Sample records for bite plate-induced occlusal

  1. Occlusal adjustment using the bite plate-induced occlusal position as a reference position for temporomandibular disorders: a pilot study (United States)


    Background Many researchers have not accepted the use of occlusal treatments for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). However, a recent report described a discrepancy between the habitual occlusal position (HOP) and the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP) and discussed the relation of this discrepancy to TMD. Therefore, the treatment outcome of evidence-based occlusal adjustments using the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP) as a muscular reference position should be evaluated in patients with TMD. Methods The BPOP was defined as the position at which a patient voluntarily closed his or her mouth while sitting in an upright posture after wearing an anterior flat bite plate for 5 minutes and then removing the plate. Twenty-one patients with TMDs underwent occlusal adjustment using the BPOP. The occlusal adjustments were continued until bilateral occlusal contacts were obtained in the BPOP. The treatment outcomes were evaluated using the subjective dysfunction index (SDI) and the Helkimo Clinical Dysfunction Index (CDI) before and after the occlusal adjustments; the changes in these two indices between the first examination and a one-year follow-up examination were then analyzed. In addition, the difference between the HOP and the BPOP was three-dimensionally measured before and after the treatment. Results The percentage of symptom-free patients after treatment was 86% according to the SDI and 76% according to the CDI. The changes in the two indices after treatment were significant (p 0.1). Conclusion Although the results of the present study should be confirmed in other studies, a randomized clinical trial examining occlusal adjustments using the BPOP as a reference position appears to be warranted. PMID:20346167

  2. Occlusal adjustment using the bite plate-induced occlusal position as a reference position for temporomandibular disorders: a pilot study

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    Chiwata Ichiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many researchers have not accepted the use of occlusal treatments for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs. However, a recent report described a discrepancy between the habitual occlusal position (HOP and the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP and discussed the relation of this discrepancy to TMD. Therefore, the treatment outcome of evidence-based occlusal adjustments using the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP as a muscular reference position should be evaluated in patients with TMD. Methods The BPOP was defined as the position at which a patient voluntarily closed his or her mouth while sitting in an upright posture after wearing an anterior flat bite plate for 5 minutes and then removing the plate. Twenty-one patients with TMDs underwent occlusal adjustment using the BPOP. The occlusal adjustments were continued until bilateral occlusal contacts were obtained in the BPOP. The treatment outcomes were evaluated using the subjective dysfunction index (SDI and the Helkimo Clinical Dysfunction Index (CDI before and after the occlusal adjustments; the changes in these two indices between the first examination and a one-year follow-up examination were then analyzed. In addition, the difference between the HOP and the BPOP was three-dimensionally measured before and after the treatment. Results The percentage of symptom-free patients after treatment was 86% according to the SDI and 76% according to the CDI. The changes in the two indices after treatment were significant (p 0.1. Conclusion Although the results of the present study should be confirmed in other studies, a randomized clinical trial examining occlusal adjustments using the BPOP as a reference position appears to be warranted.

  3. Evaluation of the occlusal contact of crowns fabricated with the bite impression method. (United States)

    Makino, Sachi; Okada, Daizo; Shin, Chiharu; Ogura, Reiko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Miura, Hiroyuki


    In prosthodontic treatment, reconstruction of a proper occlusal contact relationship is very important as well as reconstruction of a proper interproximal relationship and marginal fitness. Unfortunately, occlusal relationships are sometimes lost in the process of occlusal adjustment of crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal contacts of single crown fabricated by two different types of impression techniques. Nine subjects, whose molars required treatment with crown restoration, were enrolled in this study. Full cast crowns were fabricated using two types of impression techniques: the conventional impression method (CIM) and the bite impression method (BIM). The occlusal contacts of crowns were precisely evaluated at the following stages: after occlusal adjustment on the articulator (Step 0), before occlusal adjustment in the mouth (Step 1), after occlusal adjustment at the intercuspal position (Step 2), and after occlusal adjustment during lateral and protrusive excursions (Step 3). The number of occlusal contacts of the crowns on the functional cusps fabricated with BIM was significantly greater than that with CIM after occlusal adjustment. For this reason, the crowns fabricated with BIM might have a more functionally desirable occlusal surface compared to the crowns fabricated with CIM.

  4. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

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    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes


    Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ID: NCT01286363.

  5. Evaluation of Treatments in Patients with Nocturnal Bruxism on Bite Force and Occlusal Contact Area: A preliminary report (United States)

    Alkan, Alper; Bulut, Emel; Arici, Selim; Sato, Shuichi


    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of occlusal splint therapy and tricyclic antidepressants on the bite force and occlusal contact area of patients presenting with nocturnal bruxism. Methods A maxillary full-coverage hard acrylic splint was applied to the five patients (Group S). Five patients took a tricyclic antidepressant (Amitriptiline HCl, 10 mg/day) for 3 months (Group A) and a control group (Group C) comprising of 10 dental school students with normal occlusion was also formed. Using a Dental Prescale (Fuji Photo Film Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and an Occluzer computer (FPD703, Fuji Photo Film Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) the bite force and occlusal contact area were measured. The evaluations were made just before the treatment and at 1 month and 3 months of treatment. Results The bite force and occlusal contact area before treatment in study Groups A and S were found to be higher than those in the Group C. Furthermore, the bite force and occlusal contact area increased during treatment in Group A whilst they decreased in Group S. Bite force and occlusal contact area in Group S were lower at both 1 month and 3 months of treatment than in Group C. Conclusions It could be tentatively suggested that occlusal splint therapy may be more effective than tricyclic antidepressant in the treatment of bruxism. Further investigations of this measurement method involving larger study populations and a longer follow-up period are needed. PMID:19212534

  6. Maximum occlusal bite forces in Jordanian individuals with different dentofacial vertical skeletal patterns. (United States)

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Al Zo'ubi, Ibraheem A; Al Rousan, Mohammed E; Hammad, Mohammad M


    This study was carried out to record maximum occlusal bite force (MBF) in Jordanian students with three different facial types: short, average, and long, and to determine the effect of gender, type of functional occlusion, and the presence of premature contacts and parafunctional habits on MBF. Sixty dental students (30 males and 30 females) were divided into three equal groups based on the maxillomandibular planes angle (Max/Mand) and degree of anterior overlap: included short-faced students with a deep anterior overbite (Max/Mand or = 32 degrees). Their age ranged between 20 and 23 years. MBF was measured using a hydraulic occlusal force gauge. Occlusal factors, including the type of functional occlusion, the presence of premature contacts, and parafunctional habits, were recorded. Differences between groups were assessed using a t-test and analysis of variance. The average MBF in Jordanian adults was 573.42 +/- 140.18 N. Those with a short face had the highest MBF (679.60 +/- 117.46 N) while the long-face types had the lowest MBF (453.57 +/- 98.30 N; P < 0.001). The average MBF was 599.02 +/- 145.91 in males and 546.97 +/- 131.18 in females (P = 0.149). No gender differences were observed. The average MBF was higher in patients with premature contacts than those without, while it did not differ in subjects with different types of functional occlusion or in the presence of parafunctional habits.

  7. Comparative study to evaluate the accuracy of polyether occlusal bite registration material and occlusal registration wax as a guide for occlusal reduction during tooth preparation

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    Niranjan Joshi


    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the reliability of the most commonly used occlusal registration wax that with polyether bite registration material as a guide for occlusal reduction required during tooth preparations. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this study, 25 abutment teeth requiring tooth preparation for fixed prosthesis were selected and tooth preparations carried out. Modeling wax strips of specific dimensions were placed onto the cast of prepared tooth, which was mounted on maximum intercuspation on the articulator and the articulator was closed. The thickness of the wax registration was measured at three zones namely two functional cusps and central fossa. Similar measurements were made using the polyether bite registration material and prosthesis at the same zones. The data was tabulated and was subjected to statistical analysis using anova test and Tukey honestly significant difference test. Results: The differences in thickness between wax record and prosthesis by 0.1346 mm, whereas the difference between polyether and prosthesis was 0.02 mm with a P value of 0.042, which is statistically significant. This means that the wax record was 8.25% larger than the prosthesis while polyether was just 1.27% larger than the prosthesis. Conclusion: The clinical significance of the above analysis is that Ramitec polyether bite registration material is most suitable material when compared with commonly used modeling wax during the tooth preparation.

  8. Novel Crossing System for Chronic Total Occlusion Recanalization: First-in-Man Experience With the SoundBite Crossing System. (United States)

    Benko, Andrew; Bérubé, Simon; Buller, Christopher E; Dion, Steven; Riel, Louis-Philippe; Brouillette, Martin; Généreux, Philippe


    Chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions are frequent in patients with peripheral and coronary artery disease, and are associated with a higher risk of adverse events, including mortality, decreased quality of life, and increased health-care costs. Percutaneous intervention of CTO lesions has been associated with a lower procedural success rate, and current dedicated CTO devices may be of limited use for non-CTO experts, and associated with increased intraprocedural complication rates. The SoundBite Crossing System (SoundBite Medical Solutions, Inc) is a newly-developed device using shockwaves (short-duration, high-amplitude pressure pulses) delivered to the tip of guidewire to facilitate penetration of the proximal cap and crossing of the occlusion. The current report describes the first-in-man use of the SoundBite Crossing System in the recanalization of two occluded lower-limb arteries.

  9. Intraoral conversion of occlusal force to electricity and magnetism by biting of piezoelectric elements. (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Ogura, Hideo; Terada, Kazuto


    Very weak electrical, magnetic and ultrasound signal stimulations are known to promote the formation, metabolism, restoration and stability of bone and surrounding tissues after treatment and operations. We have therefore investigated the possibility of intraoral generation of electricity and magnetism by occlusal force in an in vitro study. Biting bimorph piezoelectric elements with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) using dental models generated appropriate magnetism for bone formation, i. e. 0.5-0.6 gauss, and lower electric currents and higher voltages, i. e. 2.0-6.0 μA at 10-22 V (appropriate levels are 30 μA and 1.25 V), as observed by a universal testing machine. The electric currents and voltages could be changed using amplifier circuits. These results show that intraoral generation of electricity and magnetism is possible and could provide post-operative stabilization and activation of treated areas of bone and the surrounding tissues directly and/or indirectly by electrical, magnetic and ultrasound stimulation, which could accelerate healing.

  10. Assessment of type of bite and vertical dimension of occlusion in children and adolescents with temporomandibular disorder. (United States)

    Marangoni, Analúcia Ferreira; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Alfaya, Thays Almeida; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil


    The aim of the present study was determine the type of bite and abnormalities in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) among children and adolescents with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The Helkimo index was employed for the diagnostic investigation of TMD. A clinical examination was performed for the determination of occlusion. The VDO was measured using a digital caliper. Fisher's exact text was used to determine associations between type of bite, gender and TMD. The Student's t-test was used to compare age and VDO by gender. The significance level was set to 5% or corresponding p-value. Children and adolescents with anterior open bite were 1.2-fold more likely to develop TMD in comparison to those without any type of malocclusion. The same was found for those with posterior crossbite and mixed malocclusion. A statistically significant association was found between the VDO and age in both genders. TMD affected 68.85% of the sample. No correlation was found between malocclusion, VDO and TMD in the sample. The present findings suggest that individuals with malocclusion are more prone to TMD. Therefore, it is important to evaluate all variables capable of influencing the harmony of the stomatognathic system for an effective diagnosis of TMD and malocclusion.

  11. A preliminary study to find out maximum occlusal bite force in Indian individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Veena; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Pillai, Rajath;


    PURPOSE: This preliminary hospital based study was designed to measure the mean maximum bite force (MMBF) in healthy Indian individuals. An attempt was made to correlate MMBF with body mass index (BMI) and some of the anthropometric features. METHODOLOGY: A total of 358 healthy subjects in the age...... in subjects having concave facial profile when compared to convex (P = 0.045) and straight (P = 0.039) facial profile. BMI and arch form showed no significant relationship with MMBF. CONCLUSION: The MMBF is found to be affected by gender and some of the anthropometric features like facial form and palatal...

  12. Maximal bite force and its association with signs and symptoms of TMD, occlusion, and body mass index in a cohort of young adults. (United States)

    Ahlberg, Jari P; Kovero, Outi A; Hurmerinta, Kirsti A; Zepa, Inta; Nissinen, Maunu J; Könönen, Mauno H


    The purpose of this population-based cohort was to measure maximal bite force (MBF) in the molar and incisal regions and to examine whether MBF was associated with TMD, gender, occlusion (in terms of overjet, overbite, and total number of occluding contacts), and body mass index (BMI). MBF in the molar and incisal regions was measured using a calibrated method in 384 (196 males, 188 females) and 357 (181 males, 176 females) subjects, respectively. Two attempts in each region (right molar, left molar, and incisal) were made in random order. The subjects completed a multiple-choice questionnaire including subjective symptoms of TMD and were subsequently clinically examined. Helkimo's clinical dysfunction index and BMI were calculated. The mean MBF value in the molar region was significantly higher in males (878 N, SD 194) than in females (690 N, SD 175) (p TMD and studied occlusal factors, unlike body mass, associate independently with MBF.

  13. An in vitro comparison of the ability of fibre-optic transillumination, visual inspection and radiographs to detect occlusal caries and evaluate lesion dept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Elias-Boneta, A.R.


    Occlusal caries, diagnosis, fibre-optic transillumination, bite-wing radiograph, visual inspection......Occlusal caries, diagnosis, fibre-optic transillumination, bite-wing radiograph, visual inspection...

  14. Lizard Bites (United States)

    ... Mite Bites Mollusk Stings Puss Moth Caterpillar Stings Scorpion Stings Sea Urchin Stings Snakebites Spider Bites Stingray ... Mite Bites Mollusk Stings Puss Moth Caterpillar Stings Scorpion Stings Sea Urchin Stings Snakebites Spider Bites Stingray ...

  15. Snake bites (United States)

    Bites - snakes ... Snake bites can be deadly if not treated quickly. Because of their smaller body size, children are ... risk for death or serious complications due to snake bites. The right antivenom can save a person's ...

  16. Animal Bites (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  17. Occlusal management for a patient with aural symptoms of unknown etiology: a case report

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    Torii Kengo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the discrepancy between the habitual occlusal position (HOP and the flat bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP (regarded as the muscular physiological reference position has been recently reported to be related to symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs, it still remains unclear whether the occlusal equilibration in the reference position is effective to resolve TMD-related discrepancy and symptoms. Aural symptoms (otalgia, tinnitus, vertigo et cetera have been included under TMD symptoms. Methods To examine the effect of occlusal equilibration for the treatment of TMDs, occlusal equilibration was performed for a patient with aural symptoms (otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo of unknown etiology in the right ear. An occlusal analysis was performed on this patient with dental models mounted on an articulator after relieving painful symptoms by an appliance therapy and a discrepancy was identified (p Results At completion of treatment, the discrepancy was not significant (p > 0.25, and the patient's right condyle had shifted 2.8 mm posteromedially in the horizontal plane, and the left condyle had shifted 1.0 mm laterally in the voluntarily closed position from the previous HOP. The aural symptoms of the patient were resolved, and there has been no recurrence to date after a two-year follow-up period. Conclusion An occlusal analysis should be performed in patients exhibiting TMD symptoms to identify the presence or absence of any discrepancy between the HOP and the BPOP. If a discrepancy exists, occlusal equilibration should be attempted in the reference position.

  18. An in-vitro comparison of visual inspection, bite-wing radiography, and laser fluorescence methods for the diagnosis of occlusal caries

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    Pourhashemi S


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare accuracy and reproducibility of visual inspection (VI, bitewing (BW radiography, and laser fluorescence (LF, DIANOdent methods in the diagnosis of occlusal caries. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 80 extracted permanent premolars that seem to be intact or with primary caries in fissures. Three trained dentist examined the teeth in four stages: VI, BW radiography, LF, and histologic examination. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of all methods were calculated and compared. For the LF method, using ROC curve and counterpart points on it, we determined upper and lower limits and calculated the parameters. Results: The estimated accuracy was 58.9% for VI and 45.1% for BW radiography methods. Kappa coefficient for interexaminer reproducibility was 57% and 34.1% in VI and BW radiography, respectively. Inter- and intraexaminer reproducibility coefficients of LF methods were 78.4% and 83.6%, respectively. The mean intraexaminer reproducibility coefficient in the VI method was 61.2%. Conclusion: Although accuracy and reproducibility of the LF method were higher than those of the VI and BW radiography, it is better to use this method together with other methods to reduce diagnostic faults.

  19. Tick Bites (United States)

    ... that go outdoors, you need to beware of ticks. Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases ... of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted ...

  20. Stork bite (United States)

    ... newborns. A stork bite is due to a stretching (dilation) of certain blood vessels. It may become ... all birthmarks during a routine well-baby exam . Prevention There is no known prevention. Alternative Names Salmon ...

  1. Animal Bites (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  2. Cat and Dog Bites (United States)

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  3. Human bites - self-care (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  4. Effects of bruxism on the maximum bite force

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    Todić Jelena T.


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bruxism is a parafunctional activity of the masticatory system, which is characterized by clenching or grinding of teeth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of bruxism has impact on maximum bite force, with particular reference to the potential impact of gender on bite force values. Methods. This study included two groups of subjects: without and with bruxism. The presence of bruxism in the subjects was registered using a specific clinical questionnaire on bruxism and physical examination. The subjects from both groups were submitted to the procedure of measuring the maximum bite pressure and occlusal contact area using a single-sheet pressure-sensitive films (Fuji Prescale MS and HS Film. Maximal bite force was obtained by multiplying maximal bite pressure and occlusal contact area values. Results. The average values of maximal bite force were significantly higher in the subjects with bruxism compared to those without bruxism (p 0.01. Maximal bite force was significantly higher in the males compared to the females in all segments of the research. Conclusion. The presence of bruxism influences the increase in the maximum bite force as shown in this study. Gender is a significant determinant of bite force. Registration of maximum bite force can be used in diagnosing and analysing pathophysiological events during bruxism.

  5. Dog Bite Emergencies (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  6. Insect Bites and Stings (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  7. Dog bites


    Muñoz Leyva, Felipe; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana


    Introduction: Although no official data exists for Colombia, dog bites are not infrequent consults to the emergency department on a global scale. In the urban or rural setting, it is likely that Colombian emergency department physicians face patients with such consults in their clinical practice. It is imperative that those physicians become familiar with the current national guidelines and protocols for the attention of such patients, since he/she must act pertinently according to the resour...

  8. Occlusal stability. (United States)

    Wiens, Jonathan P; Priebe, Jennifer W


    Occlusion is the foundation for clinical success in fixed, removable, and implant prosthodontic treatment. Understanding those principles is critical when restoring a patient's occlusion. Many philosophies, devices, and theories of occlusion have evolved based on anecdotal clinical observations and applied geometric perceptions. The literature has reported these classic and contemporary occlusal concepts. As evidence-based dentistry emerged, it championed scrutiny of previously held beliefs, resulting in the abandonment of many pragmatic, yet beneficial occlusal procedures. The impetus toward scientific discovery, whereby factual information might be universally applied in dental education and clinical practice, has renewed interest in occlusal studies.

  9. Etiological aspects of anterior open bite

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    Stojanović Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Open bite is a multifactorial phenomenon and no single factor can account for open-bite. Etiology plays an important role in diagnosis. Heredity, unfavorable growth patterns, incorrect jaw postoure, are the characteristics of skeletal open bite. Digit sucking. Depending on where the thumb is placed, a number of different types of dental problems can develop. Malocclusions of the late mixed or permanent dentitions, caused by thumb sucking are not self corrected and orthodontic treatment is necessary for their correction. Lymphatic tissue. In order to produce oral respiration, the mandible is postured inferiorly with the tongue protruded and resting against the oral floor. This postural alteration induces dental and skeletal modifications similar to those caused by thumb sucking. This may cause excessive eruption of the posterior teeth, leading to an increase in the vertical dimension of the face and result in development of anterior open bite. Tongue thrust. Tongue habits cause an anterior open bite or they develop secondarily to thumb sucking. In skeletal open bite the tongue habit acts as a secondary factor which helps to maintain or exacerbate the condition. Many orthodontists have had a discouraging experience of completing dental treatment, with what appeared to be good results, only to discover that the case had relapsed because the patient had a tongue thrust swallowing pattern. Conclusion. Dentoalveolar or habitual open bite is caused by habits, which influence the growth and development of dentoalveolar processes and contribute to occlusal disharmonies. Prior to eruption of adult dentition, open bite related to oral habits is usually not a concern as when the habits stop, because the erupting dentition tends to improve spontaneously. Treatment is usually not necessary until permanent teeth erupt (~6 years old. .

  10. Human bites (image) (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  11. Prevent Bite Wounds (United States)

    ... Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Prevention > Prevent Bite Wounds ... animals or other humans. Consider the following statistics: there are about 4.5 million dog bites reported annually in the United States, along ...

  12. Treatment of an anterior open bite with the multiloop archwire technique. (United States)

    Canavarro, Cristiane; Cosendey, Vera Lúcia; Capelli, Jonas


    This is a treatment report of a patient with an anterior open bite and predominance of vertical growth. Multiloop edgewise archwire (MEAW) mechanics were used and resulted in an efficient bite closure and good occlusion. For retention, a bonded 3-3 retainer was used in the mandible whereas a wraparound retainer was employed in the maxilla.

  13. An appraisal on increasing the occlusal vertical dimension in full occlusal rehabilitation and its outcome. (United States)

    Gopi Chander, N; Venkat, R


    Increasing the occlusal vertical dimension for gaining sufficient restoration space in the management of severely worn dentition is being practiced. This contentious belief has lead to challenging thoughts regarding its effects on the Odonto-stomatognathic system. There are basic uncertainties and existing erroneous thoughts regarding the perception of increasing the occlusal vertical dimension. This manuscript will review the bite raising concepts and its outcome on the stomatognathic system.

  14. An Appraisal on Increasing the Occlusal Vertical Dimension in Full Occlusal Rehabilitation and its Outcome



    Increasing the occlusal vertical dimension for gaining sufficient restoration space in the management of severely worn dentition is being practiced. This contentious belief has lead to challenging thoughts regarding its effects on the Odonto-stomatognathic system. There are basic uncertainties and existing erroneous thoughts regarding the perception of increasing the occlusal vertical dimension. This manuscript will review the bite raising concepts and its outcome on the stomatognathic system.

  15. Animal bites - self-care (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  16. Epulis and pyogenic granuloma with occlusal interference

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    Widowati Witjaksono


    Full Text Available In dental clinic of Hospital University Science Malaysia (HUSM, there were cases with Localized Gingival Enlargement (LGE in the oral cavity with occlusal interference. In this study, three cases were observed. They were a 13 - year- old female with fibrous lge around 31 and 32 with occlusal interference in protrusive movement due to X bite, a 15 - year – old female with pyogenic granuloma near 11 & 21 with occlusal interference due to deep bite; and a 24 – year – old female who was eight months in pregnancy with pyogenic granuloma on the 34-35 and severe generalized pregnancy gingivitis with occlusal interference in centric occlusion and lateral movement. Clinical and histopathological diagnosis of the first case showed fibrous epulis, whereas the second and third cases disclosed pyogenic granuloma. Chronic trauma of the gingiva due to occlusal interference was assumed to be the cause of those LGE in case 1 and 2, while in case 3 poor oral hygiene and chronic trauma were assumed to be the etiologic factors.

  17. Bite force and temporomandibular disorder in juvenile chronic arthritis. (United States)

    Wenneberg, B; Kjellberg, H; Kiliaridis, S


    The aim of this study was to investigate the functional condition of the stomatognathic system in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis, with respect to bite force and temporomandibular disorder in relation to radiographic abnormalities of the mandibular condyle, occlusal factors and systemic disease parameters. Thirty-five children with juvenile chronic arthritis were compared to 89 healthy children with an Angle Class I occlusion and 62 children with an Angle Class II malocclusion. Subjective symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorder and radiographic mandibular condylar changes were more common in children with juvenile chronic arthritis than in the two comparison groups. Maximal molar and incisal bite forces and maximal molar bite force endurance times were also significantly reduced in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. It is concluded that the differences between the groups are caused mainly by the systemic inflammatory disease itself, but a functional influence of weakened masticatory muscles cannot be excluded.

  18. Temporomandibular disorders and psychological status in adult patients with a deep bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter


    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and psychological status were examined in adult patients with a deep bite and compared with an adult age- and gender-matched control group with neutral occlusion. The deep bite group consisted of 20 females (mean age 30.3 years) and 10 males (mean age 33.1 years......). The control group comprised 20 females (mean age 29.4 years) and 10 males (mean age 34.2 years). TMD examination, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD), cephalometric lateral radiographs, registration of occlusion, and bite force were performed. To test the mean differences between...... craniofacial morphology, bite force, the occurrence of RDC/TMD diagnostic groups, and headache between the two groups, unpaired t-test, Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney U test, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Deep bite patients more frequently reported nocturnal and diurnal clenching...

  19. Dilemmas in Treatment of Recurrent Recalcitrant Dental Anterior Open Bite. (United States)

    Palencar, Adrian J


    An anterior open bite is one of the most difficult occlusal abnormalities to treat. Quite often this aberration entails dental component and/or skeletal component. The skeletal open bite will require intrusion of the posterior sextants with the assistance of bite blocks, temporary anchorage devices, high pull headgear, and as a last resort - orthognathic surgery. The orthodontic treatment should be augmented with the orofacial myofunctional therapy. In this article, the author describes 3 different variations of treatment of the dental anterior open bite, first on acrylic models, and then on the actual patients. Consideration should be given to patients with a 'short upper lip," and in this case, surgical correction should be entertained.

  20. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth (United States)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio


    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  1. Insect bites and stings (United States)

    ... likely to cause itching than pain. Insect and spider bites cause more deaths from venom reactions than bites from snakes. ... are harmless. If possible, bring the insect or spider that bit you with you when you go for medical treatment so it can be identified.

  2. Rat Bite Fever (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  3. Bite Mark Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Padmakumar


    Full Text Available Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the individual who caused it. We are reporting the case of a 55-year-old lady with bite marks on her left ear, who was allegedly assaulted by the suspect. On the basis of characteristic features of the suspect’s dentition, it was concluded that the bite marks seen on the victim was most probably caused by the suspect.

  4. Studying the effects of Bite plane application in intruding and extruding the teeth in patients with deep bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirazi


    Full Text Available Deep bite is a major clinical problem manifested as higher than normal overbite in anterior region of the jaws. Various studies were conducted to identify the effects of using bite plan and its results. 14 subjects with deep bite were selected out of 400 students of a school who had not proximal caries and had not lost any permanent teeth with healthy periodontal condition. 8 patients were considered as case group and the 6 other as the control group. In case group, a simple labial arc with acrylic palate that caused a gap in occlusion was placed. 2 lateral radiographs were obtained both pre and post 14 months treatment period. After cephalometric analysis, due to bite plane application significant intrusion in mandibular  incisors were observed as well as elongation in both maxillary and mandibular molars.

  5. Fire Ant Bites (United States)

    ... Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching mandibles ... the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or legs ...

  6. Rat-bite fever (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are found in ...

  7. The Crown Bite Jumping Herbst. (United States)

    Owen, Reuel


    The Crown Bite Jumping Herbst Appliance is evaluated and combined with Straight Wire Arch Fixed Orthodontics in treatment of Class II, Division I malocclusions. This article will evaluate a combined orthodontic approach of "straightening teeth" and an orthognathic approach of "moving jaws or making skeletal changes." Orthodontic treatment cannot be accomplished well without establishing a healthy temporomandibular joint. This is defined by Keller as a joint that is "noiseless, painless and has a normal range of motion without deviation and deflection." It is not prudent to separate orthodontic treatment as its own entity without being aware of the changes in the temporomandibular joint before, during and after treatment. In other words, "If you're doing orthodontics you're doing TMJ treatment." One should treat toward a healthy, beautiful face asking, "Will proposed treatment achieve this goal?" Treatment should be able to be carried out in an efficient manner, minimizing treatment time, be comfortable and affordable for the patient, and profitable for the dentist. The finished treatment should meet Andrews' Six Keys of Occlusion, or Loudon's Twelve Commandments. Above all, do no harm to the patient. We think that a specific treatment plan can embrace these tenets. The focus will be to show Class II treatment using a modified Herbst Appliance and fixed straight wire orthodontics.

  8. The bite in the temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome. (United States)

    Speck, J E; Ellis, D A; Awde, J D


    After reviewing the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint, the soft tissue classification of this syndrome is divided into three groups: macrotrauma, microtrauma, and stress situation. In each group, the etiology, physical findings, pathophysiology, and treatment are discussed. Bite assessment is reviewed so that the otolaryngologists will have a fuller understanding of the role that occlusal status plays in this syndrome. Before contemplating surgery, this status should be assessed by a competent dental colleague.

  9. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh


    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  10. Marine animal stings or bites (United States)

    ... poisonous bites or stings from any form of sea life, including jellyfish. There are about 2,000 species ... bites or stings from various types of marine life, including: jellyfish ... sea urchins, sea anemone, hydroid, coral, cone shell, sharks, ...

  11. Oral Rehabilitation With Orthognathic Surgery After Dental Implant Placement for Class III Malocclusion With Skeletal Asymmetry and Posterior Bite Collapse.



    Increasing numbers of older patients are seeking orthognathic surgery to treat jaw deformity. However, orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment is difficult in cases without occlusal vertical stop. A 55-year-old man presented with Class III malocclusion and mandibular protrusion including esthetic problems and posterior bite collapse. He underwent dental implant treatment to reconstruct an occlusal vertical stop before orthognathic surgery. His occlusal function and esthetic problems i...

  12. Bite by moray eel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Barreiros


    Full Text Available Injuries caused by moray eels are not a common problem, but are distributed throughout the globe, affecting mainly fishermen while manipulating hooked or netted fish. On a lesser scale, scuba divers and snorkelers, practicing or not spear fishing, are occasional victims of bites. With more than 185 species distributed among 15 genera, mostly in tropical to temperate shallow water, moray eels easily come into contact with humans and occasional injuries are not uncommon. The current study reports one case of moray eel bite and discusses the circumstances in which the accident happened, as well as wound evolution and therapy.

  13. Brodie bite with an extracted mandibular first molar in a young adult: a case report. (United States)

    Chugh, Vinay K; Sharma, Vijay P; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gyan P


    Total buccal crossbites are rare, but, when they occur, they can be extremely difficult to correct, even with surgery and orthodontics. In most patients with in-locking crossbites, the maxillary teeth erupt past their mandibular antagonists, creating severe occlusal difficulties. This article presents an adult patient with scissors-bite or partial telescoping bite bilaterally in the posterior region and an extracted mandibular first molar on the right side. She was treated with expansion of the mandibular arch, and the subsequent open bite was closed with the help of masticatory muscle exercises and high-pull headgear. The second and third molars were uprighted and moved mesially to close the extraction spaces.

  14. Amelogenesis imperfecta and anterior open bite: Etiological, classification, clinical and management interrelationships. (United States)

    Alachioti, Xanthippi Sofia; Dimopoulou, Eleni; Vlasakidou, Anatoli; Athanasiou, Athanasios E


    Although amelogenesis imperfecta is not a common dental pathological condition, its etiological, classification, clinical and management aspects have been addressed extensively in the scientific literature. Of special clinical consideration is the frequent co-existence of amelogenesis imperfecta with the anterior open bite. This paper provides an updated review on amelogenesis imperfecta as well as anterior open bite, in general, and documents the association of these two separate entities, in particular. Diagnosis and treatment of amelogenesis imperfecta patients presenting also with anterior open bite require a lengthy, comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, which should aim to successfully address all dental, occlusal, developmental, skeletal and soft tissue problems associated with these two serious clinical conditions.

  15. Spider Bites (For Parents) (United States)

    ... sure garages, attics, and woodpiles are free of spider webs. Make sure kids wear long sleeves and pants ... Widow Spider Bit Me! Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! Bug Bites and Stings Contact ... Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  16. Mosquito Bites are Bad!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of mosquito bites and how to prevent getting them.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  17. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren


    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  18. Neuromuscular dentistry: Occlusal diseases and posture. (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Toseef; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Zahid, Syed Naved; Chaudhary, Prabhat K


    Neuromuscular dentistry has been a controversial topic in the field of dentistry and still remains debatable. The issue of good occlusion and sound health has been repeatedly discussed. Sometimes we get complains of sensitive teeth and sometimes of tired facial muscles on getting up in the morning. Owing to the intimate relation of masticatory apparatus with the cranium and cervico-scapular muscular system, the disorders in any system, draw attention from concerned clinicians involved in management, to develop an integrated treatment protocol for the suffering patients. There may be patients reporting to the dental clinics after an occlusal restoration or extraction, having pain in or around the temporomandibular joint, headache or neck pain. Although their esthetic demands must not be undermined during the course of treatment plan, whenever dental treatment of any sort is planned, occlusion/bite should be given prime importance. Very few dentist are able to diagnose the occlusal disease and of those who diagnose many people resort to aggressive treatment modalities. This paper aims to report the signs of occlusal disease, and discuss their association with TMDs and posture.

  19. Assessment of open and incomplete bite correction by incisor overlap and optical density of polyvinyl siloxane bite registration. (United States)

    Shpack, Nir; Einy, Shmuel; Beni, Lea; Vardimon, Alexander D


    Open bite (OB) is a generalized term, which could incorporate subgroups that react differently to vertical correction. The objectives of the present study were to detect vertical treatment changes in incomplete bite (IB: inter-incisor overlap with no lower incisor contact with teeth or palate) and OB (no inter-incisor overlap) groups compared with a complete bite (CB: inter-incisor overlap with full lower incisor contact with teeth or palate) control group, to evaluate treatment response of the central and lateral incisors, and to study the vertico-sagittal interaction. Dental casts were taken at three time points, pre-treatment, post-treatment, and after one year of retention, from 54 Class II patients (22 males and 32 females with a mean age of 11 years 6 months) divided into three groups: CB (n = 21), IB (n = 18) and OB (n = 15). Measurements included incisor overlap (mm) and optical density (OD/mm2) of occlusal bite registration made of polyvinl siloxane. Both CB and IB groups demonstrated post-retention bite opening. However, bite opening in the CB group was three times greater than that in the IB group (e.g. lower lateral = -1.42 mm, 118 OD/mm2 versus -0.40 mm, 107 OD/mm2). Conversely, the OB group showed a significant (P < 0.001) bite closure (e.g. lower lateral = 1.30 mm, -377 OD/mm2). Overjet changes affected OD measurements, causing diversity in OD and millimetric measurements of the lateral incisors in the IB group. In conclusion, the OB group demonstrated a significant stable vertical correction; a post-treatment non-contact inter-incisor relationship was determined by a vertico-sagittal relapse; and full compensation of an IB was not possible.

  20. Oral Rehabilitation With Orthognathic Surgery After Dental Implant Placement for Class III Malocclusion With Skeletal Asymmetry and Posterior Bite Collapse. (United States)

    Ohba, Seigo; Nakatani, Yuya; Kawasaki, Takako; Tajima, Nobutaka; Tobita, Takayoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Sawase, Takashi; Asahina, Izumi


    Increasing numbers of older patients are seeking orthognathic surgery to treat jaw deformity. However, orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment is difficult in cases without occlusal vertical stop. A 55-year-old man presented with Class III malocclusion and mandibular protrusion including esthetic problems and posterior bite collapse. He underwent dental implant treatment to reconstruct an occlusal vertical stop before orthognathic surgery. His occlusal function and esthetic problems improved after surgery, and his skeletal and occlusal stability has been maintained for 6 years. Dental implant placement at appropriate positions could help to determine the position of the proximal segment at orthognathic surgery and could shorten the time required to restore esthetic and occlusal function. This case demonstrates how skeletal and dental stability can be maintained long after surgery in a patient with jaw deformity and posterior bite collapse.

  1. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  2. Lingualized occlusion. An occlusion for all reasons. (United States)

    Parr, G R; Ivanhoe, J R


    This authors make practical recommendations for a wide variety of clinical situations, including various anteroposterior and buccolingual arch discrepancies. Many of the ideals of the anatomical and mechanical schools of thought are blended. In addition to being a valuable clinical adjunct, Lingualized Occlusion also has great application in undergraduate dental education. It is a simpler occlusal scheme to teach and learn.

  3. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney (United States)

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidney can often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury or trauma to ...

  4. Hydrogel based occlusion systems


    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y.; Engel, L.; Krylov, V


    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a target occlusion location. The hydrogel is configured to permanently occlude the target occlusion location in the swollen state. The hydrogel may be an electro-activated hydrogel (EAH) which could be ...

  5. Funnel-web spider bite (United States)

    ... page: // Funnel-web spider bite To use the sharing features on this ... effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous than females. This article ...

  6. Esthetic correction in open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Parlani


    Full Text Available Deleterious oral habits, which are persistent, can lead to poor esthetics of a beautiful face. Conventional treatment modalities for an open bite usually include orthodontic treatment and/or skeletal surgery. This article focuses on a different treatment modality for an anterior open bite.

  7. Occlusion: an orthodontic perspective. (United States)

    Kasrovi, P M; Meyer, M; Nelson, G D


    In recent years, orthodontists have examined their concepts of occlusion. In current literature, at professional meetings, and in continuing education courses, one hears an ongoing discussion of condylar position and mandibular border movements in relation to occlusion. There is a wide variation in opinion as to whether dental occlusion and TMJ function are interdependent. The authors have adopted a dynamic concept of dental function to replace the traditional static view of molar relationship and incisor overlap. This article discusses how occlusion has evolved in orthodontics and reviews Andrews' six keys to ideal static occlusion, the goals of ideal dynamic occlusion, and the six signs of developing malocclusions. The authors also review the literature on the relationship between orthodontics, occlusion, and TMD.

  8. [Occlusion, articulated and articulation]. (United States)

    De Boever, J A


    In this paper the so-called 'normal' or 'ideal' occlusal relationships are described in static centric as well as in dynamic, eccentric positions. However, difference is made between the different occlusal concepts. There is no real antagonism between the 'physiologic occlusal concept' in natural dentition and the 'therapeutic occlusal concept' on which the treatment should be based in restoring the occlusion. The different forms of occlusion and articulation found in the natural dentition are the expression of physiologic, biological variations. The rest position of the mandible is an unreliable reference point in occlusal rehabilitation. Moderate attrition in older patients should not be considered as pathologic and there is no indication for treatment in absence of functional pathology.

  9. Biomechanics of occlusion--implications for oral rehabilitation. (United States)

    Peck, C C


    The dental occlusion is an important aspect of clinical dentistry; there are diverse functional demands ranging from highly precise tooth contacts to large crushing forces. Further, there are dogmatic, passionate and often diverging views on the relationship between the dental occlusion and various diseases and disorders including temporomandibular disorders, non-carious cervical lesions and tooth movement. This study provides an overview of the biomechanics of the masticatory system in the context of the dental occlusion's role in function. It explores the adaptation and precision of dental occlusion, its role in bite force, jaw movement, masticatory performance and its influence on the oro-facial musculoskeletal system. Biomechanics helps us better understand the structure and function of biological systems and consequently an understanding of the forces on, and displacements of, the dental occlusion. Biomechanics provides insight into the relationships between the dentition, jaws, temporomandibular joints, and muscles. Direct measurements of tooth contacts and forces are difficult, and biomechanical models have been developed to better understand the relationship between the occlusion and function. Importantly, biomechanical research will provide knowledge to help correct clinical misperceptions and inform better patient care. The masticatory system demonstrates a remarkable ability to adapt to a changing biomechanical environment and changes to the dental occlusion or other components of the musculoskeletal system tend to be well tolerated.

  10. Visualization and analysis of occlusion for human jaws using a "functionally generated path" (United States)

    Myszkowski, Karol; Herder, Jens; Kunii, Tosiyasu L.; Ibusuki, Masumi


    Dynamic characteristics of occlusion during lower jaw motion are useful in the diagnosis of jaw articulation problems and in computer-aided design/ manufacture of teeth restorations. The Functionally Generated Path (FGP), produced as a surface which envelops the actual occlusal surface of the moving opponent jaw, can be used for compact representation of dynamic occlusal relations. In traditional dentistry FGP is recorded as a bite impression in a patient's mouth. We propose an efficient computerized technique for FGP reconstruction and validate it through implementation and testing. The distance maps between occlusal surfaces of jaws, calculated for multiple projection directions and accumulated for mandibular motion, provide information for FGP computation. Rasterizing graphics hardware is used for fast calculation of the distance maps. Real-world data are used: the scanned shape of teeth and the measured motion of the lower jaw. We show applications of FGP to analysis of the occlusion relations and occlusal surface design for restorations.

  11. Effects of interocclusal distance on bite force and masseter EMG in healthy participants. (United States)

    Arima, T; Takeuchi, T; Honda, K; Tomonaga, A; Tanosoto, T; Ohata, N; Svensson, P


    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of interocclusal distance (IOD) on bite force and masseter electromyographic (EMG) activity during different isometric contraction tasks. Thirty-one healthy participants (14 women and 17 men, 21·2 ± 1·8 years) were recruited. Maximal Voluntary Occlusal Bite Force (MVOBF) between the first molars and masseter EMG activity during all the isometric-biting tasks were measured. The participants were asked to bite at submaximal levels of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% MVOBF with the use of visual feedback. The thickness of the force transducer was set at 8, 12, 16 and 20 mm (= IOD), and sides were tested in random sequence. MVOBF was significantly higher at 8 mm compared with all other IODs (P EMG (P EMG activity compared with the balancing side (P EMG at any IODs. The results replicated the finding that higher occlusal forces can be generated between the first molars at shorter IODs. The new finding in this study was that an effect of hand dominance could be found on masseter muscle activity during isometric biting. This may suggest that there can be a general dominant side effect on human jaw muscles possibly reflecting differences in motor unit recruitment strategies.

  12. Ticks and Diseases: Bite Fright! (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Ticks and Diseases Bite Fright! Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... can bring on serious health problems. What Are Ticks? If you spend any time outdoors, you've ...

  13. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.;


    risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction......Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some ‘alternative’ forms of pig production and certain countries do...... not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...

  14. Modified Thurow appliance: a clinical alternative for correcting skeletal open bite. (United States)

    Stuani, Maria Bernadete Sasso; Stuani, Andréa Sasso; Stuani, Adriana Sasso


    Open bite malocclusion is frequently discussed in orthodontics; diagnosis, treatment, and retention can be difficult because this malocclusion has numerous correlated etiological factors. The earlier this malocclusion is corrected, the better the prognosis will be, especially when the problem is skeletal. This article presents a patient with skeletal open bite who was treated in the mixed dentition with an orthodontic appliance that included an acrylic occlusal splint and an expansion screw, based on the original Thurow appliance, to guide the vertical force against the posterior teeth and the alveolar process.

  15. Bite through the tent. (United States)

    Naue, Jana; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Pietsch, Klaus; Sänger, Timo; Schlauderer, Nicola; Schmidt, Ulrike


    The authors report on a young boy who was bitten into his face by an unknown animal while being asleep in a tent. Given the bite marks and the location of the scene, members of the mustelidae and canidae families were the first "suspects." Deoxyribunucleic acid (DNA) recovered from the tent's wall was analyzed with regard to parts of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal ribunucleic acid (12S rRNA) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes as well as nuclear short tandem repeats (STRs). Since Sanger sequencing revealed a mixed sequence with a strong human component overlying the nonhuman contributor, an animal screening using a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with an intercalating dye and melt curve analysis was employed. The results were later confirmed by cloning. The applied commercial canine STR kit verified the animal family (canidae) but did not help in discriminating the species due to cross-species amplification. In the presented case, the real-time PCR assay offered the cheapest and fastest method for animal family determination, which then allowed for an appropriate and sample-saving strategy to characterize the causative animal species.

  16. Temporomandibular disorders and occlusion. (United States)

    Badel, Tomislav; Marotti, Miljenko; Pavicin, Ivana Savić; Basić-Kes, Vanja


    Occlusion has an important place within the multifactorial concept of the temporomandibular disorder (TMD) etiopathogenesis as well as in every form of dental treatment. The modern concept of treatment of these disorders differentiates initial and definitive forms of treatment. The aim of this paper is to analyze recent viewpoints on the role of occlusion in the etiopathogenesis and treatment ofTMDs. Masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joints are directly connected with occlusal relations and TMDs are traditionally linked with occlusal disorders. The initial occlusal treatment can be applied to all TMD patients, regardless of their having intact teeth with respect to physiological occlusal relations and in patients in need of orthodontic or prosthodontic treatment or an oral surgical procedure. On managing TMD patients, there are doubts about the indications for definitive treatment and whether there has been a possibility of treating a painful TMD by reversible treatment modalities, that is, by initial treatment. Other types of orofacial pain such as trigeminal neuralgia can be comorbid with TMDs but also result in unnecessary procedures on the teeth and prosthodontic work if they are not recognized. Although dental profession mainly recognizes the importance of occlusal treatment of TMD problems, their relationship is controversial because it is not strictly demonstrated in numerous scientific studies. Occlusion is not the dominant cause of TMD problems.

  17. Hydrogel based occlusion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A.; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P.; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y.; Engel, L.; Krylov, V.


    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a tar

  18. Occlusion effects, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    The present report studies the mechanism of the occlusion effect by means of literature studies, experiments and model estimates. A mathematical model of the occlusion effect is developed. The model includes the mechanical properties of the earmould and the airborne sound as well as the body...

  19. Occlusion effects, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    annoyances and the objective measurements were analysed. Persons suffering from tinnitus behaved differently than person without tinnitus. The latter group showed significant relations between the measured occlusion effect, hearing loss and the personal of occlusion. The actual sensation level is also...

  20. Occlusion, Orthodontic treatment, and temporomandibular disorders: a review. (United States)

    McNamara, J A; Seligman, D A; Okeson, J P


    A review of the current literature regarding the interaction of morphologic and functional occlusal factors relative to TMD indicates that there is a relatively low association of occlusal factors in characterizing TMD. Skeletal anterior open bite, overjets greater than 6 to 7 mm, retruded cuspal position/intercuspal position slides greater than 4 mm, unilateral lingual crossbite, and five or more missing posterior teeth are the five occlusal features that have been associated with specific diagnostic groups of TMD conditions. The first three factors often are associated with TMJ arthropathies and may be the result of osseous or ligamentous changes within the temporomandibular articulation. With regard to the relationship of orthodontic treatment to TMD, the current literature indicates that orthodontic treatment performed during adolescence generally does not increase or decrease the odds of developing TMD later in life. There is no elevated risk of TMD associated with any particular type of orthodontic mechanics or with extraction protocols. Although a stable occlusion is a reasonable orthodontic treatment goal, not achieving a specific gnathologically ideal occlusion does not result in TMD signs and symptoms. Thus, according to the existing literature, the relationship of TMD to occlusion and orthodontic treatment is minor. Signs and symptoms of TMD occur in healthy individuals and increase with age, particularly during adolescence; thus, TM disorders that originate during various types of dental treatment may not be related to the treatment but may be a naturally occurring phenomenon.

