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Sample records for bite hypersensitivity electronic

  1. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Wolc, A.; Ducro, B.J.; Frankena, K.; Garrick, D.J.; Dekkers, J.C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite

  2. Insect bite hypersensitivity in horses: genetic and epidemiological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by bites of Culicoides spp. IBH reduces welfare of affected horses and at present no effective preventive measure or cure exists. Aim of our research was to increase knowledge of the

  3. Culicoides obsoletus allergens for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    AInsect Bite Hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common skin allergy in horses and involves a Type I (IgE mediated) hypersensitivity reaction against bites of insects, mainly of the Culicoides species. Welfare of affected horses is seriously reduced and no fully curative treatment is yet

  4. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in swedish-born icelandic horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, M.; Eriksson, S.; Schurink, A.; Andersson, L.S.; Sundquist, M.; Frey, R.; Brostrom, H.; Bergstrom, T.; Ducro, B.J.; lindgren, G.

    2015-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by biting midges, mainly of the genus Culicoides. The disease predominantly comprises a type I hypersensitivity reaction, causing severe itching and discomfort that reduce the welfare and commercial

  5. Cloning and expression of candidate allergens from Culicoides obsoletus for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.; Roders, N.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Schaap, P.J.; Oers, van M.M.; Leibold, W.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Tijhaar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated (Type I) hypersensitivity reaction induced by allergens from biting midges of the Culicoides spp. The aim of the present study was to identify, clone and express recombinant allergens from C. obsoletus, the main species found feeding on horses in

  6. Seasonal differences in cytokine expression in the skin of Shetland ponies suffering from insect bite hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.; Meide, van der N.M.A.; Zaiss, D.M.W.; Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.S.; Lugt, van der J.J.; Smak, J.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Willemse, T.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses is a seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder primarily caused by Culicoides spp. We hypothesize that a mixed Th2/Th1-type immune status, off season, alters into Th2-dominated immune reactivity in the skin of IBH-affected ponies in the IBM season.

  7. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schurink Anouk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite hypersensitivity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and quantify genomic associations with insect bite hypersensitivity in Shetland pony mares and Icelandic horses in the Netherlands. Methods Data on 200 Shetland pony mares and 146 Icelandic horses were collected according to a matched case–control design. Cases and controls were matched on various factors (e.g. region, sire to minimize effects of population stratification. Breed-specific genome-wide association studies were performed using 70 k single nucleotide polymorphisms genotypes. Bayesian variable selection method Bayes-C with a threshold model implemented in GenSel software was applied. A 1 Mb non-overlapping window approach that accumulated contributions of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to identify associated genomic regions. Results The percentage of variance explained by all single nucleotide polymorphisms was 13% in Shetland pony mares and 28% in Icelandic horses. The 20 non-overlapping windows explaining the largest percentages of genetic variance were found on nine chromosomes in Shetland pony mares and on 14 chromosomes in Icelandic horses. Overlap in identified associated genomic regions between breeds would suggest interesting candidate regions to follow-up on. Such regions common to both breeds (within 15 Mb were found on chromosomes 3, 7, 11, 20 and 23. Positional candidate genes within 2 Mb from the associated windows were identified on chromosome 20 in both breeds. Candidate genes are within the equine lymphocyte antigen class II region, which evokes an immune response by recognizing many foreign molecules. Conclusions The genome-wide association

  8. Equine allergy therapy: update on the treatment of environmental, insect bite hypersensitivity, and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Rosanna

    2013-12-01

    Allergies are common in horses. It is important to identify and correct as many factors as possible to control pruritus and make the patient comfortable. Culicoides hypersensitivity is a common component in allergic horses. The main treatment continues to be rigorous fly control and avoidance of insect bites. Environmental allergies are best addressed by early identification of the offending allergens and formulation of allergen-specific immunotherapy to decrease the need for rescue medications. Food allergy is best managed with food avoidance. Urticaria is one of the manifestations of allergic disease wherein detection of the triggering cause is essential for management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders’ Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England

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    Hannah R. Lomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH, commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain an understanding of experiences with IBH, and to gauge opinions on the value of the various management strategies horse owners use to control IBH. Awareness of IBH was generally high, particularly in those individuals who had previous experience with the condition. Those with previous experience of IBH commented on the significant effect on daily routines, and the associated cost implications. Most participants supported an integrated approach to hypersensitivity management, and this most commonly involved a combination of physical barriers and chemical repellents, but sometimes included feed supplementation. Overall, attitudes towards IBH suggested that the condition is a notable welfare and economic concern for stakeholders, but veterinary involvement tended to only be in more severe cases. Further research is required in the future to improve understanding, management and potential treatment of this condition.

  10. A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders' Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, Hannah R; Robinson, Philip A

    2018-01-09

    Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain an understanding of experiences with IBH, and to gauge opinions on the value of the various management strategies horse owners use to control IBH. Awareness of IBH was generally high, particularly in those individuals who had previous experience with the condition. Those with previous experience of IBH commented on the significant effect on daily routines, and the associated cost implications. Most participants supported an integrated approach to hypersensitivity management, and this most commonly involved a combination of physical barriers and chemical repellents, but sometimes included feed supplementation. Overall, attitudes towards IBH suggested that the condition is a notable welfare and economic concern for stakeholders, but veterinary involvement tended to only be in more severe cases. Further research is required in the future to improve understanding, management and potential treatment of this condition.

  11. Electron "bite-outs" in Dusty Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Hsu, S.; Kempf, S.

    2012-12-01

    The study of dusty plasmas is still an emerging new field that bridges a number of traditionally separate subjects, including for example, celestial mechanics, and plasma physics. Dust particles immersed in plasmas and UV radiation collect electrostatic charges and respond to electromagnetic forces in addition to all the other forces acting on uncharged grains. Simultaneously, dust can alter its plasma environment. Dust particles in plasmas are unusual charge carriers. They are many orders of magnitude heavier than any other plasma particles, and they can have many orders of magnitude larger (negative or positive) time-dependent charges. Dust particles can communicate non-electromagnetic effects (gravity, drag, radiation pressure) to the plasma that can represent new free energy sources. Their presence can influence the collective plasma behavior, for example, by altering the traditional plasma wave modes and by triggering new types of waves and instabilities. Dusty plasmas represent the most general form of space, laboratory, and industrial plasmas. Interplanetary space, comets, planetary rings, asteroids, the Moon, aerosols in the atmosphere, are all examples where electrons, ions, and dust particles coexist. This talk will focus on "electron bite-outs", the apparent reduction of the electron density due to dust charging in a plasma comprised of electrons, ions and dust particles We will compare the recent observations of the plasma conditions near Enceladus at Saturn to the decades old measurements in the Earth's mesosphere. We present model calculations of dust charging in a region where plasma is maintained by UV radiation, and present the time-dependent charge distribution of grains as function of dust density and size distribution. We will also make estimates for possible dusty plasma wave activities as function of the magnitude of the electron "bite-outs".

  12. Treating insect-bite hypersensitivity in horses with active vaccination against IL-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettelschoss-Gabriel, Antonia; Fettelschoss, Victoria; Thoms, Franziska; Giese, Christoph; Daniel, Michelle; Olomski, Florian; Kamarachev, Jivko; Birkmann, Katharina; Bühler, Maya; Kummer, Martin; Zeltins, Andris; Marti, Eliane; Kündig, Thomas M; Bachmann, Martin F

    2018-03-28

    Insect-bite hypersensitivity is the most common allergic dermatitis in horses. Excoriated skin lesions are typical symptoms of this seasonal and refractory chronic disease. On a cellular level, the skin lesions are characterized by massive eosinophil infiltration caused by an underlying allergic response. To target these cells and treat disease, we developed a therapeutic vaccine against equine IL-5 (eIL-5), the master regulator of eosinophils. The vaccine consisted of eIL-5 covalently linked to a virus-like particle derived from cucumber mosaic virus containing the tetanus toxoid universal T-cell epitope tt830-843 (CMV TT ). Thirty-four Icelandic horses were recruited and immunized with 400 μg of eIL-5-CMV TT formulated in PBS without adjuvant (19 horses) or PBS alone (15 horses). The vaccine was well tolerated and did not reveal any safety concerns but was able to induce anti-eIL-5 autoantibody titers in 17 of 19 horses. This resulted in a statistically significant reduction in clinical lesion scores when compared with previous season levels, as well as levels in placebo-treated horses. Protection required a minimal threshold of anti-eIL-5 antibodies. Clinical improvement by disease scoring showed that 47% and 21% of vaccinated horses reached 50% and 75% improvement, respectively. In the placebo group no horse reached 75% improvement, and only 13% reached 50% improvement. Our therapeutic vaccine inducing autoantibodies against self IL-5 brings biologics to horses, is the first successful immunotherapeutic approach targeting a chronic disease in horses, and might facilitate development of a similar vaccine against IL-5 in human subjects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CD4+CD25+ T cells expressing FoxP3 in Icelandic horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Eman; Steinbach, Falko; Marti, Eliane

    2012-07-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis caused by bites of midges from the genus Culicoides. We have shown previously that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from IBH-affected horses produce higher levels of IL-4 and lower levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 than those from healthy horses, suggesting that IBH is associated with a reduced regulatory immune response. FoxP3 is a crucial marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we have determined the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells by flow cytometry in PBMC directly after isolation or after stimulation with Culicoides extract or a control antigen (Tetanus Toxoid). There were no differences between healthy and IBH horses either in the proportion of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in freshly isolated PBMC or in the following stimulation with Tetanus Toxoid. However, upon stimulation of PBMC with the allergen, expression of FoxP3 by CD4(+)CD25(+high) and CD4(+)CD25(+dim) cells was significantly higher in healthy than in IBH horses. Addition of recombinant IL-4 to PBMC from healthy horses stimulated with the allergen significantly decreased the proportion of FoxP3 expressing cells within CD4(+)CD25(+high). These results suggest that IBH is associated with a decreased number of allergen-induced Tregs. This could be a consequence of the increased IL-4 production by PBMC of IBH-affected horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Describing the relationship between cat bites and human depression using data from an electronic health record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Hanauer

    Full Text Available Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation.

  15. Bite-outs and other depletions of mesospheric electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Martin; Rapp, Markus; Plane, John M.C.; Torkar, Klaus M.

    2011-01-01

    The ionised mesosphere is less understood than other parts of the ionosphere because of the challenges of making appropriate measurements in this complex region. We use rocket borne in situ measurements of absolute electron density by the Faraday rotation technique and accompanying DC-probe measurements to study the effect of particles on the D-region charge balance. Several examples of electron bite-outs, their actual depth as well as simultaneous observations of positive ions are presented. For a better understanding of the various dependencies we use the ratio β/αi (attachment rate over ion–ion recombination coefficient), derived from the electron and ion density profiles by applying a simplified ion-chemical scheme, and correlate this term with solar zenith angle and moon brightness. The probable causes are different for day and night; recent in situ measurements support existing hypotheses for daytime cases, but also reveal behaviour at night hitherto not reported in the literature. Within the large range of β/αi values obtained from the analysis of 28 high latitude night flights one finds that the intensity of scattered sunlight after sunset, and even moonlight, apparently can photodetach electrons from meteoric smoke particles (MSP) and molecular anions. The large range of values itself can best be explained by the variability of the MSPs and by occasionally occurring atomic oxygen impacting on the negative ion chemistry in the night-time mesosphere under disturbed conditions. PMID:27570472

  16. The effect of electron bite-outs on artificial electron heating and the PMSE overshoot

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    M. Kassa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We have considered the effect that a local reduction in the electron density (an electron bite-out, caused by electron absorption on to dust particles, can have on the artificial electron heating in the height region between 80 to 90km, where noctilucent clouds (NLC and the radar phenomenon PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes are observed. With an electron density profile without bite-outs, the heated electron temperature Te,hot will generally decrease smoothly with height in the PMSE region or there may be no significant heating effect present. Within a bite-out Te,hot will decrease less rapidly and can even increase slightly with height if the bite-out is strong. We have looked at recent observations of PMSE which are affected by artificial electron heating, with a heater cycling producing the new overshoot effect. According to the theory for the PMSE overshoot the fractional increase in electron temperature Te,hot/Ti, where Ti is the unaffected ion temperature=neutral temperature, can be found from the reduction in PMSE intensity as the heater is switched on. We have looked at results from four days of observations with the EISCAT VHF radar (224 MHz, together with the EISCAT heating facility. We find support for the PMSE overshoot and heating model from a sequence of observations during one of the days where the heater transmitter power is varied from cycle to cycle and where the calculated Te,hot/Ti is found to vary in proportion to the transmitter power. We also looked for signatures of electron bite-outs by examining the variation of Te,hot/Ti with height for the three other days. We find that the height variation of Te,hot/Ti is very different on the three days. On one of the days we see typically that this ratio can increase with height, showing the presence of a bite-out, while on the next day the heating factor mainly decreases with height, indicating that the fractional amount of dust is low, so that the electron density is hardly

  17. The effect of electron bite-outs on artificial electron heating and the PMSE overshoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kassa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We have considered the effect that a local reduction in the electron density (an electron bite-out, caused by electron absorption on to dust particles, can have on the artificial electron heating in the height region between 80 to 90km, where noctilucent clouds (NLC and the radar phenomenon PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes are observed. With an electron density profile without bite-outs, the heated electron temperature Te,hot will generally decrease smoothly with height in the PMSE region or there may be no significant heating effect present. Within a bite-out Te,hot will decrease less rapidly and can even increase slightly with height if the bite-out is strong. We have looked at recent observations of PMSE which are affected by artificial electron heating, with a heater cycling producing the new overshoot effect. According to the theory for the PMSE overshoot the fractional increase in electron temperature Te,hot/Ti, where Ti is the unaffected ion temperature=neutral temperature, can be found from the reduction in PMSE intensity as the heater is switched on. We have looked at results from four days of observations with the EISCAT VHF radar (224 MHz, together with the EISCAT heating facility. We find support for the PMSE overshoot and heating model from a sequence of observations during one of the days where the heater transmitter power is varied from cycle to cycle and where the calculated Te,hot/Ti is found to vary in proportion to the transmitter power. We also looked for signatures of electron bite-outs by examining the variation of Te,hot/Ti with height for the three other days. We find that the height variation of Te,hot/Ti is very different on the three days. On one of the days we see typically that this ratio can increase

  18. Novel in vitro diagnosis of equine allergies using a protein array and mathematical modelling approach: a proof of concept using insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, E; Wang, X; Jambari, N N; Rhyner, C; Olzhausen, J; Pérez-Barea, J J; Figueredo, G P; Alcocer, M J C

    2015-10-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal recurrent skin allergy of horses caused by IgE-mediated reactions to allergens present in the saliva of biting insects of the genus Culicoides, and possibly also Simulium and Stomoxys species. In this work we show that protein microarrays containing complex extracts and pure proteins, including recombinant Culicoides allergens, can be used as a powerful technique for the diagnosis of IBH. Besides the obvious advantages such as general profiling and use of few microliters of samples, this microarray technique permits automation and allows the generation of mathematical models with the calculation of individual risk profiles that can support the clinical diagnosis of allergic diseases. After selection of variables on influence on the projection (VIP), the observed values of sensitivity and specificity were 1.0 and 0.967, respectively. This confirms the highly discriminatory power of this approach for IBH and made it possible to attain a robust predictive mathematical model for this disease. It also further demonstrates the specificity of the protein array method on identifying a particular IgE-mediated disease when the sensitising allergen group is known. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro induction of functional allergen-specific CD4+ CD25high Treg cells in horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, E; Akdis, C A; Wagner, B; Steinbach, F; Marti, E

    2013-08-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a recurrent allergic dermatitis of horses with similarities to human atopic eczema, caused by bites of insects of the genus Culicoides. Previous studies suggested a dysregulated T cell tolerance to Culicoides allergen in IBH-affected horses. We have investigated whether the suppressive function of CD4(+) CD25(high) cells is impaired in IBH-affected horses and possible ways to restore it. CD4(+) CD25(-) cells sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with irradiated autologous PBMC pulsed with Culicoides or tetanus toxoid as control antigen, in the presence of CD4(+) CD25(high) cells. Furthermore, Culicoides-specific CD4(+) CD25(high) regulatory cells were expanded or induced from CD4(+) CD25(-) cells in vitro in the presence of a combination of rIL-2 and rTGF-β1 (rIL-2/rTGF-β1) or of retinoic acid and rapamycin (RetA/Rapa). Proliferation was determined by [(3) H] thymidine incorporation and cytokine production measured by flow cytometry. The ability of Culicoides- but not tetanus-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells to suppress proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(-) cells was significantly lower in IBH-affected horses (28%) than in healthy controls (86%). The decreased suppression in IBH-affected horses was associated with a significantly higher proportion of IL-4(+) cells and a lower percentage of FoxP3(+) IL-10(+) compared to controls. Addition of rIL-2/rTGF-β1 or of RetA/Rapa to Culicoides-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells from IBH-affected horses significantly increased the proportion of FoxP3(+) IL-10(+) cells. We also found that RetA/Rapa induced a more significant decrease in the frequency of IL-4(+) cells than rIL-2/rTGF-β1. Moreover, the suppressive activity of Culicoides-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells was significantly restored by both rIL-2/rTGF-β1and RetA/Rapa, albeit in an antigen-unspecific manner. In contrast, in vitro induced Culicoides-specific CD4(+) CD25(high) cells suppressed

  20. Fluctuating local moments, itinerant electrons, and the magnetocaloric effect: Compositional hypersensitivity of FeRh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, J. B.; Banerjee, R.; Dias, M. dos Santos; Deak, A.; Szunyogh, L.

    2014-02-01

    We describe an ab initio disordered local moment theory for materials with quenched static compositional disorder traversing first-order magnetic phase transitions. It accounts quantitatively for metamagnetic changes and the magnetocaloric effect. For perfect stoichiometric B2-ordered FeRh, we calculate the transition temperature of the ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition to be Tt= 495 K and a maximum isothermal entropy change in 2 T of |ΔS|=21.1 J K-1 kg-1. A large (40%) component of |ΔS| is electronic. The transition results from a fine balance of competing electronic effects which is disturbed by small compositional changes; e.g., swapping just 2% Fe of "defects" onto the Rh sublattice makes Tt drop by 290 K. This hypersensitivity explains the narrow compositional range of the transition and impurity doping effects.

  1. Using an Inbred Horse Breed in a High Density Genome-Wide Scan for Genetic Risk Factors of Insect Bite Hypersensitivity (IBH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velie, Brandon D.; Shrestha, Merina; François, Liesbeth; Schurink, Anouk; Tesfayonas, Yohannes G.; Stinckens, Anneleen; Blott, Sarah; Ducro, Bart J.

    2016-01-01

    While susceptibility to hypersensitive reactions is a common problem amongst humans and animals alike, the population structure of certain animal species and breeds provides a more advantageous route to better understanding the biology underpinning these conditions. The current study uses Exmoor

  2. Lizard Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Professional version Home Injuries and Poisoning Bites and Stings Lizard Bites Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Bites and Stings Introduction to Bites and Stings Alligator, Crocodile, and ...

  3. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may increase the risk of developing hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Sex or gender Men and women can have hypersensitivity ... opioids can lead to physical dependence and possibly addiction. Lung transplants If your condition is not adequately ...

  4. Arthropod bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory

    2013-12-15

    The phylum Arthropoda includes arachnids and insects. Although their bites typically cause only local reactions, some species are venomous or transmit disease. The two medically important spiders in the United States are widow spiders (Latrodectus), the bite of which causes intense muscle spasms, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles), which may cause skin necrosis. Widow bites usually respond to narcotics, benzodiazepines, or, when necessary, antivenom. Most recluse bites resolve uneventfully without aggressive therapy and require only wound care and minor debridement. Tick bites can transmit diseases only after prolonged attachment to the host. Treatment of clothing with permethrin and proper tick removal greatly reduce the risk of infection. Ticks of medical importance in the United States include the black-legged tick, the Lone Star tick, and the American dog tick. The prophylactic use of a single dose of doxycycline for Lyme disease may be justified in high-risk areas of the country when an attached, engorged black-legged tick is removed. Bites from fleas, bedbugs, biting flies, and mosquitoes present as nonspecific pruritic pink papules, but the history and location of the bite can assist with diagnosis. Flea bites are usually on ankles, whereas mosquito bites are on exposed skin, and chigger bites tend to be along the sock and belt lines. Antihistamines are usually the only treatment required for insect bites; however, severe mosquito reactions (skeeter syndrome) may require prednisone. Applying insect repellent containing diethyltoluamide (DEET) 10% to 35% or picaridin 20% is the best method for preventing bites.

  5. Lizard Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stings Alligator, Crocodile, and Iguana Bites Animal Bites Bee, Wasp, Hornet, and Ant ... in Arizona, Sonora, Mexico, and adjacent areas. The venom of these lizards is somewhat similar in content ...

  6. Scanning electron microscopy in the investigation of bite marks in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, T; Leidal, T I

    1975-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of utilizing SEM in the examination of bite marks in foodstuffs. Six students, whose front teeth showed no conspicuous irregularities, were asked to bite off a part of some selected foodstuff consisting of butter, cheese, Norwegian brown sweet cheese, apples, carrots, bananas, chocolate and chewing gum. The texture and the varying stickiness of the foodstuffs seemed to be of significance as far as the details of the bite marks were concerned. In butter, chewing gum and Norwegian brown sweet cheese, fine details were discerned, thus justifying the use of SEM. Both scratch marks of the front teeth and impression marks of the incisal edges were studied. Only the latter revealed details of value for the identification by means of the SEM. Often small enamel defects were found at the incisal edge of the front teeth. These defects showed a great number of individually characteristic details. Where dentin was exposed at the incisal edge, further characteristic details could also be found. Thus, the use of SEM seemed to be of value in special cases as a supplement to conventional investigation methods.

