patients who sustained ocular stings did so during aquatic activities, and the best management at the scene was proper analgesics and copious irrigation of affected eyes with seawater or saline. The ocular lesions were treated with topical cycloplegics, topical steroids, topical antibiotics, topical antihistamines, and removal of nematocysts. The prognosis was good, and all patients recovered without any permanent sequelae. However, symptoms in some patients may last longer than 1 week. Reported complications included iritis, increased intraocular pressures, mydriasis, decreased accommodation, and peripheral anterior synechiae. PMID:27436284
Dehghani, Rouhullah; Arani, Mohammad Ghannaee
Due to the medical and therapeutic importance of scorpions in Iranian traditional medicine, this review was conducted on the treatment of scorpion sting as performed by traditional healers in order to realize complications, clinical manifestations, diversities, and deficiencies in the prevention, control, and treatment as mentioned in the pertained literatures. This study tried to make known and investigate attitudes of the Iranian national and traditional medicine towards controlling these venomous animals. Keywords and articles were searched through relevant sites on the Internet. We investigated different journals and references for the Iranian traditional medicine. Based on the articles and books found, we tried to find suitable solutions to problems from the viewpoint of traditional medicine. Scorpion sting dates back to ancient Iran and has been widely reflected in the resources of Iranian traditional medicine. The traditional medicine offers various guidelines that can be beneficial in this respect. New attitude towards scorpion sting with regard to traditional medicine resources can enhance control and prevention of scorpion stings. Consequently, this attitude leads authorities and researchers to a decreased level of scorpion stings or related consequences. PMID:26151015
Mozzi, Alessandra; Pontremoli, Chiara; Forni, Diego; Clerici, Mario; Pozzoli, Uberto; Bresolin, Nereo; Cagliani, Rachele; Sironi, Manuela
OAS (2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthases) proteins and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS, gene symbol: MB21D1) patrol the cytoplasm for the presence of foreign nucleic acids. Upon binding to double-stranded RNA or double-stranded DNA, OAS proteins and cGAS produce nucleotide second messengers to activate RNase L and STING (stimulator of interferon genes, gene symbol: TMEM173), respectively; this leads to the initiation of antiviral responses. We analyzed the evolutionary history of the MB21D1-TMEM173 and OAS-RNASEL axes in primates and bats and found evidence of widespread positive selection in both orders. In TMEM173, residue 230, a major determinant of response to natural ligands and to mimetic drugs (e.g., DMXAA), was positively selected in Primates and Chiroptera. In both orders, selection also targeted an α-helix/loop element in RNase L that modulates the enzyme preference for single-stranded RNA versus stem loops. Analysis of positively selected sites in OAS1, OAS2, and MB21D1 revealed parallel evolution, with the corresponding residues being selected in different genes. As this cannot result from gene conversion, these data suggest that selective pressure acting on OAS and MB21D1 genes is related to nucleic acid recognition and to the specific mechanism of enzyme activation, which requires a conformational change. Finally, a population genetics-phylogenetics analysis in humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas detected several positively selected sites in most genes. Data herein shed light into species-specific differences in infection susceptibility and in response to synthetic compounds, with relevance for the design of synthetic compounds as vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25752600
Y Laïd; Boutekdjiret, L.; R Oudjehane; Laraba-Djebari, F.; Hellal, H.; M Guerinik; Griene, L.; Alamir, B.; Merad, R.; Chippaux JP
Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 +/- 3.6 stings and 0.236 +/- 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI), respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas ...
Brenden A Bedard; Kennedy, Byron S.; Anita C Weimer; Anthony Petruso; Richard Magnussen
In October 2013, leptospirosis was identified in a 20-year-old male. The male was bitten on his hand by either his canine or a skunk while breaking up a fight between the two animals. Eight days after the bite, the male developed fever, headache, drowsiness, neck pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, malaise and erythematous rash. Diagnosis was confirmed by amplification of Leptospira by DNA from a urine specimen. Veterinarian serology testing of the canine for Leptospira was negative. Leptospira...
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J. Pastrana; Blasco, R; Erce, R. (R.); M.A. Pinillos
En este tema tratamos las picaduras por artrópodos. Se hace referencia a las diferencias que existen entre las picaduras de avispas y abejas, comentando la composición de venenos y las diferentes reacciones locales y generales que provocan dichas picaduras. Se exponen además las picaduras-mordeduras producidas por escorpiones, arañas, garrapatas, y animales marinos con la clínica que provocan y el tratamiento que es necesario administrar. Por último, se incluyen las mordeduras por serpientes,...
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Wijk, R.A. de; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.
The influence of bite size on sensory mouthfeel and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 mL (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In
Wijk, de R.A.; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.
The influence of bite size on sensory mouth- and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 ml (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In sin
... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...
They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…
Various mutants in bees were observed by gamma-ray irradiation. No-sting bee appeared in some of colonies of an irradiated mature queen bee. The characteristic form and quality of no-sting bee appeared in next generation bee groups. Artificial inseminations of the queen bee were carried out. Mutation parts of the gene were analyzed by using adjusted DNA in samples of wild bees and no-sting bees. A change of band pattern in the no-sting bee was observed much more than the one in the wild bee. Mutation of the genome DNA was cleared by gamma irradiation. Apparent difference of gene amplification between the wild bees and no-sting bees were detected by using gene primer (RAPD). Polymorphism phenomena in the mutant of no-sting bee were observed in comparison with in the wild bee. (M. Suetake)
Dehghani, Rouhullah; Arani, Mohammad Ghannaee
Due to the medical and therapeutic importance of scorpions in Iranian traditional medicine, this review was conducted on the treatment of scorpion sting as performed by traditional healers in order to realize complications, clinical manifestations, diversities, and deficiencies in the prevention, control, and treatment as mentioned in the pertained literatures. This study tried to make known and investigate attitudes of the Iranian national and traditional medicine towards controlling these v...
Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 ± 3.6 stings and 0.236 ± 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI, respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas and central highlands due to environmental conditions. Incidence of envenoming was especially higher in the adult population, and among young males. In contrast, mortality was significantly higher among children under 15 years, particularly ages 1-4. Upper limbs were more often affected than lower limbs. Most stings occurred at night, indoors and during the summer. Data collected since 2001 showed a reduction of mortality by nearly 50%, suggesting that the medical care defined by the national anti-scorpion project is bearing fruit.
Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions. (author)
Nishioka, S A; Silveira, P V
A 5-year-old boy bitten by a specimen of Philodryas patagoniensis, a colubrid snake currently classified as nonvenomous, developed signs of local envenoming characterized by swelling and warmth on the bitten limb. This is the first time that local envenoming following Philodryas patagoniensis bite is recognized. Based on the clinical findings and misidentification of the snake, the patient was treated as a victim of Bothrops bite, having received unnecessarily the specific antivenom. Educational efforts to make doctors and health workers capable to identify correctly venomous snakes are necessary, to avoid inappropriate indication of antivenom and decrease the risk of its potentially harmful untoward effects. Examination of the bite site can be useful to the differential diagnosis between pit viper and colubrid bites. PMID:7855493
Thacker A; Lal R; Misra M
Multiple cerebral infarcts, bilateral optic neuropathy with limb ischemia, following scorpion bite is documented. Vasospasm and autonomic storm due to envenomation is a plausible explanation for this symptom complex.
Full Text Available Chilobrachys hardwikii-giant black hairy spider bite produced two deaths, one case of gangrene of the foot and urticarial rashes in another person in a remote village of Churulia 30 km from Asansol.
SummaryMany orthodontists see open bites as their most demanding assignments; aesthetic issues must be taken into account, the treatment is difficult and the long-term stability unpredictable. Myofunctional treatment may not always be the right choice for this category of malocclusions, but it should be given a serious consideration. We need all the help we can get to treat open bites. PMID:26666567
Wroe, Stephen; McHenry, Colin; Thomason, Jeffrey
We provide the first predictions of bite force (BS) in a wide sample of living and fossil mammalian predators. To compare between taxa, we calculated an estimated bite force quotient (BFQ) as the residual of BS regressed on body mass. Estimated BS adjusted for body mass was higher for marsupials than placentals and the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) had the highest relative BS among extant taxa. The highest overall BS was in two extinct marsupial lions. BFQ in hyaenas were similar to ...
M. K. Al-Sadoon
Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%, the lowest in February (2.52%. Most patients were male (61.8%; the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%. Nocturnal envenomation (47.74% was more common than diurnal (43.91%; most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%, mainly in the lower limbs (63%. Most envenomings were mild (74.48% and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807, and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807 were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.
Boyle, R.; Elremeli, M.; Cherry, M.; Elberink, Oude J.; Bulsara, M.; Mahon, J.; Daniels, M.; Hockenhull, J.
Background Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is commonly used for preventing further allergic reactions to insect stings in people who have had a sting reaction. The efficacy and safety of this treatment has not previously been assessed by a high-quality systematic review. Objectives To assess the effects o
Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.
Shailesh Nagpure; Ranjana Kale; Satish Bahekar
Following snake bite cases, scorpion bite is a common global public health problem including India. Despite various species of scorpions, only few of these can be potentially lethal to humans. In India, the annual number of scorpion stings cases exceeds 1.23 million, of which over 32,250 may be fatal. This can be attributed to various hurdles in the scorpion bite treatment like poor health services, difficult and untimely transportation facilities, wrong traditional beliefs, delay in anti-sco...
Wijk, de R.A.; Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.; Prinz, J.F.
Two studies investigated the effect of a food's viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake using a standardized protocol in which subjects sipped through a straw every 20 s for a period of 15 min from one of two products, a chocolate-flavored dairy drink and a chocolate-flavored dairy semi-
M. Nazari; D. Bahrami; B. Davari; Salehzadeh, A
Introduction & Objective: Iran is among the countries with a variety of scorpion species, particu-larly dangerous ones. Death due to scorpion sting occurs in all parts of the country. Mortality from scorpion sting depends on various factors such as scorpion species, age of the stung per-son, stung body site and geographical area. Considering the fact that so far no research on the fauna and epidemiological aspect of scorpion stings has been done in Hamadan city, we con-ducted this research. M...
The incidence of snake bite is underestimated. Worldwide around 2800 species of snakes are known out of which 375 species are venomous. Snake bite effects on nervous, cardiac, renal systems. A 10-year-old male boy was got admitted after five days treating with a local snake bite professional. On admission, he was treated with antibiotics for an infection. His cerebellum and most of the brain noted with streaks of pus. Here a case of intracranial complication following snake bite is reported. ...
Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina
A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as ‘pets’ including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009–2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some o...
Giuseppe Mastrangelo; Luca Cegolon; Heymann, William C.; Lange, John H
Jellyfish (cnidarians) have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus o...
Monika Maheshwari; C P Tanwar
A patient with electrocardiographic abnormalities after scorpion sting, simulating early myocardial infarction, is reported here. Pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure accompanied these electrocardiographic changes. The etiology of the cardiovascular manifestations in severe scorpion sting is related to the venom effects on the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal secretion of catecholamines as well as to the toxic effects of the venom on the myocardium.
Full Text Available Jellyfish (cnidarians have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar (4%–6% acetic acid to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin. Conversely, alcohol, methylated spirits and fresh water should be carefully avoided, since they could massively discharge nematocysts; pressure immobilization bandaging should also be avoided, as laboratory studies show that it stimulates additional venom discharge from nematocysts. Most treatment approaches are presently founded on relatively weak evidence; therefore, further research (especially randomized clinical trials is strongly recommended. Dissemination of appropriate treatment modalities should be deployed to better inform and educate those at risk. Adequate signage should be placed at beaches to notify tourists of the jellyfish risk. Swimmers in risky areas should wear protective equipment.
Pacino, Mario A.
In this article, the author shares some of the prejudices faced by her daughter in her school and in their community. As an immigrant mother and educator who believed that democratic schooling meant inclusive education, it was painful for the author to watch her daughter negotiate the biases of her school experiences in a Midwestern town not…
Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in Morocco, especially among children, who experience the most severe cases. Epidemiological and clinical findings on scorpion stings in Fez, Morocco, were evaluated in this investigation. Of 163 cases that required medical attention, 62.6% were male children. The mean age of patients was 4.8 ± 3.4 years. The mean time between stings and first medical attention was 3.36 ± 2.5 hours. Almost all cases occurred in the summer (94% and extremities represented the most frequent sting sites (86.5%. Local pain, hyperemia, scarification, vomiting, sweating, restlessness, tachycardia and tachypnea were the observed clinical symptoms. Regarding severity, 55.2% of patients belonged to class III, followed by class II (26.4% and class I (18.4%. None of our patients received antivenom; however, all of them were treated symptomatically depending on clinical manifestations.
Full Text Available Spontaneous tumor-initiated T cell priming is dependent on IFN-β production by tumor-resident dendritic cells. On the basis of recent observations indicating that IFN-β expression was dependent upon activation of the host STING pathway, we hypothesized that direct engagement of STING through intratumoral (IT administration of specific agonists would result in effective anti-tumor therapy. After proof-of-principle studies using the mouse STING agonist DMXAA showed a potent therapeutic effect, we generated synthetic cyclic dinucleotide (CDN derivatives that activated all human STING alleles as well as murine STING. IT injection of STING agonists induced profound regression of established tumors in mice and generated substantial systemic immune responses capable of rejecting distant metastases and providing long-lived immunologic memory. Synthetic CDNs have high translational potential as a cancer therapeutic.
Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.
Full Text Available Human and animal bites can cause complications ranging from slight injuries to serious infections. Infections can originate from the biter’s oral cavity and victims’s skin flora. Compared with animal bites, human bites have a higher risk of infection development. Most of the wound infections due to bites are caused by polymicrobials. Pasteurella species, streptococci, staphylococci, Moraxella, Corynebacterium, and Neisseria spp., Bergeyella zoohelcum and Capnocytophaga species are the most frequently isolated pathogens. Dogs (85-90 %, cats (5-10 %, humans (2-3 % and rodents (2-3 % are responsible for most of the bite injuries. Injuries due to dog bites occur mostly in men older than 20 years old and usually on the extremities. Cat bites and related injuries are found in 66 % on the upper extremities, typically on the hands. Bites of human origin are mostly occur in males between the ages of 20-30, and especially seen on the arms, fingers and head-neck regions. Most of the bites from rodents have a rat origin. Those bites often happen at night , especially on the face or hand of children under five years old who live in poor hygienic conditions. The dog bites are mostly due to the crush-style injuries and in 4-25 % of those injuries an infection develops in about 24 hours. Because of their sharp teeth, cats cause puncture-type wounds. Approximately 30-50 % of the cat bite wounds become infected 12 hours later. Hand, face and genital region wounds have a higher risk for the occurrence of an infection, because of their special anatomical structure. In case of risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, long term steroid use, splenectomy, extreme ages (children and elderly people and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, infection could easily spread to the deep tissues. The suturing of bite wounds remain controversial. Infected wounds and bites older than 24 hours could be left open. Cosmetically problematic wounds like on the face
Wroe, Stephen; McHenry, Colin; Thomason, Jeffrey
We provide the first predictions of bite force (BS) in a wide sample of living and fossil mammalian predators. To compare between taxa, we calculated an estimated bite force quotient (BFQ) as the residual of BS regressed on body mass. Estimated BS adjusted for body mass was higher for marsupials than placentals and the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) had the highest relative BS among extant taxa. The highest overall BS was in two extinct marsupial lions. BFQ in hyaenas were similar to those of related, non-osteophagous taxa challenging the common assumption that osteophagy necessitates extreme jaw muscle forces. High BFQ in living carnivores was associated with greater maximal prey size and hypercarnivory. For fossil taxa anatomically similar to living relatives, BFQ can be directly compared, and high values in the dire wolf (Canis dirus) and thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) suggest that they took relatively large prey. Direct inference may not be appropriate where morphologies depart widely from biomechanical models evident in living predators and must be considered together with evidence from other morphological indicators. Relatively low BFQ values in two extinct carnivores with morphologies not represented among extant species, the sabrecat, Smilodon fatalis, and marsupial sabretooth, Thylacosmilus atrox, support arguments that their killing techniques also differed from extant species and are consistent with 'canine-shear bite' and 'stabbing' models, respectively. Extremely high BFQ in the marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, indicates that it filled a large-prey hunting niche. PMID:15817436
Full Text Available Nail biting is a stress removing habit adopted by many children and adults. People usually do it when they are nervous, stressed, hungry, or bored. All of these situations are having a common phenomenon between them is anxiety. Onychophagia is also a sign of other emotional or mental disorders. It is a habit that is not easy to quit and reflection of extreme nervousness or inability to handle stressful conditions. This abnormal habit may cause various malocclusions associated with dentoalveolar segment of the oral cavity. Crowding and rotations of incisors are common with this habit.
Surpris, Guy; Chan, Jennie; Thompson, Mikayla; Ilyukha, Vladimir; Liu, Beiyun C; Atianand, Maninjay; Sharma, Shruti; Volkova, Tatyana; Smirnova, Irina; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Poltorak, Alexander
With the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) C terminus being extensively studied, the role of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of STING remains an important subject of investigation. In this article, we identify novel mutations in NTD of Sting of the MOLF strain in response to HSV and Listeria monocytogenes both in vitro and in vivo. These mutations are responsible for low levels of IFN-β caused by failure of MOLF STING to translocate from the endoplasmic reticulum. These data provide evidence that the NTD of STING affects DNA responses via control of trafficking. They also show that the genetic diversity of wild-derived mice resembles the diversity observed in humans. Several human alleles of STING confer attenuated IFN-I production similar to what we observe with the MOLF Sting allele, a crucial functional difference not apparent in classical inbred mice. Thus, understanding the functional significance of polymorphisms in MOLF STING can provide basic mechanistic insights relevant to humans. PMID:26685207
Hamede, Rodrigo K; McCallum, Hamish; Jones, Menna
The Tasmanian devil is threatened with extinction by devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a unique infectious cancer in which the tumour cells themselves, which derive from a single long-dead host devil, are the infective agent and the tumour is an infectious parasitic cell line. Transmission is thought to occur via direct inoculation of tumour cells when susceptible and infected individuals bite each other or by fomitic transfer of tumour cells. The nature of transmission and the extent to which biting behaviour and devil ecology is associated with infection risk remains unclear. Until our recent study in north-west Tasmania showed reduced population and individual impacts, DFTD had caused massive population declines in all populations monitored. In this paper, we investigate seasonal patterns of injuries resulting from bites between individuals, DFTD infection status and tumour location in two populations to determine whether the number of bites predicts the acquisition of DFTD and to explore the possibility that the reduced impacts of DFTD in north-west Tasmania are attributed to reduced bite rates. Devils with fewer bites were more likely to develop DFTD and primary tumours occurred predominantly inside the oral cavity. These results are not consistent with transmission occurring from the biter to the bitten animal but suggest that dominant individuals delivering bites, possibly by biting the tumours of other devils, are at higher risk of acquiring infection than submissive individuals receiving bites. Bite rates, which were higher during autumn and winter, did not differ between sites, suggesting that the reduced population impacts in north-west Tasmania cannot be explained by lower bite rates. Our study emphasizes the importance of longitudinal studies of individually marked animals for understanding the ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and parasites in wild populations. PMID:22943286
Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine
Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog ...
Wright, J C
Associated with the increased popularity of cats as pets in American households has been an increase in the number of cat bites reported to health departments. Bite reports from Dallas, TX, for 1985 were analyzed for different aspects of the cat bite event, including characteristics of the cats, the people bitten, the wounds, and the attack events. Cat bites and scratches constituted 25 percent of the 2,494 reported animal bites. Biting cats were typically stray females. People 21 to 35 years...
... was bitten or scratched by an unfamiliar or wild animal, note the location of the animal. Some animals may have to be captured, confined, and observed for rabies. But do not try to capture the animal yourself. Look in your phone book ...
Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.
Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan Univer...
De Donno, Antonella; Idolo, Adele; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Leomanni, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; Guido, Marcello; Canitano, Mariarita; Zampardi, Serena; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano
Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy), and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007-2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females) sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007-2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively), and with ammonia (74%) as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots. PMID:24583831
Antonella De Donno
Full Text Available Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy, and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007–2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007–2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively, and with ammonia (74% as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots.
Oliveira, S R M; Almeida, G V; Souza, K R R; Rodrigues, D N; Kuser-Falcão, P R; Yamagishi, M E B; Santos, E H; Vieira, F D; Jardine, J G; Neshich, G
An effective strategy for managing protein databases is to provide mechanisms to transform raw data into consistent, accurate and reliable information. Such mechanisms will greatly reduce operational inefficiencies and improve one's ability to better handle scientific objectives and interpret the research results. To achieve this challenging goal for the STING project, we introduce Sting_RDB, a relational database of structural parameters for protein analysis with support for data warehousing and data mining. In this article, we highlight the main features of Sting_RDB and show how a user can explore it for efficient and biologically relevant queries. Considering its importance for molecular biologists, effort has been made to advance Sting_RDB toward data quality assessment. To the best of our knowledge, Sting_RDB is one of the most comprehensive data repositories for protein analysis, now also capable of providing its users with a data quality indicator. This paper differs from our previous study in many aspects. First, we introduce Sting_RDB, a relational database with mechanisms for efficient and relevant queries using SQL. Sting_rdb evolved from the earlier, text (flat file)-based database, in which data consistency and integrity was not guaranteed. Second, we provide support for data warehousing and mining. Third, the data quality indicator was introduced. Finally and probably most importantly, complex queries that could not be posed on a text-based database, are now easily implemented. Further details are accessible at the Sting_RDB demo web page: http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br/StingRDB. PMID:18058712
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is among the countries with a variety of scorpion species, particu-larly dangerous ones. Death due to scorpion sting occurs in all parts of the country. Mortality from scorpion sting depends on various factors such as scorpion species, age of the stung per-son, stung body site and geographical area. Considering the fact that so far no research on the fauna and epidemiological aspect of scorpion stings has been done in Hamadan city, we con-ducted this research. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional- descriptive study. To determine the scorpion fauna of the region using a random cluster sampling in specified locations from May to Sep-tember in 2013 and was attempting we caught scorpions and put them in containers of alcohol (70% and identified them based on Iran scorpions´ key. In order to investigate cases of scor-pion stings, we referred to the health center of Hamadan province and using questionnaires, we collected data related to the patients during 2010-2013. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: A total of 98 collected scorpion species named Mesobuthus eupeus, Androctonus crassicauda, Odontobuthus doriae and Razianus zarudnyi (Family: Buthidae, were identified. Mesobuthus eupeus species with 89.7% of the samples collected had the highest frequency. Totally, 797 cases of scorpion sting were documented in the Health Center of Hamadan Prov-ince, including 498 (62.5% male and 299 (37.5% females. The results of this study showed that most cases of scorpion stings in the age group of 25 to 34 years, in 2011 in July and in the rural areas were 29.6%, 33.1%, 28.9%, 64.4%, respectively. The most stung organs were hands, with 48.2%. All patients (100% during the study were treated. Conclusion: Due to the low-risk species of scorpions in the region and lack of mortality reports in the past few years, it is recommended to revise administering anti-scorpion serum in the health centers. Adequate
Nentwig, Wolfgang; Gnädinger, Markus; Fuchs, Joan; Ceschi, Alessandro
During a two-year study, all spider bites recorded by Swiss primary care physicians were reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre and all collected spiders were identified. A total of 14 verified spider bites were recorded, involving five species from four families: Zoropsis spinimana (five cases), Cheiracanthium punctorium (four cases), Tegenaria atrica (three cases) and one case of Malthonica ferruginea (= Tegenaria ferruginea) (both Agelenidae), and one case of Amaurobius ferox (Amaurobiidae). The bites of all spider species produced relatively mild symptoms. Local symptoms such as moderate to severe pain, circumscribed swelling and redness were the only effects in most cases. Systemic symptoms were rare. There was complete recovery in all cases and all lesions healed completely without further damage or secondary disorders. Following a review of the European spider bite literature, the number of spider species capable of biting humans in Europe is considered to be much larger than could be concluded from this study. Most spider bites are restricted to species living synanthropically, thus promoted by climate and habitat change. The annual frequency of spider bites in Switzerland is estimated at 10-100 bites per million inhabitants, but this is predicted to increase due to the continuous arrival of new alien species, many of which have a high potential to establish in urban areas. PMID:23872119
Bina Kashyap; Sanjeev Anand; Sudhakara Reddy; Shruthi Basavaradhya Sahukar; Naga Supriya; Swetha Pasupuleti
Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog) bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog) using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontolog...
Hawkins, Joseph; Wilson, Ann; McWilliams, Eric
Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection is the most severe and rapidly progressive bacterial infection transmitted by dog bite and fortunately is very rare. The authors describe a 68-year-old gentleman who presented in an acute confusional state 2 days after having been bitten on the left hand by a dog. Despite immediate broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, he developed significant sequelae including disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, microvascular emboli leading to peripheral necrosis, ...
Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B
Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation. PMID:14765657
da Silva, Luiz Gustavo Martins; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Leite, Elaine de Souza Pinto; Marteloso, Andresa de Oliveira; Saldanha, Natália Ferreira; Brum, Grabriela Gonçalves
We describe the case of a 32-year-old male patient that sought medical treatment complaining of severe pain in his second and third right-hand fingers. The symptoms had started two hours before. The hypotheses of spider bite, scorpion or insect sting and injury caused by a foreign body were considered in the differential diagnoses. On dermoscopy, two foreign bodies were identified on his skin. After extraction, we concluded that they were wasp stingers. PMID:24626666
Silva, Luiz Gustavo Martins da; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Leite, Elaine de Souza Pinto; Marteloso, Andresa de Oliveira; Saldanha, Natália Ferreira; Brum, Grabriela Gonçalves
We describe the case of a 32-year-old male patient that sought medical treatment complaining of severe pain in his second and third right-hand fingers. The symptoms had started two hours before. The hypotheses of spider bite, scorpion or insect sting and injury caused by a foreign body were considered in the differential diagnoses. On dermoscopy, two foreign bodies were identified on his skin. After extraction, we concluded that they were wasp stingers. PMID:24626666
... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease When warm weather arrives, ... to protect yourself and your loved ones from ticks that often lurk in tall grass, thick brush, ...
Tenzin,; Dhand, Navneet K; Gyeltshen, Tashi; Firestone, Simon; Zangmo, Chhimi; Dema, Chimi; Gyeltshen, Rawang; Ward, Michael P
Background Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. Methods A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009–2010 among dog bites vic...
Wamisho, Biruk L; Bates, Jes; Tompkins, Marc; Islam, Raneem; Nyamulani, Noha; Ngulube, Chistopher; Mkandawire, Nyengo C
We present a case series of 5 patients admitted over 5 months to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital who had sustained injuries from a crocodile bite. Three patients required amputation of a limb. The severe soft tissue injury associated with a crocodile bite and the unusual normal oral flora of the crocodile create challenges in treatment. Progressive tissue destruction and haemolysis are complications of such infected wounds. An antibiotic regime is recommended that covers gram negative rods, ...
Soulaymani Bencheikh, R; Faraj, Z; Semlali, I; Ouammi, L; Badri, M
Scorpion stings represent the first cause of poisoning with an incidence of 30 to 50% of all declared cases in the Centre Anti Poison of Morocco (CAPM). Aware of this increasing problem, the CAPM paid special attention to this pathology. Thanks to its retrospective and prospective studies, the scorpion species mapping has been determined as well as the demographic features of stung patients, the nature and the chronology of clinical events in scorpion envenimation, and the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical factors of severity. On this basis, the CAPM worked out a national strategy to struggle against scorpion stings whose aim was to decrease the morbidity and mortality caused by stings of scorpion as well as to rationalise economic expenses. The components of this strategy were based on the training of the medical and paramedical staff, on information, education, communication involving different sectors, on identification of needs and on follow-up and assessment. A nationwide campaign was implemented to change the population and health-care staff's behaviour regarding this pathology. Its evaluation permitted to improve the compilation of cases with census of 14104 cases, to reduce lethality rate and to rationalise expenses while banishing some medicines and avoiding useless hospitalization. PMID:14717051
Emma Brunberg; Per Jensen; Anders Isaksson; Keeling, Linda J.
Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these ‘neutral’ pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause o...
Objective: To investigate electrocardiogram changes due to scorpion stings and association between oxidative stress index, body oxidant/antioxidant system and the electrocardiogram changes. Methods: The study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Turkey, between May 2009 and October 2010. It comprised 44 patients admitted to the emergency department for scorpion sting, and a control group of matched age and gender of 20 persons. Electrocardiograms were taken promptly in the most painful phases of the patients. Cardiac parameters were measured. Erythrocyte packages were prepared to detect toxin/antioxidant levels. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 44 patients, 22 (50%) were male. Overall average age of the patients was 45.22+-17.99 years. None of the patients required intensive care and none of them had limb losses. Cardiac parameters of the patients in electrocardiogram were higher (p 0.05). Conclusion: Scorpion stings associated with electrocardiogram changes. The mechanism of this relationship is not related with the status of body oxidative stress index and body oxidant and antioxidant capacity. Some parameters warrant further study in terms of potential serious arrhythmias in scorpionism. (author)
Libya is almost desert or semi-desert. Scorpion fauna is widely diversity in the country. However, scorpion in many places are not medical important especially around the coastal area. Meanwhile, scorpion species in desert are almost accounted as a first health problem related to animal toxin. Scorpion stings are ancient hazards. Alkufra is small city in east south of Libya in boarders with Egypt, Sudan and Chad. The most common scorpion genuses in Alkufra city are Leiurus sp, Androctonus sp....
Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K
Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds. PMID:26788318
... brown recluse spider bite: red blister in the center with surrounding bluish discoloration around the bite swelling or redness around the bite development of pain around the bite within 2 to 8 hours joint stiffness or pain nausea, vomiting body rash fever and ...
Yildirim Cesaretli; Ozcan Ozkan
Objective:To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between1995 and2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology.Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from theNPIC’s patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects.Results: A total of82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was59.76%male, 37.20% female, and2.44% unknown and the20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia.Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites.
Bucaretchi, Fábio; Fernandes, Luciane C R; Fernandes, Carla B; Branco, Maíra M; Prado, Camila C; Vieira, Ronan J; De Capitani, Eduardo M; Hyslop, Stephen
Scorpion stings account for most envenomations by venomous animals in Brazil. A retrospective study (1994-2011) of the clinical consequences of Tityus scorpion stings in 1327 patients treated at a university hospital in Campinas, southeastern Brazil, is reported. The clinical classification, based on outcome, was: dry sting (no envenoming), class I (only local manifestations), class II (systemic manifestations), class III (life-threatening manifestations, such as shock and/or cardiac failure requiring inotropic/vasopressor agents, and/or respiratory failure), and fatal. The median patient age was 27 years (interquartile interval = 15-42 years). Scorpions were brought for identification in 47.2% of cases (Tityus bahiensis 27.7%; Tityus serrulatus 19.5%). Sting severity was classified and each accounted for the following percentage of cases: dry stings - 3.4%, class I - 79.6%, class II - 15.1%, class III - 1.8% and fatal - 0.1%. Pain was the primary local manifestation (95.5%). Systemic manifestations such as vomiting, agitation, sweating, dyspnea, bradycardia, tachycardia, tachypnea, somnolence/lethargy, cutaneous paleness, hypothermia and hypotension were detected in class II or class III + fatal groups, but were significantly more frequent in the latter group. Class III and fatal cases occurred only in children scorpions being identified in 13/25 cases (T. serrulatus, n = 12; T. bahiensis, n = 1). Laboratory blood abnormalities (hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, leukocytosis, elevations in serum total CK, CK-MB and troponin T, bicarbonate consumption and an increase in base deficit and blood lactate), electrocardiographic changes (ST segment) and echocardiographic alterations (ventricular ejected fraction scorpion stings involved only local manifestations, mainly pain; the greatest severity was associated with stings by T. serrulatus and in children <15 years old. PMID:25011046
... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...
Scorpion sting and its complications are a serious pediatric problem in district Khuzestan, especially in the warm months of the year (May through November in this area). During 2 years (March 1991-march 1993) totally 10559 cases of scorpion sting have been referred to the scorpion envonimation unit in Aboozar children's hospital, which being the only scorpion sting center in the district is active 1981. 154 cases had to be admitted because of severe complications such as extensive ecchymosis...
Garrett, Justin; Araujo, Eustaquio; Baker, Christopher
An open-bite malocclusion with a tongue-thrust habit is a challenging type of malocclusion to correct. A 12-year-old girl came for orthodontic treatment with a severe anterior open bite, extruded posterior segments, a tongue-thrust habit, and lip incompetency. Her parents refused surgical treatment, so a nonextraction treatment plan was developed that used palatal temporary skeletal anchorage devices for vertical control and mandibular tongue spurs to reeducate the tongue. Interproximal reduction was also used to address the moderate to severe mandibular crowding. An abnormal Class I occlusion was achieved with proper overbite and overjet, along with a pleasing smile and gingival display. PMID:26827984
de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro
Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987
Laban K. Rutto; Yixiang Xu; Elizabeth Ramirez; Michael Brandt
Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) o...
Moosavy, Seyed Hamid; Shahi, Mehran; Rafinejad, Javad; Zare, Shahram; Madani, Abdoulhossain; Navidpour, Shahrokh
Introduction People in tropical and semi-tropical areas are in danger of scorpion sting, and this can be a serious problem for them. Mortality due to scorpion sting in the tropical and semi-tropical areas of Iran is about 75%, and this makes scorpion sting in these areas a serious medical problem. Because of this problem, our aim was to assess the epidemiological aspects of scorpion sting in Bandar Abbas, Iran, during 2009–2011. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, epidemiologic data of 698 scorpion sting cases, who were referred to the Shahid Mohamadi Hospital of Bandar Abbas in Hormozgan Province collected from 2009 until 2011. The data included demographic and individual information, such as age, gender, geographic location, bite site, when the incident occurred, and anti-venom consumption. The required data were extracted from the patients’ recorded information in the Hospital, and we recorded data in a special checklist and imported the data into the computer for statistical analysis using of SPSS software, version 21.0. Descriptive statistics, including mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage, were used for data analysis. Results Two hundred and sixty-one (37.4%) of the cases were urban and 437(62.6%) were rural. Males comprised 50.1% of the cases, and women comprised 49.9% (p >0.05). Twenty-five point two percent of scorpion sting cases occurred among people in the 21 to 30 age group, and there were very few cases among people in the 51 to 60 age range (pscorpion sting cases occurred after midnight and in the early morning hours. Conclusion Our survey showed that there was a high incidence of scorpion stings in rural areas, among 21–30 age group, among housekeepers, and among students. These results indicate the need for public education programs and better sanitation services in the rural areas around Bandar Abbas city. Prospective studies can help to health and medicine organization for prevention and treatment of scorpion
Flannery, Dustin D.; Akinboyo, Ibukunoluwa; Ty, Jennifer M.; Averill, Lauren W.; Freedman, Abigail
Rat bite fever is a rare infection usually caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis. A case of septic arthritis and possible osteomyelitis as sequelae of rat bite fever in a pediatric patient is described.
Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...
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Silveria, P V; Nishioka, S de A
A retrospective survey of 473 cases of snake bite admitted to a Brazilian teaching hospital from 1984 to 1990 revealed 91 cases of bite without envenoming and/or caused by non-venomous snakes. In 17 of these cases the snake was identified, and one patient was bitten by a snake-like reptile (Amphisbaena mertensii). In 43 cases diagnosis was made on clinical grounds (fang marks in the absence of signs of envenoming). The other 30 cases were of patients who complained of being bitten but who did not show any sign of envenoming or fang mark. Most cases occurred in men (66;73%), in the 10-19 years age group (26;29%), in the lower limbs (51/74;69%), between 6 A. M. and 2 P.M. (49;61%) and in the month of April (16;18%). One patient bitten by Philodryas olfersii developed severe local pain, swelling and redness at the site of the bite, with normal clotting time. The patient bitten by Drymarcon corais was misdiagnosed as being bitten by a snake of the genus Bothrops, was given the specific antivenom, and developed anaphylaxis. One patient bitten by Sibynomorphus mikanii presented prolonged clotting time, and was also given antivenom as a case of Bothrops bite. Correct identification of venomous snakes by physicians is necessary to provide correct treatment to victims of snake bite, avoiding unnecessary distress to the patient, and overprescription of antivenom, which may eventually cause severe untoward effects. PMID:1342117
Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J
Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these 'neutral' pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with 'control' pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and 'other' abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and "other" abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (ppigs. Several of these transcripts had already been shown to be differently expressed in the neutral pigs when they were compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs. PMID:23824700
Full Text Available Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these 'neutral' pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with 'control' pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and 'other' abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and "other" abnormal 0.42±1.06. With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (p<0.05 between these two categories of pigs. Several of these transcripts had already been shown to be differently expressed in the neutral pigs when they were compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs.
... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a ... to Portuguese man-of-war stings as well. First Aid Guide The rescuer should take care to avoid ...
Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N
Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible
The present practice point provides updated guidance on personal protective measures to safely and effectively prevent mosquito and tick bites in Canada. Means of avoidance as well as physical and chemical barriers are described. Current information regarding insect and tick repellents and recommendations for their use are provided, along with instructions for removing ticks. Guidance on using insecticide for additional chemical protection is offered.
The spectrum of radiographic abnormalities accompanying bone and joint infection that results from human bites of the hand is presented in an analysis of 13 patients. Features include mono-articular involvement, predilection for a metacarpophalangeal joint, soft tissue swelling, joint space narrowing, bone erosions and periostitis. Magnification techniques may be required for early and accurate diagnosis. (orig.)
Resnick, D.; Kerr, R.; Pineda, C.J.; Weisman, M.H.
The spectrum of radiographic abnormalities accompanying bone and joint infection that results from human bites of the hand is presented in an analysis of 13 patients. Features include mono-articular involvement, predilection for a metacarpophalangeal joint, soft tissue swelling, joint space narrowing, bone erosions and periostitis. Magnification techniques may be required for early and accurate diagnosis. (orig.).
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to highlight genital dog bites in male infant and children in developing countries and their management. We managed three cases (9 months, 5 years, and 8 years of genital dog bite between January 1997 and July 2008. Two had unprovoked stray dog bites and the third was bitten by his pet dog when disturbed during eating. Extent of injury varied from small-lacerated wound to near emasculation. Primary repair was done after thorough washing and debridement under antibiotic cover. In the 9-month-old male infant who was near emasculated, scrotum was closed with the available skin and a small penile stump was reconstructed after meatoplasty. Immunization against tetanus and rabies was done for all cases.Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the wound healed primarily in all cases. Parents of the infant were asked for feminizing genitoplasty but they refused so they were advised for hormonal replacement and penile reconstruction at adolescence. Male children are the most common victims of genital dog bites. These injuries can be repaired primarily with good outcome provided strict cleaning, debridement, wound repair, antibiotic cover, and immunization is applied.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors function as pesticides for invertebrates, vertebrate nerve agents, and medicine to reduce cognitive effects of Alzheimer’s disease. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides have been widely used to control biting flies and ticks, however, OP-resistance has compromised c...
Lentini-Oliveira, D.; Carvalho, F. R.; Qingsong, Y.; Junjie, L.; Saconato, H.; Machado, M. A. C.; Prado, L. B. F.; Prado, G. F.
Background Anterior open bite occurs when there is a lack of vertical overlap of the upper and lower incisors. The aetiology is multifactorial including: oral habits, unfavourable growth patterns, enlarged lymphatic tissue with mouth breathing. Several treatments have been proposed to correct this m
van den Berg, J
Although much is known of the causes and prevention of tail-biting, this continues to be a common vice in pigs. The animals seek diversion by chewing on the tails of their fellows as they feel uncomfortable. This may result in inflammation of the tail. Prevention should be directed towards improvement of the conditions which cause the animal to feel uncomfortable. As this will often not be possible or only in part, efforts are made to prevent tail-biting by docking the tails. When tail-docking is performed according to the rule in one- to three-day-old animals, tail-biting obviously will no longer be possible. However, this does not mean removing the causes of tail-biting. This procedure is therefore undesirable from the point of view of welfare of the animals. Inflammation of the tail may result in metastasis to the spinal column and/or lungs. This is frequently associated with bacteraemia. Moreover, the resulting abscess formation will be highly objectionable from the point of view of hygiene. PMID:7147219
Valencia Zavala, Martha Patricia; Sánchez Olivas, Jesús Alberto; Sánchez Olivas, Manuel Anastasio; Montes Montes, José; Duarte Díaz, Rosa Janet; León Oviedo, Cristóbal
Under the heading of this subject we deal with stings by arthropods, making of bees, commenting on the composition of the poisons and the different local and general reactions that are differences that exist between the stings The venom contains many biologically active components such as melitin, phospholipase A2, apamin, mast cell degranulation peptide, hyaluronidase, histamine, and dopamine. That neurotoxic venom secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) have specific receptors in brain membranes called N-type receptors that are likely to play a role in the molecular events leading to neurotoxicity of these proteins. The sPLA2 found in honeybee venom is neurotoxic and binds to this receptor with high affinity. Poneratoxin is small neuropeptide found in the venom of arthropod (bee). It is stored in the venom reservoir as a inactive 25 residue peptide. Here we describe both chemically synthesized poneratoxin, insect larvae were paralyzed by injection of either of the purified toxins. These toxins are used in research as molecular probes, targeting with high affinity selected ion channel subtypes. As such, they are very useful for understanding the mechanism of synaptic transmission. Poneratoxin affects the voltage-dependent sodium channels and blocks the synaptic transmission in the insect central nervous system in a concentration-dependent manner; we think that in the human this is same. PMID:18693540
Carla Renata Sipert
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the masticatory function of subjects with cleft lip and palate by analyzing the bite force developed by these individuals. Bite force was evaluated in a group of 27 individuals with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (14 males and 13 females - aged 18-26 years and compared to the data achieved from a group of 20 noncleft subjects (10 males and 10 females - aged 18-26 years. Measurement was achieved on three positions within the dental arch (incisors, right molars and left molars, three times at each position considering the highest value for each one. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test ( α = 5%. There was a significant deficit in bite force in male individuals with cleft lip and palate compared to the male control group (p=0.02, p=0.004, p=0.003 for incisors, right and left molars, respectively. For the female group, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.79, p=0.06, p=0.47. In the group of individuals with clefts, 92.6% were under orthodontic treatment, which could be a reason for the present findings, since it can decrease the bite force more remarkably in males than in females. In conclusion, the bite force is significantly reduced in men when comparing the cleft group to the noncleft group. In females, this reduction was not significant in the same way. However, the main reason for this reduction and for the different behavior between genders should be further investigated.
Jean-Philippe ChippauxUMR 216 (Institute of Research for Development and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité), Cotonou, Bénin, FranceAbstract: Scorpion stings are common in many tropical countries. Although most scorpion stings cause only localized pain without life-threatening envenoming, about one third of stings cause systemic envenoming which can result in death. Children are particularly sensitive to scorpion envenoming. The severity of scorpion stings i...
Full Text Available Hymenopterid stings and subsequent allergic reactions including fatal anaphylaxis are a common indication for emergency department visits worldwide. Less commonly, multiple wasp stings can result in multi-system involvement ranging from intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, cardiac involvement, hepatic dysfunction and occasionally thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Here we report one case of multiple Giant Asian honey bee stings induced myocarditis.
Moran, M E; Ehreth, J T; Drach, G W
The acute scrotum generates a long list of differential diagnoses. An unusual etiology includes insect envenomation, which typically is an acute process with rapid onset of symptomatologies. Two patients with genital envenomation are reported. We review the reported cases at our institution with all types of bites and stings. Symptoms of pain and pruritus, and signs of ecchymosis and edema preceding exfoliating dermatitis were evident in both cases. Mild analgesics and antihistamines promoted resolution in each instance. PMID:1552590
Liu, Song; Feng, Min; Guan, Wenxian
Recent studies have revealed the diverse pathophysiological functions of mitochondria beyond traditional energetic metabolism in cells. Mitochondria-released damage-associated molecular patterns, particularly mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA), play a central role in host immune defenses against foreign pathogens. Newly discovered cGAS-STING signaling is responsible for microbial DNA recognition, and potentially participates in mitochondrial DNA sensing. Inappropriate inflammatory signaling mediated by mtDNA is implicated in various human diseases, especially infectious/inflammatory disease and cancer. In addition, mtDNA horizontal transfer between tumor cells and surrounding somatic cells has been recently observed and been associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. In this review, we will summarize the molecular signaling of mtDNA recognition (especially STING signaling), and discuss the underlying mechanism by which mtDNA transfer triggers cancer progression in human. Besides, we will highlight the central role of mtDNA in host immunity, with particular emphasis on mtDNA-induced NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps) formation, apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:26939583
Full Text Available The location, size, and number of bite marks can be used as a beneficial indicator of the crime type and feasible group of suspects. This study aims to present information about the bite mark locations, the bite mark characteristics, and the perpetrator′s profile based on three cases which were carried out by the same biter. The attack bites, which observed in all of the three cases, were characterized by serious wounds and tissue loss. Analysis of bite mark characteristics and bite mark localizations of these three cases by the relevant experts provided helpful information for the police units which searched for the assailant. But, in order to conduct criminal profiling from bite marks objectively, the number of case series is advised to be expanded.
Full Text Available Upon systemic bacterial infection, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs migrate to the periphery in order to supply a sufficient number of immune cells. Although pathogen-associated molecular patterns reportedly mediate HSPC activation, how HSPCs detect pathogen invasion in vivo remains elusive. Bacteria use the second messenger bis-(3′-5′-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP for a variety of activities. Here, we report that c-di-GMP comprehensively regulated both HSPCs and their niche cells through an innate immune sensor, STING, thereby inducing entry into the cell cycle and mobilization of HSPCs while decreasing the number and repopulation capacity of long-term hematopoietic stem cells. Furthermore, we show that type I interferon acted as a downstream target of c-di-GMP to inhibit HSPC expansion in the spleen, while transforming growth factor-β was required for c-di-GMP-dependent splenic HSPC expansion. Our results define machinery underlying the dynamic regulation of HSPCs and their niches during bacterial infection through c-di-GMP/STING signaling.
Abdelrahman, Raafat Zaher; Mohamad, Hanaa Mahmoud; Morsy, Ayman T A; Morsy, Tosson A
The Hymenoptera are the third largest order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees and ants. Worldwide, over 150,000 species are recognized, with many more remaining to be described. The name refers to the wings of the insects, but the original derivation is ambiguous. The Ancient Greek υμην (hymen) for membrane provides a pLusible etymology for the term because these insects have membranous wings. However, a key characteristic of this order is that the hind wings are connected to the fore wings by a series of hooks called hamuli. Thus, another plausible etymology involves, Hymen, the Ancient Greek god of marriage, as these insects have "married wings" in flight. Stinging insects and the medical risk associated with their venoms are complex topics, and presentation of information pertaining to them requires the use of technical terms. The most common reactions to these stings are transient pain and redness at the site lasting a few hours (local reaction), and exaggerated swelling lasting a few days (large local reaction). The most dangerous immediate reaction is anaphylaxis, which is potentially fatal. PMID:26485860
... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Tick Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Tick Bites ... find on the skin. Signs and Symptoms Of Tick-Related Diseases: a red bump ringed by an ...
Full Text Available Androctonus crassicauda is the second most frequent causes of scorpion sting in south-west Iran. Its venom can cause sever pain, autonomic, central nervous system (CNS, muscle function disturbances, and death. Appropriate medical and nursing cares can lead to complete recovery with no sequel .The majority of scorpion stings are oligosymptomatic, occurring mainly on the hands and feet (about 90%. Here one rare case of a scorpion sting on the scrotum is reported from Kashan, central Iran.
Chappuis, Charles JF; Béguin, Steve; Vlimant, Michèle; Guerin, Patrick M
Background Tsetse flies are obligatory blood feeders, accessing capillaries by piercing the skin of their hosts with the haustellum to suck blood. However, this behaviour presents a considerable risk as landing flies are exposed to predators as well as the host’s own defense reactions such as tail flicking. Achieving a successful blood meal within the shortest time span is therefore at a premium in tsetse, so feeding until replete normally lasts less than a minute. Biting in blood sucking ins...
Scott, R.; Scott, H
OBJECTIVES--To investigate why fatal crocodile bites are increasing in a Tanzanian district and the importance of traditional beliefs and superstitions in determining the residents' response to the crocodiles. DESIGN--Information about beliefs was obtained by interview of Korogwe residents. Human and crocodile fatality statistics were obtained from the Korogwe Department of Natural Resources. SETTING--Villages within Korogwe District. SUBJECTS--Population of Korogwe District. RESULTS--Crocodi...
Full Text Available In the early stages of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, the viral proteins elicit specific immune responses that can participate to regression of ano-genital lesions. HPV E6 protein for instance can reduce type I interferon (IFN including IFN-κ that is involved in immune evasion and HPV persistence. To evaluate the role of E2 protein in innate immunity in HPV16-associated cervical lesions, genome-wide expression profiling of human primary keratinocytes (HPK transduced by HPV16 E2 was investigated using microarrays and innate immunity associated genes were specifically analyzed. The analyses showed that the expression of 779 genes was modulated by HPV16E2 and 92 of them were genes associated with innate immunity. Notably IFN-κ and STING were suppressed in HPK expressing the E2 proteins of HPV16 or HPV18 and the trans-activation amino-terminal domain of E2 was involved in the suppressive effect. The relationship between STING, IFN-κ and interferon stimulated genes (ISGs in HPK was confirmed by gene silencing and real time PCR. The expression of STING and IFN-κ were further determined in clinical specimens by real time PCR. STING and IFN-κ were down-modulated in HPV positive low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with HPV negative controls. This study demonstrates that E2 proteins of high risk HPV reduce STING and IFN-κ transcription and its downstream target genes that might be an immune evasion mechanism involved in HPV persistence and cervical cancer development.
Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal allergic dermatitis primarily caused by Culicoides midges like C. obsoletus. The welfare of IBH-affected horses is compromised due to severe itch with secondary dermatitis and skin infections. Similar to most allergies, IBH can only be controlled rather than permanently cured. The research described in his thesis aimed at better understanding of the immunopathogenesis as a basis to improve diagnosis and to explore potential immune modulatory st...
Resiere, Dabor; Mégarbane, Bruno; Valentino, Ruddy; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Thomas, Laurent
Approximately 20-30 declared snakebite cases occurin Martinique each year. Bothrops lanceolatus, a member of the Crotalidae family, is considered to be the only involved snake. B. lanceolatus, commonly named "Fer-de-Lance", is endemic and only found on this Caribbean island. Envenomation local features include the presence of fang marks, swelling, pain, bleeding from punctures, and ecchymosis. Severe envenomation is associated with multiple systemic thromboses appearing within 48 h of the bite and resulting in cerebral, myocardial or pulmonary infarctions. Diagnosis requires first of all identification of the snake. Coagulation tests are helpful to identify thrombocytopenia or disseminated intravascular coagulation. A clinical score based on 4 grades is helpful to assess envonimation severity. A specific monovalent equine anti-venom (Bothrofav(®), Sanofi-Pasteur, France) to neutralize B. lanceolatus venom is available. Its early administration within 6h from the biting in case of progressive local injures, general signs or coagulation disturbances is effective to prevent severe thrombosis and coagulopathy. Its tolerance is considered to be good. Despite an increasing incidence of bites, no deaths have been recently attributed to B. lanceolatus in Martinique, probably due to the currently recommended strategy of early antivenom administration when required. PMID:22069552
Hanauer, David A; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Seyfried, Lisa S
Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation. PMID:23936453
David A Hanauer
Full Text Available Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation.
Inglise rocklaulja Gordon Matthew Sumneri raamatu "Sting. Murtud muusika" esitlusest Tallinnas Viru Keskuse Rahva Raamatus ja kontserdist Saku Suurhallis Broken Musicu nimelise tuuri raames 28. juulil
Transonic sting interference has been studied in a supersonic wind tunnel to obtain free flight and sting support data on identical models. The two principal configurations, representing fuselage bodies, were cigar shaped with tail fins. The others were a sharp 10-deg cone, a sphere, and a blunt entry body. Comparative data indicated that the sting had an appreciable effect on drag for the fuselage-like configurations; drag rise occurred 0.02 Mach number earlier in free flight, and drag level was 15% greater. The spheres and the blunt bodies were insensitive to the presence of stings regardless of their size. The 10-deg cones were in between, experiencing no drag difference with a minimum diameter sting, but a moderate difference with the largest diameter sting tested. All data tend to confirm the notion that for the more slender bodies the sting not only affects flow but the forebody flow as well.
Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Giomi, Folco; Rinaldi, Alessandro; Mandich, Alberta; Fuentes, Verónica; Mirto, Simone; Sarà, Gianluca; Piraino, Stefano
The increasing frequency of jellyfish outbreaks in coastal areas has led to multiple ecological and socio-economic issues, including mass mortalities of farmed fish. We investigated the sensitivity of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a widely cultured fish in the Mediterranean Sea, to the combined stressors of temperature, hypoxia and stings from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, through measurement of oxygen consumption rates (MO2), critical oxygen levels (PO2crit), and histological analysis of tissue damage. Higher levels of MO2, PO2crit and gill damage in treated fish demonstrated that the synergy of environmental and biotic stressors dramatically impair farmed fish metabolic performances and increase their health vulnerability. As a corollary, in the current scenario of ocean warming, these findings suggest that the combined effects of recurrent hypoxic events and jellyfish blooms in coastal areas might also threaten wild fish populations. PMID:27301314
K S Siddharthan
Full Text Available We describe the ocular alterations and the management after stings from Hymenopteran insects. In all the five patients, the insect was identified as bee. The patients presented with significant corneal edema, which resolved dramatically in three of them after removal of stingers. Among the other two one went for permanent corneal decompensation and the other developed Intumuscent cataract with increased intraocular pressure. Although a rare occurrence, ocular trauma caused by Hymenopteran insects has a potential to cause severe ocular damage in humans. A high level of clinical suspicion and immediate removal of the stingers along with administration of high doses of topical and systemic steroids is a must to prevent chances of permanent corneal damage and intraocular complications.
... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...
Khan, Junad; Benoliel, Rafael; Herzberg, Uri; Mannes, Andrew J.; Caudle, Robert M.; Young, Andrew; Eliav, Eli
We present simple method to assess dental pain in the awake rat. Using a sensitive strain gauge we examined changes in bite strength and bite pattern in rats following dental injury. Rats with dental injury displayed a significant reduction in mean peak bite strength and an altered bite-cluster pattern. Both changes in the dental injury rats were reversed by an analgesic dose of morphine, and this could be reversed with naloxone. These changes were not observed in naive control animals. This simple method significantly improves our ability to evaluate dental pain syndromes. PMID:18926882
Paul Rita; Datta K. Animesh; Mandal Aninda; Ghosh K Benoy; Halder Sandip
The mortality associated with snake bites is a serious public health problem as the estimated death incidence per year is about 1,25,000 globally. In India about 35,000 to 50,000 people reportedly die of snake bite; although, unreported cases may be even more in rural areas. Considering the socio-medical problem due to snake bite, a review is being conducted on snake bite (management aspects), snake venom (nature and its utility), anti-venom and herbal antidote to provide adequate information...
Full Text Available Hassan Razmjoo1,2, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1,2,4, Peyman Roomizadeh1,3, Zahra Mohammadi1,2, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,41Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS; 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, IUMS; 3Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, IUMS; 4Isfahan Ophthalmology Research Center (IORC, Feiz Hospital, IUMS, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Corneal bee sting is an uncommon environmental eye injury that can result in various ocular complications with an etiology of penetrating, immunologic, and toxic effects of the stinger and its injected venom. In this study we present our experience in the management of a middle-aged male with a right-sided deep corneal bee sting. On arrival, the patient was complaining of severe pain, blurry vision with acuity of 160/200, and tearing, which he had experienced soon after the injury. Firstly, we administered conventional drugs for eye injuries, including topical antibiotic, corticosteroid, and cycloplegic agents. After 2 days, corneal stromal infiltration and edema developed around the site of the sting, and visual acuity decreased to 100/200. These conditions led us to remove the stinger surgically. Within 25 days of follow-up, the corneal infiltration decreased gradually, and visual acuity improved to 180/200. We suggest a two-stage management approach for cases of corneal sting. For the first stage, if the stinger is readily accessible or primary dramatic reactions, including infiltration, especially on the visual axis, exist, manual or surgical removal would be indicated. Otherwise, we recommend conventional treatments for eye injuries. Given this situation, patients should be closely monitored for detection of any worsening. If the condition does not resolve or even deteriorates, for the second stage, surgical removal of the stinger under local or generalized anesthesia is indicated.Keywords: bee sting, stinger, cornea, removal, management, surgery
Hamid Kassiri; Mohammad-Hossein Feizhaddad; Mohammad Abdehpanah
Objective:To study epidemiologic features of scorpion stings, patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and pediculosis capitis cases inBandar-mahshahrCounty,SouthwesternIran, during2008-2009.Methods:A descriptive study was conducted on the referred individuals with stung scorpions, pediculosis capitis and cutaneous leishmaniasis attending health centers fromBandar-mahshahrCounty in2008.The patients' medical records with epidemiologic and demographic data were collected.UsingSPSS, we have attempted to summarize statistics, namely frequencies and percentages.Results:A total of135 scorpion stings patients were studied.Of these,34.8% were female and65.2% male.Most of theScorpion stings were recorded in the21-30 year age group(37.8%).A total of82 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied in this assignment that all cases have been reported from urban health centers.Considering number of wounds on the body the maximum of the patients(37.6%) had only one lesion.In this study, 12 referred patients from the health centers were studied for pediculosis capitis.According to obtained information one of the patients was male and11 patients were female.Conclusions:Some important measures, such aseducation, health promotion and public participation should be implemented for preventing of these diseases.