  1. Effect of increased maxillo-mandibular relationship on isometric strength in TMD patients with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. (United States)

    Abduljabbar, T; Mehta, N R; Forgione, A G; Clark, R E; Kronman, J H; Munsat, T L; George, P


    The effect on isometric strength of the shoulders and limbs while biting in habitual occlusion, on a bite-elevating appliance and on a placebo appliance was analyzed. Twenty female volunteer patients, presenting with temporomandibular pain dysfunction syndrome and obvious loss of vertical dimension, served as subjects. All were weaker to the manual application of the isometric Deltoid Press (IDP) when biting, as opposed to maintaining the mandible in an unsupported rest position. Two intraoral appliances were fabricated for each subject: a bite-elevating appliance (BEA) set by a functional criterion of peak strength to the IDP and a placebo appliance which did not interfere with occlusion but was "set" with a mock IDP procedure. Testing was carried out by the Neuromuscular Research Testing Laboratory of the Neurology Department of Tufts New England Medical Center. Testing was independent of the dentist who fabricated and set the appliances. A standard neuromuscular test with the Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction apparatus was used to assess strength of right and left shoulder, elbow and knee flexion and extension as is routinely performed with all neuromuscular disease patients. Twelve strength tests were carried out for each of three conditions: 1. Baseline-biting in habitual occlusion; 2. Elevated-biting on the BEA; and 3. Placebo-biting with the placebo appliance inserted. The order of conditions 2 and 3 was counterbalanced without knowledge of the subjects. Twelve repeated measures ANOVAs (each subject as their own control) were conducted for each of the 12 strength measures. All F-tests indicated a significant main effect for treatment differences (p TMD Center: individuals with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion respond to a bite raising appliance by increased isometric-strength.

  2. Cervical vertebral body fusions in patients with skeletal deep bite. (United States)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Kjaer, Inger


    Cervical column morphology was examined in 41 adult patients with a skeletal deep bite, 23 females aged 22-42 years (mean 27.9) and 18 males aged 21-44 years (mean 30.8) and compared with the cervical column morphology in an adult control group consisting of 21 subjects, 15 females, aged 23-40 years (mean 29.2 years) and six males aged 25-44 years (mean 32.8 years) with neutral occlusion and normal craniofacial morphology. None of the patients or control subjects had received orthodontic treatment. For each individual, a visual assessment of the cervical column and measurements of the cranial base angle, vertical craniofacial dimensions, and morphology of the mandible were performed on a profile radiograph. In the deep bite group, 41.5 per cent had fusion of the cervical vertebrae and 9.8 per cent posterior arch deficiency. The fusion always occurred between C2 and C3. No statistically significant gender differences were found in the occurrence of morphological characteristics of the cervical column (females 43.5 per cent, males 38.9 per cent). Morphological deviations of the cervical column occurred significantly more often in the deep bite group compared with the control group (P analysis showed that the vertical jaw relationship (P vertebrae (R(2) = 0.40).

  3. An evaluation on occlusal relation and malocclusion in the incidence of temporomandibular disorders among Mashhad adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani AS.


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: In recent years, the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders among children and adolescents has increased, however, no study on the correlation between occlusal relations and temporomandibular disorders, in Mashhad adolescents, has been conducted yet. Purpose: The aim of this study was to survey the relationship between occlusal indices and temporomandibular disorders (TMD among Mashhad adolescents, with the age range of 11-14 years old. Methods and Material: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 1066 students (533 males and 533 females, age ranging from 11-14 years old (12.620.96 years, from seven Mashhad educational regions, were selected. Temporomandibular joints were thoroughly examined for all subjects. All occlusal indices including dentition system, angles classification, types of malooclusion such as cross-bite, deep-bite as well as types of lateral occlusion, premature contacts in lateral and protrusive movements were investigated. Data were analyzed statistically using, Chi-Square and logestic regression tests. Results: The prevalence of TMD was 23.5%. There was no significant relation between TMD and type of dentition, angles classification and type of occlusion in lateral movements, however, statistically significant relation was found between TMD and deep over bite (P<0.05. Premature contacts in lateral movements at balancing side were proved to be significant etiologic factors of TMD (P=0.003. Conclusion: In the present study, premature contacts at balancing side and secondary deepbite malocclusion were considered to be the most important etiologic factors of TMD.

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  5. Temporalis and masseter muscle activity in patients with anterior open bite and craniomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Michler, L


    values, particularly in subjects with muscular affection, but maximal activity increased significantly when biting on the splint. Maximal voluntary contraction was positively correlated to molar contact and negatively to anterior face height, mandibular inclination, vertical jaw relation and gonial angle......, occlusal stability by tooth contacts, and craniomandibular function by clinical and radiological examination. Electromyographic activity was recorded by surface electrodes after primary treatment with a reflex-releasing, stabilizing splint. Maximal voluntary contraction was reduced compared to reference...

  6. Heridas por Mordedura / Bites Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coturel A


    Full Text Available Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanus vaccine should be indicated when the patient has not full vaccination scheme and rabies vaccine in cases of suspected or confirmed infected animals.

  7. Facial dimensions, bite force and masticatory muscle thickness in preschool children with functional posterior crossbite

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    Paula Midori Castelo


    Full Text Available Posterior crossbite may affect craniofacial growth and development. Thus, this study aimed to associate facial dimensions (by standardized frontal photographs to masseter and anterior portion of the temporal muscle thickness (by ultrasonography and maximal bilateral bite force in 49 children with deciduous and early mixed dentitions. They were distributed in four groups: deciduous-normal occlusion (DNO, n = 15, deciduous-crossbite (DCB, n = 10, mixed-normal occlusion (MNO, n = 13 and mixed-crossbite (MCB, n = 11. Anterior facial height (AFH, bizygomatic width (FWB, and intergonial width (FWI were determined and associated with muscle thickness and bite force, applying Pearson’s coefficients and multiple logistic regression, with age, gender, body weight and height as the covariates. FWB and FWI were correlated positively with the masseter thickness, whereas AFH/FWB and AFH/FWI ratios had negative correlation, except in the DNO group. The correlation between AFH/FWB and bite force in the MCB group was significantly negative. A higher AFH/FWB in MNO and MCB led to a significantly higher probability for functional crossbite development. In the studied sample, it was observed that children in the early mixed dentition with a long-face trend showed lower bite force and higher probability to present functional posterior crossbite, without significant influence of the covariates.

  8. An unusual complication of snake bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Grace


    Full Text Available Anterior pituitary hypofunction is a well-known complication following snake bite. However, central diabetes insipidus as a complication of snake bite is only rarely reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of central diabetes insipidus, which developed as sequelae to viper bite.

  9. Removable partial denture occlusion. (United States)

    Ivanhoe, John R; Plummer, Kevin D


    No single occlusal morphology, scheme, or material will successfully treat all patients. Many patients have been treated, both successfully and unsuccessfully, using widely varying theories of occlusion, choices of posterior tooth form, and restorative materials. Therefore, experience has demonstrated that there is no one righ r way to restore the occlusion of all patients. Partially edentulous patients have many and varied needs. Clinicians must understand the healthy physiologic gnathostomatic system and properly diagnose what is or may become pathologic. Henderson [3] stated that the occlusion of the successfully treated patient allows the masticating mechanism to carry out its physiologic functions while the temporomandibular joints, the neuromuscular mechanism, the teeth and their supporting structures remain in a good state of health. Skills in diagnosis and treatment planning are of utmost importance in treating these patients, for whom the clinician's goals are not only an esthetic and functional restoration but also a lasting harmonious state. Perhaps this was best state by DeVan [55] more than 60 years ago in his often-quoted objective. "The patient's fundamental need is the continued meticulous restoration of what is missing, since what is lost is in a sense irretrievably lost." Because it is clear that there is no one method, no one occlusal scheme, or one material that guarantees success for all patients, recommendations for consideration when establishing or reestablishing occlusal schemes have been presented. These recommendations must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic and technical skills.

  10. [Viper (Vipera berus) snake bites]. (United States)

    Valenta, J; Kornalík, F


    Cases of snake bites (Vipera berus) have as compared with past years a rising trend in the Czech Republic. This ensues among other factors from a higher prevalence of snakes due to the improving ecological situation. The morbidity of snake bites is of no epidemiological importance, the frequency of snake bites amounts to several tens per year and in some clinically manifest intoxication does not develop. Nevertheless in individual cases, in children weakened subjects, a viper bite may be manifested by a serious and in exceptional instances fatal affection. Within the framework of first aid the authors do not recommend application of a tourniquet or dissecting of the wound because of undesirable potentiation of tissue traumatization. Non-specific treatment involves the administration of corticoids and antihistaminics. Specific immunotherapy, administration of horse antiserum (Ipser Europe, Pasteur Mérieux, France) is indicated only in case of systemic or very severe local symptoms and is associated with the risk of a severe allergic reaction. In case of severe systemic symptoms, symptomatic treatment in a health institution of the appropriate type is of fundamental importance. In all cases observation of the affected subject is recommended to rule out intoxication or the development of possible complications.

  11. A case report of bilateral Brodie bite in early mixed dentition using bonded constriction quad-helix appliance. (United States)

    Nojima, Kunihiko; Takaku, Sakiko; Murase, Chiaki; Nishii, Yasushi; Sueishi, Kenji


    Brodie bite is a comparatively rare type of malocclusion found in primary and mixed dentition. It not only adversely affects chewing and muscle functions, but also impairs normal growth and development of the mandible. This report describes the therapeutic results of a patient with bilateral Brodie bite in early mixed dentition after using a bonded constriction quad-helix appliance. The patient, a boy aged 9 years and 2 months, first visited our hospital after occlusal abnormality in the molar region was detected at a local dental clinic. Case analysis resulted in a diagnosis of bilateral Brodie bite with slight mandibular retrognathism. Treatment objectives were to reduce the arch width of the maxillary dentition and expand the mandibular arch in order to establish and stabilize molar occlusion and to achieve a Class I molar relation and appropriate overbite and overjet. Treatment comprised covering the occlusal surface of the maxillary molars with resin and attaching a bonded constriction quad-helix appliance joined with a 0.040-inch quad-helix wire. A bi-helix appliance was also fixed to the mandibular dentition. Brodie bite visibly improved after 5 months. Cervical headgear was then fitted and the patient observed until eruption of the permanent dentition was complete. Class I molar relation was achieved after 2 years and 6 months, although spacing remained in the maxillary and mandibular dentitions. Treatment of bilateral Brodie bite in mixed dentition by means of a bonded constriction quad-helix appliance attached to the maxillary dentition enabled effective bite opening and reduction in the width of maxillary arch independent of the patient's cooperation, providing good therapeutic outcome in a short time period.

  12. Analysis of TMJ vibration sounds before and after use of two types of occlusal splints



    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds are important and common physical signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the effect of the use of occlusal bite splints (stabilizing and repositioning) on the sounds produced in the TMJ, by means of the electrovibratography (EVG). Thirty-one patients with TMD from the Dental School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil were selected for this study. Group 1 (n=23) wore stabilizing bite...

  13. A preliminary study of the occlusal ;contact of complete denture%全口义齿患者咬合接触特征初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺淑贞; 王丁


    Objective To evaluate the occlusal contact characteristics of complete denture.Methods Twenty edentulous patients were involved in this study and were restored with complete dentures.After they were satisfied with the dentures,the patients occlusions were analyzed with T-ScanIII system.The occlusion time ,posterior occlusal contact point and bite distribution degree of balance were recorded and compared with the occlusion of twerty-two normal person. Results The occlusion time of twenty evaluate patients is 0.858±0.619,more than the group ofnormal occlusion(P0.05)。结论全口义齿患者的功能咬合接触特征与正常合的T-Scan表现有一定差异,有其独有特征。

  14. Influence of different narrative instructions to record the occlusal contact with silicone registration materials. (United States)

    Obara, R; Komiyama, O; Iida, T; Asano, T; De Laat, A; Kawara, M


    This study examined the influence of narrative instructions on the occlusal contact area, occlusal contact point and masticatory muscle activities in normal subjects. Twelve healthy men and 12 healthy women with no more than one missing tooth per quadrant participated. Surface EMG was recorded from the masseter and temporal muscle. As a control measurement, intercuspal position was maintained to produce a habitual clenching record (NCR) while the occlusal contact area and occlusal contact point was recorded by means of silicone material. Subsequently, the occlusal contact area was recorded with the narrative instruction for minimum clenching record (MCR), light clenching record (LCR) and strong clenching record (HCR). While the EMG activity (%MVC) increased modestly from MCR to LCR (from 9·3 ± 2·0% to 11·5 ± 1·5%), the occlusal contact area increased rapidly (from 17·2 ± 11·3 mm(2) to 26·8 ± 15·6 mm(2) ) (P narrative instructions while recording the bite can result in largely stable occlusal contact area. An adequate narrative instruction may therefore contribute to taking a stable occlusal recording in natural dentition.

  15. Topographic distribution of occlusal contacts of the first mandibular molar--comparative study. (United States)

    Petrova, M; Ivanova, K


    The specification of the occlusal contacts in the posterior teeth region is a necessary clinical reference point for creating optimal interrelations between the teeth and dentition. The methods, such as the photo-occlusal method, the quasiplanimetric method, two-phase proof imprint in central occlusion, recording of contacts with profile wax, that have been used in studying the number and location of occlusal contacts at various positions of the mandible in relation to the maxilla are exact but difficult to apply clinically. The purpose of the present study is to find the topographic distribution of occlusal contacts in intact first mandibular molars using a method that is easy to utilise clinically and to compare the present results with the findings of the authors. The masticatory teeth of 100 high-school students (18 years old) without subjective complaints or objective structural or functional disorders of the temporomandibular joint were studied by means of articulation paper. From that sample 41 students with intact dentition and orthognathic occlusion were selected. The first mandibular molars (N = 77) were studied. The results are as follows. The occlusal contacts in the first mandibular molar vary from 1 to 7. The greatest percentage of contacts is observed in the tubercles. In the first mandibular molar the biting pressure upon the tubercle apex areas is greater compared to that on the sloping areas. Our results were compared with the findings obtained by the other three methods mentioned above. Our method allows objective specification of the topographic distribution of occlusal contacts.

  16. Retinal vein occlusion (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of retinal vein occlusion. These measures include: Eating a low-fat diet Getting regular exercise Maintaining an ideal weight Not smoking Aspirin or other blood thinners may help prevent blockages in the other eye. Controlling diabetes may ...

  17. Gender influence on occlusal characteristics in the primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Rani Yadav


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess and discuss the influence of gender on occlusal characteristics of primary dentition. Materials and Methods: In this study, cluster randomized sampling was done to select 4-6-year-old children from Government primary schools of Farukh Nagar block, Gurgaon, Haryana, India. Children were evaluated clinically for occlusal characteristics of primary dentition such as molar relation, Canine relation, overjet, overbite, openbite, scissors bite, and crossbite. Chi-square test was used to compare the occlusal characteristics of both genders. Results: Flush terminal plane, Class I Canine relation and both primate as well as developmental spaces were found to be prevalent in the study population, in percentages of 62.4%, 67.2%, and 37.6%, respectively. It was observed that females had more spacing, distal step molar relation and increased overjet as compared to males. Males had more Class II Canine relation, crowding, openbite, overbite, and incompetent lips as compared to females. Significant differences were found between males and females w.r.t various occlusal characteristics. Conclusion: Most of the children had gender influence on malocclusion, which indicates the need for early interception or correction of malocclusion traits based on the gender of the child.

  18. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.


    The influence of bite size on sensory mouth- and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 ml (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In sin

  19. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.


    The influence of bite size on sensory mouthfeel and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 mL (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  1. Infrarenal Aortic Occlusion (United States)

    Traverso, L. W.; Baker, J. D.; Dainko, E. A.; Machleder, H. I.


    Twenty-eight patients with total occlusion of the infrarenal aorta have been seen at the UCLA Hospitals in the past 11 years. Claudication was the presenting complaint in all but one patient, with one-third having ischemic rest pain. The average age of these patients was 54 years, and their histories revealed a surprising absence of myocardial infarction, stroke, or diabetes, although 40% had essential hypertension. Heavy tobacco use, however, was characteristic of the entire group. Arteriography proved valuable in identifying and characterizing the vascular abnormalities, but posed problems in technique and interpretation. Significant distal arterial disease was detected radiographically in only 21% of these patients. Operative correction of the aortic occlusion was performed on 26 patients, 18 by aortic bypass grafts and eight by aorto-iliac endarterectomy, with one early postoperative death. Although the thrombus extended to the renal artery origins in 77% of the cases, a well-designed technical approach did not require renal artery occlusion. Using serial creatinine determinations, one case of renal insufficiency was detected which was associated with prolonged postoperative hypotension. Although the extent of distal disease was more severe in those who underwent bypass, symptoms of claudication returned earlier and were more prominent in the endarterectomy group. This recurrence of systems was not favorably altered by sympathectomy performed concomitantly with the initial procedure. Even though this condition seems to pose difficult technical obstacles and has a poor prognosis, infrarenal aortic occlusion can be successfully treated by aortic bypass, with favorable long-term results, if particular attention is paid to elements of the preoperative evaluation and the intraoperative technical requirements peculiar to this relatively uncommon disease entity. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:646479

  2. Occlusal characteristics in 3-year-old children – results of a birth cohort study


    Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha


    Background Aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence of malocclusion and associated risk factors in 3-year-old Thuringian children. Methods Subjects (n = 377) were participants in a regional oral health programme, a birth cohort study with the aim to prevent caries (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438). Children received continuous dental care since birth. Occlusal characteristics (overjet, overbite, anterior open bite, canine relationship and posterior crossbite) wer...

  3. Left atrial appendage occlusion

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    Ahmad Mirdamadi


    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  4. Nonsurgical treatment of adult open bite using edgewise appliance combined with high-pull headgear and class III elastics. (United States)

    Saito, Isao; Yamaki, Masaki; Hanada, Kooji


    This case report describes the effect of a combination of high-pull headgear and Class III elastics on the nonsurgical treatment of an adult open bite. The 19-year 1-month-old Japanese female presented with the anterior open bite of 4.0 mm and mild crowding. She had a skeletal Class II but a Class III molar relationship due to a severe proclination of the mandibular dental arch. Unilateral congenital missing premolars caused a discrepancy between the facial and dental midline. After extraction of two premolars and the impacted mandibular third molars, nonsurgical therapy was performed using the standard edgewise appliance combined with a high-pull headgear and Class III elastics. The successful treatment outcome and stability of the final occlusion indicates that a combination of high-pull headgear and Class III elastics is one of the effective devices in the nonsurgical treatment of open bite and, is especially helpful in uprighting the mandibular dental arch.

  5. Do the physical properties of occlusal-indicating media affect muscle activity [EMG) during use? (United States)

    Forrester, Stephanie E; Pain, Matthew T G; Presswood, Ron; Toy, Andy


    Four occlusal marking media (Parkell film, articulating silk, articulating paper and T-Scan foil) were tested to assess whether they affected neuromuscular function during occlusal marking events. Muscle activity of the anterior temporalis (TA) and superficial masseter (MS) muscles were obtained from surface EMG measurements during a slow closure to occlusion followed immediately by a forceful bite and a maximum clench onto each of the various occlusal indicating media. Muscle activity during the whole period of activation and immediately following onset were investigated. Significant differences in neuromuscular function between the occlusal marking media were observed, particularly between the Parkell film and articulating silk as opposed to the articulating paper and the T-Scan foil. The Parkell film and articulating silk gave neuromuscular function very similar to that of natural dentition occlusal contact, while the articulating paper and T-Scan foil showed similarities to occluding onto cotton rolls as previously reported (1). These results suggest that both the thickness and plasticity of the indicating media affect neuromuscular function during occlusion.

  6. Animal Bites Epidemiology in Shahroud City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amiri

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rabies is an infectious central nervous system disease that infects all mammals and man. This study aimed at investigating the epidemiology of animal bites in Shahroud. Methods: In this deh1ive study all the data related to animal bite cases in shahroud in 2008-2009 were collected based on the data registration notebooks. Results: A total of 588 cases of animal bite were reported in 2008-2009 the majority of whom (82.1% were male. Of this total 35.7% were urban and 64.3% were rural. Just 2 of the cases were foreigners. The incidence rate of animal bite in the city was 159 (27% compared to 429 cases (73% in villages. Dogs and cats accounted for about 79.1% and 12.6% of the cases respectively. 12 cases were also wolf fox and Reynard bites. All cases have completed vaccination. In 82.3% of animal bites the biter was alive after 10 days and in 2% biters were dead and in 15.6% the biter reported invisible after 10 days. The incidence rate of animal bites in Shahroud was 246 in one hundred thousand. Conclusions: Animal bites are one of the most important problems of public health. Educational activities along with the promotion of out- organizing cooperation can play a significant role in controlling this problem

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Replace the nail-biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help keep your hands busy and away from your mouth. Identify your triggers: These could be physical triggers, ...

  8. Talking to Patients about Preventing Tick Bites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips.  Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  9. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.


    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  10. An alternative treatment of occlusal wear: Cast metal occlusal surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar


    Full Text Available Acrylic resin denture teeth often exhibit rapid occlusal wear, which may lead to decrease in the chewing efficiency, loss of vertical dimension of occlusion, denture instability, temporomandibular joint disturbances, etc. There are various treatment options available like, use of highly cross linked acrylic teeth, amalgam or metal inserts on occlusal surface, use of composite, gold or metal occlusal surface, etc. Several articles have described methods to construct gold and metal occlusal surfaces, however, these methods are time-consuming, expensive and requires many cumbersome steps. These methods also requires the patient to be without the prosthesis for the time during which the laboratory procedures are performed. This article presents a quick, simple and relatively inexpensive procedure for construction of metal occlusal surfaces on complete dentures.

  11. Bite force and state of dentition. (United States)

    Helkimo, E; Carlsson, G E; Helkimo, M


    The maximal bite force and the strength of the finger-thumb grip of 125 Skolt Lapps, aged 15 to 65, was measured with a specially devised apparatus. The bite force was measured with the biting fork placed between the first molars and between the incisors, respectively. The finger-thumb grip was measured by letting the subject press the prongs of the fork between the thumb and forefinger of each hand as hard as possible. The range of inter-individual variation of the maximal bite force and finger-thumb grip was great. The mean values were higher for the males than for the females. In the males the maximal bite force thus measured in the molar region was 39 kg (382 N) and 18 kg (176 N) in the incisor region. The corresponding values for the females were 22 kg (216 N) and 11 kg (108 N). The finger-thumb grip strength for males was, on the average, 10 kg (98 N); that of the females, 7 KG (69 N). The average difference in bite force between the men and the women was larger in the group with natural teeth than in the one with complete dentures. The values found for the bite force decreased with increasing age, especially for the females. Most of this reduction with increasing age was probably due to the age-dependent deterioration of the dentition. In both sexes the bite force was notably smaller among the denture wearers than among the dentate persons. The number of natural teeth varied closely with the bite force, i.e. the greater number of natural teeth the greater the bite force.

  12. Susceptibility to Frost-Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna


    Full Text Available The body protects its susceptible parts e.g. hands and feet from cold injury by allowing a surge of blood to flow through them on exposure to severe cold. This occurs through alternate vasodilatation and vasoconstriction known as Lewis Hunting Reaction. This phenomenon is influenced by several factors, which indirectly may also affect individual susceptibility to cold injury. The role of nutrition, adequate insulation of the body and positive heat balance in relation to the protective mechanism have been reviewed and discussed. Available literature on various factors has been surveyed and discussed in the light of recent advances in the physiology of cold exposure. Certain tests based on the present knowledge, to be developed and standardised for screening susceptible individuals to frost-bite have been suggested.

  13. An American Board of Orthodontics case report. Treatment of an open bite malocclusion. (United States)

    Efstratiadis, S S


    The patient had a Class I (Angle) malocclusion characterized by an anterior open bite, bimaxillary dental protrusion, posterior and anterior crossbites, and mandibular midline deviation. A nonextraction treatment was followed for this patient. A Begg appliance (0.020 inch) and a posterior high-pull headgear were used. The prognosis was good because of the rather favorable skeletal pattern of the patient. The active treatment lasted 12 months. The patient was retained with a positioner. The occlusion was stable at 2 years posttreatment.

  14. Severe Anterior Open Bite during Mixed Dentition Treated with Palatal Spurs. (United States)

    Nascimento, Mauro Henrique Andrade; de Araújo, Telma Martins; Machado, Andre Wilson


    Deleterious oral habits, such as non-nutritive sucking or tongue thrusting, if not intercepted at an early stage can cause complex malocclusions. This manuscript describes a clinical case report of a successful interception of a severe anterior dental open bite caused by thumb sucking and tongue thrusting habits. The case involved a six-year-old female patient treated with the use of palatal spurs and maxillary removable crib followed by monitoring the development of dental occlusion. At the end of the interceptive phase acceptable results were achieved, showing the efficacy of the treatment undertaken as well the importance of an early intervention to remove harmful oral habits.

  15. The lingualized occlusion of complete denture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Wei-hong; Eleni Roumanas


    This article reviews the literatures dealing with the lingualized occlusion of complete denture including the origin,development and research. Lingualized occlusion is a valuable concept because many advantages of anatomic and nonanatomic occlusions are retained,satisfactory occlusion is easily obtained,balanced occlusion can be accomplished.

  16. An Innovative Miniature Bite Force Recorder. (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Utreja, Ashok K; Sandhu, Navreet; Dhaliwal, Yadvinder S


    In this study, a detailed description of development of a new novel bite force recorder (gnathodynamometer) using solid state components is vividly explained. This state of the art authenticated device can be used to assess the complex function of human bite force, which is the net resultant combination of functional response of various craniomandibular structures consisting of interrelated components, like the muscles of mastication, joints, teeth and the neuromuscular system. The consistency and accuracy of the bite force recorder was reaffirmed by doing a detailed laboratory calibration and clinical testing on 30 adult subjects.

  17. The effects of infant feeding patterns on the occlusion of the primary dentition. (United States)

    Charchut, Steven W; Allred, Elizabeth N; Needleman, Howard L


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different methods of infant feeding on the development of the occlusion in the primary dentition. The study included 126 children. Parents completed questionnaires regarding feeding and health history, and the primary dental occlusion was recorded for each child. The authors found that: (1) predominant bottle-feeding between 0 and 6 months of age was associated with the development of a pacifier habit; (2) children who used a pacifier were more likely to develop a nonmesial step occlusion, an overjet >3 mm, and an open bite; (3) children who sucked their thumb were more likely to develop an overjet >3 mm; and (4) in the absence ofnonnutritive oral habits, children who were predominantly bottle-fed between 0 and 6 months of age were more likely to develop an overbite >75%, although just shy of nominal statistical significance.

  18. Influence of occlusal vertical dimension on the masticatory performance during chewing with maxillary splints. (United States)

    Olthoff, L W; van der Glas, H W; van der Bilt, A


    Changing the occlusal vertical dimension is a common procedure in restorative dentistry, during treatment of patients with cranio-mandibular disorders, and during orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. The treatment may alter the length of the main jaw elevator muscles and the position of the mandibular head in the fossa temporalis. These changes may influence the bite forces that are generated during chewing and thus may affect the masticatory function. We measured the objective masticatory function, defined as masticatory performance, by determining an individual's capacity to pulverize a test food. The immediate influence of the increase in the occlusal vertical dimension on the masticatory performance was determined using three anatomical maxillary splints in a group of seven dentate subjects. The splints gave an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension of 2, 4 and 6 mm, respectively. Before we started the experiments the subjects practiced chewing with the splints during about 5 min. No significant differences were observed in masticatory performance among the conditions without and with the three splints. Thus, an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension up to 6 mm did not have a significant effect on the masticatory performance. Maxillary splints may be used to study the effect of occlusal factors on the chewing process by manipulating tooth shape and occlusal area of the splint.

  19. [Temporomandibular joint, occlusion and bruxism]. (United States)

    Orthlieb, J D; Ré, J P; Jeany, M; Giraudeau, A


    Temporomandibular joint and dental occlusion are joined for better and worse. TMJ has its own weaknesses, sometimes indicated by bad functional habits and occlusal disorders. Occlusal analysis needs to be addressed simply and clearly. The term "malocclusion" is not reliable to build epidemiological studies, etiologic mechanisms or therapeutic advice on this "diagnosis". Understanding the impact of pathogenic malocclusion is not just about occlusal relationships that are more or less defective, it requires to locate them within the skeletal framework, the articular and behavioural context of the patient, and above all to assess their impact on the functions of the masticatory system. The TMJ-occlusion couple is often symbiotic, developing together in relation to its environment, compensating for its own shortcomings. However, a third partner may alter this relationship, such as bruxism, or more generally oral parafunctions, trauma or an interventionist practitioner.

  20. Tarantula bite leads to death and gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Kalyan


    Full Text Available Chilobrachys hardwikii-giant black hairy spider bite produced two deaths, one case of gangrene of the foot and urticarial rashes in another person in a remote village of Churulia 30 km from Asansol.

  1. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Akter


    Full Text Available Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated.

  2. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland]. (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus


    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  3. Tick bite granuloma : recommendations for surgical treatment


    Hirota, Keisuke; Kurosawa, Yoshinaga; Goto, Keisuke; Adachi, Koji; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Osamu


    Tick bite is known as a possible cause of some infectious diseases such as Lyme disease, spotted fever and related illnesses. The reaction to a tick bite may persist for several months to several years and can sometimes cause histopathological granuloma. The long-term reaction to salivary extracts from the tick could be responsible for development of granuloma in our patient. We recommended complete resection as the only sure way to treat formed granuloma.

  4. Case Report of a Newborn Injured By Human Bite

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    Emel Ataoğlu


    Full Text Available Bite is a type of wound received from the teeth of an animal, including humans. Human bites are third leading cause of all bites after dog and cat bites. Human bites are severe wounds due to the risk of contamination with mix oral flora and rapid tissue destruction. Bite wounds created by humans are seen in variety of circumstances including aggression, rape, murder, and child abuse. Oral cavity contains beta-hemolytic streptococci, anaerobes and other microorganisms. There have been reported cases of septicemia, severe necrotizing fasciitis, HIV infection, and death caused by human bites. Early reporting and treatment of bite wounds decrease the number and severity of wound infection. Here, we present the case of human bite in a nine-day-old girl and discuss the treatment approaches in the light of the relevant literature.

  5. Tracking people through partial occlusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-guo; CAI An-ni


    This article presents a novel people-tracking approach to cope with partial occlusions caused by scene objects. Instead of predicting when and where the occlusions will occur, a part-based model is used to model the pixel distribution of the target body under occlusion. The subdivided patches corresponding to a template image will be tracked independently using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. A set of voting-based rules is established for the patch-tracking result to verify if the target is indeed located at the estimated position. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Large cerebral vessel occlusive disease in Lyme neuroborreliosis. (United States)

    Klingebiel, R; Benndorf, G; Schmitt, M; von Moers, A; Lehmann, R


    We report on a 12-year-old, previously healthy girl with an acute hemiparesis as the predominant clinical manifestation of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). The diagnosis of LNB was based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies, laboratory findings and the clinical course whereas the patient's history and the lack of characteristic skin lesions obscured the diagnosis in the beginning. After four weeks of antibiotic and physiotherapeutic treatment, the hemiparetic symptoms had completely resolved. Although evidence of vasculitic and perivascular inflammation in LNB has been described in the literature, large cerebral vessel occlusive disease represents a rare finding. Appropriate treatment strategies can lead to good clinical rehabilitation, as shown in this case, making the timely diagnosis a crucial issue. We conclude that LNB should be considered in every stroke-like episode of unknown origin in children, even in the absence of a history of a tick bite or typical skin lesions.

  7. Maxillomandibular relationship in TMD patients before and after short-term flat plane bite plate therapy. (United States)

    Fu, Alexander S; Mehta, Noshir R; Forgione, Albert G; Al-Badawi, Emad A; Zawawi, Khalid H


    This study assessed the maxillomandibular relationship in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients, before and after short-term, flat plane bite plate therapy. It was of interest to determine the incidence and degree of mandibular deviation in a group of TMD patients and whether the mandible would shift to the midline and consequently affect reported symptoms. Seventeen female and three male subjects (age range 19-60) were included in the study. Thirteen subjects were diagnosed with myofascial pain while seven were diagnosed as exhibiting disk displacement with reduction (Research Diagnostic Criteria). After taking impressions for these subjects, casts were fabricated and mounted. Maxillomandibular relationship was evaluated by the Denar Centric Check system (Anaheim, CA). The maxillary and mandibular labial frena were used as a reference to evaluate mandibular shift. Symptom questionnaires were used to assess temporomandibular joint pain and clicking. All subjects exhibited deviation (12 subjects to the right and 8 subjects to the left) prior to bite plate therapy. After flat plane bite plate therapy, the mandibular position of all subjects shifted toward the labial frenum midline position. Based on the Binomial test, the shift was significant (p occlusal obstructions are eliminated, the mandible will drift to this position.

  8. Occlusion, transparency, and lightness. (United States)

    Albert, Marc K


    The lightness of a visual surface is its perceived achromatic reflectance [Adelson, E. H., (2000). Lightness perception and lightness illusions. In M. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The new cognitive neuroscience (2nd ed.) (pp. 339-351) Berlin: Springer; Gilchrist, A. (1999). Lightness perception. In R. W. F. Keil (Ed.), MIT encyclopedia of cognitive science (pp. 471-472). Cambridge: MIT press]. Lightness ranges from black, through various shades of grey, up to white. Anderson and Winawer [Anderson, B., Winawer, J. (2005). Image segmentation and lightness perception. Nature, 434, 79-83] suggested that perceptual decomposition of image luminance into multiple sources in different layers (e.g., perceptual transparency) is critical to the their lightness illusions. However, I show that simple perceptual occlusion evoked by T-junctions will work as well, suggesting that perceptual scission of luminance into multiple layers is unnecessary for such effects. I argue that the lightness illusions presented by Anderson and Winawer involve fundamentally different mechanisms than previously studied lightness illusions, including those involving perceptual transparency.

  9. Comparison of Radiography, Laser Fluorescence, and Visual Examination in Diagnosing Incipient OcclusalCaries of Permanent First Molars


    Zahra Bahrololoomi; Fateme Ezoddini; Niloofar Halvani3


    Objectives: Early diagnosis of incipient and non cavitated carious lesions is crucial for performing preventive treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the effi- ciency of three diagnostic methods of bite-wing radiography, DIAGNOdent, and visu- al examination in diagnosing the incipient occlusal caries of permanent first molars.Materials and Methods:  In this diagnostic cross-sectional study, 109 premanent first molar teeth of 31 patients aged 7-13 years were examined visually by bit...

  10. Computerized occlusal analysis in bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vojkan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep bruxism as nocturnal parafunction, also known as tooth grinding, is the most common parasomnia (sleep disorder. Most tooth grinding occurs during rapid eye movement - REM sleep. Sleep bruxism is an oral habit characterized by rhythmic activity of the masticatory muscles (m. masseter that causes forced contact between dental surfaces during sleep. Sleep bruxism has been associated with craniomandibular disorders including temporomandibular joint discomfort, pulpalgia, premature loss of teeth due to excessive attrition and mobility, headache, muscle ache, sleep interruption of an individual and problems with removable and fixed denture. Basically, two groups of etiological factors can be distinguished, viz., peripheral (occlusal factors and central (pathophysiological and psychological factors. The role of occlusion (occlusal discrepancies as the causative factor is not enough mentioned in relation to bruxism. Objective. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the connection between occlusal factors and nocturnal parafunctional activities (occlusal disharmonies and bruxism. Method. Two groups were formed- experimental of 15 persons with signs and symptoms of nocturnal parafunctional activity of mandible (mean age 26.6 years and control of 42 persons with no signs and symptoms of bruxism (mean age 26.3 yrs.. The computerized occlusal analyses were performed using the T-Scan II system (Tekscan, Boston, USA. 2D occlusograms were analyzed showing the occlusal force, the center of the occlusal force with the trajectory and the number of antagonistic tooth contacts. Results. Statistically significant difference of force distribution was found between the left and the right side of the arch (L%-R% (t=2.773; p<0.02 in the group with bruxism. The difference of the centre of occlusal force - COF trajectory between the experimental and control group was not significant, but the trajectory of COF was longer in the group of

  11. Using sensitivity analysis to validate the predictions of a biomechanical model of bite forces. (United States)

    Sellers, William Irvin; Crompton, Robin Huw


    Biomechanical modelling has become a very popular technique for investigating functional anatomy. Modern computer simulation packages make producing such models straightforward and it is tempting to take the results produced at face value. However the predictions of a simulation are only valid when both the model and the input parameters are accurate and little work has been done to verify this. In this paper a model of the human jaw is produced and a sensitivity analysis is performed to validate the results. The model is built using the ADAMS multibody dynamic simulation package incorporating the major occlusive muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoids) as well as a highly mobile temporomandibular joint. This model is used to predict the peak three-dimensional bite forces at each teeth location, joint reaction forces, and the contributions made by each individual muscle. The results for occlusive bite-force (1080N at M1) match those previously published suggesting the model is valid. The sensitivity analysis was performed by sampling the input parameters from likely ranges and running the simulation many times rather than using single, best estimate values. This analysis shows that the magnitudes of the peak retractive forces on the lower teeth were highly sensitive to the chosen origin (and hence fibre direction) of the temporalis and masseter muscles as well as the laxity of the TMJ. Peak protrusive force was also sensitive to the masseter origin. These result shows that the model is insufficiently complex to estimate these values reliably although the much lower sensitivity values obtained for the bite forces in the other directions and also for the joint reaction forces suggest that these predictions are sound. Without the sensitivity analysis it would not have been possible to identify these weaknesses which strongly supports the use of sensitivity analysis as a validation technique for biomechanical modelling.

  12. Instrument for measuring human biting force (United States)

    Kopola, Harri K.; Mantyla, Olavi; Makiniemi, Matti; Mahonen, Kalevi; Virtanen, Kauko


    Alongside EMG activity, biting force is the primary parameter used for assessing the biting problems of dentulous patients and patients with dentures. In a highly conductive oral cavity, dielectric measurement methods are preferred, for safety reasons. The maximum biting force for patients with removable dentures is not more than 100 ... 300 N. We report here on an instrument developed for measuring human biting force which consists of three units: a mouthpiece, a signal processing and interface unit (SPI), and a PC. The mouthpiece comprises a sensor head of thickness 3.4 mm, width 20 mm and length 30 mm constructed of two stainless steel plates and with a fiber optic microbending sensor between them. This is connected to the SPI unit by a three-meter fiber optic cable, and the SPI unit to the PC by an RS connection. A computer program has been developed that includes measurement, display, zeroing, and calibration operations. The instrument measures biting force as a function of time and displays the time-dependent force profile and maximum force on a screen or plots it in hard copy. The dynamic measurement range of the mouthpiece is from 0 to 1000 N, and the resolution of the instrument is 10 N. The results of preliminary clinical measurements and repeatability tests are reported.

  13. Clinical issues in occlusion - Part II. (United States)

    Patel, Mahul; Alani, Aws


    Occlusal diagnosis plays an important role in the planning and subsequent delivery of predictable functional and aesthetic restorations and prostheses. Once an occlusal problem is identified there are a number of techniques and materials that can be utilised to record occlusal relationships, subsequently analyse them and incorporate information obtained into the delivery of tooth restoration or replacement. This paper discusses the clinical and technical aspects of occlusal examination and analysis outlining contemporary and traditional techniques in their utilisation. Aspects of occlusal examination will be revisited; the identification and recording of centric occlusion as well as subsequent articulation will be discussed. The requirement for occlusal splint provision will also be discussed and illustrated.

  14. Evaluation of occlusal factors in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Dória Costa


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the relation between the main occlusal factors and the temporomandibular disorder (TMD. METHODS: We analyzed 100 patients (50 diagnosed with TMD and 50 asymptomatic volunteers, control group through a questionnaire that classified TMD as absent, mild, moderate and severe. Then, an evaluation was made of intraoral occlusal factors: Absence of posterior teeth, wear facets, overjet, overbite, open bite, posterior crossbite, sagittal relationship (Class I, II and III, centric relation discrepancy for maximum intercuspation, anterior guidance and balancing occlusal interference. The c² examined the association between TMD and considered occlusal variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of studied occlusal factors was higher in patients with moderate and severe TMD. Statistically significant results were found on: Absence of five or more posterior teeth, overbite and overjet greater than 5 mm, edge-to-edge bite, posterior crossbite, Class II and III, the absence of effective anterior guide and balancing side interferences. CONCLUSIONS: Indeed, it is concluded that there is a relationship between TMD and occlusal factors, however it can not be told to what extent these factors are predisposing, precipitating or perpetuating the disease. Therefore, despite its multifactorial etiology, one can not neglect the occlusal analysis of these patients.OBJETIVO: o presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a prevalência e relação dos principais fatores oclusais com a disfunção temporomandibular. MÉTODOS: foram analisados 100 pacientes (50 com diagnóstico de DTM e 50 voluntários assintomáticos, grupo controle através de um questionário para classificação do grau de DTM, em ausente, leve, moderada e severa. Em seguida, foi realizada uma avaliação intrabucal dos fatores oclusais ausência de dentes posteriores, facetas de desgaste, overjet, overbite, mordida aberta anterior, mordida

  15. Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns related to the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Campos Romero


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional, immunological and psychological benefts of exclusive breastfeeding for the frst 6 months of life are unequivocally recognized. However, mothers should also be aware of the importance of breastfeeding for promoting adequate oral development. This study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns and the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking were investigated in a 3-6 year-old sample of 1,377 children, from São Paulo city, Brazil. Children were grouped according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - shorter than 6 months, G3 - interruption between 6 and 12 months, and G4 - longer than 12 months. Three calibrated dentists performed clinical examinations and classifed overbite into 3 categories: normal, anterior open bite and deep bite. Chi-square tests (p<0.05 with odds ratio (OR calculation were used for intergroup comparisons. The impact of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking on the prevalence of anterior open bite was analyzed using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence estimates of anterior open bite were: 31.9% (G1, 26.1% (G2, 22.1% (G3, and 6.2% (G4. G1 would have signifcantly more chances of having anterior open bite compared with G4; in the total sample (OR=7.1 and in the subgroup without history of non-nutritive sucking (OR=9.3. Prolonging breastfeeding for 12 months was associated with a 3.7 times lower chance of having anterior open bite. In each year of persistence with non-nutritive sucking habits, the chance of developing this malocclusion increased in 2.38 times. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking durations demonstrated opposite effects on the prediction of anterior open bite. Non-breastfed children presented signifcantly greater chances of having anterior open bite compared with those who were breastfed for periods longer than 12 months

  16. Model surgery technique for Le Fort I osteotomy--alteration in occlusal plane associated with upward transposition of posterior maxilla. (United States)

    Yosano, Akira; Yamamoto, Masae; Shouno, Takahiro; Shiiki, Sayaka; Hamase, Maki; Kasahara, Kiyohiro; Takaki, Takashi; Takano, Nobuo; Uchiyama, Takeshi; Shibahara, Takahiko


    It is difficult to translate analytical values into accurate model surgery by traditional methods, especially when moving the posterior maxilla. This is because cephalometric radiographic analysis generated information on movement of the posterior nasal spine (PNS) can not be recreated in model surgery. Therefore, we propose a method that accurately reflects such analysis and simulation of movement using Quick Ceph 2000 (Orthodontic Processing Corporation, USA). This will allow the enrichment of model surgery prior to actual surgery in cases where upward movement of the posterior maxilla is involved. All patients who participated in this study had skeletal mandibular prognathism characterized by a small occlusal plane angle in respect to the S-N plane. Cephalometric radiographs were taken and analyzed with the Quick Ceph 2000. Pre- and post-surgical evaluations were performed using Sassouni arc analysis and Ricketts analysis. Prior to transposition, we then prepared an anterior occlusal bite record on a model mounted on an articulator. This bite was then used as a reference when the molar parts were to be transposed upwards. The use of a occlusal bite permitted an accurate translation of the preoperative computer simulation into model surgery, thus facilitating favorable surgical results.

  17. Occlusal Traits of Primary Dentition among Pre-School Children of Mehsana District, North Gujarat, India (United States)

    Gordhanbhai Patel, Dhvani; Ranadheer, Eraveni; Kalgudi, Jayasudha; Santokì, Jaysukh; Chaudhary, Shaila


    Introduction Aesthetic and functional problems in the dentofacial complex among children are often attributed to the disturbances in the dentofacial growth and development. This can be recognized during routine dental visits. This study pursued to assess the occlusion of the primary dentition in three to five-year-old children. Aim To study the occlusal traits of the primary dentition in a group of three to five-year-old North Gujarat children of Mehsana district and the variation in their occlusion relative to age and gender in the same group. Materials and Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey based on clinical examination and photographic evaluation of the primary dentition, 383 preschool children aged three to five years who were randomly selected from preschools in Mehsana district, Gujarat, India, using a multistage sampling technique. The study group was evaluated for the several occlusal parameters that include primary molar relation based on Baume classification and canine relation, overjet, overbite were assessed using Foster and Hamilton criteria. Chi-square test was performed to carry out statistical analysis. The p-value<0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results Out of 383 participants, 55.35% had flush terminal plane; 43.34% mesial step molar relationship and 1.31% distal step molar relationship, 63.2% had straight profile, 95.8% had Class I canine relationship, 71.3% primate spaces, 56.7% physiologic spaces. Flush terminal plane was common at three years while, mesial step at four to five years, and Class I canine relationship was prevalent in both age groups. Flush terminal plane was more common in female participants than the males. Amongst other occlusal characteristics, increased overbite and open bite were prevalent. Conclusion It was found that the flush terminal plane molar relationship, straight profile, Class I canine relationship, primate spacing, increased overbite and open bite predominated.

  18. The role of intercuspal occlusal relationships in temporomandibular disorders: a review. (United States)

    Seligman, D A; Pullinger, A G


    The purpose of this review is to highlight consensus in past research on the role of intercuspal occlusal factors in the pathophysiology of temporomandibular disorders. The occlusal intercuspal relationships considered are skeletal anterior open bite, overbite, overjet, symmetry of contacts in the retruded contact position (RCP), crossbite, and posterior occlusal support. Skeletal anterior open bite, reduced overbite, and increased overjet are associated with osteoarthritic TMJ patients, but lack specificity for defining patient populations per se. There is no evidence that overbite or overjet plays a role in the pathophysiology of nonarthritic disorders. A combination of unilateral RCP with an absence of a clinically apparent RCP-ICP (intercuspal position) slide may encourage TMJ disc displacement, but unilateral RCP per se was not associated with TMJ diagnoses. Crossbite does not seem to provoke TMJ symptoms or disease. Lost molar support may be associated with osteoarthrosis presence and severity, but studies have not yet been distinguished for age effects. Where appropriate, implications for clinical practice are drawn.