  7. Hypersensitivity vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutaneous small vessel vasculitis; Allergic vasculitis; Leukocytoclastic vasculitis ... Hypersensitivity vasculitis, or cutaneous small vessel vasculitis, is caused by: An allergic reaction to a drug or other foreign ...

  8. Epidemiology of dentin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splieth, Christian H; Tachou, Aikaterini

    2013-03-01

    In contrast to the well-established caries epidemiology, data on dentin hypersensitivity seem to be scarce and contradictory. This review evaluates the available literature on dentin hypersensitivity and assesses its prevalence, distribution, and potential changes. The systematic search was performed to identify and select relevant publications with several key words in electronic databases. In addition, the articles' bibliographies were consulted. Prevalence rates range from 3 to 98 %. This vast range can be explained partly by the differences in the selection criteria for the study sample and also the variety in diagnostic approaches or time frames. Women are slightly more affected than men and an age peak of 30-40 years has been reported. Still, the prevalence of erosions with dentin exposure seems to increase in younger adults, often resulting in hypersensitivity. In older patients, root surfaces are frequently exposed due to periodontal disease which is associated with a high rate of dentin hypersensitivity, especially after periodontal treatment and intensified brushing activity. On the other hand, the number of affected seniors with tooth loss or even edentulism is reduced. About 25-30 % of the adult population report dentin hypersensitivity. Most dentists also consider it to be a relevant problem in their practice, but they request more information on this topic. Maxillary teeth are affected to a higher extent, but the different teeth show very similar rates. Buccal surfaces clearly show the highest prevalence rates. In spite of the advances regarding management of dentin hypersensitivity, it still remains an epidemiologically understudied field. Although great variations have been observed in the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity, this issue is often observed by dentists and related by patients. However, further studies are necessary to find the cause of this condition and refine its management.

  9. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    . As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak...... hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  10. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  11. Hypersensitive tourists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    This research note sets forth a new agendum for sensuous tourism scholarship. It departs in the neglected study of the embodied life of hypersensitive tourists, and argues that the ambiguousness of the sensuous be better understood. To contextualise this argument the following suggests that aller...... that allergic tourists make up a contemporary and increasingly relevant empirical field through which to illuminate the dark sides of the sensuous. Finally, the note develops four analytical dimensions that structure critical sensuous scholarship....

  12. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  13. Bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Stuart L

    2002-12-01

    A simple and practical method for the evaluation of bite mark evidence has been described. There are many other methods, some quite complicated, using overlays, computer analysis and mathematical formulae. This author prefers to adhere to the "KISS principle: "Keep It Simple, Stupid." A jury is generally more willing to accept the positioning of a study model on a one-to-one life-size photograph rather than be led through a complicated analytical procedure. If the juror can hold the model and photograph in his/her hand and see that the teeth and bite mark match (or do not match), data summation can be much more direct. Numerous publications describe more complex matching procedures should circumstances warrant.

  14. Snake bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2010-01-02

    Snake bite is a common and frequently devastating environmental and occupational disease, especially in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Its public health importance has been largely ignored by medical science. Snake venoms are rich in protein and peptide toxins that have specificity for a wide range of tissue receptors, making them clinically challenging and scientifically fascinating, especially for drug design. Although the full burden of human suffering attributable to snake bite remains obscure, hundreds of thousands of people are known to be envenomed and tens of thousands are killed or maimed by snakes every year. Preventive efforts should be aimed towards education of affected communities to use proper footwear and to reduce the risk of contact with snakes to a minimum through understanding of snakes' behaviour. To treat envenoming, the production and clinical use of antivenom must be improved. Increased collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, and laboratory toxinologists should enhance the understanding and treatment of envenoming. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  16. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  17. Dog Bite Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog Bite Emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  18. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  19. Which dogs bite?

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, P

    1991-01-01

    Young children (less than 11 years old) are a particular risk group for dog bites. Dog bites commonly occur from the family pet. Alsatian or alsatian mixes are the biggest group in the study causing dog bites. Alsations are a popular breed. By comparison Retrievers (Labrador and Golden), also a popular breed, caused few bites.

  20. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as cinnamon, peppermint, eugenol and menthol. Even dental floss and denture cleansers may contain ingredients known to cause a hypersensitivity reaction. Q: How can dental treatment trigger a hypersensitivity reaction? A: Some dental ...

  1. Sound Bites that Bite Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 the Danish Minister for Economic Affairs and the Interior, Margrethe Vestager, spoke four words that would haunt her for weeks and months to come. At a press conference she concluded an answer to a touchy political question with the words: ‘That’s the way it is’ [Sådan er det jo]. This la......In 2012 the Danish Minister for Economic Affairs and the Interior, Margrethe Vestager, spoke four words that would haunt her for weeks and months to come. At a press conference she concluded an answer to a touchy political question with the words: ‘That’s the way it is’ [Sådan er det jo...... such massive rhetorical fallout, and I consider Vestager’s attempt at re-appropriating the sound bite as I engage ancient and contemporary rhetorical theory. In a time where a main concern is with the seeming triumph of emotion over reason in political debate, this case illustrates the dangers of over......-relying on reason alone in politics and speaks to the protean nature of rhetorical agency in the age of social media....

  2. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  3. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insect and spider bites cause more deaths from venom reactions than bites from snakes. ... Some people have severe, life-threatening reactions to bee stings ... or lightheadedness Abdominal pain or vomiting Rash or flushing

  4. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can carry other diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever. Spider Bites Most spider bites are minor, ... Clean the area with soap and water, and treat with an antiseptic or antibiotic cream to avoid ...

  5. Bites and stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Janice; Fahridin, Salma; Britt, Helena

    2009-11-01

    Of the 426 bite or sting problems managed, 312 (73%) were caused by insects. There were 114 other types of bites recorded, the most common being dog and spider bites. There were five cases of toxicity from aquatic animal stings or adverse reactions to bee stings (Table 1).

  6. The Stages of Biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Dana

    1999-01-01

    Describes infant and toddler biting behavior as related to developmental differences in exploring the environment, learning cause-effect relationships, and using power to elicit a response. Discusses ways to deal with biting at each level, how to support parents dealing with the behavior at home, and the importance of taking biting related to…

  7. Exotic reptile bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J; Ehrlich, M; Henderson, S O

    1997-09-01

    Reptiles are a growing part of the exotic pet trade, and reptile bites have been considered innocuous in the emergency medicine literature. Two cases are reported of reptile bites, one from a green iguana and the other from a reticulated python. The treatment concerns associated with reptile bites are discussed.

  8. Immediate hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Mi; Rajgopal Bala, Harini; Cahill, Jennifer; Toholka, Ryan; Nixon, Rosemary

    2018-02-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used and effective antiseptic agent. Although skin contact is usually well tolerated, it may cause both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of immediate hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine causing both skin and respiratory symptoms following occupational exposure to chlorhexidine in a health-care worker. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. [Identification from bite marks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, P

    1980-02-01

    Criteria to be considered for establishing the guilt or innocence of a possible offender on the basis of bite marks on the skin of the murder victim were presented using four analyses of bite marks on murder victims. The bite marks must be identifiable; a clear 1:1 photograph should be made which is then compared with impression of a model of the suspect's bite. These impressions are made with graphite on, for example, the surface of a balloon or modelling clay. The evidence provided by a distinct bite mark is almost as conclusive as a fingerprint. Using only the bite mark photographs, the forensic-stomatologic evaluation influenced the course of argumentation in the legal proceedings of three of the four cases discussed; the evaluation was central for the proceedings in one case.

  10. Bite Mark Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SK Padmakumar; VT Beena; N Salmanulfaris; Ashith B Acharya; G Indu; Sajai J Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the in...

  11. Reversible Myocarditis and Pericarditis after Black Widow Spider Bite or Kounis Syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Yaman, Mehmet; Mete, Turkan; Ozer, Ismail; Yaman, Elif; Beton, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestation of black widow spider bite is variable and occasionally leads to death in rural areas. Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis after black widow spider bite are rare and the associated prognostic significance is unknown. Kounis syndrome has been defined as an acute coronary syndrome in the setting of allergic or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults that manifests as vasospastic angina or acute myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis. Allergic myoca...

  12. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites occur in the United States each year. Dogs cause most animal bites. Other biting animals include ... elbow or in the armpit Fever Tiredness Night sweats Shakes If these develop, you should seek emergency ...

  13. Treatment for Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out where to take your child for treatment. If the wound is so large that the edges won’t ... above the bite Your pediatrician may recommend antibiotic therapy for a child who has: Moderate or severe bite wounds Puncture wounds, especially if the bone, tendon, or ...

  14. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  15. Dog and cat bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  16. All about Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisalli, Linda

    2008-01-01

    As directors of early learning programs, one deals with a myriad of issues on a daily basis. One of the more frustrating things that come up from time to time is biting. Biting is particularly problematic because it tends to elicit such a strong response from caregivers, parents, and other children. In this article, the author talks about biting…

  17. Managing the Biting Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claffey, Anne E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the causes of biting behavior and techniques that parents and educators can use to manage biting toddlers. Notes that solutions need to consider the developmental level and needs of the child, the influence of the child's environment, and the role of adults in the child's life. (MDM)

  18. A patient with severe black fly (Simuliidae) hypersensitivity referred for evaluation of suspected immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, Jordan S; Song, Leslie A; Twarog, Frank J; Schneider, Lynda C

    2004-02-01

    Biting flies of the Diptera order and specifically the black fly (Simuliidae family) can be rare causes of severe hypersensitivity reactions. To describe a patient referred for evaluation of immunodeficiency whose clinical course is explained by severe Simuliidae hypersensitivity. The patient's immune system was investigated using standard laboratory evaluations. Hypersensitivity to Simuliidae was pursued because of historical features of her presentation and was specifically examined by skin prick and intradermal testing with whole body extract. The patient's history was notable for recurrent and severe seasonal episodes of presumed cellulitis after black fly bites that responded poorly to intravenous antibiotics. One episode was followed by acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barré syndrome) and another by minimal change nephrotic syndrome. The results of immunologic investigations were unremarkable, but cutaneous hypersensitivity to Simuliidae was demonstrated with a 6.5-mm wheel and 35-mm flare reaction to intradermal injection of only 0.0005 microg of whole body extract. Similar to Hymenoptera, Simuliidae can rarely result in extreme hypersensitivity and should be considered in appropriate cases. This patient illustrates how severe reactions toinsect bites can be misdiagnosed.

  19. Understanding and Preventing Toddler Biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Veronica

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the problem of toddler biting behavior in child care settings. Describes reasons for biting by toddlers, recommends caregiver responses to toddler biting, presents tips for observing children to identify the biter's patterns, and outlines ways to prevent biting in child care settings. (KB)

  20. Clinical categories of exaggerated skin reactions to mosquito bites and their pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Kazuki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body rash fever and chills fatigue Of a black widow spider bite: rigid, painful muscles within 8 hours no ... child was bitten by a brown recluse or black widow spider Think Prevention! Make sure garages, attics, and woodpiles ...

  2. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  3. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by either of 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are ...

  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  5. Funnel-web spider bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002844.htm Funnel-web spider bite To use the sharing features on ... the effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous ...

  6. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  7. Paraben Contact Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Bajaj

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suspected to be having contact hypersensitivity to topical medicaments were patch tested with methly and propyl parabens along with commercially available topical medicaments. Six patients showed positive reactions to parabens. Two patients each were positive to methyl paraben and propyl paraben and two showed positive reactions to both of these. Three patients each showed positive reactions to soframycin, econazole and nitrofurazone also.

  8. Vaccine-associated hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michael M; DeStefano, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Vaccine-associated hypersensitivity reactions are not infrequent; however, serious acute-onset, presumably IgE-mediated or IgG and complement-mediated anaphylactic or serious delayed-onset T cell-mediated systemic reactions are considered extremely rare. Hypersensitivity can occur because of either the active vaccine component (antigen) or one of the other components. Postvaccination acute-onset hypersensitivity reactions include self-limited localized adverse events and, rarely, systemic reactions ranging from urticaria/angioedema to full-blown anaphylaxis with multisystem involvement. Risk of anaphylaxis after all vaccines is estimated to be 1.31 (95% CI, 0.90-1.84) per million vaccine doses, respectively. Serious hypersensitivity reactions after influenza vaccines are particularly important because of the large number of persons vaccinated annually. Influenza vaccines are unique in requiring annual changes in the vaccines' antigenic composition to match the predicted circulating influenza strains. Recently, novel influenza vaccine types were introduced in the United States (recombinant vaccines, some with higher antigen content and a new adjuvanted vaccine). Providers should be aware of changing recommendations on the basis of recent published evidence for persons with a history of egg allergy to receive annual influenza vaccination. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathophysiology and risk factors for reported vaccine-associated adverse events. Further research is also needed to determine whether repeated annual inactivated influenza vaccination, the number of vaccine antigens administered at the same time, and the current timing of routine infant vaccinations are optimal for overall population well-being. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) HealthReach resources will open in a new window. Arabic (العربية) Expand Section Animal Bites and Scratches - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  10. Mosquito Bites are Bad!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of mosquito bites and how to prevent getting them.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  11. Prevent Bite Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most bites come from domesticated animals that the child knows, not from wild or unfamiliar animals. A major concern for parents ... some tips to keep in mind. Teach your child to avoid contact with wild animals. She also needs to stay away from ...

  12. Spider Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t had one in the last five years. Black widow spider You can usually identify a black widow spider by the hourglass marking on its belly. In ... in the South. Signs and symptoms of a black widow spider bite may include: At first, slight swelling and ...

  13. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sting. Handling Bee and Wasp Stings A bee will usually leave behind a stinger attached to a venom sac. Try to remove it as quickly as ... child has had an allergic reaction to a bee or wasp sting in the past, see your ... shape on its underbelly. The venom (a toxic substance) in a black widow bite ...

  14. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  15. Biting into Big Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Maureen McCahan

    1996-01-01

    A mnemonic clue sentence--"He thinks mice bite trees"--is suggested for helping students with learning disabilities or mild mental retardation successfully identify up to 15 digit numbers by relating the sentence to the sequence of hundreds, thousands, millions, billions, and trillions. (DB)

  16. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  17. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction to gadolinium-based MR contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Whal; Min, Kyung-Up; Han, Moon-Hee; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2012-08-01

    To determine the incidence and risk factors of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to gadolinium-based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. Institutional review board approval and a waiver of informed consent were obtained. A retrospective study of patients who had been given gadolinium-based MR contrast media between August 2004 and July 2010 was performed by reviewing their electronic medical records. In addition to data on immediate hypersensitivity reaction, the kinds of MR contrast media and demographic data including age, sex, and comorbidity were collected. To compare the groups, the χ(2) test, Fisher exact test, χ(2) test for trend, Student t test, analysis of variance test, and multiple logistic regression test were performed. A total of 112 immediate hypersensitivity reactions (0.079% of 141 623 total doses) were identified in 102 patients (0.121% of 84 367 total patients). Among the six evaluated MR contrast media, gadodiamide had the lowest rate (0.013%) of immediate hypersensitivity reactions, while gadobenate dimeglumine had the highest rate (0.22%). The rate for immediate hypersensitivity reactions was significantly higher in female patients (odds ratio = 1.687; 95% confidence interval: 1.143, 2.491) and in patients with allergies and asthma (odds ratio = 2.829; 95% confidence interval: 1.427, 5.610). Patients with a previous history of immediate hypersensitivity reactions had a higher rate of recurrence after reexposure to MR contrast media (30%) compared with the incidence rate in total patients (P immediate hypersensitivity reactions increased depending on the number of times patients were exposed to MR contrast media (P for trend = .036). The most common symptom was urticaria (91.1%), and anaphylaxis occurred in 11 cases (9.8%). The mortality rate was 0.0007% because of one fatality. The incidence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to MR contrast media was 0.079%, and the recurrence rate of hypersensitivity reactions was 30% in

  18. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos Ac; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary.

  19. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, viz., phenytoin (PHT, carbamazepine (CBZ, phenobarbital (PB, lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins.

  20. Bites of Lists - mapping and filtering sublists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    The idea of applying map and filter functions on consecutive sublists instead of on individual list elements is discussed and developed in this paper. A non-empty, consecutive sublist is called a bite. Both map and filter functions accept a function parameter - a bite function - which...... is responsible for returning a prefix bite of a list. We develop families of bite functions via a collection of higher-order bite generators. On top of the bite generators, a number of bite mapping and bite filtering functions are introduced. We illustrate the usefulness of bite mapping and filtering via...

  1. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  2. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira CA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos AC Pereira,1 Andréa Gimenez,2 Lilian Kuranishi,2 Karin Storrer 2 1Interstitial Lung Diseases Program, 2Pulmonology Postgraduate, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. Keywords: interstitial lung diseases, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, diffuse lung disease, lung immune response, HRCT, farmers lung

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library ... biting. Replace the nail-biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, ...

  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  5. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: Spending ... longer bite any of your nails. For some people, nail biting may be a sign of a ...

  6. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically ... to bite your nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan ...

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your fingers and from your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  8. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome with myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carmen M; Vaz, Marina; Kotha, Sindhoora; Santosh, N H

    2014-08-01

    Drug hypersensitivity with myocarditis is known to occur with many drugs especially with antiepileptics, sulpha-compounds and daposne. Dapsone (4, 4 diaminodiphenyl sulphone) induced hypersensitivity is known to occur in about 2% of leprosy patients on treatment and an incidence of 1.66% in non-leprosy patients. We report this rare case of dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome in a girl on dapsone who presented with fever, anaemia, jaundice, skin rash, lymphadenopathy, and hepatomegaly and later developed myocarditis. The drug was withdrawn and the patient was treated with steroids. She improved and was discharged. She relapsed after the corticosteroids were discontinued at home.

  9. Reality Bites: Biting at the Center--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jim; Stonehouse, Anne Willis

    1994-01-01

    Examines the problem of biting in group child care, especially among toddlers. Discusses reasons for the behavior such as teething, impulsiveness and lack of self control, excitement and overstimulation, and frustration. Offers advice for child caregivers when biting occurs in their program. (TJQ)

  10. Morphology of open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Karl-Friedrich; Dannhauer, Karl-Heinz; Hierl, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to define and illustrate the skeletal morphology of open-bite patients against the background of sagittal jaw relationships on the basis of lateral cephalograms. Lateral cephalograms of 197 untreated adults were analyzed in dental imaging software (Onyx Ceph 3™; Image Instruments, Chemnitz, Germany). Four groups were formed based on vertical (Index scores) and sagittal (individualized ANB values) parameters. Ninety-nine patients were defined as the control group due to their neutral sagittal and vertical relationships. The remaining patients were found by their vertical relationships to represent open-bite cases and were divided by their sagittal relationships into three study groups: neutral (Class I, n = 34), distal (Class II, n = 26), and mesial (Class III, n = 38). A geometric morphometric approach was used to analyze the x,y-coordinates of 28 skeletal landmarks on each cephalogram. Relative size was captured based on centroid size (CS). The shape-determining factors in the groups were compared by permutation testing after Procrustes transformation, and intergroup differences were visualized in the form of thin-plate splines. While size (CS) was significantly increased in the Class III group, the other two groups were not different from the control group. After Procrustes transformation, characteristic and invariably significant (p common that the mandibular ramus is compressed, but marked differences are seen in terms of vertical development of the maxilla. This differentiated view of open-bite cases should be taken into consideration during individual etiology assessment and treatment planning.

  11. Pigeon tick bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolla, G; Heffler, E; Boita, M

    2018-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a serious systemic allergic reaction with rapid onset and potentially life-threatening. We report in detail a case of severe nocturnal anaphylaxis due to pigeon tick bite showing the diagnostic value of the extract and the recombinant allergen in the diagnostic procedures (basophil...... reagents. Because of the growing number of pigeons in Middle and Southern Europe cities, some cases of idiopathic anaphylaxis could potentially be caused by A. reflexus in those countries. The identification of pigeon ticks as a trigger of anaphylaxis would greatly improve medical care and advice...

  12. Black widow spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobernick, M

    1984-05-01

    Latrodectus mactans has now invaded towns and cities. The spider's venom is a neurotoxin that causes little local reaction but produces pain and spasm in large skeletal muscle groups within 30 minutes to three hours after the bite. Severe envenomation may result in respiratory failure and coma. First aid is of no value. Muscle relaxants are useful in treatment, as is calcium gluconate. Antivenin is indicated for high-risk victims, such as those with hypertension and persons younger than 16 or older than 60 years of age.

  13. Metal Hypersensitivity in Orthodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Maheshwari Sanjeev K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment of individuals with metal hypersensitivity is a matter of concern for the orthodontist. Orthodontic appliances contain metals like Nickel, Cobalt and Chromium etc. Metals may cause allergic reactions and are known as allergens. Reaction to these metals is due to biodegradation of metals in the oral cavity. This may lead to the formation of corrosion products and their exposure to the patient. Nickel is the most common metal to cause hypersensitivity reaction. Chromium ranks second among the metals, known to trigger allergic reactions. The adverse biological reactions to these metals may include hypersensitivity, dermatitis and asthma. In addition, a significant carcinogenic and mutagenic potential has been demonstrated. The orthodontist must be familiar with the best possible alternative treatment modalities to provide the safest, most effective care possible in these cases. The present article focuses on the issue of metal hypersensitivity and its management in orthodontic

  14. Absolute eosinophilia as dapsone hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somani V

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of lepromatous leprosy (LL on multibacillary multidrug therapy (MBMDT presented with oedema of the acral parts and marked eosinophilia. The case is being reported because of this extremely rare manifestation of dapsone hypersensitivity.