Kennedy, Stephen A; Stoll, Laura E; Lauder, Alexander S
The hand is the most common site for bite injuries. Because of specific characteristics of hand anatomy, bite mechanics, and organisms found in human and animal saliva, even small wounds can lead to aggressive infections. Failure to recognize and treat hand bites can result in significant morbidity. Human and animal bites most commonly lead to polymicrobial bacterial infections with a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Pasteurella species are commonly found in dog and cat bite wounds, and Eikenella is characteristic of human wounds. Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and anaerobic bacterial species are common to all mammals. Although public health measures in developed countries have been highly effective at reducing rabies transmission, dog bites remain the most common source of rabies infection worldwide. Human bites can transmit HIV, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C, especially when contaminated blood is exposed to an open wound. Appropriate management of any mammal bite requires recognition, early wound cleansing, evaluation of injured structures, and infection prophylaxis. Structural repair is performed as indicated by the severity and contamination of the injury, and wounds may require delayed closure. Wound infections typically require débridement, empiric antibiotics, and delayed repair or reconstruction. PMID:25538130
Strubel, T; Birkhofer, A; Eyer, F; Werber, K D; Förstl, H
Unusual suicide attempts often remain undetected, and bizarre methods can be a clue to psychotic origin. We report a suicide attempt by proxy--the bite of a puff adder--and provide a brief literature survey about further archaic self-injurious behaviour. Due to the easy availability of venomous snakes and the close networking of suicidal patients via the Internet, an increase in similar cases can be anticipated. A failed suicide attempt should always be considered in patients surviving bizarre accidents. PMID:18365165
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION We know that habitat of scorpion is warm, and dry region. They inhibit commonly under logs, debris, paddy husk, sugar cane fields, and Coconut and banana plantations. (1 Konaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is famous for paddy, banana and coconut which are good habitat for scorpion. It is a retrospective study in which all the date of scorpion sting cases admitted in Konaseema institute of medical science and general hospital the only referral hospital in Konaseema region in last 3 years that is from Oct 2012 to Nov 2015 was collected. Mesobuthus tamulus is common in Andhra Pradesh. With the combined use of SAV and prazosin mortality has been reduced. But the awareness about the scorpion to the parent and its habitat will prevent the sting.
Ferrara, T L; Clausen, P; Huber, D R; McHenry, C R; Peddemors, V; Wroe, S
Although a strong correlation between jaw mechanics and prey selection has been demonstrated in bony fishes (Osteichthyes), how jaw mechanics influence feeding performance in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) remains unknown. Hence, tooth shape has been regarded as a primary predictor of feeding behavior in sharks. Here we apply Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to examine form and function in the jaws of two threatened shark species, the great white (Carcharodon carcharias) and the sandtiger (Carcharias taurus). These species possess characteristic tooth shapes believed to reflect dietary preferences. We show that the jaws of sandtigers and great whites are adapted for rapid closure and generation of maximum bite force, respectively, and that these functional differences are consistent with diet and dentition. Our results suggest that in both taxa, insertion of jaw adductor muscles on a central tendon functions to straighten and sustain muscle fibers to nearly orthogonal insertion angles as the mouth opens. We argue that this jaw muscle arrangement allows high bite forces to be maintained across a wider range of gape angles than observed in mammalian models. Finally, our data suggest that the jaws of sub-adult great whites are mechanically vulnerable when handling large prey. In addition to ontogenetic changes in dentition, further mineralization of the jaws may be required to effectively feed on marine mammals. Our study is the first comparative FEA of the jaws for any fish species. Results highlight the potential of FEA for testing previously intractable questions regarding feeding mechanisms in sharks and other vertebrates. PMID:21129747
Rutto, Laban K; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael
Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96-98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L(-1)). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%-100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets. PMID:26904610
In the absence of major programmes to strengthen the quality and competitiveness of European destinations, the role of the EU in tourism development has often been seen as fairly limited. Despite this, spill-overs or side effects from adjoining policy areas with extensive European regulation or...... intervention can be equally important, and the paper examines key aspects of the EU's role in tourism development in order to discuss to what extent the traditional interpretation of a passive actor of little consequence should be modified or even discarded. Drawing upon European and Nordic documentary sources...... as well as existing specialist literature, the text first examines the development of an EU policy statement on tourism, and then two areas of EU policy - competition policy and regional development - are analysed with a view to establishing side-effects in European and Nordic destinations. It is...
Full Text Available Recent events with the first cases of local transmission of chikungunya and dengue fever virus in southern France by Aedes albopictus, adding to the nuisance and potential vectors that can be encountered when traveling in tropical or sub-tropical countries, has shown the value of a reflection on the Personal protection against vectors (PPAV. It is seen during an outbreak of vector-borne disease, or simply because of nuisance arthropods, that our fellow citizens try to protect themselves individually by using an arsenal of resources available on the market. Yet most of these means have been neither checked for effectiveness or safety tests, however, essential. Travellers, staff on mission or assignment, are looking for specific information on how to protect themselves or their families. Health workers had at their disposal so far indications that vary widely from one source to another. Therefore it seemed important to the Society of Travel Medicine (SMV and the French Society of Parasitology (SFP to initiate a reflection on this theme. This reflection took the form of recommendations for good practice, following the outline established by the French High Health Authority (HAS. The aim was to gather all relevant information, verified and validated and the format to be used not only by health personnel (doctors, pharmacists, nurses, but also by travel agents and individuals. This document highlights the need to take into account the risk of vector-borne diseases, some deadly, and the benefit of various methods of personal protection. The choice of methods is clearly oriented towards those whose effectiveness has been proven and potential risks assessed. The paper finally proposes two decision trees based on the transmission type (day or night and kind of stay (short or roaming, long and steady. It concerns travellers, but also expatriates, residents and nomads.
Dworkin, James P.; Culatta, Richard A.
No significant differences in tongue strength were found between any of the three groups of 7- to 16-year old children: normal speaking with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, frontal lisping with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, and normal controls. (Author/DLS)
Kim, Phong; Sarauw, Martin Toft; Sonnesen, Liselotte
INTRODUCTION: Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture were examined and related to craniofacial morphology in preorthodontic children and adolescents with anterior open bite. METHODS: One hundred eleven patients (ages, 6-18 years) with an anterior open bite of more than 0 mm were...
Tripathi, Gaurav; A.A., Ponnanna; Rajwadha, Nishant; Chhaparia, Nidhi; Sharma, Abhishek; Anant, Mahendra
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mean maximum bite force in dentulous and edentulous individuals with Angle’s class-I occlusion and to assess the effect of different facial forms such as Square, Square-tapering, tapering and ovoid on the biting force.
Recent events with the first cases of local transmission of chikungunya and dengue fever virus in southern France by Aedes albopictus, adding to the nuisance and potential vectors that can be encountered when traveling in tropical or sub-tropical countries, has shown the value of a reflection on the Personal protection against vectors (PPAV). It is seen during an outbreak of vector-borne disease, or simply because of nuisance arthropods, that our fellow citizens try to protect themselves indi...
Kamstra, Jolanda I.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Beurskens, Carien H. G.; Reintsema, Harry; Dijkstra, Pieter U.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TheraBite exercises on mouth opening and to analyze factors influencing this effect in a patient record evaluation. Effect of exercises with a TheraBite to treat trismus was evaluated in 69 head and neck cancer patients of two university medical ce
Ozkan, O; R. Uzun; S. Adiguzel; Y. Cesaretli; M Ertek
Scorpion stings are common in Turkey due to its geographical location, climate and socioeconomic structure. Scorpion envenomation cases are a considerable public health problem in all regions of the country. Important health-threatening scorpions in Turkey are Androctonus crassicauda, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Mesobuthus gibbosus and M. eupeus, all of which belong to the Buthidae family. They are described to be potentially dangerous to humans. So far, there is no study about scorpion sting in...
Cvetković-Matić Danica; Ašanin Milika; Matić Dragan; Ivanović Branislava; Simić Dragan; Kalezić Nevena; Stojanov Vesna
Background. The occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction following a hornet sting has been very rarely reported in the previous literature. Pathogenetic mechanisms include direct action of the venom components on the coronary endothelium and allergic reaction with mediators released from mast cells. The anaphylactic reaction and venom components can produce acute coronary artery thrombosis. Case report. We reported a 45-year-old man with acute myocardial infarction after a hornet sting in...
Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B
One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870
Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter
Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and psychological status were examined in adult patients with a deep bite and compared with an adult age- and gender-matched control group with neutral occlusion. The deep bite group consisted of 20 females (mean age 30.3 years) and 10 males (mean age 33.1 years......). The control group comprised 20 females (mean age 29.4 years) and 10 males (mean age 34.2 years). TMD examination, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD), cephalometric lateral radiographs, registration of occlusion, and bite force were performed. To test the mean differences between...... craniofacial morphology, bite force, the occurrence of RDC/TMD diagnostic groups, and headache between the two groups, unpaired t-test, Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney U test, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Deep bite patients more frequently reported nocturnal and diurnal clenching...
Ursinus, W.W.; Reenen, van C.G.; Reimert, I.; Bolhuis, J.E.
Tail biting in pigs is a widespread problem in intensive pig farming. The tendency to develop this damaging behaviour has been suggested to relate to serotonergic functioning and personality characteristics of pigs. We investigated whether tail biting in pigs can be associated with blood serotonin a
Full Text Available "nBackground: Insect stings can cause local or systemic reactions that range from mild to fatal, and are among the most common causes of anaphylaxis. The major allergens of honeybee venom are phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase, allergen C and melitin. Phospholipase and melitin induce hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and liver damage due to cell membrane breakdown, damage of the vascular endothelium and activation of the inflammatory response. Rhabdomyolysis has been implicated as the cause of acute renal failure in approximately 5-7% of cases. However, bee stings are a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis, and are usually associated with 50 or more stings. It has been reported that more than 250 bee stings are capable of causing death in humans. "nCase report: We report two cases of massive honeybee stings (>2000 with rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis and acute renal failure who survived with full recovery, and two cases of >500 honeybee stings who survived without significant complications.
Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength. (letter)
Kashyap, Bina; Anand, Sanjeev; Reddy, Sudhakara; Sahukar, Shruthi Basavaradhya; Supriya, Naga; Pasupuleti, Swetha
Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog) bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog) using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: 40 samples including 20 humans (10 males and 10 females) and 20 dogs of different breed were included in the study. Bite registration of all the samples were obtained on modeling wax and intercanine distance were measured. Data were analyzed and results were tabulated. Results: Arch size and intercanine distance showed variable differences among humans and on average dogs showed more intercanine distance and arch size. Among dog breeds larger dogs showed larger variables when compared to smaller dogs. Conclusion: Assessment of bite marks evidences made by animals needs further investigation so that it can be a tool to assist the justice system to answer crucial questions. PMID:26816456
Vinayak Y Kshirsagar; Minhajuddin Ahmed; Colaco, Sylvia M.
Scorpion sting is common in villages, and is an important public health problem in India. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, causing a variety of symptoms. The leading causes of death are cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary edema. We present herein a case of scorpion sting in a 9-year-old boy who developed pulmonary edema and gradually developed cytotoxic cerebral edema with infarct leading to motor aphasia with upper moto...
Sandeep V. Binorkar; C. M. Sreekrishnan; Asha K.V.
Scorpion sting is a particularly devastating and an endemic public health problem in some part of the India. 50 species out of 700 in India can cause serious illness. Most of the studies have focused on the clinical and epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings. Ayurveda has explained numerous medicinal preparations for the management of Vrishchika Damsha (Scorpion sting) but so far very little statistical data is available regarding the efficacy of these medicines particularly in the manage...
Full Text Available An on-farm experiment was undertaken in nine earthen ponds to evaluate the growth and production potentials of stinging catfish shing, Heteropneustes fossilis for the period of six months from March to August 2010. Three stocking densities such as 1,25,000 (T1, 1,87,500 (T2 and 2,50,000 ha-1 (T3 were tested with three replications each. Fish were fed with commercial pelleted feed containing 35% crude protein. After six months rearing, the mean harvesting weights of shing were 69.42±6.20, 58.74±3.85 and 49.50±4.52g in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Significant (P<0.05 highest mean harvesting weight was found in T1. The best survival was found in T1 (87% among the treatments. The calculated mean production of shing (H. fossilis in three treatments such as T1, T2 and T3 were 7549±52, 9031±71 and 8786±60 kg ha-1, respectively, which were significantly different (p<0.05 from each other.
Full Text Available Aim: To find out the period prevalence of animal bites and envenomings, its epidemiological risk factors and treatment seeking behaviour. Materials and methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in the 34 villages of the field practising areas of the Rural Health Training Centre, Thiruvenainallur. Considering the prevalence of bites as 7.4%, and taking 5 members in each household with a non response of 10% the number households studied were 4150 covering a population of 18865 which was calculated using an Open EPI version (2.3 software package. Sampling frame of households was prepared and systemic random sampling method was used to select households from each village. Trained medical interns and social workers collected information on bites in the preceding one year. Data was entered and analyzed in Epi_info (3.4.3 software. Results: In this study, information of 12947 adults was included and the overall period prevalence of bites was 81.8/1000 population. The most common bite is dog bite (22.3 followed by scorpion (22.1 and centipede (17.8 per 1000 population. The dog bites are significantly higher among males, people below the poverty line, farmers and laborers. There is significantly increased risk of snake bites among people working in agriculture fields. Only 35% of the dog bite victims washed their wound with soap and water and 28% applied irritants such as ash, ink, calotropis milk etc. over the wounds. Anti-rabies vaccination was given in 60% of the dog bite victims and life saving measure of Rabies Immunoglobulins (RIGS was given in only in 6.2%. Almost half of the bitten victims of scorpion and centipede follow traditional methods of treatment. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of different bites and treatment seeking behavior indicates there is a lack of awareness regarding all forms of bites in the rural community. The existing program of rabies control has to be strengthened and community awareness about
By end of the thirteenth century, surgeons and university-trained physicians in Western Europe had a plethora of authorities from the Greco-Roman and Arabic tradition from which to consult for the treatment of snake-bites. Venomous animals receive the largest share of attention in the literature on biting animals. Nearly all of the sources focus on the idea of the animal biting or puncturing the skin’s surface with their mouths and few poisonous animals where the venom is passed on through th...
Samanta, Moumita; Mondal, Rakesh; Shah, Ankit; Hazra, Avijit; Ray, Somosri; Dhar, Goutam; Biswas, Rupa; Sabui, Tapas Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Dibyendu; Chatterjee, Kaushani; Kundu, Chanchal; Sarkar, Sumantra
A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital to study clinicoepidemiological profile of potentially rabid animal bite cases from rural India. Total of 308 children (median age 6 years) admitted to hospital, were recruited over 1 year and followed up till completion of antirabies vaccine course. Dog was the commonest (77.27%) offending animal. Of the exposures, 66.88% were scratches, 88.96% were unprovoked and 27.27% were categorized as Class III. The median times to wound toileting and reporting to health facility were 1 and 6 h, respectively. Majority received prompt PEP in hospital, and RIG was administered in 34.55% of Class II and 90.48% of Class III exposures. Compared with their older counterparts, children aged rabies prophylaxis scenario is encouraging, when compared with earlier studies, but there are gaps to be addressed. PMID:26510700
Mukai, Kojiro; Konno, Hiroyasu; Akiba, Tatsuya; Uemura, Takefumi; Waguri, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Barber, Glen N; Arai, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Tomohiko
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is essential for the type I interferon response against DNA pathogens. In response to the presence of DNA and/or cyclic dinucleotides, STING translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to perinuclear compartments. However, the role of this subcellular translocation remains poorly defined. Here we show that palmitoylation of STING at the Golgi is essential for activation of STING. Treatment with palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) suppresses palmitoylation of STING and abolishes the type I interferon response. Mutation of two membrane-proximal Cys residues (Cys88/91) suppresses palmitoylation, and this STING mutant cannot induce STING-dependent host defense genes. STING variants that constitutively induce the type I interferon response were found in patients with autoimmune diseases. The response elicited by these STING variants is effectively inhibited by 2-BP or an introduction of Cys88/91Ser mutation. Our results may lead to new treatments for cytosolic DNA-triggered autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:27324217
Ullrich, Katja; Saha, Niladri; Lake, Stewart
Cat scratch disease causes the majority of cases of neuroretinitis. Neuroretinitis is characterised by clinical features of papillitis, macular oedema and macular star. We report a case study of infection with Bartonella henselae most likely transmitted by a bull ant sting. The patient presented with blurred vision and reduced visual acuity after being stung by an ant in her garden some 7 days earlier. Further testing revealed positive serology to B henselae and the patient improved with appr...
Cleide Maria Ribeiro de Albuquerque
Full Text Available Introduction Envenomation by scorpion stings is a major public health problem in numerous tropical countries because of its frequent incidence and potential severity. Approximately 1,900 species of scorpions are known in the world, and at least 130 of these have been described in Brazil. Methods This work reports on 3 child deaths caused by Tityus stigmurus stings and characterizes epidemiological and clinical surveys on pediatric cases of scorpionism recorded in the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica de Pernambuco (Ceatox-PE. Results Scorpion stings accounted for more than 60% of all cases recorded for venomous animals. The children were from 37 cities of the Pernambuco state and accounted for 28.8% of the victims treated for scorpion stings, with the highest incidence in the metropolitan area of Recife. Stings occurred throughout the year and slightly increased during the rainy season. Independent of the elapsed time for a prognosis, most cases showed mild symptoms. Three moderate cases that resulted in death featured cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological symptoms. For the first time, death attributed to T. stigmurus was confirmed by the presence of the scorpion. Conclusions These results suggest that scorpionism in Pernambuco is a public health problem that needs to be monitored carefully throughout the year by the government.
Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan
Full Text Available Objective: To describe and compare the epidemiological features of scorpionism during six years (2005–2010 in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-MassaDraa. Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from medical records of the Moroccan Poison Control Center during 2005–2010. The data comprised demographics, sting characteristics and clinical severity classes. Digital maps were produced for envenomation and death incidence with the distribution of all scorpion species present on the studied area. Results: A total of 75313 scorpion sting cases were notified. The incidence of scorpion stings was 244 cases/100000 population/year and was significantly higher at Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz than Souss-Massa-Draa. The general lethality rate was on an average of 0.28% with a higher rate in Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz compared to Souss-Massa-Draa. There was a different distribution of cases between genders in the two studied regions. With respect to age groups, adults (more than 15 years were affected most compared to children. When analyzed according to the incidence in each province, the highest envenomation incidence was observed in Chichaoua. Concerning lethality, the highest lethality incidence was observed in the Kelaa. Based on this study, we could distinguish three zones: low scorpion stings occurrence without death, high incidence with low lethality and high scorpion stings rate with high lethality. Conclusions: Our data clearly demonstrate the correlation between scorpion stings incidence and the percentage of rural population in the different provinces. Additionally, the lethality incidence could be linked to the scorpion species of the studied area.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Some factors such as gender, age, craniofacial morphology, body structure, occlusal contact patterns may affect the maximum bite force. Thus, the purposes of this study were to determine the mean maximum bite force in individuals with normal occlusion, and to examine the effect of gender, facial dimensions, body mass index (BMI, type of functional occlusion (canine guidance and group function occlusion and balancing side interferences on it. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-four individuals aged 19-20 years-old were selected for this study. Maximum bite force was measured with strain-gauge transducers at first molar region. Facial dimensions were defined by standardized frontal photographs as follows: anterior total facial height (ATFH, bizygomathic facial width (BFW and intergonial width (IGW. BMI was calculated using the equation weight/height². The type of functional occlusion and the balancing side interferences of the subjects were identified by clinical examination. RESULTS: Bite force was found to be significantly higher in men than women (p0.05. BMI and bite force correlation was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The average bite force did not differ in subjects with canine guidance or group function occlusion and in the presence of balancing side interferences (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that bite force is affected by gender. However, BMI, type of functional occlusion and the presence of balancing side interferences did not exert a meaningful influence on bite force. In addition, transverse facial dimensions showed correlation with bite force in only men.
Mehdi Khoobdel; Maryam Tavassoli; Mehdi Salari; Fateme Firozi
Objective: To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf.Methods:hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-Results: In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region.Conclusions:Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers.
Mosquito Bite Prevention for Travelers Mosquitoes spread many types of viruses and parasites that can cause diseases ... be available. Protect yourself and your family from mosquito bites. Here’s how: Keep mosquitoes out of your ...
Kritas, S K; Morrison, R B
Two matched case-control studies were performed at an abattoir with a capacity of 780 pigs per hour, each study using the approximately 7000 pigs slaughtered on one day. In the first study, the severity of tail biting and pneumonia were recorded in pigs with bitten or intact tails. In the second study, the tail score, sex, and the presence of pleuritis, externally visible abscesses and trimming were recorded in pigs with bitten or intact tails. In study 1, there was no significant association between the tail score and the percentage of lung tissue affected by lesions typical of enzootic pneumonia, but there was a significant association between the severity of tail biting and the prevalence of lungs with abscesses and/or pleuritic lesions (Ptail biting, and the prevalence of external carcase abscesses and carcase trimming; the carcases of castrated males had evidence of tail biting more frequently than the carcases of females (P<0.05). PMID:17277296
Solomon A. TADESSE, Burt P. KOTLER
Full Text Available We studied the habitat use of mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the northern edge of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. The aims of this study were to: (1 measure and quantify habitat-specific stem bite diameters of mountain nyala foraging on common natural plant species in two major habitat types (i.e. grasslands versus woodlands, and (2 quantify the bite rates (number of bites per minute and the activity time budgets of mountain nyala as functions of habitat type and sex-age category. We randomly laid out three transects in each habitat type. Following each transect, through focal animal observations, we assessed and quantified stem diameters at point of browse (dpb, bite rates, and time budgets of mountain nyala in grasslands versus woodlands. Stem dpb provide a measure of natural giving-up densities (GUDs and can be used to assess foraging costs and efficiencies, with greater stem dpb corresponding to lower costs and greater efficiencies. The results showed that stem dpb, bite rates, induced vigilance, and proportion of time spent in feeding differed between habitats. In particular, mountain nyala had greater stem dpb, higher bite rates, and spent a greater proportion of their time in feeding and less in induced vigilance in the grasslands. In addition, adult females had the highest bite rates, and the browse species Solanum marginatum had the greatest stem dpb. Generally, grasslands provide the mountain nyala with several advantages over the woodlands, including offering lower foraging costs, greater safety, and more time for foraging. The study advocates how behavioural indicators and natural GUDs are used to examine the habitat use of the endangered mountain nyala through applying non-invasive techniques. We conclude that the resulting measures are helpful for guiding conservation and management efforts and could be applicable to a number of endangered wildlife species including the mountain nyala [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 707
Kanno, T; Mitsugi, M; Furuki, Y; Kozato, S; Ayasaka, N; Mori, H
A new technique is described for outpatient treatment of anterior open bite. The compression osteogenesis method with a two-stage corticotomy was used in the posterior maxilla to treat a woman with severe anterior open bite. Three-week post-surgical compression using anchor plates and elastics repositioned the posterior maxillary bone/teeth segments by 7 mm to the ideal superior position. The patient had a stable skeletal position of the maxilla at 14-month follow-up with satisfactory results and no complications after orthodontic treatment. This technique appears to be an efficient option for treating patients with anterior open bite. PMID:17110086
Palander, P A; Heinonen, M; Simpura, I; Edwards, S A; Valros, A E
Tail biting has several identified feeding-related risk factors. Tail biters are often said to be lighter and thinner than other pigs in the pen, possibly because of nutrition-related problems such as reduced feed intake or inability to use nutrients efficiently. This can lead to an increase in foraging behavior and tail biting. In this study, a total of 55 pigs of different ages were selected according to their tail-biting behavior (bouts/hour) and pen-feeding system to form eight experimental groups: tail-biting pigs (TB), victim pigs (V) and control pigs from a tail-biting pen (Ctb) and control pen (Cno) having either free access to feed with limited feeding space or meal feeding from a long trough. After euthanasia, a segment of jejunal cell wall was cut from 50 cm (S50) and 100 cm (S100) posterior to the bile duct. Villus height, crypt depth and villus : crypt ratio (V : C) were measured morphometrically. Blood serum concentration of minerals and plasma concentration of amino acids (AA) was determined. Villus height was greater in Cno than Ctb pigs in the proximal and mid-jejunum (P pigs, and that of Pi in V compared with all the other pigs. Many non-essential AA were lower in pigs from tail-biting pens, and particularly in victim pigs. Free access feeding with shared feeding space was associated with lower levels of essential AA in blood than meal feeding with simultaneous feeding space. Our data suggest that being a pig in a tail-biting pen is associated with decreased jejunal villus height and blood AA levels, possibly because of depressed absorption capacity, feeding behavior or environmental stress associated with tail biting. Victim pigs had lower concentrations of AA and Pi in plasma, possibly as a consequence of being bitten. PMID:23597306
N. O. Romero; T. J. M. Hernández
Scorpionism is a public health problem in some places in Mexico. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, developing systemic and local symptoms. The Central Nervous System (CNS) is one of the organs that are affected. In some cases, cerebral edema develops. In this report we present two pediatric cases with the association of envenomation by scorpion sting and cerebral edema. The first case developed severe cerebral edema, wh...
Full Text Available Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the individual who caused it. We are reporting the case of a 55-year-old lady with bite marks on her left ear, who was allegedly assaulted by the suspect. On the basis of characteristic features of the suspect’s dentition, it was concluded that the bite marks seen on the victim was most probably caused by the suspect.
Wallenbeck, A; Keeling, L J
The long term aim with this study was to identify predictors or early indicators of tail biting outbreaks using registrations from electronic feeders. This study is based on information about daily frequency of feeder visits (DFV) and daily feed consumption (DFC) recorded in electronic feeders from 460 noncastrated boars in tail biting pens (TB pens, n = 21) and matched control pens (Con pens, n = 21) from 10 wk before to 10 wk after the first injured tail in the pen. The results showed lower average DFV among pigs in TB pens compared with pigs in Con pens 6 to 9 wk before the start of the tail biting outbreak (first treatment for tail damage due to tail biting; P ≤ 0.1, df = 487) but a greater DFV for tail biting victims 2 to 5 wk before the start of the tail biting outbreak compared both to other pigs in the TB pen and to pigs in the Con pen (P Tail biting victims had decreased DFC during and after the tail biting outbreak [wk 0 to 2 after the tail biting outbreak (P tail biting outbreaks in pigs. Due to common casual factors, low feeding frequencies observed on the group level can predict future tail biting in the pen as early as 9 wk before the first tail injuries. Moreover, increased feeding frequencies for individual pigs in potential tail biting pens may predict which pigs will be become the victims in the tail biting outbreak. The results further support previous findings that pigs with tail injuries due to tail biting consume decreased amounts of feed. PMID:23478818
Muzzammil Iqbal Siddiqui; Mukhtar Ahmed Khan; Mohammed Iqbal Siddiqui
Replacement of 15% protein from soybean meal in Diet II was feasible for the stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis and no significant differences in growth parameters were found in fish fed soybean meal-based diets compared to those fed control diet (Diet I). Live weight gain percent (165%) obtained in fish fed soybean meal based diet was not significantly different to that achieved (171%) in fish fed Diet I. Specific growth rate percent, SGR (2.79%), feed conversion ratio FCR (1.40) and...
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Holm, Christian K.; Rahbek, Stine H.; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O.; Jakobsen, Martin R; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K.; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K.; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G.; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L.
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserve...
Neira O, Patricia; Jofré M, Leonor; Oschilewski L, David; Subercaseaux S, Benjamín; Muñoz S, Nelson
There are two species of snakes associated with snake bite poisoning in Chile: Philodryas chamissonis and Tachymenis peruviana. A case associated with a P. chamissonis bite occurring during a summer activity in San Antonio, V Region, is presented. The bite compromised the dorsum of the right hand between the thumb and the index finger and was initially painless. During the following 24 hours equimotic edema developed up to the shoulder and pectoral region, with intense pain, headache, nausea, fever and appearance of a serohematic bulla on the elbow fold. The patient was treated with antihistamines, systemic steroids, analgesia and antibiotics for 7 days. Other cases of snake bites published in Chile are reviewed and treatment and prevention strategies are proposed. PMID:17554446
Newcomb, A. W.
A Boltz body of revolution (fineness ratio 7.5:1) was tested in the Southampton University Magnetic Suspension and Balance System. The effects of sting interference on the drag coefficient of the model at zero angle of attack were noted as well as the effects on drag coefficient values at boundary layer trips. The drag coefficient values were compared with other sources and seemed to show agreement. The pressure distribution over the rear of the model with no sting interference was investigated including the use of boundary layer trips.
Pet and wildlife populations are a potential source of various public health problems, and injuries and complications due to animal bites and scratches are the most obvious. As no population based data on the frequency of animal bites were available at a national level in Switzerland, a study was conducted by the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network. The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of medical consultations due to bite and scratch injuries in humans caused by vertebrate animals, to identify possible risk factors, and to assess bite management habits in primary health care. An annual bite and scratch incidence rate of 325 per 100,000 population was estimated. Consultations peaked during the summer months and geographical differences in the reported incidence were observed. Dogs accounted for more than 60% and cats for about 25% of all cases reported. Animal bites and scratches were frequent in persons under 20 years of age. In most ages, the incidence was higher among women than among men, but not in children under the age of ten years. The incidence of cat bites was especially high in adult women. Bites to the head and neck were most frequent in infants and young children and accounted for approximately one third of the reported cases in this age group. Patients sought medical care principally for primary wound care (52.0%) and for vaccination advice (29.6%). Rabies postexposure prophylaxis was initiated in 1.1% of patients. Wound infection was reported in 10.9% of cases, with cat bites/scratches being more often infected than injuries due to dogs. Hospitalization was reported in 0.3% of patients. Data from the emergency department of two district hospitals showed that head and neck injuries were more frequent in out-patients and a higher proportion of persons presented with wound infections (14.1%). The hospitalization rate for emergency department visits was 4.7%. Animal bites and scratches are common events in Switzerland. They
Bakke, Merete; Michler, L; Han, K;
bite force was 480 Newton (N) in control subjects and 387 N in patients, with corresponding bilateral values of 347 N and 230 N. At predetermined levels of contraction, temporalis and masseter activity were linearly related. Correlations of bite force and activity in short static contractions were...... significant with respect to unilateral, but not to bilateral force measurements. Only in the masseter muscle was strength of dynamic contractions during chewing significantly correlated to bite force. With the present method it was demonstrated that unilateral bite force is a simple clinical indicator of...... mandibular elevator strength as a whole, but inadequate to disclose asymmetric conditions. During isometric contraction, relative strength of electromyographic activity fairly accurately imaged the output of mechanical activity....