  19. Guiding occlusal development with functional appliances. (United States)

    Nielsen, I L


    Functional appliances have been used in orthodontics since their introduction by Pierre Robin almost one hundred years ago, however, our understanding of how they bring about orthodontic correction is still limited. This article is a brief overview of their history, mode of action, advantages and disadvantages, and includes the results of a study of attempts to control and minimise their side-effects using a recent development in functional appliances: the 'Teuscher Appliance'. This appliance combines a high-pull headgear with the activator, and is designed to reduce the often reported side-effects of functional appliances. The skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of treatment with the Teuscher Appliance on 40 consecutively-treated patients are reported and illustrated with four individual case reports. The results showed that the skeletal effect on the maxilla was a retardation of the normal forward and downward growth in 80 per cent of the cases, and that mandibular growth in 70 per cent of cases was forward. In patients whose mandibular growth was primarily in a vertical direction, such growth could be ascribed mainly to posterior rotation of the maxilla and/or the fact that the acrylic covering the lower posterior teeth to correct a deep bite was removed, promoting the eruption of these teeth and increasing the anterior vertical development. The dentoalveolar changes were characterised by retroclination of the maxillary incisors in 90 per cent of the patients, and were due to insufficient torque control by the built-in torque springs, which need further development. The mandibular incisors were well controlled by capping. The statistical analysis showed an inverse correlation between the initial incisor inclination and the change during treatment. This suggests that proclination of the lower incisors, as previously reported, is not a contra-indication to functional appliance treatment, provided the appliance is correctly designed. Overall, this study showed

  20. Jaw-motor effects of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress in patients with deep bite and matched control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter


    OBJECTIVE: The effect of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress on masticatory muscle activity in TMD-patients has been discussed. Furthermore, associations between TMD and deep bite patients have been studied. Accordingly in the present study, comparison of EMG responses at rest, maximal...... clenching, during evoked pain and stress between deep bite patients and controls was investigated. DESIGN: In 30 deep bite patients and in 30 sex-/age-matched controls with neutral occlusion EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from masseter and anterior temporalis muscles before and during evoked pain...... and before and during a stress task. Evoked pain was induced by injections of glutamate into the masseter (local pain) and brachioradialis (remote pain) muscles and resting EMG activity was recorded before and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10min. A precision task was used to simulate a stressful condition and EMG...

  1. Tick Bite by Nymphal Amblyomma testudinarium (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Ho; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Young Min


    Ticks are parasites that usually suck the blood of wild or domestic animals; rarely, they ingest human blood and spread various febrile infectious diseases along with skin problems. Out of 40 cases of tick bite reported in Korea, only 3 were caused by nymphal ticks, and tick bites by nymphal Amblyomma testudinarium have not been reported previously. Herein, we report a rare case of tick bite by nymphal A. testudinarium. A 57-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic solitary erythematous nodule on the left thigh that had been present for 6 days. The tick, which the patient removed from the lesion and brought to the hospital, was identified as a nymphal A. testudinarium. Doxycycline (200 mg) was used as treatment, and after seven days of use, the patient improved and no other lesions were detected. PMID:27904278

  2. [In relation to Cleopatra and snake bites]. (United States)

    Espinoza, R


    Cleopatra VII, one of the last Egyptian sovereigns of the ptolomeic dynasty, is envisioned as a mythic figure, surrounded by intrigues and mystery. her mysterious death was caused, according to history, by a snake bite. This article shows some instances of great Cleopatra's life and the state of the art on snake venoms. Even at the present time, snake bites are a public health problem in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, causing more than 25,000 deaths every year. Most snake venoms have a protein structure and cause neurotoxic and hemolytic effects, altering coagulation and fibrinolysis. The mortality due to snake bites fluctuates between 1 and 22%. Specific treatment includes the use of specific antiserums with highly purified components.

  3. Taking the Bite out of Bruxism (For Kids) (United States)

    ... the Operating Room? Taking the Bite Out of Bruxism KidsHealth > For Kids > Taking the Bite Out of ... have bruxism (say: BRUK-siz-um). What Is Bruxism? Bruxism is the term for grinding or clenching ...

  4. Bite Angle Effects in Hydroformylation Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    van LEEUWEN


    Recent advances in rhodium catalyzed hydroformylation using xanthene-based ligands will be reviewed.The calculated natural bite angles of the ligands discussed are in the range 100-123℃ While the general trend is clear-higher 1:b ratios at wider angles, small changes in the bite angle do not exhibit a regular effect on the selectivity of the reaction.The same is true for the rate of CO dissociation;the larger the rate of the CO dissociation, the larger the rate of hydroformylation, but for small changes the effects do not comply with this rule.

  5. Bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes after a cat bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz


    Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....

  6. Cheek-biting disorder: another stereotypic movement disorder? (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sujit; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Akhtar, Sayeed


    Recurrent cheek biting, a form of self-injurious behavior is a rare entity which presents mostly to dentists and dermatologists. We report a case of recurrent severe cheek biting in an adult male leading to mucosal ulceration. The stereotypic pattern of cheek biting and associated behavior bears striking resemblance to other impulse control disorders.

  7. Occlusion-Aware View Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Konrad


    Full Text Available View interpolation is an essential step in content preparation for multiview 3D displays, free-viewpoint video, and multiview image/video compression. It is performed by establishing a correspondence among views, followed by interpolation using the corresponding intensities. However, occlusions pose a significant challenge, especially if few input images are available. In this paper, we identify challenges related to disparity estimation and view interpolation in presence of occlusions. We then propose an occlusion-aware intermediate view interpolation algorithm that uses four input images to handle the disappearing areas. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, all pixels in view to be computed are classified in terms of their visibility in the input images. Then, disparity for each pixel is estimated from different image pairs depending on the computed visibility map. Finally, luminance/color of each pixel is adaptively interpolated from an image pair selected by its visibility label. Extensive experimental results show striking improvements in interpolated image quality over occlusion-unaware interpolation from two images and very significant gains over occlusion-aware spline-based reconstruction from four images, both on synthetic and real images. Although improvements are obvious only in the vicinity of object boundaries, this should be useful in high-quality 3D applications, such as digital 3D cinema and ultra-high resolution multiview autostereoscopic displays, where distortions at depth discontinuities are highly objectionable, especially if they vary with viewpoint change.

  8. Occlusion-Aware View Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Serdar


    Full Text Available Abstract View interpolation is an essential step in content preparation for multiview 3D displays, free-viewpoint video, and multiview image/video compression. It is performed by establishing a correspondence among views, followed by interpolation using the corresponding intensities. However, occlusions pose a significant challenge, especially if few input images are available. In this paper, we identify challenges related to disparity estimation and view interpolation in presence of occlusions. We then propose an occlusion-aware intermediate view interpolation algorithm that uses four input images to handle the disappearing areas. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, all pixels in view to be computed are classified in terms of their visibility in the input images. Then, disparity for each pixel is estimated from different image pairs depending on the computed visibility map. Finally, luminance/color of each pixel is adaptively interpolated from an image pair selected by its visibility label. Extensive experimental results show striking improvements in interpolated image quality over occlusion-unaware interpolation from two images and very significant gains over occlusion-aware spline-based reconstruction from four images, both on synthetic and real images. Although improvements are obvious only in the vicinity of object boundaries, this should be useful in high-quality 3D applications, such as digital 3D cinema and ultra-high resolution multiview autostereoscopic displays, where distortions at depth discontinuities are highly objectionable, especially if they vary with viewpoint change.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henni Koesmaningati


    Full Text Available The cases of TMD are complex and multifactorial, therefore the management should be done by several disciplines. In this report, a 27-year-old man came to the teaching hospital of the University of Indonesia Faculty of Dentistry’s Prosthodontic Department complaining about clicking sound and pain around his right joint. He received orthodontic treatment 9 years ago with removable appliance at a private practice and had 4 premolar extractions. The patient’s face looked asymmetric, with a low vertical dimension, a Class II occlusion, and an anterior deep bite. Besides that, he clenched his teeth during emotional stress. Lateral transcranial photo showed that the position of the left condyle was relatively normal or slightly anterior, and the right condyle was in the superoposterior position in the fossa with an abnormal shape. To solve this problem, the patient was referred to the Orthodontic Department to get a correct vertical dimension and normal anterior overbite. After 6 years, the patient was again referred to the Prosthodontic Department, but the result was not successful. In order to get the right vertical dimension, an occlusal splint was fabricated to achieve a comfort jaw relation. In this position, the overbite was 2 mm, but the space between the upper and lower posterior teeth was 5 mm. In this situation, full veneer crowns were not impossible to fabricate. Finally, to maintain this comfort position, the patient was suggested to wear the occlusal splint and come regularly for control every 6 months.

  10. Nonsurgical and nonextraction treatment of skeletal Class III open bite: its long-term stability. (United States)

    Kondo, E; Aoba, T J


    Two female patients, aged 14 years 5 months and 17 years 3 months with skeletal Class III open bite and temporomandibular dysfunction are presented. They had previously been classified as orthognathic surgical cases, involving first premolar removal. The primary treatment objective was to eliminate those skeletal and neuromuscular factors that were dominant in establishing their malocclusions. These included abnormal behavior of the tongue with short labial and lingual frenula, bilateral imbalance of chewing muscles, a partially blocked nasopharyngeal airway causing extrusion of the molars, with rotation of the mandible and narrowing of the maxillary arch. Resultant occlusal interference caused the mandible to shift to one side, which in turn produced the abnormal occlusal plane and curve of Spee. As a result, the form and function of the joints were adversely affected by the structural and functional asymmetry. These cases were treated by expanding the maxillary arch, which brought the maxilla downward and forward. The mandible moved downward and backward, with a slight increase in anterior facial height. Intruding and uprighting the posterior teeth, combined with a maxillary protraction, reconstructed the occlusal plane. A favorable perioral environment was created with widened tongue space in order to produce an adequate airway. Myofunctional therapy after lingual and labial frenectomy was assisted by vigorous gum chewing during and after treatment, together with a tooth positioner. Normal nasal breathing was achieved.

  11. EduBites: Cliffs Notes for EPO (United States)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bartolone, L.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Llamas, J.; Hurt, R. L.; Squires, G. K.


    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community’s knowledge and understanding of the educational research papers pertinent to our work. When launched, EduBites will be a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. While we are all aware that we should be basing our E/PO work on a solid research foundation, many people in the community are pushed for time when it comes to staying on top of the educational literature. EduBites aims to reduce that workload for the benefit of the entire community. Our database will ultimately tackle papers across the whole of the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation, and many other topics. We are keen to hear from anyone on the community who would be interested in joining our review team, and will welcome feedback on the EduBites user experience. EduBites is still currently under development but, when launched, it will be found at

  12. [Surgical management of animal bites in children]. (United States)

    Touzet-Roumazeille, S; Jayyosi, L; Plenier, Y; Guyot, E; Guillard, T; François, C


    Children represent a population at risk, because of their short size, their naivety and their attraction to animals. The face and hands are the most specific locations in young children. Wounds are often multiple. In more than half the cases, the child knows the animal, which are dogs and cats by frequency argument. The bite episode occurs mostly when the child is alone with the pet without direct supervision, while playing or stroking the animal. As in all bites, pediatric lesions are infectious, functional and aesthetic emergencies, but the goal of this work was primarily to make a point on principles of surgical management of animal bites in children, highlighting pediatric specificities. Animal bites require psychological, anesthetic and surgical treatment, adapted to the child, in a specialized structure. Hospitalization and general anesthesia are more frequent in children. Any suspicion of mistreatment (and/or abuse) should lead to the child's hospitalization, even if wounds do not justify monitoring in a surgical environment. Emergency surgery is essential to limit functional and aesthetic consequences. The healing capacities of the child and the frequent lack of co-morbidity allow a conservative surgical treatment with suture, repositioning skin flaps and controlled healing in the first place. Immobilization, drainage, and antibiotics will complete the surgery. The healing process, however, leads to a specific management during scar remodeling phase and growth. Psychological care of the child and parents should not be forgotten, and has to start at the same time as surgical treatment at in acute phase.

  13. Endograft Limb Occlusion in EVAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, M; Jensen, L P; Vogt, K C


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and outcome of graft limb occlusions after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in a high volume single centre. To quantify iliac artery tortuosity in patients with AAA and correlate this with limb occlusion. DESIGN: Data were...... collected consecutively and prospectively, and analyzed retrospectively. MATERIALS: Patients treated with Zenith bifurcated stent grafts from January 2000 to December 2010 at a tertiary referral vascular unit were analyzed. Routine regular office follow-up with computed tomography angiography (CTA) and......, subsequently, duplex ultrasound imaging was performed. Patients with limb occlusions were identified. For each index patient, two controls were obtained, one immediately preceding and one following the index patient in the consecutive cohort of EVAR patients. METHODS: Demographics and CTA data on limb graft...

  14. Neuroretinitis with Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ahmadi


    Full Text Available We report a case of Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis with significant disc and peripapillary edema, branch retinal artery occlusion without macula involvement and well preserved central vision. A 15-year-old female presented with loss of vision over 4 weeks in the left eye. She had a history of cat exposure, but a cat scratch, insect bite or conjunctivitis was not reported. An inferotemporal arcuate scotoma developed during the acute phase and persisted over the course of the follow-up.

  15. Homicide by direct snake bite: a case of contract killing. (United States)

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Borkar, Jaydeo Laxman; Meshram, Satin Kalidas


    It has been estimated that five million snake bite cases occur worldwide every year, causing about 100,000 deaths. Snake bite is exclusively accidental in nature. Suicide by snake bite is very rare and homicidal snake bite is not reported. In the present case, a contract killer was hired, who used a poisonous snake to kill an elderly couple by way of direct snake bite. We believe this to be the first case reported where a snake was directly used for the murder of two victims through a contract killer.

  16. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea


    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  17. Evolution of occlusal pathology. A literature review.



    Introduction: Many of the guidelines on occlusion and treatment alternatives in dentate and partially edentulous patients, are based on concepts raised in the beginning of dentistry. The diversity of the occlusion schools has become some of these concepts complex to understand and apply. This diversity makes difficult the compression of the occlusal physiology and its disorders, hindering the understanding of the occlusal pathology and its proper diagnosis and management. Objective: This is w...

  18. Cephalometric analysis for functional occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Karad


    Full Text Available Background: Various elements contributing to good functional occlusion have not been clearly assessed with cephalometrics for the diagnosis of functional problems and their application in clinical practice. The aim of this study, therefore, was to analyze different components of functional occlusion to formulate concise functional cephalometric analysis. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two cases (38 males and 44 females, with class I occlusion and balanced facial profile, were examined based on the selection criteria, and cephalograms were taken in natural head position. All the radiographs were then analyzed using various functional parameters. Results: The mean values of condylar path angle and incisal path angle were 55.83° and 65.67°, respectively, with large deviations. However, both showed positive correlation. The value of the angle of long axis of mandibular incisor with respect to the line joining center of condyle and lower incisor tip was 88.04°. Moreover, the angle between the occlusal plane and horizontal plane was 12.88°. In vertical plane, lower face height (LFH was found to be slightly less than the upper face height. Maxilla contributed around 45% of the LFH while mandible formed about 60%. Furthermore, upper alveolar component (maxillary alveolar height formed more than half of the maxilla (53.79% whereas lower alveolar component (mandibular alveolar height was 74.8% of the mandible. Conclusion: This study has analyzed various components of functional occlusion and formulated a concise functional cephalometric analysis for diagnosis, treatment planning, and assessment of treatment results.

  19. Retention of complete maxillary dentures measured as resistance against unilateral occlusal loading. (United States)

    Fløystrand, F; Orstavik, J S


    Complete maxillary dentures were tested for their ability to remain in place when subjected to unilateral occlusal loads. The test material comprised five persons, each supplied with three identical dentures. The denture design was based on the principles of 1) functionally determined filling-in of the vestibular sulcus, 2) palatal coverage to the vibration line without post dam, 3) aesthetically governed positioning of the front teeth, and 4) positioning of the lateral teeth in the plane connecting the top of the residual ridge with the central part of the occlusal surface of the antagonizing natural teeth. Resistance to unilateral occlusal loads was measured by means of a miniature bite force sensor. In the pooled material, an average load of 70 N was tolerated before the dentures were dislodged. For a given participant/denture combination, the resistance against dislodgment varied considerably when tested on different days. Marked differences were also found among three identical dentures in one person. The tolerance against unilateral occlusal loads could feasibly be quantified. However, the influence of specific clinical and/or technological factors on denture retention during function should be studied only if strict definitions as to the test conditions are given. These conditions must include the time, person, and denture tested.

  20. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks. (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J


    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  1. The influence of bubbles on the perception carbonation bite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Wise

    Full Text Available Although many people naively assume that the bite of carbonation is due to tactile stimulation of the oral cavity by bubbles, it has become increasingly clear that carbonation bite comes mainly from formation of carbonic acid in the oral mucosa. In Experiment 1, we asked whether bubbles were in fact required to perceive carbonation bite. Subjects rated oral pungency from several concentrations of carbonated water both at normal atmospheric pressure (at which bubbles could form and at 2.0 atmospheres pressure (at which bubbles did not form. Ratings of carbonation bite under the two pressure conditions were essentially identical, indicating that bubbles are not required for pungency. In Experiment 2, we created controlled streams of air bubbles around the tongue in mildly pungent CO2 solutions to determine how tactile stimulation from bubbles affects carbonation bite. Since innocuous sensations like light touch and cooling often suppress pain, we predicted that bubbles might reduce rated bite. Contrary to prediction, air bubbles flowing around the tongue significantly enhanced rated bite, without inducing perceived bite in blank (un-carbonated solutions. Accordingly, though bubbles are clearly not required for carbonation bite, they may well modulate perceived bite. More generally, the results show that innocuous tactile stimulation can enhance chemogenic pain. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed.

  2. The influence of bubbles on the perception carbonation bite. (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Wolf, Madeline; Thom, Stephen R; Bryant, Bruce


    Although many people naively assume that the bite of carbonation is due to tactile stimulation of the oral cavity by bubbles, it has become increasingly clear that carbonation bite comes mainly from formation of carbonic acid in the oral mucosa. In Experiment 1, we asked whether bubbles were in fact required to perceive carbonation bite. Subjects rated oral pungency from several concentrations of carbonated water both at normal atmospheric pressure (at which bubbles could form) and at 2.0 atmospheres pressure (at which bubbles did not form). Ratings of carbonation bite under the two pressure conditions were essentially identical, indicating that bubbles are not required for pungency. In Experiment 2, we created controlled streams of air bubbles around the tongue in mildly pungent CO2 solutions to determine how tactile stimulation from bubbles affects carbonation bite. Since innocuous sensations like light touch and cooling often suppress pain, we predicted that bubbles might reduce rated bite. Contrary to prediction, air bubbles flowing around the tongue significantly enhanced rated bite, without inducing perceived bite in blank (un-carbonated) solutions. Accordingly, though bubbles are clearly not required for carbonation bite, they may well modulate perceived bite. More generally, the results show that innocuous tactile stimulation can enhance chemogenic pain. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwanur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4/100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4-789.2/100,000 person years. Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71% receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted.

  4. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G.; Jespersen, Jørgen B.


    Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to Seed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance...... and a contributory factor in the transmission of diseases. The authors examine the biology, economic importance and control of four of the most important nonbiting muscids:...

  5. Assessment of pain sensitivity in patients with deep bite and sex- and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte; Svensson, Peter


    AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pain...... was scored by the subjects ( n = 60) on a 0 to 10 cm visual analog scale. Subjects drew the perceived pain area on a face and arm chart and described the quality of pain on the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Thresholds for cold detection, cold pain, cold tolerance, warmth detection, heat pain, and heat tolerance...... were assessed on the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Pressure pain threshold and pain tolerance threshold were determined on the temporomandibular joint, masseter, anterior temporalis, and brachioradialis muscles. The differences between groups, age, and gender were tested by two-way ANOVA...

  6. 前牙反(牙合)与正常(牙合)自然舌姿势位的比较%Comparison of tongue postures at rest position between anterior cross-bite and normal bite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若萱; 吕亚林; 殷戬; 张伟; 李国庆


    Objective To compare tongue positions at rest between normal occlusion people and patients with anterior cross-bite malocclusions,and to explore whether there is any abnormality in the tongue position of the anterior cross-bite malocclusions.Methods Twenty adults of normal bite (8 males and 12 females,with an average age of 23.8 years) and 20 adults of anterior cross-bite (1 1males and 9 females,with an average age of 24.6 years) were involved in this study.The position habits of tongue were investigated by a questionnaire.The tongue positions,which were enhanced by applying barium to tongue and palatal surface,were compared by cephalometric roentgenogram.Two groups were compared by t-test to determine the variation of anterior cross-bite. Results In normal occlusion group,the dorsum of tongues was sealed with all palatal surfaces except uvula site.In anterior cross bite group,tongues were far from palate,and were difficult to lift.The profile of tongue showed standing upright forward and up in normal occlusion group,while inclining back and low in anterior cross-bite group.The tops of tongue dorsum sites were at the border of soft and hard palate in normal occlusion group.While in anterior cross bite group,the tops of tongue dorsum sites were at the border of uvula and soft palate.In anterior cross-bite group,the tongue-to palate distance was bigger than that of normal occlusion group (P<0.01).However,both length and height of the tongue had no significant differences between two groups (P>0.05).Conclusions In anterior cross-bite patients,tongue positions were lower than that of normal occlusion people.%目的 通过比较前牙反(牙合)和正常(牙合)在息止(牙合)位时舌的自然姿势特征,探讨前牙反(牙合)患者的舌位置是否有特征性变化.方法 征集正常(牙合)志愿者20名(男8名,女12名,正常(牙合)组),平均年龄23.8岁;反黯患者20名(男11名,女9名,前牙反(牙合)组),平均年龄24.6岁.问诊调查舌的

  7. Occlusal stability in shortened dental arches. (United States)

    Witter, D J; Creugers, N H; Kreulen, C M; de Haan, A F


    Shortened dental arches consisting of anterior and premolar teeth have been shown to meet oral functional demands. However, the occlusal stability may be at risk as a result of tooth migration. The aim of this nine-year study was to investigate occlusal stability in shortened dental arches as a function over time. Occlusal stability indicators were: 'interdental spacing', 'occlusal contacts of anterior teeth in Intercuspal Position', 'overbite', 'occlusal tooth wear', and 'alveolar bone support'. Subjects with shortened dental arches (n = 74) were compared with subjects with complete dental arches (controls, n = 72). Repeated-measurement regression analyses were applied to assess age-dependent variables in the controls and to relate the occlusal changes to the period of time since the treatment that led to the shortened dental arches. Compared with complete dental arches, shortened dental arches had similar overbite and occlusal tooth wear. They showed more interdental spacing in the premolar regions, more anterior teeth in occlusal contact, and lower alveolar bone scores. Since the differences remained constant over time, we conclude that shortened dental arches can provide long-term occlusal stability. Occlusal changes were self-limiting, indicating a new occlusal equilibrium.

  8. Association of malocclusion and functional occlusion with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in adults: a systematic review of population-based studies. (United States)

    Gesch, Dietmar; Bernhardt, Olaf; Kirbschus, Antje


    The aim of this systematic review of population-based studies was to establish whether or not associations exist between different types of malocclusions, as well as factors of functional occlusion (eg, occlusal interferences, nonworking-side occlusal contacts) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in adults 20 years or older. Defined criteria were employed in the search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, as well as in a manual search. Finally, using inclusion criteria (eg, random sampling from residents' registration office files or census lists, adequate response rates), out of 22 preselected studies, four relevant population-based studies on this subject were found. Eighteen studies were excluded because of insufficient description of material and methods (eg, lack or unclear description of sample method, randomization, age distribution), mixed under- and over-20-year-old study population, or different outcome of interest (eg, tooth loss, dentures). The methodologic quality of the selected studies was established with a quality assessment list. The average total methodologic score achieved was 43 out of a possible 100 points. Few associations were reported between malocclusion and parameters of functional occlusion and clinical as well as subjective TMD, and these associations were not uniform. No particular morphologic or functional occlusal factor became apparent. Additionally, the occlusal factors found were partly protective for TMD, ie, subjects with these occlusal parameters showed fewer signs and symptoms of TMD (angle Class II malocclusion, deep bite, anterior crossbite). A positive relationship was only described in two cases-between the number of rotated lateral teeth and subjective symptoms of dysfunction, and between excessive abrasions and clinical dysfunction. In neither case, however, was the strength of the correlation given. In summary, few associations were established between malocclusion or functional occlusion and signs and symptoms of TMD. In

  9. Tracking facial features with occlusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARKIN Evgeny; PRAKASH Edmond C.


    Facial expression recognition consists of determining what kind of emotional content is presented in a human face.The problem presents a complex area for exploration, since it encompasses face acquisition, facial feature tracking, facial expression classification. Facial feature tracking is of the most interest. Active Appearance Model (AAM) enables accurate tracking of facial features in real-time, but lacks occlusions and self-occlusions. In this paper we propose a solution to improve the accuracy of fitting technique. The idea is to include occluded images into AAM training data. We demonstrate the results by running ex periments using gradient descent algorithm for fitting the AAM. Our experiments show that using fitting algorithm with occluded training data improves the fitting quality of the algorithm.

  10. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Morton, Jane A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Chang, Chao-chin


    Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans) bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) may have prolonged the typical two to three days' incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic. PMID:26885419

  11. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel


    Full Text Available Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin may have prolonged the typical two to three days’ incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic.

  12. Skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion, with anterior open bite and accentuated overjet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márlio Vinícius de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Open bite is defined as a deficiency in normal vertical contact between antagonist teeth and may manifest in a limited region, or more rarely throughout the entire dental arch. If the lack of contact between teeth is located in the incisor and/or canine region when occlusion is in centric relation, it is called anterior open bite (AOB. Some studies have demonstrated that AOB is strongly associated with non-nutritional sucking habit. This article relates the treatment of a female African-Brazilian patient, with 20 years and 7 months of age, who presented Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion, AOB, accentuated overjet, lingual interposition during swallowing and difficulty with pronouncing some phonemes. Orthodontic treatment began by mounting an Edgewise Standard fixed appliance system, with a fixed palatal crib appliance and extraction of maxillary first premolars. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, as part of the requisites to become a BBO Diplomate.

  13. Occlusal status among Yemeni children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M Al-Zubair


    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the occlusal status in schoolchildren in Yemen, and to compare the results with those of other studies. Materials and Methods: The sample for this epidemiological survey consisted of 3003 primary school students, half of whom were boys and the other half girls, aged 12 years. The subjects were randomly selected, and none had received previous orthodontic treatment. Variables examined included intra-arch irregularities and malalignment (crowding and spacing in the incisal segments of the arch and midline diastema and discrepancies in occlusal contact relationship (maxillary overjet, mandibular overjet, anterior openbite and antero-posterior molar relation. Results: The results showed that about 26.1% of the subjects were still in the late mixed dentition stage and 73.9% presented with a dentition in the early permanent stage. Normal overjet was found in 55% of the sample. Crowding was observed in 31.4% of the subjects and midline diastema in 14.2%. Conclusion: Occlusal status among Yemeni children was characterized by a relatively high frequency of dental crowding, as well as a relatively high frequency of anterior mandibular overjet (Class III malocclusions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Snake venom toxicities comprise mainly bleeding disorders and nephrotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a rare manifestation of snake bite. We describe the case of a previously healthy 23 - year - old man who developed coagulopathy and AV node dysfunction following snake bite. Electrocardiography showed all variatio ns of AV conduction dysfunction . This is the first account of AV node dysfu nction caused by a snake bite with cardiotoxi city presenting as atrioventricular block

  15. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure After Fire Ant Bites


    Koya, Supriya; Crenshaw, Daryl; Agarwal, Anupam


    We describe a 59-year-old patient who developed acute renal failure because of rhabdomyolysis after extensive red fire ant bites. This case illustrates a serious systemic reaction that may occur from fire ant bites. Consistent with the clinical presentation in rhabdomyolysis associated with non-traumatic causes, hyperkalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and high anion gap acidosis were not observed in this patient. While local allergic reactions to fire ant bites are described in the lite...

  16. Case report: acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis following viper bite


    Xu, Anyi; Shan, Renfei; Huang, Daochao; Zhou, Jiajia; Keenoo, Anaswasseem; Qin, Jie


    Abstract The most serious complications of the central nervous system that occur after venomous snake bite are intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. We present a rarely seen central nervous system complication, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, after a treated Deinagkistrodon's viper bite. On April 5, 2015, a 50-year-old male farmer was bitten on his right leg by a Deinagkistrodon's viper. The bite rendered the victim unconscious for 14 days, during which he was treated with tetan...

  17. Utilization of a modified bite guard for preventing traumatic macroglossia. (United States)

    Karayazgan-Saracoglu, Banu; Kecik, Defne


    This clinical report describes the treatment of a patient having traumatic macroglossia due to schwannoma in the craniocervical region. Enlarged tongue or macroglossia may compromise vital functions of the patient. To avoid a chronic tongue bite trauma, a bite guard that was inspired from a habit breaker was fabricated. Tongue injury has significantly healed with the use of this appliance, and the patient was able to masticate without biting on his tongue.

  18. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Manfredini, D.; Winocur, E.


    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion (‘the bite’) are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query ‘Bruxism [Majr] AN

  19. Bilateral parotid enlargement following snake bite:A rare sign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madi Deepak; Achappa Basavaprabhu; John T Ramapuram; Chowta Nithyananda; Soundarya Mahalingam


    Snakebite is a common medical emergency in India. Unusual complications may occur after viper bite. Bilateral parotid enlargement after viper bite is a rare entity. An 18-year old gentleman presented to our hospital with history of viper bite. On examination he had cellulitis of right lower limb. He developed swelling of both the parotid glands 12 h after admission. He developed coagulopathy, acute renal failure and died within 48 h of hospital admission. Development of parotid swelling after snake bite is associated with poor prognosis. This case is found worth reporting as it is an unusual complication having prognostic value.

  20. Animal and Human Bites: Prophlaxis and Approach to the Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet KARAKAŞ


    Full Text Available Human and animal bites can cause complications ranging from slight injuries to serious infections. Infections can originate from the biter’s oral cavity and victims’s skin flora. Compared with animal bites, human bites have a higher risk of infection development. Most of the wound infections due to bites are caused by polymicrobials. Pasteurella species, streptococci, staphylococci, Moraxella, Corynebacterium, and Neisseria spp., Bergeyella zoohelcum and Capnocytophaga species are the most frequently isolated pathogens. Dogs (85-90 %, cats (5-10 %, humans (2-3 % and rodents (2-3 % are responsible for most of the bite injuries. Injuries due to dog bites occur mostly in men older than 20 years old and usually on the extremities. Cat bites and related injuries are found in 66 % on the upper extremities, typically on the hands. Bites of human origin are mostly occur in males between the ages of 20-30, and especially seen on the arms, fingers and head-neck regions. Most of the bites from rodents have a rat origin. Those bites often happen at night , especially on the face or hand of children under five years old who live in poor hygienic conditions. The dog bites are mostly due to the crush-style injuries and in 4-25 % of those injuries an infection develops in about 24 hours. Because of their sharp teeth, cats cause puncture-type wounds. Approximately 30-50 % of the cat bite wounds become infected 12 hours later. Hand, face and genital region wounds have a higher risk for the occurrence of an infection, because of their special anatomical structure. In case of risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, long term steroid use, splenectomy, extreme ages (children and elderly people and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, infection could easily spread to the deep tissues. The suturing of bite wounds remain controversial. Infected wounds and bites older than 24 hours could be left open. Cosmetically problematic wounds like on the face

  1. Is extreme bite performance associated with extreme morphologies in sharks? (United States)

    Huber, Daniel R; Claes, Julien M; Mallefet, Jérôme; Herrel, Anthony


    As top predators in many oceanic communities, sharks are known to eat large prey and are supposedly able to generate high bite forces. This notion has, however, largely gone untested due to the experimental intractability of these animals. For those species that have been investigated, it remains unclear whether their high bite forces are simply a consequence of their large body size or the result of diet-related adaptation. As aquatic poikilotherms, sharks can grow very large, making them ideal subjects with which to investigate the effects of body size on bite force. Relative bite-force capacity is often associated with changes in head shape because taller or wider heads can, for example, accommodate larger jaw muscles. Constraints on bite force in general may also be released by changes in tooth shape. For example, more pointed teeth may allow a predator to penetrate prey more effectively than blunt, pavementlike teeth. Our analyses show that large sharks do not bite hard for their body size, but they generally have larger heads. Head width is the best predictor of bite force across the species included in our study as indicated by a multiple regression model. Contrary to our predictions, sharks with relatively high bite forces for their body size also have relatively more pointed teeth at the front of the tooth row. Moreover, species including hard prey in their diet are characterized by high bite forces and narrow and pointed teeth at the jaw symphysis.

  2. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites


    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine


    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog ...

  3. Effect of transient occlusal loading on the threshold of tooth tactile sensation perception for tapping like the impulsive stimulation. (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuta; Oki, Kazuhiro; Iida, Sachiyo; Shirahige, Chieko; Maeda, Naoto; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Minagi, Shogo


    The objectives of this study were (1) to establish a reliable method for detecting the force threshold of the tooth tactile sensation while avoiding experimenter bias and (2) to examine the effect of occlusal force loading on the threshold for impulsive force stimulation in subjects with normal dentition. Twenty volunteers participated in this study (10 males and 10 females; mean age, 26.6 ± 2.9 years). To simulate the bite force during occlusal tapping, a force-loading device was designed to exert impulsive force to the occlusal surface in the direction parallel to the tooth axis. The impulsive force detection threshold of the periodontal sensation was measured before and after loading 98 N of occlusal force on the left upper first molar for 1 min. Transient mechanical loading of the upper first molar caused an increase in the absolute threshold for impulsive force. This increase did not vanish immediately, and the increment of the threshold was maintained during the remainder of the experiment. A computer-controlled method for the evaluation of tooth tactile sensation using impulsive stimulation was established. Transient occlusal force loading parallel to the tooth axis increases the threshold of periodontal sensation for mechanical impulsive stimulation.

  4. Onychophagia (Nail biting), anxiety, and malocclusion. (United States)

    Sachan, Avesh; Chaturvedi, T P


    Nail biting is a stress removing habit adopted by many children and adults. People usually do it when they are nervous, stressed, hungry, or bored. All of these situations are having a common phenomenon between them is anxiety. Onychophagia is also a sign of other emotional or mental disorders. It is a habit that is not easy to quit and reflection of extreme nervousness or inability to handle stressful conditions. This abnormal habit may cause various malocclusions associated with dentoalveolar segment of the oral cavity. Crowding and rotations of incisors are common with this habit.

  5. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Its Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desmond; Archer


    The natural course of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion is determined by the site and completeness of the occlusion, the integrity of arterial perfusion to the affected sector and the efficiency of the developing collateral circulation. Most patients with tributary vein occlusion have some capillary fall out and microvascular incompetence in the distribution of the affected retina and vision is significantly compromised in over 50% of patients who have either chronic macular oedema or ischemia involving the...

  6. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.


    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Occlusal considerations for dental implant restorations. (United States)

    Bergmann, Ranier H


    When placed, dental implants are put into an ever-changing oral environment in which teeth can continue to migrate. Yet, the implants themselves are ankylosed. This can lead to occlusal instability. Teeth may continue to erupt, leaving the implants in infraocclusion. Teeth may move mesially away from an implant, requiring modification to close an open contact point. Friction in the connection between teeth and implants can lead to intrusion of teeth and damage to the periodontal attachment apparatus. Implant occlusion with shallow incisal guidance minimizes lateral and tipping forces. Cross-arch stabilization allows the best distribution of occlusal forces. The choice of restorative materials influences long-term occlusal stability.

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch cream, such as hydrocortisone. Another option is to take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  9. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  10. Bite angle effects of diphosphines in carbonylation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.N.M. van Leeuwen; Z. Freixa


    This chapter contains sections titled: * Introduction * Rhodium-Catalyzed Hydroformylation o Introduction o Steric Bite Angle Effect and Regioselectivity o Electronic Bite Angle Effect and Activity o Isotope Effects [24] * Platinum-Catalyzed Alkene Hydroformylation * Palladium-Catalyzed CO/Ethene Co

  11. Primate bites in Gibraltar--minor casualty quirk? (United States)

    Campbell, A C


    In one year 55 patients presented to the casualty department of St Bernard's Hospital, Gibraltar, with a primate bite. The implications of such wounds on the health of these patients is contrasted with the morbidity and mortality associated with primate bites in the African subcontinent.

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any serious symptoms after a bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified dermatologist immediately. Make sure you tell the doctor about your recent ...

  13. Dog-bite induced sepsis : a report of four cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenga, S; Tulleken, JE; Moller, LVM; Jackson, SA; Van der Werf, TS; Zijlstra, JG


    Occasionally, a dog-bite is complicated by a systemic overwhelming infection. We report four consecutive patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit because of sepsis syndrome following dog-bites. The history of these patients did not reveal any immunocompromising conditions. Capnocytophag

  14. Occlusion in the combination fixed removable prosthodontic patient. (United States)

    Ivanhoe, J R; Vaught, R D


    The authors provide a review of the critical aspects of occlusion for the combination fixed removable patient. Articular selection and jaw relation techniques are reviewed, and dental materials combinations are recommended for restoring opposing occlusal surfaces. General objectives and specific recommendations for determining and establishing occlusal schemes are made. Tables outlining occlusal scheme, occlusal morphology, and degree of balance are presented.

  15. Class III malocclusion with complex problems of lateral open bite and severe crowding successfully treated with miniscrew anchorage and lingual orthodontic brackets. (United States)

    Yanagita, Takeshi; Kuroda, Shingo; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi


    In this article, we report the successful use of miniscrews in a patient with an Angle Class III malocclusion, lateral open bite, midline deviation, and severe crowding. Simultaneously resolving such problems with conventional Class III treatment is difficult. In this case, the treatment procedure was even more challenging because the patient preferred to have lingual brackets on the maxillary teeth. As a result, miniscrews were used to facilitate significant asymmetric tooth movement in the posterior and downward directions; this contributed to the camouflage of the skeletal mandibular protrusion together with complete resolution of the severe crowding and lateral open bite. Analysis of the jaw motion showed that irregularities in chewing movement were also resolved, and a stable occlusion was achieved. Improvements in the facial profile and dental arches remained stable at the 18-month follow-up.

  16. Animal bite incidence in the County of Shush, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali Kassiri; Masoud Lotfi; Babak Shahkarami; Seyed-Sahar Hosseini


    Objective:To determine the epidemiology of animal bites during a five-year period(2004-2008) inShushCounty,Khuzestan province, southwesternIran.Methods:In a descriptive cross sectional study, all cases of animal bites referred to the health centers inShushCounty were investigated during2004-2008.The necessary data were recorded on the special questionnaire that contains questions about bite animal, age, sex, occupation, treatment, the bite site on the body and so forth.Results:Out of a total of2283 cases that underwent the animal bites during the mentioned five years,1771 people(77.6%) were male and511(22.4%) were female .Most cases were related to age groups10-20(33.4%) and20-30(22%) years.The average incidence rate of animal bite during these years was determined as2.82 cases per1000 people.The highest incidence rate was related to the year2007 with3 cases per1000 people.Animal bites in the winter(29.3%) and fall(29%) were more common.Almost86.5% and13.5% of the cases occurred in rural areas and urban areas, respectively.Nearly30% and20.4% of cases were students and farmers, respectively.A total of2155(94.4%) and86(3.8%) bites occurred by the dog and cat, respectively.The greatest bite place on the body was in the feet(81.4%) and in the hands(13%(. During the study period,2162 cases(94.7%) were treated with an incomplete regimen, and120 cases(5.3%) were treated with a complete regimen.Conclusions:Because the cost of prevention after biting for the health system is high, so, preventive programs must be concentrated on public health instruction, particularly in villagers, students, farmers and the owners of the domestic animals.

  17. Orthodontic occlusal reconstruction after conservative treatment of unicystic ameloblastoma in an adolescent patient: 10-year follow-up. (United States)

    Tomita, Yuko; Kuroda, Shingo; Takahashi, Takumi; Ohura, Ritsuko; Tanaka, Eiji


    Conservative treatment of an ameloblastoma often requires an occlusal reconstruction. In this article, we report the successful interdisciplinary treatment of a 14-year-old girl with a unicystic ameloblastoma in the mandible. One year after the marsupialization, enucleation with bone curettage was performed with extraction of the impacted third molar, but the proximal second molar could be maintained. The conservative treatment required long-term use of an obturator, and it caused a total open bite. Additionally, the patient genetically had a Class II malocclusion with severe crowding. Consequently, orthodontic treatment was performed after 4 premolar extractions. There was no recurrence of the ameloblastoma 10 years after the enucleation.

  18. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm (United States)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel


    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  19. Technical note: An in vitro study of dental microwear formation using the BITE Master II chewing machine. (United States)

    Hua, Li-Cheng; Brandt, Elizabeth T; Meullenet, Jean-Francois; Zhou, Zhong-Rong; Ungar, Peter S


    Dental microwear has been used for decades to reconstruct the diets of fossil hominins and bioarchaeological populations. The basic theory has been that hard-brittle foods (e.g., nuts, bone) require crushing and leave pits as they are pressed between opposing cheek-tooth surfaces, whereas soft-tough foods (e.g., grass blades, meat) require shearing and leave scratches as they are dragged along opposing surfaces that slide past one another. However, recent studies have called into question the efficacy of microwear as an indicator of diet. One issue has been the limited number of in vitro studies providing empirical evidence for associations between microwear pattern and chewing behavior. We here describe a new study using a chewing simulator, the BITE Master II, to examine the effects of angle of approach between opposing teeth and food consistency on microwear surface texture. Results indicate that opposing teeth that approach one another: 1) perpendicular to the occlusal plane (crushing) result in pits; 2) parallel to the occlusal plane (shearing) result in striations in the direction of movement; and 3) oblique to the occlusal plane (45°) result in both striations and pits. Results further suggest that different food types and abrasive loads affect the propensity to accumulate microwear features independent of feature shapes.

  20. Occlusion on oral implants: current clinical guidelines. (United States)

    Koyano, K; Esaki, D


    Proper implant occlusion is essential for adequate oral function and the prevention of adverse consequences, such as implant overloading. Dental implants are thought to be more prone to occlusal overloading than natural teeth because of the loss of the periodontal ligament, which provides shock absorption and periodontal mechanoreceptors, which provide tactile sensitivity and proprioceptive motion feedback. Although many guidelines and theories on implant occlusion have been proposed, few have provided strong supportive evidence. Thus, we performed a narrative literature review to ascertain the influence of implant occlusion on the occurrence of complications of implant treatment and discuss the clinical considerations focused on the overloading factors at present. The search terms were 'dental implant', 'dental implantation', 'dental occlusion' and 'dental prosthesis'. The inclusion criteria were literature published in English up to September 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort studies and case-control studies with at least 20 cases and 12 months follow-up interval were included. Based on the selected literature, this review explores factors related to the implant prosthesis (cantilever, crown/implant ratio, premature contact, occlusal scheme, implant-abutment connection, splinting implants and tooth-implant connection) and other considerations, such as the number, diameter, length and angulation of implants. Over 700 abstracts were reviewed, from which more than 30 manuscripts were included. We found insufficient evidence to establish firm clinical guidelines for implant occlusion. To discuss the ideal occlusion for implants, further well-designed RCTs are required in the future.

  1. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;


    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  2. Symposium on semiprecision attachments in removable partial dentures. Occlusal relationships. (United States)

    Whitbeck, P; Ivanhoe, J R


    This article discusses current concepts of occlusion and describes the methods of creating a physiologic occlusion for the partially edentulous patient. Specific recommendations are made for choices of materials, techniques, and occlusal schemes for various edentulous situations.

  3. Computerized analysis of occlusal contacts in bruxism patients treated with occlusal splint therapy (United States)

    Kılınç, Halil İbrahim; Tuna, Süleyman Hakan; Özcan, Nihal


    PURPOSE Occlusal splints are commonly used to prevent tooth wear caused by bruxism. However, the effects of splints on occlusion are still unclear. Although it is rarely alluded in literature, splints can provoke severe occlusal alterations and other complications. This study was aimed to identify differences in the responses of individuals with bruxism and healthy individuals to a full-arch maxillary stabilization splint in terms of occlusal changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Occlusal contacts in 20 (5 male, 15 female) bruxism patients and 20 (5 male, 15 female) controls with normal occlusion were evaluated before and after occlusal splint therapy. T-Scan III, a computerized occlusal analysis system, was used to simultaneously measure occlusion and disclusion times as well as left-right and anterior-posterior contact distributions before splint therapy and 3 months after therapy. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analyses (α=.05). RESULTS No differences were found in the posterior contact of bruxism patients before and after stabilization splint treatment. However, differences in posterior contact were observed between bruxists and normal individuals prior to treatment, and this difference disappeared following treatment. CONCLUSION The results of this study showed the use of a stabilization splint may not have an effect on occlusion. However, the area of posterior occlusal contact among bruxists was found to be greater than that of normal individuals. According to this study, the clinical use of splints may be harmless. PMID:24049566

  4. [Occlusal vertical dimension in removable complete dentures]. (United States)

    den Haan, R; Witter, D J


    In removable complete dentures, the occlusal vertical dimension is an important factor for patients' satisfaction with aesthetics. An excessively reduced occlusal vertical dimension is especially likely to lead to complaints about aesthetics, whereas an increased occlusal vertical dimension may lead to discomfort and a decision not to wear the complete dentures. There are various methods for determining the occlusal vertical dimension in complete dentures, based on the vertical dimension in the rest position of the mandible or on phonetics. However, none of the methods have proven to be clearly superior, in terms of reliability, than the others. The assessment of the occlusal vertical dimension will become more reliable if several methods are used simultaneously. Moreover, knowledge of the characteristics of the ageing face is essential.

  5. Aortoiliac occlusive disease masquerading as cerebrovascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandeesh B


    Full Text Available Acute aortoiliac occlusion is an unusual but potentially catastrophic condition causing acute limb ischemia and associated with early and high rates of mortality and morbidity. It is caused by either embolic occlusion of the infra renal aorta at the bifurcation or beyond or thrombosis of the abdominal aorta and its large terminal branches. Neurological symptoms are rare manifestation of acute aortoiliac occlusion and when neurological symptoms predominate, patients are mistakenly considered to have cerebrovascular event. We present a 60-year-old man with atherosclerotic thrombotic occlusion of the left common iliac artery causing acute painful monoplegia. We mistook the acute monoplegia due to acute limb ischemia for cerebrovascular accident. Pathologic examination revealed a firm thrombus occluding the origin of left common iliac artery and extending along the length of the vessel. Acute aortic iliac occlusion can masquerade as a cerebrovascular stroke and a thorough clinical evaluation and imaging studies allow early diagnosis and instituting life-saving treatment timely.

  6. Virtual occlusion in planning orthognathic surgical procedures. (United States)

    Nadjmi, N; Mollemans, W; Daelemans, A; Van Hemelen, G; Schutyser, F; Bergé, S


    Accurate preoperative planning is mandatory for orthognathic surgery. One of the most important aims of this planning process is obtaining good postoperative dental occlusion. Recently, 3D image-based planning systems have been introduced that enable a surgeon to define different osteotomy planes preoperatively and to assess the result of moving different bone fragments in a 3D virtual environment, even for soft tissue simulation of the face. Although the use of these systems is becoming more accepted in orthognathic surgery, few solutions have been proposed for determining optimal occlusion in the 3D planning process. In this study, a 3D virtual occlusion tool is presented that calculates a realistic interaction between upper and lower dentitions. It enables the surgeon to obtain an optimal and physically possible occlusion easily. A validation study, including 11 patient data sets, demonstrates that the differences between manually and virtually defined occlusions are small, therefore the presented system can be used in clinical practice.