  15. Water vapour and heat combine to elicit biting and biting persistence in tsetse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuis, Charles J F; Béguin, Steve; Vlimant, Michèle; Guerin, Patrick M

    2013-08-19

    Tsetse flies are obligatory blood feeders, accessing capillaries by piercing the skin of their hosts with the haustellum to suck blood. However, this behaviour presents a considerable risk as landing flies are exposed to predators as well as the host's own defense reactions such as tail flicking. Achieving a successful blood meal within the shortest time span is therefore at a premium in tsetse, so feeding until replete normally lasts less than a minute. Biting in blood sucking insects is a multi-sensory response involving a range of physical and chemical stimuli. Here we investigated the role of heat and humidity emitted from host skin on the biting responses of Glossina pallidipes, which to our knowledge has not been fully studied in tsetse before. The onset and duration of the biting response of G. pallidipes was recorded by filming movements of its haustellum in response to rapid increases in temperature and/or relative humidity (RH) following exposure of the fly to two airflows. The electrophysiological responses of hygroreceptor cells in wall-pore sensilla on the palps of G. pallidipes to drops in RH were recorded using tungsten electrodes and the ultra-structure of these sensory cells was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Both latency and proportion of tsetse biting are closely correlated to RH when accompanied by an increase of 13.1°C above ambient temperature but not for an increase of just 0.2°C. Biting persistence, as measured by the number of bites and the time spent biting, also increases with increasing RH accompanied by a 13.1°C increase in air temperature. Neurones in wall-pore sensilla on the palps respond to shifts in RH. Our results show that temperature acts synergistically with humidity to increase the rapidity and frequency of the biting response in tsetse above the levels induced by increasing temperature or humidity separately. Palp sensilla housing hygroreceptor cells, described here for the first time in tsetse

  16. Esthetic correction in open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Parlani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious oral habits, which are persistent, can lead to poor esthetics of a beautiful face. Conventional treatment modalities for an open bite usually include orthodontic treatment and/or skeletal surgery. This article focuses on a different treatment modality for an anterior open bite.

  17. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 2 Go to slide 2 out of 2 Overview To treat a minor bite, first wash your hands thoroughly with soap to avoid ...

  18. Bites and Scratches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tease or provoke any animals, even family pets. Animals should not be disturbed while they are eating or sleeping. If you own a pet, make sure it's properly immunized and licensed. Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, MD Date reviewed: January ... Safe Pets First Aid: Animal Bites Cat Scratch Disease Preventing Dog Bites Rabies ...

  19. Homicidal Snake Bite in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulis, Melad G; Faheem, Ayman L

    2016-03-01

    Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake. Killing a victim by direct snake bite is so rare. There was one reported case where an old couple was killed by snake bite. Here is the first reported case of killing three children by snake bite. It appeared that the diagnosis of such cases is so difficult and depended mainly on the circumstantial evidences. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Reversible Myocarditis and Pericarditis after Black Widow Spider Bite or Kounis Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestation of black widow spider bite is variable and occasionally leads to death in rural areas. Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis after black widow spider bite are rare and the associated prognostic significance is unknown. Kounis syndrome has been defined as an acute coronary syndrome in the setting of allergic or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults that manifests as vasospastic angina or acute myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis. Allergic myocarditis is caused by myocardial inflammation triggered by infectious pathogens, toxic, ischemic, or mechanical injuries, such as drug-related inflammation and other immune reactions. A 15-year-old child was admitted to the emergency department with pulmonary edema after spider bite. ST segment depression on ECG, elevated cardiac enzymes and global left ventricular hypokinesia (with ejection fraction of 22%, and local pericardial effusion findings confirmed the diagnosis of myopericarditis. After heart failure and pulmonary edema oriented medical therapy, clinical status improved. Patient showed a progressive improvement and LV functions returned to normal on the sixth day. Myopericarditis complicating spider bite is rare and sometimes fatal. The mechanism is not clearly known. Alpha-latrotoxin of the black widow spider is mostly convicted in these cases. But allergy or hypersensitivity may play a role in myocardial damage.

  1. Reversible Myocarditis and Pericarditis after Black Widow Spider Bite or Kounis Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mehmet; Mete, Turkan; Ozer, Ismail; Yaman, Elif; Beton, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestation of black widow spider bite is variable and occasionally leads to death in rural areas. Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis after black widow spider bite are rare and the associated prognostic significance is unknown. Kounis syndrome has been defined as an acute coronary syndrome in the setting of allergic or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults that manifests as vasospastic angina or acute myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis. Allergic myocarditis is caused by myocardial inflammation triggered by infectious pathogens, toxic, ischemic, or mechanical injuries, such as drug-related inflammation and other immune reactions. A 15-year-old child was admitted to the emergency department with pulmonary edema after spider bite. ST segment depression on ECG, elevated cardiac enzymes and global left ventricular hypokinesia (with ejection fraction of 22%), and local pericardial effusion findings confirmed the diagnosis of myopericarditis. After heart failure and pulmonary edema oriented medical therapy, clinical status improved. Patient showed a progressive improvement and LV functions returned to normal on the sixth day. Myopericarditis complicating spider bite is rare and sometimes fatal. The mechanism is not clearly known. Alpha-latrotoxin of the black widow spider is mostly convicted in these cases. But allergy or hypersensitivity may play a role in myocardial damage.

  2. Chapter 19: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatman, Karen Hsu; Grammer, Leslie C

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also referred to as extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is characterized by non-IgE-mediated inflammation of the parenchyma, alveoli, and terminal airways of the lung initiated by inhaled antigens in a susceptible host. Etiologic agents of HP are either organic high molecular weight compounds such as bacteria, fungi, amoebae, plant, and animal proteins or inorganic low molecular weight haptens such as isocyanate and drugs including amiodarone, nitrofurantoin, and minocycline. Six significant predictors have been identified that provide ∼95% diagnostic accuracy. These six predictors are (1) exposure to a known offending allergen, (2) positive precipitating antibodies to the offending antigen, (3) recurrent episodes of symptoms, (4) inspiratory crackles on lung auscultation, (5) symptoms occurring 4-8 hours after exposure, and (6) weight loss. HP is staged into acute, subacute, and chronic. In the acute stage after direct exposure to the antigen, there is fever, chills, nonproductive cough, dyspnea, malaise, and myalgias, all resembling influenza. However, if obtained, a chest radiograph shows nodular infiltrates, and pulmonary function testing is restrictive (unless the cause is avian in which obstruction or obstruction with restriction is present). In the chronic stage, fever and chills are absent, but weight loss can occur. The immunologic response includes activated macrophages and CD8(+) cytotoxic lymphocytes, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid reveals marked lymphocytosis with a ratio of CD4(+) cells to CD8(+) cells <1. Activated macrophages have increased expression of CD80/CD86, and T cells have increased expression of its counter-ligand CD28, evidence for heightened antigen presentation.

  3. Shrieking, Biting, and Licking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Stang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines examples of the monstrous-feminine in the form of abject female monsters in a selection of critically acclaimed and commercially successful video games. Various female monsters from CD Projekt RED’s The Witcher series (2007-2015, and Santa Monica Studio’s God of War series (2005-2013 are considered as examples of the abject monstrous-feminine which fall into a long tradition in horror media of making the female body and body movements into something horrific and repulsive. These female monsters use shrieking, biting, licking, and spreading disease as weapons against the male protagonist, who must slay them to restore symbolic order and progress in the games.

  4. [Protection against tick bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, N; Lipsker, Dan

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous tick-borne infections, which include viral (TBE), parasitic (babesiosis) and bacterial diseases. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is the most common tick-borne disease in France. In temperate climates such as in France, ticks bite humans between March and October. Prevention relies on adequate clothing and on repellents. The latter are reviewed in this work. Repellents may be natural, made from eucalyptus, tomato and coconut, or synthetic, among which the most widely used is DEET (N,N,-Diethyl-m-toluamide). Newer, synthetic repellents exist such as IR3535 which, as well as being less toxic, also exhibits greater efficacy against ticks. Some repellents are used on the skin, while others, like permethrin, which is actually an insecticide, may be applied to clothing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction with mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to the fruit mango is extremely rare and can exhibit either as immediate or delayed reactions. Since 1939, only 22 patients (10 with immediate type I reactions and 12 with delayed) have been documented with allergy to mango. History of atopy and geographical region may influence the type of reaction. Immediate reactions occurred most often in patients with history of atopy, while delayed reactions developed in non-atopic individuals. Clustering of delayed hypersensitivity reports from Australia and immediate reactions from Europe has been documented. We report a 50-year-old man with immediate type I hypersensitivity to mango, who developed cough, wheezing dyspnoea, generalised itching and abdominal discomfort after ingestion of mango. Life threatening event can also happen making it imperative to diagnose on time, so as to prevent significant morbidity and potential mortality.

  6. Experimental periodontal disease. Immediate hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaro, J P; Nisengard, R; Beutner, E H; Neiders, M

    1983-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions were induced in the periodontium and skin of monkeys sensitized with novo alcalase. Animals were challenged in the gingival papillae with 0.1, 1.0, and 10 micrograms of antigen for 1, 3, 5, or 7 consecutive days prior to sacrifice. At the same time, skin sites were challenged with 1 microgram of antigen. With repetitive immediate hypersensitivity reactions, the inflammatory infiltrate changed from one characterized by polymorphonuclear leukocytes to one characterized by plasma cells and lymphocytes. The repetitive gingival exposure to bacterial antigens which occur in periodontal disease could lead to repetitive immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Such reactions could play a role in the histopathology of human periodontal disease.

  7. Genotyping for severe drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Eric; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis and pharmacogenomics of severe immunologically-mediated adverse drug reactions. Such T-cell-mediated adverse drug reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), drug-induced liver disease (DILI) and other drug hypersensitivity syndromes have more recently been shown to be mediated through interactions with various class I and II HLA alleles. Key examples have included the associations of HLA-B*15:02 and carbamazepine induced SJS/TEN in Southeast Asian populations and HLA-B*57:01 and abacavir hypersensitivity. HLA-B*57:01 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity exemplifies a successful translational roadmap from pharmacogenomic discovery through to widespread clinical implementation. Ultimately, our increased understanding of the interaction between drugs and the MHC could be used to inform drug design and drive pre-clinical toxicity programs to improve drug safety.

  8. Dog Bite Rates and Biting Dog Breeds in Texas, 1995-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blocker, David

    2000-01-01

    .... The first aim of this study was to summarize descriptive characteristics of biting dogs and dog bite victims in Texas from 1995 through 1997 using the Texas Department of Health severe animal bite...

  9. Reversible myocarditis after spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Hasan; Ak, Ahmet; Bayir, Aysegul; Avci, Ahmet

    2013-04-08

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus) are poisonous spiders endemic in Turkey. Latrodectus bites may cause myocarditis with increased cardiac enzymes. We treated two men (aged 20 and 33 years) who had myocarditis after black spider bites with leucocytosis and elevated levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction. Both patients had normal results on an ECG, and one patient had abnormal echocardiography with minimal left ventricular wall movement disorder. Both patients were hospitalised in the intensive care unit and treated with intravenous fluids, analgesics, spasmolytic drugs, tetanus prophylaxis and cardiac monitoring. The levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction improved, and the patients were discharged home on the third and fifth hospital day without complications. Myocarditis after a Latrodectus bite is rare, but may be associated with serious complications. Therefore, in regions endemic with Latrodectus spiders, prudent treatment of spider bites may include cardiac evaluation and monitoring.

  10. Tips to Prevent Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the right insect repellent and other preventive actions can discourage ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting insects from landing on you. Tips include avoiding tick habitats and minimizing exposed skin.

  11. Biting. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This column summarizes recent ERIC documents and journal articles, and highlights some World Wide Web resources, that discuss issues related to the problem of children biting in preschool. (Contains 13 annotated summaries.) (SD)

  12. Human bites of the face

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    involved (90.9%). This was also reported by Muguti et al.3. (29%) and Iregbulem4 (100%). The upper lip was not involved in the present study, and only few series have reported bites to this site - Muguti et al." (5%) and Venter" (7.0%). Iregbulem4 believes that trying to bite off the lip is a subconscious effort to attack and thus.

  13. Bite through the tent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naue, Jana; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Pietsch, Klaus; Sänger, Timo; Schlauderer, Nicola; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    The authors report on a young boy who was bitten into his face by an unknown animal while being asleep in a tent. Given the bite marks and the location of the scene, members of the mustelidae and canidae families were the first "suspects." Deoxyribunucleic acid (DNA) recovered from the tent's wall was analyzed with regard to parts of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal ribunucleic acid (12S rRNA) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes as well as nuclear short tandem repeats (STRs). Since Sanger sequencing revealed a mixed sequence with a strong human component overlying the nonhuman contributor, an animal screening using a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with an intercalating dye and melt curve analysis was employed. The results were later confirmed by cloning. The applied commercial canine STR kit verified the animal family (canidae) but did not help in discriminating the species due to cross-species amplification. In the presented case, the real-time PCR assay offered the cheapest and fastest method for animal family determination, which then allowed for an appropriate and sample-saving strategy to characterize the causative animal species.

  14. Anaphylactic hypersensitivity to mercurochrome (merbrominum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Torres, J L; De Corres, F

    1985-03-01

    By the use of intradermal tests, passive transfer (P.K.), and an in vitro histamine release test, we were able to demonstrate immediate hypersensitivity to Mercurochrome in a young man who had suffered anaphylactic shock after having contact with this antiseptic. Cross-reactions among different organic mercurial compounds were observed.

  15. Bites and stings: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krau, Stephen D

    2013-06-01

    Rapid and effective treatment of bites is a major variable in the overall outcome of a patient who is a victim of a bite. There are a wide range of animals that bite and sting, and the reactions vary depending on the individual and the animal involved. Although most bites are treated on an outpatient basis, patients who have severe complications related to bites become patients in critical care settings. An overview of potential bite and sting sources, with some general guidelines for what to expect and how to treat the patient, is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold...... standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central...... level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity....

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... archive Advocacy Action Center News Advocacy priorities AADA Health ... biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side ... Team Patients Patient advocates Media Advertisers Quick links About AAD Support AAD Donate Shop AAD Product catalog ...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spending money to keep your nails looking attractive may make you less likely to bite them. Alternatively, ... Just knowing when you’re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop ...

  1. First Aid: Insect Stings and Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a known severe allergy to a stinging or biting insect injectable epinephrine (EpiPen) was used the site ... Insect Repellents With DEET Safe for Kids? Bug Bites and Stings Can I Use Bug Killers and Repellents During ...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side ... set of nails, such as your thumb nails, first. When that’s successful, eliminate your pinky nails, pointer ...

  3. Heridas por Mordedura / Bites Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coturel A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanus vaccine should be indicated when the patient has not full vaccination scheme and rabies vaccine in cases of suspected or confirmed infected animals.

  4. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. White shark ( Carcharodon carcharias )-inflicted bite wounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White shark ( Carcharodon carcharias )-inflicted bite wounds observed on Cape fur seals ( Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus ) at Black Rocks, Algoa Bay, South Africa. ... The low number of bite-inflicted injuries observed suggests that white sharks attack seals infrequently at Black Rocks. Key words: Algoa Bay, bite injuries, ...

  6. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5070 Bite block. (a) Identification. A bite block...

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through ... effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting can make the skin around your nails feel ...

  8. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Adesh; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-09-01

    To review the literature on immediate hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids and classify them according to manifestations, routes of exposure, causative preparations, diagnostic tests, and management. PubMed search for English-language publications from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2014 using search terms corticosteroid, glucocorticoid, or steroid combined with hypersensitivity, allergy, or anaphylaxis. Only reports of immediate hypersensitivity reactions that occurred sooner than 24 hours after administration of a corticosteroid were included. Excluded were reports on patients with delayed reactions, including contact dermatitis. Forty-eight articles fulfilled the criteria, reporting 120 reactions in 106 patients 2 to 90 years of age (55 male and 51 female). The most commonly reported manifestation was anaphylaxis in 60.8% (73 of 120) followed by urticaria and/or angioedema in 26.7%. Exposure to corticosteroid was through any route, with intravenous being the most common (44.2%, 53 of 120), followed by oral in 25.8% and intra-articular in 11.7%. Methylprednisolone was the most commonly implicated (40.8%) followed by prednisolone (20.0%). Some reacted to more than 1 preparation. Pharmacologically-inactive ingredients were implicated in 28.3%. Diagnosis was based primarily on medical history and in most cases was confirmed by challenge testing. Skin tests were positive in 74.1%. The vast majority of patients tolerated at least 1 alternative preparation, and very rarely desensitization was required. Corticosteroids seem to be rare causes of immediate hypersensitivity reactions but possibly are misdiagnosed or under-reported relative to their worldwide use. Physicians should be cognizant of this entity and identify safe alternative preparations. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Lipp, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: ► Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). ► Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. ► Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. ► EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. ► Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  10. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites. Here’s how: Keep mosquitoes out of your hotel room or lodging Š Choose a hotel or lodging with air conditioning or screens on ... percentages of active ingredient provide longer protection Some brand name examples* (Insect repellents may be sold under ...

  11. Acute hypersensitivity to mannitol: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, A. M.; Fithrie, A.

    2018-03-01

    Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic agent that has been considered a main therapeutic option in cerebral edema for the past several decades. The most common adverse effect reported is acute kidney injury and electrolyte imbalance. Hypersensitivity associated with mannitol is not a usual finding. Here we describe a case of a traumatic brain injury patient who had a hypersensitivity reaction to mannitol. It is the first reported case report about hypersensitivity to Mannitol in Indonesia.

  12. K-9 Police Dog Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.

  13. Hymenoptera of Afghanistan and the central command area of operations: assessing the threat to deployed U.S. service members with insect venom hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members.

  14. Reliable quantification of bite-force performance requires use of appropriate biting substrate and standardization of bite out-lever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, A Kristopher; Jones, Marc E H

    2014-12-15

    Bite-force performance is an ecologically important measure of whole-organism performance that shapes dietary breadth and feeding strategies and, in some taxa, determines reproductive success. It also is a metric that is crucial to testing and evaluating biomechanical models. We reviewed nearly 100 published studies of a range of taxa that incorporate direct in vivo measurements of bite force. Problematically, methods of data collection and processing vary considerably among studies. In particular, there is little consensus on the appropriate substrate to use on the biting surface of force transducers. In addition, the bite out-lever, defined as the distance from the fulcrum (i.e. jaw joint) to the position along the jawline at which the jaws engage the transducer, is rarely taken into account. We examined the effect of bite substrate and bite out-lever on bite-force estimates in a diverse sample of lizards. Results indicate that both variables have a significant impact on the accuracy of measurements. Maximum bite force is significantly greater using leather as the biting substrate compared with a metal substrate. Less-forceful bites on metal are likely due to inhibitory feedback from mechanoreceptors that prevent damage to the feeding apparatus. Standardization of bite out-lever affected which trial produced maximum performance for a given individual. Indeed, maximum bite force is usually underestimated without standardization because it is expected to be greatest at the minimum out-lever (i.e. back of the jaws), which in studies is rarely targeted with success. We assert that future studies should use a pliable substrate, such as leather, and use appropriate standardization for bite out-lever. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genuis, Stephen J., E-mail: sgenuis@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta (Canada); Lipp, Christopher T. [Faculty of Medicine at the University of Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  16. Amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesion: an unusual presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amalgam or its components may cause Type IV hypersensitivity reactions on the oral mucosa. These amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesions (ACHL) present as white striae and plaques, erythematous, erosive, atrophic, or ulcerative lesions. Postinflammatory pigmentation in such lesions and pigmentation due to amalgam ...

  17. Diagnosing β-Lactam Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Francesco; Torres, Maria J; Valluzzi, Rocco Luigi; Caruso, Cristiano; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Romano, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to β-lactam antibiotics are commonly reported. They can be classified as immediate or non-immediate according to the time interval between the last drug administration and their onset. Immediate reactions occur within one hour after the last drug administration and are manifested clinically by urticaria and/or angioedema, rhinitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylactic shock; they may be mediated by specific IgEantibodies. Non-immediate reactions occur more than one hour after the last drug administration. The most common manifestations are maculopapular exanthemas; specific T lymphocytes may be involved in this type of manifestation. In the diagnostic evaluation of hypersensitivity reactions to β -lactam antibiotics, the patient's history is fundamental. The allergy examination is based on in vitro and in vivo tests selected on the basis of the clinical features and the type of reaction, immediate or non-immediate. Immediate reactions can be assessed in vitro by serum specific IgE assays and basophil activation tests and in vivo by immediate-reading skin tests and, in selected cases, drug provocation tests (DPTs). Non-immediate reactions can be evaluated mainly by delayed-reading skin tests, patch tests, and DPTs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lipp, Christopher T

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Provocation tests in diagnosing drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Philippe-Jean; Gaeta, Francesco; Bousquet-Rouanet, Laure; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Demoly, Pascal; Romano, Antonino

    2008-01-01

    A position paper by the European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA), the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) interest group on drug hypersensitivity, defines drug provocation tests (DPTs) as "the controlled administration of a drug in order to diagnose drug hypersensitivity reactions". The DPT is widely considered to be the "gold standard" to establish or exclude the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to a certain substance, as it not only reproduces hypersensitivity symptoms, but also any other adverse clinical manifestation, irrespective of the mechanism. The DPT can be harmful and thus should only be considered after balancing the risk-benefit ratio in the individual patient. The ENDA position paper specifies two main indications for DPTs with the suspected compounds: 1. to exclude hypersensitivity in non-suggestive histories of drug hypersensitivity and in patients with non-specific symptoms, such as vagal symptoms under local anesthesia; 2. to establish a firm diagnosis in suggestive histories of drug hypersensitivity with negative, non-conclusive, or non-available allergologic tests. A positive DPT result optimizes allergen avoidance, while a negative one allows a false label of drug hypersensitivity to be removed. For these reasons, DPTs are often carried out to exclude a diagnosis of hypersensitivity to beta-lactams when other allergologic tests are negative. DPTs are also performed when the sensitivity of allergologic tests for evaluating allergic reactions to certain drugs, such as non-beta-lactam antibiotics, heparins, and glucocorticoids, is limited. On the other hand, DPTs are also performed to diagnose hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in subjects with the cross-reactive pattern, because both skin tests and in vitro diagnostic methods are ineffective in such patients.