Full Text Available Aim: Snake bite is a common medical emergency faced mainly by the rural populations in tropical and subtropical countries with heavy rainfall and humid climate. Although India is a single largest contributor of snake bite cases, reporting is very poor. There is hardly any publication of the same from Gujarat state that is developing at a good pace. Hence, we aimed to study the snake bite cases with particular attention to demography, epidemiology, and clinical profile. Settings and Design: The present descriptive, observational study was carried out at the Emergency Medicine Department of a tertiary care center in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. This department is one if the firsts to get recognized by the Medical Council of India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional single-center study. Cases were entered into the prescribed form, and detailed information regarding demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical parameters was entered. Statistical Method: Data were analyzed using Epi2000. Means and frequencies for each variable were calculated. Results: Majority (67.4% of the snake bite victims were in the age group between 15 and 45 years. Majority were male victims (74.2%. 71% victims of snake bite lived in rural areas. Farmers and laborers were the main victims. 61.2% incidents took place at night time or early morning (before 6 a.m.. 64% patients had bite mark on the lower limb. 40% victims had seen the snake. Eight patients had snake bite, but were asymptomatic. 52% had neuroparalytic manifestation, 34% were asymptomatic, and 9.6% had hemorrhagic manifestation. 14% cases received treatment within 1 h of the bite and 64.84% within 1-6 h after the bite. First aid given was in the form of application of tourniquet (16.2%, local application of lime, chillies, herbal medicine, etc., (1%. 2.20% cases were sensitive to anti-snake venom. Only three patients died. Conclusion: In this region (Gujarat, neuroparalytic manifestation of snake bite is more
Cho, Dennis Dane; Berliner, Yaniv; Carr, David
Animal bites are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Aortitis leading to mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare and potentially deadly complication of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) following an animal bite. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who presented to the ED after falling at home. He complained of weakness and abdominal pain. He was in septic shock and was treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous fluids. He reported pre...
Ursinus, Winanda W.; Reenen, Cornelis G. van; Inonge Reimert; J. Elizabeth Bolhuis
Tail biting in pigs is a widespread problem in intensive pig farming. The tendency to develop this damaging behaviour has been suggested to relate to serotonergic functioning and personality characteristics of pigs. We investigated whether tail biting in pigs can be associated with blood serotonin and with their behavioural and physiological responses to novelty. Pigs (n = 480) were born in conventional farrowing pens and after weaning at four weeks of age they were either housed barren (B) o...
Mehmet Yaman; Turkan Mete; Ismail Ozer; Elif Yaman; Osman Beton
Clinical manifestation of black widow spider bite is variable and occasionally leads to death in rural areas. Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis after black widow spider bite are rare and the associated prognostic significance is unknown. Kounis syndrome has been defined as an acute coronary syndrome in the setting of allergic or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults that manifests as vasospastic angina or acute myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis. Allergic myoca...
Klotz, Stephen A.; F. Mazda Shirazi; Keith Boesen; Beatty, Norman L.; Dorn, Patricia L.; Shannon Smith; Schmidt, Justin O
Kissing bugs (Triatoma spp.) frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae). Construction features such as concrete foundations, s...
Valros, Anna; Palander, Pälvi; Heinonen, Mari; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Brunberg, Emma; Keeling, Linda; Piepponen, Petteri
Tail biting in pigs is a major welfare problem within the swine industry. Even though there is plenty of information on housing and management-related risk factors, the biological bases of this behavioral problem are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between tail biting, based on behavioral recordings of pigs during an ongoing outbreak, and certain neurotransmitters in different brain regions of these pigs. We used a total of 33 pigs at a farm with a long-standing problem of tail biting. Three equally big behavioral phenotypic groups, balanced for gender and age were selected, the data thus consisting of 11 trios of pigs. Two of the pigs in each trio originated from the same pen: one tail biter (TB) and one tail biting victim (V). A control (C) pig was selected from a pen without significant tail biting in the same farm room. We found an effect of tail biting behavioral phenotype on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine, with a tendency for a higher 5-HIAA level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of TB compared to the other groups, while V pigs showed changes in both serotonin and dopamine metabolism in the striatum (ST) and limbic cortex (LC). Trp:BCAA and Trp:LNAA correlated positively with serotonin and 5-HIAA in the PFC, but only in TB pigs. Furthermore, in both ST and LC, several of the neurotransmitters and their metabolites correlated positively with the frequency of bites received by the pig. This is the first study indicating a link between brain neurotransmission and tail biting behavior in pigs with TB pigs showing a tendency for increased PFC serotonin metabolism and V pigs showing several changes in central dopamine and serotonin metabolism in their ST and LC, possibly due to the acute stress caused by being bitten. PMID:25728243
Sérgio de Andrade Nishioka; Paulo Vitor Portella Silveira
A 5-year-old boy bitten by a specimen of Philodryas patagoniensis, a colubrid snake currently classified as nonvenomous, developed signs of local envenoming characterized by swelling and warmth on the bitten limb. This is the first time that local envenoming following Philodryas patagoniensis bite is recognized. Based on the clinical findings and misidentification of the snake, the patient was treated as a victim of Bothrops bite, having received unnecessarily the specific antivenom. Educatio...
Brenda Maria F.P.P. Marques; Mari L. Bernardi; Carolini F. Coelho; Mirian Almeida; Oscar E. Morales; Tiago J. Mores; Sandra M. Borowski; David E.S.N. Barcellos
The present study assessed the association of tail-biting lesions in finishing pigs with weight gain, occurrence of locomotion or respiratory disorders and abscesses during finishing period, and carcass condemnation at slaughter. The study was carried out on 4 different farms. For each animal with a tail biting lesion, two control pigs were selected. The total number of animals in the study was 312, with 104 of them being tail-bitten. Tail lesions were classified according to the degree of se...
Hanauer, David A; Naren Ramakrishnan; Seyfried, Lisa S.
Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review ...
Dias, Lorraine Simone; Vivek, G; Manthappa, M; Acharya, Raviraja
A young farmer presented with cardiogenic shock 5 days after a scorpion sting. He was managed with norepinephrine, atropine and supportive measures and made a complete recovery. The role of atropine in treating scorpion sting has to be defined better.
Full Text Available Muscle groups affected on biting force are called temporal muscle as a major and masseter muscle as a minor. According to the human posture stability, forces of these muscles vary with the force directions. In this case, experimental investigation is strictly important such that biting force under different postural and eye- positional situations is changed. In this study, seven-male and seven-female within the age-range of 17-24 are considered corresponding to having with restorated molar tooth and without that type of tooth. With the help of specially designed biting fork, different posture- and eye-positions are investigated for experimental biting force analysis. Changes in eye-positions are not indicated significant difference for all postural positions. On one hand, it is obtained that biting force of no-filling tooth in men becomes maximum if facial muscles give full effort to biting. On the other hand, effect of facial muscles for women is not clearly noticed depending on the postural differences.
Scott, R.; Scott, H.
OBJECTIVES--To investigate why fatal crocodile bites are increasing in a Tanzanian district and the importance of traditional beliefs and superstitions in determining the residents' response to the crocodiles. DESIGN--Information about beliefs was obtained by interview of Korogwe residents. Human and crocodile fatality statistics were obtained from the Korogwe Department of Natural Resources. SETTING--Villages within Korogwe District. SUBJECTS--Population of Korogwe District. RESULTS--Crocodiles have been responsible for 51 deaths in the 52 months from January 1990 to April 1994. Of these, 18 deaths occurred in the first four months of 1994. CONCLUSIONS--Local beliefs and superstitions about crocodiles include those about the taming of animals, with implications concerning the choice of victim and the penalties that may ensue if a crocodile is killed. The recent rise in human fatalities is thought to relate to increasing river pollution reducing the fish supply, together with a change in social mores at the riverside which has increased the crocodiles' displeasure. A reliable pumped water supply would reduce the need to draw water and bathe in the river, and eradication of superstition would empower the villagers in the fight against a common enemy. Images p1692-a PMID:7819989
Full Text Available The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts produce remarkable effects on human skin, such as erythema, swelling, burning and vesicles, and at times further severe dermonecrotic, cardio- and neurotoxic effects, which are particularly dangerous in sensitive subjects. In several zones the toxicity of jellyfish is a very important health problem, thus it has stimulated the research on these organisms; to date toxicological research on Cnidarian venoms in the Mediterranean region is not well developed due to the weak poisonousness of venoms of jellyfish and anemones living in this area. In spite of this, during last decades several problems were also caused in the Mediterranean by stinging consequent to Cnidarian blooms mainly caused by Pelagia noctiluca (ForsskÃƒÂ¥l, 1775 which is known to be the most venomous Mediterranean jellyfish. This paper reviews the knowledge on this jellyfish species, particularly considering its occurrence and toxicity.
Guo, Haitao; König, Renate; Deng, Meng; Riess, Maximilian; Mo, Jinyao; Zhang, Lu; Petrucelli, Alex; Yoh, Sunnie M; Barefoot, Brice; Samo, Melissa; Sempowski, Gregory D; Zhang, Aiping; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M; Feng, Hui; Lemon, Stanley M; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yanping; Wen, Haitao; Zhang, Zhigang; Damania, Blossom; Tsao, Li-Chung; Wang, Qi; Su, Lishan; Duncan, Joseph A; Chanda, Sumit K; Ting, Jenny P-Y
Understanding the negative regulators of antiviral immune responses will be critical for advancing immune-modulated antiviral strategies. NLRX1, an NLR protein that negatively regulates innate immunity, was previously identified in an unbiased siRNA screen as required for HIV infection. We find that NLRX1 depletion results in impaired nuclear import of HIV-1 DNA in human monocytic cells. Additionally, NLRX1 was observed to reduce type-I interferon (IFN-I) and cytokines in response to HIV-1 reverse-transcribed DNA. NLRX1 sequesters the DNA-sensing adaptor STING from interaction with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which is a requisite for IFN-1 induction in response to DNA. NLRX1-deficient cells generate an amplified STING-dependent host response to cytosolic DNA, c-di-GMP, cGAMP, HIV-1, and DNA viruses. Accordingly, Nlrx1(-/-) mice infected with DNA viruses exhibit enhanced innate immunity and reduced viral load. Thus, NLRX1 is a negative regulator of the host innate immune response to HIV-1 and DNA viruses. PMID:27078069
Meyers, Bruce; Schoeman, Johan P; Goddard, Amelia; Picard, Jackie
Dog bite wounds are a common reason for dogs requiring veterinary care, but there is surprisingly little data on the bacteriology of bite wounds. A prospective study was performed on dogs with various grades of bite wound to identify the bacteria present in these wounds. Swabs were collected from all wounds for bacterial culture and cytology. All swabs were cultured aerobically and anaerobically and all aerobic cultures were evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion test. Fifty dogs with 104 bite wounds, inflicted within the previous 72h, were included. The victims were predominately intact male small breed dogs. Of the 104 wounds, 21 were judged by cytology to be infected and 83 non-infected. Infected wounds were significantly more likely to culture positive (p=0.02). Sixteen percent of wounds showed no growth. Sixteen percent grew aerobes, 1% anaerobes and 67% a mixture of aerobes and anaerobes. Pasteurella canis and pyogenic streptococci were common in infected wounds, whereas Bacillus spp., Actinomyces spp. and the oral streptococci were usually found in contaminated wounds. Three anaerobic genera were cultured, namely, Prevotella, Clostridium and Peptostreptococcus. One case represented the first isolation of Capnocytophaga canimorsus in an infected dog bite wound. Although no single antibiotic therapy was considered to be effective against all the bacteria, amoxycillin plus clavulanic acid, 1st and 3rd generation cephalosporins ampicillin or amoxycillin and potentiated sulphonamides gave the best in vitro sensitivity results. PMID:18029118
Culicoides biting midges are important vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in Europe. The introduction of these viruses highlighted the need to develop novel surveillance and control tools to monitor and manage biting midges. Biting midges, as most insects, primarily use olfactory cues to recognize and discriminate resources for their survival and reproduction. Blood feeding insects rely on host-derived volatiles to locate their vertebrate hosts, and these odours can be explo...
Ichhpujani, R L; Mala, Chhabra; Veena, Mittal; Singh, J; Bhardwaj, M; Bhattacharya, D; Pattanaik, S K; Balakrishnan, N; Reddy, A K; Samnpath, G; Gandhi, N; Nagar, S S; Shiv, Lal
Rabies, a disease of antiquity continues to be a major public health problem in India. Multiple factors contribute to high mortality and morbidity due to animal bites. An effective strategy for control of rabies takes into account the epidemiology of animal bites, rabies and factors influencing post exposure treatment. The study was carried out as a part of Agreement for Performance of Work (APW) from World Health Organization (WHO) during the period April 2001 to September 2002. Two sets of proformae were developed and used after field testing to interview cases of animal bites and get retrospective information about rabies cases. The study was carried out at six selected centres across the country viz. Delhi, Hyderabad, Raipur, Jamnagar, Coonoor and Rajahmundry and was co-ordinated by National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD), Delhi. The officials engaged in the study work were thoroughly trained in the study methodology before the start of the study itself. To maintain quality and uniformity supervisory checks were done during the survey. A total of 1357 fresh animal bite victims were interviewed (exit interview) from the anti-rabies centres (ARCs). Dog bites caused maximum morbidity (92%). Second most common biting animal was monkey (3.2%), followed by cat (1.8%), fox (0.4%) etc. Most bites (64.3%) were unprovoked bites by stray (64.7%) animals. In this study 72.4% animal bite victims were males and 47.5% were children in age group of 2-18 years. 63% had Category III exposure as per the WHO classification. Before coming to ARCs 58.5% people had washed the wound with water/soap or water alone. Some of the bite victims (10.8%) had also applied chillies, salt, turmeric powder, lime, snuff powder, paste of leaves, acid, ash given by Peer Baba (magician) etc. These practices varied from one region to another. The practice of wound washing at the ARC which is an important component of animal bite management was being practiced at only one of the six centres
Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to estimate the heritability of seven morphological characters that compose the sting apparatus of the Africanized honeybee workers. An experimental design to estimate genetic parameters was based on the method developed by Oldroyd and Moran(9. This method was modified to eliminate within-colony environmental effects associated with the additive genetic variance. The estimated h values ranged from 0.17 ± 0.11 (maximum width of bulb of sting stylet and height of the valve of right lancet to 0.74 ± 0.30 (length of the lancet.
Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...
... that go outdoors, you need to beware of ticks. Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases ... of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted ...
... is followed 3 to 10 days later by: Fever and chills Headache Skin rash (mostly on the arms and ... 21 days later, the following symptoms may surface: Fever and chills Headache Ulceration at the site of the bite ...
Bracke, M.B.M.; Ettema, K.
Injurious behaviours in pigs may involve persistent or forceful biting in specific body parts and may result in wounds of the pigs’ tails, ears, flanks and legs. Such behaviours, which may lead to progressive tissue damage, are difficult to counteract. On a commercial farm 22 groups of pigs with wou
Klotz, Stephen A; Shirazi, F Mazda; Boesen, Keith; Beatty, Norman L; Dorn, Patricia L; Smith, Shannon; Schmidt, Justin O
Kissing bugs (Triatoma spp.) frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae). Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites. PMID:27042091
Bee sting therapy is a folk remedy used for arthralgia. An adverse reaction to bee sting therapy can be variable, ranging from a local inflammatory reaction to generalized anaphylaxis. There have been reports of dermatologic findings pertaining to bee sting granulomas, which results from a foreign body reaction to the persistence of venom and stinger at the sting site. However to the best of our knowledge, the radiologic findings of bee sting granulomas have not been reported on in Korea. We describe the ultrasound and MRI findings of bee sting granulomas at the lower extremity in a 36-year-old woman who underwent bee-sting therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee joints 3 months prior
Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise
The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour. PMID:22941514
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Snake bite is a common and frequently devastating environmental and occupational problem, especially in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Snake bite incidence is high in Andhra Pradesh. With the onset of monsoon the incidence of snake bite used to increase. METHODS Present study is a retrospective study in which all the data of snake bite cases admitted in the Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences was collected in last two years; details of the patient was obtained from bed head ticket. RESULTS In two years of data collection, 46 snake bite cases are found as per our record. Out of 46 patients, twenty seven were male and nineteen were female. Maximum twenty two (22 patients were between ages 20 to 40 years. Out of forty six patients, forty four recovered and only two patients died, cause of death was acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. DISCUSSION Most of the patients were given ASV (anti-snake venom, out of that only four patients developed reaction to ASV. Most of the patients who have received ASV were recovered. Only two deaths were reported which was due to acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. CONCLUSION Awareness and education about snake is required.
Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth
Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40% less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27% less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40% less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986
Ursinus, W.W.; Reenen, van C.G.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.
Tail biting behaviour in pigs is a common problem in conventional housing systems. Our study examined the consistency over time in tail biting and tail damage and it explored the predictive value of general behaviours observed in individual pigs and in pens as a whole. Pigs (n = 480), reared in conv
Arthropod-borne viral (arboviral) diseases are maintained in nature in a cycle propagated between susceptible biting insects and hosts. A susceptible biting midge, takes a blood meal from an arbovirus-infected animal, may amplify the virus, and during a subsequent feeding may transmit the virus to a...
Livio, M; Mobilia, A; Abbate, S; Saffioti, G; Nicolosi, L; Isaia, S; Calabrese, C; Graceffa, C
The objective of the study is evalutation of the risk for ticks strings on foresters. The sample constituted by 325 foresters belong to Messina province as been submitted to medical examination venous tests. Whole sample had to answer to a questionnaire to consider. The prevalence of systemic and skin reactions and we have dose Immunoglobulines versus Brucella Melitensis, Rickettsie Conorii e Borrelia Burgdorferi. The results showed that the 19% has declared past stings of tick, and 4.9% reported symptoms probably deriving to a past infections determined by inquired microorganisms. The serum tests showed that 70% was positive for all microorganisms, instead only 31%. Was never infected by inquired microorganisms. In conclusion our study shows that zoonos is risk linked to stings of tick is relatively high in foresters. PMID:18409975
Aryan, A; Brader, G; Mörtel, J; Pastar, M; Riedle-Bauer, M
Bois noir (BN) associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (Stolbur) is regularly found in Austrian vine growing regions. Investigations between 2003 and 2008 indicated sporadic presence of the confirmed disease vector Hyalesthes obsoletus and frequent infections of bindweed and grapevine. Infections of nettles were rare. In contrast present investigations revealed a mass occurrence of H. obsoletus almost exclusively on stinging nettle. The high population densities of H. obsoletus on Urtica dioica were accompanied by frequent occurrence of 'Ca. P. solani' in nettles and planthoppers. Sequence analysis of the molecular markers secY, stamp, tuf and vmp1 of stolbur revealed a single genotype named CPsM4_At1 in stinging nettles and more than 64 and 90 % abundance in grapevine and H. obsoletus, respectively. Interestingly, this genotype showed tuf b type restriction pattern previously attributed to bindweed associated 'Ca. P. solani' strains, but a different sequence assigned as tuf b2 compared to reference tuf b strains. All other marker genes of CPsM4_At1 clustered with tuf a and nettle derived genotypes verifying distinct nettle phytoplasma genotypes. Transmission experiments with H. obsoletus and Anaceratagallia ribauti resulted in successful transmission of five different strains including the major genotype to Catharanthus roseus and in transmission of the major genotype to U. dioica. Altogether, five nettle and nine bindweed associated genotypes were described. Bindweed types were verified in 34 % of grapevine samples, in few positive Reptalus panzeri, rarely in bindweeds and occasionally in Catharanthus roseus infected by H. obsoletus or A. ribauti. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli' (bindweed yellows) was ascertained in nettle and bindweed samples. PMID:25309042
Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael
BACKGROUND: Host preference studies in haematophagous insects e.g. Culicoides biting midges are pivotal to assess transmission routes of vector-borne diseases and critical for the development of veterinary contingency plans to identify which species should be included due to their risk potential....... Species of Culicoides have been found in almost all parts of the world and known to live in a variety of habitats. Several parasites and viruses are transmitted by Culicoides biting midges including Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. The aim of the present study was to determine the identity and...... the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374). The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts...
Full Text Available Scorpion sting and its complications are a serious pediatric problem in district Khuzestan, especially in the warm months of the year (May through November in this area. During 2 years (March 1991-march 1993 totally 10559 cases of scorpion sting have been referred to the scorpion envonimation unit in Aboozar children's hospital, which being the only scorpion sting center in the district is active 1981. 154 cases had to be admitted because of severe complications such as extensive ecchymosis and necrosis of the sting site, severe hemolysis and dark urine, toxic appearance, convulsions, hematemesis, hypotension, pulmonary edema, cardiac heart failure and death. 90% of the admitted cases had been stung by hemiscorpius lepturus, a dangerous scorpion called "Gadim" in Khuzestan. 19 out of 20 fatalities were caused by this scorpion. Unfortunately, the available antivenoms have no effect on this kind of scorpion venom. To reduce casualties, good scorpion control and eradication, intensive protective care, and preparation of specific antivenom must be taken into consideration.
Rahul Ramesh Bhoite; Girija Ramesh Bhoite; Dayanand N Bagdure; Himmatrao S Bawaskar
Mesobuthus tamulus is an Indian red scorpion that is responsible for numerous cases of scorpion stings in the Indian subcontinent. Antivenin, vasodilators, and benzodiazepines are medications of choice in the treatment of scorpion bites. Adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis to antivenin have been infrequently described in the literature. We, herein, present a case of a 42-year-old man stung by Indian red scorpion while gardening at home in India, who presented with extreme pain at the sting ...
Ribeiro, L A; Puorto, G; Jorge, M T
Less than 10 cases of bites by Philodryas olfersii (Colubridae) have been reported in the literature. In this study, 43 patients admitted to the Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil, with the diagnosis of P. olfersii bite from 1982 to 1990 were reviewed. The 32 male (74.4%) and 11 female (25.6%) patients presented mainly from November to February (65%). The most common clinical features were local pain (37.2%), swelling (34.9%), erythema (18.6%) and ecchymosis (9.3%). The 20 minute whole blood clotting test was performed in 11 patients and in all of them the blood was coagulable. Most of the accidents occurred during the hottest months and during daylight hours. The most common bite site was the hands. Severe envenoming is not frequent in these accidents. PMID:10340833
Paula Midori Castelo
Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The maintenance of normal conditions of the masticatory function is determinant for the correct growth and development of its structures. Thus, the aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of sucking habits on the presence of crossbite and its relationship with maximal bite force, facial morphology and body variables in 67 children of both genders (3.5-7 years with primary or early mixed dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The children were divided in four groups: primary-normocclusion (PN, n=19, primary-crossbite (PC, n=19, mixed-normocclusion (MN, n=13, and mixed-crossbite (MC, n=16. Bite force was measured with a pressurized tube, and facial morphology was determined by standardized frontal photographs: AFH (anterior face height and BFW (bizygomatic facial width. RESULTS: It was observed that MC group showed lower bite force than MN, and AFH/BFW was significantly smaller in PN than PC (t-test. Weight and height were only significantly correlated with bite force in PC group (Pearson's correlation test. In the primary dentition, AFH/BFW and breast-feeding (at least six months were positive and negatively associated with crossbite, respectively (multiple logistic regression. In the mixed dentition, breast-feeding and bite force showed negative associations with crossbite (univariate regression, while nonnutritive sucking (up to 3 years associated significantly with crossbite in all groups (multiple logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied sample, sucking habits played an important role in the etiology of crossbite, which was associated with lower bite force and long-face tendency.
Zupan, Manja; Janczak, Andrew M; Framstad, Tore; Zanella, Adroaldo J
Tail-biting is a behavioral abnormality which compromises the welfare of pigs. The goal of this study was to characterize the tail-biting phenotype using behavior and measures of heart-rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) in pigs. Thirty pigs were categorized as tail-biters (n=10), tail-bite victims (n=10), and control pigs (n=10) based on the frequency of tail-biting behavior that they performed or received at the farm. The animals' behavioral responses were registered at the experimental facilities for 10 min during test sessions whereas physiological responses were registered for 10 min prior to (basal) and during sessions when subjected to a novel object test (NOT) and to a novel arena test (NAT). Phenotypes differed in most behaviors during the two tests and in the NOT their physiological responses suggested different regulation of vagal tone. Biters had a reduction from baseline values to values during testing for the root mean square of successive R-R intervals (RMSSD) and the high-frequency band (HF) compared to victims, whose RMSSD and HF increased from baseline to test values. In the low-frequency band (LF), an increase was shown in biters and controls while a decrease in victims. LF was found to be strongly positively correlated with HF and RMSSD in biters. During baseline, victims tended to have lower HF and significantly higher power of the low-frequency component divided by power of the high-frequency band (LF:HF ratio) compared to biters and controls. The activity of the autonomic nervous system, especially the suppression of parasympathetic tone, indicated that both victims and biters may have a dysfunctional autonomic regulation which may indicate psychological disturbance. We provide the first documentation of phenotypic differences between pigs that have performed tail-biting, have been victimized, or have not been involved in tail biting using HRV data. PMID:22579933
Vinayak Y Kshirsagar
Full Text Available Scorpion sting is common in villages, and is an important public health problem in India. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, causing a variety of symptoms. The leading causes of death are cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary edema. We present herein a case of scorpion sting in a 9-year-old boy who developed pulmonary edema and gradually developed cytotoxic cerebral edema with infarct leading to motor aphasia with upper motor neuron facial palsy.
Ajoke Modupeoluwa Ehimiyein
Full Text Available Aim: A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dog bites reported to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU, Zaria, and to implement measures to control rabies exposure in the environment. Materials and Methods: Data on dog bite cases, reported to the VTH of ABU, Zaria, Nigeria between January, 2002 and December, 2011, were retrieved and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0, Chicago, IL, USA. Result: A total of 236 dog bite-related cases was presented, of which 1.7% dogs died of rabies. The number of cases (59.7% increased through time with the highest number (32 recorded in 2011. Majority of the cases were recorded between June and October of each year. Of the biting dogs, 22.5% were puppies (1-6 months and 77.5% were adults (above 6 months. The human victims were 92.4%, while the dog victims were 7.6%. Eight of the dogs were stray dogs, while 228 (96.6% were owned dogs. Of the owned dogs, 71.2% were free-roaming. Only 22% of the owned dogs were vaccinated. The most common offending breeds included the Nigerian Indigenous local breeds (73.3%, cross breeds (24.6%, Alsatians (0.8%, Terriers (0.8%, and Bulldogs (0.4%. Conclusion: In conclusion, rabies is endemic in Zaria, Nigeria, and the incidence of dog bites is on the rise. Strict measures including vaccination of the dogs and the leash law should be adopted to prevent dog bites.
Bakke, Merete; Michler, L
Activity in temporalis and masseter muscles, and traits of facial morphology and occlusal stability were studied in 22 patients (19 women, 3 men; 15-45 yr of age) with anterior open bite and symptoms and signs of craniomandibular disorders. Facial morphology was assessed by profile radiographs, o...
Full Text Available The daily man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai was determined in four ecologically distinct settlements of the Naya River, Department of Valle, Colombia. Differences were found among the settlements with respect to the mosquito species present, intradomiciliary and extradomiciliary biting activity and population densities.
K.S. Rock; Wood, D A; Keeling, M J
The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into t...
de Wijk René A
Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.
Telkanranta, H.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Valros, A.
Chewing and rooting are high behavioural priorities in pigs. Lack of suitable materials can lead to abnormal behaviours such as tail and ear biting. In commercial farming, slatted floors limit the use of straw, and various point-source objects have therefore been developed. The crucial challenge is
Kularatne, S A M; Sivansuthan, S; Medagedara, S C; Maduwage, K; de Silva, A
In Sri Lanka, the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) is distributed in the arid, dry and sandy coastal plains and in a prospective study we describe its bites in the Jaffna peninsula. Of the 304 snake bite admissions to the Jaffna Hospital in 2009, 217 (71.4%) were bitten by either venomous species or envenomed by unidentified snakes. There were 99 (45.6%) reported saw-scaled viper bites, of which 26 were confirmed cases. The length of the offending snakes ranged from 228-310mm and bites mainly occurred in the nearby islands. The median age of the confirmed cases was 34 years (range 1.5-72 years); occupations included housewives (8, 31%), school children (4, 15%) and farmers (2, 8%). In 18 patients (69%), bites occurred in daylight and in 8 (31%) within or near the compounds. The fingers were bitten in 8 (31%) and toes/foot in 11 (42%) cases. There were 2 (8%) dry bites and 19 patients (73%) developed local swelling; one patient developed haemorrhagic blisters. In 24 patients (92%), blood incoagulability manifested between 40 and 1095min after the bite, and three patients (12%) developed spontaneous bleeding. One patient (4%) developed mild acute renal dysfunction. The median time for correction of coagulopathy was 802min (range 180-1669min) with Indian polyvalent antivenom. All recovered. The saw scaled viper is responsible for most venomous bites in the Jaffna peninsula. PMID:21868049
N. O. Romero
Full Text Available Scorpionism is a public health problem in some places in Mexico. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, developing systemic and local symptoms. The Central Nervous System (CNS is one of the organs that are affected. In some cases, cerebral edema develops. In this report we present two pediatric cases with the association of envenomation by scorpion sting and cerebral edema. The first case developed severe cerebral edema, which progressed to a fatal outcome; and the other case developed mild cerebral edema with a satisfactory evolution. The pathophysiology of this complication is not well known and probably is the consequence of hypoxia, secondary to respiratory failure, laryngospasm and seizures that are manifestations of envenomation by scorpion sting.
Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan; Oulaid Touloun; Rhizlane El Oufir; Ali Boumezzough
Objective: To describe and compare the epidemiological features of scorpionism during six years (2005–2010) in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-MassaDraa. Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from medical records of the Moroccan Poison Control Center during 2005–2010. The data comprised demographics, sting characteristics and clinical severity classes. Digital maps were produced for envenomation and death incidence with the distri...
Brenda Maria F.P.P. Marques
Full Text Available The present study assessed the association of tail-biting lesions in finishing pigs with weight gain, occurrence of locomotion or respiratory disorders and abscesses during finishing period, and carcass condemnation at slaughter. The study was carried out on 4 different farms. For each animal with a tail biting lesion, two control pigs were selected. The total number of animals in the study was 312, with 104 of them being tail-bitten. Tail lesions were classified according to the degree of severity into four scores: score 0 -normal tail withou lesion; score 1-3 - increasing lesion severity, and score 4 - healed lesions. Overall, the occurrence of severe tail lesions (score 3 varied from 55 to 73% of tail-bitten pigs among farms. On all farms, healing of tail lesions was observed in 95% to 100% of the animals at the evaluation performed within 41-43 days after the commencement of the study. In two out of the four evaluated farms, pigs with score of 3 showed lower weight gain (P<0.05 compared with score 0 pigs. Before slaughter, the occurrence of locomotion problems and nodules/abscesses was associated (P<0.05 with the presence of tail-biting lesions. At slaughter, tail-biting lesions were associated (P<0.05 with the presence of abscesses, lung lesions (pleuritis and embolic pneumonia or arthritis in carcasses. Carcass condemnation was associated with the presence of tail-biting lesions (P<0.05. Overall, carcass condemnation rate was 21.4%, of which animals with tail-biting lesions accounted for 66.7% of condemnations. Among the animals diagnosed with cannibalism at farm level, only two had not healed their lesions at slaughter. The fact that there were a lot of carcass condemnations, despite the fact that tail-bitten animals had no more active lesions, suggests that different situations may be observed between the field and slaughter, reinforcing the need to analyze pigs both at farm and slaughter to allow proper assessment of losses related to
Ursinus, W.W.; Wijnen, H.J.; Bartels, A.C.; Duijvesteijn, N.; Reenen, van C.G.; Bolhuis, J.E.
Pigs may display biting behavior directed at pen mates, resulting in body damage such as tail wounds. We assessed the suitability of jute sacks (hung vertically at wall) to reduce biting behaviors and tail wounds in rearing gilts. Additionally, we assessed several characteristics of different types
Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in two ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...
Tai, Meng Wei; Chong, Zhen Feng; Asif, Muhammad Khan; Rahmat, Rabiah A; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran
This study was to compare the suitability and precision of xerographic and computer-assisted methods for bite mark investigations. Eleven subjects were asked to bite on their forearm and the bite marks were photographically recorded. Alginate impressions of the subjects' dentition were taken and their casts were made using dental stone. The overlays generated by xerographic method were obtained by photocopying the subjects' casts and the incisal edge outlines were then transferred on a transparent sheet. The bite mark images were imported into Adobe Photoshop® software and printed to life-size. The bite mark analyses using xerographically generated overlays were done by comparing an overlay to the corresponding printed bite mark images manually. In computer-assisted method, the subjects' casts were scanned into Adobe Photoshop®. The bite mark analyses using computer-assisted overlay generation were done by matching an overlay and the corresponding bite mark images digitally using Adobe Photoshop®. Another comparison method was superimposing the cast images with corresponding bite mark images employing the Adobe Photoshop® CS6 and GIF-Animator©. A score with a range of 0-3 was given during analysis to each precision-determining criterion and the score was increased with better matching. The Kruskal Wallis H test showed significant difference between the three sets of data (H=18.761, pcomputer-assisted animated-superimposition method was the most accurate, followed by the computer-assisted overlay generation and lastly the xerographic method. The superior precision contributed by digital method is discernible despite the human skin being a poor recording medium of bite marks. PMID:27591538
Ursinus, W.W. (2014). A tale too long for a tail too short? Identification of characteristics in pigs related to tail biting and other oral manipulations directed at conspecifics. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Tail biting in pigs, i.e. the chewing on and biting in tails of cons
Ghosh, Sumon; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Haider, Najmul;
Community awareness regarding rabies and treatment seeking behaviours are critical both for the prevention and control of the disease in human and animals. We conducted a study to explore people's awareness about rabies, their attitudes towards dogs and practices associated with treating dog bite...
Paula Midori Castelo
Full Text Available Posterior crossbite may affect craniofacial growth and development. Thus, this study aimed to associate facial dimensions (by standardized frontal photographs to masseter and anterior portion of the temporal muscle thickness (by ultrasonography and maximal bilateral bite force in 49 children with deciduous and early mixed dentitions. They were distributed in four groups: deciduous-normal occlusion (DNO, n = 15, deciduous-crossbite (DCB, n = 10, mixed-normal occlusion (MNO, n = 13 and mixed-crossbite (MCB, n = 11. Anterior facial height (AFH, bizygomatic width (FWB, and intergonial width (FWI were determined and associated with muscle thickness and bite force, applying Pearson’s coefficients and multiple logistic regression, with age, gender, body weight and height as the covariates. FWB and FWI were correlated positively with the masseter thickness, whereas AFH/FWB and AFH/FWI ratios had negative correlation, except in the DNO group. The correlation between AFH/FWB and bite force in the MCB group was significantly negative. A higher AFH/FWB in MNO and MCB led to a significantly higher probability for functional crossbite development. In the studied sample, it was observed that children in the early mixed dentition with a long-face trend showed lower bite force and higher probability to present functional posterior crossbite, without significant influence of the covariates.
Leandro Silva Marques
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric pattern of Class II Division 1 individuals with deep bite, and to determine possible correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite. Comparisons were also made between genders and cases that were to be treated both with and without premolar extraction. A total of 70 lateral cephalograms were used, from both male (n = 35 and female (n = 35 individuals with an average age of 11.6 years, who simultaneously presented with ANB > 5º and overbite > 4 mm. Statistical analysis involved parametric (t-test and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney tests for independent samples, as well as the Spearman correlation test (p < 0.05. The values of Go-Me, Ar-Pog, PM-1 and PM-CMI were higher in males (p < 0.05. However, no significant differences were found among the averages of the cephalometric measurements when the sample was divided by treatment with and without extraction. Deep bite was positively correlated to the PM-1 and SNA measurements, and negatively correlated to the Go-Me, Ar-Pog, SNB and SNGoMe measurements. The main factors associated with the determination of deep bite in Angle's Class II Division 1 cases were: greater lower anterior dentoalveolar growth and/or lower incisor extrusion, horizontal growth pattern, maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion.
Lindqvist, Richard; Norberg, Peter; Lindblom, Pontus; Roth, Anette; Forsberg, Pia; Bergström, Tomas; Överby, Anna K.; Lindgren, Per-Eric
We report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in which the TBE virus was isolated from the biting tick. Viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. Virus isolation from ticks from patients with TBE may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity. PMID:27434395
Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.
The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…
Henningsson, Anna J; Lindqvist, Richard; Norberg, Peter; Lindblom, Pontus; Roth, Anette; Forsberg, Pia; Bergström, Tomas; Överby, Anna K; Lindgren, Per-Eric
We report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in which the TBE virus was isolated from the biting tick. Viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. Virus isolation from ticks from patients with TBE may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity. PMID:27434395
Budagoda BDSS; Kularatne SAM; Kodikara KAS; Kularatne WKS; Mudiyanse RM; Edussuriya DH; Edirisinghe JP; Karunaratne IP; Weerakoon KGAD; Medagedara SC
The sting of Giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata) or Bambara in Sinhala and Karunge Kulavi in Tamil is a common environmental hazard in Sri Lanka known to cause immediate allergic reactions, which could be fatal in sensitized individuals. We reported myocardial infarction, bowel gangrene and fatal anaphylaxis in a prospectively proven case series and the association of these uncommon complications with delayed removal of stingers from the patients’ skin.
Yaman, Mehmet; Mete, Turkan; Ozer, Ismail; Yaman, Elif; Beton, Osman
Clinical manifestation of black widow spider bite is variable and occasionally leads to death in rural areas. Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis after black widow spider bite are rare and the associated prognostic significance is unknown. Kounis syndrome has been defined as an acute coronary syndrome in the setting of allergic or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults that manifests as vasospastic angina or acute myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis. Allergic myocarditis is caused by myocardial inflammation triggered by infectious pathogens, toxic, ischemic, or mechanical injuries, such as drug-related inflammation and other immune reactions. A 15-year-old child was admitted to the emergency department with pulmonary edema after spider bite. ST segment depression on ECG, elevated cardiac enzymes and global left ventricular hypokinesia (with ejection fraction of 22%), and local pericardial effusion findings confirmed the diagnosis of myopericarditis. After heart failure and pulmonary edema oriented medical therapy, clinical status improved. Patient showed a progressive improvement and LV functions returned to normal on the sixth day. Myopericarditis complicating spider bite is rare and sometimes fatal. The mechanism is not clearly known. Alpha-latrotoxin of the black widow spider is mostly convicted in these cases. But allergy or hypersensitivity may play a role in myocardial damage. PMID:26509087
Full Text Available Clinical manifestation of black widow spider bite is variable and occasionally leads to death in rural areas. Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis after black widow spider bite are rare and the associated prognostic significance is unknown. Kounis syndrome has been defined as an acute coronary syndrome in the setting of allergic or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults that manifests as vasospastic angina or acute myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis. Allergic myocarditis is caused by myocardial inflammation triggered by infectious pathogens, toxic, ischemic, or mechanical injuries, such as drug-related inflammation and other immune reactions. A 15-year-old child was admitted to the emergency department with pulmonary edema after spider bite. ST segment depression on ECG, elevated cardiac enzymes and global left ventricular hypokinesia (with ejection fraction of 22%, and local pericardial effusion findings confirmed the diagnosis of myopericarditis. After heart failure and pulmonary edema oriented medical therapy, clinical status improved. Patient showed a progressive improvement and LV functions returned to normal on the sixth day. Myopericarditis complicating spider bite is rare and sometimes fatal. The mechanism is not clearly known. Alpha-latrotoxin of the black widow spider is mostly convicted in these cases. But allergy or hypersensitivity may play a role in myocardial damage.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different types of malocclusion and the impact on quality of life among preschoolers and their families. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 451 children 3-5 years of age. A clinical exam was performed to evaluate the malocclusions according to criteria proposed by Foster and Hamilton. This examination was conducted by a calibrated dentist. Parents/caregivers answered the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS for the assessment of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL and the questionnaire on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, chi-square, Mann-Whitney and hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression. The prevalence of malocclusion was 28.4%. The most frequent conditions were posterior crossbite (20.4%, anterior open bite (9.5% and increased overjet (8.4%. A significant association was found between anterior open bite and OHRQoL (p < 0.001. The adjusted analysis confirmed the association between anterior open bite and a negative impact on quality of life (PR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.87 to 3.47; p < 0.001. Anterior open bite was associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of preschoolers.
Wang, Jin-Mei; Hudson, Bernard J.; Watts, Matthew R.; Karagiannis, Tom; Fisher, Noel J.; Anderson, Catherine; Roffey, Paul
We report 3 cases of Queensland tick typhus (QTT) and 1 case of African tick bite fever in which the causative rickettsiae were detected by PCR of eschar and skin lesions in all cases. An oral mucosal lesion in 1 QTT case was also positive.
Newly named in 1989, Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterial pathogen found in the saliva of healthy dogs and cats, and is transmitted to humans principally by dog bites. This review compiled all laboratory-confirmed cases, animal sources, and virulence attributes to describe its epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenesis. An estimated 484 patients with a median age of 55 years were reported, two-thirds of which were male. The case-fatality rate was about 26%. Its clinical presentations included severe sepsis and fatal septic shock, gangrene of the digits or extremities, high-grade bacteremia, meningitis, endocarditis, and eye infections. Predispositions were prior splenectomy in 59 patients and alcoholism in 58 patients. Dog bites before illness occurred in 60%; additionally, in 27%, there were scratches, licking, or other contact with dogs or cats. Patients with meningitis showed more advanced ages, higher male preponderance, lower mortality, and longer incubation periods after dog bites than patients with sepsis (p dog bites. PMID:25828064
Hernando Raphael Alvis- Miranda
Full Text Available Bee stings are commonly encountered worldwide. Various manifestations after bee sting have been described including local reactions which are common, systemic responses such as anaphylaxis, diffuse intravascular coagulation and hemolysis. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who developed neurologic deficit 5 hours after bee stings, which was confirmed to be left frontal infarction on brain CT-scan. The case does not follow the reported pattern of hypovolemic or anaphylactic shock, hemolysis and/or rhabdomyolysis, despite the potentially lethal amount of venom injected. Diverse mechanisms have been proposed to give an explanation to all the clinical manifestation of both toxic and allergic reactions secondary to bee stings. Currently, the most accepted one state that victims can develop severe syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines.
Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Duarte-Valdivieso, Nancy Carolina; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael
Bee stings are commonly encountered worldwide. Various manifestations after bee sting have been described including local reactions which are common, systemic responses such as anaphylaxis, diffuse intravascular coagulation and hemolysis. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who developed neurologic deficit 5 hours after bee stings, which was confirmed to be left frontal infarction on brain CT-scan. The case does not follow the reported pattern of hypovolemic or anaphylactic shock, hemolysis and/or rhabdomyolysis, despite the potentially lethal amount of venom injected. Diverse mechanisms have been proposed to give an explanation to all the clinical manifestation of both toxic and allergic reactions secondary to bee stings. Currently, the most accepted one state that victims can develop severe syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines. PMID:27162866
Full Text Available Timur Kouliev,1 Victoria Cui2 1Beijing United Family Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In recent decades, an increasing number of people have traveled to sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions each year for research, tourism, and resource exploitation. Hunting of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella almost pushed the species to extinction in the early 1900s, but populations have since shown rapid and substantial recovery. The species' range has re-expanded to include several islands south of the Antarctic Convergence, most notably South Georgia, and now overlaps with many popular Antarctic travel destinations. Both male and female fur seals can become extremely aggressive when provoked, and their bites, if not properly treated, pose a significant risk of infection by microorganisms not usually encountered in cases of animal bites. In this report, we present the case of a patient treated for a fur seal bite during an Antarctic expedition cruise, review the literature concerning seal bites, and suggest the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent complications. Keywords: zoonotic, polar tourism, prophylaxis, seal finger, expedition medicine
Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes
Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01286363.
Conclusion: Study subjects were aware of an association between mosquito bite and malaria transmission. Health workers at different levels of the health care delivery system should disseminate relevant information about self-protection to help community members to be involved more in malaria control.
Fontijn-Tekamp, FA; Slagter, AP; van't Hof, MA; Kalk, W; Jansen, JA
We tested in a randomized controlled clinical trial the effect of pain and instability of dentures on bite force with different degrees of mucosal support. The trial involved 3 groups who had received: 1) a new conventional denture (CD-group), 2) an implant-mucosa-borne overdenture on 2 IMZ implants
Bracke, M.B.M.; Lauwere, de C.C.; Wind, S.M.M.; Zonderland, J.J.
The Dutch policy objective of a fully sustainable livestock sector without mutilations by 2023 is not compatible with the routine practice of tail docking to minimize the risk of tail biting. To examine farmer attitudes towards docking, a telephone survey was conducted among 487 conventional and 33
This year (2007) CDC is receiving a great many reports of cases of Dengue fever, which is spread by mosquitoes. This podcast discusses ways travelers to the tropics can protect themselves from mosquito bites. Created: 12/10/2007 by National Center for the Prevention, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID). Date Released: 12/10/2007.
Actis, Paolo; Rogers, Adam; Nivala, Jeff; Vilozny, Boaz; Seger, R. Adam; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Pourmand, Nader
Signal Transduction by Ion NanoGating (STING) is a label-free technology based on functionalized quartz nanopipettes. The nanopipette pore can be decorated with a variety of recognition elements and the molecular interaction is transduced via a simple electrochemical system. A STING sensor can be easily and reproducibly fabricated and tailored at the bench starting from inexpensive quartz capillaries. The analytical application of this new biosensing platform, however, was limited due to the ...
Winanda W Ursinus
Full Text Available Tail biting in pigs is a widespread problem in intensive pig farming. The tendency to develop this damaging behaviour has been suggested to relate to serotonergic functioning and personality characteristics of pigs. We investigated whether tail biting in pigs can be associated with blood serotonin and with their behavioural and physiological responses to novelty. Pigs (n = 480 were born in conventional farrowing pens and after weaning at four weeks of age they were either housed barren (B or in straw-enriched (E pens. Individual pigs were exposed to a back test and novel environment test before weaning, and after weaning to a novel object (i.e. bucket test in an unfamiliar arena. A Principal Component Analysis on behaviours during the tests and salivary cortisol (novel object test only revealed five factors for both housing systems, labeled 'Early life exploration', 'Near bucket', 'Cortisol', 'Vocalizations & standing alert', and 'Back test activity'. Blood samples were taken at 8, 9 and 22 weeks of age to determine blood platelet serotonin. In different phases of life, pigs were classified as tail biter/non-tail biter based on tail biting behaviour, and as victim/non-victim based on tail wounds. A combination of both classifications resulted in four pig types: biters, victims, biter/victims, and neutrals. Generally, only in phases of life during which pigs were classified as tail biters, they seemed to have lower blood platelet serotonin storage and higher blood platelet uptake velocities. Victims also seemed to have lower blood serotonin storage. Additionally, in B housing, tail biters seemed to consistently have lower scores of the factor 'Near bucket', possibly indicating a higher fearfulness in tail biters. Further research is needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between peripheral 5-HT, fearfulness and tail biting, and to develop successful strategies and interventions to prevent and reduce tail biting.
Ursinus, Winanda W; Van Reenen, Cornelis G; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth
Tail biting in pigs is a widespread problem in intensive pig farming. The tendency to develop this damaging behaviour has been suggested to relate to serotonergic functioning and personality characteristics of pigs. We investigated whether tail biting in pigs can be associated with blood serotonin and with their behavioural and physiological responses to novelty. Pigs (n = 480) were born in conventional farrowing pens and after weaning at four weeks of age they were either housed barren (B) or in straw-enriched (E) pens. Individual pigs were exposed to a back test and novel environment test before weaning, and after weaning to a novel object (i.e. bucket) test in an unfamiliar arena. A Principal Component Analysis on behaviours during the tests and salivary cortisol (novel object test only) revealed five factors for both housing systems, labeled 'Early life exploration', 'Near bucket', 'Cortisol', 'Vocalizations & standing alert', and 'Back test activity'. Blood samples were taken at 8, 9 and 22 weeks of age to determine blood platelet serotonin. In different phases of life, pigs were classified as tail biter/non-tail biter based on tail biting behaviour, and as victim/non-victim based on tail wounds. A combination of both classifications resulted in four pig types: biters, victims, biter/victims, and neutrals. Generally, only in phases of life during which pigs were classified as tail biters, they seemed to have lower blood platelet serotonin storage and higher blood platelet uptake velocities. Victims also seemed to have lower blood serotonin storage. Additionally, in B housing, tail biters seemed to consistently have lower scores of the factor 'Near bucket', possibly indicating a higher fearfulness in tail biters. Further research is needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between peripheral 5-HT, fearfulness and tail biting, and to develop successful strategies and interventions to prevent and reduce tail biting. PMID:25188502
Valavi, E.; Ansari, M. J. Alemzadeh
Scorpion envenomations are a public health problem in many countries. Scorpions are second only to snakes in causing human fatalities from envenomation. Species of scorpions capable of inflicting fatal stings are living in North and South Africa, the Middle East, India, America, Trinidad, and Tobago. Hemiscorpius lepturus (from the Hemiscorpiidae family) is the most medically important scorpion in Iran which accounts for 92% of all hospitalized scorpion sting cases. The venom from H. lepturus...
Alireza Majidi; Mohammadreza Maleki Verki; Fatemeh Rasooli; Arash Forouzan; Hassan Motamed
Hymenoptera stings are self-limiting events or due to allergic reactions. Sometimes envenomation with Hymenoptera can cause rare complications such as acute encephalopathy, peripheral neuritis, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, silent myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, conjunctivitis, corneal infiltration, lens subluxation, and optic neuropathy. The mechanism of peripheral nervous system damage is not clearly known. In our studied case after bee sting on face between the eyebrows w...
Neshich, Goran; Togawa, Roberto C.; Mancini, Adauto L.; Kuser, Paula R.; Yamagishi, Michel E. B.; Pappas, Georgios; Torres, Wellington V.; Campos, Tharsis Fonseca e; Ferreira, Leonardo L.; Luna, Fabio M.; Oliveira, Adilton G.; Miura, Ronald T.; Inoue, Marcus K.; Horita, Luiz G.; de Souza, Dimas F.; Dominiquini, Fabiana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Lima, Cleber S.; Ogawa, Fabio O.; Gomes, Gabriel B.; Palandrani, Juliana F.; dos Santos, Gabriela F.; de Freitas, Esther M.; Mattiuz, Amanda R.; Costa, Ivan C.; de Almeida, Celso L.; Souza, Savio; Baudet, Christian; Higa, Roberto H.
STING Millennium Suite (SMS) is a new web-based suite of programs and databases providing visualization and a complex analysis of molecular sequence and structure for the data deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). SMS operates with a collection of both publicly available data (PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interface contacts, surface accessibility). Biologists find SMS useful because it provides a variety of algorithms and validated data, wrapped-up in a user friendly web interface. Using SMS it is now possible to analyze sequence to structure relationships, the quality of the structure, nature and volume of atomic contacts of intra and inter chain type, relative conservation of amino acids at the specific sequence position based on multiple sequence alignment, indications of folding essential residue (FER) based on the relationship of the residue conservation to the intra-chain contacts and Cα–Cα and Cβ–Cβ distance geometry. Specific emphasis in SMS is given to interface forming residues (IFR)—amino acids that define the interactive portion of the protein surfaces. SMS may simultaneously display and analyze previously superimposed structures. PDB updates trigger SMS updates in a synchronized fashion. SMS is freely accessible for public data at http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br, http://mirrors.rcsb.org/SMS and http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu/SMS. PMID:12824333
Yamagishi Michel EB
Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of many aspects of protein/DNA structure analysis is an important requirement for software products in general area of structural bioinformatics. In fact, there are too few software packages on the internet which can be described as successful in this respect. We might say that what is still missing is publicly available, web based software for interactive analysis of the sequence/structure/function of proteins and their complexes with DNA and ligands. Some of existing software packages do have certain level of integration and do offer analysis of several structure related parameters, however not to the extent generally demanded by a user. Results We are reporting here about new Sting Millennium Suite (SMS version which is fully accessible (including for local files at client end, web based software for molecular structure and sequence/structure/function analysis. The new SMS client version is now operational also on Linux boxes and it works with non-public pdb formatted files (structures not deposited at the RCSB/PDB, eliminating earlier requirement for the registration if SMS components were to be used with user's local files. At the same time the new SMS offers some important additions and improvements such as link to ProTherm as well as significant re-engineering of SMS component ConSSeq. Also, we have added 3 new SMS mirror sites to existing network of global SMS servers: Argentina, Japan and Spain. Conclusion SMS is already established software package and many key data base and software servers worldwide, do offer either a link to, or host the SMS. SMS (Sting Millennium Suite is web-based publicly available software developed to aid researches in their quest for translating information about the structures of macromolecules into knowledge. SMS allows to a user to interactively analyze molecular structures, cross-referencing visualized information with a correlated one, available across the internet. SMS
... history of the bite, including the type of animal and its health (behavior and rabies vaccine status), the time and location of the event, circumstances of the bite, whereabouts of the animal, and the pre-hospital treatment will be reviewed. ...
ZHANG Ling; TANG Yi; LIU Fang; SHI Yu-ying; CAO Yu; XU Huan; FU Ping
We reported a case of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) following about 300 wasp stings.The diagnosis was based on autopsy findings of acute pulmonary edema,acute kidney injury,hepatic and cardiac dysfunction,and cerebral edema.MODS is a life-threatening complication,and should be considered a possibility after multiple wasp stings.Our autopsy helped to establish the cause of unexpected death due to wasp stings and to elucidate a possible mechanism of MODS.
Sustaita, Diego; Hertel, Fritz
Raptors exhibit a diversity of strategies to procure their prey but ultimately kill using their beaks and/or talons. Thus, bite and grip forces are ecologically important variables that have direct survival implications. Whereas hawks rely primarily on their feet for killing prey, falcons tend to employ their beaks. Consequently, falcons are expected to achieve relatively greater bite forces, and hawks are expected to generate relatively greater grip forces. Force estimates predicted from musculoskeletal morphology in a previous study indicated that falcons (Falco spp.) possess greater jaw force capabilities than accipiters (Accipiter spp.) but there were no clear differences in predicted grip-force capacity outside of differences in scaling. The objective of this study was to complement those results with measurements of in vivo forces by inducing captive and wild accipiters and falcons to bite and grasp force transducers. Bite force increased isometrically in both groups whereas grip force tended toward positive allometry. After adjusting for body mass, falcons produced greater bite forces, and accipiters produced greater grip forces. Thus, previous anatomical estimates of forces predicted the expected direction and magnitude of differences in bite forces but the overall greater in vivo grip forces of accipiters deviated from the pattern obtained from biomechanical estimates. Although the scaling relationships were similar between data sets, forces generated by live birds were consistently lower than those predicted from biomechanics. Estimated and in vivo jaw and digital forces were nevertheless correlated, and therefore provide an important link between morphology and killing behavior in these raptors. PMID:20639423
Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some
Weinstein, Scott A; Keyler, Daniel E
A case of clinically significant local envenoming resulting from a bite inflicted by a Western hognose snake, Heterodon nasicus, is described. The patient was bitten while offering a juvenile mouse to a captive snake. The snake maintained a grip on the patient's arm (left anticubital fossa) for several minutes. The bite resulted in marked edema, ecchymoses, lymphadenopathy, cutaneous signs suggestive of mild cellulitis and blister formation. There were no systemic effects. Recovery was complete after approximately five months. Several documented Heterodon sp. bites with significant clinical effects are reviewed. This common xenodontine colubrid must be considered capable of inflicting medically significant bites. It is currently unclear whether the pathological changes associated with these bites are due to specific Duvernoy's secretion components, Type I hypersensitivity or a combination of these. The influence of the feeding response on the severity of clinical effects is considered as is the discrepancy between experimentally verified pharmacological activities of Duvernoy's secretions from Heterodon sp. and medical sequelae of documented bites. Although hognose snakes may uncommonly produce medically significant bites, they should not be considered dangerous or venomous. Captive specimens should be handled carefully, particularly when offered food. PMID:19393681
Presenting brief reviews of using catnip oil as an alternative control agent against biting insects, as well as their newly found larvicidal activities and oviposition deterrence including effectiveness and longevity....
Moore, Sarah J; Mordue Luntz, Anne Jennifer; Logan, James G
Protection from the bites of arthropod (insect and acarine) vectors of disease is the first line of defense against disease transmission and should be advised in all cases when traveling abroad. Details are described of the main approaches for the prevention of bites, including topical or skin repellents, impregnated clothing, bed nets, and spatial or aerial repellents and aerosols. The bionomics of the main arthropod vectors of disease are described along with photographic plates and tabulated advice to give the traveler. An in-depth treatment of the different protection methodologies provides an up-to-date overview of the technologies involved. PMID:22963776
Full Text Available Deleterious oral habits, which are persistent, can lead to poor esthetics of a beautiful face. Conventional treatment modalities for an open bite usually include orthodontic treatment and/or skeletal surgery. This article focuses on a different treatment modality for an anterior open bite.
Full Text Available Injuries caused by moray eels are not a common problem, but are distributed throughout the globe, affecting mainly fishermen while manipulating hooked or netted fish. On a lesser scale, scuba divers and snorkelers, practicing or not spear fishing, are occasional victims of bites. With more than 185 species distributed among 15 genera, mostly in tropical to temperate shallow water, moray eels easily come into contact with humans and occasional injuries are not uncommon. The current study reports one case of moray eel bite and discusses the circumstances in which the accident happened, as well as wound evolution and therapy.