  7. Another one bites the dust: bite force and ecology in three caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi). (United States)

    Becerra, Federico; Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Casinos, Adrià; Vassallo, Aldo Iván


    Mammals have developed sophisticated strategies adapting to particular locomotor modes, feeding habits, and social interactions. Many rodent species have acquired a fossorial, semi-fossorial, or even subterranean life-style, converging on morphological, anatomical, and ecological features but diverging in the final arrangement. These ecological variations partially depend on the functional morphology of their digging tools. Muscular and mechanical features (e.g., lever arms relationship) of the bite force were analyzed in three caviomorph rodents with similar body size but different habits and ecological demands of the jaws. In vivo forces were measured at incisors' tip using a strain gauge load cell force transducer whereas theoretical maximal performance values, mechanical advantages, and particular contribution of each adductor muscle were estimated from dissections in specimens of Ctenomys australis (subterranean, solitary), Octodon degus (semi-fossorial, social), and Chinchilla laniger (ground-dweller, colonial). Our results showed that C. australis bites stronger than expected given its small size and C. laniger exhibited the opposite outcome, while O. degus is close to the expected value based on mammalian bite force versus body mass regressions; what might be associated to the chisel-tooth digging behavior and social interactions. Our key finding was that no matter how diverse these rodents' skulls were, no difference was found in the mechanical advantage of the main adductor muscles. Therefore, interspecific differences in the bite force might be primarily due to differences in the muscular development and force, as shown for the subterranean, solitary and territorial C. australis versus the more gracile, ground-dweller, and colonial C. laniger.

  8. Animal Bites in Borujerd: An Overview of Animal Bites in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabouri Ghannad


    Full Text Available Background Rabies has been reported as the most important endemic zoonotic disease in Iran and still remains as a major public health problem. Objectives The main objective of the current research was to study the epidemiology of animal bites in Borujerd County in Iran and to compare its prevalence to other parts of Iran from April 2006 to September 2011. Patients and Methods The data were recorded in questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Chi-square test was performed to evaluate the relationship among variables and P value was set as 0.05. Results Dog bites were the most common (69.8%, followed by cat (17.2%, fox and wolf (1.4%, sheep and cow (2.8%, monkey and donkey (5%, mouse and squirrel (2.2% and other animals (1.6%. Leg was the most common bite site forming 46.6% of cases, followed by hands (41.8%, buttocks (4.6%, head (4% and body (2.9%. Most of the subjects belonged to the age group < 10 (175.2 per 100000 populations. The injury location was associated significantly with sex and the residential status. Conclusions This study strongly highlights a high priority goal for health authorities to develop educational programs, recommended for the general population to inform them about the benefits of continuing the medication. Vaccination of domestic dogs and also eradication of stray ones, in addition to educational programs should be prioritized by health authorities.

  9. Idiopathic pediatric retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manayath George


    Full Text Available We report a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in a healthy young girl. An eight-year-old girl presented with sudden loss of vision in her left eye. She had a pale retina with macular edema consistent with extensive BRAO. A thorough workup was performed to determine any etiologic factor. All test results were within normal limits. Her visual acuity improved from finger counting to 20/40 over two weeks, on immediate treatment with intravenous steroids (methyl prednisolone. This case suggests that BRAO can occur in healthy children without any detectable systemic or ocular disorders and a dramatic improvement may be achieved with prompt treatment with intravenous steroids.

  10. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. S. Amaral


    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  11. Slow Death by Many Mosquito Bites

    CERN Document Server

    Redner, S


    We study the dynamics of a single diffusing particle (a "man") with diffusivity $D_M$ that is attacked by another diffusing particle (a "mosquito") with fixed diffusivity $D_m$. Each time the mosquito meets and bites the man, the diffusivity of the man is reduced by a fixed amount, while the diffusivity of the mosquito is unchanged. The mosquito is also displaced by a small distance $\\pm a$ with respect to the man after each encounter. The man is defined as dead when $D_M$ reaches zero. At the moment when the man dies, his probability distribution of displacements $x$ is given by a Cauchy form, which asymptotically decays as $x^{-2}$, while the distribution of times $t$ when the man dies asymptotically decays as $t^{-3/2}$, which has the same form as the one-dimensional first-passage probability.

  12. Can masticatory electromyography be normalised to submaximal bite force? (United States)

    Crawford, S R; Burden, A M; Yates, J M; Zioupos, P; Winwood, K


    The combination of bite force and jaw muscle electromyography (EMG) provides an insight into the performance of the stomatognathic system, especially in relation to dynamic movement tasks. Literature has extensively investigated possible methods for normalising EMG data encapsulating many different approaches. However, bite force literature trends towards normalising EMG to a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), which could be difficult for ageing populations or those with poor dental health or limiting conditions such as temporomandibular disorder. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine whether jaw-closing muscle activity is linearly correlated with incremental submaximal and maximal bite force levels and (ii) assess whether normalising maximal and submaximal muscle activity to that produced when performing a low submaximal bite force (20 N) improves repeatability of EMG values. Thirty healthy adults (15 men, 15 women; mean age 21 ± 1·2 years) had bite force measurements obtained using a custom-made button strain gauge load cell. Masseter and anterior temporalis muscle activities were collected bilaterally using surface EMG sensors whilst participants performed maximal biting and three levels of submaximal biting. Furthermore, a small group (n = 4 females) were retested for reliability purposes. Coefficients of variation and intra-class correlation coefficients showed markedly improved reliability when EMG data were normalised compared to non-normalised. This study shows that jaw muscle EMG may be successfully normalised to a very low bite force. This may open possibilities for comparisons between at-risk sample groups that may otherwise find it difficult to produce maximal bite force values.

  13. Occlusion for maxillary dentures opposing osseointegrated mandibular prostheses. (United States)

    Denissen, H W; Kalk, W; van Waas, M A; van Os, J H


    This paper presents a combination of several occlusal concepts designed to contribute to the successful use of maxillary dentures in opposition to osseointegrated mandibular prostheses. To ensure a positive outcome when designing such an occlusion, three factors must be considered: patient satisfaction, maxillary anterior bone preservation, and mandibular arch shortening. It is recommended that for centric occlusion the molars have a lingual contact occlusion, the premolars have a buccal contact occlusion, and the anterior teeth have an open occlusal relationship. For an eccentric occlusion, a balanced articulation is favored instead of mutually protected occlusion.

  14. Traumatic Amputation of Finger From an Alligator Snapping Turtle Bite. (United States)

    Johnson, Robert D; Nielsen, Cynthia L


    Legend states that the alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) should be handled with extreme caution as it has jaw strength powerful enough to bite a wooden broomstick in half. Tales of bite injuries from what is the largest freshwater turtle in North America exist anecdotally, yet there are few descriptions of medical encounters for such. The risk of infection from reptilian bites to the hand in an aquatic environment warrants thorough antibiotic treatment in conjunction with hand surgery consultation. We present the first case report of a near total amputation of an index finger in an adolescent boy who had been bitten by a wild "gator snapper."

  15. From eggs to bites: do ovitrap data provide reliable estimates of Aedes albopictus biting females?

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    Mattia Manica


    Full Text Available Background Aedes albopictus is an aggressive invasive mosquito species that represents a serious health concern not only in tropical areas, but also in temperate regions due to its role as vector of arboviruses. Estimates of mosquito biting rates are essential to account for vector-human contact in models aimed to predict the risk of arbovirus autochthonous transmission and outbreaks, as well as nuisance thresholds useful for correct planning of mosquito control interventions. Methods targeting daytime and outdoor biting Ae. albopictus females (e.g., Human Landing Collection, HLC are expensive and difficult to implement in large scale schemes. Instead, egg-collections by ovitraps are the most widely used routine approach for large-scale monitoring of the species. The aim of this work was to assess whether ovitrap data can be exploited to estimate numbers of adult biting Ae. albopictus females and whether the resulting relationship could be used to build risk models helpful for decision-makers in charge of planning of mosquito-control activities in infested areas. Method Ovitrap collections and HLCs were carried out in hot-spots of Ae. albopictus abundance in Rome (Italy along a whole reproductive season. The relationship between the two sets of data was assessed by generalized least square analysis, taking into account meteorological parameters. Result The mean number of mosquito females/person collected by HLC in 15′ (i.e., females/HLC and the mean number of eggs/day were 18.9 ± 0.7 and 39.0 ± 2.0, respectively. The regression models found a significant positive relationship between the two sets of data and estimated an increase of one biting female/person every five additional eggs found in ovitraps. Both observed and fitted values indicated presence of adults in the absence of eggs in ovitraps. Notably, wide confidence intervals of estimates of biting females based on eggs were observed. The patterns of exotic arbovirus outbreak

  16. From eggs to bites: do ovitrap data provide reliable estimates of Aedes albopictus biting females? (United States)

    Manica, Mattia; Rosà, Roberto; della Torre, Alessandra


    Background Aedes albopictus is an aggressive invasive mosquito species that represents a serious health concern not only in tropical areas, but also in temperate regions due to its role as vector of arboviruses. Estimates of mosquito biting rates are essential to account for vector-human contact in models aimed to predict the risk of arbovirus autochthonous transmission and outbreaks, as well as nuisance thresholds useful for correct planning of mosquito control interventions. Methods targeting daytime and outdoor biting Ae. albopictus females (e.g., Human Landing Collection, HLC) are expensive and difficult to implement in large scale schemes. Instead, egg-collections by ovitraps are the most widely used routine approach for large-scale monitoring of the species. The aim of this work was to assess whether ovitrap data can be exploited to estimate numbers of adult biting Ae. albopictus females and whether the resulting relationship could be used to build risk models helpful for decision-makers in charge of planning of mosquito-control activities in infested areas. Method Ovitrap collections and HLCs were carried out in hot-spots of Ae. albopictus abundance in Rome (Italy) along a whole reproductive season. The relationship between the two sets of data was assessed by generalized least square analysis, taking into account meteorological parameters. Result The mean number of mosquito females/person collected by HLC in 15′ (i.e., females/HLC) and the mean number of eggs/day were 18.9 ± 0.7 and 39.0 ± 2.0, respectively. The regression models found a significant positive relationship between the two sets of data and estimated an increase of one biting female/person every five additional eggs found in ovitraps. Both observed and fitted values indicated presence of adults in the absence of eggs in ovitraps. Notably, wide confidence intervals of estimates of biting females based on eggs were observed. The patterns of exotic arbovirus outbreak probability obtained by

  17. Evolution of occlusal pathology. A literature review.

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    Camilo Guerrero


    Full Text Available Introduction: Many of the guidelines on occlusion and treatment alternatives in dentate and partially edentulous patients, are based on concepts raised in the beginning of dentistry. The diversity of the occlusion schools has become some of these concepts complex to understand and apply. This diversity makes difficult the compression of the occlusal physiology and its disorders, hindering the understanding of the occlusal pathology and its proper diagnosis and management. Objective: This is why we conducted a literature review about oclusal physiology and pathology, in order to gather information based on scientific evidence, which in order to clarify concepts and homogenize knowledge about physiological and morphological changesof thestomatognathic system, associated toocclusal alterations, allowing the future standardization of the occlusal diagnostic process at the Faculty of Dentistry of the National University of Colombia. Methodology: A search was conducted inMedLine, PubMed, Ovid, Ebsco, ScienceDirect and Hinari-Healthinternetwork using the Mesh terms: "Dental Occlusion" - "Stomatognathic System" - "masticatory System" - Temporomandibular Joint and the bibliographies of papers and review articles that had direct relationship to the topic; the publication deadline was not taken into account. In total, 79 articles, 10 texts and 7 websites were obtained. Conclusion: Occlusal pathology is an evolutionary process that might affect the form and/or function of any of the components of the stomatognathic system. Occlusal Harmony is a state in which each part of the system works in concert with the others to fulfill the functions of mastication, speech and swallowing; oral rehabilitation should be directed toward obtaining a harmonious occlusion.

  18. Retinal occlusive vasculer disorder and rheumatoid arthritis

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    Huseyin Ortak


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease that affected older women with many ocular manifestations. Also, these systemic diseases can cause retinal vein occlusion and arterial occlusion that lead to serious and permanent visual loss. Rheumatoid arthritis's the most common manifestation is that retinal vasculitis and retinal vascular complications are associated with this complication. In this review, retinal vascular occlusive diseases are presented to associated with rheumatoid arthritis in literature. Rheumatoid arthritis and its complications have been outlined and was made to create a new perspective. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(1.000: 71-73

  19. Two cases of viper bite: still an important health problem

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    Adrija Hajra


    Full Text Available Viper venoms act mainly as hemotoxic. Manifestations of snakebites depend on specific toxins that constitute the venom. The local and systemic snake bite related symptoms are directly linked to the toxicity of the venom. Edema, ecchymoses, hematoma, and gangrenous lesions are reported to occur as local symptoms. Systemic symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, delirium, jaundice, circulatory collapse, convulsions, and coma. Death from secondary infections, neurotoxicity, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, intracranial hemorrhage, and acute renal failure are the well-known facts. For reduction of morbidity and mortality, it is important that antiserum is administered at the appropriate dose as early as possible after snake bite. There are several case reports about various complications of viperid bite. Here we are discussing two cases of viper bite. These cases are unique because of the extensive tissue necrosis. One of them succumbed to septicemia after acute pancreatitis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1274-1277

  20. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  1. "Fight-bite": not just a hand problem. (United States)

    Cook, C P T Jay B; Knox, Maj Jeffrey B; Wimberly, Robert L; Ellis, Henry B; Riccio, Anthony I


    Human bite wounds around the knee are rarely seen, yet may require the same urgent attention as a fight bite to the hand. Two cases of polymicrobial septic arthritis of the knee secondary to a human bite wound are described. In both the cases, the diagnosis of the septic arthritis was delayed because the intra-articular wound was unrecognized. The injuries were initially deemed superficial and managed with local wound care. In each case, the knee was flexed at the time of injury and the quadriceps tendon was penetrated by a tooth which inoculated the knee joint. Septic arthritis of the knee presented, in both cases, 72 hours after the injury. These infections proved challenging to treat and required multiple surgeries and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The "fight bite" phenomenon of the hand is widely recognized and the same phenomenon can occur at the knee.

  2. Human bite of the hand: clinical and surgical approach


    Simancas-Pereira Hernán; Fonseca-Caro John Fredy; Acevedo-Granados Camilo Andrés


    Introduction: human bites of the hand carries a risk of infection and functional and/oraesthetic complications, according to the mechanism of trauma, duration and specificfactors of the victim and the aggressor. The management of acute episodes isessential and must be an interdisciplinary care.Objective: to review human bites of the hand.Methodology: Thematic review which included the evaluation of clinical casereports published in the last fifteen years in English and Spanish, obtained by el...

  3. Habitual biting of oral mucosa: A conservative treatment approach

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    Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia


    Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.

  4. Sensitivity to bites by the bedbug, Cimex lectularius. (United States)

    Reinhardt, K; Kempke, D; Naylor, R A; Siva-Jothy, M T


    Bedbugs are a public health problem and can cause significant economic losses, but little is known about the effects of bites on humans. We reviewed case reports and published papers on bedbug bites to assess the empirical basis of the commonly cited figure that only approximately 80% of the population are sensitive to bedbug bites. We found the sensitivity estimate to be based on only one study carried out 80 years ago. However, this study did not account for the now well-established fact that only repeated exposure to external allergens leads to skin reactions. In our sample, 18 of 19 persons showed a skin reaction after bedbug exposure, but in most cases only after repeated controlled exposure. With repeated exposure, the latency between bite and skin reactions decreased from approximately 10 days to a few seconds. Our results are relevant for the hospitality industry, where apparently increasing infestation rates are likely to lead to an increase in the number of tourists and hotel employees exposed to bedbugs. Medical and public health professionals may expect to see an increase in the prevalence of people with bedbug bite sensitivity. The significance of the delayed reaction time of skin to bites may also have implications in litigation cases where people seek compensation.

  5. The impact of snake bite on household economy in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Hasan, S M K; Basher, A; Molla, A A; Sultana, N K; Faiz, M A


    The present study aims to assess the different types of costs for treatment of snake bite patients, to quantify household economic impact and to understand the coping mechanisms required to cover the costs for snake bite patients in Bangladesh. The patients admitted to four tertiary level hospitals in Bangladesh were interviewed using structured questionnaires including health-care-related expenditures and the way in which the expenditures were covered. Of the snakes which bit the patients, 54.2% were non-venomous, 45.8% were venomous and 42.2% of the patients were given polyvalent antivenom. The total expenditure related to snake bite varies from US$4 (US$1 = Taka 72) to US$2294 with a mean of US$124 and the mean income loss was US$93. Expenditure for venomous snake bite was US$231, which is about seven times higher than non-venomous snake bite (US$34). The treatment imposes a major economic burden on affected families, especially in venomous snake bite cases.

  6. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. (United States)

    Montani, David; Lau, Edmund M; Dorfmüller, Peter; Girerd, Barbara; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Perros, Frederic; Nossent, Esther; Garcia, Gilles; Parent, Florence; Fadel, Elie; Soubrier, Florent; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc


    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterised by preferential remodelling of the pulmonary venules. In the current PH classification, PVOD and pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) are considered to be a common entity and represent varied expressions of the same disease. The recent discovery of biallelic mutations in the EIF2AK4 gene as the cause of heritable PVOD/PCH represents a major milestone in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PVOD. Although PVOD and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) share a similar clinical presentation, with features of severe precapillary PH, it is important to differentiate these two conditions as PVOD carries a worse prognosis and life-threatening pulmonary oedema may occur following the initiation of PAH therapy. An accurate diagnosis of PVOD based on noninvasive investigations is possible utilising oxygen parameters, low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and characteristic signs on high-resolution computed tomography of the chest. No evidence-based medical therapy exists for PVOD at present and lung transplantation remains the preferred definitive therapy for eligible patients.

  7. Smile line and occlusion: An epidemiological study

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    Mahsa Harati


    Conclusion: Within the limitations of such studies, it might be concluded that there is a significant and important relation between some occlusal parameters and smile design, which must be considered.

  8. Are temporary anchorage devices truly effective in the treatment of skeletal open bites? (United States)

    Turkkahraman, Hakan; Sarioglu, Mehmet


    Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) in the treatment of skeletal open bites and to compare the results with untreated controls. Materials and Methods: A total of forty patients with skeletal anterior open bites were assigned to two groups of twenty each. The mean chronological age for the treatment group (14 female, 6 male) was 16.68 ± 2.80 years old, compared with 16.63 ± 2.83 years old for the control group (11 female, 9 male). Titanium miniplates fixed bilaterally to the infrazygomatic crest area were used as TADs and intrusive forces were applied to the posterior teeth with Ni-Ti coil springs. The treatment and normal growth changes were evaluated using 24 measurements (2 angular, 22 linear). Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the groups in Bx, By, Sn/GoGn, Ax-Bx, U6x, U6y, overjet, overbite, SN/OccP, N-Me, Ans-Me, S-Go/N-Me, interpremolar width, and intermolar width (P < 0.05). In the treatment group, statistically significant upper molar intrusion (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 3.59 ± 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.96–4.22), posterior rotation of the occlusal plane (mean ± SD, 3.42 ± 2.17; 95% CI, 2.39–4.43), anterior rotation of the mandible (mean ± SD, 2.25 ± 1.91; 95% CI, 1.36–3.14), and resultant overbite improvement (mean ± SD, 4.82 ± 1.53; 95% CI, 4.10–5.53) were found (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Mild to moderate skeletal anterior open bites could easily be treated with TADs without orthognathic surgery. With the rigid anchorage of miniplates, true molar intrusion of up to 4 mm was achieved. With molar intrusion, anterior rotation of the mandible and a significant reduction in anterior face height were determined. PMID:28042256

  9. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

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    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão


    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  10. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

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    Hrvoje Jurić


    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  11. Are occlusal characteristics, headache, parafunctional habits and clicking sounds associated with the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder in adolescents? (United States)

    Lauriti, Leandro; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Silva, Paula Fernanda da Costa; Leal de Godoy, Camila Haddad; Alfaya, Thays Almeida; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil


    [Purpose] To assess the association between the oclusal characteristics, headache, parafunctional habits and clicking sounds and signs/symptoms of TMD in adolescents. [Subjects] Adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. [Methods] The participants were evaluated using the Helkimo Index and a clinical examination to track clicking sounds, parafunctional habits and other signs/symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Subjects were classified according to the presence or absence of headache, type of occlusion, facial pattern and type of bite. In statistical analyse we used the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, with a level of significance of 5%. [Results] The sample was made up of 81 adolescents with a mean age of 15.64 years; 51.9% were male. The prevalence of signals/symptoms of TMD was 74.1%, predominantly affecting females. Signals/symptoms of TMD were significantly associated with clicking sounds, headache and nail biting. No associations were found between signals/symptoms of TMD and angle classification, type of bite and facial pattern. [Conclusion] Headache is one of the most closely associated symptoms of TMD. Clicking sounds were found in the majority of cases. Therefore, the sum of two or more factors may be necessary for the onset and perpetuation of TMD.

  12. A rare case of multiple rattlesnake bites. (United States)

    Iliev, Yanko T; Kristeva, Sasha A; Prancheva, Maria G


    The rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) is a venomous viper inhabiting the southeastern parts of the United States. It is not found in the Balkans and Europe habitats. Subjects of the species are grown and seen in museums, exhibitions and terrariums, and sometimes in private collections. This may generate potentially toxic exposures to the venom in accidental contact. Acute poisoning with rattlesnake poison in Bulgaria is exotic, rare and even casuistic. The venom of the rattlesnake exhibits neuropathic, proteolytic and hemolytic activities. Antivenom is not currently easily available in Bulgaria--it is not usually stored in hospitals because it is very rarely used and therefore rather expensive. We present a case of multiple envenomation (two different occasions) of one and the same person who kept rattlesnakes in a private terrarium. Local toxic syndrome was observed with burning and stinging pain at bite site combined with limited hemorrhage and necrosis. The hemolytic reaction and the local toxic results were successfully managed without resorting to any specific antidotal therapy.

  13. An urban Northeastern United States alligator bite. (United States)

    Shepherd, Suzanne Moore; Shoff, William H


    Individuals who live and work in the Southeastern coastal range of the 3 US crocodilian carnivores, American alligators, American crocodiles, and caiman, understand the risks of reptile-human encounters. Individuals who live in other parts of the country maybe exposed through contact with exotic pets at private homes, small menageries, or petting zoos or from escaped or abandoned animals. During these encounters, individuals may be severely injured.Emergency medical services, law enforcement, and animal welfare workers in nonhabitat areas are usually not trained in the handling and safe removal of injured individuals from the scene when the reptile is present. The emergency management of large crocodilian injuries is similar to that of other major trauma; however, providers also must take into consideration the significant crush component potentially inflicted by the tremendous bite power and shaking inflicting during attacks by these large reptiles, appropriate antibiotic coverage for less common organisms that inhabit their mouths, and management of possible psychological distress, including posttraumatic stress disorder produced by such an unusual attack. Emergency physicians should support the development of a readily available national database of scientifically collect information on attacks to inform appropriate care and support efforts to explore responsible measures that the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other appropriate local, state, and federal agencies can take to ensure ethical and biologically sustainable management of our large reptiles, which also helps to ensure the safety of the public.

  14. [Lingualized occlusion in the South African context]. (United States)

    Oberholzer, T G; Geerts, G A V M


    The search for the ideal artificial tooth arrangement that maximizes denture stability, comfort, aesthetics, and function has occupied the dental literature for many years and still continues to do so. Of the many occlusal schemes that have been presented to the dental profession, that of lingualized occlusion has emerged as one of the more popular. The popularity of lingualized occlusion stems from the simplicity and flexibility of the concept and from its wide application to clinical practice (Parr & Ivanhoe, 1996). The registration of a repeatable correct centric jaw relation is not always possible. We don't know whether the patient will use centric relation during normal function. It is therefore useful to provide the patient with some freedom of movement around centric. lingualized occlusion provides freedom in centric. For many dentists the arrangement of artificial denture teeth into balanced occlusion is difficult and time consuming. As a result this task is most often performed by the dental technician. In the South African countryside dental laboratories are often far away. If dentists perform the arrangement of the denture teeth, time and costs can be saved. The mounting of denture teeth in lingualized occlusion is simple and fast. This will motivate dentists to arrange denture teeth themselves, with obvious benefits for both the patient and the dentist. The School of Oral Health Sciences of the University of Stellenbosch teaches this concept to its undergraduate students in order to improve the prosthetic service to the large edentulous population of South Africa.

  15. Relationship of Occlusal Schemes with the Occurrence of Temporomandibular Disorders


    Dina H. Sugiaman; Laura S. Himawan; Sitti Fardaniah


    Masticatory system is a complex functional unit of the body responsible for mastication, speech, and deglutition process. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is used to describe all functional disturbances of the masticatory system. The etiology of TMD is multifactorial, such as occlusal disharmony and emotional stress. The relationship between occlusion and TMD has been highly debated in dentistry, one of the occlusal factors is the occlusal scheme. Occlusal schemes are defined as bilateral ca...

  16. Retinal artery occlusions in children. (United States)

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Wallis, Simon


    The purpose of this study is to present a case of RAO in a 13 year old girl with a preceding history of hyperextension of the neck at her hairdressers for a long duration and use of her mobile phone handset resting it against the side of her neck presumably exerting some pressure on carotids during the same time. Materials and methods of this study was reported as case report and review of literature. A 13 year-old girl presented with the left supero-nasal scotoma due to an inferior temporal branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). She underwent extensive investigations and no underlying cause was discovered. She gave a history of cervical extension over a long period of time while having the hair coloured twice in the preceding week. She also mentioned that she was using her mobile phone more or less continuously during both these occasions keeping it against her neck. Given the above history it is possible that the pressure on the ipsilateral carotid arteries or the prolong neck extension may have been responsible for the formation of a platelet embolus resulting in the BRAO. In conclusion, although cerebro-vascular accidents due to 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' (JAMA 269:2085-2086, 1993) have been reported previously it has not been reported in children to our knowledge. On the other hand, 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' occurs due to a dissection of the vertebral arteries or due to mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during the prolonged hyperextension of the neck. The central retinal artery originates from the internal carotid circulation and it is highly unlikely for an embolus to enter the retinal circulation from the vertebral arteries. Therefore, the authors favour the possibility that the compulsive use of a mobile phone exerting pressure on the carotid arteries for a long time may have led to the formation of an embolus and subsequent RAO in this case.

  17. [The dental and skeletal effects of the jumping-the-bite plate and high-pull headgear combination. A clinical study of treated patients]. (United States)

    Wichelhaus, A; Sander, F G


    While planning treatment of the 30 patients with a dental and skeletal class II anomaly on which this study is based, the primary treatment goals were correction of the dental and skeletal structures and attenuation of vertical growth by means of influencing the maxillary skeletal structures and the resultant mandibular reaction. The desired treatment results were achieved in all patients. Even so, however, the effects on individual patients in respect to skeletal influences were markedly different. It was especially helpful that during therapy simultaneously with exerting influence on the maxillary base plane, the influencing of the occlusal plane occurred in the same direction. Through the additional application of high-pull headgear, maxillary growth was clearly restrained and the inclination of the maxillary base plane inhibited. Even difficult skeletal discrepancies, sagittal as well as vertical, can be treated with the bite-jump appliance in combination with a high-pull headgear. This also makes it possible to achieve protrusive repositioning of the mandible in patients with a pronounced vertical growth pattern without causing on open bite. In retrospective the patients' treatment plans proved to be completely appropriate, however, the fact should not be overlooked that changing the occlusal plane is essential for the realization of a positive therapeutic result.

  18. The effect of temperature and menthol on carbonation bite. (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Bryant, Bruce


    Temperature and chemesthesis interact, but this interaction has not been fully examined for most irritants. The current experiments focus on oral pungency from carbonation. Previous work showed that cooling carbon dioxide (CO2) solutions to below tongue temperature enhanced rated bite. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of warming to above tongue temperature have not been examined. In Experiment 1, subjects sampled CO2 solutions at 4 nominal concentrations (0.0, 2.0, 2.8, and 4.0 v/v) × 5 temperatures (18.3, 24.5, 29.9, 34.5, and 39.6 (o)C). Subjects dipped their tongue tips into samples and rated bite. As in previous work, subjects rated cool solutions (25.0 (o)C and lower) as more intense. Warming solutions above tongue temperature (39.6 (o)C) did not affect ratings. Experiment 2 examined warmer temperatures (18.3, 33.9, 39.0, 44.9, and 48.2 ºC). Bite was enhanced only at 48.2 ºC, and a follow-up experiment suggested that enhancement was probably due to confusion between carbonation bite and mild heat pain. Experiment 3 examined the effect of menthol cooling by pretreating the tongue with menthol. Unlike physical cooling, menthol cooling had little or no effect on rated bite. The results are discussed in the context of candidate transduction mechanisms for carbonation sensation.

  19. A clinical and epidemiological study on spider bites in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yildirim Cesaretli; Ozcan Ozkan


    Objective:To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between1995 and2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology.Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from theNPIC’s patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects.Results: A total of82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was59.76%male, 37.20% female, and2.44% unknown and the20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia.Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites.

  20. Epidemiological aspects of snake bites on a Liberian rubber plantation. (United States)

    Stahel, E


    During a one-year period 95 patients with a history of snake bite were admitted to the hospital of a Liberian rubber plantation. The population at risk included the field workers (tappers and slashers) with an incidence of 4.2 symptomatic snake bites per thousand per year. The incidence of symptomatic bites was 1.7 per thousand in the group of non-field employees and 0.4 per thousand per year in the group of non-employees. The temporary disability was between 3 and 5 days, and the loss of workings days due to snake bites was one day per 10,000 working days on the plantation. Among the 95 patients 27 did not show any symptoms of envenoming except occasional fang marks. 64 patients developed cytotoxic symptoms alone. In this group, the night adder (Causus maculatus) was the main responsible snake. 4 patients showed signs of systemic envenoming. Two were haematological and two were neurological in nature and caused by Bitis species and Naja species, respectively. No fatalities were noted. A definite maximum of snake bites was observed during October and November which corresponds to the transition from rainy to dry season.

  1. Computerized axiography in TMD patients before and after therapy with 'function generating bites'. (United States)

    Piancino, M G; Roberi, L; Frongia, G; Reverdito, M; Slavicek, R; Bracco, P


    The study evaluates the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) movements of patients with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) before and after therapy with the functional appliances of the 'function generating bite' (FGB) type. Thirty subjects suffering from TMD were selected and divided into two groups: group A (young patients: four males, nine females, mean age +/- standard deviation: 13.3+/-1.5 years); group B (adults: three males, 14 females, mean age +/- standard deviation: 23.2+/-4.4 years). A control group comprised 13 healthy subjects with perfect normal occlusion, TMD-free, was matched for age and sex with patient groups and was examined at T0 and after 12 months (T1). Computerized axiography was performed before and after therapy (average 13 months) with FGBs to evaluate any difference in condyle border movements. Results showed a statistically significant improvement after treatment, for groups A and B, in length, clicks, tracings with normal morphology, superimposition, deviations, regularity and return to starting position and speed (statistical analysis: chi-squared test) except for the symmetry of tracings which was significantly improved only for the young patient group. No statistically significant differences at time T0/T1 were found in the control group. In conclusion, the study shows that the TMJ tracings of TMD patients before and after therapy with 'FGB' significantly improve especially in young patients. FGB may be a useful appliance to improve TMJ function in young and adult TMD patients requiring orthodontic treatment.

  2. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fu


    Full Text Available An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions.

  3. Condylar axis position, as determined by the occlusion and measured by the CPI instrument, and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction. (United States)

    Crawford, S D


    The importance of occlusion as an etiologic factor in signs and symptoms of TMD has been a source of controversy. Very few studies have examined occlusion-dictated condylar position using instrumentation, and none has compared an ideal sample against an untreated control. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between condylar axis position as determined by the occlusion and signs and symptoms of TMD, using the condylar position indicator (CPI). A sample of subjects with ideal occlusions, defined as centric relation approximating centric occlusion, was compared with a control sample of untreated subjects. The comparison was based on written patient histories, clinical exams, and CPI measurements. The ideal sample of 30 subjects was selected from a population that had undergone full-mouth reconstruction using gnathologic principles that included centric relation (CR) being coincident with centric occlusion (CO). The control group consisted of 30 untreated subjects from the general population and was matched with the ideal sample with regard to sex. A duplicate written exam was given to the subjects in the ideal sample to assess symptoms prior to treatment. The CR bite registration technique developed by Roth was used. When the pre- and posttreatment examination scores of the ideal sample were compared, an 84% reduction in symptoms was found after treatment. A high correlation (pTMD and CPI values was documented. Since condylar axis position is dictated upon closure of the dentition into maximum intercuspation and since condylar axis position was shown in this study to be strongly correlated with TMD symptomatology, it can be concluded that a statistically significant relationship exists between occlusion-dictated condylar position and symptoms of TMD.

  4. Association of malocclusion and functional occlusion with signs of temporomandibular disorders in adults: results of the population-based study of health in Pomerania. (United States)

    Gesch, Dietmar; Bernhardt, Olaf; Kocher, Thomas; John, Ulrich; Hensel, Elke; Alte, Dietrich


    The objective of this study was to determine whether associations exist between occlusal factors and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in adults using the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), Germany. A representative sample of 4310 men and women aged 20 to 81 years (response 68.8%) was investigated for TMD signs, malocclusions, functional occlusion factors, and sociodemographic parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for sex, age, and socioeconomic status, was used. The results were compared with other population-based studies identified by a systematic review. Few malocclusions and no factors of functional occlusion except socioeconomic parameters were associated with TMD signs, and these associations were mostly weak. Only bilateral open bite up to three mm appeared to be clinically relevant and was associated with TMD signs (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0). This malocclusion, however, was of rare occurrence, with a prevalence of 0.3% (n = 9), and this finding was not confirmed by other representative studies. Occlusal factors examined in this study explained only a small part of the differences between normal subjects and those with TMD signs. This and other population-based studies indicate that malocclusions and factors of functional occlusion surveyed should be seen as merely cofactors in the sense of one piece of the mosaic in the multifactorial problem of temporomandibular dysfunction. Single occlusal factors that showed significant effects throughout several studies could not be detected. In view of the large number of occlusal variables already investigated, other variables including nonocclusal ones probably also play a role and should be looked at more intensely.

  5. A survey of occlusion detection method for visual object

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Occlusion problem is one of the challenging issues in vision field for a long time , and the occlu-sion phenomenon of visual object will be involved in many vision research fields .Once the occlusion occurs in a visual system , it will affect the effects of object recognition , tracking, observation and operation , so detecting occlusion autonomously should be one of the abilities for an intelligent vision system .The research on occlusion detection method for visual object has increasingly attracted atten-tions of scholars .First, the definition and classification of the occlusion problem are presented . Then, the characteristics and deficiencies of the occlusion detection methods based on the intensity image and the depth image are analyzed respectively , and the existing occlusion detection methods are compared.Finally, the problems of existing occlusion detection methods and possible research directions are pointed out .

  6. Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Condylar Symmetry and Condyle-Fossa Relationship of the Temporomandibular Joint in Subjects with Normal Occlusion and Malocclusion: A Comparative Study (United States)

    Ponnada, Swaroopa Rani; Gaddam, Kranthi Praveen Raju; Perumalla, Kiran; Khan, Imran; Mohammed, Naqeed Abdul


    Introduction The relationship of the condyle and the mandibular fossa differs in shape with type of malocclusion and skeletal pattern. A review of literature shows till date there are no studies on Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) condyle-fossa relation to the type of malocclusion based on growth pattern. Computed Tomography (CT) provides optimal imaging of the osseous components of the TMJ. Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the condyle-fossa relationship and the dimensional and positional symmetries between the right and left condyles in subjects with normal occlusion and malocclusion in different growth patterns utilizing the CT scans of the TMJ. Materials and Methods Sixty subjects with age group of 18-30 years were selected for the study. The sample was divided into three groups based on overbite and growth pattern. The groups included 20 subjects with normal occlusion and average growth pattern, 20 patients with horizontal growth pattern and deep bite, 20 patients with vertical growth pattern and deep bite. The depth of the mandibular fossa, the condyle-fossa relationship, and the concentric position of the condyles were evaluated by the images obtained from the sagittal slices. ANOVA was performed to assess the significance. If it was found significant, post-hoc Tukey’s test was performed to see which two groups were statistically significant. Results No statistically significant difference was found in the anterior joint space and the superior joint space in horizontal and vertical growers with deep bite. Statistically significant (p <0.05) posterior positioning of the condyles was observed (nonconcentric positioning) in vertical growers with deep bite. Conclusion There is a significant change in the position of the condyle in vertical growers compared to average and horizontal growers. Left condyle is more anteriorly placed than the right condyle in all the three groups. There is no significant change in the vertical depth of the mandibular

  7. Factors Associated with Tick Bite Preventive Practices among Farmworkers in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi

    Full Text Available Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers.A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013.A total of 151 (72.2% out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91 reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05 a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2 from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1 from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1 farms, (2 job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers, (3 perceived severity of tick bites, and (4 perceived barriers to tick bite prevention.A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived barriers of tick bite prevention.

  8. Conservative treatment for a growing patient with a severe, developing skeletal Class III malocclusion and open bite. (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Zhu, Ping; Le, Linda; Cai, Bin


    An 8-year-old Chinese girl sought treatment for a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion and open-bite skeletal pattern. Traditionally, patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion are treated after they have stopped growing, and then they are treated with a combined orthodontic and orthognathic surgery approach. But the risks and expenses of this treatment plan are not acceptable to all patients. This young patient was treated with facemask therapy, a maxillary expansion device, and a molar occlusal splint for maxillary developmental stimulation with control of vertical jaw growth. After the completion of orthopedic therapy, 2 × 4 technology was used to adjust molar positions. A bonded tongue crib was used in the early permanent dentition to help the patient break her bad tongue habits. Straight-wire appliances were used for 16 months to adjust the occlusal relationship. This achieved significant improvement in anterior tooth relationships and facial profile esthetics. At the 2-year posttreatment follow-up, the results were satisfactory. The success of the sagittal relationship correction between the maxilla and the mandible for a skeletal Class III malocclusion depends on the coordination of transverse and vertical relationships combined with the growth potential of each patient.

  9. Novel Low-Cost Sensor for Human Bite Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarred Fastier-Wooller


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a low cost and reliable maximal voluntary bite force sensor which can be manufactured in-house by using an acrylic laser cutting machine. The sensor has been designed for ease of fabrication, assembly, calibration, and safe use. The sensor is capable of use within an hour of commencing production, allowing for rapid prototyping/modifications and practical implementation. The measured data shows a good linear relationship between the applied force and the electrical resistance of the sensor. The output signal has low drift, excellent repeatability, and a large measurable range of 0 to 700 N. A high signal-to-noise response to human bite forces was observed, indicating the high potential of the proposed sensor for human bite force measurement.

  10. Mosquito bite-caused eosinophilic dermatitis in cats. (United States)

    Mason, K V; Evans, A G


    Eight cats had lesions on the nasal bridge, ears, and footpads, with histologic and hematologic features of a recently described seasonal form of eosinophilic granuloma complex. Four cats were examined in detail, and it was established that 2 of the 4 reacted to mosquito extract on intradermal skin testing read at 20 minutes. Neither of the 2 cats tested had deposits of immunoglobulins in lesional or perilesional skin. Lesions on all 4 cats resolved when kept at home behind insect screening, but flared up if the screening was removed. Mosquitoes that were observed to be biting and causing lesions were collected and identified. Other species of laboratory-reared mosquitoes were allowed to bite nonlesional skin of 1 affected cat, causing pruritus, erythematous crusting, and ulcerative lesions at the bite site, which was characterized histologically as eosinophilic dermatitis.

  11. Segmental Orthodontics for the Correction of Cross Bites (United States)

    Mathur, Rinku


    ABSTRACT Cross bite is a condition where one or more teeth may be abnormally malposed buccally or lingually or labially with reference to the opposing tooth or teeth. Cross bite correction is highly recommended as this kind of malocclusion do not diminish with age. Uncorrected cross bite may lead to abnormal wear of lower anteriors and cuspal interference, mandibular shift resulting in mandibular asymmetry and temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. There are several methods for treating this type of malocclusion. In this article, segmental orthodontics has been highlighted by using 2 × 4 appliance therapy and lingual button with cross elastics. This appliance offers many advantages as it provides complete control of anterior tooth position, is extremely well tolerated, requires no adjustment by the patient and allows accurate and rapid positioning of teeth. PMID:27616858

  12. Cerebellar infarct with neurogenic pulmonary edema following viper bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil Gupta


    Full Text Available Russell′s viper (Daboia russelli bites are well known to cause bleeding complications. However, thrombotic complications are rare. We present the case details of a female who was bitten by a Russell′s viper (Daboia russelli in her village. She then developed features of envenomation in the form of hemorrhagic episodes. She received 27 vials of polyvalent anti-snake venom to which the hemorrhagic complications responded. After about 48 h of the bite she developed features of cerebellar infarct along with pulmonary edema which was in all probability neurogenic in origin. She was managed with mechanical ventilation and extra ventricular drainage with good recovery. We discuss the likely pathogenesis of the infarct and pulmonary edema occurring in a patient with viper bite and other features of envenomation.

  13. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with spider bite* (United States)

    Milman, Laura de Mattos; Müller, Giana Paula; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Grill, Aline Barcellos; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Mello-da-Silva, Carlos Augusto; Vettorato, Gerson


    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an acute febrile rash, usually induced by drugs, which recently has been linked to spider bite. We report a case of a male patient, 48 years old, with an erythematous rash accompanied by fever and small non-follicular pustules. He reported previous pain in the buttock with the onset of a necrotic plaque. The lesion was compatible with spider bite of the genus Loxosceles. According to the EuroSCAR group instrument, the patient scored +10 indicating definite diagnosis of AGEP. As the patient had a compatible lesion and had no other triggers of AGEP, in an Loxosceles endemic area, the AGEP would be associated with spider bite, as described in other publications. PMID:27579754

  14. Posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Yan-guo


    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the technique and effect of posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion. Methods Nine patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion were treated by using occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-posterior cerebral artery bypass and occipital artery-vertebral artery bypass with radial artery graft. Results Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography showed all the bypass arteries were patent. Postoperative DSA or CTA showed bypass arteries patent in 8 patients, among whom seven patients got obvious improvement on MR or CT perfusion. One patient died of heart failure on the 15th day postoperative. During the follow-up of eight patients, no stroke reoccurred, four patients got back to nearly normal life. Conclusion Most of the patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion could benefit from the posterior circulation revascularization, which should be confirmed by randomized controlled clinical trials in the future.

  15. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie


    tFor many years, bite marks have been used as an indicator for aggression in mink productionsystems. However, the validity of bite marks as indicator of aggression has recently beenquestioned. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: (1) experimentally applied pressure to, or penetration of......, the pelt during the growth phase of the winter coat will producemarks that can be recognized as bite marks at pelting, (2) bite marks applied experimentally by use of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social/aggressive interactions (bites)between mink are only visible if pressure/bite on the mink......: (1) experimentally applied pressure on the skin can be recog-nized as bite marks in brown mink at pelting, (2) bite marks are easier to detect on brownmink than on white coloured mink (P experimentally byuse of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social...

  16. 应用不同方法矫治前牙开合的临床比较%Clinical comparison of Anterior Open-bite Malocclusion treatment with different appliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海燕; 李惠山; 刘红彦


    目的:通过直丝弓矫治,多曲方丝弓技术矫治骨性前牙开合,比较观察临床矫治效果。方法12例患者,其中合并口腔不良习惯的前牙开合6例,其它原因骨性开合6例。结果经过治疗,全部病例均达到预期的矫治效果,均建立了正常的覆盖和良好的尖窝咬牙合关系。结论临床上掌握合适的适应症,治疗开合能取得良好的效果。%Objective To investigate the clinical effects, straight arch wire and MEAW technique are applied in the treatment of Anterior Open-bite Malocclusion. Methods Among 12 patients, 6 had bad oral habits and anterior open-bite, while the other 6 had bony open-bite due to other causes. Results After treatments, all the cases achieved the expected correction effects with normal overbite, overjet and good occlusion. Conclusion can be reached that the correction of anterior open bite can achieve good treatment results by mastering appropriate indications.

  17. Influence of mandibular fixation method on stability of the maxillary occlusal plane after occlusal plane alteration. (United States)

    Yosano, Akira; Katakura, Akira; Takaki, Takashi; Shibahara, Takahiko


    In this study, we investigated how method of mandibular fixation influenced longterm postoperative stability of the maxilla in Class III cases. In particular, we investigated change in the maxillary occlusal plane after Occlusal Plane Alteration. Therefore, we focused on change in the palatal plane to evaluate stability of the maxillary occlusal plane, as the position of the palatal plane affects the maxillary occlusal plane. This study included 16 patients diagnosed with mandibular protrusion. Alteration of the occlusal plane was achieved by clockwise rotation of the maxilla by Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback was performed by bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy. We analyzed and examined lateral cephalometric radiographs taken at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Stability achieved by two methods of mandibular fixation was compared. In one group of patients (group S) titanium screws were used, and in the other group (group P) titanium-locking mini-plates were used. No significant displacement was recognized in group S, whereas an approximately 0.7mm upward vertical displacement was recognized in the anterior nasal spine in group P. As a result, not only the angle of the palatal plane and S-N plane, but also occlusal plane angle in group P showed a greater decrease than that in group S. The results suggest that fixing the mandible with screws yielded greater stability of the maxilla and maxillary occlusal plane than fixing the mandible with titanium plates.

  18. Preliminary results on nonparametric facial occlusion detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The problem of face recognition has been extensively studied in the available literature, however, some aspects of this field require further research. The design and implementation of face recognition systems that can efficiently handle unconstrained conditions (e.g. pose variations, illumination, partial occlusion... is still an area under active research. This work focuses on the design of a new nonparametric occlusion detection technique. In addition, we present some preliminary results that indicate that the proposed technique might be useful to face recognition systems, allowing them to dynamically discard occluded face parts.

  19. Rationale and technique for achieving occlusal harmony. (United States)

    Kimmel, Saul S


    For a patient to function normally with natural or restored dentition, the occlusal contacts should be in harmony with the musculature and the temporomandibular joint. Many times, this harmonious relationship is altered by restorative treatment, periodontal disease or tooth loss. If the adaptive capacity of the patient is less than the forces placed upon the tooth or restoration, failure in one form or another often results. This article presents a rational method the dentist can use to recognize and understand the markings made with articulating paper so that harmonious contacts can be detected and contacts that disturb occlusal harmony eliminated.

  20. [Snake bite in a 53-year-old female tourist]. (United States)

    Bertheau, S; Aghdassi, A; Otto, M; Hegenscheid, K; Runge, S; Lerch, M M; Simon, P


    Snake bites are rare events in Germany and are not life-threatening with usually only mild clinical symptoms. The most widespread venomous snake is the common European adder (Vipera berus). Here we present the case of a 53-year-old woman who was bitten by a common adder. Although the patient was initially in stable condition she developed edematous swelling of the complete lower limb, subcutaneous bleeding, and rhabdomyolysis. The aim of this report is to raise awareness that even in a central European country like Germany snake bites with a life-threatening course can occur and need immediate attention and medical care.