  20. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouth- and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 ml (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In

  1. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouthfeel and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 mL (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In

  2. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  3. US-Based Emergency Department Visits for Fluoroquinolone-Associated Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. Christopher; Budnitz, Dan; Sorbello, Alfred; Mehta, Hina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the rate of hypersensitivity reactions per 100,000 prescription dispensings of fluoroquinolones based on care rendered in a nationally-representative sample of US hospital emergency departments (ED). Methods We analyzed the frequency of fluoroquinolone-associated hypersensitivity reactions using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance system (2004–2010) in conjunction with US retail outpatient prescription data from IMS Health (2004–2010). We further categorized reaction severity into three subgroups (mild, moderate, severe). Results Based on 1,422 cases of fluoroquinolone-associated hypersensitivity reactions and national drug utilization projections, we estimated risk of hypersensitivity reactions for moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. The absolute risk of a fluoroquinolone-related hypersensitivity reaction of any severity was low (44.0 (95% CI 34.8–53.3) ED visits/100,000 prescriptions; however, we identified a statistically significant difference in the relative risk (rate ratios) of seeking care in an ED attributed to moxifloxacin hypersensitivity compared to either levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin. For all reaction severities, the estimated ED visits/100,000 prescriptions were 141.3 (95% CI 99.9–182.7) for moxifloxacin, 40.8 (95% CI 31.5–50.0) for levofloxacin, and 26.3 (95% CI 20.8–31.9) for ciprofloxacin. When the rates were stratified by reaction severity category (mild or moderate-severe), moxifloxacin continued to be implicated in more ED visits per 100,000 prescriptions dispensed than either levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Fluoroquinolones may cause hypersensitivity reactions requiring care in an ED, and relative to use, the rate of moxifloxacin-related hypersensitivity reactions is higher than comparator fluoroquinolones. PMID:23963962

  4. Genetics of equine insect bite hypersensitivity and genetic diversity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, Merina

    2017-01-01

    Genetic variation contributing to the phenotypic variation was utilized in this thesis to understand the genetic background of a complex trait IBH, and to understand genetic diversity and relationships between various horse populations.

    IBH is the most common skin allergic disorder in

  5. Incidence of dog bites in Milwaukee, wis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndon, J A; Jach, G J; Wehrenberg, W B

    1996-04-01

    Dogs are everywhere. The incidence of and injuries caused by dog bites have grown to such epidemic proportions in certain parts of the United States that they are now considered a major public health concern. Playful Rover is no longer a harmless pet. Uncontrolled, he now can be considered a public nuisance. In this study, we evaluated the epidemiology of dog bites recorded in Milwaukee, for calendar years 1989-1991. This assessment included anatomical location of bites, victims' ages, behavioral antecedents, leading up to the bite incidents, season of the year, and animal ownership. The evaluation also measured the correlation coefficient between the frequency of dog bite incidents and median household income distribution within the city. During the 3-year period, a total of 3,926 animal bites, including 3,244 (83%) dog bites, were reported to the City of Milwaukee Department of Health. Of all the dog bites reported, 60% were on the upper extremities. Children less than 15 years old sustained 44% of the injuries, mostly to the head and face. Provocation by the victim accounted for 19% of the cases. The majority of the incidents (67%) occurred during the spring and summer months. In 49% of all cases, the victims families or neighbors owned the animals involved in the biting. Researchers also observed a significant negative correlation between bites and median household income distribution. Study results suggest a need to educate the public about the magnitude of dog-bite problems, enforce leash laws and impound stray dogs as an integral part of prevention programs.

  6. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  7. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...... and prevention of tail damage. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on how best to respond to outbreaks: the effectiveness of, for example, removing biters and/or bitten pigs, increasing enrichment, or applying substances to tails should be investigated. Finally, some breeding companies are exploring...

  9. Talking to Patients about Preventing Tick Bites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-14

    This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips.  Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  10. Tail-biting: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nina R; Main, David C J; Mendl, Mike; Edwards, Sandra A

    2010-11-01

    Tail-biting data from different studies are difficult to compare because a range of definitions of tail-biting behaviour and tail-biting lesions are used. Although records from abattoirs provide a large database, their usefulness is restricted as tail-biting is under-recorded and environmental and husbandry factors associated with the behaviour are unlikely to be known. Both farm and abattoir data provide no information on the number of pigs biting, only those bitten. Studying individual animals that tail-bite should give a better understanding of the pig's motivation to tail-bite and which of the components of its environment should be adjusted to improve welfare. This review examines the existing literature on tail-biting in pigs but considered from a new perspective using three different descriptive behavioural types, namely, 'two-stage', 'sudden-forceful' and 'obsessive', each of which may have different motivational bases. The article also considers the different environmental and husbandry factors which may affect each type of behaviour and discusses why this is such a complicated field and why it is often difficult to draw conclusions from available research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  12. Tick Bite Alopecia: A Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael C; Milchak, Marissa A; Parnes, Herbert; Ioffreda, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    Tick bites can cause a number of local inflammatory reactions, which are often difficult to differentiate from those induced by other arthropod bites or stings. These include erythematous nodular or pustular lesions, erosive plaques, annular lesions of erythema chronicum migrans, and both scarring and nonscarring inflammatory alopecia. We report a case of nonscarring alopecia in a 21-year-old male who reported a recent history of tick bite to the scalp. The biopsy demonstrated a dense pseudolymphomatous inflammatory infiltrate with numerous eosinophils associated with hair follicle miniaturization and an elevated catagen-telogen count. Signs of external rubbing, including lichen simplex chronicus and the "hamburger sign", were also visualized and are indicative of the associated pruritus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the fifth report of nonscarring tick bite alopecia in the literature and the first in an adult patient. This text will review the classic clinical presentation, histologic findings, and proposed mechanism of tick bite alopecia.

  13. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical features of immediate hypersensitivity to isopropylantipyrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eui-Kyung; Nam, Young-Hee; Jin, Hyun Jung; Shin, Yoo Seob; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivities induced by isopropylantipyrine (IPA), a pyrazolone derivative within the wider family of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), are rarely reported. We characterized the clinical features of 12 patients with IPA-induced hypersensitivity. Twelve patients with immediate hypersensitivity to IPA were enrolled and classified into two groups: group I, consisting of eight patients (66.7%) with selective hypersensitivity; and group II, consisting of four patients (33.3%) showing cross-intolerance to other NSAIDs. Skin prick and intradermal and oral provocation tests with IPA were performed. To confirm selective hypersensitivity, an aspirin oral provocation test was also conducted. The most common manifestations were cutaneous reactions (91.7%), followed by anaphylaxis (66.7%), respiratory (41.7%), ocular (16.7%), and gastrointestinal reactions (16.7%). The median age and the median age at onset were 34.5 (range, 23-55) years and 28.0 (range, 7-47) years, respectively. In both groups I and II, all patients showed negative responses to skin prick testing, whereas only two patients in group I were positive in response to intradermal IPA tests. The response time after drug exposure was shorter in group I than in group II. Here, we report on two types of IPA hypersensitivity: selective and cross-intolerant NSAID hypersensitivity. An immediate IgE-mediated reaction may be involved in patients with selective hypersensitivity, whereas a cyclooxygenase-1-related inhibition mechanism may be a responsible mechanism for the patients with cross-intolerance to multiple NSAIDs.

  15. Seminal plasma hypersensitivity reactions: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublett, J Wesley; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2011-01-01

    Seminal plasma hypersensitivity manifests as a spectrum of systemic and/or localized clinical symptoms after exposure to specific protein components in seminal fluid. The prevalence of this disease is largely unknown, but it is believed to affect up to 40,000 women in the United States. Although no definitive risk factors have been confirmed, women with systemic reactions are frequently atopic. Prostate-specific antigen is believed to be the major allergen involved in the disorder, but other proteins are likely involved. Interestingly, up to 40%-50% of both systemic and localized seminal plasma hypersensitivity cases can occur after first-time intercourse. Diagnosis is based on clinical history. The gold standard for diagnosing seminal plasma hypersensitivity is prevention of symptoms with the use of a condom. Patients with seminal plasma hypersensitivity demonstrate positive prick skin test and/or serum-specific immunoglobulin E to whole seminal fluid or fractionated seminal plasma proteins. Treatment of seminal plasma hypersensitivity involves either avoidance with the use of condoms, intravaginal graded challenge using dilutions of whole seminal fluid, or subcutaneous desensitization to relevant fractionated seminal plasma proteins obtained from the woman's sexual partner. In most cases, treatment using one or more of the above approaches has been very successful. Infertility has not been demonstrated to be directly related to seminal plasma hypersensitivity, although women with the condition frequently have difficulty conceiving due to their inability to have unprotected sexual intercourse. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  16. Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get attention or express how they're feeling. Frustration, anger, and fear are strong emotions and toddlers ... in-progress, it's important to create a zero-tolerance culture at home, daycare, and elsewhere. Here are ...

  17. Court presentation of bite mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinnan, A J; Melton, M J

    1985-12-01

    The uniqueness of an individual's bite mark is generally accepted. The use of bite mark analysis to identify or exclude those suspected of crimes is now a well established activity in forensic dentistry. Although the techniques for evaluating bite mark evidence are extremely sophisticated, it is important that the courtroom presentation of such evidence should be as simple as possible and be directed towards those who must judge it. Dentists likely to be involved in the courtroom presentation of bite mark evidence should: be certain that their local law enforcement personnel are frequently updated on the techniques to be used for producing the optimum evidence needed to evaluate bite marks; become acquainted with the current techniques of evaluating bite mark evidence and understand their difficulties and pitfalls; meet with the lawyers (prosecution or defence) before a courtroom appearance, briefing them on the significance of the particular findings; prepare clear and easily understandable visual aids to present to the court the techniques used in the analysis and the bases for the conclusion reached; and offer conclusions derived from the bite mark investigation.

  18. Talking tails : quantifying the development of tail biting in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tail biting is an adverse behaviour characterised by manipulation of a pig’s tail by another pig resulting in tail damage and a possible tail biting outbreak. Tail biting is a common problem in the pig husbandry causing economic losses and reduced animal welfare worldwide. To prevent tail biting,

  19. Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Diane; Bélanger, Marie C; Bécuwe-Bonnet, Véronique; Parent, Joane

    2012-12-01

    Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting.

  20. Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Diane; Bélanger, Marie C.; Bécuwe-Bonnet, Véronique; Parent, Joane

    2012-01-01

    Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting.

  1. Human bite wounds: a swiss emergency department experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Malek; Hatzigianni, Panagiota; Fux, Christoph; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2012-04-01

     Human bites (HB) are the third most common bite wound diagnosed in emergency departments, after dog and cat bites. Management of HB can be challenging, given the high risk of infection associated with multiorganism-rich oral flora. Recognition and early aggressive treatment are essential steps in preventing infections and other associated complications. A retrospective, 10-year electronic chart review was performed, which identified 104 HB. Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome were noted for each case. Most of the patients were male, with a male:female ratio of 4:1. A majority of patients (n = 53, 51%) presented with finger and hand injuries. Only 13.8% were bitten on the head or neck, and 25% on the upper limbs. The remainder (35.2%) of patients sustained injuries to other body parts. Twelve operations were necessary and performed by plastic and hand surgeons. More than half of the patients (60.5%) received antibiotic therapy, and 84.6% of the patients had their tetanus prophylaxis administered or received a booster by the time of treatment. Only 40.4% of patients had a post-bite serology test to rule out bloodborne viral infections, none of whom tested positive. The viral status of the biter was known in two cases. The goals of HB management are to minimize infection risk and its complications, and to prevent the transmission of systemic infections, such as hepatitis B/C and HIV. Accurate documentation and a management algorithm should be instituted in emergency departments in order to achieve these goals. .

  2. Stability of deep-bite correction: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Greg J.; Bates, Steven B.; Ehlert, Ambre A.; Whiting, Dean P.; Chen, Stephanie S.-H.; Bollen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Deep bite occurs in about 15% to 20% of the US population. Currently, it is unknown which types of correction are most efficient or stable. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate factors related to stability of deep-bite correction. Materials and Methods An electronic search of 4 databases was performed from January 1, 1966 to June 27, 2012. Studies were considered for inclusion if they reported on deep bite samples that underwent orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. Records were required at the initial, posttreatment, and 1-year posttreatment times. Hand searching of reference lists of the included studies was performed. Data were abstracted using custom forms, and risk of bias was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were case series, with considerable potential for bias. The significant heterogeneity of the studies precluded meta-analyses, and only descriptive statistics and stratified comparisons were reported. On average, patients underwent significant overbite improvement during treatment, and most of the correction was maintained long-term. Across all studies, the mean initial overbite, posttreatment overbite, and long-term overbite were 5.3, 2.6, and 3.4 mm, respectively. Initial severity appeared to be related to long-term stability. However, this relationship was difficult to isolate from other factors. The length of follow-up did not appear to be related to the amount of relapse. Conclusions Although the quality of the current evidence is not high, patients with deep-bite malocclusion appear to undergo relatively successful treatment, and most of the correction appears to be stable. PMID:23630651

  3. Stability of deep-bite correction: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Greg J; Bates, Steven B; Ehlert, Ambre A; Whiting, Dean P; Chen, Stephanie S-H; Bollen, Anne-Marie

    2012-09-01

    Deep bite occurs in about 15% to 20% of the US population. Currently, it is unknown which types of correction are most efficient or stable. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate factors related to stability of deep-bite correction. An electronic search of 4 databases was performed from January 1, 1966 to June 27, 2012. Studies were considered for inclusion if they reported on deep bite samples that underwent orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. Records were required at the initial, posttreatment, and 1-year posttreatment times. Hand searching of reference lists of the included studies was performed. Data were abstracted using custom forms, and risk of bias was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were case series, with considerable potential for bias. The significant heterogeneity of the studies precluded meta-analyses, and only descriptive statistics and stratified comparisons were reported. On average, patients underwent significant overbite improvement during treatment, and most of the correction was maintained long-term. Across all studies, the mean initial overbite, posttreatment overbite, and long-term overbite were 5.3, 2.6, and 3.4 mm, respectively. Initial severity appeared to be related to long-term stability. However, this relationship was difficult to isolate from other factors. The length of follow-up did not appear to be related to the amount of relapse. Although the quality of the current evidence is not high, patients with deep-bite malocclusion appear to undergo relatively successful treatment, and most of the correction appears to be stable.

  4. A survey of dog bites in Salisbury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H F; Voss, S

    1991-12-01

    A recent survey of patients attending an Accident and Emergency (A&E) department serving several economically depressed Thanet coastal towns found that around 3 per 1000 of the resident population attended each year for the treatment of dog bite injuries (Thomas and Banks, 1990). We report a study of dog bite injuries treated in the A&E department serving Salisbury, a small prosperous Cathedral city, and surrounding villages. In comparison with Thanet, age specific incidence rates for dog bites show a similar pattern but only about half the overall incidence. Some reasons for these findings are suggested and extrapolations for national treatment figures are made.

  5. Evaluation of periprocedural hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iammatteo, Melissa; Keskin, Taha; Jerschow, Elina

    2017-10-01

    Identifying the cause of periprocedural hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) remains challenging because of the multitude of medications involved. Antibiotics are the most common cause in the United States, whereas neuromuscular blocking agents are most common in Europe. To identify causative agents for periprocedural HSRs. This study was a 7-year retrospective medical record review of patients evaluated between December 2009 and January 2017 at a drug allergy center in Bronx, New York for periprocedural HSRs, defined as occurring soon before, during, or soon after a medical procedure or operation with or without general anesthesia. Demographics, description of historical HSRs, results of testing to potential causative medications, and tolerance of subsequent anesthesia were reviewed. Thirty-four patients completed a comprehensive evaluation. Skin testing identified an IgE-mediated cause in 22 patients (64.7%). The most common causative class of medications was induction agents (n = 9 [36%]), with midazolam being the most frequently implicated (n = 6 [3 positive skin test results, 3 equivocal skin test results]). Cefazolin was the most common agent identified (n = 8 [32%]) followed by ondansetron (n = 3 [12%]). Sixteen of 22 contacted patients were exposed to subsequent anesthesia, including 3 patients with negative evaluations. One patient experienced a mild urticarial HSR. Induction agents were the most common causative agents in our patients, which differs from other studies. Given the variability in evaluations of periprocedural HSRs across the United States with data published on small sample sizes, there is a need to establish national guidelines to standardize evaluations and to create a national registry to allow for data sharing. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosing and managing patients with drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Javier; Doña, Inmaculada

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosing and managing drug hypersensitivity is challenging because there are no clear limits between different types of drug reactions. Distinguishing between type A (predictable) and type B (hypersensitivity) reactions when a drug is introduced on the market is not easy. When many people use a drug, adverse reactions can occur, conditioned by diverse genetic profiles, viral infections or concomitant therapy. Occasionally the only tool clinicians have on which to base the diagnosis is the clinical history. Skins tests or in vitro tests sometimes have low sensitivity or are unavailable, and drug provocation tests may be dangerous or strictly forbidden in case of severe cutaneous reactions. Areas covered: This paper reviews the diagnosis and management of the two main types of immunological reactions: IgE-mediated immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (IDHRs) and non-immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (NIDHRs). Expert commentary: Although Europe and the United States use different diagnostic methods, patients with history of drug hypersensitivity must avoid the suspicious drug, and clinicians must assess tolerance to safe alternatives under medical surveillance. Sometimes desensitization may be required. There is a consensus about the need to perform genetic testing for specific drugs and give patients proper documentation to prevent future exposure to culprit drugs.

  7. Nickel hypersensitivity and orthodontic treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölz, Lina; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Jäger, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Nickel-containing alloys are widely used in orthodontic appliances, even though nickel is by far the most common contact allergen. However, the scientific evidence concerning allergic reactions to nickel in orthodontic patients has not been evaluated systematically. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the prevalence of nickel hypersensitivity is affected by orthodontic treatment. Unrestricted electronic and manual searches were performed until July 2013 for human clinical studies assessing orthodontic treatment and nickel hypersensitivity. Methodological limitations were evaluated with the Downs and Black tool. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from random-effects meta-analyses, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Thirty studies were included in the review, and 24 datasets with 10 184 patients in the meta-analyses. Orthodontic treatment had no significant effect on nickel hypersensitivity (n = 11; crude OR 0.99; 95%CI: 0.78-1.25; p = 0.914). However, when confounding from factors such as sex and piercings was taken into account, orthodontic treatment was associated with a lower risk of hypersensitivity (n = 1; adjusted OR 0.60; 95%CI: 0.40-0.80; p nickel hypersensitivity, especially when it precedes piercings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Teledermatology Compliance HIT ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ...

  9. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  10. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's ... biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video library Find a ...

  11. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... nail biting can also leave you vulnerable to infection as you pass harmful bacteria and viruses from ... your nails and develop a skin or nail infection, consult a board-certified dermatologist . "); (function () { var a = "", ...

  12. Tarantula bite leads to death and gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Kalyan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilobrachys hardwikii-giant black hairy spider bite produced two deaths, one case of gangrene of the foot and urticarial rashes in another person in a remote village of Churulia 30 km from Asansol.

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair ... nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can ...

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your ... Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video library Find ...

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting ... 0; c Explore AAD Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: ...

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / ... Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes ...

  17. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Induced by Fire Ant Bites

    OpenAIRE

    Mallepalli, Jyothi R.; Quinet, Robert J.; Sus, Rachana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of eosinophilic fasciitis likely related to proximate fire ant bites and review the literature to summarize the etiology and clinical, laboratory, histopathological, and therapeutic aspects of eosinophilic fasciitis.

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’ ... a doctor. If you bite your nails and develop a skin or nail infection, consult a board- ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ... 0; c Explore AAD Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: ...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Year Award Step therapy legislation Scope of practice Melanoma state reporting FSMB Interstate Compact Legislative Conference Position ... as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can ...

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... document.write(""); document.write(" Cart "); } else { document.write(" Sign in Cart "); } })(); AAD American Academy of Dermatology Excellence ... For some people, nail biting may be a sign of a more serious psychological or emotional problem. ...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty ... and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting ...

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated image library Board ... gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try ...

  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  5. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... programs & events Learn about skin cancer Get involved Free ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help keep your hands busy and away from ...

  6. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and ... and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting can make the skin around ...

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Alternative payment models Fee schedule State policy State policy and ... recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting one set of nails, such as your thumb nails, ...

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Evaluating practice models ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ...

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help ... of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you ...

  10. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  11. Philodryas patagoniensis bite and local envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, S A; Silveira, P V

    1994-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy bitten by a specimen of Philodryas patagoniensis, a colubrid snake currently classified as nonvenomous, developed signs of local envenoming characterized by swelling and warmth on the bitten limb. This is the first time that local envenoming following Philodryas patagoniensis bite is recognized. Based on the clinical findings and misidentification of the snake, the patient was treated as a victim of Bothrops bite, having received unnecessarily the specific antivenom. Educational efforts to make doctors and health workers capable to identify correctly venomous snakes are necessary, to avoid inappropriate indication of antivenom and decrease the risk of its potentially harmful untoward effects. Examination of the bite site can be useful to the differential diagnosis between pit viper and colubrid bites.

  12. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine ...

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... nails feel sore, and it can damage the tissue that makes nails grow, resulting in abnormal-looking ... as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can ...

  14. Open bite treatment using clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Maria Paola; Oliverio, Teresa; Silvestre, Ivana; Lombardo, Luca; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old female patient with dentoalveolar open bite of 4 mm, molar Class I malocclusion, centered midlines, moderate crowding, and labial inclination of the lower incisor was treated with clear aligners to reduce protrusion and close the anterior open bite. The result showed that clear aligners were an effective method with which to correct this malocclusion. The treatment was complete after 18 months. The patient was satisfied with her new appearance and function.