Zonderland, J J; Schepers, F; Bracke, M B M; den Hartog, L A; Kemp, B; Spoolder, H A M
Little is known about the characteristics of biters and victims before the appearance of a tail-biting outbreak in groups of pigs. This study aimed to characterise biters and victims (according to gender and performance) and to quantify their behavioural development during the 6 days preceding the tail-biting outbreak. The hypotheses tested were: (a) biters are more often female, are the lighter pigs in the group, are more restless and perform more aggressive behaviour; and (b) victims are more often male, heavier and less active. Using video recordings we carried out a detailed study of 14 pens with a tail-biting outbreak among the weaned piglets. All piglets were individually marked and we observed the behaviour of biters, victims and control piglets (piglet types). In every pen, each piglet type was observed every other day from 6 days before (D-6) to the day of the first visible tail damage (i.e. day of tail biting outbreak; D0). While the number of male biters (6 of the 14 biters) and male victims (11 of the 14 victims) was not significantly different (P = 0.13), this numerical contrast was considerable. The start weight of victims was significantly (P = 0.03) higher (8.6 kg) than those of biters (7.5 kg) and control piglets (8.0 kg). Biters tended (P = 0.08) to spend longer sitting/kneeling (3.1 min/h) than controls (1.7 min/h), but no differences were seen in the time spent lying or standing. Victims tended (P = 0.07) to change posture more often (restlessness) than controls and chased penmates more (P = 0.04) than biters. Victims also performed more (P = 0.04) aggressive behaviour than biters and controls. In contrast, biters tended (P = 0.08) to be chased by penmates more often and tended (P = 0.06) to receive more aggressive behaviour than controls. Furthermore, biters spent longer manipulating the enrichment device (P = 0.01) and the posterior/tail (P = 0.02) of their penmates than controls and tended (P = 0.06) to perform more tail bites than victims
... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...
Heavner, Mary E; Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Rajwani, Roma; Pagan, Pedro E; Small, Chiyedza; Govind, Shubha
Analysis of natural host-parasite relationships reveals the evolutionary forces that shape the delicate and unique specificity characteristic of such interactions. The accessory long gland-reservoir complex of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma (Figitidae) produces venom with virus-like particles. Upon delivery, venom components delay host larval development and completely block host immune responses. The host range of this Drosophila endoparasitoid notably includes the highly-studied model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Categorization of 827 unigenes, using similarity as an indicator of putative homology, reveals that approximately 25% are novel or classified as hypothetical proteins. Most of the remaining unigenes are related to processes involved in signaling, cell cycle, and cell physiology including detoxification, protein biogenesis, and hormone production. Analysis of L. heterotoma's predicted venom gland proteins demonstrates conservation among endo- and ectoparasitoids within the Apocrita (e.g., this wasp and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis) and stinging aculeates (e.g., the honey bee and ants). Enzyme and KEGG pathway profiling predicts that kinases, esterases, and hydrolases may contribute to venom activity in this unique wasp. To our knowledge, this investigation is among the first functional genomic studies for a natural parasitic wasp of Drosophila. Our findings will help explain how L. heterotoma shuts down its hosts' immunity and shed light on the molecular basis of a natural arms race between these insects. PMID:23688557
Full Text Available The presence of bees (Apis mellifera L. in urban areas has increased in recent years due to environmental disturbances caused by humans. Bee migration to cities may provoke serious accidents, since some people present allergic reactions to their venoms. In Rio Claro city, São Paulo state, Brazil, the number of calls to the fire brigade for removal of bee swarms, and the number admissions in local hospitals due to bee stings were investigated during 2002 and 2003, and a correlation between these data and the average temperature, rainfall and relative humidity was found. The study period was divided into three phases according to the number of times that the fire brigade was called to remove swarms (263 times: January to July 2002 - 51 calls (19.39%; August 2002 to July 2003 - 140 calls (53.23%; and August to December 2003 - 72 calls (27.38%. A significant correlation among the number of calls, the local temperature and rainfall was detected. The number of accidents was not associated with environmental variables. Based on the current results, public activities for prevention of bee attacks may be developed to avoid unwanted contact between humans and these insects, and/or provide the appropriate management of the colonies.
Full Text Available Here the present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic activity of bee venom acupuncture in rheumatoid arthritis (RA which causes inflammation and oxidative stress in female patients. 75 female patients were divided into 5 groups as control, bee venom acupuncture, rheumatoid arthritis, treated rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis stung with bee venom groups. Serum rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, prostaglandins E2 and F2α, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity levels were determined in all groups. Rheumatoid arthritis in female patients was resulted in a significant elevation in serum rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, prostaglandins E2 and F2α, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels (p < 0.05 compared to control group. In addition, rheumatoid arthritis caused a significant reduction in serum glutathione and total antioxidant capacity levels. On the other hand, bee venom stings alleviated rheumatoid arthritis inflammation and oxidative stress effects, where all investigated parameters were statistically significant compared to rheumatoid arthritis group. Moreover, bee venom therapy was more potent than the routine treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in patients treated group. Bee venom acupuncture in RA patient may have therapeutic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.
Gregory M Erickson
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crocodilians have dominated predatory niches at the water-land interface for over 85 million years. Like their ancestors, living species show substantial variation in their jaw proportions, dental form and body size. These differences are often assumed to reflect anatomical specialization related to feeding and niche occupation, but quantified data are scant. How these factors relate to biomechanical performance during feeding and their relevance to crocodilian evolutionary success are not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured adult bite forces and tooth pressures in all 23 extant crocodilian species and analyzed the results in ecological and phylogenetic contexts. We demonstrate that these reptiles generate the highest bite forces and tooth pressures known for any living animals. Bite forces strongly correlate with body size, and size changes are a major mechanism of feeding evolution in this group. Jaw shape demonstrates surprisingly little correlation to bite force and pressures. Bite forces can now be predicted in fossil crocodilians using the regression equations generated in this research. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Critical to crocodilian long-term success was the evolution of a high bite-force generating musculo-skeletal architecture. Once achieved, the relative force capacities of this system went essentially unmodified throughout subsequent diversification. Rampant changes in body size and concurrent changes in bite force served as a mechanism to allow access to differing prey types and sizes. Further access to the diversity of near-shore prey was gained primarily through changes in tooth pressure via the evolution of dental form and distributions of the teeth within the jaws. Rostral proportions changed substantially throughout crocodilian evolution, but not in correspondence with bite forces. The biomechanical and ecological ramifications of such changes need further examination.
Full Text Available Purpose: We describe five cases, (4 children, with ocular sequelae from honeybee or wasp sting injuries to the eye treated with anterior chamber irrigation to reduce the venom concentration and subsequent complications. All patients were treated on the Ophthalmology Service of Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paul, Medellín, Colombia. Methods: Small case series. Patients with hymenoptera corneal sting injuries were treated in the operating room by performing an anterior chamber washout with balanced saline solution and triamcinolone in an effort to minimize the tissue damage induced by bee venom. Results: Early clearing of inflammation and more rapid recovery of baseline acuity was associated with early surgical intervention. Late complications included corneal decompensation, iris heterochromia, paralytic mydriasis, glaucoma and cataract; these complications are irreversible and sight threatening. Conclusion: Performing an early anterior chamber washout is a treatment option for this type of trauma, since it results in faster resolution and fewer late complications.
Ponsich, Aurelia; Goutard, Flavie; Sorn, San; Tarantola, Arnaud
Rabies circulates intensely in Cambodia, mainly affecting rural populations. We conducted a prospective study to estimate the baseline incidence of potentially infective dog bites in rural villages of Siem Reap province, Cambodia. The study was conducted in a convenience sample of 844 families totaling 1779 persons in four villages. The study collected data in a total of 802.3 person-years. Trained village health workers (VHW) exhaustively documented consecutive dog bites at the end of each month. Between May 15th and November 15th, 2011, a total of 40 attacks (43 bites; 1.07 bites per attack) were notified by 39 persons (50% female; one suffered two distinct incidents) to VHW. The all-age attack rate for bites over this 6-month period was 2.3% (CI95%: 1.7-3.1%), with a global incidence rate estimated at 4.84 bites/100 person-years (CI95%: 3.5-6.6). The mean age in bite victims was 20.8±18.9years (median 12.5; interquartile range 6-36; range 1-63). The dog was identified in 39 (97.5%) of cases, being the household dog in 9 (22.5%) of cases. Bites were classified as severe (WHO Category III-broken skin with bleeding) in 33 (82.5%) of cases with a severe dog bites incidence estimated at 4/100 person-years (CI95%: 2.8-5.6). The bites involved the hand or face in 1 (2.5%) case each (both Category III). In 20 incidents (50%), only rice was applied to the wounds. There were no suspected or confirmed human rabies deaths during the study period but one dog died after biting (2 others were lost to follow-up and 14 were put down by their owner). Our study documented an extremely high incidence of dog bites in of rural Cambodian adults and children. Adapted control policies for canine vaccination are urgently needed. PMID:27154585
Paulis, Melad G; Faheem, Ayman L
Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake. Killing a victim by direct snake bite is so rare. There was one reported case where an old couple was killed by snake bite. Here is the first reported case of killing three children by snake bite. It appeared that the diagnosis of such cases is so difficult and depended mainly on the circumstantial evidences. PMID:27404632
Muzzammil Iqbal Siddiqui
Full Text Available Replacement of 15% protein from soybean meal in Diet II was feasible for the stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis and no significant differences in growth parameters were found in fish fed soybean meal-based diets compared to those fed control diet (Diet I. Live weight gain percent (165% obtained in fish fed soybean meal based diet was not significantly different to that achieved (171% in fish fed Diet I. Specific growth rate percent, SGR (2.79%, feed conversion ratio FCR (1.40 and protein efficiency ratio PER (1.79 recorded in fish fed Diet II were also more less comparable to those fed control diet. Mortality was not recorded in the period of the feeding trial. Body composition of the fish fed soybean meal based diet (Diet II was also comparable to that fed control diet. Significantly higher fat content was noted in fish fed Diet II. However, the protein contents were not changed in fish fed Diet I and II. Similarly, no significant differences (P > 0.05 in protein productive value were noted between the two groups. However, ash content differed significantly (P < 0.05 in fish fed Diet I and II. Although soybean meal-based diet depressed growth and feed conversion efficiencies of the fish to some extent, inclusion of soybean meal was found to be cost-effective alternative to fish meal.
Hamid Kassiri; Narges Mohammadzadeh Mahijan; Zeinab Hasanvand; Masoomeh Shemshad; Khadijeh Shemshad
Background: Scorpion stings cause a serious problem all over the globe. This study aimed to trace the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings and some common clinical symptoms in Dezful County. Materials and Methods: Our work is an analytical cross-sectional study of scorpion stings based on medical files of stung patients referred during 2007- 2008. Results: During 2007-2008, 820 cases were registered. 59.9% of the cases were from rural areas. The stings had the most frequency in spring m...
Jul, David; Høst, Asger Kring; Licht, Esben Hendriksen; Rasmussen, Mette Løth; Petersen, Nikolaj Porn Sloth; Westergaard, Anna; Oustrup, Mads Damkjær
Nærværende rapport omhandler designet af endagskonferencen Reality Bites, som blev afholdt på Roskilde Universitet torsdag den 10. maj 2012. Formålene med konferencen var at inspirere og provokere deltageren (målgruppen værende universitetsstuderende på 2. til 6. Semester), til at reflektere over egne evner, mål og muligheder og således motivere den studerende til, aktivt at bruge sin studietid som ramme til at udvikle og forme sig selv. Primært med udgangspunkt i Victor Turner og Richard Sch...
Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie
tFor many years, bite marks have been used as an indicator for aggression in mink productionsystems. However, the validity of bite marks as indicator of aggression has recently beenquestioned. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: (1) experimentally applied pressure to, or penetration of......, the pelt during the growth phase of the winter coat will producemarks that can be recognized as bite marks at pelting, (2) bite marks applied experimentally by use of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social/aggressive interactions (bites)between mink are only visible if pressure/bite on the.......The results showed that: (1) experimentally applied pressure on the skin can be recog-nized as bite marks in brown mink at pelting, (2) bite marks are easier to detect on brownmink than on white coloured mink (P < 0.001), (3) bite marks applied experimentally byuse of an artificial tooth or occurring due to...
Mathur P C; Trikha Sushma; Kohli Ritesh
Central nervous system manifestations following scorpion sting have been infrequently reported in literature. To emphasise the fact that this form of clinical presentation is not unusual we are reporting a case of scorpion sting associated with intra cerebral hemorrhage.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 25 to 35% of cases, the aetiological agent of scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after a tick bite remains undetermined. To date, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii and more recently Bartonella henselae have been associated with this syndrome. Case presentation A four-year-old Caucasian boy was admitted to hospital with fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. On physical examination, an inflammatory and suppurating eschar was seen on the scalp, with multiple enlarged cervical lymph nodes on both sides. Although no tick was found in this scalp lesion, a diagnosis of tick-borne lymphadenopathy was suggested, and explored by serology testing and polymerase chain reaction of a biopsy from the eschar. Francisella tularensis DNA was found in the skin biopsy and the serology showed titres consistent with tularaemia. Conclusion This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite infection caused by F. tularensis.
Melissa Proença Nogueira Fialho
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs can cause occlusal alterations, including anterior open bite (AOB. However, not all patients develop this malocclusion. Therefore, the emergence of AOB does not depend on deleterious habits, only. OBJECTIVE: Investigate a potential association between non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs, anterior open bite (AOB and facial morphology (FM. METHODS: 176 children in the primary dentition stage were selected. Intra and extraoral clinical examinations were performed and the children's legal guardians were asked to respond to a questionnaire comprising issues related to non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs. RESULTS: A statistically significant relationship was found between non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs and anterior open bite (AOB. However, no association was found between these factors and children's facial morphology (FM. CONCLUSIONS: Non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSHs during the primary dentition stage play a key role in determining anterior open bite (AOB malocclusion regardless of patient's morphological facial pattern (FM.
Bracke, M.B.M.; Ettema, K.
Injurious behaviours in pigs may involve persistent or forceful biting in specific body parts and may result in wounds of the pigs’ tails, ears, flanks and legs. Such behaviours, which may lead to progressive tissue damage, are difficult to counteract. On a commercial farm 22 groups of pigs with wounds on flanks (n = 16) and tails (n = 6) were matched with 22 control groups without wounds. All groups were provided with a novel rope, applied as a ‘tail chew test’. Interaction with the rope was...
ZHAO Yan-ping; MA Xu-chen; JIN Zhen; LI Ke; LIU Gang; ZENG Ya-wei
Background Functional magnetic resonance is a non-invasive method that can examine brain activity and has been widely used in various fields including jaw movement and pain processing. Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is one of the most frequent facial pain problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during unilateral maximal voluntary clenching tasks in the TMD synovitis patients with biting pain.Methods Fourteen TMD synovitis patients with unilateral biting pain and 14 controls were included in the study.Contralateral biting pain was defined as right molar clenching causing left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain. Ipsilateral biting pain was defined as right molar clenching causing right TMJ pain. Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) was administered to the patients and controls. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the SCL-90 subscales between the two groups. Unilateral clenching tasks were performed by the patients and controls. Imaging data were analyzed using SPM99.Results Patients were divided into contralateral TMD biting pain group (n=8) and ipsilateral TMD biting pain group (n=6). The SCL-90 subscales were significantly different between the two groups for somatization, depression, anxiety,phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation. Group analysis of the controls demonstrated brain activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and insular. The areas of activation were different between right and left clenching task. In TMJ synovitis patients with contralateral or ipsilateral biting pain, the group analysis showed activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, medium frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus,and anterior cingulate cortex.Conclusions The inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus play essential roles during the unilateral clenching task.Activation of anterior cingulate cortex in the
Jesús Sanz Maudes
Full Text Available Intraoral devices for bite-force sensing have several applications in odontology and maxillofacial surgery, as bite-force measurements provide additional information to help understand the characteristics of bruxism disorders and can also be of help for the evaluation of post-surgical evolution and for comparison of alternative treatments. A new system for measuring human bite forces is proposed in this work. This system has future applications for the monitoring of bruxism events and as a complement for its conventional diagnosis. Bruxism is a pathology consisting of grinding or tight clenching of the upper and lower teeth, which leads to several problems such as lesions to the teeth, headaches, orofacial pain and important disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The prototype uses a magnetic field communication scheme similar to low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID technology (NFC. The reader generates a low-frequency magnetic field that is used as the information carrier and powers the sensor. The system is notable because it uses an intra-mouth passive sensor and an external interrogator, which remotely records and processes information regarding a patient’s dental activity. This permits a quantitative assessment of bite-force, without requiring intra-mouth batteries, and can provide supplementary information to polysomnographic recordings, current most adequate early diagnostic method, so as to initiate corrective actions before irreversible dental wear appears. In addition to describing the system’s operational principles and the manufacture of personalized prototypes, this report will also demonstrate the feasibility of the system and results from the first in vitro and in vivo trials.
Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes; William Custodio; Fernanda Faot; Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury; Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues Garcia
Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1) mesofacial, (2) brachyfacial and (3) dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was eval...
From the time I took the first bite out of that cut-off, I have been in love with the Renormalization Group, returning to it over and over again to apply it to classical and quantum problems, in clean as well as disordered systems. This talk, aimed at non-experts, introduces and illustrates the RG ideas, with a favorite application, understanding Landau's Fermi liquid.
Ritthison, W.; Tainchum, K.; Manguin, Sylvie; Bangs, M.J.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.
A study of species diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes, biting patterns, and seasonal abundance of important mosquito vectors was conducted in two villages of Chang Island, Trat Province, in eastern Thailand, one located along the coast and the other in the low hills of the central interior of the island. Of 5,399 captured female anophelines, 70.25% belong to the subgenus Cellia and remaining specimens to the subgenus Anopheles. Five important putative malaria vectors were molecularly identifie...
In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of mosquito bites and how to prevent getting them. Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/11/2016.
Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren
The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...
Albin Fontaine; Aurélie Pascual; Eve Orlandi-Pradines; Ibrahima Diouf; Franck Remoué; Frédéric Pagès; Thierry Fusaï; Christophe Rogier; Lionel Almeras
Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study...
Sérgio de Andrade Nishioka
Full Text Available A 5-year-old boy bitten by a specimen of Philodryas patagoniensis, a colubrid snake currently classified as nonvenomous, developed signs of local envenoming characterized by swelling and warmth on the bitten limb. This is the first time that local envenoming following Philodryas patagoniensis bite is recognized. Based on the clinical findings and misidentification of the snake, the patient was treated as a victim of Bothrops bite, having received unnecessarily the specific antivenom. Educational efforts to make doctors and health workers capable to identify correctly venomous snakes are necessary, to avoid inappropriate indication of antivenom and decrease the risk of its potentially harmful untoward effects. Examination of the bite site can be useful to the differential diagnosis between pit viper and colubrid bites.Um menino de 5 anos de idade foi picado por um espécime de Philodryas patagomensis, uma serpente colubrídea tida como não peçonhenta, tendo apresentado sinais de envenenamento local caracterizados por edema e calor. Esta é a primeira vez que se descreve que Philodryas patagoniensis pode causar envenenamento local. Com base nos achados clínicos e na identificação errônea da serpente, o paciente foi tratado como vítima de acidente botrópico, tendo recebido antiveneno específico. São necessários esforços para proporcionar a médicos e outros profissionais da área de saúde informações para o reconhecimento de serpentes peçonhentas, o que evitaria o uso inapropriado de antiveneno e seus potenciais efeitos adversos. Exame do local da picada pode ser útil para o diagnóstico diferencial entre serpentes da subfamilia Crotalinae (peçonhentas e da familia Colubridae.
Arun Varghese; Taznim Mohamed
Background: Difficult or failed tracheal intubation has been identified as one of the most important causes of death or permanent brain damage during anaesthesia. The present study has aimed to compare modified Mallampati score, Upper lip bite test and sternomental distance for predicting difficult intubation in adult patients. Methods: In this study 199 patients aged 18-60 years were recruited who were undergoing elective surgeries requiring endotracheal intubation. All patients were eva...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Massive wasp stings have been greatly underestimated and have not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features and treatment strategies of severe wasp stings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A multicenter retrospective study was undertaken in 35 hospitals and medical centers including 12 tertiary care hospitals and 23 secondary care hospitals in the Hubei Province, China. The detailed clinical data of 1091 hospitalized wasp sting patients were investigated. Over three-fourths (76.9% of the cases had 10 or more stings and the in-hospital mortality of patients was 5.1%. Forty-eight patients died of organ injury following toxic reactions to the stings, whereas six died from anaphylactic shock. The in-hospital mortality in patients with >10 stings was higher than that of ≤10 stings (5.2% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.02. Acute kidney injury (AKI was seen in 21.0% patients and most patients required blood purification therapy. Rhabdomyolysis was seen in 24.1% patients, hemolysis in 19.2% patients, liver injury in 30.1% patients, and coagulopathy in 22.5% patients. Regression analysis revealed that high creatinine level, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death. Blood purification therapy was beneficial for patients with ≥20 stings and delayed hospital admission of patients (≥4 hours after sting. CONCLUSIONS: In China, most patients with multiple wasp stings presented with toxic reactions and multiple organ dysfunction caused by the venom rather than an anaphylactic reaction. AKI is the prominent clinical manifestation of wasp stings with toxic reaction. High creatinine levels, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death.
Dijkman, Marieke A; Damhuis, Dorien E M; Meulenbelt, Jan; de Vries, Irma
Bites by Aruban Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus unicolor) are rare and not known to induce severe envenomations. Here, we present a case of a 57 year-old man bitten by his pet Aruban Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus unicolor). He was admitted to hospital within 15 min. Three and a half hours later his fibrinogen concentration decreased to 0.6 g/L (normal: 2.0-4.0). Nine hours post-bite, he was treated with polyvalent snake antivenom covering Crotalus durissus. Three hours later his fibrinogen became undetectable while at that time clotting times were prolonged (PT 38.7 s (normal: 12.5-14.5) and aPTT 40 s (normal: 25-35)). His platelet count remained within normal limits. Creatine kinase (CK) concentrations reached a maximum of 1868 U/L (normal: <200) 16 h post-bite. After a second antivenom dose, 10.5 h after the first antivenom administration, clotting times returned to normal. Fibrinogen was restored to normal within three days. He was discharged from hospital on day five. In conclusion, administration of polyvalent snake antivenom covering Crotalus durissus snakebites shows cross-neutralization and is effective in the treatment of patients bitten by Crotalus durissus unicolor. PMID:27023827
Sanjeev Vasantrao Chincholikar
Full Text Available Background: Cause of ‘unacceptable incidence’ of snake bite fatalities is that people try out all kinds of ‘bizarre remedies’ initially. Objectives: To study the knowledge about the types of snakes and their identification and to ascertain the knowledge about first aid. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in 10 adopted villages under Rural Health Training Centre, from July 2011 to June 2012. Out of 2272 households, a proportionate sample was selected and one representative from each household was further selected at random. Results: The awareness about first aid measures was less in all subjects but the knowledge about symptoms of snake bite was higher in majority of subjects. It was observed that knowledge about types of snakes was significantly higher in 12-20 years of age group (p <0.05. Out of 49 survived cases of total 68 cases, 8 cases were given wrong first aid. Use of mantriks, sucking of blood was practiced in few cases. In most of the cases the nearest health facility is not in a reachable distance, taking more than 30 minutes to reach and no transport facility is available to reach nearest health centre. Hence, in order to prevent untimely death, there is a need to provide knowledge regarding first aid treatment of snake bite to the villagers.
Full Text Available Introduction: Vascularity of kidneys is very high, so these organs are potentially susceptible to be affected with toxins including snake venom. Hypersensitivity to snake venous could cause some neurological problem. Case Report: We present a 14-year-old boy with acute kidney injury (AKI due to snake bite. After a few days, kidney failure with hematuria was developed. His serum creatinine level rose to 3 mg/dl and following 2 weeks gradually and decreased to normal level without any special treatment except for anti-venom, which was not prescribed inappropriate time (this type of AKI is not reported previously. He had seizure attacks, which were according to magnetic resonance imaging due to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES (This neurologic complication has been seen in other kidney injuries but up to now it was not reported in snake bite victims. Conclusion: Sanke venom could cause PRES due to AKI and seizure could be one of the most important complications in snake bite.
Frank, Diane; Bélanger, Marie C.; Bécuwe-Bonnet, Véronique; Parent, Joane
Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting.
Full Text Available We develop a model to produce plausible patterns of task partitioning in the ponerine ant Ectatomma ruidum based on the availability of living prey and prey corpses. The model is based on the organizational capabilities of a "common stomach" through which the colony utilizes the availability of a natural (food substance as a major communication channel to regulate the income and expenditure of the very same substance. This communication channel has also a central role in regulating task partitioning of collective hunting behavior in a supply&demand-driven manner. Our model shows that task partitioning of the collective hunting behavior in E. ruidum can be explained by regulation due to a common stomach system. The saturation of the common stomach provides accessible information to individual ants so that they can adjust their hunting behavior accordingly by engaging in or by abandoning from stinging or transporting tasks. The common stomach is able to establish and to keep stabilized an effective mix of workforce to exploit the prey population and to transport food into the nest. This system is also able to react to external perturbations in a de-centralized homeostatic way, such as to changes in the prey density or to accumulation of food in the nest. In case of stable conditions the system develops towards an equilibrium concerning colony size and prey density. Our model shows that organization of work through a common stomach system can allow Ectatomma ruidum to collectively forage for food in a robust, reactive and reliable way. The model is compared to previously published models that followed a different modeling approach. Based on our model analysis we also suggest a series of experiments for which our model gives plausible predictions. These predictions are used to formulate a set of testable hypotheses that should be investigated empirically in future experimentation.
Mosovich, Juan H; Young, Pablo
Olindias sambaquiensis jellyfish sting occurs frequently in Buenos Aires province coast beaches. Among five hundred and one thousand stings by jellyfish are reported each season at Monte Hermoso, a beach village in the South of Buenos Aires province. The skin damage provoked because of its highly irritant effect poses a serious issue related to tourism development. A total number of 49 cases that were examined during the first hour after the sting were enrolled in Monte Hermoso during January 1998. Twenty eight were males (57.1%). The average age was 16 ± 4.1 (range 5-80). Of them, 54% showed linear erythema-edematous lesions, 28% showed predominantly erythematous lesions, and in 18% the injuries were erythema-edematous plaques. In 73% of the cases the lesions were located in lower limbs. We had hereby redefined cutaneous lesions produced by O. sambaquiensis, its evolution, its dimensions and most frequent localizations. Besides, it has been typified and quantified the pain it provokes and other signs and symptoms that go with the sting during the posterior hour, during the first 24 hours, and after 30 days. We described the therapeutic conducts used in our coasts and we assessed the effectiveness of some of them in pain control, and finally we propose a therapeutic scheme for this sting. PMID:23089113
Syed Mohammad Asad Zaidi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dog-bites and rabies are under-reported in developing countries such as Pakistan and there is a poor understanding of the disease burden. We prospectively collected data utilizing mobile phones for dog-bite and rabies surveillance across nine emergency rooms (ER in Pakistan, recording patient health-seeking behaviors, access to care and analyzed spatial distribution of cases from Karachi. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 6212 dog-bite cases were identified over two years starting in February 2009 with largest number reported from Karachi (59.7%, followed by Peshawar (13.1% and Hyderabad (11.4%. Severity of dog-bites was assessed using the WHO classification. Forty percent of patients had Category I (least severe bites, 28.1% had Category II bites and 31.9% had Category III (most severe bites. Patients visiting a large public hospital ER in Karachi were least likely to seek immediate healthcare at non-medical facilities (Odds Ratio = 0.20, 95% CI 0.17-0.23, p-value<0.01, and had shorter mean travel time to emergency rooms, adjusted for age and gender (32.78 min, 95% CI 31.82-33.78, p-value<0.01 than patients visiting hospitals in smaller cities. Spatial analysis of dog-bites in Karachi suggested clustering of cases (Moran's I = 0.02, p value<0.01, and increased risk of exposure in particular around Korangi and Malir that are adjacent to the city's largest abattoir in Landhi. The direct cost of operating the mHealth surveillance system was USD 7.15 per dog-bite case reported, or approximately USD 44,408 over two years. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest significant differences in access to care and health-seeking behaviors in Pakistan following dog-bites. The distribution of cases in Karachi was suggestive of clustering of cases that could guide targeted disease-control efforts in the city. Mobile phone technologies for health (mHealth allowed for the operation of a national-level disease reporting and surveillance system
Daly, James J.
In the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences program, lectures are given on the recognition and general biology of dangerous reptiles and anthropods, the nature of animal venoms, immunological aspects of envenomation, and treatment of bites and stings. Both first-aid and clinical management are included. (Author/LBH)
Chomel, Bruno B.; Jane A. Morton; Kasten, Rickie W.; Chao-chin Chang
Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans) bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) may have prolonged the typ...
D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.;
Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some ‘alternative’ forms of pig production and certain countries do not...... allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantiﬁed, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the ﬁrst bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction and...