  1. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to insect bites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen J Bhat


    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe cutaneous adverse reaction pattern that is mostly caused by the intake of drugs and rarely associated with viral infections, food allergens or toxins. Here we present the report of three patients who got admitted in our hospital for generalized pustulosis and fever after insect bites. The diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis was made by EuroSCAR scoring. The drug etiology was excluded and spider bite was implicated as the etiological agent in these cases of AGEP which are the first such reported cases in India.

  2. Proximal lower limb vein thrombosis following vipera berus hand bite. (United States)

    Gary, T; Prüller, F; Froehlich, H; Werner, S; Hafner, F; Brodmann, M


    Vipera berus has a wide geographical distribution throughout Central and Northern Europe. The symptoms after a bite usually are mild, life threatening symptoms are mainly described in children. We describe a case of popliteal vein thrombosis of the right leg after systemic envenoming with Vipera berus venom after a bite in the right hand by a female Vipera berus in the alpine region of Styria, Austria. Changes of the plasmatic coagulation system were obvious in our patient. These changes were due to an activation of the coagulation system and might be the reason for the thrombotic event in this usually healthy young male person.

  3. Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant. (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Raghavan, Renitha; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sistla, Sujatha


    Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite.

  4. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny. (United States)

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N


    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible

  5. Contribution of the digastric muscles to the control of bite force in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanWilligen, JD; Slager, GEC; Broekhuijsen, ML


    The contribution of the (co-contracting) digastric muscles to the rapid decline in bite-force magnitude after unloading of a static bite was investigated by asking participants to perform two different biting tasks with sudden unloading, and correlating the degree of co-contraction of the digastrics

  6. Hypopituitarism and AutoimmuneThyroiditis Following Snake Bite: An Unusual Clinical Scenario. (United States)

    Shetty, Sahana; Abi, Manesh S; Hickson, Ravali; David, Thambu; Rajaratnam, Simon


    Snake venom can cause local tissue damage and lead to coagulopathy, shock, neurotoxicity and acute kidney injury. Hypopituitarism is a rare complication following snake bite. It has been described following Russell's viper bite from Burma and South India. Herein we describe a patient who presented with severe thyrotoxicosis and partial hypopituitarism following snake bite.

  7. Occlusion, prosthodontic treatment, and temporomandibular disorders: a review. (United States)

    Hagag, G; Yoshida, K; Miura, H


    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the relationship between occlusal discrepancies and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to summarize the guidelines of treating TMD by prosthetic rehabilitation. To date, the relationship between occlusal condition and TMD has not been confirmed, although there is a current trend toward making a weak correlation between occlusal interference and TMD. Furthermore, several types of occlusal discrepancies have been considered as variable features of the norm. But unstable occlusion in the intercuspal position may cause TMD. In cases of restored dentition, the problem is probably different and iatrogenic TMD are not rare. Namely, malformed occlusal surfaces, defects in anterior guidance, occlusal curvature, and vertical dimension may lead to some TMD trouble. According to these recent concepts the treatment modalities of TMD have been changed. Conservative treatments such as counseling, behavioral modification, physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, and interocclusal appliances should be the first choice, and treatments that lead to drastic changes of occlusion are not recommended.

  8. Effect of glove occlusion on the skin barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedemann, Daniel; Clausen, Maja Lisa; John, Swen Malthe


    of this study is to review the literature on the effects of glove occlusion on skin barrier function. The PubMed database was searched up to 1 February 2015 for articles on the association between glove occlusion and skin barrier function, including human studies only and in English. Only experimental studies...... including assessment of the skin barrier function were included in the data analysis. Thirteen articles were identified, 8 with focus on occlusion alone, 7 with focus on occlusion in combination with irritant exposure (some overlapping), and 2 field studies. In conclusion, data from the literature showed...... that the negative effect of occlusion in itself is limited, and that only extensive and long-term occlusion will cause barrier impairment. However, studies investigating combined effect of occlusion and exposure to soaps/detergents indicate that occlusion significantly enhances the skin barrier damage caused...

  9. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christina Carvalho, Joana; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, Vita


    process on occlusal surfaces. In addition, it considers the whole spectrum of the caries process on occlusal surfaces, ranging from the molecular ecology of occlusal biofilms to the management of deep occlusal caries lesions. Studies using molecular methods with focus on biofilms in relation to occlusal...... caries should explore the relationship between the function and the structural composition of these biofilms to understand the role of occlusal biofilms in caries development. State-of-the-art measures to evaluate risk for occlusal caries lesion activity, caries incidence, and progression should include...... the assessment of the occlusal biofilm and the stage of tooth eruption. Careful clinical examination of non-cavitated lesions, including assessment of the lesion activity status, remains the major tool to determine the immediate treatment need and to follow on the non-operative treatment outcome. Even medium...

  10. Virtual occlusal definition for orthognathic surgery. (United States)

    Liu, X J; Li, Q Q; Zhang, Z; Li, T T; Xie, Z; Zhang, Y


    Computer-assisted surgical simulation is being used increasingly in orthognathic surgery. However, occlusal definition is still undertaken using model surgery with subsequent digitization via surface scanning or cone beam computed tomography. A software tool has been developed and a workflow set up in order to achieve a virtual occlusal definition. The results of a validation study carried out on 60 models of normal occlusion are presented. Inter- and intra-user correlation tests were used to investigate the reproducibility of the manual setting point procedure. The errors between the virtually set positions (test) and the digitized manually set positions (gold standard) were compared. The consistency in virtual set positions performed by three individual users was investigated by one way analysis of variance test. Inter- and intra-observer correlation coefficients for manual setting points were all greater than 0.95. Overall, the median error between the test and the gold standard positions was 1.06mm. Errors did not differ among teeth (F=0.371, P>0.05). The errors were not significantly different from 1mm (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the errors made by the three independent users (P>0.05). In conclusion, this workflow for virtual occlusal definition was found to be reliable and accurate.

  11. Crossing Total Occlusions: Navigating Towards Recanalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, A.; Regar, E.; Dankelman, J; Breedveld, P.


    Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent the “last frontier” of percutaneous interventions. The main technical challenges lies in crossing the guidewire into the distal true lumen, which is primarily due to three problems: device buckling during initial puncture, inadequate visualization, and the i

  12. Crossing Total Occlusions: Navigating Towards Recanalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sakes (Aimée); E.S. Regar (Eveline); J. Dankelman (Jenny); P. Breedveld (Paul)


    textabstractChronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent the “last frontier” of percutaneous interventions. The main technical challenges lies in crossing the guidewire into the distal true lumen, which is primarily due to three problems: device buckling during initial puncture, inadequate visualizatio

  13. Arterial occlusion precipitated by cisplatinbased chemotherapy



    Cisplatin-based therapy is curative in testicular cancer. Adverse effects of cisplatin-based chemotherapy include dose-dependent myelosuppression, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and ototoxicity. By contrast, chemotherapy-associated vascular complications are unpredictable. Few incidents of digital gangrene with cisplatin have been reported. Here, we present a patient who developed arterial occlusion leading to gangrene of the toe after cisplatinbased chemotherapy.

  14. Clinical Practice Guidelines for intestinal occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudis Miguel Monzón Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for intestinal occlusion. This document includes the main aspects related with classification, physiopathology, clinical diagnosis, complementary examinations and therapy aimed at the post-operatory treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  15. Virtual occlusion in planning orthognathic surgical procedures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadjmi, N.; Mollemans, W.; Daelemans, A.; Hemelen, G. Van; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Berge, S.J.


    Accurate preoperative planning is mandatory for orthognathic surgery. One of the most important aims of this planning process is obtaining good postoperative dental occlusion. Recently, 3D image-based planning systems have been introduced that enable a surgeon to define different osteotomy planes pr

  16. Cilioretinal artery occlusion following intranasal cocaine insufflations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Kannan


    Full Text Available Cocaine is used to produce a euphoric effect by abusers, who may be unaware of the devastating systemic and ocular side effects of this drug. We describe the first known case of cilioretinal artery occlusion after intranasal cocaine abuse.

  17. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  18. Longitudinal occlusal changes from primary to permanent dentition in children with normal primary occlusion. (United States)

    Legovic, M; Mady, L


    This purpose of this research was to examine the stability of normal occlusion during the transition from primary to permanent dentition. The sample consisted of 128 children (83 boys and 45 girls) 4.5 to 5.5 years old with normal occlusion in the primary dentition. The subjects were reexamined at 12.5 to 13.5 years. None had received orthodontic treatment. Although all the subjects had normal occlusion in the primary dentition, 72.7% (73.5% boys and 71.1% girls) had developed anomalies following eruption of the permanent teeth. These anomalies included crowding, Class II Division 1 or Class II Division 2 malocclusion, mesial occlusion complex, lateral crossbite, anterior crossbite, premature tooth loss, openbite or other anomalies.

  19. Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis of the hand following human bites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, D.; Kerr, R.; Pineda, C.J.; Weisman, M.H.


    The spectrum of radiographic abnormalities accompanying bone and joint infection that results from human bites of the hand is presented in an analysis of 13 patients. Features include mono-articular involvement, predilection for a metacarpophalangeal joint, soft tissue swelling, joint space narrowing, bone erosions and periostitis. Magnification techniques may be required for early and accurate diagnosis. (orig.).

  20. Effects of bite blocks and hearing status on vowel production (United States)

    Lane, Harlan; Denny, Margaret; Guenther, Frank H.; Matthies, Melanie L.; Menard, Lucie; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stockmann, Ellen; Tiede, Mark; Vick, Jennell; Zandipour, Majid


    This study explores the effects of hearing status and bite blocks on vowel production. Normal-hearing controls and postlingually deaf adults read elicitation lists of /hVd/ syllables with and without bite blocks and auditory feedback. Deaf participants' auditory feedback was provided by a cochlear prosthesis and interrupted by switching off their implant microphones. Recording sessions were held before prosthesis was provided and one month and one year after. Long-term absence of auditory feedback was associated with heightened dispersion of vowel tokens, which was inflated further by inserting bite blocks. The restoration of some hearing with prosthesis reduced dispersion. Deaf speakers' vowel spaces were reduced in size compared to controls. Insertion of bite blocks reduced them further because of the speakers' incomplete compensation. A year of prosthesis use increased vowel contrast with feedback during elicitation. These findings support the inference that models of speech production must assign a role to auditory feedback in error-based correction of feedforward commands for subsequent articulatory gestures.

  1. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP Triggered by a Spider Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Makris


    Discussion: A spider bite may represent a possible causative factor of AGEP. A spider's venom contains sphingomyelinase that stimulates the release of IL8 and GM-CSF, which are involved in AGEP pathogenesis. Whether or not the con-current use of antibiotics has an effect in AGEP appearance when combined with a spider's venom, cannot be excluded.

  2. Innovation in prediction planning for anterior open bite correction. (United States)

    Almuzian, Mohammed; Almukhtar, Anas; O'Neil, Michael; Benington, Philip; Al Anezi, Thamer; Ayoub, Ashraf


    This study applies recent advances in 3D virtual imaging for application in the prediction planning of dentofacial deformities. Stereo-photogrammetry has been used to create virtual and physical models, which are creatively combined in planning the surgical correction of anterior open bite. The application of these novel methods is demonstrated through the surgical correction of a case.

  3. Orthodontic and orthopaedic treatment for anterior open bite in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentini-Oliveira, D.; Carvalho, F. R.; Qingsong, Y.; Junjie, L.; Saconato, H.; Machado, M. A. C.; Prado, L. B. F.; Prado, G. F.


    Background Anterior open bite occurs when there is a lack of vertical overlap of the upper and lower incisors. The aetiology is multifactorial including: oral habits, unfavourable growth patterns, enlarged lymphatic tissue with mouth breathing. Several treatments have been proposed to correct this m

  4. Equine insect bite hypersensitivity : Pathogenesis, diagnosis and immunomodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.


    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal allergic dermatitis primarily caused by Culicoides midges like C. obsoletus. The welfare of IBH-affected horses is compromised due to severe itch with secondary dermatitis and skin infections. Similar to most allergies, IBH can only be controlled rath

  5. Dog bite injuries of genitalia in male infant and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Bothra


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to highlight genital dog bites in male infant and children in developing countries and their management. We managed three cases (9 months, 5 years, and 8 years of genital dog bite between January 1997 and July 2008. Two had unprovoked stray dog bites and the third was bitten by his pet dog when disturbed during eating. Extent of injury varied from small-lacerated wound to near emasculation. Primary repair was done after thorough washing and debridement under antibiotic cover. In the 9-month-old male infant who was near emasculated, scrotum was closed with the available skin and a small penile stump was reconstructed after meatoplasty. Immunization against tetanus and rabies was done for all cases.Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the wound healed primarily in all cases. Parents of the infant were asked for feminizing genitoplasty but they refused so they were advised for hormonal replacement and penile reconstruction at adolescence. Male children are the most common victims of genital dog bites. These injuries can be repaired primarily with good outcome provided strict cleaning, debridement, wound repair, antibiotic cover, and immunization is applied.

  6. Occlusion as a causative factor in TMD. Scientific basis to occlusal therapy. (United States)

    Becker, I M


    There appears to be a pendulum swing toward large epidemiologic studies questioning the role of occlusion in dentistry. This article clearly demonstrates that significant scientific evidence exists on the side of occlusal causative factors. Clinicians need this current information to base practical decisions of treatment relative to both patients and those requiring restorative procedures. It further correctly clarifies that stress-related issues have an important role, along with other host-susceptibility altering factors.

  7. Bite force evaluation in subjects with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Sipert


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the masticatory function of subjects with cleft lip and palate by analyzing the bite force developed by these individuals. Bite force was evaluated in a group of 27 individuals with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (14 males and 13 females - aged 18-26 years and compared to the data achieved from a group of 20 noncleft subjects (10 males and 10 females - aged 18-26 years. Measurement was achieved on three positions within the dental arch (incisors, right molars and left molars, three times at each position considering the highest value for each one. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test ( α = 5%. There was a significant deficit in bite force in male individuals with cleft lip and palate compared to the male control group (p=0.02, p=0.004, p=0.003 for incisors, right and left molars, respectively. For the female group, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.79, p=0.06, p=0.47. In the group of individuals with clefts, 92.6% were under orthodontic treatment, which could be a reason for the present findings, since it can decrease the bite force more remarkably in males than in females. In conclusion, the bite force is significantly reduced in men when comparing the cleft group to the noncleft group. In females, this reduction was not significant in the same way. However, the main reason for this reduction and for the different behavior between genders should be further investigated.

  8. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ashutosh Santoshi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small lacerations on the distal-third of the forearm. Copious irrigation with normal saline was done and he was administered anti-tetanus and post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was commenced. Radiographs revealed fracture of radius and ulna in the mid-shaft region. He underwent emergency wound debridement, and the ulna was stabilised with an intra-medullary square nail. Seventy-two hours later, he underwent re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis. He had an uneventful recovery and at three-month follow-up, the fractures had healed radiographically in anatomic alignment. At two-year follow-up, he is doing well, is pain free and has a normal range of motion compared to the contralateral side. Conclusion: Horse bites behave as compound fractures however rabies prophylaxis will be needed and careful observation is needed. Early radical debridement, preliminary skeletal stabilisation, re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis to plate, and antibiotic prophylaxis were the key to the successful management of our patient. Keywords: Horse; animal bite; forearm; open fracture

  9. A case: Acute myocardial infarction in a child due to spider bite


    Laho, Edmond; Puca, Edmond


    This report presents a case of a ten-years-old girl, who suffered myocardial ischemia following by "black widow" spider bite. A few minutes after the bite, her parents saw a small, black and shiny lesion in insect bite. The clinical signs began about 3-4 hours after the bite. The venom of the Latrodectus mactans "black widow" is toxic, resulting about 5-6 % fatality rate. The case of a black widow spider bite resulting in myocardial ischemia is very rare and has not been d...

  10. The management of dog bite injuries of genitalia in paediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Bertozzi


    Full Text Available Dog bite injuries are common in children and represent an important health-care problem. Most dog bite injuries involve the face or an extremity. Victims tend to seek medical care quickly. Dog bites to the external genitalia are rarely reported, but they potentially result in morbidity if improperly managed. Morbidity is also directly related to the severity of initial wound. Guidelines for the management of dog bites include irrigation, dιbridment, antibiotic therapy, consideration of tetanus and rabies immunisation and suture of wounds or surgical reconstruction. Literature review was conducted and focused to analyze the management of dog bite lesions involving external genitalia.

  11. Occlusion Handling in Videos Object Tracking: A Survey (United States)

    Lee, B. Y.; Liew, L. H.; Cheah, W. S.; Wang, Y. C.


    Object tracking in video has been an active research since for decades. This interest is motivated by numerous applications, such as surveillance, human-computer interaction, and sports event monitoring. Many challenges related to tracking objects still remain, this can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns of objects and the scene, non-rigid object structures and most significant are occlusion of tracked object be it object-to-object or object-to-scene occlusions. Generally, occlusion in object tracking occur under three situations: self-occlusion, inter-object occlusion by background scene structure. Self-occlusion occurs most frequently while tracking articulated objects when one part of the object occludes another. Inter-object occlusion occurs when two objects being tracked occlude each other whereas occlusion by the background occurs when a structure in the background occludes the tracked objects. Typically, tracking methods handle occlusion by modelling the object motion using linear and non-linear dynamic models. The derived models will be used to continuously predicting the object location when a tracked object is occluded until the object reappears. Example of these method are Kalman filtering and Particle filtering trackers. Researchers have also utilised other features to resolved occlusion, for example, silhouette projections, colour histogram and optical flow. We will present some result from a previously conducted experiment when tracking single object using Kalman filter, Particle filter and Mean Shift trackers under various occlusion situation in this paper. We will also review various other occlusion handling methods that involved using multiple cameras. In a nutshell, the goal of this paper is to discuss in detail the problem of occlusion in object tracking and review the state of the art occlusion handling methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Moreover, we discuss the important

  12. Role of bite mark characteristics and localizations in finding an assailant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Afsin


    Full Text Available The location, size, and number of bite marks can be used as a beneficial indicator of the crime type and feasible group of suspects. This study aims to present information about the bite mark locations, the bite mark characteristics, and the perpetrator′s profile based on three cases which were carried out by the same biter. The attack bites, which observed in all of the three cases, were characterized by serious wounds and tissue loss. Analysis of bite mark characteristics and bite mark localizations of these three cases by the relevant experts provided helpful information for the police units which searched for the assailant. But, in order to conduct criminal profiling from bite marks objectively, the number of case series is advised to be expanded.

  13. Concepts of occlusion in prosthodontics: A literature review, part I (United States)

    Rangarajan, V.; Gajapathi, B.; Yogesh, P. B.; Ibrahim, M. Mohamed; Kumar, R. Ganesh; Karthik, Prasanna


    Occlusion and its relationship to the function of the stomatognathic system have been widely studied in dentistry since many decades. This series of articles describe about occlusion in the complete denture, fixed partial denture, and implants. Part I and II of this articles series describe concepts and philosophies of occlusion in complete denture. So far, available research has not concluded a superior tooth form or occlusal scheme to satisfy the requirements of completely edentulous patients with respect to comfort, mastication, phonetics, and esthetics. Since then, several balanced and nonbalanced articulation concepts were proposed in the literature. A balanced articulation appears to be most appropriate because of tooth contacts observed during nonfunctional activities of patients. This article discusses about evolution of different concepts of occlusion and occlusal schemes in complete denture occlusion. PMID:26929513

  14. RTSAH Traversal Order for Occlusion Rays

    KAUST Repository

    Ize, Thiago


    We accelerate the finding of occluders in tree based acceleration structures, such as a packetized BVH and a single ray kd-tree, by deriving the ray termination surface area heuristic (RTSAH) cost model for traversing an occlusion ray through a tree and then using the RTSAH to determine which child node a ray should traverse first instead of the traditional choice of traversing the near node before the far node. We further extend RTSAH to handle materials that attenuate light instead of fully occluding it, so that we can avoid superfluous intersections with partially transparent objects. For scenes with high occlusion, we substantially lower the number of traversal steps and intersection tests and achieve up to 2× speedups. © 2010 The Author(s).

  15. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Maidi


    Full Text Available In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  16. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidi Madjid


    Full Text Available Abstract In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  17. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels (United States)

    Visuri, Steven R.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, IV, Duncan J.; Esch, Victor C.


    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  18. Nontraumatic vascular emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute venous occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haage, Patrick; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Krings, Timo [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)


    Risk factors for acute venous occlusion range from prolonged immobilization to hypercoagulability syndromes, trauma, and malignancy. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of acute venous occlusion and to assess the value of interventional strategies for venous thrombosis treatment in an emergency setting. First, diagnosis and treatment of the most common form of venous occlusion, at the level of the lower extremities, is presented, followed by pelvic vein and inferior vena cava occlusion, mesenteric venous thrombosis, upper extremity occlusion, acute cerebral vein thrombosis, and finally acute venous occlusion of hemodialysis access. In acute venous occlusion of the lower extremity phlebography is still the reference gold standard. Presently, duplex ultrasound with manual compression is the most sensitive and specific noninvasive test. Limitations of ultrasonography include isolated distal calf vein occlusion, obesity, and patients with lower extremity edema. If sonography is nondiagnostic, venography should be considered. Magnetic resonance venography can differentiate an acute occlusion from chronic thrombus, but because of its high cost and limited availability, it is not yet used for the routine diagnosis of lower extremity venous occlusion only. Regarding interventional treatment, catheter-directed thrombolysis can be applied to dissolve thrombus in charily selected patients with symptomatic occlusion and no contraindications to therapy. Acute occlusion of the pelvic veins and the inferior vena cava, often due to extension from the femoropopliteal system, represents a major risk for pulmonary embolism. Color flow Doppler imaging is often limited owing to obesity and bowel gas. Venography has long been considered the gold standard for identifying proximal venous occlusion. Both CT scanning and MR imaging, however, can even more accurately diagnose acute pelvis vein or inferior vena cava occlusion. MRI is

  19. Dental Occlusion and Ophthalmology: A Literature Review (United States)

    Marchili, Nicola; Ortu, Eleonora; Pietropaoli, Davide; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Monaco, Annalisa


    Stomatognathic system is strictly correlated to other anatomical regions; many studies investigated relationship between temporomandibular joint and posture, several articles describe cranio-facial pain from dental causes, such as trigger points. Until now less interest has been given to connections between dental occlusion and ophthalmology, even if they are important and involving. Clinical experience in dental practice claims that mandibular latero-deviation is connected both to eye dominance and to defects of ocular convergence. The trigeminal nerve is the largest and most complex of the twelve cranial nerves. The trigeminal system represents the connection between somitic structures and those derived from the branchial arches, collecting the proprioception from both somitic structures and oculomotor muscles. The intermedius nucleus of the medulla is a small perihypoglossal brainstem nucleus, which acts to integrate information from the head and neck and relays it on to the nucleus of the solitary tract where autonomic responses are generated. This intriguing neurophysiological web led our research group to investigate anatomical and functional associations between dental occlusion and vision. In conclusion, nervous system and functional pathways strictly connect vision and dental occlusion, and in the future both dentists and oculists should be more and more aware of this correlation for a better diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27733873

  20. Laser photocoagulation for retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova


    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is one of the leading causes of permanent vision loss. In adults, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO occurs in 1.8% while branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO occurs in 0.2%. Treatment strategy and disease prognosis are determined by RVO type (ischemic/non-ischemic. Despite numerous studies and many current CRVO and BRVO treatment approaches, the management of these patients is still being debated. Intravitreal injections of steroids (triamcinolone acetate, dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab, ranibizumab were shown to be fairly effective. However, it is unclear whether anti-VEGF agents are reasonable in ischemic RVOs. Laser photocoagulation remains the only effective treatment of optic nerve head and/or retinal neovascularization. Laser photocoagulation is also indicated for the treatment of macular edema. Both threshold and sub-threshold photocoagulation may be performed. Photocoagulation performed with argon (514 nm, krypton (647 nm, or diode (810 nm laser for macular edema provides similar results (no significant differences. The treatment may be complex and include medication therapy and/or surgery. Medication therapy includes anti-aggregant agents and antioxidants, i.e., emoxypine which may be used in acute RVO as well as in post-thrombotic retinopathy. 

  1. Venomous bites and stings in the tropical world. (United States)

    Warrell, D A

    Snakes of the families Viperidae and Elapidae are responsible for the high incidence of morbidity and mortality after snake bites in countries of West Africa, the Indian subcontinent, South-East Asia, New Guinea and Latin America. Envenoming can cause local effects, notably tissue necrosis; and systemic effects, including paralysis, haemostatic disturbances, shock, increased capillary permeability, myocardial damage, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Specific hyperimmune serum (antivenom) is the mainstay of medical treatment for severe envenoming. Ancillary treatments such as assisted ventilation, repletion of circulating volume, renal dialysis and surgical debridement of necrotic tissues are needed in some cases. Scorpion stings are a common medical problem in middle and southern America, North Africa and the Middle East. Vasodilator drugs are important to counter the effects of massive catecholamine release. Bites by spiders and stings by hymenoptera and marine animals are responsible for deaths and morbidity in some tropical countries.

  2. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance (United States)

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Kaushik, Noopur; Panthri, Prerna


    ABSTRACT One of the most challenging tasks for a pediatric dentist is the management of deleterious oral habits which adversely affect the dentofacial complex. However, if these habits can be intercepted and diagnosed well in time, they can save the patient from the psychological impact of undergoing long treatment therapies. One such rare deleterious oral habit is cheek biting that affects the buccal mucosa. Presented here is a case report which describes the interception of this deleterious habit in a 15-year-old female child who was a bilateral cheek biter with the help of an innovative intraoral appliance: The cheek plumper. How to cite this article: Rana V, Srivastava N, Kaushik N, Panthri P. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):146-148. PMID:27365937

  3. Extreme solid state refrigeration using nanostructured Bi-Te alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Sharma, Ana L. (San Jose State University, San Jose, CA); Spataru, Dan Catalin; Medlin, Douglas L.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Morales, Alfredo Martin


    Materials are desperately needed for cryogenic solid state refrigeration. We have investigated nanostructured Bi-Te alloys for their potential use in Ettingshausen refrigeration to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These alloys form alternating layers of Bi{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} blocks in equilibrium. The composition Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} was identified as having the greatest potential for having a high Ettingshausen figure of merit. Both single crystal and polycrystalline forms of this material were synthesized. After evaluating the Ettingshausen figure of merit for a large, high quality polycrystal, we simulated the limits of practical refrigeration in this material from 200 to 77 K using a simple device model. The band structure was also computed and compared to experiments. We discuss the crystal growth, transport physics, and practical refrigeration potential of Bi-Te alloys.

  4. Analysis of cases caused by acute spider bite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zihni Sulaj; Gentian Vyshka; Amarda Gashi


    We performed a retrospective study of 176 patients in the University Hospital Center of Tirana (Albania), during the period 2001-2011, admitted with the diagnosis of a suspected spider bite. Three fatalities were registered during this decade covered from our study, with a clinical picture of marked hypertension, tachycardia and acute cardiac failure leading to death within a minimum of 25 hours and a maximum of 42 hours from the occurrence. Out of the total of 176 patients, we had 59% (104 cases) females, and 41% males. The overwhelming majority of the patients lived in rural areas (155 of the cases); extremities were mostly affected from the bites. A summary of clinical signs and a brief review of the available literature are made in the results and discussion section of this paper. Authors advocate that special precautions should be taken especially in severe forms of interesting autonomous nerve system, with aggressive fluid resuscitation, supportive therapy and close monitoring of vital signs.

  5. The Jaw Adductor Resultant and Estimated Bite Force in Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. G. Perry


    Full Text Available We reconstructed the jaw adductor resultant in 34 primate species using new data on muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA and data on skull landmarks. Based on predictions by Greaves, the resultant should (1 cross the jaw at 30% of its length, (2 lie directly posterior to the last molar, and (3 incline more anteriorly in primates that need not resist large anteriorly-directed forces. We found that the resultant lies significantly posterior to its predicted location, is significantly posterior to the last molar, and is significantly more anteriorly inclined in folivores than in frugivores. Perhaps primates emphasize avoiding temporomandibular joint distraction and/or wide gapes at the expense of bite force. Our exploration of trends in the data revealed that estimated bite force varies with body mass (but not diet and is significantly greater in strepsirrhines than in anthropoids. This might be related to greater contribution from the balancing-side jaw adductors in anthropoids.

  6. Acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura triggered by insect bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdev R


    Full Text Available Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP is a blood disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood. Acute thrombocytopenic purpura is most commonly seen in young children, with a sudden onset, following a viral illness, vaccination or an insect bite. The report is a rare case of ITP, which was triggered by a honey-bee bite and caused continuous intermittent bleeding from the gingival sulcular region of the maxillary left permanent first molar, and ecchymotic spots on the forehead, scalp, and lower limbs. A complete hemogram revealed severe thrombocytopenia with platelet count as low as 15,000/mm3. The patient was immediately hospitalized and administered platelet replacement and medication. With this report, the authors, as dentists, emphasize the significance of recognition, early diagnosis, and referral of such patients with bleeding disorders to specialized centers, for prompt treatment.

  7. A new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients: A technical report

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    Park, Jong Woong; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Symkhampha, Khanthaly [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Vientiane (Lao People' s Democratic Republic)


    Panoramic radiographs taken using conventional chin-support devices have often presented problems with positioning accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this report was to propose a new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients that better addresses these two issues. A new panoramic radiography bite block similar to the bite block for dentulous patients was developed to enable proper positioning stability for edentulous patients. The new bite block was designed and implemented in light of previous studies. The height of the new bite block was 18 mm and to compensate for the horizontal edentulous space, its horizontal width was 7 mm. The panoramic radiographs using the new bite block were compared with those using the conventional chin-support device. Panoramic radiographs taken with the new bite block showed better stability and bilateral symmetry than those taken with the conventional chin-support device. Patients also showed less movement and more stable positioning during panoramic radiography with the new bite block. Conventional errors in panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients could be caused by unreliability of the chin-support device. The newly proposed bite block for panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients showed better reliability. Further study is required to evaluate the image quality and reproducibility of images with the new bite block.

  8. Describing the relationship between cat bites and human depression using data from an electronic health record.

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    David A Hanauer

    Full Text Available Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation.

  9. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina]. (United States)

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor


    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

  10. Pott′s puffy tumor following an insect bite

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    Raja V


    Full Text Available Pott′s puffy tumor, a feature of osteomyelitis of the frontal bone, is a rare entity, especially in adults. Sir Percival Pott originally described this condition as a complication of trauma to the frontal bone. This is also a recognized complication of fronto-ethmoidal sinusitis. We present a rare case of Pott′s puffy tumor caused by an insect bite presenting initially as a preseptal cellulitis and explore its pathogenesis and management.

  11. Self inflicted human teeth bites: a case report


    Singh, Satinder Pal; Aggarwal, Akashdeep; Kaur, Sumeet; Singh, Dalbir


    Human infighting has been a part of our civilization since times immemorial. These incidences may go unnoticed or may attract attention of law enforcing agencies depending upon the severity of the offence. Though weapons are generally employed to inflict injuries, rare cases have been reported in literature where human teeth have been used to serve this purpose. Human bites may be self inflicted or self suffered in connivance with others to level an allegation against an adversary. We are pre...

  12. Relationship of Occlusal Schemes with the Occurrence of Temporomandibular Disorders

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    Dina H. Sugiaman


    Full Text Available Masticatory system is a complex functional unit of the body responsible for mastication, speech, and deglutition process. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD is used to describe all functional disturbances of the masticatory system. The etiology of TMD is multifactorial, such as occlusal disharmony and emotional stress. The relationship between occlusion and TMD has been highly debated in dentistry, one of the occlusal factors is the occlusal scheme. Occlusal schemes are defined as bilateral canine guidance, unilateral canine guidance, group function and balanced occlusion. However, studies about the relationship of occlusal schemes and the occurrence of the TMD are still limited and remained controversial. Objective: To investigate the relationship of occlusal schemes witht he occurrence of TMD. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, Uniiversitas Indonesia. A total of 127 students were included in this study. Subjects were examined based on Clinical Helkimo Index and divided into TMD and non-TMD groups. Subjects were categorized as non-TMD groups if the value of the clinical Helkimo index was 0 and as TMD group when the value ranged between 1-25. Results: Balanced occlusion schemes has a greater risk of TMD occurrence with odds ratio value 5.6 and 95% confidence interval 1.188 to 26.331 (p=0.021. Conclusion: Balanced occlusion has a significant relationship with the occurrence of TMD.

  13. Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a shape analysis computer program: Part 2; "SCIP" and bite marks in skin and foodstuffs. (United States)

    Nambiar, P; Bridges, T E; Brown, K A


    In a previous paper 1, we have shown that the use of an interactive shape analysis computer program ("SCIP") and the derivation of a quantitative Similarity Index 1 greatly facilitated the comparison of experimental flat wax bite marks with the dentition of various 'suspects' and the identification of the agent producing the bite. In this study, "SCIP" was employed in an attempt to quantify the comparison, in the form of the Similarity Index (S.I.), between the "offender's" teeth and the bite marks produced on foodstuffs and on human skin, under experimental conditions. The use of "SCIP" and the S.I. is recommended as a routine means of eliminating suspects in bite mark cases. If a reasonable number of reference points have been registered in the bitten material and particularly if the perpetrator has any unusual features in the anterior dentition, the matching of the bite mark with the actual offender is a possibility with this method.

  14. Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.

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    Seneviratne U


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell′s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

  15. EduBites: Cliffs Notes for E/PO (United States)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bartolone, L.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Hurt, R. L.; Squires, G. K.


    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community’s knowledge and understanding of the educational research papers relevant to our work. EduBites is a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. While we are all aware that we should be basing our E/PO work on a solid research foundation, many people in the community are pushed for time when it comes to staying on top of the educational literature. EduBites aims to reduce that workload for the benefit of the entire community. Our database is small, but growing, and will ultimately tackle papers across the whole of the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation, and many other topics. We are keen to hear from anyone on the community who would be interested in joining our review team, and welcome feedback on the EduBites user experience.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of two different occlusal splints on maximum occlusal force in patients with sleep bruxism: a pilot study



    PURPOSE The occlusal splint has been used for many years as an effective treatment of sleep bruxism. Several methods have been used to evaluate efficiency of the occlusal splints. However, the effect of the occlusal splints on occlusal force has not been clarified sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of occlusal splints on maximum occlusal force in patients with sleep bruxism and compare two type of splints that are Bruxogard-soft splint and canine protected hard...

  17. Simulation of dental collisions and occlusal dynamics in the virtual environment. (United States)

    Stavness, I K; Hannam, A G; Tobias, D L; Zhang, X


    Semi-adjustable articulators have often been used to simulate occlusal dynamics, but advances in intra-oral scanning and computer software now enable dynamics to be modelled mathematically. Computer simulation of occlusal dynamics requires accurate virtual casts, records to register them and methods to handle mesh collisions during movement. Here, physical casts in a semi-adjustable articulator were scanned with a conventional clinical intra-oral scanner. A coordinate measuring machine was used to index their positions in intercuspation, protrusion, right and left laterotrusion, and to model features of the articulator. Penetrations between the indexed meshes were identified and resolved using restitution forces, and the final registrations were verified by distance measurements between dental landmarks at multiple sites. These sites were confirmed as closely approximating via measurements made from homologous transilluminated vinylpolysiloxane interocclusal impressions in the mounted casts. Movements between the indexed positions were simulated with two models in a custom biomechanical software platform. In model DENTAL, 6 degree-of-freedom movements were made to minimise deviation from a straight line path and also shaped by dynamic mesh collisions detected and resolved mathematically. In model ARTIC, the paths were further constrained by surfaces matching the control settings of the articulator. Despite these differences, the lower mid-incisor point paths were very similar in both models. The study suggests that mathematical simulation utilising interocclusal 'bite' registrations can closely replicate the primary movements of casts mounted in a semi-adjustable articulator. Additional indexing positions and appropriate software could, in some situations, replace the need for mechanical semi-adjustable articulation and/or its virtual representation.

  18. Risk of Lyme disease development after a tick bite

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    Mladenović Jovan


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite numerous research of Lyme disease (LD, there are still many concerns about environmental of infectious agent of LD, as well as its prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this work was to determine the risk of LD in relation to the way of removing ticks and duration of tick attachment. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2007 a prospective study was conducted including persons with tick bite referred to the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, and followed for the occurrence of early Lyme disease up to six months after a tick bite. Epidemiological questionnaire was used to collect relevant information about the place and time of tick bites, the way of a removing tick, duration of tick attachment, remnants of a tick left in the skin (parts of the mouth device and the signs of clinical manifestations of LD. Duration of tick attachment was determined on the basis of size of engorged tick and epidemiological data. Removed ticks were determined by the key of Pomerancev. Professional removing of attached tick was considered to be removing of tick with mechanical means by healthcare personnel. Fisher's exact test, Chi squares test and calculation of the relative risk (RR were used for data analysis. Results. Of 3 126 patients with tick bite, clinical manifestations of LD were demonstrated in 19 (0.61%. In the group of subjects (n = 829 in which a tick was not removed professionally there were 17 (2.05% cases with LD, while in the group of respondents (n=2 297 in who a tick was removed professionally there were 2 (0.09% cases with LD after tick bite (RR, 23.55; p < 0.0001. The disease was most frequent in the group of respondents with incompletely and unprofessionally removed ticks (2.46%. In the groups of patients with unprofessionally but completely removed ticks LD occurred in 0.89%, while in the group of subjects with a tick removed by an expert, but incompletely in 0.78% cases. The disease occurred

  19. Bite force in patients with functional disturbances of the masticatory system. (United States)

    Helkimo, E; Carlsson, G E; Carmeli, Y


    In thirty patients (24 women and 6 men) treated because of dysfunction of the masticatory system at the department of Stomatognathic Physiology, University of Gothenburg, bite force was registered before, during and after treatment had been completed. In the controls, thirty-six dental students and trainee dental nurses, with no dysfunction of the masticatory system, bite force was registered on two occasions. Bite force was measured between the first molars on each side and between the central incisors. Also finger force was registered. The force measurements were made at five different levels, increasing from very weak to maximum force. Repeated tests of bite force in the control group, made at intervals of about 1 week, gave almost identical results. Bite force in the patient group was lower than in the control group at the first registration but increased with palliation of the symptoms during treatment. There was no significant difference in bite force between the affected and the unaffected side.

  20. Chronic Pituitary Failure Resembling Sheehan's Syndrome Following a Bite of Russell's Viper. A Case Report. (United States)

    Srinivasan, K G; Srividya, S; Usha Nandhini, K P; Ramprabananth, S


    Hypopituitarism can be the sequela of a variety of causes like postpartum pituitary necrosis or Sheehan's syndrome, lymphocytic hypophysitis, trauma and encephalitis. A very rare cause is envenomation by a bite of a Russell's viper. Very few cases with documented imaging findings of chronic pituitary failure resulting from snake bite have been reported. We describe a case of hypopituitarism with clinical, endocrine and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies occurring as a delayed complication of snake bite.

  1. A survey of straw use and tail biting in Swedish pig farms rearing undocked pigs


    Wallgren, Torun; Westin, Rebecka; Gunnarsson, Stefan


    Background Tail biting is a common problem in intensive pig farming, affecting both welfare and production. Although routine tail docking is banned within the EU, it remains a common practice to prevent tail biting. Straw as environmental enrichment has been proposed as an alternative to tail docking, but its effectiveness against tail biting and function in manure handling systems have to be considered. The aim of the study was to survey how pigs with intact tails are raised and how tail bit...

  2. Bite by a dog under provocation: is it free from risk? (United States)

    Dutta, J K


    There is a common belief that rabid dogs bite without provocation, hence a dog bite under provocation is free from the risk of rabies. This is not always true as is evident from the case report narrated below. Here in this article, a man of 38 years was bitten by a dog under provocation. He developed rabies 4 months after the bite and subsequently died. Autopsy revealed Negri bodies from the brain tissue.

  3. Importance of occlusion aspects in the completion of orthodontic treatment



    The purpose of this study was to address the therapeutic goals regarding the static and functional occlusion in the completion of orthodontic treatment. For such purpose, a study population comprising 20 female treated Class II malocclusion subjects with an initial mean age of 11 years underwent a two-phase treatment (orthopedics and orthodontics). The patients were diagnosed in centric relation and were treated according to the six keys for normal occlusion and functional occlusal parameters...

  4. Occlusal adjustment in the treatment of secondary traumatic injury

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    Raulino Naves Borges


    Full Text Available The success of the rehabilitation treatment is associated with the relationship between occlusion and periodontal status. When occlusal loads exceed the ability of the periodontium to resist and distribute the resulting forces, injuries may develop, leading to failures in dental practice. A 35-year-old female patient presented at the Occlusion and Orofacial Pain Research Center at the School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Brazil, complaining of pain and mobility in the maxillary central incisors and sensitivity in the mandibular left incisors and canine. Symptoms began after cast metal restoration was performed in tooth #27. Clinical examination revealed a signifi cant difference of 1 mm between centric relation and habitual occlusion, presence of a periodontal pocket 5 mm deep in the mesial aspect of tooth #11, and an increased vertical dimension of occlusion caused by occlusal interference between teeth #27 and #37. Radiographic examination detected vertical bone loss between teeth #21 and #11, on the mesial aspect of tooth #33 and between the lower incisors. The lower teeth also showed radiographic evidence of periapical lesions. Occlusal interference caused anterior projection of the mandible to the right, overloading the incisors. Treatment by occlusal adjustment was performed to promote an equal incidence of forces on all aspects of the teeth. Twelve sessions were required to achieve a balanced occlusion and restore the physiological vertical dimension of occlusion. Six months after treatment, there was radiographic evidence of newly formed bone tissue between teeth #11 and #21, regression of apical periodontitis in the lower teeth, and a decrease in mobility and all associated symptoms. Secondary traumatic injury may be responsible for changes in apical tooth structures. Occlusal adjustment may favor the direction of occlusal forces to the long axis of the teeth.

  5. The correction of occlusal vertical dimension on tooth wear

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    Rostiny Rostiny


    Full Text Available The loss of occlusal vertical dimension which is caused by tooth wear is necessarily treated to regain vertical dimension. Correctional therapy should be done as early possible. In this case, simple and relatively low cost therapy was performed. In unserve loss of occlusal vertical dimension, partial removable denture could be used and the improvement of lengthening anterior teeth using composite resin to improve to regain vertical dimensional occlusion.

  6. Cephalometric Indicators of the Vertical Dimension of Occlusion


    Strajnić, Ljiljana; Stanišić-Sinobad, Darinka; Marković, Dubravka; Stojanović, Ljiljana


    The aim of this investigation was to establish precise indicators of the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) which could be used as objective parameters in prosthodontic treatment providing exact control of the reconstructed vertical dimension of occlusion, early detection of errors and correction of the vertical dimension of occlusion during complete denture manufacturing. A total of 60 lateral cephalometric radiographs of subjects with natural dentition and class I skeletal ja...

  7. Arterial gas occlusions in operating heat pipes (United States)

    Saaski, E. W.


    The effect of noncondensable gases on high performance arterial heat pipes has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, have been used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes. Experimental observations of gas occlusions were made using a stainless steel heat pipe equipped with viewing ports, and the working fluids methanol and ammonia with the gas additives helium, argon, and xenon. Observations were related to gas transport models.

  8. Electro-oculogram of Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Twenty five cases, including 26 eyes with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) were examined by means of the electro-oculogram. The results showed that 23 of the 26 eyes suffering from RVO exhibited abnormalities of the electro-oculogram (EOG). The potential difference and Arden ratio in the RVO eyes were lower than those in the normal eyes (P<0.01). The more the visual acuity of ill eyes was decreased, the higher the abnormal rate of EOG in ill eyes was. 14 eyes had the visual acuity less than 0.1, whose EOGs ...

  9. Hydrocolloid occlusion for the treatment of neurovascular corns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Beck, Jan Walther; Reumert, L N


    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of hydrocolloid occlusion on neurovascular corns. The design was an observer-blinded, randomized, controlled study. Thirty consecutive patients participated in the trial. The patients received curettage alone or curettage with hydrocolloid...... occlusion. Six treatments were given over 12 weeks. A follow-up examination was performed 3 months after termination of the trial. Outcome measures were the size of the corns, a discomfort score, and an overall judgment of the trial. The results demonstrated no benefit of occlusion for symptoms or signs...... of neurovascular corns. The patients treated with occlusion were, however, generally more satisfied than the conventional group....

  10. Radiation Retinopathy Associated with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Liu; FengWen


    Purpose: To report a case of radiation retinopathy associated with central retinal vein occlusion.Methods: The clinical features and fundus fluorescein angiography of this case were analyzed.Results: The patient had been treated with radiotherapy for her nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. The funduscopic examination and fluorescein angiography showed the features of radiation retinopathy in both eyes, and central retinal vein occlusion in the left eye.Conclusions: Radiation retinopathy can be associated with central retinal vein occlusion in the same eye, and it seems that the endothelial cell loss caused by radiation retinopathy may lead to retinal vein occlusion.

  11. The occlusal guard: a simplified technique for fabrication and equilibration. (United States)

    Antonelli, John; Hottel, Timothy L; Siegel, Sharon C; Brandt, Robert; Silva, Gladston


    Hard occlusal guards have been used effectively to treat myofacial pain originating from parafunctional activities. Also, they can protect the natural dentition when it opposes porcelain restorations, help to evaluate changes in occlusal vertical dimension during full mouth rehabilitation, minimize further tooth loss in patients with abfraction lesions, and redirect occlusal loads more favorably onto dental implant-supported prostheses. A simplified technique is described to fabricate a properly designed wax model of an occlusal guard that can be processed in acrylic in the same manner used to construct a complete denture.