  15. Philodryas patagoniensis bite and local envenoming

    OpenAIRE

    Nishioka,Sérgio de Andrade; Silveira,Paulo Vitor Portella

    1994-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy bitten by a specimen of Philodryas patagoniensis, a colubrid snake currently classified as nonvenomous, developed signs of local envenoming characterized by swelling and warmth on the bitten limb. This is the first time that local envenoming following Philodryas patagoniensis bite is recognized. Based on the clinical findings and misidentification of the snake, the patient was treated as a victim of Bothrops bite, having received unnecessarily the specific antivenom. Educatio...

  16. Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity to corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basedow, Sarah; Eigelshoven, Sibylle; Homey, Bernhard

    2011-11-01

    Corticosteroids are therapeutic agents used in cases of allergy and intolerance. Due to the antiinflammatory effects of the corticosteroids, hypersensitivity reactions often are considered to be a paradox. However, delayed-type reaction to corticosteroids is a frequent phenomenon in the daily routine. Non-responding eczema, development of subacute contact eczema, systemic contact dermatitis or maculopapular exanthemas can be a clinical symptom of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to corticosteroids. Immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids remain uncommon. Nevertheless, they can take a severe clinical course. Patients react with anaphylaxis after systemic administration or with aggravation of an allergic reaction under therapy with corticosteroids. Allergologic testing is necessary for diagnosis and providing alternative corticosteroids in case of an emergency. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  17. Anterior open bite: aetiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Paul Jonathan; Madahar, Arun K; Murray, Alison

    2011-10-01

    Anterior open bite has a multi-factorial aetiology comprising: genetically inherited skeletal pattern, soft tissue effect and digit-sucking habits. To formulate an appropriate treatment plan, accurate diagnosis is essential. Simple open bites may sometimes resolve completely during the transition from mixed to permanent dentition, if the digit-sucking habit is broken. More significant open bites, however, sometimes extending right back to the terminal molars, rarely resolve spontaneously and will often require complex orthodontic treatment, involving active molar intrusion or even major orthognathic surgery. Unfortunately, surgery has associated risks attached, including pain, swelling, bruising, altered nerve sensation and, occasionally, permanent anaesthesia, as well as involving significant costs, as with any major surgical procedure under general anaesthesia. The introduction of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) has expanded the possibilities of orthodontic treatment, beyond traditional limitations of tooth movement. Molar intrusion can be successfully carried out without the need for major surgical intervention, thus avoiding all the attendant risks and disadvantages. This paper provides an overview of anterior open bite and uses an illustrative case where open bite was successfully treated with a combination of fixed appliance therapy and TADs. Anterior open bite is commonly seen in general practice. A knowledge of the possible aetiological factors and their potential management should be understood by general dental practitioners. The increased popularity of TADS allows a new and less invasive approach to management of these cases.

  18. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness...... and structurally related derivatives is likely underestimated. Most healthcare professionals have no knowledge of PEG and thus do not suspect PEG's as culprit agents in hypersensitivity reactions. In consequence, patients are at risk of misdiagnosis and commonly present with a history of repeated, severe reactions...

  19. Case Report of a Newborn Injured By Human Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ataoğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bite is a type of wound received from the teeth of an animal, including humans. Human bites are third leading cause of all bites after dog and cat bites. Human bites are severe wounds due to the risk of contamination with mix oral flora and rapid tissue destruction. Bite wounds created by humans are seen in variety of circumstances including aggression, rape, murder, and child abuse. Oral cavity contains beta-hemolytic streptococci, anaerobes and other microorganisms. There have been reported cases of septicemia, severe necrotizing fasciitis, HIV infection, and death caused by human bites. Early reporting and treatment of bite wounds decrease the number and severity of wound infection. Here, we present the case of human bite in a nine-day-old girl and discuss the treatment approaches in the light of the relevant literature.

  20. Total case of dog bites to humans and seasonal patterns of the bites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dog bites are poorly understood and often underestimated public health problem as it causes huge medico-social problem as these attacks result in millions of injuries and thousands of deaths all over the world due to risk of rabies transmission. Approximately 1 in 20 dogs bite a human being during the dogs' lifetime.

  1. prevalence of biting and non-biting flies in relation to species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. Several Dipteran flies are vectors of diseases in the Afro-tropical region. The study was carried out to determine the species abundance of biting and non biting flies prevalent at the Jos Museum. Zoological Garden, north central Nigeria. The flies were trapped using Biconical traps during the raining season of ...

  2. The effects of food viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Graaf, C. de; Prinz, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effect of a food's viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake using a standardized protocol in which subjects sipped through a straw every 20 s for a period of 15 min from one of two products, a chocolate-flavored dairy drink and a chocolate-flavored dairy

  3. Immunologic evaluation of immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye-Soo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Nam, Young-Hee; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-11-01

    Cefaclor is widely prescribed for various infectious diseases. As its consumption increases, the number of hypersensitivity reactions to cefaclor has increased. This study aimed to evaluate the immunologic findings of immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor. We enrolled 47 patients with immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor from Ajou University Hospital and Asan Medical Center. Serum specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 antibodies to cefaclor-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most common phenotype was anaphylaxis (Group I, 78.7%), followed by urticaria (Group II, 21.3%). The detection of specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 to cefaclor-HSA conjugate by ELISA tended to be higher in Group I (40.5%, 41.7%, 21.6%) than in Group II (20.0%, 20.0%, 0%) with no statistical significance. Significant associations were found between specific IgE and IgG1 or IgG4 (pimmediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor was anaphylaxis, most of which was mediated by IgE; however, a non-IgE mediated direct basophil activation mechanism was suggested in a subset of anaphylaxis patients.

  4. Immediate-type hypersensitivity drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Shelley F; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Wiese, Michael D; Heddle, Robert J; Brown, Simon G A

    2014-07-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis have been reported for nearly all classes of therapeutic reagents and these reactions can occur within minutes to hours of exposure. These reactions are unpredictable, not directly related to dose or the pharmacological action of the drug and have a relatively high mortality risk. This review will focus on the clinical presentation, immune mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of the most serious form of immediate onset drug hypersensitivity reaction, anaphylaxis. The incidence of drug-induced anaphylaxis deaths appears to be increasing and our understanding of the multiple and complex reasons for the unpredictable nature of anaphylaxis to drugs is also expanding. This review highlights the importance of enhancing our understanding of the biology of the patient (i.e. immune response, genetics) as well as the pharmacology and chemistry of the drug when investigating, diagnosing and treating drug hypersensitivity. Misdiagnosis of drug hypersensitivity leads to substantial patient risk and cost. Although oral provocation is often considered the gold standard of diagnosis, it can pose a potential risk to the patient. There is an urgent need to improve and standardize diagnostic testing and desensitization protocols as other diagnostic tests currently available for assessment of immediate drug allergy are not highly predictive. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Practical Management of Antibiotic Hypersensitivity in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Eric; Romano, Antonino; Khan, David

    Antibiotics are the most common class of medications that individuals report allergy or intolerance to. Adverse reactions are reported at a predictable rate with all antibiotic use that vary by antibiotic. Antibiotic allergy incidence rates are sex dependent, higher in females than in males. Most of these events are not reproducible or immunologically mediated. Antibiotic allergy prevalence increases with increasing age and is more common in hospitalized populations and in populations that use more antibiotics. Determining potential mechanisms for the observed symptoms of the adverse reactions is the starting point for effective management of antibiotic hypersensitivity. Skin testing and direct challenges are the primary tools used to determine acute tolerance in 2017. Commercially available in vitro testing is not currently clinically useful in determining antibiotic hypersensitivity, with rare exceptions. Desensitization can be used when acute-onset immunologically mediated hypersensitivity is confirmed to safely administer a needed antibiotic. Desensitization is not possible when clinically significant T-cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity is present. Effective management of antibiotic allergy is an important part of a comprehensive antibiotic stewardship program. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dentine hypersensitivity: real or imagined | Gbadebo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the cause, diagnosis and possible management to give relief can be a dilemma for the clinician who at times may wonder if the sensation the individual is presenting with, is real or imagined. Aim: The purpose of this paper was to review dentine hypersensitivity in view of causes, diagnosis and management.

  7. Amalgam Contact Hypersensitivity Lesion: An Unusual Presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They also state that the lesion considerably regressed after replacement of the amalgam restoration with posterior composites. Interestingly, these authors clearly confirmed that hypersensitivity to amalgam might be attributed to mercury in amalgam, but they did not rule out the significant role of exposure to common sources.

  8. Dentin hypersensitivity: prevalence, etiology, pathogenesis, and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loveren, C.; Schmidlin, P.R.; Martens, L.C.; Amaechi, B.T.; Amaechi, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is simply defined as a short sharply painful reaction of the exposed and innervated pulp-dentin complex in response to stimuli being typically thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic, or chemical and which reaction cannot be attributed to any dental defect or pathology. To be

  9. Auditory hypersensitivity in the autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Erissandra; Pedroso, Fleming Salvador; Wagner, Mário Bernardes

    2008-01-01

    auditory hypersensitivity in the autistic spectrum disorder has been described in the literature since the very first reports. However, this symptom has not been sufficiently explored, especially regarding possible causes, diagnosis and consequences. to study sensory-perceptual abnormalities in the autistic spectrum disorder, emphasizing auditory hypersensitivity and to discuss their effects in speech therapy based on the literature found until September 2007 in the following database: Scielo, Lilacs, Web of Science, and Medline. sensory-perceptual abnormalities are present in approximately 90% of individuals with autism; no theory has been found to explain this fact. Although the cause of auditory hypersensitivity remains unknown, it is the most common sensory-perceptual abnormality--its prevalence ranges between 15% to 100%. A few rare studies exist on behavioral, electroacoustic and electrophysiological hearing evaluation of autistic children; these studies discuss auditory hypersensitivity. The early diagnosis of this alteration is considered relevant for the possible identification of atypical sensorial markers, especially in hearing and for the better understanding of their impact on the development of communication in autistic individuals.

  10. Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity among university students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, H; Aylikci, B U; Hamidi, M M; Uzgur, R

    2012-01-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a common clinical finding with a wide variation in prevalence values. There is lack of data on the prevalence of dentinal sensitivity in Turkish population. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of DH and to examine some associated factors such as initiating stimuli among university students in Kırıkkale, Turkey. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduates of University of Kırıkkale, Turkey. An electronic questionnaire was developed and distributed via e-mail to undergraduate students in Kırıkkale University. Self-administered questionnaire elicited information on demography, self-reported dentinal sensitivity, the trigger factor, professional treatment taken, and duration time. Test of significance was done with Chi square statistics. Ptoothbrush users. About 46% of patients reported that they had not undergone any treatment for the discomfort and 35% reported having had some sort of treatment. Among the participants with dentinal sensitivity, 58.8% of the respondents reported that they use soft drinks occasionally. Approximately 64.2% of the patients claimed that DH was present for 1-6 days and the majority (87%) of the patients with hypersensitive teeth experienced pain occasionally. The prevalence of DH among university students was 8.4%. DH is not a common problem in undergraduate university students.

  11. Animal bites and stings with anaphylactic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, John H; Klotz, Stephen A; Pinnas, Jacob L

    2009-02-01

    Anaphylaxis to animal bites and stings poses a significant medical risk of vascular or respiratory reactions that vary according to the patient's response and nature of the insult. Emergency Physicians frequently see patients who complain of an allergic reaction to an animal bite or sting. Although Hymenoptera stings, specifically those of wasps, bees, and hornets, account for the majority of these cases, other invertebrates and vertebrates are capable of causing allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Many of the causative animals are quite unusual, and their bites and stings are not commonly appreciated as potential causes of anaphylaxis. We conducted a literature review to identify documented reports of anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions to animal bites and stings. This summary is meant to heighten awareness of the diversity of animals that may cause anaphylaxis, hopefully leading to more rapid diagnosis and treatment of this dangerous condition. A diverse group of animals was found whose bites and stings cause anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions. Some case summaries are presented. A potentially life-saving plan is to direct patients to proper follow-up care to prevent a future life-threatening reaction, including: prescribing epinephrine and antihistamines with proper instructions for their use; referral to an allergist to determine if skin testing, radioallergosorbent test, and immunotherapy are indicated; and reporting the case to state or local Poison Control Centers. In some cases it may be helpful to consult an entomologist or a pest control service for help in identification and elimination of certain offenders.

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy Action Center News Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair ... bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists ... take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. ...

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch ... counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  19. Epidemiology of sea-snake bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H A

    1975-05-01

    Epidemiological features as reflected by 101 patients with unequivocal sea-snake bite received in north-west Malaya are reviewed. Enhydrina schistosa caused over half the bites, including seven of the eight fatal bites. It is the most dangerous sea-snake to man. Over 90 per cent of the victims were male and 80 of the 101 patients were fishermen bitten at their job. Most victims were bitten on the lower limb through treading on the snake, and this resulted in more cases of serious poisoning than upper limb bites (caused through handling nets, sorting fish and so on). Only 14 cathers were bitten (through treading on the sea-snake; no bathers were bitten while swimming). In patients coming to hospital more than six hours after the bite, there was a four-fold increase in serious poisoning compared with patients coming within six hours of the bite. Thus, as time elapses after the bite, the victim is less likely to seek medical help unless poisoning is severe. Despite the lethal toxicity of sea-snake venom, in patients seen during 1957-61 before sea-snake antivenom became available, the mortality was only 10 per cent. Trivial or no poisoning followed in 80 per cent of the bites. On the other hand, of 11 patients (20 per cent) with serious poisoning, over half (six patients) died despite supportive hospital treatment. These epidemiological features observed in Malaya probably apply to most fishing folk along Asian coastlines where sea-snakes abound. If this is so, sea-snake bite must be a common hazard feared by millions of fishing folk, and a common cause of illness and death. But it is unlikely that the extent of this problem will be revealed to orthodox medicine for many decades because most fishing villages are far from medical centres; and even if hospitals or medical centres are available, fishing folk are usually reluctant to attend them. Only one species of sea-snake, Pelamis platurus, extends to the east coasts of Africa and west coasts of the tropical Americas

  20. Scrotal dog bite: unusual case and review of pediatric literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, M; Prestipino, M; Nardi, N; Falcone, F; Appignani, A

    2009-09-01

    Animal bites to human external genitalia are rare. Only a few cases of scrotal dog bite in children have been reported. We present an additional specific case of a scrotal dog bite in a child because the lesion and its repair have not been previously reported in published pediatric studies. A traumatic resection of the right testicular vas deferens was repaired by microsurgical vasoepididymal anastomosis. A review of the published data was also performed to analyze the management of scrotal dog bite lesions.

  1. Bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes after a cat bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2011-01-01

    Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....

  2. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R.K. Gorea; O.P. Jasuja; Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman; Abhinav Gorea

    2014-01-01

    Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study c...

  3. The mechanics of the first bite.

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Kalpana R; Lucas, Peter W

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the action of the incisor teeth in humans is presented in terms of the fracture of food particles. It is predicted that the resistance of foods with an essentially linear elastic response to an initial bite by the incisors will depend on the square root of the product of two food properties, Young's modulus and toughness. This quantity should be approximately equal to the product of the stress at cracking during a bite, and the square root of the length of a notch or indentatio...

  4. Black widow spider bite: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisford, Kristine; Kautz, Donald D

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of a patient cared for in the hours before her death. After the patient's death, we learned the patient died of a black widow spider bite. This article sheds light on the potential seriousness of this venom and allows for more rapid detection and treatment of those who are unfortunate enough to be bitten. The authors have documented the sequence of events for the patient, outlined the care the patient received, examined the pathophysiology of the body to a spider bite, and then made a passionate appeal for other nurses who work in critical care to do the same with patients in similar situations.

  5. Vine snake (Thelotornis capensis bite in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Otto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A vine snake bite in a dog is reported. There was continued minor bleeding from the assumed nose bite site for 4 days. Currently manufactured snakebite antivenom is not effective against vine snake bites and treatment is supportive.

  6. Bite injuries at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania: A five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bite injuries constitute a continuing challenge to trauma or general surgeons practicing in developing countries. Little work has been done on bite injuries in our setting. This study describes our experience in the management of bite injuries, outlining the etiological spectrum, injury patterns and results of ...

  7. Forensic dentistry and human bite marks: issues for doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Iain A; Hall, Rachel C

    2002-08-01

    The human dentition can be used as a weapon of attack or defence. Bite mark injuries are common in cases of sexual assault, child abuse and homicide. Many bite injuries are first seen in casualty departments where quick and proper recovery of evidence can assist in analysing these injuries. This article describes different bite injuries, collection of evidence and comparative analysis methods.

  8. Seasonal variations in the biting densities of Simulium damnosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variations in the biting densities of Simulium damnosum complex were studied in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria, with the objectives of discovering the season with the highest biting densities and relating the seasonal biting densities with the farming seasons of the people. The study ...

  9. Cheek-biting disorder: another stereotypic movement disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sujit; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Akhtar, Sayeed

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent cheek biting, a form of self-injurious behavior is a rare entity which presents mostly to dentists and dermatologists. We report a case of recurrent severe cheek biting in an adult male leading to mucosal ulceration. The stereotypic pattern of cheek biting and associated behavior bears striking resemblance to other impulse control disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Major upper limb amputation after Snake Bite Gangrene | Ajibade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major lower limb amputations following snake bite gangrene have been reported from the savannah belt of Nigeria. In bites delivered to the upper limb, amputations are often of the digits (minor amputations). We report the case of a male farmer who had an above elbow amputation after a snake bite to the hand. Explanation ...

  11. Infection with Dermatophilus congolensis at a contact hypersensitivity site and its relevance to chronic streptothricosis lesions in the cattle of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D

    1984-01-01

    Guinea-pigs were sensitized to CDNB and infected with D. congolensis at the site of a subsequent application of this chemical. The bacterium was recovered from the skin over a longer period of time in sensitized individuals than in nonsensitized controls. Animals rendered tolerant to the chemical gave lower yields of bacteria than sensitized animals. However, the lesions produced at the site of infection did not become chronic. The growth of D. congolensis at a contact hypersensitivity site may possibly simulate infection in skin following an arthropod bite and be relevant to the pathogenesis of chronic streptothricosis lesions in the cattle of West Africa.

  12. Case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoko; Yagami, Akiko; Shimojo, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masashi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer, in which a female patient developed angioedema of the eyelids shortly after consuming beer. In skin prick tests, the patient showed positive reactions to the base ingredients of beer, particularly malt and barley. The specific serum immunoglobulin E antibodies against barley and malt displayed weakly positive reactivity. To identify the immunoreactive antigens, malt and barley proteins were separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoreacted with the patient's serum. The results of mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main antigen was a protein with similarity to protein z-type serpin. Notably, the identified antigen had a molecular weight of 20-25 kDa, which is markedly smaller than that previously reported for protein Z4 (44 kDa). Taken together, these analyses indicate that a possible new antigen which belongs to the protein Z family elicits immediate hypersensitivity to beer. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Respiratory hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, J S; Burney, P; Jarvis, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most prevalent drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory symptoms in population across Europe and to assess its association with upper....... Questionnaires including questions about age, gender, presence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking status, and history of NSAID-induced hypersensitivity reactions were sent to participants by mail. Totally, 62 737 participants completed the questionnaires. RESULTS: The mean...... prevalence of NSAID-induced dyspnea was 1.9% and was highest in the three Polish centers [Katowice (4.9%), Krakow (4.8%), and Lodz (4.4%)] and lowest in Skopje, (0.9%), Amsterdam (1.1%), and Umea (1.2%). In multivariate analysis, the prevalence of respiratory reactions to NSAIDs was higher in participants...

  14. 7th drug hypersensitivity meeting: part one

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Daniel F.; Chung, Wen-Hung; Jenkiins, Rosalind E.; Chaponda, Mas; Nwikue, Gospel; Cornejo Castro, Elena M.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Pirmohamed, Munir; Wuillemin, Natascha; Dina, Dolores; Eriksson, Klara K.; Yerly, Daniel; Pavlos, Rebecca; Mckinnin, Elizabeth; Ostrov, David

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents Oral Abstracts O1 Functionally distinct HMGB1 isoforms correlate with physiological processes in drug-induced SJS/TEN Daniel F. Carr, Wen-Hung Chung, Rosalind E. Jenkiins, Mas Chaponda, Gospel Nwikue, Elena M. Cornejo Castro, Daniel J. Antoine, Munir Pirmohamed O2 Hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactams, does the t cell recognition pattern influence the clinical picture? Natascha Wuillemin, Dolores Dina, Klara K. Eriksson, Daniel Yerly O3 Specific binding characteristics ...

  15. Geometry of anterior open bite correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Zachary R; Susarla, Srinivas M; Lawler, Matthew E; Choudhri, Asim F; Peacock, Zachary S

    2015-05-01

    Correction of anterior open bite is a frequently encountered and challenging problem for the craniomaxillofacial surgeon and orthodontist. Accurate clinical evaluation, including cephalometric assessment, is paramount for establishing the diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan. The purposes of this technical note were to discuss the basic geometric principles involved in the surgical correction of skeletal anterior open bites and to offer a simple mathematical model for predicting the amount of posterior maxillary impaction with concomitant mandibular rotation required to establish an adequate overbite. Using standard geometric principles, a mathematical model was created to demonstrate the relationship between the magnitude of the open bite and the magnitude of the rotational movements required for correction. This model was then validated using a clinical case. In summary, the amount of open bite closure for a given amount of posterior maxillary impaction depends on anatomic variables, which can be obtained from a lateral cephalogram. The clinical implication of this relationship is as follows: patients with small mandibles and steep mandibular occlusal planes will require greater amounts of posterior impaction.

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for (var c = 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes ...

  17. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... library Basement Membrane Zone lecture Full lecture Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook ... biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad.aad", "size=160x600", "vpos= ...