Ursinus, W W; Wijnen, H J; Bartels, A C; Dijvesteijn, N; van Reenen, C G; Bolhuis, J E
Pigs may display biting behavior directed at pen mates, resulting in body damage such as tail wounds. We assessed the suitability of jute sacks (hung vertically at wall) to reduce biting behaviors and tail wounds in rearing gilts. Additionally, we assessed several characteristics of different types of tail biters. Tail docked rearing gilts originated from 72 litters, which were kept in partly slatted pens with jute sacks (J) or barren control pens (CON; 36 litters per treatment). Tail and ear damage were observed at weaning (4 wk) and during the weaner and rearing phase (17 J and 19 CON pens). Sow (dam) damage was also considered. Biting behaviors (tail, ear, and other) were observed during the weaner and rearing phase. Weight was recorded at birth, weaning, and end of the weaner phase and ADG was calculated from birth till weaning and from weaning till 9 wk. Furthermore, estimated breeding values for litter size, litter birth weight, back fat, and growth between birth and ∼ 105 kg, and ∼ 25 to 105 kg were determined. Jute sacks reduced tail and ear damage at weaning (both P tail damage (P = 0.09). Jute sacks also reduced tail damage post-weaning (P tail wounds at the age of 13 wk. Biting behaviors directed at pen mates were up to 50% lower in J pens (P tail-biting behavior (P = 0.002 to 0.09), albeit dependent on treatment and phase. Higher phenotypic litter sizes were associated with higher levels of biting behaviors (P = 0.004-0.08). High-tail-biters and Medium-tail-biters (the latter less pronounced) stemmed from larger litters (P = 0.01 to 0.05), were heavier (P = 0.03 to 0.04), grew faster (P = 0.05 to 0.08), and displayed higher levels of all kinds of biting behavior directed to pen mates and the jute sack (P tail-biters, the effect size dependent on treatment and phase of life. To conclude, jute sacks may profoundly reduce damaging behaviors and tail wounds in rearing gilts, probably because they partly meet the behavioral need of pigs for rooting and
The strain gage sting balance 204-6 was developed for aerodynamic measurements on rocket models in the transonic and supersonic wind tunnel. Data are: X = +/- 50 (N); Y = +/- 150 (N); Z = +/- 400 (N); Mx = +/- 1.5 (Nm); My = +/- 20 (Nm); and Mz = +/- 10 (Nm). Compared to the existing balances of same size the ratio Y/Z is changed from 1:8 to 1:3.75. This change of specifications was introduced with regard to measurements to be taken with a sting providing automatic roll positioning around the X-axis. The resistance module was separately constructed and prestressed by a factor of 0.5, and connected to the model and sting part of the balance by electron-beam welding.
Camp, Ariel L; Konow, Nicolai; Sanford, Christopher P J
The tongue-bite apparatus and its associated musculoskeletal elements of the pectoral girdle and neurocranium form the structural basis of raking, a unique prey-processing behaviour in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes. Using a quantitative approach, the functional osteology and myology of this system were compared between representatives of each lineage, i.e. the salmonid Salvelinus fontinalis (N = 10) and the osteoglossomorph Chitala ornata (N = 8). Divergence was found in the morphology of the novel cleithrobranchial ligament, which potentially relates to kinematic differences between the raking lineage representatives. Salvelinus had greater anatomical cross-sectional areas of the epaxial, hypaxial and protractor hyoideus muscles, whereas Chitala had greater sternohyoideus and adductor mandibulae mass. Two osteology-based biomechanical models (a third-order lever for neurocranial elevation and a modified four-bar linkage for hyoid retraction) showed divergent force/velocity priorities in the study taxa. Salvelinus maximizes both force (via powerful cranial muscles) and velocity (through mechanical amplification) during raking. In contrast, Chitala has relatively low muscle force but more efficient force transmission through both mechanisms compared with Salvelinus. It remains unclear if and how behavioural modulation and specializations in the post-cranial anatomy may affect the force/velocity trade-offs in Chitala. Further studies of tongue-bite apparatus morphology and biomechanics in a broader species range may help to clarify the role that osteology and myology play in the evolution of behavioural diversity. PMID:19438765
Camila Campos Romero
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional, immunological and psychological benefts of exclusive breastfeeding for the frst 6 months of life are unequivocally recognized. However, mothers should also be aware of the importance of breastfeeding for promoting adequate oral development. This study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns and the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking were investigated in a 3-6 year-old sample of 1,377 children, from São Paulo city, Brazil. Children were grouped according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - shorter than 6 months, G3 - interruption between 6 and 12 months, and G4 - longer than 12 months. Three calibrated dentists performed clinical examinations and classifed overbite into 3 categories: normal, anterior open bite and deep bite. Chi-square tests (p<0.05 with odds ratio (OR calculation were used for intergroup comparisons. The impact of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking on the prevalence of anterior open bite was analyzed using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence estimates of anterior open bite were: 31.9% (G1, 26.1% (G2, 22.1% (G3, and 6.2% (G4. G1 would have signifcantly more chances of having anterior open bite compared with G4; in the total sample (OR=7.1 and in the subgroup without history of non-nutritive sucking (OR=9.3. Prolonging breastfeeding for 12 months was associated with a 3.7 times lower chance of having anterior open bite. In each year of persistence with non-nutritive sucking habits, the chance of developing this malocclusion increased in 2.38 times. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking durations demonstrated opposite effects on the prediction of anterior open bite. Non-breastfed children presented signifcantly greater chances of having anterior open bite compared with those who were breastfed for periods longer than 12 months
Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle
Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate
Ahn, Jeonghyun; Xia, Tianli; Konno, Hiroyasu; Konno, Keiko; Ruiz, Phillip; Barber, Glen N.
Chronic stimulation of innate immune pathways by microbial agents or damaged tissue is known to promote inflammation-driven tumorigenesis by mechanisms that are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that mutagenic 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), cisplatin and etoposide induce nuclear DNA leakage into the cytosol that intrinsically activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-dependent cytokine production. Inflammatory cytokine levels are subsequently augmented in a STING-dependent extrinsic manner by infiltrating phagocytes purging dying cells. Consequently, STING−/− mice, or wild-type mice adoptively transferred with STING−/− bone marrow, are almost completely resistant to DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis compared with their wild-type counterparts. Our data establish a role for STING in the control of cancer, shed significant insight into the causes of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis and may provide a basis for therapeutic strategies to help prevent malignant disease. PMID:25300616
Carril, Julieta; Degrange, Federico J; Tambussi, Claudia P
Psittaciform birds exhibit novelties in jaw bone structure and musculature that are associated with strong bite forces. These features include an ossified arcus suborbitalis and the muscles ethmomandibularis and pseudomasseter. We analyse the jaw musculature of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) to enable future studies aimed at understanding craniofacial development, morphology, function and evolution. We estimate bite force based on muscle dissections, physiological cross-sectional area and skull biomechanical modelling. We also compare our results with available data for other birds and traced the evolutionary origin of the three novel diagnostic traits. Our results indicate that, in Myiopsitta, (i) the arcus suborbitalis is absent and the orbit is ventrally closed by an elongate processus orbitalis and a short ligamentum suborbitale; (ii) the ethmomandibularis muscle is a conspicuous muscle with two bellies, with its origin on the anterior portion of the septum interorbitale and insertion on the medial aspect of the mandible; (iii) the pseudomasseter muscle consists of some fibers arising from the m. adductor mandibulae externus superficialis, covering the lateral surface of the arcus jugalis and attaches by an aponeurotic sheet on the processus orbitalis; (iv) a well-developed adductor mandibulae complex is present; (v) the bite force estimation relative to body mass is higher than that calculated for other non-psittaciform species; and (vi) character evolution analysis revealed that the absence of the arcus suborbitalis and the presence of the m. pseudomassseter are the ancestral conditions, and mapping is inconclusive about presence of one or two bellies of the m. ethmomandibularis. PMID:26053435
Coturel A; Caamaño Daniela; Rico J.; Ramirez Wosnuk; Quesada B
Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanu...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION : Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is typically transmitted through bites from infected animals. The majority of reported cases involve wild animals like bats , raccoons and skunks , but domesticated animals like dogs and cats are also a risk. Humans are equ ally susceptible to the rabies virus if bitten by an infected animal. Once the symptoms have appeared , Rabies is always fatal. Death usually occurs less than a week after the onset of signs. METHODOLOGY: A cross - sectional study was conducted in which all th e doctors including JRs , Interns , PG students and SRs and Consultants in the department of Surgery , Medicine , Pediatrics and Emergency Medical Officers were taken . Selection was done on the basis of consent to participate in the study by doctors of the var ious departments handling or required to handle dog /animal bite cases. RESULTS : It can be seen that only 76.92% knew all the Reservoirs of Rabies infection , and the difference in knowledge of senior doctor , 43(41.34 is comparable to junior doctors , 37(35. 57 and the difference is statistically not significant. Regarding different Modes ofTransmission , 90.38% had correct knowledge. The Junior doctors , i.e , 39(37.50 had correct answer whereas , 55(52.88 senior doctors i.e all answered correctlywhich is sta tistically significant . CONCLUSION: There is an apparent lack of awareness among doctors regarding appropriate animal wound management and vaccine administration. Reorientation programmes and continued medical education (CME for the medical practitioners are required to highlight WHO guidelines regarding treatment of animal bite
Full Text Available We have considered the effect that a local reduction in the electron density (an electron bite-out, caused by electron absorption on to dust particles, can have on the artificial electron heating in the height region between 80 to 90km, where noctilucent clouds (NLC and the radar phenomenon PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes are observed. With an electron density profile without bite-outs, the heated electron temperature Te,hot will generally decrease smoothly with height in the PMSE region or there may be no significant heating effect present. Within a bite-out Te,hot will decrease less rapidly and can even increase slightly with height if the bite-out is strong. We have looked at recent observations of PMSE which are affected by artificial electron heating, with a heater cycling producing the new overshoot effect. According to the theory for the PMSE overshoot the fractional increase in electron temperature Te,hot/Ti, where Ti is the unaffected ion temperature=neutral temperature, can be found from the reduction in PMSE intensity as the heater is switched on. We have looked at results from four days of observations with the EISCAT VHF radar (224 MHz, together with the EISCAT heating facility. We find support for the PMSE overshoot and heating model from a sequence of observations during one of the days where the heater transmitter power is varied from cycle to cycle and where the calculated Te,hot/Ti is found to vary in proportion to the transmitter power. We also looked for signatures of electron bite-outs by examining the variation of Te,hot/Ti with height for the three other days. We find that the height variation of Te,hot/Ti is very different on the three days. On one of the days we see typically that this ratio can increase
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nail biting (NB is a very common unwanted behavior. The majority of children are motivated to stop NB and have already tried to stop it, but are generally unsuccessful in doing so. It is a difficult behavior to modify or treat. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of children with NB who present at a child and adolescent mental healthcare outpatient clinic and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method A consecutive sample of 450 referred children was examined for NB and 63 (14% were found to have NB. The children and adolescents with nail biting and their parents were interviewed according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. They were also asked about lip biting, head banging, skin biting, and hair pulling behaviors. Results Nail biting is common amongst children and adolescents referred to a child and adolescent mental health clinic. The most common co-morbid psychiatric disorders in these children were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (74.6%, oppositional defiant disorder (36%, separation anxiety disorder (20.6%, enuresis (15.6%, tic disorder (12.7% and obsessive compulsive disorder (11.1%. The rates of major depressive disorder, mental retardation, and pervasive developmental disorder were 6.7%, 9.5%, 3.2%, respectively. There was no association between the age of onset of nail biting and the co-morbid psychiatric disorder. Severity and frequency of NB were not associated with any co-morbid psychiatric disorder. About 56.8% of the mothers and 45.9% of the fathers were suffering from at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric disorder found in these parents was major depression. Conclusion Nail biting presents in a significant proportion of referrals to a mental healthcare clinic setting. Nail biting should be routinely looked for and asked for in the child and adolescent mental healthcare setting
Prerna Hoogan Teja
Full Text Available Transverse maxillary deficiency may be associated with sagittal or vertical problems of the maxilla or mandible. It may contribute to unilateral or bilateral posterior crossbite, anterior dental crowding, and unesthetic black buccal corridors on smiling. An adequate transverse dimension is important for stable and proper functional occlusion. Surgically, assisted rapid palatal expansion has been the treatment of choice to resolve posterior crossbite in skeletally mature patients. The following case report presents an adult Class III skeletal patient with an anterior open bite and bilateral posterior crossbite which was treated by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with satisfactory outcomes.
Sakurada, Tsukasa; Katsuyama, Sou; Sakurada, Shinobu; Inoue, Makoto; Tan-No, Koichi; Kisara, Kensuke; Sakurada, Chikai; Ueda, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Jun
Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of nociceptin at small doses (fmol order) elicited a behavioural response consisting of scratching, biting and licking in conscious mice. Here we have examined the involvement of substance P-containing neurons by using i.t. injection of tachykinin neurokinin (NK)1 receptor antagonists and substance P (SP) antiserum.Nociceptin-induced behavioural response was evoked significantly 5–10 min after i.t. injection and reached a maximum at 10–15 min. Dose-dependency of t...
Gunas, I. V.; Dmitriev, N. A.; A. V. Marchenko
Gunas I. V., Dmitriev N. A., Marchenko A. V. Methodological aspects of computed tomography odontomorphometry of boys and girls with the physiological bite. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(11):345-355. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.34097 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%2811%29%3A345-355 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/670995 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. Archives 2011–2014 http:...
We report two children with severe neurological complications after having been stung by a scorpion. Clinical and MRI findings suggested brain infarcts. The lesions seen were in pons in one child and the right hemisphere in the other. The latter also showed possible hyperemia in the infarcted area. No vascular occlusions were observed and we therefore think the brain infarcts were a consequence of the scorpion sting. The cause of the infarct may be hypotension, shock or depressed left ventricular function, all of which are frequent in severe poisoning by scorpion sting. (orig.)
Fernandez-Bouzas, A.; Ballesteros-Maresma, A. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Morales-Resendiz, M.L. [Hospital General de Queretaro, Mexico (Mexico); Llamas-Ibarra, F. [Clinica Neurologica de Queretaro, Mexico (Mexico); Martinez-Lopez, M. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur., Mexico (Mexico)
We report two children with severe neurological complications after having been stung by a scorpion. Clinical and MRI findings suggested brain infarcts. The lesions seen were in pons in one child and the right hemisphere in the other. The latter also showed possible hyperemia in the infarcted area. No vascular occlusions were observed and we therefore think the brain infarcts were a consequence of the scorpion sting. The cause of the infarct may be hypotension, shock or depressed left ventricular function, all of which are frequent in severe poisoning by scorpion sting. (orig.)
Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.
Full Text Available Bite is a type of wound received from the teeth of an animal, including humans. Human bites are third leading cause of all bites after dog and cat bites. Human bites are severe wounds due to the risk of contamination with mix oral flora and rapid tissue destruction. Bite wounds created by humans are seen in variety of circumstances including aggression, rape, murder, and child abuse. Oral cavity contains beta-hemolytic streptococci, anaerobes and other microorganisms. There have been reported cases of septicemia, severe necrotizing fasciitis, HIV infection, and death caused by human bites. Early reporting and treatment of bite wounds decrease the number and severity of wound infection. Here, we present the case of human bite in a nine-day-old girl and discuss the treatment approaches in the light of the relevant literature.
Loredana Asztalos, Manuela; Rubin, Adam I; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Groft MacFarlane, Caroline; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie
Jellyfish envenomation often causes an immediate painful vesiculopapular eruption. Less commonly it can cause a type IV allergic hypersensitivity that manifests with delayed or recurrent cutaneous lesions at the primary site or distant from the primary site. These secondary reactivations may be related to high antijellyfish immunoglobulin levels, intracutaneously sequestered antigen, or cross-reacting venom. Immunomodulators such as pimecrolimus and tacrolimus and topical and intralesional corticosteroid therapy decrease this recurrent dermatitis. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl with a recurrent jellyfish dermatitis lasting more than 1 year after the initial envenomation. The dermatitis finally resolved after treatment with tacrolimus and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide therapy. PMID:24495001
Taylor, Nina R; Parker, Richard M A; Mendl, Michael; Edwards, Sandra A; Main, David C J
A husbandry advisory tool (HAT) was devised to help pig producers and their advisors identify and minimise possible risk factors for tail biting in finishing pigs. The prevalence of 83 risk factors identified from the literature and expert opinion was recorded on 65 commercial pig farms in England between May 2007 and July 2009. Those considered most important were associated with atmosphere/environment, environmental enrichment, the provision of food/drink and animal health factors. Forty-six farms received advice on minimising these risks and, of these, 27 also received a financial incentive to encourage the uptake of advice. A reduction in risk factors was observed on 42/57 farms visited at the end of the study, with the greatest reduction occurring on the farms that had been incentivised. However, farms not receiving advice also had reduced risk factors associated with atmosphere/environment and stocking density over the course of the study. In conclusion, while some risk factors are structural and require substantial capital investment to change, a significant reduction in the risk of tail biting can be achieved on many farms through the systematic evaluation and modification of management practices. PMID:22503206
Full Text Available Snakebites can present local or systemic envenomation, while neurotoxicity and respiratory paralysis are the main cause of death. The mainstay of management is anti-snake venom (ASV, which is highly effective, but liable to cause severe adverse reactions including anaphylaxis. The types of adverse reaction to polyvalent anti-snake venom have not been previously studied in Bangladesh. In this prospective observational study carried out between 1999 and 2001, in the Snake Bite Study Clinic of Chittagong Medical College Hospital, 35 neurotoxic-snake-bite patients who had received polyvalent anti-snake venom were included while the ones sensitized to different antitoxins and suffering from atopy were excluded. The common neurotoxic features were ptosis (100%, external ophthalmoplegia (94.2%, dysphagia (77.1%, dysphonia (68.5% and broken neck sign (80%. The percentage of anti-snake venom reaction cases was 88.57%; pyrogenic reaction was 80.64%; and anaphylaxis was 64.51%. The common features of anaphylaxis were urticaria (80%; vomiting and wheezing (40%; and angioedema (10%. The anti-snake venom reaction was treated mainly with adrenaline for anaphylaxis and paracetamol suppository in pyrogenic reactions. The average recovery time was 4.5 hours. Due to the danger of reactions the anti-snake venom should not be withheld from a snakebite victim when indicated and appropriate guidelines should be followed for its administration.
González, Mikel; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Valle-Mora, Javier; Goldarazena, Arturo
The response of Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans to different wavelengths was evaluated in a farm meadow in northern Spain. A total of 9449 specimens of 23 species of Culicoides, 5495 other ceratopogonids (non-biting midges), 602 culicids and 12428 other mixed dipterans were captured. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suction light traps fitted with five light emitting diodes (LEDs) (white, green, red, blue, ultraviolet) were run for 15 consecutive nights. Significantly more Culicoides were collected in those traps fitted with green, blue or ultraviolet (UV) lights than in red and white-baited LED traps for the most abundant species captured: C. punctatus (37.5%), C. cataneii (26.5%) and C. obsoletus/C. scoticus (20.4%). Similar results were obtained for non-Culicoides ceratopogonids, mosquitoes and other mixed dipterans. Wavelengths in green (570nm) resulted effective for targeting some Culicoides species, culicids and other midges. In a second trial, the effectiveness of 4-W white and UV tubes was compared to traps fitted with UV LED and a standard incandescent light bulb. More specimens of all taxa were collected with fluorescent black light (UV) traps than with the other light sources, except culicids, which were recovered in high numbers from fluorescent white light traps. PMID:27514882
Djeapragassam, Parimala; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramanian Vasudevan; Ramadoss, Koliyan; Jimsha, Vannathan Kumaran
Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of our study were to compare four sequential overlays generated using the envelopment technique and to evaluate inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Materials and Methods: Dental stone models were prepared from impressions made from healthy individuals; photographs were taken and computer-assisted overlays were generated. The models were then enveloped in a different-color dental stone. After this, four sequential cuts were made at a thickness of 1mm each. Each sectional cut was photographed and overlays were generated. Thus, 125 overlays were generated and compared. Results: The scoring was done based on matching accuracy and the data were analyzed. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare four sequential overlays and Spearman's rank correlation tests were used to evaluate the inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Conclusion: Through our study, we conclude that the third and fourth cuts were the best among the four cuts and inter- and intraoperator reliability were found to be statistically significant at 5% level that is 95% confidence interval (P < 0.05). PMID:26816458
Hunter, E J; Jones, T A; Guise, H J; Penny, R H; Hoste, S
The tail length (docked, tipped or undocked) and tail status (bitten or unbitten) of 27,870 pigs from 450 units was recorded at six UK abattoirs. A farm survey of the final finishing stage was used to investigate the relationship between management practice and tail biting. This showed that docking was the most important factor influencing the probability of being not bitten, with 2.4% of docked and 8.5% of long-tailed pigs being tail-bitten. The following factors reduced the probability of long-tailed pigs being tail-bitten; light straw provision, use of natural ventilation or artificially controlled natural ventilation (ACNV), mixed sex grouping, meal or liquid feeding, and use of double or multi-space feeders. Docked and long-tailed pigs provided with light straw and natural ventilation/ACNV had levels of tail biting of 1.2% and 4.3% respectively; 3.9% of docked pigs with artificial ventilation and no straw were tail-bitten. Long-tailed pigs fed via double or multi-space feeders also had 3.9% of tails bitten. PMID:11145831
Akinwale Olaoluwa P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on biting behaviours and infectivity status of insect vectors are pre-requisites in understanding the epidemiology of the vector- borne diseases and planning effective control measures. A longitudinal study was carried out to investigate the transmission index of Simulium damnosum complex species along Osun River, South Western Nigeria. Adult flies were collected on human attractants from 07:00 to 18:00 hours for two consecutive days from February 2008 to June 2009 at three communities: Osun Eleja, Osun Ogbere and Osun Budepo. The infectivity rate was determined by dissection and Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification (PCR of 0-150 genes of Onchocerca parasite using the pool screening technique. Results The results indicated that the majority of the flies collected at the three sampling points were nulliparous as they accounted for 53.90%, 57.86% and 59.58% of the flies dissected at Osun Budepo, Osun Ogbere and Osun Eleja, respectively. The parous rate was higher during the dry season than the wet season but the difference was not statistically significant (p Onchocerca parasite at the three sampling points however the annual biting rates at the three communities were higher than 1,000 considered as tolerable value for a person living in an onchocerciasis zone by Word Health Organization. Conclusion The study has provided the baseline data for further study on onchocerciasis transmission dynamics and the need to intercept man- simuliid vector contact at the study area.
Schurink, A; van Grevenhof, E M; Ducro, B J; van Arendonk, J A M
Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal recurrent allergic reaction of horses to the bites of certain Culicoides spp. and is found throughout the world. The aim of our study was to estimate the heritability and repeatability of IBH in the Dutch Shetland pony population. A total of 7,924 IBH scores on 6,073 mares were collected during foal inspections in 2003, 2005, and 2006. Mares were scored for clinical symptoms of IBH from June until February by 16 inspectors. Of all mares, 74.4% (n = 4,520) had a single observation, 20.7% (n = 1,255) had 2 observations, and 4.9% (n = 298) had 3 observations in different years. The overall mean IBH prevalence was 8.8%. Heritability was 0.08 (SE = 0.02) on the observed binary scale and 0.24 (SE = 0.06) on the underlying continuous scale. Repeatability was 0.30 (SE = 0.02) and indicates that including repeated observations of the clinical symptoms of IBH will improve the accuracy of breeding values for IBH. We conclude that IBH, based on clinical symptoms, is a heritable trait in the Dutch Shetland pony population. Therefore, the IBH prevalence in this population can be decreased by selection. PMID:18791140
Resiere, Dabor; Mégarbane, Bruno; Valentino, Ruddy; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Thomas, Laurent
Approximately 20-30 declared snakebite cases occurin Martinique each year. Bothrops lanceolatus, a member of the Crotalidae family, is considered to be the only involved snake. B. lanceolatus, commonly named “Fer-de-Lance”, is endemic and only found on this Caribbean island. Envenomation local features include the presence of fang marks, swelling, pain, bleeding from punctures, and ecchymosis. Severe envenomation is associated with multiple systemic thromboses appearing within 48 h of the bit...
Heinonen, Mari; Orro, Toomas; Kokkonen, Teija; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Peltoniemi, Olli; Valros, Anna
The extent of inflammation associated with tail biting in finishing pigs was evaluated. Tail histopathology, carcass condemnation and the concentration of three acute phase proteins (APPs), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid-A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp), were examined in 12 tail-bitten and 13 control pigs. The median concentrations of APPs were higher (Ppigs (CRP 65.7mg/L, 28.4-180.4; SAA 6.2mg/L, 6.2-21.4; Hp 1.2g/L, 0.9-1.5). There was a tendency for APP concentrations to rise with the histopathological score but the differences were only statistically significant between some of the scores. Five (42%) bitten cases and one (8%) control pig had partial carcass condemnations owing to abscesses (P=0.07). The results show that tail biting induces an inflammatory response in the tail end leading to an acute phase response and formation of carcass abscesses. PMID:19398209
Juan Fernando Aristizabal
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-chromosomal linked anomaly characterized by progressive muscle wear and weakness. This case report shows the orthodontic treatment of a Becker muscular dystrophy patient with unilateral open bite.METHODS: To correct patient's malocclusion, general anesthesia and orthognathic surgery were not considered as an option. Conventional orthodontic treatment with intermaxillary elastics and muscular functional therapy were employed instead.RESULTS: After 36 months, open bite was corrected. The case remains stable after a 5-year post-treatment retention period.
de Haro, Luc
VIPERS AT THE ORIGIN OF ENVENOMING: Out of the 4 species of vipers found in France, only two can be responsible for severe envenoming: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the addetr (Vipera berus). CLINICAL GRADING: Since 1992, a grading table published by the Institut Pasteur in Paris helps to assess the severity of the clinical and biological picture. A grade 2 (extensive oedema +/- accompanied by moderate general signs) or notably a grade 3 (giant oedema + severe general signs + biological signs) implies the administration of an antivenom. ANTIVENOM VIPERFAV: Available on the market since 2000, is administered in intravenous infusion, the only route effective. Tolerance to the treatment is good and clinical improvement is rapid after administration of 1 to 4 infusions of antivenom. When confronted with life-threatening envenoming, there is no strong argument to justify the non-use of an antivenom. VIPERINE ENVENOMING: Among the grass snakes, the viperine snake of Montpellier is the only species that is actually venomous. The fangs are posterior in the buccal cavity of the snake, which does not usually permit it to inject its venom in humans. In exceptional circumstances (finger placed in the throat), envenoming has been observed with, in this case, essentially neurological clinical signs: involvement of the cranial nerves, drowsiness. There is no specific treatment for these extremely rare accidents. PMID:12947747
Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas
Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140
Full Text Available Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force. The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts.
Legrand, Nicolas; WEISZ-PATRAULT, Daniel; Horsky, Jaroslav; Luks, Tomas; LABBE, Nathalie; Picard, Michel; Ehrlacher, Alain
A temperature sensor with a thermocouple placed at ~0.5 mm from roll surface is used in hot rolling conditions to evaluate by inverse calculation heat transfers in the roll bite. Simulation analysis under industrial hot rolling conditions with short contact lengths (e.g. short contact times) and high rolling speeds (7 m./s) show that the temperature sensor + inverse analysis with a high acquisition frequency (> 1000 Hz) is capable to predict accurately (5 to 10% error) the roll bite peak of t...
Beaujean, Desirée; Velsen, van L.; Gemert-Pijnen, van J.E.; Maat, a; Steenbergen, van Jim; Crutzen, R
Background: Many public health campaigns use a one-size-fits-all strategy to achieve their desired effect. Public health campaigns for tick bites and Lyme disease (LD) in many countries convey all relevant preventive measures to all members of the public. Although preventing tick bites (eg, by weari
Full Text Available In spite of European legislation attempting to limit this practice, tail docking is nowadays the only preventive measure against tail biting which is widely adopted by farmers. Docking consists in amputating, usually without anaesthesia or analgesia, the distal part of the tail, in order to reduce its attractiveness and to sensitize it, increasing avoidance behaviour in the bitten pig. Tail docking results in both acute and chronic effects on pig welfare, and its effectiveness in preventing tail biting is limited, since it reduces the symptoms of a behavioural disorder, but does not address the underlying causes. The aim of the present paper is to review the available literature on the effects of tail docking on swine welfare. Although from a practical standpoint the welfare risks arising from tail docking may appear to be negligible compared to those arising during and after tail biting outbreaks, it should be considered that, apart from acute physiological and behavioural responses, tail docking may also elicit long-term effects on weight gain, tail stump sensitivity and animal freedom to express their normal behaviour. Such chronic effects have been poorly investigated so far. Besides, studies evaluating the effectiveness of anaesthetics or analgesic treatments are often conflicting. Within this framework, further research is recommended in order to reduce the acute and chronic pain and discomfort experienced by the animals, until preventive measures (e.g., environmental enrichment, stocking densities are broadly adopted to prevent tail biting.
Crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled STING138–344 protein from M. musculus diffracted to resolutions of 2.39 and 2.2 Å, respectively The innate immune response is the first defence system against pathogenic microorganisms, and cytosolic detection of pathogen-derived DNA is believed to be one of the major mechanisms of interferon production. Recently, the mammalian ER membrane protein STING (stimulator of IFNgenes; also known as MITA, ERIS, MPYS and TMEM173) has been found to be the master regulator linking the detection of cytosolic DNA to TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and its downstream transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). In addition, STING itself was soon discovered to be a direct sensor of bacterial cyclic dinucleotides such as c-di-GMP or c-di-AMP. However, structural studies of apo STING and its complexes with these cyclic dinucleotides and with other cognate binding proteins are essential in order to fully understand the roles played by STING in these crucial signalling pathways. In this manuscript, the successful crystallization of the C-terminal domain of murine STING (STING-CTD; residues 138–344) is reported. Native and SeMet-labelled crystals were obtained and diffracted to moderate resolutions of 2.39 and 2.2 Å, respectively
Tartar, Danielle; Limova, Marketa; North, Jeffrey
Human injuries related to stingray attacks include deep puncture wounds, envenomation, and foreign body reactions owing to retained tail fragments. Herein we report a patient who sustained a stingray injury that produced a subcutaneous granulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis with necrobiosis and review the topic of stingray injuries.