  12. Identifikasi bite marks dengan ekstraksi DNA metode Chelex (Bite marks identification with Chelex methods in DNA extraction

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    Imelda Kristina Sutrisno


    Full Text Available Background: In the case of crime often encountered evidence in bite marks form that was found on the victim’s body. Generally, bitemarks identification use standard techniques that compare the interpretation picture with the tooth model of suspected person. However, sometimes the techniques do not obtain accurate results. Therefore another technique is needed to support the identification process,such as DNA analysis that use the remaining epithelium attached in saliva to identify the DNA of the suspected person. In this processes a limited DNA material could be met, not only less in quantity but also less in quality. Chelex known as one of an effective DNA extraction method in DNA forensic case is needed to overcome this problem. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the use of Chelex as DNA extraction method on a bitemarks sample models. Methods: The blood and bitemarks of 5 persons with were taken. The DNA of each subject was exctracted with Chelex and quantified the quantity with UV Spechtrophotometer. The DNA results was amplified by PCR at locus vWA and TH01 then vizualised by electrophoresis. Results: The electrophoresis’s results showed band at locus vWA and TH01 for blood sample and bite marks with no significant differences. Conclusion: The study showed that Chelex method could be use to extract DNA from bitemarks.Latar belakang: Dalam kasus kejahatan sering dijumpai bukti dalam bentuk bekas gigitan (bitemarks yang ditemukan pada tubuh korban. Umumnya, untuk mengidentifikasi bite marks menggunakan teknik standar yaitu membandingkan foto interpretasi dengan model gigi dari orang yang dicurigai. Namun demikian teknik ini terkadang tidak mendapatkan hasil yang akurat, sehingga diperlukan teknik lain untuk menunjang keberhasilan proses identifikasi pelaku, yakni melalui analisis DNA bitemarks, yang diperoleh dari saliva yang mengandung sisa epitel tersangka pelaku. Sampel DNA yang berasal dari bitemarks umumnya terbatas, tidak hanya

  13. Circadian variation in ghrelin and certain stress hormones in crib-biting horses. (United States)

    Hemmann, Karin; Raekallio, Marja; Kanerva, Kira; Hänninen, Laura; Pastell, Matti; Palviainen, Mari; Vainio, Outi


    Crib-biting is classified as an oral stereotypy, which may be initiated by stress susceptibility, management factors, genetic factors and gastrointestinal irritation. Ghrelin has been identified in the gastric mucosa and is involved in the control of food intake and reward, but its relationship to crib-biting is not yet known. The aim of this study was to examine the concentration and circadian variation of plasma ghrelin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and β-endorphin in crib-biting horses and non-crib-biting controls. Plasma samples were collected every second hour for 24h in the daily environment of eight horses with stereotypic crib-biting and eight non-crib-biting controls. The crib-biting horses had significantly higher mean plasma ghrelin concentrations than the control horses. The circadian rhythm of cortisol was evident, indicating that the sampling protocol did not inhibit the circadian regulation in these horses. Crib-biting had no statistically significant effect on cortisol, ACTH or β-endorphin concentrations. The inter-individual variations in β-endorphin and ACTH were higher than the intra-individual differences, which made inter-individual comparisons difficult and complicated the interpretation of results. Further research is therefore needed to determine the relationship between crib-biting and ghrelin concentration.


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    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : Snake bite is an environmental hazard associated with significant ocular morbidity and some have sight threatening complications . Objective of this study was to determine the ocular manifestations and long standing visual impairment fo llowing snake bite and to acquaint the ophthalmologists and related health professionals about the sight threatening ocular complications related to snake bite . METHODS : Prospective data was collected from the Dept . of Internal Medicine , Burdwan Medical Co llege , a rural based tertiary care hospital in eastern India . All snake bite patients admitted in the Department of Internal Medicine were examined and all patients with ocular manifestations were included in the study . RESULTS : Out of 245 cases of snake b ite , 51 ( 27 . 27% cases of venomous snake bite with ocular findings were included in this study . Thirty three ( 64 . 71% out of 51 were vasculotoxic and 18 ( 35 . 29% were neurotoxic in nature . Commonest ocular manifestation of neurotoxic bite was ptosis , followed by diplopia , ophthalmoplegia and optic neuritis . In vasculotoxic snake bites retinal and vitreous hemorrhage ( 36 . 36% was most common followed by subconjunctival hemorrhage and chemosis ( 27 . 28% , lid oedema ( 18 . 18% , hyphaema ( 12 . 12% and anterior uveitis ( 6 . 06% . Causes of long standing visual impairment were retinal hemorrhage in one patient and vitreous hemorrhage in two patients . CONCLUSIONS : Ocular morbidity following snake bite were more common among young males . Majority of long standing vis ual impairment were associated with vasculotoxic snake bite and required long term follow - up .

  15. Herpes labialis in patients with Russell's viper bite and acute kidney injury: a single center experience. (United States)

    Waikhom, Rajesh; Sapam, Ranjeeta; Patil, Krishna; Jadhav, Jaya Prada; Sircar, Dipankar; Roychowdhury, Arpita; Dasgupta, Sanjay; Pandey, Rajendra


    Snake bite is an important health hazard in tropical countries and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes labialis is a common ailment caused by the Herpes simplex virus. There is no published data showing any association between the snake bite and development of Herpes labialis. Here, we present a series of patients who developed Herpes labialis after Russell's viper bite and had acute kidney injury. We attempted to find whether snake bite is an immunosuppressed state and whether it could have pre-disposed the patients to the development of these lesions.

  16. Clinical categories of exaggerated skin reactions to mosquito bites and their pathophysiology. (United States)

    Tatsuno, Kazuki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki


    Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder.

  17. Effect of occlusal vertical dimension on swallowing patterns and perioral electromyographic activity. (United States)

    MacAvoy, S K; Jack, H C; Kieser, J; Farella, M


    Abnormal swallow patterns have been associated with specific dentofacial traits, such as an anterior open bite, but the cause-effect relationship between swallowing and malocclusion remains highly controversial. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of acute change in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) on intraoral pressure swallow patterns and perioral electromyographic activity (EMG) during swallowing. Ten volunteers (five female, five male; 27-32 years) repeated standardised swallowing tasks as the OVD was progressively increased using mandibular trays of different heights. Standardised swallowing tasks were performed repetitively with each tray in place. Individual swallowing waveforms were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. Peak pressure, swallow duration, time to peak pressure and lip EMG peak activity were assessed for each swallow. Data were analysed using mixed-model analysis. As OVD increased, lip peak pressure during swallowing increased almost threefold (+2·1 kPa; P ≤ 0·001), whereas swallow duration increased by 12·7 per cent (+160 ms; P = 0·01) at lip level and by 26·4 per cent (+270 ms; P < 0·001) at tongue level. Perioral muscle activity during swallows increased by 43·7 per cent (P ≤ 0·01) up to the OVD where resting lip seal was not attainable. Swallowing waveforms varied markedly between individuals, but interindividual waveforms were only minimally affected. The adaptive response and the waveform similarities associated with OVD variation supports the existence of a central control mechanism for swallowing, which may be modified by peripheral inputs.

  18. Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosanović-Jaković Natalija


    Full Text Available Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. Specific laboratory investigations and fluorescein angiography excluded the presence of vasculitis, collagen vascular diseases, hypercoagulable state and antiphospholipid syndrome. Conclusion. The patient met all the five of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP criteria for the metabolic syndrome: hypertension, abnormal lipid profile, abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity and hyperuricemia. Measurement of C-reactive protein is useful for the assessment of therapeutic systemic effect on any abnormality in the metabolic syndrome. Individual therapy for all risk factors in the metabolic syndrome is necessary to prevent complications such as cardiovascular, retinal vascular diseases and stroke.

  19. Numerical analysis of human dental occlusal contact (United States)

    Bastos, F. S.; Las Casas, E. B.; Godoy, G. C. D.; Meireles, A. B.


    The purpose of this study was to obtain real contact areas, forces, and pressures acting on human dental enamel as a function of the nominal pressure during dental occlusal contact. The described development consisted of three steps: characterization of the surface roughness by 3D contact profilometry test, finite element analysis of micro responses for each pair of main asperities in contact, and homogenization of macro responses using an assumed probability density function. The inelastic deformation of enamel was considered, adjusting the stress-strain relationship of sound enamel to that obtained from instrumented indentation tests conducted with spherical tip. A mechanical part of the static friction coefficient was estimated as the ratio between tangential and normal components of the overall resistive force, resulting in μd = 0.057. Less than 1% of contact pairs reached the yield stress of enamel, indicating that the occlusal contact is essentially elastic. The micro-models indicated an average hardness of 6.25GPa, and the homogenized result for macroscopic interface was around 9GPa. Further refinements of the methodology and verification using experimental data can provide a better understanding of processes related to contact, friction and wear of human tooth enamel.

  20. Dental occlusion: modern concepts and their application in implant prosthodontics. (United States)

    Carlsson, Gunnar E


    The aim of this article was to review the literature on various aspects of occlusion related to implant prosthodontics, using PubMed and the Cochrane library. Even if the number of studies on implants and prosthodontics is very large, no randomized controlled trials or Cochrane reviews were found on the possible influence of occlusal design or characteristics of occlusion on treatment outcome. Therefore, studies and articles of a lower evidence level were accepted as the main part of the review. The widely spread opinion that implants are superior to natural teeth was refuted by two recent consensus conferences, which concluded that the long-term outcome of implant restorations is not better than that of natural teeth. No controlled studies on the optimal features of a harmonious natural and/or restored occlusion, including implant prostheses, were found. Nor was there any evidence that more sophisticated methods in jaw registration, e.g., using face-bows and adjustable articulators, compared with simpler methods, will yield better clinical prosthodontic results. This article discusses, among other things, concepts of occlusion of implant-supported restorations, occlusal material, cantilevers, and occlusal risk factors. Within the limitations of the review, it was concluded that many factors can influence implant failure and peri-implant bone loss but that little is known of the relative importance of such factors. Most probably, however, occlusal factors and details of occlusion are in general of minor importance for the outcome of implant restorations. Occlusion can be managed successfully by using simple methods for jaw registration and different occlusal concepts.

  1. Krait bite requiring high dose antivenom: a case report. (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Koirala, Shekhar; Dahal, Gaheraj


    Anti snake venom (ASV) is the most specific therapy available for treatment of snakebite envenomation. The ASV available in Nepal are polyvalent ASV produced in India and are effective against envenomation by cobra and krait, the two most common species found in Eastern Nepal. Neurotoxic signs respond slowly and unconvincingly and continuous absorption of venom may cause recurrent neurotoxicity. Therefore, close observation and continuous administration of ASV is essential to save the victim. We report a case of neurotoxic envenomation due to bite by common krait (Bangarus caeruleus). The victim required very high dose of polyvalent ASV for reversal of neurological manifestations.

  2. Correction of anterior open bite in a case of achondroplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpagam S


    Full Text Available Treatment planning for patients with skeletal deformities is often considered challenging. This article reports a female patient with achondroplasia who presented with severe maxillary retrognathism and vertical excess along with anterior open bite. The clinical and cephalometric findings of the patient are detailed here. The treatment plan consisted of modified anterior maxillary osteotomy for simultaneous vertical and sagittal augmentation along with orthodontic intervention. The course of surgical-orthodontic treatment and the results are presented. This treatment is to be followed by correction of vertical maxillary excess after completion of growth. This paper concludes that the dentoalveolar component of a skeletal deformity can be handled independent of the craniofacial management.

  3. Use of Hyperbaric Oxygen in Experimental Frost-Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna


    Full Text Available Frost bite produced in rates by exposing them to -15 degree calcius and the extent of injury in the hind limbs and the tail was assessed at the end of 15 days. Hyperoxic treatment at normal atmospheric pressure and 1.5 atmosphere was given to experimental groups for 30 minutes daily for seven days in a hyperoxic chamber immediately after cold exposure. The controls were not given any treatment. Single oxygen treatment at normal atmosphere pressure was of no value, however, repeated hyperoxic treatment showed limited improvement but repeated treatment for seven days with hyperbaric oxygen at 1.5 atmosphere showed distinct recovery of frozen parts.

  4. Snake bite in dogs and its successful treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ananda


    Full Text Available Two dog viz. Labrador and Alsatian cross were presented to the peripheral hospital with a history of frothy salivation, dull, depressed, abnormal gait and with recumbent position. They were diagnosed for snake bite based on the history and physical examination. The hematological parameters showed reduced values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and increased total leukocyte count. The biochemical values showed elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase and creatinine. The successful treatment was done with anti-snake venom, fluid, corticosteroid, muscuranic receptor antagonist and antibiotic with careful monitoring. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 66-67

  5. Nonpigmented Chromobacterium violaceum bacteremic cellulitis after fish bite. (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Huei


    A case of nonpigmented Chromobacterium violaceum bacteremic cellulitis after fish bite in Taiwan is reported. The patient was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin and doxycycline for an extended period. Chromobacterium violaceum should be listed in the differential diagnosis of patients with nonspecific cellulitis associated with marked leukocytosis and rapid progression to septicemia either with or without a distinct history of exposure to water or soil. A combination of prompt diagnosis, optimal antimicrobial therapy, and adequate therapeutic duration for C violaceum infection is the key for successful therapy.

  6. Epidemiological aspects of dog bites considering biter dogs and victims


    Buso, Daniel Sartori [UNESP; Queiroz, Luzia Helena [UNESP; Silva, José Erisvaldo [UNESP


    The aim of this study was to characterize dog bites using data on biter dogs and victims. An exploratory cross-sectional study was performed using 203 records of individuals who had attended in public health services in 2009 in the municipality of Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, after they had been bitten by a dog. Over 70% (92/129) of the biter dogs were male and most of them (71%) received as a gift. Dog owners reported companionship as the main reason for acquiring the dog. The victims who w...

  7. Correlation study of the relationship between gravity center movement and bite force during the mixed dentition period%混合牙列期身体重心动摇和咬合力的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小沛; 纪莹; 陆海涛; 张婷婷; 邱伟


    目的:调查混合牙列期身体重心动摇与咬合力之间的关系。方法56名处于Hellman咬合发育Ⅲ期A阶段的健康小学生纳入研究。通过检查咬合平衡中点与中线的距离( X)关系,X≤5 mm被划分为正中组,X>5 mm被划分为偏移组。使用自动姿态分析系统测定了身体平衡相关开闭眼时的重心动摇距离、重心动摇面积。使用牙齿压力感应装置Dental Prescale®测定了咬合接触面积、平均咬合力、最大咬合压力,咬合力和咬合平衡。结果咬合接触面积和咬合力的测试结果男女分别为18.1 mm2、712.2 N和14.1 mm2、541.8 N,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。咬合平衡中点正中组与偏移组的咬合接触面积、咬合力之间差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。咬合平衡中点正中组开、闭眼时期的重心动摇距离、面积明显小于偏移组,咬合平衡与开、闭眼时期的重心动摇距离、面积有关且具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。重心动摇稳定组的咬合接触面积大于动摇组,两者差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 Hellman咬合发育Ⅲ期A阶段儿童咬合平衡和人体重心动摇存在相关性,咬合接触面积与身体重心动摇相互影响。%Objective To investigate the relationship between gravity center movement and bite force during the mixed dentition period. Methods Fifty-six healthy children with Hellman's Dental AgeⅢ A were selected from an ele-mentary school. The body balance, distance and area of gravity center movement ( GCM) were measured with automatic posture analytical devices. Occlusal abilities were measured with pressure-sensitive sheets ( Dental Prescale® ) , including occlusal contacts area, average occlusal pressure, maximum occlusal pressure, occlusal force and occlusal balance. Re-sults The occlusal contact area and bite force test results of male and female group were 18. 1 mm2 , 712. 2 N and 14. 1 mm2, 541. 8 N, The differences were statistically

  8. Treatment strategies for extensive chronic SFA occlusions: indications and results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensvelt, M.M.A.; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.; Wallis de Vries, B.M.; Zeebregts, C.J.A.


    Treatment modalities for extensive chronic occlusive disease of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) have changed during the last decades. In this chapter we provide an overview of current treatment modalities for extensive chronic occlusive disease of the SFA. Although the autologous venous conduit

  9. Treatment strategies for extensive chronic SFA occlusions : indications and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensvelt, M. M. A.; Reijnen, M. M. P. J.; De Vries, B. M. Wallis; Zeebregts, C. J.


    Treatment modalities for extensive chronic occlusive disease of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) have changed during the last decades. In this chapter we provide an overview of current treatment modalities for extensive chronic occlusive disease of the SFA. Although the autologous venous conduit

  10. An adaptive occlusion culling algorithm for use in large ves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bormann, Karsten


    The Hierarchical Occlusion Map algorithm is combined with Frustum Slicing to give a simpler occlusion-culling algorithm that more adequately caters to large, open VEs. The algorithm adapts to the level of visual congestion and is well suited for use with large, complex models with long mean free...

  11. Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Scherfig, Erik;


    To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  12. Comorbidity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan René; Rosenberg, Niels Thomas;


    To evaluate comorbidity before and after the diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion to determine whether it is a consequence of arterial thickening and therefore could serve as a diagnostic marker for other comorbidities and to evaluate the risk factors for the development of such occlusion....

  13. Early rethrombosis in femoropopliteal occlusions treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Meisner, S; Holstein, P;


    One hundred and thirty-seven consecutive percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTA) were performed for femoropopliteal vascular disease including 58 stenoses and 79 total occlusions. Nine occlusions could not be crossed with the guidewire, but in the remaining 128 the haemodynamic and clinical...

  14. Occlusion and functional disorders of the masticatory system. (United States)

    Okeson, J P


    Understanding the relationship between occlusion and functional disorders of the masticatory system is no easy task. This article explores the static, functional, and dynamic relationships of the occlusal condition to the signs and symptoms of masticatory dysfunction. Some possible relationships are discussed.

  15. Cognitive impairments in patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the relationship between cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease and neuropsychological performance by cognitive function assessment. Methods Using a case-control study,45 patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive lesions (patient group) and 59 control subjects without cerebrovascular

  16. Relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and incident cerebrovascular diseases (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Wengen; Wang, Changyun


    Abstract Several studies investigating the role of retinal vascular occlusions, on cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported, but the results are still inconsistent. We therefore sought to evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and CVD. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases through January 31, 2016 for studies evaluating the effect of retinal vascular occlusions on the risk of CVD. Data were abstracted using predefined criteria, and then pooled by RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 9 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with individuals without retinal vascular occlusions, both individuals with retinal artery occlusion (RAO) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–3.34; P = 0.005) and individuals with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.24–1.50; P < 0.00001) had higher risks of developing CVD. Additionally, both individuals with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.12–3.56; P = 0.02) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03–1.48; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with increased risk of CVD. Published literatures support both RVO and RAO are associated with increased risks of CVD. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27368050

  17. [Single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses in relation to the occlusal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Gerritsen, A.E.; Spijker, A. van 't; Creugers, N.H.J.


    Occlusion concepts based on functional aspects offer more solid ground in the diagnostic process and in the treatment of (reduced) dentitions than morphologically and mechanically oriented occlusion concepts. Nevertheless, for occlusal reconstruction morphologically oriented guidelines are necessary

  18. Clinical application of hepatic venous occlusion for hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ze-ya; YANG Yuan; ZHOU Wei-ping; LI Ai-jun; FU Si-yuan; WU Meng-chao


    Background Most liver resections require clamping of the hepatic pedicle (Pringle maneuver) to avoid excessive blood loss. But Pringle maneuver can not control backflow bleeding of hepatic vein, Resection of liver tumors involving hepatic veins may cause massive hemorrhage or air embolism from the injuries of the hepatic veins. Although total hepatic vascular exclusion can prevent bleeding of the hepatic veins effectively, it also may result in systemic hemodynamic disturbance because of the inferior vena cava being clamped. Hepatic venous occlusion, a new technique, can control the inflow and outflow of the liver without clamping the vena cava.Methods A total of 71 cases of liver tumors underwent resection with occlusion of more than one of the main hepatic veins. All tumors involved the second porta hepatis and at least one main hepatic vein. Ligation or occlusion with serrefines, tourniquets and auricular clamps were used in hepatic venous occlusion.Results Of the 71 patients, ligation of the hepatic veins was used in 28 cases, occlusion with a tourniquet in 26, and occlusion with a serrefine in 17. Right hepatic veins were occluded in 38 cases, both right and middle hepatic veins in 2,the common trunk of the left and middle hepatic veins in 24, branches of the left and middle hepatic veins in 2, and all three hepatic veins in 5. Thirty-five cases underwent hemihepatic vascular occlusion, 4 alternate hemihepatic vascular occlusion, 23 portal triad clamping plus selective hepatic vein occlusion, and 9 portal triad clamping plus total hepatic vein occlusion. The third porta hepatis was isolated in 26 cases. The amount of intraoperative blood loss averaged (540±283) (range 100 to 1000) ml in the group of total hemihepatic vascular occlusion and in the group of alternate hemihepatic vascular occlusion, (620±317) (range 200-6000) ml in the group of portal triad clamping plus selective or total hepatic vein occlusion. All tumors were completely removed

  19. Tardive dyskinesia affected by occlusal treatment--a case report. (United States)

    Kai, S; Kai, H; Tashiro, H


    The following is a case report of occlusal treatment for involuntary mandibular movement occurring in a 79-year old woman. This was diagnosed as sulpiride-induced tardive dyskinesia. The patient had been treated with sulpiride to improve gastrointestinal symptoms for five years until the onset of involuntary mandibular movement. The involuntary movement worsened even after discontinuation of the drug for 10 weeks. The dyskinesia improved in the course of treatment with an occlusal splint placed over her upper denture. After wearing the new denture with increased occlusal vertical dimension, the dyskinesia disappeared almost completely. Sirognathographic observation showed that previous denture wear evoked remarkable involuntary movement of the mandible once again. It is uncertain whether such improvement may result from discontinuation of the drug or from the occlusal treatment. However, it appears that occlusal factors played an important role in orofacial manifestation of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in this case.

  20. The Electroretinogram in Patients with Retinal Vascular Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhou Huang; Lezheng Wu; Taiqing Luo; De-Zheng Wu; Futian Jiang; Guangwei Luo; Juanmei Ma


    Purpose: to measure and analyze the electroretinogram (ERG) in patients with retinal vascular occlusion. Method: fifty-eight cases (59 eyes) of retinal vascular occlusion and the fellow eyes of 47 cases were tested with Ganzfeld ERG. The scotopic and photopic ERG, and oscillatory potentials were tested according to the ERG standard of ISCEV. Results: The abnormal rates of Ops and b wave were higher in retinal vascular occlusion. The abnormal ERG appeared mostly in CRVO among four types of retinal vascular occlusion. The comparisons of some amplitudes and latencies between the fellow eyes and the affected eyes showed statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The oscillatory potentials and b waves have important roles in evaluating the retinal function of patients with retinal vascular occlusions. There are some clinical significance for comparing ERG between the affected eye and the fellow eye. Eye Science 2001; 17: 50 ~ 53.

  1. Culicoides obsoletus extract relevant for diagnostics of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.; Meulenbroeks, C.; Altena, van S.E.C.; Schurink, A.; Ducro, B.J.; Wagner, B.; Leibold, W.; Rohwer, J.; Jacobs, F.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Tijhaar, E.


    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an allergic dermatitis in horses caused by the bites of Culicoides species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of whole body extracts of C. obsoletus (the main species found feeding on horses in the Netherlands), C. nubeculosus (rarel

  2. Tongue Strength: Its Relationship to Tongue Thrusting, Open-Bite, and Articulatory Proficiency. (United States)

    Dworkin, James P.; Culatta, Richard A.


    No significant differences in tongue strength were found between any of the three groups of 7- to 16-year old children: normal speaking with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, frontal lisping with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, and normal controls. (Author/DLS)

  3. Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture in preorthodontic patients with anterior open bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Phong; Sarauw, Martin Toft; Sonnesen, Liselotte


    INTRODUCTION: Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture were examined and related to craniofacial morphology in preorthodontic children and adolescents with anterior open bite. METHODS: One hundred eleven patients (ages, 6-18 years) with an anterior open bite of more than 0 mm were di...

  4. Rapid detection of self-biting disease of mink by specific sequence-characterized amplified regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zong-yue; NING Fang-yong; YANG Hong-yan; WEI Lai; BAI Xiu-juan


    Self-biting disease occurred in most farmed fur animals in the world. The mechanism and rapid detection method of this disease has not been reported. We applied bulked sergeant analysis (BSA) in combination with RAPD method to analyze a molecular genetic marker linked with self-biting trait in mink group. The molecular marker was converted into sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) marker for rapid detection of this disease. A single RAPD marker A8 amplified a specific band of 263bp in self-biting minks, which was designated as SRA8-250,and non-specific band of 315bp in both self-biting and healthy minks.The sequences of the bands exhibited 75% and 88% similarity to Canis familiarizes major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅱ region and Macaca mulatta MHC class Ⅰ region, respectively. A SCAR marker SCAR-A8 was designed for the specific fragment SRA8-250 and validated in 30 self-biting minks and 30 healthy minks. Positive amplification of SCAR-A8 was detected in 24 self-biting minks and 12 healthy minks. x2 test showed significant difference (p<0.01) in the detection rate between the two groups. This indicated that SRA8-250 can be used as a positive marker to detect self-biting disease in minks. Furthermore, the finding that self-biting disease links with MHC genes has significant implications for the mechanism of the disease.

  5. Risk factors for insect bite hypersensitivity in Friesian horses and Shetland ponies in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Podesta, S.C.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Frankena, K.


    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an equine skin allergy caused by bites of Culicoides spp. and impacts on the welfare of affected horses. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for IBH. Data from 3453 Friesian horse mares and 7074 Shetland pony mares scored for IBH by i

  6. TheraBite exercises to treat trismus secondary to head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Beurskens, Carien H. G.; Reintsema, Harry; Dijkstra, Pieter U.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TheraBite exercises on mouth opening and to analyze factors influencing this effect in a patient record evaluation. Effect of exercises with a TheraBite to treat trismus was evaluated in 69 head and neck cancer patients of two university medical ce


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of testing bite force endurance in patients with articular temporomandibular disorders. The endurance of a 50 N bite force was measured in 51 patients with painful temporomandibular joint disorders. The results were compared t

  8. Epidemiology of acute animal bite and the direct cost of rabies vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Towhid Babazadeh; Hossein Ali Nikbakhat; Amin Daemi; Mohsen Yegane-kasgari; Saber Ghaffari-fam; Morteza Banaye-Jeddi


    Objective: To describe the epidemiological aspects of animal bites and to calculate the financial burden resulting from rabies vaccination in Chalderan City. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, records of all victims of animal bites in a seven-year period were reviewed. Studied variables included demographic information of victims, biters' profile, time and place patterns, clinical aspects of the victims and the cost of vaccination. Results: Most of bites were observed in men in the age group of 10–19 years old, at rural areas and occupational group of farmers. The vast majority of animal bites happened by dogs and domestic animals. The average age of victims with head and neck injuries was lower than that of victims with injuries in the lower extremities, shoulders and hands (P=0.001). The cost of vaccination was 11 665 dollars with three doses of rabies vaccine and 849 dollars for five doses, and the 12 514 dollars cumulative frequency in the studied period. Based on the results of trend test, the incidence of animal bites was increased significantly during the study period (P=0.02). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that due to the increasing incidence of animal bites and the financial burden resulting from animal bite vaccination, it is necessary to design and implement preventive measures in order to reduce the animal bites.

  9. Culicoides obsoletus allergens for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.


    AInsect Bite Hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common skin allergy in horses and involves a Type I (IgE mediated) hypersensitivity reaction against bites of insects, mainly of the Culicoides species. Welfare of affected horses is seriously reduced and no fully curative treatment is yet available. F

  10. Domestic donkey (Equus africanus asinus bites: An unusual aetiology of severe scalp injuries in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Droussi


    Discussion: The bite of a donkey is rare aetiology of scalp injuries. Special features of these injuries, including a literature review, are discussed focusing on the care of these patients in the emergency centre, describing the surgical procedures required and antibiotic choice. Recommendations for the management of donkey bite scalp injuries are provided.

  11. Common adder bite to the tongue causing life threatening toxicity from airway compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte C G; Jessen, Casper L; Lambertsen, Karin;


    We illustrate the acute phase and development of symptoms in a 24-year-old man following a European Common Viper bite to the tongue.......We illustrate the acute phase and development of symptoms in a 24-year-old man following a European Common Viper bite to the tongue....

  12. Clinical treatment of deep overbite by bite plate comebined with archwire%摇椅弓结合上颌前牙平面导板在打开咬合中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To discuss the clinical treatment of deep overbite by archwire combined with bite plate. Methods Twenty-three patients of class Ⅱ deep overbite and severer were treated by archwire combined with bite plate. Results Compared with single use of edgewise appliance, the way of treating deep overbite by archwire combined with bite plate was more effective and cost shorter time than edgewise appliance through hoisting molars and depressing former teeth. Conclusion The way treating deep overbite by archwire combined with bite plate should be applied in clinics for it can undo occlusion quick and effectively.%目的 探讨上颌平面导板结合摇椅弓矫治深覆的临床应用.方法 选择23例深覆Ⅱ度或以上的患者,采用上颌平面导板结合摇椅弓打开咬合以矫治深覆.结果 上颌平面导板结合摇椅弓矫治深覆,与单纯使用方丝弓矫治器相比,通过升高后牙,压低前牙,明显缩短疗程,有效矫治深覆.结论 上颌平面导板结合摇椅弓矫治深覆,能快速打开咬合,矫治的效果比较明值得在临床中广泛应用.

  13. Gastroesophageal reflux diagnosed by occlusal splint tintion. (United States)

    Cebrián-Carretero, José Luis; López-Arcas-Calleja, José María


    The gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease is a very frequent digestive disorder, mainly characterised by the reflux of the gastric acidic content to the esophage in abnormal quantities. There are different situations that favour this situation but almost in all of them rely an incompetence of the esophagic sphincter. The clinical consequences are many, including oral manifestations. Among all of them the most frequent is the esophagitis followed by symptoms at the pharynx or larynx and finally, the oral cavity. At this level fundamentally we will find enamel and oral mucosa erosions. We report the case of a patient who was indirectly diagnosed of her esophague disease by the observation of the alterations in the occlusal splint induced by the gastric reflux. We review the literature concerning the above topic and its possible association with the miofascial syndrome.

  14. Pathology of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion

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    Kenichi Sakakura


    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for percutaneous revascularization procedures of coronary Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO, because many patients with severe coronary artery disease have limited options for revascularization. Although the success rate of percutaneous revascularization of CTOs was unsatisfactory from the 1990s to the 2000s, recent technological advances in interventional strategies have improved the success rate to 85%. Detailed histological assessment of human autopsy studies of CTO has contributed significantly to the refinement in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI techniques and device development. We have recently reported the pathological findings and characteristics of CTOs that occur in different clinical scenarios. In this review, we discuss the pathology of CTOs to facilitate greater understanding of revascularization strategies for CTOs.

  15. The role of uninhibited occlusal development. (United States)

    Rabine, M


    Stage A treatment is compatible with contemporary orthodontic treatment. 1. It allows for free and uninhibited occlusal development. 2. It gives the orthodontist and opportunity to make a meaningful diagnosis. 3. It does not inhibit the natural inherent forces of growth and development from expressing themselves within the individual patient. 4. It establishes the position of the lower anterior teeth by their self-alignment. 5. It enables the orthodontists to predict the stability of treatment. 6. It simplifies the treatment when Stage I commences. 7. It helps in developing a good rapport between patient, parent, and orthodontist. Just as Caesar wrote of Gaul in his day, "Omnia [Begg] divisaest in partes tres ... "--Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III. I would like to suggest that new province has been added: Stage A--it being the prelude to the accepted three stages in Begg treatment or any appliance treatment of the past.

  16. Local histograms and image occlusion models

    CERN Document Server

    Massar, Melody L; Fickus, Matthew; Kovacevic, Jelena


    The local histogram transform of an image is a data cube that consists of the histograms of the pixel values that lie within a fixed neighborhood of any given pixel location. Such transforms are useful in image processing applications such as classification and segmentation, especially when dealing with textures that can be distinguished by the distributions of their pixel intensities and colors. We, in particular, use them to identify and delineate biological tissues found in histology images obtained via digital microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a mathematical formalism that rigorously justifies the use of local histograms for such purposes. We begin by discussing how local histograms can be computed as systems of convolutions. We then introduce probabilistic image models that can emulate textures one routinely encounters in histology images. These models are rooted in the concept of image occlusion. A simple model may, for example, generate textures by randomly speckling opaque blobs of one color on ...

  17. Applicability of Berry′s index in bite mark analysis

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    Palathottungal Joseph Antony


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study attempts to highlight the usefulness of applying Berry′s Index as an adjuvant to support and aid in bite analysis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 100 students between the ages of 18-30 from Mar Baselios Dental Collage, Kothamangalam. Out of the 100 subjects, there were 50 males and 50 females. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 16 (SPSS. Results: The mean value of the width of the upper central incisor for male and female was 0.7602 cm and 0.7765 cm respectively. The mean value of the bizygomatic width for male and female was 12.54 cm and 12.42 cm respectively. The correlation between the upper central incisor width and the bizygomatic width was inferred to have a good positive correlation with a value 0f 0.613. Pearson correlation coefficient with greater correlation between the upper central incisor width and the bizygomatic width in female patient (r = 0.678 compared with male patient (r = 0. 525. Conclusion: Berry′s Index can be a useful adjuvant to bite analysis by providing a means of determining the facial proportions of an individual from the width of the central incisors.

  18. Picaduras y mordeduras de animales Animal sting and bites

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    J. Pastrana


    Full Text Available En este tema tratamos las picaduras por artrópodos. Se hace referencia a las diferencias que existen entre las picaduras de avispas y abejas, comentando la composición de venenos y las diferentes reacciones locales y generales que provocan dichas picaduras. Se exponen además las picaduras-mordeduras producidas por escorpiones, arañas, garrapatas, y animales marinos con la clínica que provocan y el tratamiento que es necesario administrar. Por último, se incluyen las mordeduras por serpientes, haciendo referencia a los tipos de ofidios más frecuentes en Navarra, la forma de diferenciar la mordedura de culebras de las víboras, la diferente clínica que provocan, y el tratamiento a aplicar.Under the heading of this subject we deal with stings by arthropods, making reference to the differences that exist between the stings of wasps and bees, commenting on the composition of the poisons and the different local and general reactions that are caused by such stings. Also discussed are the stings/bites caused by scorpions, spiders, ticks, and marine animals, with the clinical picture they provoke and the treatment that must be administered. Finally, snakebites are considered, with reference to the most frequent types of ophidia to be found in Navarra, how to differentiate between the bites of snakes and vipers, the different clinical pictures they provoke and the treatment to be applied

  19. The Protocol of Choice for Treatment of Snake Bite (United States)

    Mohammad Alizadeh, Afshin; Rahimi, Mitra; Erfantalab, Peyman; Ostadi, Ali


    The aim of the current study is to compare three different methods of treatment of snake bite to determine the most efficient one. To unify the protocol of snake bite treatment in our center, we retrospectively reviewed files of the snake-bitten patients who had been referred to us between 2010 and 2014. They were contacted for follow-up using phone calls. Demographic and on-arrival characteristics, protocol used for treatment (WHO/Haddad/GF), and outcome/complications were evaluated. Patients were entered into one of the protocol groups and compared. Of a total of 63 patients, 56 (89%) were males. Five, 19, and 28 patients were managed by Haddad, WHO, or GF protocols, respectively. Eleven patients had fallen into both GF and WHO protocols and were excluded. Serum sickness was significantly more common when WHO protocol was used while 100% of the compartment syndromes and 71% of deformities had been reported after GF protocol. The most important complications were considered to be deformity, compartment syndrome, and amputation and were more frequent after the use of WHO and GF protocols (23.1% versus 76.9%; none in Haddad; P = NS). Haddad protocol seems to be the best for treatment of snake-bitten patients in our region. However, this cannot be strictly concluded because of the limited sample size and nonsignificant P values. PMID:27738653

  20. Science Sound Bites, a Podcast for STEM Curriculum Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael David Leslie Johnson


    Full Text Available First hand accounts of research are a valuable part of students’ understanding and integration of scientific material, yet it is often difficult to access scientists to discuss ongoing research projects. To address this issue, we offer details of a podcast called Science Sound Bites; a tool designed to supplement STEM and biology curricula at the middle and high school grade levels. Roughly 20 minutes in length, each episode consists of a candid interview of a PhD- or MD-level researcher about their current research, while infusing and defining field-specific scientific terminology. Additionally, each Science Sound Bites podcast comes with a short biography of the interviewee and a list of terms that are defined within the episode, which serves to help teachers find relevant podcasts for a given lesson plan. The goal of this podcast is to provide real world applications of science in an attempt to bridge the gap between scientists in the field and students in the classroom.

  1. A new skeletal retention system for retaining anterior open bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodore Albaker


    Full Text Available Objectives: Relapse of anterior open bite after treatment poses a challenge to orthodontists and warrants finding new methods. We aimed to compare the effect of a skeletal retention (SR system to the conventional retention (CR commonly used. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients participated in this study. SR group ten patients (five females and five males with mean age of 16.2 years, CR group ten patients (five females and five males with mean age of 17.1 years in pretreatment stage. The SR system is comprised of four self-drilling miniscrews and vacuum retainers with interarch elastics where the CR group is comprised of removable or fixed retainers. Pretreatment (T1, posttreatment (T2, and 1-year follow up (T3 lateral cephalograms were taken and analyzed to compare the stability of both retention modalities. Results: The overbite in the CR group showed more relapse in the form of significant reduction when compared to the SR group (P < 0.001. The overbite was reduced only by 0.1 mm (±0.3 in the SR group compared to 1.4 mm (±0.9 in the CR group. In the CR group, the upper incisors and first molar showed a more significant relapse compared to the SR group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Skeletal retention using miniscrews and vertical elastic is an effective method for retention of anterior open bite cases.

  2. The Protocol of Choice for Treatment of Snake Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Mohammad Alizadeh


    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to compare three different methods of treatment of snake bite to determine the most efficient one. To unify the protocol of snake bite treatment in our center, we retrospectively reviewed files of the snake-bitten patients who had been referred to us between 2010 and 2014. They were contacted for follow-up using phone calls. Demographic and on-arrival characteristics, protocol used for treatment (WHO/Haddad/GF, and outcome/complications were evaluated. Patients were entered into one of the protocol groups and compared. Of a total of 63 patients, 56 (89% were males. Five, 19, and 28 patients were managed by Haddad, WHO, or GF protocols, respectively. Eleven patients had fallen into both GF and WHO protocols and were excluded. Serum sickness was significantly more common when WHO protocol was used while 100% of the compartment syndromes and 71% of deformities had been reported after GF protocol. The most important complications were considered to be deformity, compartment syndrome, and amputation and were more frequent after the use of WHO and GF protocols (23.1% versus 76.9%; none in Haddad; P = NS. Haddad protocol seems to be the best for treatment of snake-bitten patients in our region. However, this cannot be strictly concluded because of the limited sample size and nonsignificant P values.

  3. Analysis of cases caused by acute spider bite

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    Zihni Sulaj


    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective study of 176 patients in the University Hospital Center of Tirana (Albania, during the period 2001–2011, admitted with the diagnosis of a suspected spider bite. Three fatalities were registered during this decade covered from our study, with a clinical picture of marked hypertension, tachycardia and acute cardiac failure leading to death within a minimum of 25 h and a maximum of 42 h from the occurrence. Out of the total of 176 patients, we had 59% (104 cases females, and 41% males. The overwhelming majority of the patients lived in rural areas (155 of the cases; extremities were mostly affected from the bites. A summary of clinical signs and a brief review of the available literature are made in the results and discussion section of this paper. Authors advocate that special precautions should be taken especially in severe forms of interesting autonomous nerve system, with aggressive fluid resuscitation, supportive therapy and close monitoring of vital signs.

  4. Thrombophilic screening in retinal artery occlusion patients

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    Valeria Nagy


    Full Text Available Valeria Nagy1, Lili Takacs1, Zita Steiber1, György Pfliegler2, Andras Berta11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Rare Diseases, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen, HungaryBackground: Retinal artery occlusion (RAO is an ischemic vascular damage of the retina, which frequently leads to sudden, mostly irreversible loss of vision. In this study, blood thrombophilic factors as well as cardiovascular risk factors were investigated for their relevance to this pathology. Thrombophilic risk factors so far not evaluated were included in the study.Patients and methods: 28 RAO patients and 81 matched control subjects were examined. From blood samples, protein C, protein S, antithrombinopathy, and factor V (Leiden mutation (FV, factor II gene polymorphism, factor VIII C level, plasminogen activity, lipoprotein(a and fibrinogen levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and presence of anticardiolipin – antiphospholipid antibodies were investigated. Possibly relevant pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease were also registered. Statistical analysis by logistic regression was performed with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the group of patients with RAO only the incidence of hypertension (OR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.30–9.70, p = 0.014 as an average risk factor showed significant difference, but thrombophilic factors such as hyperfibrinogenemia (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.29–6.57, p = 0.010 and the presence of FV (Leiden mutation (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.43–10.96, p = 0.008 increased the chances of developing this disease.Conclusions: Our results support the assumption that thrombophilia may contribute to the development of RAO besides vascular damage due to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed, however, to justify the possible use of secondary prophylaxis in form of anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy.Keywords: retinal arterial occlusion, risk factors, thrombophilia

  5. Envenoming following bites by the Balkan adder Vipera berus bosniensis - first documented case series from Bulgaria. (United States)

    Westerström, Alexander; Petrov, Boyan; Tzankov, Nikolay


    We report the first detailed accounts of bites by the Balkan adder, Vipera berus bosniensis from Bulgaria. Documentation of bites by this subspecies is very rare in the literature and most available accounts are from the northern limit of its distribution. V. berus bosniensis is considered to possess neurotoxic venom but little evidence has hitherto been available to support this supposition. In this case series symptoms typical of adder bites developed including oedema, nausea, dizziness, lymphangitis, vomiting, and diarrhoea together with aberrant symptoms such as diplopia and ptosis that confirm the presence of neurotoxic venom in Balkan adders. In addition, unusual and atypical symptoms of adder bites such as painless bites and muscle cramps appeared. The inadequate treatment in hospital and the remote habitats in which this species is encountered are potential sources of complication.

  6. The effect of denture stability on bite force and muscular effort. (United States)

    Caloss, R; Al-Arab, M; Finn, R A; Throckmorton, G S


    This study tested the hypothesis that denture instability limits the amount of voluntary muscular effort generated by denture wearers. Seventeen edentulous subjects (seven men, 10 women; mean age 60·3 ± 13·0 years) with newly acquired implant-retained mandibular overdentures and a conventional maxillary denture participated. Maximum bite forces and corresponding electromyographic (EMG) activity from the temporalis and masseter muscles (bilaterally) were recorded under two experimental conditions: (i) Unilateral premolar and molar bites without additional support, and (ii) premolar and molar bites with bite block support on the opposite side. In addition, EMG values alone were recorded during maximum clenching without any transducer between the upper and lower dentures. The level of muscular effort was significantly higher with greater denture support. These results indicate that denture instability probably prevents denture wearers from using the full potential of their jaw muscles, especially during unilateral biting and chewing, even with two implants supporting the mandibular dentures.

  7. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus mitis caused by accidental human bite. (United States)

    Bastug, Aliye; Kislak, Sumeyye; Mutlu, Nevzat Mehmet; Akcaboy, Zeynep Nur; Koksal, Asude; Sertcelik, Ahmet; Ünlü, Ramazan Erkin; Akinci, Esragul; Bodur, Hurrem


    Human bite wounds are more prone to infection than animal bites, which may cause necrotizing soft tissue infections such as myositis, fasciitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms may be responsible, including Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus spp. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by serious tissue destruction and systemic toxicity with high morbidity and mortality. We report a patient with Streptococcus mitis associated necrotizing fasciitis on the upper extremity resulting from an accidental human bite, which caused nearly fatal infection. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment should be given after a human bite to prevent infection. If the infection signs and symptoms develop, rapid diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic and surgical therapy should be administered immediately. Streptococcus mitis is a viridans streptococcus, usually known as a relatively benign oral streptococcus. To our knowledge, this is the first necrotizing fasciitis case due to Streptococcus mitis after human bite.

  8. Epidemiology of Animal Bites in Azarshahr town: A Cross-sectional Study of Key Determinants

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    Ali Jafari-Khounigh


    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Animal bites are among the most significant public health problems due to the risk of rabies. Because of high mortality rate and economic damages, rabies is of very importance. This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology of animal bites in Azarshahr in 2010 and 2011. Material and Methods : In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study, all cases of animal bites in 2010 and 2011 that were recorded in rabies treatment centers of Azarshahr were included in the study using census method according to the existing data recorded in animal bites registry. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS software. Results : During 2010 and 2011, a total number of 630 animal bites cases occurred that 86.5% of the cases were male. In 51.7% of the cases, animal bites occurred in urban areas. The incidence rate of animal bites was calculated as 291.0 in 100000. The average age and the standard deviation of cases was 31.52±16.73. The main biting animal was domesticated dog (66.3% and most of the bites happened during summer (28.4%. The most injured body organ was hand (47.6%. The association between animal type and injured organ was statistically significant (P Conclusion : Due to the high costs of vaccination and immunoglobulin expenses, prevention strategies seem to be necessary. Since most of the bites were caused by domestic dogs, health education interventions with the aim of more controls on domestic animals could be a cost-effective approach.

  9. Animal Bite Management Practices: Study at Three Municipal Corporation Hospitals of Ahmedabad

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    Vyas Sheetal, Gupta Kinnari, Bhatt Gneyaa, Tiwari Hemant


    Full Text Available Context: Rabies is a deadly Zoonotic disease most often transmitted to humans through a dog bite. Most of these deaths could be prevented through post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, including immediate wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin administration and vaccination. Aims: To study attitude and pre-treatment practices among the study population. Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out by conducting exit interview of 100 cases of animal bite each from three hospitals run by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Observations: Total 300 cases of animal bites were studied in the present study. Most common biting animal was dog as 97.33% cases gave history of dog bite. Almost half of the cases belonged to age group less than 20 years with mean age of 19+ 20.2 years and male to female ratio was 3:1. Right lower limb was the most common (45.7% biting site and majority (59% had category III bites. Immediate pre-treatment of wound was practiced by 72% of cases before visiting hospitals however only 5.7% had gone for immediate washing of wound with soap and water. The local applications at the site of bite were tobacco snuff, red chilli, turmeric, and miscellaneous things like Garlic, Jaggery, Kerosene, Lime, Bandage, Soframycine, Ghee, Wheat flour etc. which were practiced by 66% of cases. The average time interval between bite and visiting the hospital was 32 hours. Conclusions: With the availability of safe and effective tissue culture vaccines prevention of rabies is virtually assured by immediate and appropriate post exposure treatment. There is need for creating awareness in public and medical community about proper wound management, judicious use of anti-rabies serum and use of modern tissue culture vaccine after animal bite.

  10. Object tracking by occlusion detection via structured sparse learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu


    Sparse representation based methods have recently drawn much attention in visual tracking due to good performance against illumination variation and occlusion. They assume the errors caused by image variations can be modeled as pixel-wise sparse. However, in many practical scenarios these errors are not truly pixel-wise sparse but rather sparsely distributed in a structured way. In fact, pixels in error constitute contiguous regions within the object\\'s track. This is the case when significant occlusion occurs. To accommodate for non-sparse occlusion in a given frame, we assume that occlusion detected in previous frames can be propagated to the current one. This propagated information determines which pixels will contribute to the sparse representation of the current track. In other words, pixels that were detected as part of an occlusion in the previous frame will be removed from the target representation process. As such, this paper proposes a novel tracking algorithm that models and detects occlusion through structured sparse learning. We test our tracker on challenging benchmark sequences, such as sports videos, which involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that our tracker consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Occlusion detection via structured sparse learning for robust object tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu


    Sparse representation based methods have recently drawn much attention in visual tracking due to good performance against illumination variation and occlusion. They assume the errors caused by image variations can be modeled as pixel-wise sparse. However, in many practical scenarios, these errors are not truly pixel-wise sparse but rather sparsely distributed in a structured way. In fact, pixels in error constitute contiguous regions within the object’s track. This is the case when significant occlusion occurs. To accommodate for nonsparse occlusion in a given frame, we assume that occlusion detected in previous frames can be propagated to the current one. This propagated information determines which pixels will contribute to the sparse representation of the current track. In other words, pixels that were detected as part of an occlusion in the previous frame will be removed from the target representation process. As such, this paper proposes a novel tracking algorithm that models and detects occlusion through structured sparse learning. We test our tracker on challenging benchmark sequences, such as sports videos, which involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed tracker consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art trackers.