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: Spending ...

  19. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G.; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    1994-01-01

    Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to Seed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance...

  20. Death secondary to a donkey's bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aloja, Ernesto; Grimaldi, Leonardo; Cascini, Fidelia; De Mercurio, Domenico; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2011-06-01

    We present a unique case of death due to the assault and bites of a donkey on a 65-year-old man. The farmer, found dead in his farmyard, had a very deep wound in the anterior region of the neck, with a sharp transection of the trachea and severe bleeding by several minor vessels wall disruptions. The cause of death was established to be massive bleeding combined with asphyxia due to aspiration of the blood. Moreover, multiple contusions with associated skin abrasions and perforations were present. The general impression of the injuries was consistent with an animal's bite marks. Herbivorous or omnivorous bite attacks on humans are rare; instead, these animals attack by kicking, trampling, and kneeling, resulting in secondary blunt injuries. The donkey is usually a docile animal, but its behavior can be aggressive during the mating season, and the possibility of biting should not be underestimated, as illustrated by the 2 cases published previously as well as by the case presented here.

  1. Bite-marks on battered children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube-Becker, E

    1977-01-21

    Instances of human bites are generally rare, although it does sometimes occur that people use their teeth as a means of attack of defence. When looking into cases of the ill-treatment of children we often find bite-marks in addition to other signs of abusement. Eleven cases from the Institute of Forensic Medicine at Düsseldorf University are presented out of a total of 48 cases of ill-treatment of children followed by death in which human bite-marks as well as other haematomas on the victims could be proved. In all cases the cause of death was a subdural haematoma. All but three of the offenders were female, and all were young and subject to excess stress so that the act could eventually be regarded as the result of a disintegration of emotional status. The combination of bite-marks with haematomas and other signs of ill-treatment support with sufficient certainty the conclusion that a criminal action of a third person is involved.

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and nail care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs. ... t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid= ...

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ...

  4. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  5. Comparison of posterior occlusion between patients with anterior open bite and scissor deep bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Kun; Xu, Yifei; Hou, Yuxia; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Objective A minor alteration in the posterior occlusal height elicits a large transformation in the anterior vertical dimension. Thus, the present study was performed to determine whether a posterior cusp-to-cusp relation that increases the posterior vertical dimension contributes to an anterior open bite. Methods Study casts were examined from orthodontic patients aged 10 to 27 years, 21 with an open bite and 28 with a scissor deep bite. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the contribution of various factors to these two anterior occlusal patterns. The dental arch width and number of worn cusps were compared between the two groups. Results Patients with an open bite had a significantly higher incidence of a posterior buccal-lingual cusp-to-cusp relation, wider mandibular arch in the molar region, and larger numbers of worn maxillary buccal cusps and mandibular lingual cusps than patients with a scissor deep bite. Conclusions A posterior buccal-lingual cusp-to-cusp relation is associated with a larger anterior vertical dimension, such as that in patients with an open bite.

  6. Snake-bite-induced Acute Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients presenting to a tertiary care kidney center, developing acute kidney injury (AKI) after snake-bite. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Nephrology Department, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, from January 1990 to December 2014. Methodology: All patients coming to SIUT identified as having AKI after snake-bite during the study period were included. AKI was defined according to RIFLE criteria with sudden rise in creatinine or decline in urine output or both. Demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory profile, and final outcome was noted. Result: During the studied period, 115 cases of AKI, secondary to snake-bite, were registered at this institution. Median age of patients was 35.92 ±15.04 (range: 6 - 70) years and male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Time from bite and referral to this hospital ranged from 2 to 28 days (mean: 8.77 ±5.58 days). Oligo-anuria was the most common presentation, being found in 98 (93.90 percentage) patients. Bleeding diathesis was reported in 75 (65.21 percentage) patients on presentation. All patients had normal sized, non-obstructed kidneys on ultrasonography, with no previous comorbids. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 106 (92.17 percentage) patients. Complete recovery was seen in 59 (51.30 percentage), while 15 (13.04 percentage) patients expired during acute phase of illness, 4 (3.47 percentage) developed CKD, 11 (9.56 percentage) required dialysis beyond 90 days, and 26 (22.60 percentage) were lost to long-term follow-up. Conclusion: Snake-bite, leading to multiple complications including renal failure and death, is a major health issue in tropical countries. Late referral of these patients to specialized centres Result in undesirable outcome. (author)

  7. Is current bite mark analysis a misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J G; Blackwell, S A

    2010-09-10

    Four human-to-human bite mark cases in which forensic odontological opinion was found to be in error, or at best deeply divided between experts, are described. These are used to illustrate that there is a growing awareness on the part of the legal profession that bite mark opinions by experts may often be little more than that and that these opinions often cannot be substantiated given the paucity of rigorous scientific evaluation, and will therefore be increasingly challenged. This may not best serve justice and so it is argued that forensic odontology needs to bring more scientific rigour to the evaluation of bite marks. This may threaten to disenfranchise some of the current practitioners and there may be some resistance to change. Forensic odontology is not the only identification science facing such problems, but nevertheless a paradigm shift is predicted in the way bite mark evidence will have to be gathered and evaluated in the future. Some new scientific approaches are described that strive to unravel some of the most basic problems confronting our profession when we attempt to make morphometric comparisons between injuries and the dentition of the biter. A need to capture the actions and consequences of biting in 3D dimensions and simultaneously in real-time is proposed as a path of investigation highly likely to bring some clarity to a confused situation. There is also an urgent need for the ongoing controversy between some of our eminent peers relating to the assumed uniqueness, or otherwise, of the human anterior dentition to be resolved. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immediate and Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions to Corticosteroids: Evaluation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Iris M; Banerji, Aleena

    2016-03-01

    Corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory medications used widely to treat allergic inflammation. Although the endocrine and gastrointestinal side effects of corticosteroids have been described, the occurrence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions and delayed contact dermatitis due to corticosteroids remains under-recognized. Hypersensitivity reactions can occur to a corticosteroid itself, or to the additives and vehicles in corticosteroid preparations. Skin testing and oral graded challenge can help confirm the suspected culprit agent in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and help identify an alternative tolerated corticosteroid. Patch testing can help identify the culprit agents in delayed hypersensitivity contact dermatitis. Cross-reactivity patterns have not been observed for immediate hypersensitivity reactions as they have been for delayed contact dermatitis. Sensitization in contact dermatitis exhibits cross-reactivity patterns based on corticosteroid structure. We review the current understanding regarding the clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids.

  9. Analysis and identification of bite marks in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of bite marks plays an important role in personal identification in forensic casework. Bite marks can be recorded in violent crimes such as sexual offences, homicides, child abuse cases, and during sports events. The arrangement, size and alignment of human teeth are individualistic to each person. Teeth, acting as tools leave recognizable marks depending on tooth arrangement, malocclusion, habits, occupation, tooth fracture, and missing or extra teeth. Bite mark identification is based on the individuality of a dentition, which is used to match a bite mark to a suspect. Bite marks are often considered as valuable alternative to fingerprinting and DNA identification in forensic examinations. The present review describes the classification, characteristics, mechanism of production, and appearance of bite mark injuries, collection of evidence, comparison techniques, and technical aids in the analysis of the bite marks.

  10. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  11. Nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease secondary to spider bite: clinico-pathological case of a non-described complication of latrodectism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Gonzalo P; Enos, Daniel; Moreira, José Luis; Alvaredo, Fátima; Oddó, David

    2017-04-01

    The patient was an 18-year-old man who developed nephrotic syndrome after a 'wheat spider' bite ( Latrodectus mactans ). Due to this atypical manifestation of latrodectism, a renal biopsy was performed showing minimal change disease. The nephrotic syndrome subsided after 1 week without specific treatment. This self-limited evolution suggests that the mechanism of podocyte damage was temporary and potentially mediated by a secondary mechanism of hypersensitivity or direct effect of the α-latrotoxin. The patient did not show signs of relapse in subsequent checkup. This is the first reported case of nephrotic syndrome due to a minimal change lesion secondary to latrodectism.

  12. Escape rates and biting histories of dogs confined to their owner's property through the use of various containment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starinsky, Nicole S; Lord, Linda K; Herron, Meghan E

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine escape rates for dogs confined to their owner's property by various containment methods and determine whether biting history was associated with containment method. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 974 owners of 1,053 dogs. PROCEDURES Individuals patronizing pet stores in Columbus, Ohio, were recruited to complete a survey on the method they used to confine their dogs to their property and their dogs' behavior history. RESULTS Dogs were confined to their owner's property by a physical fence (821/1,053 [78.0%]), electronic fence (150/1,053 [14.2%]), or tether system (82/1,053 [7.8%]). Dogs confined by an electronic fence were more likely to have escaped (66/150 [44.0%]) than were dogs confined by a see-through fence (153/658 [23.3%]), privacy fence (38/163 [23.3%]), or tether (22/82 [26.8%]). Forty-eight (4.6%) dogs had reportedly bitten a person in the past, and 81 (7.7%) had reportedly bitten another dog, but containment method was not significantly associated with whether dogs had ever bitten a person or another dog. Greeting behavior (growling, snarling, or trying to bite) was significantly associated with a history of biting a person or another dog. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that escape rate, but not biting history, was associated with the method owners used to confine dogs to their properties. Greeting behavior was associated with biting history, suggesting that owners of dogs that growl, snarl, or attempt to bite when meeting an unfamiliar person or dog should seek assistance to prevent future bites.

  13. The influence of bubbles on the perception carbonation bite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Wise

    Full Text Available Although many people naively assume that the bite of carbonation is due to tactile stimulation of the oral cavity by bubbles, it has become increasingly clear that carbonation bite comes mainly from formation of carbonic acid in the oral mucosa. In Experiment 1, we asked whether bubbles were in fact required to perceive carbonation bite. Subjects rated oral pungency from several concentrations of carbonated water both at normal atmospheric pressure (at which bubbles could form and at 2.0 atmospheres pressure (at which bubbles did not form. Ratings of carbonation bite under the two pressure conditions were essentially identical, indicating that bubbles are not required for pungency. In Experiment 2, we created controlled streams of air bubbles around the tongue in mildly pungent CO2 solutions to determine how tactile stimulation from bubbles affects carbonation bite. Since innocuous sensations like light touch and cooling often suppress pain, we predicted that bubbles might reduce rated bite. Contrary to prediction, air bubbles flowing around the tongue significantly enhanced rated bite, without inducing perceived bite in blank (un-carbonated solutions. Accordingly, though bubbles are clearly not required for carbonation bite, they may well modulate perceived bite. More generally, the results show that innocuous tactile stimulation can enhance chemogenic pain. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Bite Forces and Their Measurement in Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bite force is generated by the interaction of the masticatory muscles, the mandibles and maxillae, the temporomandibular joints (TMJs, and the teeth. Several methods to measure bite forces in dogs and cats have been described. Direct in vivo measurement of a bite in dogs has been done; however, bite forces were highly variable due to animal volition, situation, or specific measurement technique. Bite force has been measured in vivo from anesthetized dogs by electrical stimulation of jaw adductor muscles, but this may not be reflective of volitional bite force during natural activity. In vitro bite forces have been estimated by calculation of the force produced using mechanical equations representing the jaw adductor muscles and of the mandible and skull structure Bite force can be estimated in silico using finite element analysis (FEA of the computed model of the anatomical structures. FEA can estimate bite force in extinct species; however, estimates may be lower than the measurements in live animals and would have to be validated specifically in domestic dogs and cats to be reliable. The main factors affecting the bite forces in dogs and cats are body weight and the skull’s morphology and size. Other factors such as oral pain, TMJ disorders, masticatory muscle atrophy, and malocclusion may also affect bite force. Knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats is essential for various clinical and research fields such as the development of implants, materials, and surgical techniques as well as for forensic medicine. This paper is a summary of current knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats, including the effect of measurement methods and of other factors.

  15. Local and general anesthetics immediate hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcheck, Gerald W; Mertes, Paul Michel

    2014-08-01

    Intraoperative anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions in the setting of anesthesia contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of surgeries and surgical procedures. Because multiple medications and products are given in a short period of time, identifying the specific cause can be difficult. Neuromuscular blocking agents, antibiotics, and latex are the most common causes of anesthesia-related reactions, though other medications or exposures could be involved. Careful review of anesthetic charts and allergy testing can help identify the underlying cause. The identification of the cause and subsequent prevention of reactions are critical to reduce overall mortality and morbidity related to anesthesia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypersensitivity to pain in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Vision is important for avoiding encounters with objects in the environment that may imperil physical integrity. We tested whether, in the absence of vision, a lower pain threshold would arise from an adaptive shift to other sensory channels. We therefore measured heat and cold pain thresholds...... that blind subjects are more attentive to signals of external threats. These findings indicate that the absence of vision from birth induces a hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, lending new support to a model of sensory integration of vision and pain processing....

  17. 7th Drug hypersensitivity meeting: part two

    OpenAIRE

    Elera, Javier Dionicio; Boteanu, Cosmin; Blanco, Maria Aranzazu Jimenez; Gonzalez-Mendiola, Rosario; García, Irene Carrasco; Alvarez, Antonio; Martinez, Jose Julio Laguna; Garrido, Jaume Martí; Barona, Carla Torán; Chorda, Carolina Perales; Salgueiro, Ramón López; Palacios, Miguel Díaz; De Rojas, Dolores Hernández Fernández; Acar, Emre Ali; Aktas, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents Poster walk 11: miscellaneous drug hypersensitivity 2 (P92–P94, P96–P101) P92 16 years of experience with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) Javier Dionicio Elera, Cosmin Boteanu, Maria Aranzazu Jimenez Blanco, Rosario Gonzalez-Mendiola, Irene Carrasco García, Antonio Alvarez, Jose Julio Laguna Martinez P93 Allergy evaluation of quinolone induced adverse reactions Jaume Martí Garrido, Carla Torán Barona, Carolina Perales Chorda, Ramón López Salgueiro, Miguel Díaz Palacios, Dolore...

  18. 7th Drug hypersensitivity meeting: part two

    OpenAIRE

    Elera, Javier Dionicio; Boteanu, Cosmin; Blanco, Maria Aranzazu Jimenez; Gonzalez-Mendiola, Rosario; Garc?a, Irene Carrasco; Alvarez, Antonio; Martinez, Jose Julio Laguna; Garrido, Jaume Mart?; Barona, Carla Tor?n; Chorda, Carolina Perales; Salgueiro, Ram?n L?pez; Palacios, Miguel D?az; De Rojas, Dolores Hern?ndez Fern?ndez; Acar, Emre Ali; Aktas, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents Poster walk 11: miscellaneous drug hypersensitivity 2 (P92?P94, P96?P101) P92 16?years of experience with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) Javier Dionicio Elera, Cosmin Boteanu, Maria Aranzazu Jimenez Blanco, Rosario Gonzalez-Mendiola, Irene Carrasco Garc?a, Antonio Alvarez, Jose Julio Laguna Martinez P93 Allergy evaluation of quinolone induced adverse reactions Jaume Mart? Garrido, Carla Tor?n Barona, Carolina Perales Chorda, Ram?n L?pez Salgueiro, Miguel D?az Palacios, Dolore...

  19. Repair deficient and hypersensitive diseases of man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Bodell, W.J.; Park, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Many diseases are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents but only xeroderma pigmentosum is consistently DNA repair deficient. Groups A to G exhibit reduction in excision of pyrimidine dimers and other lesions, the variant an alteration in polymerization or ligation. Pulse chase experiments indicate that excision defective and variant cells suffer increased blocking of replication forks during semiconservative replication after irradiation; but later bypass of such blocks is completely normal in all cell types. Thus, the variant is not defective in post-replication repair, and even the definition of such a system comes under question.

  20. Pain hypersensitivity mechanisms at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Vijayan; Kuner, Rohini

    2013-07-01

    There are two basic categories of pain: physiological pain, which serves an important protective function, and pathological pain, which can have a major negative impact on quality of life in the context of human disease. Major progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive sensory transduction, amplification and conduction in peripheral pain-sensing neurons, communication of sensory inputs to spinal second-order neurons, and the eventual modulation of sensory signals by spinal and descending circuits. This poster article endeavors to provide an overview of how molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying nociception in a physiological context undergo plasticity in pathophysiological states, leading to pain hypersensitivity and chronic pain.

  1. Effectiveness of a fixed anterior bite plane in Class II deep-bite patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare Lorenzo; Persin, Leonid; Tugarin, Valery; Markova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment of patients with distoclusion combined with dental deep bite and linguo version of the front upper teeth is one of the most difficult forms of malocclusion to treat to a functional and morphological optimum. Our objective was to analyze the efficacy of a fixed anterior bite plane appliance to disclude the teeth and correct this type of malocclusion. At the Department of Orthodontics MSUMD (Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry), we proposed the use of a fixed anterior bite plane for the effective treatment of patients with distoclusion combined to a dental deep bite. This appliance was used in 35 patients aged 11 to 15 years (13.2 +/- 1.2) with distoclusion combined with deep bite in a therapeutical approach that also involved an osteopathic correction. The appliance permitted the correction of the distoclusion by discluding the posterior teeth, allowing eruption of the molars and premolars which improved the occlusal plane line (Curve of Spee) and changed the inclination of the upper incisors which liberated the mandible from its retruded position. We also noted an effect on the postural status of the patient.

  2. [Venomous and poisonous animals. II. Viper bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P

    2006-10-01

    Vipers are the main cause of the snake envenomations on all continents except Australia where they are none. Viper envenomation may lead to a minimal inflammatory syndrome with clinical (pain, edema) and biological (hyperleukocytosis, proteinuria) manifestations that may be accompanied by hypotension or shock. Emergency situations are due to hemorrhagic syndrome. In frequent cases in which envenomation is limited to a dramatic decrease in coagulation factors without clinical manifestations, severe local or systemic hemorrhage may occur especially if treatment is delayed. Necrotic complications around the bite or in distant vital organs are not uncommon and require careful medical and surgical surveillance. Intravenous antivenom therapy is the only effective treatment. It should be given as soon as possible but can be effective even when administered several days after the bite.

  3. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  4. Evaluation of Snake Bites with Bedside Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef E Jolissaint

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: While watering his lawn, a 36-year-old man felt two sharp bites to his bilateral ankles. He reports that he then saw a light brown, 2-foot snake slither away from him. He came to the emergency department because of pain and swelling in his ankles and inability to bear weight. Physical examination revealed bilateral ankle swelling and puncture marks on his left lateral heel and medial right ankle. Palpation, passive flexion and extension elicited severe pain bilaterally. Blood work including prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PTT, international normalized ratio (INR, and fibrinogen were within normal limits. Consultation with Poison Control indicated the snake was likely a copperhead, which is a venomous snake whose bites rarely require antivenin. Significant findings: In this case, ultrasonography of the lateral surface of the left foot revealed soft tissue edema (red arrow and fluid collection (white asterisk adjacent to the extensor tendon (white arrow. The edematous area resembles cobblestones, with hypoechoic areas of fluid spanning relatively hyperechoic fat lobules. The tendon is surrounded by anechoic fluid, expanding the potential space in the sheath. No hyperechoic foreign objects were noted. Discussion: The patient was diagnosed with soft tissue injury and extensor tenosynovitis after a snake envenomation. Snake venom contains metalloproteinases and other enzymatic proteins that cause local tissue edema and necrosis.1 After a snake bite, ultrasound can be used to assess for retained fangs, soft tissue edema, tendon sheath fluid, muscle fasciculation, and injury to deeper musculature that may not be readily apparent on physical exam.2,3 Most patients with tenosynovitis will recover with immobilization of the joint and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications.4 Rarely, the tendon may become infected requiring antibiotics and surgical intervention.4 Topics: Ultrasound, snake envenomation

  5. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G.; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    1994-01-01

    Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to Seed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance...... and a contributory factor in the transmission of diseases. The authors examine the biology, economic importance and control of four of the most important nonbiting muscids:...

  6. Profile of dog bite victims in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria: a review of dog bite records (2006-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olaniran; Nguku, Patrick; Chukwukere, Silvester; Gaddo, Ayika; Nsubuga, Peter; Umoh, Joliath

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are the major reservoir of rabies virus in Nigeria; transmission to humans is via a bite by rabid dog. Between 2006 and 2008 National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) rabies laboratory reported increased numbers of rabies in dogs and human dog bites. The objective of the study was to use veterinary and health records to develop a profile of bite victims and recommend appropriate public health actions. We used the dog brain specimen result register of Rabies Laboratory of NVRI, from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008" and traced dog bite cases. Structured questionnaires were administered to persons who reported dog bite incident and could be traced. We reviewed records from Evangelical Churches of West Africa (ECWA) clinic from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008" to collect detailed profiles of bite victims. Bite victims linked to positive dog samples were traced to "ECWA clinic" from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008". Most bite victims were dogs were housed and unvaccinated. This study provided important information on the profile of dog bite victims and highlights the need for a sustained awareness and education of children on the dangers of dog bite. It has shown lack of enforcement of regulations for licensing of dogs and rabies vaccination.