Tartar, Danielle; Limova, Marketa; North, Jeffrey
Human injuries related to stingray attacks include deep puncture wounds, envenomation, and foreign body reactions owing to retained tail fragments. Herein we report a patient who sustained a stingray injury that produced a subcutaneous granulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis with necrobiosis and review the topic of stingray injuries. PMID:24021440
Full Text Available Honeybees secrete 2-heptanone (2-H from their mandibular glands when they bite. Researchers have identified several possible functions: 2-H could act as an alarm pheromone to recruit guards and soldiers, it could act as a chemical marker, or it could have some other function. The actual role of 2-H in honeybee behaviour remains unresolved. In this study, we show that 2-H acts as an anaesthetic in small arthropods, such as wax moth larva (WML and Varroa mites, which are paralysed after a honeybee bite. We demonstrated that honeybee mandibles can penetrate the cuticle of WML, introducing less than one nanolitre of 2-H into the WML open circulatory system and causing instantaneous anaesthetization that lasts for a few minutes. The first indication that 2-H acts as a local anaesthetic was that its effect on larval response, inhibition and recovery is very similar to that of lidocaine. We compared the inhibitory effects of 2-H and lidocaine on voltage-gated sodium channels. Although both compounds blocked the hNav1.6 and hNav1.2 channels, lidocaine was slightly more effective, 2.82 times, on hNav.6. In contrast, when the two compounds were tested using an ex vivo preparation-the isolated rat sciatic nerve-the function of the two compounds was so similar that we were able to definitively classify 2-H as a local anaesthetic. Using the same method, we showed that 2-H has the fastest inhibitory effect of all alkyl-ketones tested, including the isomers 3- and 4-heptanone. This suggests that natural selection may have favoured 2-H over other, similar compounds because of the associated fitness advantages it confers. Our results reveal a previously unknown role of 2-H in honeybee defensive behaviour and due to its minor neurotoxicity show potential for developing a new local anaesthetic from a natural product, which could be used in human and veterinary medicine.
Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Akaffou, Marc Hermann; Allali, Bernard Kouadio; Dosso, Mireille; Massougbodji, Achille; Barraviera, Benedito
During the 6(th) International Conference on Envenomation by Snakebites and Scorpion Stings in Africa held in Abidjan, from 1 to 5 June 2015, the measures for the management of envenomation were discussed and new recommendations were adopted by the participants. The high incidence and severity of this affliction were confirmed by several studies conducted in African countries. The poor availability of antivenom, particularly because of the cost, was also highlighted. Some experiences have been reported, mainly those regarding the financial support of antivenom in Burkina Faso (more than 90 %) and Togo (up to 60 %) or the mandatory reporting of cases in Cameroon. Key recommendations concerned: improvement of epidemiological information based on case collection; training of health workers in the management of envenomation; policy to promote the use of effective and safe antivenom; and antivenom funding by sharing its costs with stakeholders in order to improve antivenom accessibility for low-income patients. PMID:26985189
Perčević, Hrvoje; Mirjana HLADIKA; Mićin, Marina
Contemporary business environment is characterized by frequent changes in business conditions. Technological innovations and changes in customers’ perception affect on the continuous improvement in quality, availability and functionality of the product. According to this, product life cycle is significantly reduced over time, so business entities are trying to deal with these changes. Due to this, business entities have to produce new products in very short time, but at ...
Spinelli, Gustavo Ricardo; Pablo I. Marino; Mauad, Melina
The first Argentina records of four species of biting and predaceous midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are provided from the Iberá wetlands in Corrientes Province: Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) unica Bystrak and Wirth, Echinohelea blantoni Wirth, Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth and Ratanaworabhan and Paryphoconusgrandis Macfie. This is the first record of the predaceous midge genus, Echinohelea Macfie, from Argentina. © 2012 Check List and Authors.
Full Text Available The episodic nature of natural selection and the accumulation of extreme sequence divergence in venom-encoding genes over long periods of evolutionary time can obscure the signature of positive Darwinian selection. Recognition of the true biocomplexity is further hampered by the limited taxon selection, with easy to obtain or medically important species typically being the subject of intense venom research, relative to the actual taxonomical diversity in nature. This holds true for scorpions, which are one of the most ancient terrestrial venomous animal lineages. The family Buthidae that includes all the medically significant species has been intensely investigated around the globe, while almost completely ignoring the remaining non-buthid families. Australian scorpion lineages, for instance, have been completely neglected, with only a single scorpion species (Urodacus yaschenkoi having its venom transcriptome sequenced. Hence, the lack of venom composition and toxin sequence information from an entire continent’s worth of scorpions has impeded our understanding of the molecular evolution of scorpion venom. The molecular origin, phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary histories of most scorpion toxin scaffolds remain enigmatic. In this study, we have sequenced venom gland transcriptomes of a wide taxonomical diversity of scorpions from Australia, including buthid and non-buthid representatives. Using state-of-art molecular evolutionary analyses, we show that a majority of CSα/β toxin scaffolds have experienced episodic influence of positive selection, while most non-CSα/β linear toxins evolve under the extreme influence of negative selection. For the first time, we have unraveled the molecular origin of the major scorpion toxin scaffolds, such as scorpion venom single von Willebrand factor C-domain peptides (SV-SVC, inhibitor cystine knot (ICK, disulphide-directed beta-hairpin (DDH, bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPP, linear non
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158584.html Heat Beats Cold for Treating Jellyfish Stings Evidence favors hot water or hot packs to ease pain ... 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- If you're unlucky enough to suffer a jellyfish sting, new research says that heat is better than cold for easing the pain. ...
de Medeiros, Carlos R; Hess, Priscila L; Nicoleti, Alessandra F; Sueiro, Leticia R; Duarte, Marcelo R; de Almeida-Santos, Selma M; França, Francisco O S
We retrospectively analyzed 297 proven cases of Philodryas patagoniensis bites admitted to Hospital Vital Brazil (HVB), Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, between 1959 and 2008. Only cases in which the causative animal was brought and identified were included. Part of the snakes brought by the patients was still preserved in the collection maintained by the Laboratory of Herpetology. Of the 297 cases, in 199 it was possible to describe the gender of the snake, and seventy three (61.3%) of them were female. The length of snakes (snout-vent length) ranged from 160 to 1080 mm. In 117 snakes their state of preservation enabled the dissection and examination of their stomach contents. The stomach was empty in 106 snakes (89.1%). Most bites occurred in the seasons of spring and summer (n = 196, 66.0%) and during warmer periods of the day. The mean age of the victims was 24.1 +/- 15.1 years old and 206 (69.4%) patients were men. Around 92% of the patients sought medical care within 6 h after the bite. Both lower (n = 188, 63.3%) and upper limbs (n = 102, 34.3%) were most frequently bitten, especially the feet and hands (n = 205, 69.0%). The local clinical manifestations were pain (n = 151, 50.8%), transitory bleeding (n = 106, 35.7%), erythema (n = 47, 15.8%) and edema (n = 39, 13.1%). Ecchymosis was not observed. Only 7 (2.4%) patients reported systemic symptoms characterized by mild dizziness and 88 patients (29.6%) showed no evidence of envenoming. The whole blood clotting time was performed in 76 (25.6%) patients on admission and all of them had coagulable blood. Supportive treatment was offered to only 13.4% of patients, namely administration of antihistamines (n = 19, 6.4%) and analgesics (n = 12, 4.1%). Eight patients (2.7%) were mistreated with Bothrops antivenom before their admission to HVB. No sequels or relevant complications were observed in patients, and the prognostic was benign. Therefore, although P. patagoniensis accidents can cause mild local
Punam A. Gosavi
Conclusions: Our study highlights various aspect of snake bite cases and tries to find out ways to improve quality of life of patients, decrease mortality and morbidity and decrease economic burden on society. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 298-302
Luraschi, Julien; Schimmel, Martin; Bernard, Jean-Pierre; Gallucci, German O; Belser, Urs Christophe; Muller, Frauke
The aim of this study was to compare tactile sensitivity and maximum voluntary bite force (MBF) of edentulous patients with implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (IFDP/IFDPs) to those wearing complete dentures (CG-CC) and fully dentate subjects (CG-DD).
Sonoda, Lilia Thays; Fels, Michaela; Oczak, Maciej; Vranken, Erik; Ismayilova, Gunel; Guarino, Marcella; Viazzi, Stefano; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg
One of the largest animal welfare problems in modern pig production is tail biting. This abnormal behaviour compromises the well-being of the animals, can seriously impair animal health and can cause considerable economic losses. Tail biting has a multifactorial origin and occurs mainly in fattening pigs. High stocking densities, poor environment and bad air quality are seen as important factors. However, it is presumed that a plurality of internal and external motivators in intensive pig production can trigger this behaviour which is not reported in sounders of wild boars. The aim of this review is to summarize the causes and the effects of tail biting in pigs and present management strategies that are likely to reduce its incidence. In particular, management strategies by applying Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) technologies to monitor and control the behaviour of the pigs may be suitable to detect the outbreaks of tail biting at an early stage so that counter measures can be taken in time. PMID:23540192
Loetti, Verónica; Burroni, Nora; Vezzani, Darío
Seasonal and daily activity patterns of human-biting mosquitoes were studied in the lower delta of the Paraná River from March 2003 to February 2004. Monthly captures at four daytime intervals using human volunteers collected 1,289 mosquitoes belonging to 14 species and six genera, with the most frequently captured being Ochlerotatus crinifer (49%), Psorophoraferox (36%), Ochlerotatus serratus (5%), and Isostomyia paranensis (3%). Oc. crinifer was collected during the four seasons and showed higher values in Summer and Autumn. Ps. ferox and Oc. serratus were not present in Winter and the highest values were recorded in Summer. Monthly captures of Ps. ferox and Oc. serratus were positively associated with temperature. With regard to daily activity patterns, Oc. crinifer, Oc. serratus, and Ps. ferox were captured during the four collection intervals with nocturnal captures concentrated during the warm months. The daily activity patterns of these species changed throughout the seasons. PMID:18260528
Davis, J R; Wasserman, S S; Trpis, M
To determine the influence of meterological factors on the diurnal biting cycle of Simulium yahense Vajime & Dunbar (a member of the Simulium damnosum Theoblad complex), we captured host-seeking females as they landed on the exposed lower legs of humans in the Harbel area of Liberia. Biting activity was greatest during the morning hours and was characterized by a unimodal harmonic curve. Although meteorological conditions had no decisive influence on the unimodal pattern of diurnal biting activity, hourly variation in the number of S. yahense captured at human bait was affected by meterological factors (i.e., the diurnal pattern of S. yahense biting activity is regulated by an internal clock, but the number of bits during any given hour is in response to meterological conditions). The transmission of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) was highest during the morning hours when high transmission potentials were in phase with peak human activity and served to maintain the hyperendemicity of onchocerciasis in the Harbel area. PMID:8189413
Xu, Guang; Mather, Thomas N; Hollingsworth, Craig S; Rich, Stephen M
A passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006-2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the University of Massachusetts for PCR testing. The vast majority of these ticks were Ixodes scapularis from Massachusetts (N = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. Two TaqMan duplex qPCR assays were developed to test I. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. I. scapularis submissions were concentrated from Cape Cod, the eastern half of the state outside of the Boston metropolitan area, parts of Franklin and Hampshire counties along the Quabbin Reservoir watershed, and southwestern Berkshire county. Differences in seasonal activity pattern were observed for different developmental stages of I. scapularis. The largest proportion of tick bite victims were age 9 years and under. Nymphal ticks were found more often on lower extremities of their hosts, while more adult ticks were found on the head. Overall infection rate of B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, and B. microti in human-biting ticks was 29.6%, 4.6%, and 1.8%, respectively. B. burgdorferi-infected ticks were widely distributed, but A. phagocytophilum- and B. microti-infected I. scapularis were found mainly in the eastern half of the state. We found that 1.8%, 1.0%, and 0.4% of ticks were coinfected by B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi and B. microti, and A. phagocytophilum and B. microti, respectively, and 0.3% of ticks had triple coinfection. PMID:27248292
Katada, Hidenori; Sueishi, Kenji
This case involved a 30-year-old woman who visited our hospital with the main complaint of protrusion of the maxillary incisors and upper and lower lips. She had difficulty closing her lips, and a chin button was observed when the lips were closed. The skeletal pattern showed maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion, and the mandible showed severe high angle. Labial inclination of both the maxillary and mandibular incisors was found, as well as crowding. In addition, the maxillary left second molar showed buccal displacement, and scissor bite was evident in the left second molar region. The bilateral molar relationship was cusp-to-cusp class II malocclusion. Angle class II maxillary protrusion accompanied by crowding and left second molar scissor bite was diagnosed. Surgical orthodontic treatment was judged as the best approach to treat the jaw deformities. However, in line with the wishes of the patient, treatment was undertaken using implant anchors instead. Straight-wire brackets with a 0.022-inch slot were fitted. A lingual arch was placed in the mandible and plate-type implant anchors in the first molar region of the maxilla. Almost no change was observed in skeletal pattern as no surgery was performed. The maxillary incisors moved back 10 mm, however, and the mandibular incisors showed an improvement of 4 mm from L1 to APo. The upper and lower lips consequently moved back 7 mm with respect to the E-line. Active treatment required 3 years and 6 months. Esthetic and functional improvements were achieved. PMID:26657523
Marcio Costa Sobral
Full Text Available Class III malocclusion is characterized by anterior posterior dental disharmony, either with or without skeletal discrepancies. Facial esthetics may be compromised to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the magnitude of the discrepancy, and is one of the main factors motivating individuals to seek orthodontic treatment. In adult patients, therapy may be performed by means of dental compensation, in simpler cases, or in more severe situations, by means of association between Orthodontics and Orthognathic Surgery. The present article is a clinical case report of a patient with a vertical facial pattern, Angle Class III malocclusion, with open bite and important facial asymmetry. The patient was treated in a compensatory manner with extractions, using extra-oral appliances on the mandibular arch with high pull, applying the principles of the Tweed-Merrifield technique. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requisites for becoming a BBO Diplomate.
Peeters, Liesbet M; Janssens, Steven; Brebels, Machteld; Buys, Nadine
Genetic factors involved in susceptibility to insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in Belgian Warmblood horses (BWP) were investigated. Data relating to 3409 horses were collected using a questionnaire, administered to owners during sport competitions, BWP breeding days, breeder visits and after phone calls. Horses were classified as IBH-affected or unaffected, based on two 'disease classifiers': a lifetime record, based on owner information (life_status) and another based on whether or not the horse was showing clinical signs at the time of questioning (clin_status). IBH prevalence was 10% based on life_status, and 6.2% based on clin_status. The heritabilities estimated using threshold animal models varied from 0.65 to 0.78 on the underlying scale (0.18-0.26 on the observed scale). These research findings indicate that susceptibility to IBH is a heritable trait in BWP. PMID:26586216
Huston, J P; van den Brink, J; Komorowski, M; Huq, Y; Topic, B
The withholding of expected rewards results in extinction of behavior and, hypothetically, to depression-like symptoms. In a test of this hypothesis, we examined the effects of extinction of food-reinforced lever-pressing on collateral behaviors that might be indices of depression. Operant extinction is known to be aversive to the organism and results in avoidance behavior. We hypothesized that avoidance of, or withdrawal from, the former source of reward may serve as a marker for "despair." Adult male Wistar rats (n=6-7 animals per group) were exposed to a Skinner box attached to a second compartment of the same size, providing opportunity for the animals to leave the operant chamber and to enter the "withdrawal" compartment. The animals spent a portion of the time during the extinction trials in this second chamber. To assess the predictive validity of this behavior as a potential marker of "despair," we tested the effects of chronic administration of two common antidepressant drugs on this measure. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (20 mg/kg) as well as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (20 mg/kg) reduced the number of entries and time spent in the withdrawal compartment. We propose that entries into and time spent in the withdrawal compartment may operationalize "avoidance," a core symptom of major depression. Rearing as well as biting behaviors during the extinction trials were also attenuated by the antidepressant treatment. These results lend support to the hypothesis that extinction of positively reinforced operants evokes behaviors that reflect elements of "despair/depression" because these behaviors are modulated by antidepressant treatment. The avoidance of the operant chamber as a consequence of extinction, together with rearing and biting behaviors, may serve as useful measures for the testing of antidepressant treatments. PMID:22410342
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159484.html Zika's Delivery Via Mosquito Bite May Boost Its Effect ... The inflammation caused by a mosquito bite helps Zika and other viruses spread through the body more ...
This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips. Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/14/2012.
Masoumeh Moallem; Vishtasb Nikmanesh; Setareh Asgarzadeh
Scorpion bites are common in south-east Iran, especially in the rural areas. Most scorpion bite cases are benign and cause no systemic side effects. Local erythema and edema, and mild allergic effects are the most common complications of scorpion bites. Yet, rarely dangerous outcomes such as myocarditis, cardiac failure, pulmonary edema, and shock have been reported. The present case report, introduces a case of scorpion bite in a 6 year old child, presented as dyspnea and pulmonary edema.
Taylor, Nina R; Main, David C J; Mendl, Mike; Edwards, Sandra A
Tail-biting data from different studies are difficult to compare because a range of definitions of tail-biting behaviour and tail-biting lesions are used. Although records from abattoirs provide a large database, their usefulness is restricted as tail-biting is under-recorded and environmental and husbandry factors associated with the behaviour are unlikely to be known. Both farm and abattoir data provide no information on the number of pigs biting, only those bitten. Studying individual animals that tail-bite should give a better understanding of the pig's motivation to tail-bite and which of the components of its environment should be adjusted to improve welfare. This review examines the existing literature on tail-biting in pigs but considered from a new perspective using three different descriptive behavioural types, namely, 'two-stage', 'sudden-forceful' and 'obsessive', each of which may have different motivational bases. The article also considers the different environmental and husbandry factors which may affect each type of behaviour and discusses why this is such a complicated field and why it is often difficult to draw conclusions from available research. PMID:19804997
Full Text Available Introduction: Rabies is an infectious central nervous system disease that infects all mammals and man. This study aimed at investigating the epidemiology of animal bites in Shahroud. Methods: In this deh1ive study all the data related to animal bite cases in shahroud in 2008-2009 were collected based on the data registration notebooks. Results: A total of 588 cases of animal bite were reported in 2008-2009 the majority of whom (82.1% were male. Of this total 35.7% were urban and 64.3% were rural. Just 2 of the cases were foreigners. The incidence rate of animal bite in the city was 159 (27% compared to 429 cases (73% in villages. Dogs and cats accounted for about 79.1% and 12.6% of the cases respectively. 12 cases were also wolf fox and Reynard bites. All cases have completed vaccination. In 82.3% of animal bites the biter was alive after 10 days and in 2% biters were dead and in 15.6% the biter reported invisible after 10 days. The incidence rate of animal bites in Shahroud was 246 in one hundred thousand. Conclusions: Animal bites are one of the most important problems of public health. Educational activities along with the promotion of out- organizing cooperation can play a significant role in controlling this problem
Young children bite each other frequently in child care settings, but the bites rarely break the skin and the risk of infection is minimal. Nevertheless, parents and child care personnel may be concerned about infection, especially with blood-borne viruses. The present document reviews the literature concerning infections following bites in child care settings, and provides recommendations for prevention and management of such incidents.
McGreevy, P D; Nicol, C J
Crib-biting is a common oral stereotype. Because of perceived deleterious effects on the health and appearance of subjects the prevention of crib-biting is regularly attempted. The resourcefulness of horses in satisfying their motivation to perform this behaviour often frustrates owners' efforts at prevention. This paper reviews the efficacy and observable consequences of attempting to prevent crib-biting by a variety of methods. These include attempts to prevent the grasping of objects, to interfere with air-engulfing and to introduce punishment for grasping and neck-flexion. Other approaches include the use of surgery, acupuncture, pharmaceuticals, operant feeding and environmental enrichment. A remedy that is effective for every crib-biter remains elusive. We conclude that, rather than concentrating on remedial prevention, further research should be directed at establishing why horses crib-bite and how the emergence of crib-biting can be avoided. PMID:10485002
Full Text Available Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanus vaccine should be indicated when the patient has not full vaccination scheme and rabies vaccine in cases of suspected or confirmed infected animals.
Ursinus, W.W. (2014). A tale too long for a tail too short? Identification of characteristics in pigs related to tail biting and other oral manipulations directed at conspecifics. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Tail biting in pigs, i.e. the chewing on and biting in tails of conspecifics, is a multifactorial problem leading to impaired pig welfare and health and economic losses in pig farming. In many countries tail docking is used as a preventive measure, but there is inc...
Jung, Min-Ho; Baik, Un-Bong; Ahn, Sug-Joon
The treatment of adult patients with severe anterior open bite frequently requires orthognathic surgery, especially when the chin is retruded severely. If a patient has multiple missing posterior teeth, it is difficult to control the occlusal plane because it is challenging to obtain anchorage during orthodontic treatment. We report on a 25-year-old woman who had a skeletal Class II malocclusion, severe anterior open bite, vertical maxillary asymmetry, and severe dental caries on her molars. There was no posterior occlusal contact between the maxillary and mandibular molars since 5 of her molars had to be extracted because of severe caries. Lingual fixed appliances and double jaw surgery were performed to treat her skeletal and dental problems, and dental implants helped restore her masticatory function. Pretreatment, posttreatment, and retention photographs demonstrate effective, esthetically pleasing, and stable treatment results. PMID:23540629
... result from abnormally increased inflammation are known as autoinflammatory diseases. The signs and symptoms of SAVI begin ... management of SAVI: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center: Autoinflammatory Disease Center Eurofever Project Genetic Testing Registry: Sting- ...
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...
Dallas, J F; Cruickshank, R H; Linton, Y-M; Nolan, D V; Patakakis, M; Braverman, Y; Capela, R; Capela, M; Pena, I; Meiswinkel, R; Ortega, M D; Baylis, M; Mellor, P S; Mordue Luntz, A J
The biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the most important Old World vector of African horse sickness (AHS) and bluetongue (BT). Recent increases of BT incidence in the Mediterranean basin are attributed to its increased abundance and distribution. The phylogenetic status and genetic structure of C. imicola in this region are unknown, despite the importance of these aspects for BT epidemiology in the North American BT vector. In this study, analyses of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) sequences were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 50 C. imicola from Portugal, Rhodes, Israel, and South Africa and four other species of the Imicola Complex from southern Africa, and to estimate levels of matrilineal subdivision in C. imicola between Portugal and Israel. Eleven haplotypes were detected in C. imicola, and these formed one well-supported clade in maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees implying that the C. imicola samples comprise one phylogenetic species. Molecular variance was distributed mainly between Portugal and Israel, with no haplotypes shared between these countries, suggesting that female-mediated gene flow at this scale has been either limited or non-existent. Our results provide phylogenetic evidence that C. imicola in the study areas are potentially competent AHS and BT vectors. The geographical structure of the C. imicola COI haplotypes was concordant with that of BT virus serotypes in recent BT outbreaks in the Mediterranean basin, suggesting that population subdivision in its vector can impose spatial constraints on BT virus transmission. PMID:14651651
DMXAA Causes Tumor Site-Specific Vascular Disruption in Murine Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, and like the Endogenous Non-Canonical Cyclic Dinucleotide STING Agonist, 2′3′-cGAMP, Induces M2 Macrophage Repolarization
Downey, Charlene M.; Aghaei, Mehrnoosh; Schwendener, Reto A.; Jirik, Frank R.
The vascular disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a murine agonist of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING), appears to target the tumor vasculature primarily as a result of stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production from tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Since there were relatively few reports of DMXAA effects in genetically-engineered mutant mice (GEMM), and models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in particular, we examined both the effectiveness...
... Images Lyme disease, erythema migrans Lyme disease organism, Borrelia burgdorferi Deer ticks Ticks Tick, deer engorged on the skin Lyme disease - Borrelia burgdorferi organism Tick, deer - adult female Deer and dog ...
... can be done safely. Do not waste time hunting for the snake, and do not risk another ... Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 139. Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...
Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle
More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389
Hewson, T. D.
On 3rd January 2012 a small but remarkably vicious cyclonic windstorm left a swathe of damage about 50km wide as it moved east across the most densely populated parts of central Scotland. Eyewitness reports referred to a roaring sound being heard a little while before the damaging gusts arrived. Preliminary estimates of maximum gust return periods suggest values of around 20 years. The cause of these damaging gusts is believed to be the "sting jet" - a very rare, transient, descending, pulsing, stream of air that can emanate from the tip portion of the cloud head of a rapidly deepening cyclone. This presentation will first provide an overview of the synoptic setting and evolution surrounding the storm, and will then focus on mesoscale structure, using model and imagery products, and 1-minute resolution gust observations. Rapid scan imagery, together with the surface data, reveals the location of the sting jet, and also suggests that evaporation was playing a role in its formation, consistent with the mechanism hypothesised by previous authors. Output from high resolution operational models, run at the Met Office at 1.5km and 4km resolution, will be illustrated. These runs seem to depict the sting jet phenomena very well, showing it as a smaller, more intense and much shorter-lived feature than the cold conveyor belt flow that replaced it as the cyclone approached maturity on arriving over the North Sea. However the cyclone, and thus the sting jet, were also misplaced slightly in the model forecasts, into areas with low population density. Such predictability issues mean that the sting jet presents a major challenge for both the forecaster and for the response community; these issues will also be discussed. Studies such as this can provide useful input into projects addressing the 'windstorm climate change' problem. The IMILAST project (Intercomparison of MId-LAtitude STorm diagnostics) falls into this category. Within this project storm tracking algorithms have
Information on scorpion stings is available for many parts of SaudiArabia, but not for the Al-Jouf Province. We reviewed and analyzed 1449 casesof scorpion stings that presented to the emergency department of thehospitals and medical centers in Al-Jouf Province during a 2-year period(2005-2006). The majority of patients (92.7%) manifested class I envenomationwith local pain at the sting site as the primary complaint. Systemic toxicitywas noticed in 7.3% of cases but no deaths were reported. Scorpion stingswere recorded throughout the year with the highest seasonal incidence in thesummer (64.3%) and the lowest during the winter (10.6%). The highest monthlyincidence was in June (21.5%) and the lowest in December (1.5%). Most of thepatients were male (77.3%) and the age of 44.2% of victims ranged between 15to 30 years. Diurnal stings exceeded the nocturnal ones with a ratio of 3:2and most of the stings were located mainly on the exposed limbs (88.6%),especially the lower limbs (51.7%). Leiurus quinquestriatus and Androctouscrassicauda were incriminated in most recorded cases. Our findings indicatethat scorpion stings are common in Al-Jouf Province, especially during thesummer. The overall threat to human health was found to be low. (author)
Viswanathan, Stalin; Prabhu, Chaitanya
Scorpion envenomations are ubiquitous, but nephropathy is a rare manifestation, reported mainly from the Middle East and North Africa. Rapid venom redistribution from blood, delayed excretion from the kidneys, direct toxicity of venom enzymes, cytokine release and afferent arteriolar constriction have been seen in experimental animals. Haemoglobinuria, acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and haemolytic–uraemic syndrome have been documented in human victims of scorpion envenomation....
Ohba, Seigo; Nakatani, Yuya; Kawasaki, Takako; Tajima, Nobutaka; Tobita, Takayoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Sawase, Takashi; Asahina, Izumi
Increasing numbers of older patients are seeking orthognathic surgery to treat jaw deformity. However, orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment is difficult in cases without occlusal vertical stop. A 55-year-old man presented with Class III malocclusion and mandibular protrusion including esthetic problems and posterior bite collapse. He underwent dental implant treatment to reconstruct an occlusal vertical stop before orthognathic surgery. His occlusal function and esthetic problems improved after surgery, and his skeletal and occlusal stability has been maintained for 6 years. Dental implant placement at appropriate positions could help to determine the position of the proximal segment at orthognathic surgery and could shorten the time required to restore esthetic and occlusal function. This case demonstrates how skeletal and dental stability can be maintained long after surgery in a patient with jaw deformity and posterior bite collapse. PMID:26035376
O'Hana, Sarah; Filipe , Cristina; Hoogeboom, Peter; Astfalck, Jivan; Lignel , Benjamin; Manilla, Jorge; Melland, Nanna; Karmona , Kepa; Kivarkis, Anya; Schliwinski, Marianne; Speckner , Bettina; Wolski , Arek
A new exhibition of contemporary jewellery by 12 up-and-coming international jewellery artists opens at Manchester Art Gallery this July. Curated by Manchester-based jewellery artist Jo Bloxham, the exhibition features new conceptual works of jewellery by artists from as far afield as the USA and Mexico. All the works on display have been inspired by Pre-Raphaelite paintings from Manchester Art Gallery’s prestigious collections. The paintings have all been selected by the exhibition cura...
Liebert, Mina L; Patsch, Amy J; Smith, Jennifer Howard; Behrens, Timothy K; Charles, Tami; Bailey, Taryn R
The Better Bites program, a hospital cafeteria nutrition intervention strategy, was developed by combining evidence-based practices with hospital-specific formative research, including key informant interviews, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants, hospital employee surveys, and nutrition services staff surveys. The primary program components are pricing manipulation and marketing to promote delicious, affordable, and healthy foods to hospital employees and other cafeteria patrons. The pricing manipulation component includes decreasing the price of the healthy items and increasing the price of the unhealthy items using a 35% price differential. Point-of-purchase marketing highlights taste, cost, and health benefits of the healthy items. The program aims to increase purchases of healthy foods and decrease purchases of unhealthy foods, while maintaining revenue neutrality. This article addresses the formative research, planning, and development that informed the Better Bites program. PMID:23182861