  12. Modeling self-occlusions in dynamic shape and appearance tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yanchao


    We present a method to track the precise shape of a dynamic object in video. Joint dynamic shape and appearance models, in which a template of the object is propagated to match the object shape and radiance in the next frame, are advantageous over methods employing global image statistics in cases of complex object radiance and cluttered background. In cases of complex 3D object motion and relative viewpoint change, self-occlusions and disocclusions of the object are prominent, and current methods employing joint shape and appearance models are unable to accurately adapt to new shape and appearance information, leading to inaccurate shape detection. In this work, we model self-occlusions and dis-occlusions in a joint shape and appearance tracking framework. Experiments on video exhibiting occlusion/dis-occlusion, complex radiance and background show that occlusion/dis-occlusion modeling leads to superior shape accuracy compared to recent methods employing joint shape/appearance models or employing global statistics. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. An Epidemiological Study of Animal Bites and Envenomings in a Rural District of Tamilnadu, India

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    Venkatesan M


    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the period prevalence of animal bites and envenomings, its epidemiological risk factors and treatment seeking behaviour. Materials and methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in the 34 villages of the field practising areas of the Rural Health Training Centre, Thiruvenainallur. Considering the prevalence of bites as 7.4%, and taking 5 members in each household with a non response of 10% the number households studied were 4150 covering a population of 18865 which was calculated using an Open EPI version (2.3 software package. Sampling frame of households was prepared and systemic random sampling method was used to select households from each village. Trained medical interns and social workers collected information on bites in the preceding one year. Data was entered and analyzed in Epi_info (3.4.3 software. Results: In this study, information of 12947 adults was included and the overall period prevalence of bites was 81.8/1000 population. The most common bite is dog bite (22.3 followed by scorpion (22.1 and centipede (17.8 per 1000 population. The dog bites are significantly higher among males, people below the poverty line, farmers and laborers. There is significantly increased risk of snake bites among people working in agriculture fields. Only 35% of the dog bite victims washed their wound with soap and water and 28% applied irritants such as ash, ink, calotropis milk etc. over the wounds. Anti-rabies vaccination was given in 60% of the dog bite victims and life saving measure of Rabies Immunoglobulins (RIGS was given in only in 6.2%. Almost half of the bitten victims of scorpion and centipede follow traditional methods of treatment. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of different bites and treatment seeking behavior indicates there is a lack of awareness regarding all forms of bites in the rural community. The existing program of rabies control has to be strengthened and community awareness about

  14. Central retinal artery occlusion (reversible in sickle trait with glaucoma. (United States)

    Radius, R L; Finkelstein, D


    We report a case of central retinal artery occlusion in an 18-year-old black woman with sickle-trait haemoglobinopathy and acute glaucoma after hyphaema. The central retinal artery occlusion occurred immediately after treatment of the glaucoma with osmotic agents, raising the possibility that they played a precipitating role. We suggest that osmotic agents be used with extreme caution in sickle patients with glaucoma. The occlusion was treated by anterior chamber paracentesis with eventual return of good vision. The reversibility of retinal and optic nerve function after total ischaemia is discussed. PMID:952815

  15. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)]. (United States)

    Stagnitti, Franco


    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  16. Habitat use by mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni determined using stem bite diameters at point of browse, bite rates, and time budgets in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

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    Solomon A. TADESSE, Burt P. KOTLER


    Full Text Available We studied the habitat use of mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the northern edge of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. The aims of this study were to: (1 measure and quantify habitat-specific stem bite diameters of mountain nyala foraging on common natural plant species in two major habitat types (i.e. grasslands versus woodlands, and (2 quantify the bite rates (number of bites per minute and the activity time budgets of mountain nyala as functions of habitat type and sex-age category. We randomly laid out three transects in each habitat type. Following each transect, through focal animal observations, we assessed and quantified stem diameters at point of browse (dpb, bite rates, and time budgets of mountain nyala in grasslands versus woodlands. Stem dpb provide a measure of natural giving-up densities (GUDs and can be used to assess foraging costs and efficiencies, with greater stem dpb corresponding to lower costs and greater efficiencies. The results showed that stem dpb, bite rates, induced vigilance, and proportion of time spent in feeding differed between habitats. In particular, mountain nyala had greater stem dpb, higher bite rates, and spent a greater proportion of their time in feeding and less in induced vigilance in the grasslands. In addition, adult females had the highest bite rates, and the browse species Solanum marginatum had the greatest stem dpb. Generally, grasslands provide the mountain nyala with several advantages over the woodlands, including offering lower foraging costs, greater safety, and more time for foraging. The study advocates how behavioural indicators and natural GUDs are used to examine the habitat use of the endangered mountain nyala through applying non-invasive techniques. We conclude that the resulting measures are helpful for guiding conservation and management efforts and could be applicable to a number of endangered wildlife species including the mountain nyala [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 707

  17. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites. (United States)

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn


    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito.

  18. Bites, rashes, and itches. How to identify and treat them. (United States)

    Caserio, R J


    Skin rashes are commonly seen by the primary care physician. The chief cause of contact dermatitis is the plant genus Toxicodendron, but topical medications such as anesthetics, antibiotics, and preservatives also cause this condition. Commonly seen superficial fungal infections include candidiasis and several types of tinea. Microscopic identification of the organism on a potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation establishes the definitive diagnosis. In addition to occurring in its usual sites, the herpes simplex virus can cause recurrent disease on glabrous skin areas. A positive Tzanck test establishes a diagnosis of herpesvirus infection. Mosquito, flea, and brown recluse spider bites produce diagnostic physical findings. Scabies infestation produces a distinctive eruption, and the diagnosis is made by isolating the mite or its products.

  19. Tenosynovitis caused by Mycobacterium kansasii associated with a dog bite. (United States)

    Southern, Paul M


    A 68-year-old man with adult-onset diabetes mellitus suffered an accidental puncture wound to the palm of his hand while playing with his pet dog. He received cephalosporin prophylaxis for 1 week. No inflammation occurred. Six months later, a mass developed near his elbow. It was removed. Histopathology revealed granulomas containing acid-fast bacilli (AFB). No culture was done. Swelling and decreased motion of the wrist and fingers developed. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed inflammation of the flexor compartment of the hand, wrist, and forearm. Surgical incision and drainage yielded purulent material, granulomatous inflammation, with AFB. Cultures yielded Mycobacterium kansasii. Several surgical procedures were required; M kansasii was recovered. He received isoniazid and rifampin for 1 year and prolonged rehabilitation. After 4 years, he was relatively asymptomatic, with good function of wrist and fingers. We believe this to be the first report of tenosynovitis caused by M kansasii in association with a dog bite.

  20. Verified spider bites in Oregon (USA) with the intent to assess hobo spider venom toxicity. (United States)

    McKeown, Nathanael; Vetter, Richard S; Hendrickson, Robert G


    This study compiled 33 verified spider bites from the state of Oregon (USA). The initial goal was to amass a series of bites by the hobo spider to assess whether it possesses toxic venom, a supposition which is currently in a contested state. None of the 33 bites from several spider species developed significant medical symptoms nor did dermonecrosis occur. The most common biters were the yellow sac spider, Cheiracanthium mildei (N = 10) and orb-weavers of the genus Araneus (N = 6). There were 10 bites from three genera of funnel web spiders of the family Agelenidae including one hobo spider bite and one from the congeneric giant house spider which is readily confused as a hobo spider. The hobo spider bite resulted in pain, redness, twitching in the calf muscle and resolved in 12 h. Also generated from this study were possibly the first records of bites from spiders of the genera Callobius (Amaurobiidae) and Antrodiaetus (Antrodiaetidae), both with minor manifestations.

  1. Comparison of the bite mark pattern and intercanine distance between humans and dogs

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    Bina Kashyap


    Full Text Available Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: 40 samples including 20 humans (10 males and 10 females and 20 dogs of different breed were included in the study. Bite registration of all the samples were obtained on modeling wax and intercanine distance were measured. Data were analyzed and results were tabulated. Results: Arch size and intercanine distance showed variable differences among humans and on average dogs showed more intercanine distance and arch size. Among dog breeds larger dogs showed larger variables when compared to smaller dogs. Conclusion: Assessment of bite marks evidences made by animals needs further investigation so that it can be a tool to assist the justice system to answer crucial questions.

  2. Comparison of the bite mark pattern and intercanine distance between humans and dogs (United States)

    Kashyap, Bina; Anand, Sanjeev; Reddy, Sudhakara; Sahukar, Shruthi Basavaradhya; Supriya, Naga; Pasupuleti, Swetha


    Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog) bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog) using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: 40 samples including 20 humans (10 males and 10 females) and 20 dogs of different breed were included in the study. Bite registration of all the samples were obtained on modeling wax and intercanine distance were measured. Data were analyzed and results were tabulated. Results: Arch size and intercanine distance showed variable differences among humans and on average dogs showed more intercanine distance and arch size. Among dog breeds larger dogs showed larger variables when compared to smaller dogs. Conclusion: Assessment of bite marks evidences made by animals needs further investigation so that it can be a tool to assist the justice system to answer crucial questions. PMID:26816456

  3. Nest-climatic factors affect the abundance of biting flies and their effects on nestling condition (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Lobato, Elisa; Aguilar, Juan Rivero-de; del Cerro, Sara; Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael; Moreno, Juan


    The first step in the establishment of a host-biting fly relationship is host location. While a number of studies highlight the role of host emitted products as important cues affecting host location by biting flies, the role of host temperature is far from clear. We investigated the role of different nest microclimatic variables affecting the interaction between pied flycatchers and two biting flies: black flies and biting midges. Biting midge abundances increased with temperature inside the nest, supporting the potential importance of nest temperature as a cue used by insects to localize their hosts. The possibility that biting fly infestations were associated to ecological conditions in the vicinity of the nests is also discussed. Furthermore, we found a negative association between nestling weight (including tarsus length as a covariate in the analyses) and the interaction between the abundance of biting midges and the presence/absence of black flies in nests. The potential negative effect of these ectoparasites on nestling weight (condition index) and potential differences in the bird phenotypic/genetic quality associated with nest site choice and parasite infestations are considered.

  4. A structural equation model to investigate the impact of missing occlusal units on objective masticatory function in patients with shortened dental arches. (United States)

    Fueki, K; Yoshida, E; Igarashi, Y


    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of missing occlusal units (MOUs) on objective masticatory function with respect to food comminuting and mixing ability. Sixty partially dentate patients (mean age, 64·1 years) with shortened dental arches participated in the study. Food comminuting ability was assessed using a masticatory performance test with peanuts as a test food. Food mixing ability was assessed using a mixing ability test with a two-coloured wax cube. Maximum bite force (MBF) was measured using a pressure-sensitive film as a mediator for food comminuting and mixing ability. A structural equation model was constructed based on a hypothesis that MOUs would be associated with reduced MBF and impairment of food comminuting and mixing ability. Structural equation modelling analysis found significant direct effects of MOU on median particle size and mixing ability index (MAI) (P dental arches.

  5. Microbial analysis of bite marks by sequence comparison of streptococcal DNA.

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    Darnell M Kennedy

    Full Text Available Bite mark injuries often feature in violent crimes. Conventional morphometric methods for the forensic analysis of bite marks involve elements of subjective interpretation that threaten the credibility of this field. Human DNA recovered from bite marks has the highest evidentiary value, however recovery can be compromised by salivary components. This study assessed the feasibility of matching bacterial DNA sequences amplified from experimental bite marks to those obtained from the teeth responsible, with the aim of evaluating the capability of three genomic regions of streptococcal DNA to discriminate between participant samples. Bite mark and teeth swabs were collected from 16 participants. Bacterial DNA was extracted to provide the template for PCR primers specific for streptococcal 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS and RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB. High throughput sequencing (GS FLX 454, followed by stringent quality filtering, generated reads from bite marks for comparison to those generated from teeth samples. For all three regions, the greatest overlaps of identical reads were between bite mark samples and the corresponding teeth samples. The average proportions of reads identical between bite mark and corresponding teeth samples were 0.31, 0.41 and 0.31, and for non-corresponding samples were 0.11, 0.20 and 0.016, for 16S rRNA, ITS and rpoB, respectively. The probabilities of correctly distinguishing matching and non-matching teeth samples were 0.92 for ITS, 0.99 for 16S rRNA and 1.0 for rpoB. These findings strongly support the tenet that bacterial DNA amplified from bite marks and teeth can provide corroborating information in the identification of assailants.

  6. Dog bites in humans and estimating human rabies mortality in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

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    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. METHODS: A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009-2010 among dog bites victims who visited three hospitals in Bhutan for anti-rabies vaccine injection. Decision tree modeling was used to estimate human deaths from rabies following dog bite injuries in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty four dog bite victims were interviewed. The annual incidence of dog bites differed between the hospital catchment areas: 869.8 (95% CI: 722.8-1022.5, 293.8 (240-358.2 and 284.8 (251.2-323 per 100,000 people in Gelephu, Phuentsholing and Thimphu, respectively. Males (62% were more at risk than females (P<0.001. Children aged 5-9 years were bitten more than other age groups. The majority of victims (71% were bitten by stray dogs. No direct fatal injury was reported. In two hospital areas (Gelephu and Phuentsholing in south Bhutan the annual incidence of death from rabies was 3.14 (95% CI: 1.57-6.29 per 100,000 population. The decision tree model predicted an equivalent annual incidence of 4.67 (95% CI: 2.53-7.53 deaths/100,000 population at risk. In the absence of post exposure prophylaxis, the model predicted 19.24 (95% CI: 13.69-25.14 deaths/year in these two areas. CONCLUSIONS: Increased educational awareness of people about the risk of dog bites and rabies is necessary, particularly for children in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

  7. Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusions Combined with Artery Occlusions in A Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wen; Xuemei Chen; Haitai Li; Ruiduan Liao; Dezheng Wu


    Purpose: This is the first report of a bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusionscombined with artery occlusions in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS). Methods: Case report. Results: A 22-year-old Chinese(male) with a positive human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection developed bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusions combinedwith artery occlusions and severe vision loss. The manifestations of the fundus andfluorescein angiography were similar in both eyes.Conclusion: This case report provides the evidences that central retinal vein and arteryocclusions are probably part of the spectrum of AIDS vascular diseases.

  8. Comparison of Radiography, Laser Fluorescence, and Visual Examination in Diagnosing Incipient OcclusalCaries of Permanent First Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi


    Full Text Available Objectives: Early diagnosis of incipient and non cavitated carious lesions is crucial for performing preventive treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the effi- ciency of three diagnostic methods of bite-wing radiography, DIAGNOdent, and visu- al examination in diagnosing the incipient occlusal caries of permanent first molars.Materials and Methods:  In this diagnostic cross-sectional study, 109 premanent first molar teeth of 31 patients aged 7-13 years were examined visually by bite-wing radi- ograghy, and DIAGNOdent. Scoring of visual and radiography examinations were based on the Ekstrand classification. Visual examination after pit and fissure opening was used as the gold standard. ROC curve (Receiver Operating Characteristics was used to define the best cut-off point for DIAGNodent compareing with gold standard and inter-examiner reproductibility of visual, radiography were assessed using Kappa test and ICC (Intraclass Correlation wase used for DIAGNOdent values.Results: The sensitivity of detecting caries that had extended into the enamel was 81.4%, 86.3%, and 81.4% for visual examination, DIAGNOdent, and radiography, respectively. Moreover, the specificity was 100%, 71.4%, and 100% for visual obser- vation, DIAGNOdent, and radiography, respectively in the enamel. The Kappa index for inter-examiner correlation was 0.7 and 0.8 for visual examination and radiog- raphy, respectively. The ICC (Intraclass Correlation was 0.98 for the values read by DIAGNOdent.Conclusion: Visual examination is rendered as the first choice in the diagnosis of in- cipient caries. In suspicious cases, radiography and laser DIAGNOdent can be used as adjunct procedures.

  9. Fetal MRI in experimental tracheal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, Ulrike [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail:; Schroeder, Hobe J. [Experimental Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)


    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with a high mortality, which is mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension. In severely affected fetuses, tracheal occlusion (TO) is performed prenatally to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, because TO leads to accelerated lung growth. Prenatal imaging is important to identify fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia, to diagnose high-risk fetuses who would benefit from TO, and to monitor the effect of TO after surgery. In fetal imaging, ultrasound (US) is the method of choice, because it is widely available, less expensive, and less time-consuming to perform than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, there are some limitations for US in the evaluation of CDH fetuses. In those cases, MRI is helpful because of a better tissue contrast between liver and lung, which enables evaluation of liver herniation for the diagnosis of a high-risk fetus. MRI provides the ability to determine absolute lung volumes to detect lung hypoplasia. In fetal sheep with normal and hyperplastic lungs after TO, lung growth was assessed on the basis of cross-sectional US measurements, after initial lung volume determination by MRI. To monitor fetal lung growth after prenatal TO, both MRI and US seem to be useful methods.

  10. Clinical Trials in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (United States)

    Panakanti, Tandava Krishnan; Chhablani, Jay


    Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept) compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular) of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:26957837

  11. Clinical trials in branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandava Krishnan Panakanti


    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy.

  12. Mesiodistal angulation of the lateral teeth to the functional occlusal plane in normal occlusions

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    Hiroshi Ueda


    Full Text Available Introduction: Crowding is a malocclusion with irregularly positioned teeth caused by arch length discrepancy (ALD. Its incidence is high compared with the various malocclusions. In a previous study the crowns of the maxillary lateral teeth had erupted mesially in relation to the functional occlusal plane (FOP in patients with Angle Class I malocclusion and highly erupted canines, which had been uprighted by non-extraction orthodontic treatment, yet these results were based on only two cases evaluated by using plaster models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the mesiodistal angulations of both maxillary and mandibular teeth relative to the FOP in normal occlusion by means of cephalograms and identifying the teeth axial factors contributing to the normal dentitions with the least ALD. Materials and Methods: Thirty Japanese young adult patients (6 males, 24 females with normal occlusion were selected to participate in this study; cephalograms were procured from each and the FOP was used as a reference plane for measuring the changes in the axial angulation along with other indicators of vertical growth. Results: Progressive mesial tipping of the maxillary lateral teeth was observed. First premolars tended to express this more than the second premolars but the tipping values were roughly 90° relative to the FOP on the first molars. Conclusion: The maxillary lateral teeth are more mesially angulated compared to the mandibular ones relative to the FOP. Furthermore, progressive mesial tipping of the maxillary lateral teeth was detected, of which axial angulations were significantly correlated to each other, in spite the mandibular premolars and molars being angulated in a similar fashion.

  13. Amplatzer vascular plug for rapid vessel occlusion in interventional neuroradiology. (United States)

    Banfield, Jillian C; Shankar, Jai Jai Shiva


    The purpose of this paper is to report different uses of endovascular Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) treatment for rapid vessel occlusion in the field of interventional neuroradiology. We retrospectively reviewed our interventional neuroradiology database from November 2010 to July 2015 and found nine patients who were treated with endovascular AVP. AVP was used for rapid vessel occlusion of common carotid artery (1 patient), internal carotid artery (5 patients), vertebral artery (2 patients), and internal jugular vein (1 patient). A median of three AVPs were used with almost immediate occlusion and no thromboembolic complications. Use of AVP is feasible, safe, rapid, and potentially cost-effective method for rapid occlusion of larger size vessels in the head and neck region for different indications.

  14. Celiac artery stenosis/occlusion treated by interventional radiology

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    Ikeda, Osamu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1-1-1, Honjo Kumamoto 860-8505 (Japan)], E-mail:; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1-1-1, Honjo Kumamoto 860-8505 (Japan)


    Severe stenosis/occlusion of the proximal celiac trunk due to median arcuate ligament compression (MALC), arteriosclerosis, pancreatitis, tumor invasion, and celiac axis agenesis has been reported. However, clinically significant ischemic bowel disease attributable to celiac axis stenosis/occlusion appears to be rare because the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) provides for rich collateral circulation. In patients with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion, the most important and frequently encountered collateral vessels from the SMA are the pancreaticoduodenal arcades. Patients with celiac artery stenosis/occlusion are treated by interventional radiology (IR) via dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade. In patients with dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade on SMA angiograms, IR through this artery may be successful. Here we provide several tips on surmounting these difficulties in IR including transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma, an implantable port system for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy to treat metastatic liver tumors, coil embolization of pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms, and arterial stimulation test with venous sampling for insulinomas.

  15. Aortoiliac occlusive disease presenting as sudden onset paraplegia. (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Hung; Wang, Cheng-Hsien; Wu, Shih-Yun; Shih, Hong-Mo


    Thromboembolism and atherosclerotic stenosis both can cause arterial occlusion. Aortoiliac occlusive disease involving bifurcation of the aortoiliac artery induces symptoms of ischemia such as claudication and pain of buttocks and thighs, decreased bilateral femoral pulses, and impotence. Here, we describe a 58-year-old woman with a past history of atrial fibrillation and lacuna stroke with minimal right side weakness. She presented to our emergency department with sudden onset bilateral pain in the legs and paraplegia. A comprehensive examination revealed paresthesia and decreasing bilateral distal pulses. Computed tomographic imaging showed filling defects over the low abdominal aorta just above the bifurcation of the common iliac artery and bilateral femoral arteries. Acute aortic embolic occlusion was suspected. Her symptoms were resolved after emergent thrombectomy for acute limb ischemia. Physicians need to be aware of aortoiliac embolic occlusive disease which may present as acute paraplegia.

  16. Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geary, Julian Lindsay


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards.

  17. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion AssociatedWith Sildenafil (Viagra

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    H C Obiudu


    Conclusion - Central retinal vein occlusion is a possible adverse effect of sildenafil use. Physicians should be vigilant while prescribing thismedication and avoid its use in patients with elevated intraocular pressure

  18. Clinical and angiographic comparison of asymptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (United States)

    Gorelick, P B; Caplan, L R; Langenberg, P; Hier, D B; Pessin, M; Patel, D; Taber, J


    We compared clinical and arteriographic features in 106 patients with symptomatic unilateral carotid territory occlusive disease to determine the frequency and distribution of occlusive arterial lesions in asymptomatic vessels. Among black patients who were predominantly from Chicago, young, and female, there were fewer transient ischemic attacks and myocardial infarcts, less claudication, and more asymptomatic lesions of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery stem, and the middle cerebral artery stem. Among white patients predominantly from New England, elderly, and male, there was more frequent and severe occlusive asymptomatic disease at extracranial carotid and vertebral artery sites. Knowledge of the distribution of asymptomatic lesions will help guide evaluation and treatment strategies for patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

  19. Avoiding occlusal derangement in facial fractures: An evidence based approach

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    Derick Mendonca


    Full Text Available Facial fractures with occlusal derangement describe any fracture which directly or indirectly affects the occlusal relationship. Such fractures include dento-alveolar fractures in the maxilla and mandible, midface fractures - Le fort I, II, III and mandible fractures of the symphysis, parasymphysis, body, angle, and condyle. In some of these fractures, the fracture line runs through the dento-alveolar component whereas in others the fracture line is remote from the occlusal plane nevertheless altering the occlusion. The complications that could ensue from the management of maxillofacial fractures are predominantly iatrogenic, and therefore can be avoided if adequate care is exercised by the operating surgeon. This paper does not emphasize on complications arising from any particular technique in the management of maxillofacial fractures but rather discusses complications in general, irrespective of the technique used.

  20. Choice PTTM guidewire for recanalization of total occlusive coronary arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ping; HE Shi-hua; CHEN Wei-Kang; WOO Carrie


    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of 0. 014″Choice PTTM wire in chronic total occlusion angioplasty. Methods: Balloon angioplasty was attempted in 25 arteries with chronic total occlusion,with the mean time of occlusion of 17±13 months (ranging from 2 to 84 months) and mean length of 14±6mm (ranging from 5 to 25 mm). The morphology of the lesions included bridging collaterals (4 cases), calcification (3 cases) and major side branch at the lesion (4 cases) . Choice PTTM wire was used electively in all the cases. Results: Lesion was crossed successfully in 92% (23/25) cases, without incidences of dissection of the coronary artery with subintimal entry. Balloon angioplasy and stenting (n=21) were performed with good immediate angiograghic results. Acute myocardial infarction or death occurred in none of the patients.Conclusion Successful recanalization of chronic coronary total occlusions using Choice PTTM wire can be achieved with good safety.

  1. Image Based Solution to Occlusion Problem for Multiple Robots Navigation

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    Taj Mohammad Khan


    Full Text Available In machine vision, occlusions problem is always a challenging issue in image based mapping and navigation tasks. This paper presents a multiple view vision based algorithm for the development of occlusion-free map of the indoor environment. The map is assumed to be utilized by the mobile robots within the workspace. It has wide range of applications, including mobile robot path planning and navigation, access control in restricted areas, and surveillance systems. We used wall mounted fixed camera system. After intensity adjustment and background subtraction of the synchronously captured images, the image registration was performed. We applied our algorithm on the registered images to resolve the occlusion problem. This technique works well even in the existence of total occlusion for a longer period.

  2. Angle Class I malocclusion with anterior open bite treated with extraction of permanent teeth. (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo


    This clinical case reports the orthodontic treatment of a Class I malocclusion with anterior open bite and bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion in a 28-year-old female patient. The treatment of choice was to perform tooth extractions followed by retraction of the anterior teeth, with consequent closure of the anterior open bite and better accommodation of the teeth on their bony bases. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO), representing the Category 2 -- i.e., an Angle Class I malocclusion, with anterior open bite, treated with extraction of permanent teeth --, as part of the requisites to become a BBO diplomate.

  3. Upper limb compartment syndrome after an adder bite:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Faouzi Hamdi; Sayed Baccari; Mehdi Daghfous; Lamjed Tarhouni


    Compartment syndrome after an adder bite is extremely rare, whose effects are only secondary to the cytotoxic and hemorrhagic effects of venom.Here we reported a case of compartment syndrome in the upper limb following an adder bite in the thenar eminence.Elevated compartment pressure was documented and immediate sur-gical fasciotomy was practiced.The patient achieved com-plete recovery with a good functional result.We discussed the controversies on fasciotomy and non-invasive measures in such a situation, and recommended intracompartmental pressure monitoring during the management of compart-ment syndrome following adder bites.

  4. Self-administered behavior modification to reduce nail biting: incorporating simple technology to ensure treatment integrity. (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R


    Habitual behaviors, such as problematic nail biting, are a common target for self-managed behavior-modification programs. The current self-experiment used self-monitoring in conjunction with a self-managed differential-reinforcement procedure for the treatment of problematic nail biting. A simple picture-comparison procedure allowed an independent observer to assist in monitoring treatment progress and outcomes and to ensure treatment integrity. Results provide support that the overall treatment package was successful in decreasing the occurrence of nail biting. Moreover, the treatment-integrity procedure enabled full-day monitoring to take place with limited requirement of a secondary observer.

  5. Psychosis in secondary empty sella syndrome following a Russell's viper bite

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    Badr Ratnakaran


    Full Text Available Hypopituitarism can present with psychiatric symptoms. We report a unique case of psychosis in clear consciousness in a case of hypopituitarism due to the secondary empty sella syndrome following a Russell's viper bite which was untreated and presented with psychotic symptoms for past 13 years following the snake bite. After the diagnosis of psychosis due to hypopituitarism was made, the patient was treated with levothyroxine and prednisolone supplements and his psychotic symptoms subsided without any psychotropic drugs. Vasculotoxic snake bites can cause hypopituitarism and can present with psychosis. Further research will be needed into the prevalence of this phenomenon.

  6. [総説]Skin Injuries Due to Poisonous Snake Bites


    Uezato, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Masatoshi; Division of Dermatology, Department of Organ-oriented Medicine School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine University of Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Department of Health Science, Okinawa Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment


    We present an overall view of poisonous snake bites in Japan. In Main Land, Japan north of the Tokara Straits or Tose Line, poisonous snake bites by the Nihon mamusi (aspecies of a viper native to Main Land Japan), and Yamakagashi (tiger keelback) are of major clinical importance, whereas in the South-West Islands south of the Tokara Straits, serious problems occur due to the snake bites by the Habu (a pit viper native to the Ryukyu Islands). In Main Land Japan, approximately 10 mortality cas...

  7. Occlusion-amblyopia following high dose oral levodopa combined with part time patching

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    Mihir Kothari


    Full Text Available Part time occlusion therapy is not reported to cause occlusion (reverse amblyopia. However, when combined with high dose oral levodopa, an increase in the plasticity of the visual cortex can lead to occlusion amblyopia. In this case report, we describe a six year old child who developed occlusion amblyopia following part time patching combined with oral levodopa.

  8. Central retinal vein occlusion concomitant with dengue fever


    Velaitham, Punithamalar; Vijayasingham, Nandini


    Background Dengue virus infection is on the rise and there is increasing number of ocular complications that are being reported. Most common ocular complications are macular edema, macular hemorrhages, and foveolitis. There are case reports on branch retinal vessel occlusions. Most of the ocular complications are attributed to the bleeding tendency and transudative process in dengue viral infection. This is a case report of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) concomitant with dengu...

  9. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

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    Siang Lim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

  10. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, JC; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, V;


    occlusal caries lesions in the permanent dentition may be treated by non-invasive fissure sealing. By extending the criteria for non-invasive treatments, traditional restoration of occlusal surfaces can be postponed or even avoided, and the dental health in children and adolescents can be improved....... Selective removal (incomplete) to soft dentin in deep carious lesions has greater success rates than stepwise excavation. Selective (complete) removal to firm dentin has a lower success rate due to increased pulp exposure....

  11. Relationship among malocclusion, number of occlusal pairs and mastication


    Vanesa Rios-Vera; Alfonso Sánchez-Ayala; Plínio Mendes Senna; Gustavo Watanabe-Kanno; Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury; Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues Garcia


    This study evaluated the relationship among malocclusion, number of occlusal pairs, masticatory performance, masticatory time and masticatory ability in completely dentate subjects. Eighty healthy subjects (mean age = 19.40 ± 4.14 years) were grouped according to malocclusion diagnosis (n = 16): Class I, Class Class II-2, Class III and Normocclusion (control). Number of occlusal pairs was determined clinically. Masticatory performance was evaluated by the sieving method, and the time used for...

  12. Multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusions in hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Diwakar Gore


    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known modifiable risk factor for thromboembolism. Retinal vascular occlusion in patients having hyperhomocysteinemia is a known entity, particularly in young patients. However, multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is a rare condition, which can be a presentation of this disease. We present a patient who had multiple extra macular BRVO; on complete systemic workup, he was found to have raised homocysteine levels.

  13. Mineralization of human premolar occlusal fissures: a quantitative histochemical microanalysis


    Campos, Antonio; Rodriguez, I. A.; Sanchez-Quevedo, M.C.; García, J. M.; Nieto-Albano, O.H.; Gómez de Ferraris, M. E.


    The mechanisms of cariogenesis in occlusal fissures remain elusive because of limited information about fissure structure and wall mineralization. The purpose of the present study was to determine the correlation between morphological patterns in occlusal fissures in human premolars and quantitative histochemical patterns of mineralization in the walls of these formations. We used scanning electron microscopy and quantitative X-ray microanalysis with the peak-t...

  14. Veno-occlusive disease of the colon - CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademaker, J. [Department of Radiology I, Medical School Hannover (Germany)


    Venous occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic bowel disease and is usually brought about by thrombosis that may occur as a complication of systemic disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus, Behcet disease or Churg-Strauss syndrome. This report describes a patient with veno-occlusive disease of the colon caused by lymphocytic phlebitis. Typical CT findings included homogeneous bowel wall thickening and vascular engorgement. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  15. Sheathotomy in complicated cases of branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafoord, S.; Karlsson, N.; Cour, M. la


    Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non-randomized, interve......Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non...

  16. Full Body Pose Estimation During Occlusion using Multiple Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Cosar, Serhan

    Automatic estimation of the human pose enables many interesting applications and has therefore achieved much attention in recent years. One of the most successful approaches for estimating unconstrained poses has been the pictorial structures framework. However, occlusions between interacting...... pose estimates in each view. The proposed method in shown to work under heavy occlusions but does not improve the pose estimates in the non-occluded cases in it's current form....

  17. Influence of occlusal splint thickness on the position of mandible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-jin; Nagashima T; Nokubi T


    Objective: To investigate the influence of occlusal splint thickness on mandibular movement. Methods: Stabilization occlusal splints of 3, 5 and 7 mm thickness were respectively used during clenching from light contact in intercuspal position and the movement of condyles and incisor point were recorded in 5 healthy subjects. Results:The condyles moved anteriorly and superiorly without wearing occlusal splint. When wearing the occlusal splints the condyles displaced anteriorly and inferiorly. The distance of displacement increased gradually with raising the thickness of splint, though the significant difference was just found in right condyle in superior- inferior movement. The condyles went again on a path of anterior and superior direction when subjects clenched from the displaced position. In right condyle the displacement was significantly greater at 7 mm splint than that at 3 mm splint both in anterior-posterior and inferior-superior direction, while in left condyle only in anterior-posterior direction. Meanwhile, the incisal point movement was larger at 7 mm splint than at 3 mm splint in inferior-superior direction. In tapping movement there were no significant differences in condyle movement between the different thickness of occlusal splint. However, the coefficient of variation in total cycle time was the greatest when wearing the splint of 7 mm. Conclusion: Occlusal splint of 7 mm has greater effect than that of 3 mm on condyle movement, but no obvious difference with occlusal splint of 5 mm. When occlusal splint of 7 mm is inserted, the stability of condyle might be influenced during tapping movement.

  18. Isolated supraclinoid occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery. (United States)

    Lagrèze, H L; Hartmann, A; Ries, F; Wappenschmidt, J; Hanisch, E


    Isolated supraclinoid occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery is a rare cause of cerebral ischemia. The authors of the only review of this subject concluded that it is caused predominantly by factors other than atherosclerosis. We examined 6 patients with isolated supraclinoid occlusive lesions. Five of them had one or more risk factors for atherosclerosis. Thus, the isolated stenosis of that part of the internal carotid artery does not seem to represent a particular pathologic entity.

  19. Cephalometric Approach to the Occlusal Vertical Dimension Reestablishment


    João César Zielak; David Gulin Neto; Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha; Tatiana Miranda Deliberador; Allan Fernando Giovanini


    The occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) refers to the length of the face as determined by the amount of separation of the jaws. Its determination is important for the manufacture of restorations. However, defining the correct occlusal vertical dimension for edentulous patients is one of the most important steps for function and esthetics rehabilitation. Cephalometry is a standardized method of assessing dental and facial proportions and their interrelation. Additionally, cephalometric analysis ...

  20. Influence of Occlusal Interference on the Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders


    Ćelić, R.; Pandurić, J.; Badel, T.; Kraljević, S.; Dulčić, N.


    The significance of occlusal interference in the etiology of temporomandibular disorders has been questioned in numerous recent articles. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the clinical signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in a young male nonpatient population and to investigate a possible association between the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and occlusal interference. A questionnaire including data from history and clinical functional ...

  1. Digital Artery Occlusion Secondary to Plastic Shopping Bag Trauma (United States)

    Joy, R; Isaacs, JL; McCarthy, RJ


    Upper limb digital arterial occlusion is uncommon. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with an ischaemic right middle finger (dominant hand) due to trauma from carrying a heavy plastic shopping bag. Duplex scanning revealed no proximal source of emboli. An angiogram demonstrated occlusions in the medial and lateral digital arteries of the middle digit at the level of the proximal phalanx. Treatment with heparin and warfarin resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:18201465

  2. Prefrontal Hemodynamic Changes Associated with Subjective Sense of Occlusal Discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Ono


    Full Text Available We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to measure prefrontal brain activity accompanying the physical sensation of oral discomfort that arose when healthy young-adult volunteers performed a grinding motion with mild occlusal elevation (96 μm. We simultaneously evaluated various forms of occlusal discomfort using the visual analogue scale (VAS and hemodynamic responses to identify the specific prefrontal activity that occurs with increased occlusal discomfort. The Oxy-Hb responses of selected channels in the bilateral frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices increased in participants who reported increased severity of occlusal discomfort, while they decreased in those who reported no change or decreased occlusal discomfort during grinding. Moreover, the cumulative values of Oxy-Hb response in some of these channels were statistically significant predictive factors for the VAS scores. A generalized linear model analysis of Oxy-Hb signals in a group of participants who reported increased discomfort further indicated significant cerebral activation in the right frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices that overlapped with the results of correlation analyses. Our results suggest that the increased hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal area reflect the top-down control of attention and/or self-regulation against the uncomfortable somatosensory input, which could be a possible marker to detect the subjective sense of occlusal discomfort.

  3. Occlusion of Internal Carotid Artery in Kimura's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Tamaki


    Full Text Available We describe a unique case of Kimura's disease in which cerebral infarction was caused by occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. A 25-year-old man with Kimura's disease was admitted to our hospital because of left hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed infarction in the right frontal and temporal lobes. Cerebral angiography demonstrated right internal carotid artery occlusion affecting the C1 segment, with moyamoya-like collateral vessels arising from the right opthalamic artery. Kimura's disease is a chronic disease characterized by the clinical triad of slowly enlarging subcutaneous masses with lymphoid hyperplasia in the head and neck. It often occurs in young Asian men. In our patient, the pathogenesis of internal carotid artery occlusion was unknown. There have only been a few case reports in which occlusion of the internal carotid artery was associated with autoimmune disease, and no previous cases of internal carotid occlusion associated with Kimura's disease have been reported. We suspected that occlusion of this patient's internal carotid artery may be caused by the autoimmune mechanism that underlies Kimura's disease.

  4. Leptospirosis and Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Hsiang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lee, Feng-You; Wang, Ying-Chuan; Kao, Chia-Hung


    Abstract Data on the association between peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) and leptospirosis are limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study for determining whether leptospirosis is one of the possible risk factors for PAOD. Patients diagnosed with leptospirosis by using 2000 to 2010 data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with leptospirosis without a history of PAOD were selected. For each leptospirosis patient, 4 controls without a history of leptospirosis and PAOD were randomly selected and frequency-matched for sex, age, the year of the index date, and comorbidity diseases. The follow-up period was from the time of the initial diagnosis of leptospirosis to the diagnosis date of PAOD, or December 31, 2011. The Cox proportional hazard regression models were used for analyzing the risk of PAOD. During the follow-up period, the cumulative incidence of PAOD was higher among the patients from the leptospirosis cohort than among the nonleptospirosis cohort (log-rank test, P < 0.001). In total, 29 patients with PAOD from the leptospirosis cohort and 81 from the nonleptospirosis cohort were observed with the incidence rates of 2.1 and 1.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively, yielding a crude hazards ratio (HR) of 1.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44–1.81) and adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.75 (95% CI = 1.58–1.95). The risk of PAOD was 1.75-fold higher in the patients with leptospirosis than in the general population. PMID:26986166

  5. Latin American Consensus on Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Rodriguez


    Full Text Available The introduction of anti-VEGF agents has allowed unprecedented progress in the management and treatment of ophthalmologic conditions characterized by an increased vascular permeability and intraocular neovascularization. One of these conditions is retinal vein occlusion (RVO.  RVO is one of the most common causes of reduced vision due to retinal vascular disease. Without timely treatment, macular edema, macular ischemia, neovascularization and other potential sequelae of RVO can lead to photoreceptor cell death and consequently to irreversible vision loss.   Treatments for this indication that have been recently approved by several regulatory agencies throughout the world include: the VEGF inhibitor ranibizumab (Lucentis, Genentech, the VEGF and placental growth factor inhibitor aflibercept (Eylea, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Bayer HealthCare, and a slow release intravitreal implant of dexamethasone (Ozurdex, Allergan. In addition bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech has been used extensively in an off-label manner.   These new treatments allow us to preserve vision for many RVO patients who could not have expected such favorable results just 5 or 6 years ago. However, not every treatment is effective for every patient, and whether one option is superior to another or a combination of options is superior to monotherapy, have yet to be definitively determined.   A growing body of literature with strong evidence supports the use of these new treatments. However, in several instances the literature is not conclusive to support unified management of RVO. This document is a summary analysis on RVO assembled by a group of specialists summoned by the Pan-American Vitreo-Retinal Society (SPRV to participate in this Latin American consensus.

  6. Experience of dental caries and its effects on early dental occlusion: a descriptive study (United States)

    Luzzi, Valeria; Fabbrizi, Miriam; Coloni, Camilla; Mastrantoni, Cristina; Mirra, Carla; Bossù, Maurizio; Vestri, Annarita; Polimeni, Antonella


    Summary Aim Describe the occurrence of dental caries in a sample of pre-school children and school children, aged 3 and 12, and study the possible association between caries and malocclusion. Methods We selected and analyzed the medical records of a sample of 588 patients who had their first dental examination at the Pediatric Dentistry Unit, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences of Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome. Results In the sample, 55.4% of the children had no decayed deciduous elements, while 44.6% had at least one decayed deciduous element. The prevalence of decayed permanent teeth was 10.2%, while 89.8% had no decayed permanent teeth. In the sample, 9.4% of the children showed advanced carious lesions, that needed tooth extraction and 6.6% needed a space maintainer for post-extractive interceptive treatment. In the sample, 26.7% of the examined patients had increased overjet, while 3.7% had decreased overjet and 25.4% of the sample had an increased overbite, 11, 2% had reduced over-bite values. A percentage over 10% of the sample had an anterior openbite in centric occlusion. The prevalence of posterior crossbite among entire samples was 19.8%. Conclusions Although the incidence of caries disease was high in the selected samples, the study did not show a statistically significant association between caries and clinical orthodontic abnormalities, except for the association between the midline deviation and the severe carious diseases, necessitating extraction. PMID:22238717

  7. Guidelines for bite mark analysis. American Board of Forensic Odontology, Inc. (United States)


    Bite mark evidence is used in many courts and in the military justice system. Such evidence may be crucial to the resolution of the investigation. Detailed guidelines offer specific methods of collecting evidence.

  8. Imaging spectrum of bites, stings, and their complications: self-assessment module. (United States)

    Roberts, Catherine C; Young, Phillip M; Bancroft, Laura W; Liu, Patrick T; Peterson, Jeffrey J


    The educational objectives for this self-assessment module are for the participant to exercise, self-assess, and improve his or her understanding of the imaging spectrum of bites, stings, and their complications.

  9. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) (United States)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  10. Case report: Management of severe posterior open bite due to primary failure of eruption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Cafferty, J


    Primary failure of tooth eruption (PFE) is a rare condition affecting any or all posterior quadrants. Unilateral involvement of maxillary and mandibular quadrants causes a dramatic posterior open bite that requires complex management strategies.

  11. How informative are case studies of spider bites in the medical literature? (United States)

    Stuber, Marielle; Nentwig, Wolfgang


    We analyzed the reliability and information content of 134 medical case studies on spider bites, published in 91 journal articles. Overall, we found that only 22% of these studies fulfilled the criteria for a verified spider bite. This means that the majority of such case studies cannot be attributed to a given spider species and usually not even to a spider. Their scientific value is negligible, moreover, such publications are even dangerous because they suggest incorrect conclusions. Secondly, we found that such case studies usually do not follow an obvious structure and many details on the development of symptoms, therapy and healing process are widely lacking. So even for verified spider bites, the comparability of case studies is limited. We discuss the obvious failure of a reviewing process for case studies and give recommendations how to increase the currently low information content of medical case studies on spider bites.

  12. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Dipterea: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael


    the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374). The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. RESULTS...... and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. METHODS: Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female...... biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode) was applied to identify...

  13. A retrospective study of snake bite envenomation in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Murugan


    Results: A Total of 82 cases were studied in our hospital. Out of these 82 Poisonous bites, 42 (51.22% cases were viper bites, 20 (24.39% cases were unidentified poisonous bites, 16 (19.51% cases were Krait, and 4 (4.88% cases were Cobra. Coagulopathy, cellulitis, wound infection, renal failure and respiratory paralysis were the common complications. Average dose of ASV administered range from 8.57 (+/- 0.98 to 20.78 (+/- 4.18 Vials. An increase in mortality, ASV dose and complications were directly proportional to the Bite to ASV Administration time. Conclusions: Delay in hospitalization is associated with poor prognosis and increased mortality rate due to complications. There is an emergent need of awareness among the community for avoidance of traditional form of treatment and delay in early medical interventions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2419-2424

  14. Clinical Aspects and Emergent Management of Snake Bites Presented to Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedriye Sonmez


    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluating the epidemiologic characteristics and management of snake bites presenting to emergency departments. Material and Method: In this retrospective study 74 cases of snakebites admitted to Emergency Department of Diyarbakir Training and Research Hospital between 2008 and 2009 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Fourty-six (62.2% of patients were male and 28 (37.8% were female. Mean age of the study population was 34.85±19.17 (min 7- max 80 years. Most of the snakebites occurred between 18.00 to 06.00 hours and at home (73%. 79.7% of snake bites occurred to upper extremities. %93 of cases had intravenous administration of antivenin (one dose. Neither none of the patients needed recurrent administration. Discussion: Snake bites are still a major public health problem especially in rural areas. Particularly emergency care physicians should be adequately capable and sophisticated in multidisciplinary management of snake bites.

  15. A validation study of a new instrument for low cost bite force measurement. (United States)

    Testa, Marco; Di Marco, Anna; Pertusio, Raffaele; Van Roy, Peter; Cattrysse, Erik; Roatta, Silvestro


    Quantitative assessment of force in masticatory muscles is not a routine clinical test, probably due to the lack of an "easy-to-use" device. Aim of this study is (1) to present a low cost bite force instrument located in a custom-made housing, designed to guarantee a comfortable and effective bite action, (2) to evaluate its mechanical characteristics, in order to implement it in clinical settings and in experimental setups. Linearity, repeatability and adaptation over time were assessed on a set of four different sensors in bare and housed condition. Application of the housing to the transducer may appreciably alter the transducer's response. Calibration of the housed transducer is thus necessary in order to correctly record real bite force. This solution may represent a low cost and reliable option for biting force measurement and objective assessment of individual force control in the scientific and clinical setting.

  16. Hypertensive encephalopathy following snake bite in a child: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Moied Ahmed


    Full Text Available Children in rural India are a vulnerable group for snake bites. Improper elicitation of history and atypical presentations could lead to misdiagnosis and delay in treatment. We are reporting the case of an 8-year-old male child who presented with convulsions, unconsciousness and hypertension who was initially managed as a case of hypertensive encephalopathy showing no sign of improvement even after 20 hs. The history when reviewed suggested neurotoxic snake bite although the patient did not have any classical local findings. Anti-snake venom administration was followed by prompt recovery. We therefore suggest that snake bite should be considered in patients from rural background presenting with hypertension, convulsion and unconsciousness, even in the absence of classical features of snake bite.