  7. Flaccid skin protects hagfishes from shark bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggett, Sarah; Stiles, Jean-Luc; Summers, Adam P; Fudge, Douglas S

    2017-12-01

    Hagfishes defend themselves from fish predators by releasing large volumes of gill-clogging slime when they are attacked. Slime release is not anticipatory, but is only released after an attack has been initiated, raising the question of how hagfishes survive the initial attack, especially from biting predators such as sharks. We tested two hypotheses that could explain how hagfishes avoid damage from shark bites: puncture-resistant skin, and a loose and flaccid body design that makes it difficult for teeth to penetrate body musculature and viscera. Based on data from skin puncture tests from 22 fish species, we found that hagfish skin is not remarkably puncture resistant. Simulated shark bites on hagfish and their closest living relatives, lamprey, as well as whole animal inflation tests, revealed that the loose attachment of hagfish skin to the rest of the body and the substantial 'slack volume' in the subcutaneous sinus protect hagfish musculature and viscera from penetrating teeth. While recent work has found evidence that the capacious subcutaneous sinus in hagfishes is important for behaviours such as knot-tying and burrowing, our work demonstrates that it also plays a role in predator defence. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Association between Severity of Tooth Wear and Dentinal Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Ayer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Tooth wear (attrition, abrasion, erosion, and abfraction is perceived globally as ever increasing problem. Several outcome of the tooth wear are hypersensitivity, esthetic problems, functional impairment, annoyance to the patient, and fracture of the tooth. Among these, the measurable and more commonly reported outcome is hypersensitivity to stimuli. Although dentin hypersensitivity is a common clinical condition and is generally reported by the patient after experiencing a sharp, short pain caused by one of the several different external stimuli, it is often inadequately understood. None of the scientific literature available till date attempted to establish the relationship between tooth wear and dentin hypersensitivity which could be a key factor in monitoring those patients.  The aim of the study was to estimate the association between severity of teeth wear and sensitivity in the patients with reported dentinal hypersensitivity.Materials & Methods: Fifty patients with dentin hypersensitivity were investigated for tooth wear. Tooth wear measured using exact tooth wear index and level of sensitivity to stimuli was recorded using a numerical rating scale. Results: Enamel wear at cervical region of teeth showed a positive correlation (p=.010, similarly, dentin wear at cervical region of teeth showed positive correlation and significant association (p<.001 with dentinal hypersensitivity.Conclusion: The observation supports a significant association between severities of tooth surface wear and dentinal hypersensitivity.

  9. Hypersensitivity to laminaria: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Tania; Figueroa, Melissa M; Chen, Katherine T; Lunde, Britt; Jacobs, Adam

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of laminaria hypersensitivity treated with diphenhydramine and corticosteroids. A literature review identified 10 previously reported cases, with 8 recognized as anaphylaxis, and good outcomes with corticosteroids and antihistamines despite limited epinephrine utilization. Laminaria hypersensitivity is likely IgE mediated with an increased anaphylaxis risk with prior exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Frequency, treatment, and functional outcome in children with hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Pedersen, Karen Damgaard

    2011-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare interstitial lung disease and very few data regarding frequency, treatment and outcome exist for children. Children identified with hypersensitivity pneumonia from a Danish national cohort with diffuse interstitial lung disease form the basis of this study f...

  11. Teenagers' experiences of living with food hypersensitivity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Heather; Roberts, Graham; van Laar, Darren; Dean, Taraneh

    2010-06-01

    Teenagers are a high-risk group for food-hypersensitivity fatalities, engage in risk-taking behaviours and may experience impaired quality of life. Understanding their experience is important to inform their care. This study aimed to describe the lived experiences of teenagers with food hypersensitivity. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 teenagers (13-18 yr) with food hypersensitivity to a variety of foods and analysed using a phenomenological approach. Teenagers described living with (or coming to know) food hypersensitivity (FHS) as a way of life but still found living with food hypersensitivity to be burdensome. A necessary part of living with food hypersensitivity was coping with associated burden; a variety of coping strategies were employed to this effect. Teenagers described ways in which the burden of living with food hypersensitivity was alleviated or exacerbated by others. Management of food hypersensitivity was based on an assessment of acceptable risk resulting in varying levels of precaution taking. Teenagers' understanding of their FHS and ability to cope with it needs to be regularly assessed. Educational support may be required to ensure they take an appropriate level of precautions to minimize the chance of future reactions while not over compromising their quality of life. Psychological support may be required to help them to utilize healthy adaptive strategies to cope with the stresses of living with FHS. This approach is also likely to facilitate the smooth handover of responsibility from parent to teenager.

  12. Cough reflex hypersensitivity: A role for neurotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Jaffal, Sahar M

    2017-03-01

    Cough is one of the most common complaints for which sufferers seek medical assistance. However, currently available drugs are not very effective in treating cough, particularly that which follows an upper respiratory tract infection. Nonetheless, there has been a significant increase in our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways of the defensive cough as well as the hypersensitive/pathophysiological cough, both at airway and central nervous system (CNS) levels. Numerous molecules and signaling pathways have been identified as potential targets for antitussive drugs, including neurotrophins (NTs). NTs belong to a family of trophic factors and are critical for the development and maintenance of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system including sympathetic efferents, sensory neuron afferents, and immune cells. Nerve growth factor (NGF) was the first member of the NT family to be discovered, with wide ranging actions associated with synapse formation, survival, proliferation, apoptosis, axonal and dendritic outgrowth, expression and activity of functionally important proteins such as ion channels, receptors, and neurotransmitters. In addition, NGF has been implicated in several disease states particularly neuropathic pain and most recently in the sensitization of the cough reflex. This review will briefly address the peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms of airway neurons and will then focus on NGF signaling and its role in cough hypersensitivity.

  13. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin may have prolonged the typical two to three days’ incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic.

  14. Biting back: BiTE antibodies as a promising therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Roland B

    2014-06-01

    The experience with gemtuzumab ozogamicin has highlighted both the potential value and limitations of antibodies in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibodies have emerged as a means to harness polyclonal cytotoxic T-cells and cause highly efficient lysis of targeted tumor cells. Promising early results have been obtained with the CD19-directed BiTE antibody, blinatumomab, in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A first candidate for AML is the CD33/CD3 molecule, AMG 330, for which several recent preclinical studies demonstrated high potency and efficacy in destroying CD33(+) human AML cells. Many questions remain to be addressed, but BiTE antibodies may offer an exciting new tool in a disease for which the outcomes in many patients remain unsatisfactory.

  15. Implant-Supported Bite Blocks for Open Bite Correction in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umal H Doshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altering the vertical dimension of the face remains one of the greatest clinical challenges with a multitude of orthodontic, orthopedic and surgical interventions recommended for the correction of associated skeletal, dental and neuromuscular abnormalities. Along with treatment, long-term stability of open bite corrections remains questionable, mainly because of weak musculature. Use of posterior bite blocks has been advocated to stretch the muscles and in turn increases the muscle strength. Muscle stretching also assists in posterior teeth intrusion. In adult patients, implants have been shown to be quite effective for active intrusion. This article highlights an innovative approach which essentially incorporates posterior bite block with active intruding component, i.e. implants. A specific protocol of treatment and retention with this approach is described.

  16. Managing hypersensitivity to asparaginase in pediatrics, adolescents, and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnick, Sara E; Browning, Mary L; Koontz, Susannah E

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutic drugs have been documented for numerous cancer therapies. Clinical hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli asparaginase has been reported to range from 0% to 75%. Throughout the United States, nurses assume frontline responsibility for the assessment of asparaginase-related hypersensitivity reactions. It is essential that nurses educate themselves on the signs and symptoms of asparaginase-related hypersensitivity reactions as well as current supportive care approaches. The purpose of this review is to summarize acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the role of asparaginase and the pathology of allergic reactions. We will also update nurses on the differences in asparaginase preparations including dosing, half-life, rates of hypersensitivity, and routes of administration. A summary of current management and supportive care strategies will be provided as will a discussion of the relationship between allergy, antibodies, and asparaginase activity.

  17. Mammalian Bite Injuries to the Hand and Their Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Shilpa; Khan, Wasim S; Siddiqui, Nashat A

    2014-01-01

    Bite wounds are a common form of hand injury with the potential to lead to severe local and systemic sequelae and permanent functional impairment. Mammalian bite wounds may be caused by a variety of animal class and species; injuries resulting from dogs, cats and humans are the most widely discussed and reported in the literature. Bite wounds may be contaminated with aggressive pathogens and the anatomical vulnerability of structures within the hand means that without early recognition and tr...

  18. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Leshem, Lall

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small...

  19. Bite mark analysis in forensic routine case work

    OpenAIRE

    Lessig, R.; Weber, M.; Wenzel, V.

    2006-01-01

    The individuality of the human dentition frequently allows the Forensic Odonto-Stomatologist (FOS) to reach a strong opinion of association in cases of identification and bite mark analy-sis. Such analysis can often be useful during the investigation of violent crimes, especially those involving sexual assault. Bites from animals are rarely the object of bite mark analysis. The teeth of animals leave patterned injuries that appear quite different from those created by human teeth. This is esp...

  20. Recognition of bite marks in child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, S A

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals must be attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. Bite marks are one of several visual expressions of active child abuse. The efforts of forensic odontologists, in conjunction with recent technical advancements in bite mark analysis, support the uniqueness of the human dentition and have contributed to the conviction of numerous child abusers. Through recognition, proper documentation, and reporting dentists can help the forensic community use bite marks to solve cases of child maltreatment.

  1. Approximate MAP Decoding on Tail-Biting Trellises

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu, A. S.; Shankar, Priti

    2005-01-01

    We propose two approximate algorithms for MAP decoding on tail-biting trellises. The algorithms work on a subset of nodes of the tail-biting trellis, judiciously selected. We report the results of simulations on an AWGN channel using the approximate algorithms on tail-biting trellises for the $(24,12)$ Extended Golay Code and a rate 1/2 convolutional code with memory 6.

  2. Bite force measurement based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Srivani; Umesh, Sharath; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Srinivas, Talabattula

    2017-10-01

    The maximum level of voluntary bite force, which results from the combined action of muscle of mastication, joints, and teeth, i.e., craniomandibular structure, is considered as one of the major indicators for the functional state of the masticatory system. Measurement of voluntary bite force provides useful data for the jaw muscle function and activity along with assessment of prosthetics. This study proposes an in vivo methodology for the dynamic measurement of bite force employing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor known as bite force measurement device (BFMD). The BFMD developed is a noninvasive intraoral device, which transduces the bite force exerted at the occlusal surface into strain variations on a metal plate. These strain variations are acquired by the FBG sensor bonded over it. The BFMD developed facilitates adjustment of the distance between the biting platform, which is essential to capture the maximum voluntary bite force at three different positions of teeth, namely incisor, premolar, and molar sites. The clinically relevant bite forces are measured at incisor, molar, and premolar position and have been compared against each other. Furthermore, the bite forces measured with all subjects are segregated according to gender and also compared against each other.

  3. Bite force and dental implant treatment: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flanagan D

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dennis Flanagan1,2 1Department of Dental Medicine, Implantology LUdeS Foundation, Ricasoli, Malta; 2Private Practice, Willimantic, CT, USA Abstract: Dental implants are placed endosseously, and the bone is the ultimate bearer of the occlusal load. Patients are not uniform in the maximum bite force they can generate. The occlusal biting load in the posterior jaw is usually about three times of that found in the anterior. It is possible for supporting implants to be overloaded by the patients’ biting force, resulting in bone loss and failure of the fixture. Bite force measurement may be an important parameter when planning dental implant treatment. Some patients can generate extreme biting loads that may cause a luxation of the fixture and subsequent loss of osseointegration. A patient with low biting force may be able to have a successful long-term outcome even with poor anatomical bone qualities. Patients with a high bite force capability may have an increased risk for late component fracture or implant failure. There is no correlation of any bite force value that would indicate any overload of a given implant in a given osseous site. Nonetheless, after bite force measurement, a qualitative judgement may be made by the clinician for the selection of an implant diameter and length and prosthetic design. Keywords: occlusal load, newtons, oral function, force, sensor, software

  4. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog ...

  5. Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, K. T.; Falkingham, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    Bite mechanics and feeding behaviour in Tyrannosaurus rex are controversial. Some contend that a modest bite mechanically limited T. rex to scavenging, while others argue that high bite forces facilitated a predatory mode of life. We use dynamic musculoskeletal models to simulate maximal biting in T. rex. Models predict that adult T. rex generated sustained bite forces of 35 000–57 000 N at a single posterior tooth, by far the highest bite forces estimated for any terrestrial animal. Scaling ...

  6. Selective immediate hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Maria Gabriela; Andreu, Isabel; Fernandez, Javier; Blanca, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Selective immediate reactions to NSAIDs imply that patients develop a urticarial/anaphylactic response to a single drug with good tolerance to other compounds. No systematic review of these reactions has yet been made. With the increase in consumption of NSAIDs, these have become one of the most common drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. Although cross-intolerance reactions are the most common, a significant proportion is selective responses. As specific IgE antibodies are not always found, there is only indirect evidence supporting an IgE-mediated mechanism in selective NSAID reactors. Selective immediate reactions to NSAIDs must be considered when a patient develops urticaria or anaphylaxis after intake of one drug with good tolerance to drugs from other groups or even a drug from the same group with a slightly different chemical structure. Further research is required to identify the antigenic determinant structures recognized.

  7. Latex hypersensitivity in a horse farmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, C; Fraser, B

    1996-01-01

    Latex immediate hypersensitivity has been documented in 28% to 67% of spina bifida patients, 2.6%-16.9% of health care workers and at least 1% of the general population. Additionally, it has been confirmed in food-sensitive individuals sensitive to cross-reacting foods such as chestnut, avocado, banana, and passion fruits. Recently it has been observed even in low risk populations that are defined by absence of the conventional risk factors of atopy and exposure. We report the first documented case of latex allergy in a horse farmer who had the joint factors of atopy and exposure. This case exemplifies the paramount importance of screening all patients with a careful history first and appropriate testing for latex allergy when possible.

  8. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals......Immune-mediated tissue damage or hypersensitivity can be mediated by autospecific IgG antibodies. Pathology results from activation of complement, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, mediated by inflammatory effector leukocytes include macrophages, natural killer cells, and granulocytes...... injection of antibody and complement to the CNS, or experimental manipulations to induce BBB breakdown. We here review studies in MS and NMO that elucidate roles for IgG and complement in the induction of BBB breakdown, astrocytopathy, and demyelinating pathology. These studies point to significance of T...

  9. Biting injuries and transmission of Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamede, Rodrigo K; McCallum, Hamish; Jones, Menna

    2013-01-01

    The Tasmanian devil is threatened with extinction by devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a unique infectious cancer in which the tumour cells themselves, which derive from a single long-dead host devil, are the infective agent and the tumour is an infectious parasitic cell line. Transmission is thought to occur via direct inoculation of tumour cells when susceptible and infected individuals bite each other or by fomitic transfer of tumour cells. The nature of transmission and the extent to which biting behaviour and devil ecology is associated with infection risk remains unclear. Until our recent study in north-west Tasmania showed reduced population and individual impacts, DFTD had caused massive population declines in all populations monitored. In this paper, we investigate seasonal patterns of injuries resulting from bites between individuals, DFTD infection status and tumour location in two populations to determine whether the number of bites predicts the acquisition of DFTD and to explore the possibility that the reduced impacts of DFTD in north-west Tasmania are attributed to reduced bite rates. Devils with fewer bites were more likely to develop DFTD and primary tumours occurred predominantly inside the oral cavity. These results are not consistent with transmission occurring from the biter to the bitten animal but suggest that dominant individuals delivering bites, possibly by biting the tumours of other devils, are at higher risk of acquiring infection than submissive individuals receiving bites. Bite rates, which were higher during autumn and winter, did not differ between sites, suggesting that the reduced population impacts in north-west Tasmania cannot be explained by lower bite rates. Our study emphasizes the importance of longitudinal studies of individually marked animals for understanding the ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and parasites in wild populations. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British

  10. Three-dimensional analyses of human bite-force magnitude and moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijden, T M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the three-dimensional orientation of occlusal force on maximal bite-force magnitude was examined in seven human subjects at three different unilateral anteroposterior bite positions (canine, second premolar and second molar). At each position, bite-force magnitude was registered in 17 precisely defined directions using a three-component force transducer and a feedback method. In addition, to assess the efficiency of transfer of muscle to bite force, for bites produced in the sagittal plane, moment-arm length was determined and the produced bite-force moment calculated. The results showed that the largest possible bite force was not always produced in a direction perpendicular to the occlusal plane. Generally, maximal bite force in medial and posterior directions was larger than that in, respectively, corresponding lateral and anterior directions. In each direction the produced force was larger at the posterior bite point than at the anterior bite point. The combined moment produced by the jaw muscles was largest for vertical bites, smallest for posteriorly directed bites and intermediate for anteriorly directed bites. In the case of vertically and anteriorly directed bites the produced moment did not vary significantly with the bite position. Hence, for these bite positions the jaw closing moment of the muscles must have kept constant. In the case of posteriorly directed bites the produced moment decreased when bite position changed from the anterior to the posterior side of the dentition. This indicated that jaw muscle activity had declined.

  11. Culicoides Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Kibanga, Uganda Protectorate, A. D. Fraser , VIII- 10 (BMNH). n* _ ~~wnncic A mdilrm-Sized b ______ 5 __ ^_^--_-___ Aark hr~wn spcip. , ---- Females eyes...5,300 ft, S. A. Neave , biting hand at light (1930 hours), 21-28-V-11. Paratype: P, same data as holotype (BMNH). Culicoides julvtthorax (Austen...Intype: Q, vie, KI.uC, I_Jmiro; Uganda Protecto- rate, 3,700 ft elev., S. A. Neave , 1618-VIII-11 (BMNH). Culictides multiguttutu Goetghebuer 193.513

  12. [Reactions to insect stings and bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubojević, Suzana; Lipozencić, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Reaction to insect sting and bite may be local, such as erythema, edema and pruritus, or systemic, such as anaphylactic reaction. Diagnosis can be made by patient history, clinical picture, skin testing, total and specific IgE level, and provocation test. Local reactions are treated with cold compresses, topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. Oral and intramuscular antihistamines and corticosteroids are used for the treatment of mild systemic reactions, and in severe reaction epinephrine injections are added. Hyposensitization is indicated in patients with severe systemic reaction, positive skin tests and high level of specific IgE antibodies.

  13. Dilemma in the Diagnosis of Povidone-Iodine Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Povidone-iodine is a commonly used antiseptic solution in surgical practice. Almost every patient who needs a minor or a major surgical procedure (sometimes, a medical procedure too gets exposed to this antiseptic. Even though the use of this antiseptic is widespread, the number of cases reporting hypersensitivity to it is meagre. This case report highlights a case of povidone-iodine – induced hypersensitivity, which presented a great difficulty in diagnosis, due to the usage of other drugs that could have been more likely causes for this hypersensitivity.

  14. Ceftriaxone Induced Hypersensitivity Reactions Following Intradermal Skin Test: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sereen Rose Thomson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cephalosporin induced hypersensitivity reactions in non-penicillin allergic patients is about 1.7% and in penicillin allergic patients it is about 3-5%. Infact, cephalosporins are considered as the first choice in penicillin allergic patients who need antibiotic therapy intraoperatively. Prompt identification of patients with beta-lactam allergy would lead to an improved utilization of antibiotics and reduced occurrence of resistant strains. We hereby attempt to present a series of cases where ceftriaxone has been implicated in the manifestation of various hypersensitivity reactions. We have also tried to highlight some of the errors, risk factors and other drugs that precipitate a hypersensitivity reaction.

  15. Hypersensitivity Reactions from Excipients in Systemic Glucocorticoid Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calogiuri, Gianfranco; Garvey, Lene H; Romita, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most widely used drugs for the treatment of hypersensitivity, however these drugs themselves and the excipients contained in commercial corticosteroid formulations are able to induce severe immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions. Reactions involving excipients have been...... confirmed to be IgE mediated by the demonstration of specific-IgE to excipients such as carboxymethylcellulose and lactose. In case of hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroid preparations, a complete allergy work-up with skin tests and/or challenge tests should include testing excipients as well...

  16. Hypersensitivity to titanium: a less explored area of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Vasantha; Sabane, Ajay V; Tejas, K

    2012-12-01

    Titanium is considered as an excellent biocompatible metal and it is used in implant dentistry. Literature suggests that Ti can induce clinically relevant hypersensitivity and other immune dysfunctions in certain patients chronically exposed to this reactive metal. At the same time, no standard patch test for Ti has so far been developed, and positive reactions to Ti have therefore only rarely been demonstrated with skin testing. This article reports about the corrosion of dental implants, their significance when hypersensitivity is present, and the literature available till date regarding hypersensitivity of titanium.

  17. Retrospective study of dog bite cases reported to ECWA Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of dog bite cases reported to ECWA Veterinary Clinic Bukuru was carried out in Plateau State, Nigeria to understand the pattern of occurrence in this region. A total of two hundred and forty seven (247) dog bite cases were reported between May, 2009 and June, 2010. The dogs profile showed that ...

  18. Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa. Fasil Mengistu1, Kedir Hussen1, Abraham Ali1, Goroma Getahun1, Dessalegn Sifer1. Abstract. Introduction: Animal bites and scratches represent the most important public health issue related to dogs and cats because of the risk of rabies transmission associated with ...

  19. Human Bites of the Face with Tissue Losses in Cosmopolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Milaki Asuku

    Uchendu 6 working in the same center a decade later reported a five-year series consisting of 37 cases of human bite to the lip and tissue loss. In the western world human bites are more frequently encountered in institutions for the care of the developmentally disabled individuals as reported by Lindsey and colleagues 7.

  20. Animal and Human Bites in Children | Osaghae | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Mammals that live closely and interact with man and man himself can inflict injury on children in the home through bites. Previous reports on mammalian bites in Nigeria are few and mainly on dogs, though other mammals also inflict injuries on children. There are also no reports on the injuries arising from ...

  1. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  2. Aeromonas hydrophila wound infection following a tiger bite in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easow, J M; Tuladhar, Rashmi

    2007-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a rare human pathogen. Reports of zoonotic infection developing after large feline bites are even rarer. We are documenting the first case of human wound infection with A. hydrophila following a tiger bite. The patient responded well following wound debridement, secondary suturing and combination antibiotic therapy.

  3. Ward Round - Crocodile bites in Malawi: microbiology and surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case series of 5 patients admitted over 5 months to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital who had sustained injuries from a crocodile bite. Three patients required amputation of a limb. The severe soft tissue injury associated with a crocodile bite and the unusual normal oral flora of the crocodile create challenges ...