  17. Outcomes and stability in patients with anterior open bite and long anterior face height treated with temporary anchorage devices and a maxillary intrusion splint (United States)

    Scheffler, Nicole R.; Proffit, William R.; Phillips, Ceib


    Introduction Temporary skeletal anchorage devices now offer the possibility of closing anterior open bites and decreasing anterior face height by intruding maxillary posterior teeth, but data for treatment outcomes are lacking. This article presents outcomes and posttreatment changes for consecutive patients treated with a standardized technique. Methods The sample included 33 consecutive patients who had intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth with a maxillary occlusal splint and nickel-titanium coil springs to temporary anchorage devices in the zygomatic buttress area, buccal and apical to the maxillary molars. Of this group, 30 had adequate cephalograms available for the period of treatment, 27 had cephalograms including 1-year posttreatment, and 25 had cephalograms from 2 years or longer. Results During splint therapy, the mean molar intrusion was 2.3 mm. The mean decrease in anterior face height was 1.6 mm, less than expected because of a 0.6-mm mean eruption of the mandibular molars. During the postintrusion orthodontics, the mean change in maxillary molar position was a 0.2-mm extrusion, and there was a mean 0.5-mm increase in face height. Positive overbite was maintained in all patients, with a slight elongation (<2 mm) of the incisors contributing to this. During the 1 year of posttreatment retention, the mean changes were a further eruption of 0.5 mm of the maxillary molars, whereas the mandibular molars intruded by 0.6 mm, and there was a small decrease in anterior face height. Changes beyond 1 year posttreatment were small and attributable to growth rather than relapse in tooth positions. Conclusions Intrusion of the maxillary posterior teeth can give satisfactory correction of moderately severe anterior open bites, but 0.5 to 1.5 mm of reeruption of these teeth is likely to occur. Controlling the vertical position of the mandibular molars so that they do not erupt as the maxillary teeth are intruded is important in obtaining a decrease in face height

  18. Assessing human-dog conflicts in Todos Santos, Guatemala: bite incidences and public perception. (United States)

    Lunney, Meg; Jones, Andria; Stiles, Enid; Waltner-Toews, David


    The issues surrounding dog bites are a major public health concern, particularly in areas of low income where accessibility to adequate health care, veterinary medicine and sufficient management of canine population control is low. An understanding of the risk factors associated with human-dog conflicts may be important when establishing dog bite and disease prevention strategies. In May 2008, a census of 12 consociated neighbourhoods in Todos Santos, Guatemala was conducted to investigate dog bite incidences and the public perception of free-roaming dog populations. Approximately 16.5% (78/472) of households reported at least one dog bite between May 2006 and May 2008. In total, 85 incidents occurred: 49.4% (42/85) with adults (≥18 years) and 50.6% (43/85) children (dog bites by victim gender or among age categories, there was a non-significant trend of higher cumulative incidence of dog bites in children aged six to 17 years compared to other age categories. The anatomical location of the bite varied, but bites to the legs were the most common (73/85; 85.9%). Of the 85 reported dog bites, 5.9% (5/85) were from dogs from the victims' own households, 48.2% (41/85) were from a neighbour's dog, 9.4% (8/85) were from dogs regularly seen in the community, and 15.3% (13/85) were from dogs not regularly seen in the community; the ownership status of the latter two categories of dogs could not be determined. Approximately 21% (18/85) of respondents did not know the type of dog that bit. Residents were asked for their opinions on potential problems associated with dogs in the community. The majority of respondents strongly agreed that dogs posed physical risks (78.8%; 372/472), could transmit infections to people (88.6%; 418/472), scared the family (82.4%; 389/472) and were too high in number (82.6%; 390/472). There were significant but weak correlations between owning a dog and expressing negative perceptions of community dogs (Spearman rhodog bite was not significantly

  19. Using clear aligner therapy to correct malocclusion with crowding and an open bite. (United States)

    Harnick, David J


    Clear aligner therapy (CAT) has been used successfully to correct minor spacing and crowding. It generally has not been indicated in more complicated malocclusions such as skeletal discrepancies and open bites; however, recent advances in technology and practitioner expertise now allow the use of CAT in these situations. This case report demonstrates the use of a CAT system (Invisalign) to correct a Class II malocclusion with crowding and an open bite tendency.


    Leung, Grace H Y; Baird, Robert W; Druce, Julian; Anstey, Nicholas M


    A traveller returning to Australia developed Zika virus infection, with fever, rash and conjunctivitis, with onset five days after a monkey bite in Bali, Indonesia. Flavivirus RNA detected on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab was sequenced and identified as Zika virus. Although mosquito-borne transmission is also possible, we propose the bite as a plausible route of transmission. The literature for non-vector transmissions of Zika virus and other flaviviruses is reviewed.

  1. Ontogenetic Scaling of Theoretical Bite Force in Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). (United States)

    Law, Chris J; Young, Colleen; Mehta, Rita S


    Sexual dimorphism attributed to niche divergence is often linked to differentiation between the sexes in both dietary resources and characters related to feeding and resource procurement. Although recent studies have indicated that southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) exhibit differences in dietary preferences as well as sexual dimorphism in skull size and shape, whether these intersexual differences translate to differentiation in feeding performances between the sexes remains to be investigated. To test the hypothesis that scaling patterns of bite force, a metric of feeding performance, differ between the sexes, we calculated theoretical bite forces for 55 naturally deceased male and female southern sea otters spanning the size ranges encountered over ontogeny. We then used standardized major axis regressions to simultaneously determine the scaling patterns of theoretical bite forces and skull components across ontogeny and assess whether these scaling patterns differed between the sexes. We found that positive allometric increases in theoretical bite force resulted from positive allometric increases in physiological cross-sectional area for the major jaw adductor muscle and mechanical advantage. Closer examination revealed that allometric increases in temporalis muscle mass and relative allometric decreases in out-lever lengths are driving these patterns. In our analysis of sexual dimorphism, we found that scaling patterns of theoretical bite force and morphological traits do not differ between the sexes. However, adult sea otters differed in their absolute bite forces, revealing that adult males exhibited greater bite forces as a result of their larger sizes. We found intersexual differences in biting ability that provide some support for the niche divergence hypothesis. Continued work in this field may link intersexual differences in feeding functional morphology with foraging ecology to show how niche divergence has the potential to reinforce sexual

  2. Treatment of a Class II division 1 anterior open bite malocclusion. (United States)

    Ong, H B


    A case report of an 11-year-old Caucasian female who presented with a Class II div I anterior open bite malocclusion. Overjet is 6 mm and the anterior open bite 2 mm. There was a history of digit sucking till she was eight years old. She was successfully treated by non-extraction with pre-adjusted Edgewise appliances and high-pull headgear for a period of 27 months.

  3. Computer–based method of bite mark analysis: A benchmark in forensic dentistry?


    Nandita Kottieth Pallam; Karen Boaz; Srikant Natrajan; Minu Raj; Nidhi Manaktala; Lewis, Amitha J


    Aim: The study aimed to determine the technique with maximum accuracy in production of bite mark overlay. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects (10 males and 20 females; all aged 20–30 years) with complete set of natural upper and lower anterior teeth were selected for this study after obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee. The upper and lower alginate impressions were taken and die stone models were obtained from each impression; overlays were produced from the biting ...

  4. Analysis of Dog Bites in Kashmir: An Unprovoked Threat to Population



    Objectives: The study focuses on the analysis of regional distribution, pattern and outcome of dog bite injuries sustained in Kashmiri population and assessing the burden on society. Methods: In this retrospective survey antirabies clinic record of all patients who sought medical attention after a dog bite in tertiary centre of Kashmir SMHS hospital between April2010 to May 2013 were reviewed. Results: A total of 13852 patients registered over a period of three year with mean age 27.69...

  5. Effect of increased occlusal force on the expression of IL-6 mRNA in the rat periodontium%牙合力增强对大鼠牙周组织IL-6 mRNA表达影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁林; 周伟东; 赵云凤


    目的:检测不同牙合力状态下,大鼠牙周膜成纤维细胞和牙槽骨成骨细胞中IL-6 mRNA的动态表达,探讨IL-6在牙周组织改建过程中的分子机制。方法:选用Wistar大鼠建立正常牙合力、牙合力增强的动物模型,采用原位杂交的方法,观察成纤维细胞和成骨细胞中IL-6 mRNA表达的动态变化。结果:牙合力增强诱导成纤维细胞和成骨细胞中IL-6 mRNA表达较正常牙合力时明显增强。结论:牙合力增强,促使牙周组织中的成纤维细胞和成骨细胞产生IL-6 mRNA明显增多,且出现一定的规律性变化,提示IL-6在牙合力影响牙周组织改建的过程中起着重要的调节作用。%AIM: To study the expression of IL-6 mRNA in rat periodontal ligament cells (PDLC) and osteoblasts under different occlusal forces, in order to explain the molecular mechanism of periodontium remodeling. METHODS: A rat model of different occlusal force was established by extracting the left maxillary molars, so that the left mandibular molar area was used as the bite force lost model and the right mandibular molar area as the bite force increased model. The untreated rats' mandibular molar area used as normal bite force model. The prepared tissue specimens were processed to study the expression of IL-6 mRNA in PDLC and osteoblasts with in situ hybridization technique. RESULTS: In the group of increased occlusal force the expression of IL-6 mRNA in PDLC and osteoblasts enhanced apparently than the group of normal occlusal force. CONCLUSION: The result of the increased occlusal force enhanced the expression of IL-6 mRNA in PDLC and osteoblasts suggested that the IL-6 may play important roles in the process of periodontium remodeling initiated by different occlusal force.

  6. Clinical significance of isometric bite force versus electrical activity in temporal and masseter muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Michler, L; Han, K;


    Bite force and activity in temporal and masseter muscles during biting and chewing were recorded in 19 control subjects and 23 subjects with symptoms and signs of functional disorders of the craniomandibular system. The entire group comprised 13 men and 29 women, 14-63 yr of age. Maximal unilater...... of mandibular elevator strength as a whole, but inadequate to disclose asymmetric conditions. During isometric contraction, relative strength of electromyographic activity fairly accurately imaged the output of mechanical activity....... bite force was 480 Newton (N) in control subjects and 387 N in patients, with corresponding bilateral values of 347 N and 230 N. At predetermined levels of contraction, temporalis and masseter activity were linearly related. Correlations of bite force and activity in short static contractions were...... significant with respect to unilateral, but not to bilateral force measurements. Only in the masseter muscle was strength of dynamic contractions during chewing significantly correlated to bite force. With the present method it was demonstrated that unilateral bite force is a simple clinical indicator...

  7. Hematological changes in mice exposed to biting of the bedbug: Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M; Soliman, Mohamed I


    The studies on hematologic changes in humans or animals as a result of bedbug bites are lacking. This study was undertaken to examine changes in the blood picture of mice (Mus musculus) exposed to Cimex lectularius biting. As compared to the check animals, mice exposed to bedbug bites either once or twice within 7 days showed insignificantly higher WBC's (1.6 and 2.8% increase, respectively) and lower HGB content (0.5 and 0.8% decrease, respectively) and significantly higher PLT's (P < 0.01) by 2.2% and 3.0%, respectively. Significantly higher (P < 0.01) RBC's counts in mice bitten once than those of normal animals or those exposed to twice bites (5.3 and 5.9% increase, respectively). Bedbug biting exerts its effects largely upon the differential WBC's. Mice bitten once or twice showed significantly lower number of neutrophils (1.2% & 12.1% decrease, respectively) than those for normal animals. Mice exposed to twice bites showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher numbers of lymphocyte (18.8%), monocyte (13.6%), eosinophil (200.0%) and basophil (500%) than those of normal mice.

  8. Decline in human dog-bite cases during a street dog sterilisation programme in Jaipur, India. (United States)

    Reece, J F; Chawla, S K; Hiby, A R


    Human dog-bite injuries are a major public health problem, particularly where there are large populations of free-roaming or street dogs. Dog bites are also the major source of human rabies infections. There is little information on the means to reduce these injuries. Monthly human animal-bite injury records from January 2003 to June 2011 were obtained from the main government hospital in Jaipur, India. The data were analysed and compared with records of pregnancy in street dogs in Jaipur obtained from a street dog sterilisation programme. Human animal-bite injuries showed a seasonal pattern which followed by approximately 10 weeks the seasonal peak of street dog breeding. The number of human animal bites has declined significantly since 2003. It is concluded that a street dog sterilisation programme can reduce human dog-bite injuries by reducing the maternal protective behaviour of the street dogs, as well as reducing the total size of the roaming dog population.

  9. Dental occlusion influences knee muscular performances in asymptomatic females. (United States)

    Grosdent, Stéphanie; O'Thanh, Roseline; Domken, Olivier; Lamy, Marc; Croisier, Jean-Louis


    Some authors claim that occlusal appliances can enhance athletic performance. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of dental occlusion on knee muscle strength performance. Twelve healthy female subjects (mean age, 24.1 ± 3.1 years) without temporomandibular joint dysfunction participated in this study. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength were assessed in relation to 3 randomized jaw conditions: mouth closed in maximum intercuspidation without splint, mouth closed on a balanced splint which optimized contact over the dental arch, mouth closed on a piece of resin of 1 mm which created an imbalanced occlusion. Tests were performed at 60 and 240°·s in concentric and 30°·s in eccentric exertions. Concentric performances did not show any significant difference between the 3 jaw conditions (p > 0.05). In contrast, in the eccentric trials related to quadriceps performance, significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were observed between the resin condition and the 2 other modalities (without splint or with a balanced splint). The imbalanced occlusion created by the resin component corresponded to an average decrease of 9% in eccentric peak torque. The eccentric hamstring peak torques also showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between measurements with splint and with resin (7% decrease when occlusion was imbalanced). In conclusion, among asymptomatic females, artificial imbalanced occlusion induces immediate and significant alteration of knee eccentric muscle performances. Therefore, occlusion examination should be undertaken on a regular and frequent basis for high-level athletes. Moreover, for athletes using mouthguards, muscular performance assessments should be planned with and without the dental protection.

  10. Two-Dimensional Tail-Biting Convolutional Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Alfandary, Liam


    The multidimensional convolutional codes are an extension of the notion of convolutional codes (CCs) to several dimensions of time. This paper explores the class of two-dimensional convolutional codes (2D CCs) and 2D tail-biting convolutional codes (2D TBCCs), in particular, from several aspects. First, we derive several basic algebraic properties of these codes, applying algebraic methods in order to find bijective encoders, create parity check matrices and to inverse encoders. Next, we discuss the minimum distance and weight distribution properties of these codes. Extending an existing tree-search algorithm to two dimensions, we apply it to find codes with high minimum distance. Word-error probability asymptotes for sample codes are given and compared with other codes. The results of this approach suggest that 2D TBCCs can perform better than comparable 1D TBCCs or other codes. We then present several novel iterative suboptimal algorithms for soft decoding 2D CCs, which are based on belief propagation. Two ...

  11. Bite-outs and other depletions of mesospheric electrons. (United States)

    Friedrich, Martin; Rapp, Markus; Plane, John M C; Torkar, Klaus M


    The ionised mesosphere is less understood than other parts of the ionosphere because of the challenges of making appropriate measurements in this complex region. We use rocket borne in situ measurements of absolute electron density by the Faraday rotation technique and accompanying DC-probe measurements to study the effect of particles on the D-region charge balance. Several examples of electron bite-outs, their actual depth as well as simultaneous observations of positive ions are presented. For a better understanding of the various dependencies we use the ratio β/αi (attachment rate over ion-ion recombination coefficient), derived from the electron and ion density profiles by applying a simplified ion-chemical scheme, and correlate this term with solar zenith angle and moon brightness. The probable causes are different for day and night; recent in situ measurements support existing hypotheses for daytime cases, but also reveal behaviour at night hitherto not reported in the literature. Within the large range of β/αi values obtained from the analysis of 28 high latitude night flights one finds that the intensity of scattered sunlight after sunset, and even moonlight, apparently can photodetach electrons from meteoric smoke particles (MSP) and molecular anions. The large range of values itself can best be explained by the variability of the MSPs and by occasionally occurring atomic oxygen impacting on the negative ion chemistry in the night-time mesosphere under disturbed conditions.

  12. Estimating Culicoides sonorensis biting midge abundance using digital image analysis. (United States)

    Osborne, C J; Mayo, C E; Mullens, B A; Maclachlan, N J


    ImageJ is an open-source software tool used for a variety of scientific objectives including cell counting, shape analysis and image correction. This technology has previously been used to estimate mosquito abundance in surveillance efforts. However, the utility of this application for estimating abundance or parity in the surveillance of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) has not yet been tested. Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth and Jones), a biting midge often measuring 2.0-2.5 mm in length, is an economically important vector of ruminant arboviruses in California. Current surveillance methods use visual sorting for the characteristics of midges and are very time-intensive for large studies. This project tested the utility of ImageJ as a tool to assist in gross trap enumeration as well as in parity analysis of C. sonorensis in comparison with traditional visual methods of enumeration using a dissecting microscope. Results confirmed that automated counting of midges is a reliable means of approximating midge numbers under certain conditions. Further evaluation confirmed accurate and time-efficient parity analysis in comparison with hand sorting. The ImageJ software shows promise as a tool that can assist and expedite C. sonorensis surveillance. Further, these methods may be useful in other insect surveillance activities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute viral disease that causes fatal encephalitis in virtually all the warm blooded animals including man. In India it is estimated that annually 17.4 million animal bite cases occur and 20, 000 deaths occur due to human rabies. Dogs are responsible for about 97%of the human rabies, followed by cats (2%, jackals, mongoose and others (1%. There is scarcity of literature regarding human rabies due to wild animals. OBJECTIVES: To describe the socio- demographic characteristics of wild animal bite victims attending Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS, Mandya and to describe the circumstances, characteristics of bite and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies. METHODOLOGY: This hospital based case record analysis was done for a period of 3 years from January 2011 to December 2013 at Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya. The details regarding the socio demographic characteristics of bite victims, characteristics of the bite wound and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies were collected using case records of wild animal bite victims. RESULTS: A total of 12, 798 animal bite victims had attended ARC during the study period, of which 67 (0.52% cases were exposed to wild animals. Of these 67 cases, 45 (67.2% of the victims were exposed to monkey and 13 (19.4% were exposed to wild boar. 45 (67.2% of the wild animal bite victims were in the age group of 15 to 60 years, 49 (73.1% were males and 22 (32.8% belonging to class IV socio economic status. Many of the monkey bites happened when the monkey was trying to snatch food from the victims and while other wild animal bites happened when the farmers were guarding their field. 40 (59.7% had bites on upper limb. 51 (76.1% had washed the wound with soap and water before coming to ARC. RIG was advised to all victims but was taken by 49 (73.1% of the bite victims. All four doses

  14. Occlusal Grinding Pattern during Sleep Bruxism and Temporomandibular Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Wijaya


    Full Text Available Sleep Bruxism is a significant etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD and causes many dental or oral problems such as tooth wear or facet. There is no study analyzing the relationship between sleep bruxism and TMD. Objective: To investigate any relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and temporomandibular disorder. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 30 sleep bruxism patients attended the Faculty Dentistry Universitas Indonesia Teaching Hospital (RSGMP FKG UI. Completion of 2 forms of ID-TMD index and questionnaire from American Academy of Sleep Medicine were done. BruxChecker was fabricated and used for two nights to record the occlusal grinding pattern. The occlusal grinding pattern was categorized into laterotrusive grinding (LG and mediotrusive side. Further divisons of LG were: incisor-canine (IC, incisor-caninepremolar (ICP and incisor-canine-premolar-molar (ICPM. Mediotrusive side was classified as mediotrusive contact (MC and mediotrusive grinding (MG. Results: It was found that occlusal grinding pattern in non-TMD subjects were IC+MC, in subjects with mild TMD were ICP+MG and in subjects with moderate TMD were ICP+MG and ICPM+MG. TMJ was more significantly affected by ICP and ICPM grinding pattern than that of IC. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and TMD.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.149

  15. Mechanism of vaso-occlusion in sickle cell anemia (United States)

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George


    Vaso-occlusion crisis is one of the key hallmark of sickle cell anemia. While early studies suggested that the crisis is caused by blockage of a single elongated cell, recent experimental investigations indicate that vaso-occlusion is a complex process triggered by adhesive interactions among different cell groups in multiple stages. Based on dissipative particle dynamics, a multi-scale model for the sickle red blood cells (SS-RBCs), accounting for diversity in both shapes and cell rigidities, is developed to investigate the mechanism of vaso-occlusion crisis. Using this model, the adhesive dynamics of single SS-RBC was investigated in arterioles. Simulation results indicate that the different cell groups (deformable SS2 RBCs, rigid SS4 RBCs, leukocytes, etc.) exhibit heterogeneous adhesive behavior due to the different cell morphologies and membrane rigidities. We further simulate the tube flow of SS-RBC suspensions with different cell fractions. The more adhesive SS2 cells interact with the vascular endothelium and further trap rigid SS4 cells, resulting in vaso-occlusion in vessels less than 15 μm . Under inflammation, adherent leukocytes may also trap SS4 cells, resulting in vaso-occlusion in even larger vessels. This work was supported by the NSF grant CBET-0852948 and the NIH grant R01HL094270.

  16. Diagnosis of occlusal caries: Part I. Conventional methods. (United States)

    McComb, D; Tam, L E


    Accurate diagnosis of the presence or absence of disease is a fundamental requirement in health care. The diagnosis of non-overt occlusal decay is challenging and can be highly subjective, and its inherent uncertainties can lead to widely differing treatment decisions. The development of more sensitive, specific and reproducible diagnostic tools for occlusal surfaces would contribute greatly to more precise planning of preventive and operative therapy. The purpose of this 2-part paper is to review current knowledge concerning conventional and new diagnostic methods for occlusal caries. Part I looks at established diagnostic methods for occlusal surfaces. Conventional visual, tactile and radiographic examinations provide less-than-ideal diagnostic sensitivity. Neither fissure discolouration (black or brown) nor the use of an explorer has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy. However, the combination of careful visual examination with optimal radiographic examination affords better diagnostic performance. The best visual indicators involve precise features associated with the presence of disease, such as opaque fissure demineralization and the presence and extent of localized breakdown of the enamel. For best results, teeth should be clean, thoroughly dry and well illuminated. Part II will examine new and emerging technologies, including the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device, which are being developed for the diagnosis of occlusal decay.

  17. Radiological evaluation of multiple progressive intracranial arterial occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Whan; Choi, Byung Ihn; Ha, Sung Whan [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Multiple Progressive intracranial Arterial Occlusion (MPIAO) is a rare cerebrovascular disease and its clinical diagnosis is nearly impossible and diagnosis depends upon neuroradiological studies. Among neuroradiological studies, cerebral angiography is mandatory in diagnosis and in localization of stenotic or occlusive vascular lesion, visualization of collateral channels and aid the surgical management. Five cases MPIAO which were proved by cerebral angiography at Capital Armed Forces General Hospital during last 5 years are presented, with analysis of radiological findings as well as clinical assessment. The results are as follows; 1. Age distribution ranges from 23 to 46. For cases are male and one female. 2. Cardinal clinical symptoms are headache and vomiting, and neurological manifestations are hemiplegia and speech disturbance. 3. All cases show the characteristic angiographic findings of MPIAO which are occlusion or stenosis at the distal internal carotid artery, proximal part of anterior and middle cerebral arteries with fine collateral network in basal ganglia area, leptomeningeal anastomosis and transdural external-internal carotid anastomoses. The major region of occlusion or stenosis is first portion of anterior and middle cerebral arteries. In one case, the lesion is seen in cervical portion of internal carotid artery. There is no evidence of occlusion or stenosis in vertebral angiogram. 4. In 2 cases, computed tomography was done. One case shows the findings of cerebral infarction and the other intracerebral hematoma.

  18. Systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion in young patients (United States)

    Sinawat, Suthasinee; Bunyavee, Chavisa; Ratanapakorn, Tanapat; Sinawat, Supat; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada; Yospaiboon, Yosanan


    Objectives To study the systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion in patients aged ≤50 years with a particular emphasis on atherosclerotic diseases and thrombophilic disorders. Methods Medical charts of patients, aged ≤50 years whose diagnoses were retinal vein occlusions during the period 1995–2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the number of systemic abnormalities associated with these patients. Secondary outcomes included types of retinal vein occlusion and sites of occlusion. Results Atherosclerotic diseases were the most common systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion and accounted for 55.1% of the patients in the study. Hypertension in 27.55%, diabetes mellitus in 16.33%, and 5.1% with dyslipidemia were noted. The number of thrombophilic disorders seemed to be less than expected and were noted in only 5.1%. Other systemic abnormalities included viral hepatitis infection, systemic lupus erythematosus, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Oral contraceptives were used by some patients. Conclusion Atherosclerotic diseases remained the most commonly associated systemic diseases in the majority of these patients. Approach to these patients should include a screening for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities. Thrombophilia should also be considered where no obvious atherosclerotic diseases are found or if the patient is <40 years old, a history of thrombosis or a family history of thrombosis is possible. PMID:28260858

  19. EMG, bite force, and elongation of the masseter muscle under isometric voluntary contractions and variations of vertical dimension. (United States)

    Manns, A; Miralles, R; Palazzi, C


    The relation EMG activity, bite force, and muscular elongation was studied in eight subjects with complete natural dentition during isometric contractions of the masseter muscle, measured from 7 mm to almost maximum jaw opening. EMG was registered with superficial electrodes and bite force with a gnathodynamometer. In series 1, recordings of EMG activity maintaining bite force constant (10 and 20 kg) show that EMG is high when the bite opening is 7 mm, decreases from 15 to 20 mm, and then increases again as jaw opening approaches maximum opening. In series 2, recordings of bite force maintaining EMG constant show that bite force increases up to a certain range of jaw opening (around 15 to 20 mm) and then decreases as we approach maximum jaw opening. Results show that there is for each experimental subject a physiologically optimum muscular elongation of major efficiency where the masseter develops highest muscular force with least EMG activity.

  20. Má oclusão Classe I de Angle, com mordida aberta anterior, tratada com extração de dentes permanentes Angle Class I malocclusion, with anterior open bite, treated with extraction of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Aiko Nakane Matsumoto


    Full Text Available A mordida aberta é uma anomalia com características distintas que, além da complexidade dos múltiplos fatores etiológicos, traz consequências estéticas e funcionais. Muitas alternativas têm sido utilizadas em seu tratamento, entre elas a grade palatina, forças ortopédicas, ajuste oclusal, camuflagem com ou sem exodontias, mini-implantes ou miniplacas e cirurgia ortognática. O diagnóstico preciso e a determinação da etiologia permitem estabelecer os objetivos e o plano de tratamento ideal para essa má oclusão. O presente relato descreve o tratamento de uma má oclusão Classe I de Angle, com padrão esquelético de Classe II e mordida aberta anterior, realizado em duas fases e que foi apresentado à diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 2, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.Open bite is an anomaly with distinct characteristics which, in addition to involving complex, multiple etiologic factors, entails aesthetic and functional consequences. Many alternative approaches have been employed to treat open bite, including palatal crib, orthopedic forces, occlusal adjustment, camouflage with or without extractions, mini-implants or mini-plates, and orthognathic surgery. By determining accurate diagnosis and etiology professionals can set the goals and ideal treatment plan for this malocclusion. This report, describing the two stages treatment of a Angle Class I malocclusion with Class II skeletal pattern and anterior open bite, was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO, representative of category 2, as partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the title of BBO Diplomate.

  1. Endodontic therapy as a method in sanation of disturbed occlusion polytraumatized upper and lower jaw of a cat

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    Prokić Branislav


    Full Text Available Concomitant injuries of bone and soft tissues of the upper and lower jaws are classified as multiple trauma symptoms associated with early complications, such as shock, disordered breathing, bleeding, pain, deformity and facial asymmetry, abnormal jaw movement, crepitation, palsy-paralysis of traumatized soft tissue regions and languages. The goal of this work is to present polytraumatised rehabilitation of upper and lower jaws by the system of endodontic treatment of upper canines in cats. Primary approach to stabilization polytraumatised cats is highlighted, also as procedures to be undertaken in animal in shock, injury of the maxilla and mandible, and the order of diagnostic procedures. Mandibular prognation and incorrect occlusion with consequent demage of mandibular gingiva with maxilla kaninus are complications wich were resolved in our case with endodontic treatment of upper canines of the cat. This paper presents a detailed approach to the reduction of dental caninus maxilla and establishing proper bite in the molar region of the maxila and mandible. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45006

  2. Evaluation of local muscle soreness treatment with anterior bite splint made of soft putty impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Laksono


    Full Text Available Background: Local muscle soreness is the most common temporomandibular disorders complaint of patients seeking treatment in the dental clinics. The emergency treatment that can be done in the clinics to manage this disorder is by making anterior bite splint. Anterior bite splint is usually made of acrylic, but currently there is a soft putty impression material that can also be used for making anterior bite splint. The effectiveness of soft putty anterior bite splint in local muscle soreness treatment still has not clear. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of the soft putty impression material as a material used for making anterior bite splint in the treatment of local muscle soreness. Case: Six patients was reported five female patients aged 20-40 years old and one male patient aged 37 years old with local muscle soreness. Four female patients with a “click” sound on TMJ. Case management: Make differential diagnosis with screening history (anamnesis, clinical examination consists of extra oral examination such as muscle and temporomandibular joint palpation, measure the mandibular movement, end-feel, load test, intra oral examination and radiographic evaluation. Record the results and make the diagnosis. Make a soft putty anterior bite splint, adjusted and inserted in the maxillary anterior teeth. Record the results based on signs and symptoms. Conclusion: It can be concluded that anterior bite splint made of soft putty impression material is effective for treatment the local muscle soreness.Latar belakang: Salah satu tipe temporomandibular disorders yang paling sering dijumpai di klinik dokter gigi adalah local muscle soreness. Perawatan yang dapat dengan segera dilakukan di klinik untuk mengelola gangguan tersebut adalah dengan pembuatan anterior bite splint. Biasanya anterior bite splint terbuat dari akrilik, namun saat ini telah ada bahan cetak soft putty yang memungkinkan untuk dipakai sebagai bahan pembuatan anterior bite splint

  3. [The role of occlusion and extraction in orthodontics. Historical overview]. (United States)

    Kucsera, Agnes; Struhár, Gabriella


    Occlusion is important in each unit of dentistry. The authors describe not only the meaning of normal occlusion and dysgnathy but also the historical background focusing on the most important orthodontists, their achievements and literary works. This article gives an overview of the development of orthodontics from the very beginning (ancient times) to nowadays. The most important figures of these periods are: P. Fauchard, F. C. Kneisel, E. H. Angle, C. Case (dark ages); C. F. Ballard, P. R. Begg, C. H. Tweed (golden ages); L. F. Andrews and R. H. Roth (contemporary period). Along these three eras development and changing of the extraction-principles are shown. Nowadays the orthodontists still use Angle's classification and orthodontic treatment with extraction is also accepted. However it is not a separate treatment method, but only used as complement treatment. The authors stress on the importance of normal occlusion, which should be result of every orthodontic, but also prothetic and gnathological treatment.

  4. Low-intensity exercise, vascular occlusion, and muscular adaptations. (United States)

    Teramoto, Masaru; Golding, Lawrence A


    The study investigated the effects of low-intensity exercise on muscular fitness when combined with vascular occlusion. Nineteen college male and female students performed two sets of a 5-min step exercise using a 12-inch bench three times per week for 5 weeks. During the step exercise, blood flow to one leg was restricted (vascular occlusion) with a blood pressure cuff, while the other leg was not occluded. Muscular strength of the occluded leg was significantly increased over the nonoccluded leg (p Muscular endurance and muscle mass were improved after 5 weeks of training (p 0.05). Exercise with vascular occlusion has the potential to be an alternative form of training to promote muscular strength.

  5. Ambient Occlusion Effects for Combined Volumes and Tubular Geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, M.


    This paper details a method for interactive direct volume rendering that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube-shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The algorithm extends the recently presented the directional occlusion shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. Stream tube geometries are computed using an effective spline-based interpolation and approximation scheme that avoids self-intersection and maintains coherent orientation of the stream tube segments to avoid surface deforming twists. Furthermore, strategies to reduce the geometric and specular aliasing of the stream tubes are discussed.

  6. Retinal vein occlusion during flare of multicentric Castleman's disease

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    Kozak I


    Full Text Available Igor Kozak,1,2 Erin G Reid31King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2University of California San Diego, Jacobs Retina Center at the Shiley Eye Center, La Jolla, CA, USA; 3University of California San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, AIDS Malignancy Consortium, La Jolla, CA, USAAbstract: We report a case of successive bilateral retinal vein occlusion in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive male with multicentric Castleman's disease treated successfully with a single injection of intravitreal bevacizumab. Castleman's disease should be a differential diagnosis of occlusive retinovascular disease and, occasionally, ocular manifestation can lead to systemic diagnosis.Keywords: retinal vein occlusion, Castleman's disease, intravitreal bevacizumab

  7. Hierarchical Template Matching for Robust Visual Tracking with Severe Occlusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizuo Jin; Tirui Wu; Feng Liu; Gang Zeng


    To tackle the problem of severe occlusions in visual tracking, we propose a hierarchical template-matching method based on a layered appearance model. This model integrates holistic- and part-region matching in order to locate an object in a coarse-to-fine manner. Furthermore, in order to reduce ambiguity in object localization, only the discriminative parts of an object' s appearance template are chosen for similarity computing with respect to their cornerness measurements. The similarity between parts is computed in a layer-wise manner, and from this, occlusions can be evaluated. When the object is partly occluded, it can be located accurately by matching candidate regions with the appearance template. When it is completely occluded, its location can be predicted from its historical motion information using a Kalman filter. The proposed tracker is tested on several practical image sequences, and the experimental results show that it can consistently provide accurate object location for stable tracking, even for severe occlusions.

  8. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus). (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise


    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour.

  9. Computational evaluation of aortic occlusion and the proposal of a novel, improved occluder: Constrained endo-aortic balloon occlusion. (United States)

    de Vaal, M H; Gee, M W; Stock, U A; Wall, W A


    Because aortic occlusion is arguably one of the most dangerous aortic manipulation maneuvers during cardiac surgery in terms of perioperative ischemic neurological injury, the purpose of this investigation is to assess the structural mechanical impact resulting from the use of existing and newly proposed occluders. Existing (clinically used) occluders considered include different cross-clamps (CCs) and endo-aortic balloon occlusion (EABO). A novel occluder is also introduced, namely, constrained EABO (CEABO), which consists of applying a constrainer externally around the aorta when performing EABO. Computational solid mechanics are employed to investigate each occluder according to a comprehensive list of functional requirements. The potential of a state of occlusion is also considered for the first time. Three different constrainer designs are evaluated for CEABO. Although the CCs were responsible for the highest strains, largest deformation, and most inefficient increase of the occlusion potential, it remains the most stable, simplest, and cheapest occluder. The different CC hinge geometries resulted in poorer performance of CC used for minimally invasive procedures than conventional ones. CEABO with a profiled constrainer successfully addresses the EABO shortcomings of safety, stability, and positioning accuracy, while maintaining its complexities of operation (disadvantage) and yielding additional functionalities (advantage). Moreover, CEABO is able to achieve the previously unattainable potential to provide a clinically determinable state of occlusion. CEABO offers an attractive alternative to the shortcomings of existing occluders, with its design rooted in achieving the highest patient safety. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. An Investigation of the Posterior Component of Occlusal Force (United States)


    Distribution Unlimited MICHAEL M. BRICKER, SMSgt, USAF Chief Administration 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words ) Aooession Flo NTIS (IRA&I 𔄁)Unannounced 0 ,j13L...measured art the condyle of Macaca arctoides. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 1990; 97: 472-479. Carlson GE. Bite force and chewing efficiency. Front Oral...Am J Phys Anthrop 1990; 83: 219-237. Edwards JG. A surgical procedure to eliminate rotational relapse. Am J Orthod 1970; 57: 35-46. Fields HW, Proffit

  11. Tick bite protection with permethrin-treated summer-weight clothing. (United States)

    Miller, Nathan J; Rainone, Erin E; Dyer, Megan C; González, M Liliana; Mather, Thomas N


    The number of tick bites received by individuals wearing either permethrin-treated or untreated summer clothing (T-shirt, shorts, socks, and sneakers) was compared during a controlled indoor study. Pathogen-free nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say were placed on the left shoe, right leg, and left arm of 15 (5/treatment group/d) human volunteers wearing untreated outfits or outfits treated with permethrin either commercially or using a do-at-home treatment kit. The number and location of ticks attached to subjects' skin were recorded 2.5 h postinfestation. Subjects wearing outfits treated with permethrin received 3.36 times fewer tick bites than subjects wearing untreated outfits. No statistically significant differences in number of tick bites were detected between commercial permethrin treatment (19.33%) and the do-at-home permethrin application method (24.67%). The success of permethrin-treated clothing in reducing tick bites varied depending on the specific article of clothing. Subjects wearing permethrin-treated sneakers and socks were 73.6 times less likely to have a tick bite than subjects wearing untreated footware. Subjects wearing permethrin-treated shorts and T-shirts were 4.74 and 2.17 times, respectively, less likely to receive a tick bite in areas related to those specific garments than subjects wearing untreated shorts and T-shirts. Ticks attached to subjects were classified as alive or dead before removal. On subjects wearing untreated outfits, 97.6% of attached nymphs were alive, whereas significantly fewer (22.6%) attached nymphs were alive on subjects wearing repellent-treated outfits. Results of this study demonstrate the potential of permethrin-treated summer clothing for significantly reducing tick bites and tick-borne pathogen transmission.

  12. Prevalence rate and epidemiological determinants of animal bite in Ahvaz County, Khuzestan Province, Southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali Kassiri; Reza Mosavi; Abbas Jashireh; Masoud Lotfi


    Objective:To investigate the prevalence rate and epidemiological aspects of animal bite in AhvazCounty(western part),KhuzestanProvince,SouthwesternIran during the2nd half2003-2007.Methods:In this descriptive cross-sectional investigation a questionnaire was completed for each victim.The questionnaire included questions like, occupation, gender, age group, attacker animal, vaccination type(complete or non-complete), bite place on the body, type of dog bite(stray or domestic dog), residential area(urban or rural).Data analysis was done by SPSS software using descriptive statistics.Results:The total number of4186 cases had been found.The highest number of bitten persons were in2007(1079 cases) and2005(1032 cases). The maximum prevalence rate belonged to2005(2.04/1000 population).Also,Most of the victims were males(80%).Eighty percent of the bites were from urban regions.The majority of cases were related to10-19 years age group(32.8%).The highest frequencies of bites were students(28.9%). Upper extremities were the most common bite place(61.4%).About91.3% of cases were injured by dogs.Furthermore, around83.7% of animal bites treated by incomplete rabies prophylaxis regimen.No cases of human rabies were observed in our study.Conclusions:The dogs were the major attacker animal, affecting mostly the age group10-19 years old and men.Therefore, we should pay more attention about controlling this problem.

  13. Small risk of developing symptomatic tick-borne diseases following a tick bite in the Netherlands

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    Hofhuis Agnetha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A prospective study was performed to investigate how many persons with tick-bites develop localized or systemic symptoms and whether these are associated with tick-borne microorganisms. Results In total, 297 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 246 study participants who consulted a general practitioner on the island of Ameland for tick bites. Ticks were subjected to PCR to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. or Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.. Sixteen percent of the collected ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., 19% for Rickettsia spp., 12% for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and 10% for Babesia spp.. At least six months after the tick bite, study participants were interviewed on symptoms by means of a standard questionnaire. 14 out of 193 participants (8.3% reported reddening at the bite site and 6 participants (4.1% reported systemic symptoms. No association between symptoms and tick-borne microorganisms was found. Attachment duration ≥24 h was positively associated with reddening at the bite site and systemic symptoms. Using logistic regression techniques, reddening was positively correlated with presence of Borrelia afzelii, and having 'any symptoms' was positively associated with attachment duration. Conclusion The risk of contracting acute Lyme borreliosis, rickettsiosis, babesiosis or ehrlichiosis from a single tick bite was

  14. An evaluation of snake bites and antivenin use at a regional medical center. (United States)

    Watson, Larry I; Spivey, Christy; Menon, Cen Rema; Kotwall, Cyrus A; Clancy, Thomas V; Hope, William W


    Snake bites are a rare but challenging problem for surgeons. The purpose of our study was to evaluate our experience with snake bites at a regional medical center. We reviewed patients treated for snake bites from 2004 to July 2008. Demographics, clinical information, and outcomes were documented. Descriptive statistics were used, and chi2, t test, and Fisher exact test were used to compare patients based on antivenin use. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Over the study period, 126 patients presented to the emergency department with 44 (35%) requiring hospital admission. The average age was 38 years (range, 2 to 76 years); 66 per cent were male and 95 per cent white. Bites most commonly occurred in the summer and fall months with none from December through March. Copperhead bites accounted for 50 per cent of bites. An average of 4.8 vials of antivenin was given to 61 per cent of admitted patients with 93 per cent receiving the drug within 6 hours. Minor reactions to antivenin occurred in three patients (11%). Two patients required surgery (5%), and the readmission rate was 7 per cent. There was no known morbidity or mortality. When comparing patients who received antivenin with patients who did not, the only significant clinical variables were an increased prothrombin time (12.1 vs. 11.7, respectively; P = 0.048) and a longer length of hospital stay (3 vs. 1.8 days, P = 0.0006) in patients receiving antivenin. The majority of patients with snake bites can be treated with supportive care and antivenin when indicated. Antivenin use at our institution is largely based on physical findings and not related to laboratory values.

  15. 咬合垂直距离与咀嚼肌肌电、咬合力关系的研究%Relationship between vertical dimension and bite force as well as electromyography in edentulous people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温从生; 刘丽; 费雪芬


    dimensions was measured using an occlusometer,while electromyography of bilateral masseter and anterior temporal muscles were recorded by multichannel physiologic collection device. Vertical dimension,bite force and muscle activity were statistically analyzed. Results ①Bite force was positively correlated with vertical dimension (P <0. 05). ②Normalized masseter muscle activity (NMM)and normalized anterior temporal muscles activity (NATM)were negatively correlated with vertical dimension (P < 0. 05). ③Masseter muscle activity/ bite force (MM/ BF)and anterior temporal muscles activi-ty / bite force (ATM/ BF)were negatively correlated with vertical dimension. Conclusions ①Bite force increased with the increase of vertical dimension. The normal vertical dimension wasn′t where bite force is maximal. ②Masseter muscle activity decreased with the in-crease of occlusal vertical dimension,but the change of anterior temporal muscle activity wasn′t so apparent compared to that of masseter muscle activity. ③MM/ BF and ATM/ BF decreased with the increase of occlusal vertical dimension. ④There may be a stable area near-by the normal occlusal vertical dimension. Inside the stable area,changes of bite force,masseter muscle and anterior temporal muscle activity were not significant.

  16. The effects of naris occlusion on mouse nasal turbinate development. (United States)

    Coppola, David M; Craven, Brent A; Seeger, Johannes; Weiler, Elke


    Unilateral naris occlusion, a standard method for causing odor deprivation, also alters airflow on both sides of the nasal cavity. We reasoned that manipulating airflow by occlusion could affect nasal turbinate development given the ubiquitous role of environmental stimuli in ontogenesis. To test this hypothesis, newborn mice received unilateral occlusion or sham surgery and were allowed to reach adulthood. Morphological measurements were then made of paraffin sections of the whole nasal cavity. Occlusion significantly affected the size, shape and position of turbinates. In particular, the nasoturbinate, the focus of our quantitative analysis, had a more delicate appearance on the occluded side relative to the open side. Occlusion also caused an increase in the width of the dorsal meatus within the non-occluded and occluded nasal fossae, compared with controls, and the position of most turbinates was altered. These results suggest that a mechanical stimulus from respiratory airflow is necessary for the normal morphological development of turbinates. To explore this idea, we estimated the mechanical forces on turbinates caused by airflow during normal respiration that would be absent as a result of occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to construct a three-dimensional model of the mouse nasal cavity that provided the input for a computational fluid dynamics simulation of nasal airflow. The simulation revealed maximum shear stress values for the walls of turbinates in the 1 Pa range, a magnitude that causes remodeling in other biological tissues. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that nasal turbinates develop partly under the control of respiratory mechanical forces.

  17. Task-dependence of activity/ bite-force relations and its impact on estimation of chewing force from EMG. (United States)

    Proeschel, P A; Morneburg, T


    Estimation of chewing force from electromyograms (EMGs) calibrated in isometric biting yielded strikingly high force values. We tested the hypothesis that EMG-based force predictions are excessive because of differing activity/bite-force relations in mastication and isometric biting. In nine patients, unilateral bite forces and EMGs of 4 elevator muscles were recorded during chewing and isometric clenching on a bite-fork. We estimated chewing force by substituting chewing EMGs of each muscle into isometric activity/bite-force regressions. The estimates were compared with actual chewing forces recorded by intra-oral transducers. In all muscles except the balancing-side masseter, the activity/bite-force ratio was significantly higher in chewing than in isometric biting. The actual mean chewing force amounted to 220 N, while EMG-based estimates ranged from 273 to 475 N, depending on the muscle used for estimation. The results indicate that different activity/force characteristics in dynamic and isometric biting can cause overestimation when chewing force is predicted from masticatory EMGs.

  18. Primary stenting as emergency therapy in acute basilar artery occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreer, Joachim; Arnold, Sebastian; Klisch, Joachim; Schumacher, Martin [Section of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Breisacher Strasse 64, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Els, Thomas; Hetzel, Andreas; Huppertz, Hans-Juergen; Oehm, Eckhardt [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)


    In three patients with acute occlusion of the basilar artery intra-arterial fibrinolysis resulted in only partial recanalization and revealed severe stenosis as the underlying cause. Application of micro-stents without previous dilatation resulted in vessel re-opening. Two patients had an excellent clinical outcome. One patient died 10 days after the stroke due to brainstem infarction. Emergency primary stent application may improve the outcome in acute basilar artery occlusion, if intra-arterial thrombolysis fails to re-establish a sufficient flow. (orig.)

  19. A Case of Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Uneventful Phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dragnev


    Full Text Available We would like to present a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following uneventful phacoemulsification, possibly caused by sub-Tenon's anaesthesia. There were no predisposing general health problems. There are two possible mechanisms: (1 mechanical effect of the bolus anaesthetic; (2 pharmacologically mediated changes in the vascular calibre. The latter mechanism is much more probable, because of the vasoconstrictive properties of both medications used. This is the first reported case of branch retinal artery occlusion after sub-Tenon's anaesthesia with preservative-free medications.

  20. Stent-based mechanical thrombectomy in acute basilar artery occlusion. (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Leker, Ronen R; Moscovici, Samuel; Attia, Moshe; Itshayek, Eyal


    Stent-based mechanical thrombectomy was recently proposed as an effective alternative to other mechanical techniques to achieve recanalization of large-vessel embolic occlusions in the anterior circulation. To our knowledge, there are no reports of the use of this technique in acute basilar artery occlusion (ABAO). We present a patient with complete endovascular recanalization of ABAO using a stent-based thrombectomy technique. Advantages and limitations of this technique in the management of ABAO are discussed. The stent-thrombectomy technique is promising, and will need further evaluation in posterior circulation stroke.