  4. Human bite and human immune deficiency virus (HIV) transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The concentration of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the saliva of a carrier is low. As a result, human bite is not considered the traditional route of HIV infection transmission. Aim: To report a case of HIV sero-positivity following a human bite. Setting: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port ...

  5. Proximate determinants of bite force in Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittorski, Antoine; Losos, Jonathan B; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Performance measures associated with the vertebrate jaw system may provide important insights into vertebrate ecology and evolution because of their importance in many ecologically relevant tasks. Previous studies have shown that in many taxa, evolution toward higher bite force has gone hand in hand with the evolution of larger body size. However, independent of differences in overall body size, bite force may vary depending on head size and shape as well. Moreover, the underlying musculature may also drive variation in bite force. Here, we investigate the proximate determinants of bite force in lizards of the genus Anolis. We dissected the jaw muscles and quantified muscle mass, fibre length, and cross-sectional area. Data were analysed for both sexes independently given the sexual dimorphism detected in the dataset. Our results show that the traits that explain bite force are similar in both males and females with overall body size and muscle mass being the principal determinants. Among the different muscles examined, the adductor externus and the pseudotemporalis groups were the best determinants of bite force. However, models run for males predicted the variation in bite force better than models for females, suggesting that selection on morphology improving bite force may be stronger in males. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  6. The Evidentiary Value of Bite Mark Analysis in Criminal Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail H. Al-Amad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the comparison between a bite mark injury and a suspect’s teeth was considered evidence linking the suspect to the victim. However, in recent years, many convictions were re-assessed by a legal initiative in the United States called the “Innocence Project”. The outcome of this project was the exoneration of many wrongfully convicted inmates. Some of those exonerations were of prisoners who had been convicted based on bite mark evidence. Consequently, the admissibility and evidentiary value of bite mark evidence came under profound scrutiny. On the other hand, proponents of bite mark evidence advocate the use of bite mark evidence in courts as an evidence of approximation, rather than conclusion. This paper will discuss the genesis and history of bite mark evidence, as well as the modern analysis of bite marks that is based on metric and non-metric digital assessment. The evidentiary value of bite  marks and the weight they should carry in today’s courts will be discussed.

  7. Classification of anterior open bite using individualized cephalometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Bock, Franziska; Böhm, Bernhard; Fuhrmann, Robert A

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the cephalometric characteristics of the open bite, and to classify the open bite according to individualized norms. The lateral cephalograms of 134 patients with an anterior open bite (min -0.5 mm) were analyzed. Patients were classified according to the inclination of the jaws, applying the principles of individualized cephalometry. The harmony box described by Hasund was used to define individualized norms for the inclination of the upper and lower jaws in each patient. The open bite was classified into four sub-types: (1) dental, (2) skeletal with enlarged ML-NSL angle, (3) skeletal with reduced ML-NSL angle, and (4) skeletal with deviations in upper and lower jaws. A skeletal open bite was found in 89 patients (66.4%). A dental open bite was found in 45 patients (33.6%). A number of significant differences were found between these four groups using single-factor variance analysis and the Bonferroni a posteriori test, (p < or = 0.05, p < or = 0.01, p < or = 0.001). The most prominent variables were index value of anterior facial hight, total facial height ratio, gonial angle, and Y-axis. No significant differences were found for overbite, however. It was possible to use individualized norms to classify the open bite into four sub-types. The demarcation between the four groups was supported statistically. The extent of the anterior open bite does not allow any conclusions as to the craniofacial pattern.

  8. Maintenance of a deep bite prior to surgical mandibular advancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Coul, F. Op; Oosterkamp, B. C. M.; Jansma, Johan; Bierman, Michiel; Pruim, G. J.; Sandham, John

    The aim of this study was to compare, retrospectively, two orthodontic treatment approaches in patients treated by a BSSO. In one group (4 males, 20 females; mean age pre-surgery 29.3 years), the deep bite was maintained (deep bite group) while in the other (3 males, 10 females; mean age pre-surgery

  9. Factors Associated with Rabies Awareness and Attitude to Dog Bite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preponderance of stray dogs at the study site necessitated assessment of awareness on rabies and associated factors, attitude to dog bite and knowledge on rabies among students and staff members in a University community. We reviewed hospital records for dog bite cases from 2005 to 2010 and administered structured ...

  10. Individual piglets' contribution to the development of tail biting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Kemp, B.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting hypotheses exist about the contribution of individual pigs to the development of a tail-biting outbreak, but there is limited quantitative information to support or dismiss them. This study aims to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour at pen and individual piglet level,

  11. No Biting: Policy and Practice for Toddler Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Gretchen

    Noting that no single issue in programs for toddlers inflames parents and frustrates staff the way biting does, this book provides guidance on program policy and practice. The book is based upon discussions of a task force on biting comprised of caregivers and administrators from the child care centers and Early Head Start in Syracuse, New York,…

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skin, hair, and nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", " ... Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick When to see ...

  13. Bonded mandibular posterior bite plane: Fabrication, insertion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bite planes are one of the most commonly used auxiliaries during orthodontic treatment. They can be used in different segments of the maxillary and mandibular arch depending upon the type of malocclusion. The present paper describes the requirements of the bonded mandibular posterior bite plane and its fabrication.

  14. Snake bite in Gombe | Mustapha | Highland Medical Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: Snake bite is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria as in many parts of the tropics. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the clinical pattern of snake bite in Gombe. Methods: Two hundred and seven (207) cases of snakebite admitted at the State Specialist Hospital Gombe over ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch cream, such as hydrocortisone. Another option is to take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  16. Case report: acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis following viper bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Anyi; Shan, Renfei; Huang, Daochao; Zhou, Jiajia; Keenoo, Anaswasseem; Qin, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The most serious complications of the central nervous system that occur after venomous snake bite are intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke.We present a rarely seen central nervous system complication, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, after a treated Deinagkistrodon's viper bite.On April 5, 2015, a 50-year-old male farmer was bitten on his right leg by a Deinagkistrodon's viper. The bite rendered the victim unconscious for 14 days, during which he was treated with tetanus toxoid and polyvalent antisnake venom. Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was suspected after magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. After a high dose of methylprednisolone was used as diagnostic treatment, the patient started recovering fast.ADEM is a rare complication after snake bite, and is triggered by venom or antivenin. Magnetic resonance imaging helps in the early diagnosis of ADEM, and high-dose corticosteroid therapy appears to be effective in ADEM after viper bite or antivenin management.

  17. Evaluation and treatment of patients with human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, M H; Roenigk, H H; Smith, E S; Pierce, L J

    1989-06-01

    Physicians and other health care workers who care for patients who have sustained human bite marks need a working protocol to ensure that these patients receive proper care. This protocol involves taking a thorough history and performing a physical examination, approximately determining the bite mark age, and administering proper therapy. The history will help to determine whether a criminal act has been committed and which agencies need to be notified. The American Board of Forensic Odontology published criteria for bite mark analysis in 1984 that included a description of the bite mark including its size, shape, and color, along with techniques for collection of evidence from both the victim and suspect. To determine bite mark age, tissue response to injury (inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and matrix formation and remodeling) is reviewed. Finally, the bacteria that are found in these wounds and the proper use of antimicrobial agents are expanded upon.

  18. Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nail biting (NB is a common, but unresolved, problem in psychiatry, psychology, medicine and dentistry. While it seems that NB is a simple behavior that can be stopped easily, many of the children with NB have already tried to stop it, but they have not been successful. The frustrations due to failed attempt involve others such as parents and siblings. The present review aims at providing an overview of prevalence, co-morbidities, education and counseling, and management for NB. Overall, the reviewed literatures suggest that co-morbidities of psychiatric disorders and other stereotypic behaviors in clinical sample of children with NB is more than 80%, and more than half of the parents suffer from psychiatric disorders mainly depression. Treatment of NB, however, is not as easy as it seems. The management of NB is much more complicated than just focusing on stopping it. Nail biting cannot be managed without considering its co-morbidities, antecedents and consequences. It might be concluded form the reviewed literature that children with NB, parents, siblings, and teachers should be educated about what to do and what not to do about NB. Punishment is not effective. Moreover, clinical randomized controlled trials are required to make available evidence-based behavioral and pharmacologic treatment protocols

  19. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D; Winocur, E

    2012-07-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion ('the bite') are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query 'Bruxism [Majr] AND (Dental Occlusion [Majr] OR Malocclusion [Majr])', yielded 93 articles, of which 46 papers were finally included in the present review*. Part of the included publications dealt with the possible associations between bruxism and aspects of occlusion, from which it was concluded that neither for occlusal interferences nor for factors related to the anatomy of the oro-facial skeleton, there is any evidence available that they are involved in the aetiology of bruxism. Instead, there is a growing awareness of other factors (viz. psychosocial and behavioural ones) being important in the aetiology of bruxism. Another part of the included papers assessed the possible mediating role of occlusion between bruxism and its purported consequences (e.g. tooth wear, loss of periodontal tissues, and temporomandibular pain and dysfunction). Even though most dentists agree that bruxism may have several adverse effects on the masticatory system, for none of these purported adverse effects, evidence for a mediating role of occlusion and articulation has been found to date. Hence, based on this review, it should be concluded that to date, there is no evidence whatsoever for a causal relationship between bruxism and the bite. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Drug hypersensitivity in students from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Chiaverini Ensina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drug hypersensitivity is responsible for substantial mortality and morbidity, and increased health costs. However, epidemiological data on drug hypersensitivity in general or specific populations are scarce. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey of 1015 university students, using a self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported drug hypersensitivity was 12,11% (123/1015. The most frequently implicated drugs were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (45,9% and beta-lactam and sulfonamide antibiotics (25,40%. The majority of the patients reported dermatological manifestations (99, followed by respiratory (40, digestive (23 and other (19. Forty-five patients had an immediate type reaction, and 76,72% (89 had the drug by oral route. CONCLUSION: The results showed that drug hypersensitivity is highly prevalent in university students, and that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and antibiotics (beta-lactams and sulfonamide are the most frequently concerned drugs.

  1. Effectiveness of Lasers in the Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Moeini, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a relatively common painful condition among dental problems. Although many studies have been performed regarding the diagnosis and treatment of DH, dental practitioners are still confused about the definite diagnosis and treatment.The use of lasers as a treatment for dentin hypersensitivity was first introduced in 1985.Laser treatment in dentin hypersensitivity is an interesting and controversial issue and many investigations have been done on its mechanism of action, advantages, and unclear points.The present literature review tries to go over the definition, diagnosis, etiology , predisposing factors, various laser types in the treatment of DH alone or in combination with topical desensitizing agents. Since a certain treatment has not yet introduced for dentin hypersensitivity, a combination of laser therapy and topical desensitizing factors ,can increase the success of the treatment compared with either treatments alone. PMID:25606300

  2. Progressive anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome associated with change of drug product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabroe, T.P.; Sabers, A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the laboratory and physical manifestations of lamotrigine-like toxicity in a young man with refractory epilepsy receiving lamotrigine presenting as anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) associated with an abrupt change of drug product Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...

  3. A Rare Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy: Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is a common cause of fainting and falls in the elderly, and can be diagnosed by carotid sinus massage. We present a 67-year-old diabetic man who was admitted with hyperglycemia. During thyroid examination, clouding of consciousness occurred with unilateral palpation. Asystole was documented for 4.8 seconds and suspected for 7 seconds upon carotid sinus massage. A cardioverter defibrillator was implanted. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity should be kept in mind when examining diabetic patients.

  4. Hyaluronidase hypersensitivity: A rare complication of peribulbar block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peribulbar block, though safe, can cause serious complications such as globe perforation and peribulbar hemorrhage. Hyaluronidase is an enzyme that is used as an adjuvant in peribulbar anesthesia, and it helps in rapid penetration of the anesthetic agent. Hypersensitivity to hyaluronidase is a rare but potentially sight-threatening complication. We report a case of hyaluronidase hypersensitivity following peribulbar injection for cataract surgery mimicking as peribulbar hematoma in the immediate postinjection phase and as orbital cellulitis 48 h later.

  5. [Diagnosis of type I hypersensitivity by laboratory test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Yalaoui

    2005-08-01

    Type I hypersensitivity is a major problem in public health, often requiring numerous investigations which aim to diagnose atopy and identify the causative allergen. Among these investigations, several blood tests, mostly using immunoenzymatic methods, can be performed to measure total and specific IgE levels. Type I hypersensitivity can also be investigated with assays which quantitate several mediators released after cellular activation induced by allergens.

  6. A Case of Occupational Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Associated with Trichloroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Jae; Hwang, Eu Dong; Leem, Ah Young; Kang, Beo Deul; Chang, Soo Yun; Kim, Ho Keun; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a toxic chemical commonly used as a degreasing agent, and it is usually found in a colorless or blue liquid form. TCE has a sweet, chloroform-like odor, and this volatile chlorinated organic chemical can cause toxic hepatitis, neurophysiological disorders, skin disorders, and hypersensitivity syndromes. However, the hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) attributed to TCE has rarely been reported. We hereby describe a case of HP associated with TCE in a 29-year-old man w...

  7. FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY AND PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Lisitsyn; I. M. Chernukha; O. I. Lunina

    2017-01-01

    The number of people with food hypersensitivity, namely food intolerance and food allergies, grows every year. Food intolerance is classified into following types: enzymopathy; leaky gut syndrome; psychogenic food intolerance; detoxification insufficiency and true food intolerance. Food allergens mainly are glycoproteins, haptensor polypeptides. Most cases of food allergy are IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Recent discoveries in medicine, detailing and classification of food hypersensitivity...

  8. Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basko-Plluska, Juliana L; Thyssen, Jacob P; Schalock, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    . However, other metal ions as well as bone cement components can cause such hypersensitivity reactions. To complicate things, patients may also develop delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to metals (ie, in-stent restenosis, prosthesis loosening, inflammation, pain, or allergic contact dermatitis......) following the insertion of intravascular stents, dental implants, cardiac pacemakers, or implanted gynecologic devices. Despite repeated attempts by researchers and clinicians to further understand this difficult area of medicine, the association between metal sensitivity and cutaneous allergic reactions...

  9. Intestinal allergy : food hypersensitivity in infancy and childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Attard, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are frequently attributes to food hypersensitivity both by patients and increasingly by the medical community. Indeed, up to 35 % of the general population in Western countries think they have food allergy, although this is objectively confirmed in only 1-2% of the population. The incident of food hypersensitivity appears to be on the rise, in parallel with the overall rise in atopic disorders over the last 30-40 years and concurrent with a decline in infectious dis...

  10. Midazolam hypersensitivity during the transportation to theater -A case report-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin-Young; Jeon, Young-Tae; Na, Hyo-Seok; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Seong-Ju; Jung, Seung Hye

    2010-12-01

    This report describes a rare case of perioperative midazolam hypersensitivity in a patient without any history of allergy. A 39-year-old man was admitted for endoscopic pansinus surgery. During transportation to the operating room after injecting antibiotic and midazolam intravenously, the patient complained of shortness of breath. At 3 months after the event, an intradermal sensitivity test for midazolam proved positive indicating the incident was caused by midazolam hypersensitivity.

  11. Midazolam hypersensitivity during the transportation to theater -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jin-Young; Jeon, Young-Tae; Na, Hyo-Seok; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Seong-Ju; Jung, Seung Hye

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of perioperative midazolam hypersensitivity in a patient without any history of allergy. A 39-year-old man was admitted for endoscopic pansinus surgery. During transportation to the operating room after injecting antibiotic and midazolam intravenously, the patient complained of shortness of breath. At 3 months after the event, an intradermal sensitivity test for midazolam proved positive indicating the incident was caused by midazolam hypersensitivity.

  12. An Updated Review of the Molecular Mechanisms in Drug Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Bing Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity may manifest ranging from milder skin reactions (e.g., maculopapular exanthema and urticaria to severe systemic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS/drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS, or Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN. Current pharmacogenomic studies have made important strides in the prevention of some drug hypersensitivity through the identification of relevant genetic variants, particularly for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs. The associations identified by these studies are usually drug, phenotype, and ethnic specific. The drug presentation models that explain how small drug antigens might interact with HLA and T cell receptor (TCR molecules in drug hypersensitivity include the hapten theory, the p-i concept, the altered peptide repertoire model, and the altered TCR repertoire model. The broad spectrum of clinical manifestations of drug hypersensitivity involving different drugs, as well as the various pathomechanisms involved, makes the diagnosis and management of it more challenging. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the predisposing factors, immune mechanisms, pathogenesis, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches for drug hypersensitivity.

  13. An Updated Review of the Molecular Mechanisms in Drug Hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Riichiro; Pan, Ren-You; Wang, Chuang-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity may manifest ranging from milder skin reactions (e.g., maculopapular exanthema and urticaria) to severe systemic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)/drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), or Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Current pharmacogenomic studies have made important strides in the prevention of some drug hypersensitivity through the identification of relevant genetic variants, particularly for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). The associations identified by these studies are usually drug, phenotype, and ethnic specific. The drug presentation models that explain how small drug antigens might interact with HLA and T cell receptor (TCR) molecules in drug hypersensitivity include the hapten theory, the p-i concept, the altered peptide repertoire model, and the altered TCR repertoire model. The broad spectrum of clinical manifestations of drug hypersensitivity involving different drugs, as well as the various pathomechanisms involved, makes the diagnosis and management of it more challenging. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the predisposing factors, immune mechanisms, pathogenesis, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches for drug hypersensitivity. PMID:29651444

  14. Airway injury associated with cervical bite wounds in dogs and cats: 56 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C J; Halfacree, Z J; Tivers, M S

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of airway injury and damage to other vital structures associated with cervical bite wounds in dogs and cats and the implications for management and outcome. A retrospective search of electronic patient records was used to identify dogs and cats suffering cervical bite wounds that were presented to a large multidisciplinary veterinary hospital over a four year period. Complete records were available for 55 animals, with one animal suffering two separate injuries. Fourteen animals (25%) had injuries to vital structures, including airway injury in nine (17%) which was surgically confirmed and treated in six (11%). Airway injuries were associated with either subcutaneous or mediastinal emphysema in all affected animals. Other structures injured included the jugular vein, pharynx, oesophagus and spine. Airway injuries were treated with primary repair in five animals and a fasciomuscular patch in one. Temporary tracheostomy was performed in three animals. Median duration of hospitalisation was one day (0-19) with 53 animals (54 cases) (96%) surviving to discharge. Long-term follow-up (16-114 months) revealed that 43 of 49 animals were alive with six that died due to unrelated reasons. Cervical bite wounds are associated with significant injury to vital structures. Up to 17% of animals may have injury to their airway. Identification and treatment of airway injury is vital and was associated with an excellent outcome in six animals.

  15. Management of vascular trauma from dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingba, A George; Robinson, Eric A; Jester, Andrea L; Rapp, Brian M; Tsai, Anthony; Motaganahalli, Raghu L; Dalsing, Michael C; Murphy, Michael P

    2013-11-01

    Vascular trauma from large-dog bites present with a combination of crush and lacerating injuries to the vessel, as well as significant adjacent soft tissue injury and a high potential for wound complications. This retrospective case series evaluates our 15 years of experience in managing this uncommonly seen injury into suggested treatment recommendations. From our database, 371 adult patients presented with dog bites between July 1997 and June 2012. Twenty (5.4%) of those patients had vascular injuries requiring surgical intervention. Patient demographics, anatomic location of injury, clinical presentation, imaging modality, method of repair, and complication rates were reviewed to assess efficacy in preserving limb function. Pediatric patients were managed at the regional children's hospital and, therefore, not included in this study. Among the 20 surgically treated vascular injuries, there were 13 arterial-only injuries, two venous-only injuries, and five combination arterial and venous injuries. Seventeen patients (85%) had upper extremity injuries; three patients had lower extremity injuries (15%). The axillobrachial artery was the most commonly injured single vessel (n = 9/20; 45%), followed by the radial artery (n = 4/20; 20%). Surgical repair of vascular injuries consisted of resection and primary anastomosis (four), interposition bypass of artery with autogenous vein (13), and ligation (two), with (one) being a combination of bypass and ligation. All patients had debridement of devitalized tissue combined with pulse lavage irrigation and perioperative antibiotics. Associated injuries requiring repair included muscle and skin (n = 10/20; 50%), bone (n = 1/20; 5%), nerve (n = 1/20; 5%), and combinations of the three (n = 5/20; 25%). Postoperative antibiotic therapy was administered for 14.7 ± 8.2 days in all 20 patients. Four patients (20%) developed postoperative wound infections, although this did not compromise their vascular repair. Of the patients

  16. Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction to Chemotherapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Patil, Sarita U; Banerji, Aleena

    An increase by 70% in new cases of cancer is expected over the next 2 decades, with more than 8 million people dying each year from the disease, an estimated 13% of all deaths worldwide. Several new chemotherapeutic agents have been rapidly developed and many of them approved through a fast-track process. In parallel, adverse reactions to chemotherapy have increased dramatically worldwide, frequently preventing the use of first-line therapy for cancer and jeopardizing patients' treatment outcomes. The present review focuses on immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHRs) induced by chemotherapeutic agents. We address general features of these reactions and specific characteristics of the most prevalent agents involved. On the basis of scientific evidence, we suggest classifying acute reactions to chemotherapy as toxic, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and IHRs (anaphylactic-type reactions). IHRs to chemotherapeutic agents are unpredictable adverse reactions with potentially lethal consequences. Correct diagnosis and proper management of oncologic patients with IHRs are fundamental in order not to deprive them of the first-line treatment for their disease. In this scenario, rapid drug desensitization is a groundbreaking procedure that enables selected patients to receive the drug that induced an IHR in a safe way, minimizing the risks of anaphylaxis and treatment failure. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to succinylated corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Annett Isabel; Räwer, Helen-Caroline; Sieber, Wolfgang; Przybilla, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Despite their frequent use, systemic corticosteroids have rarely elicited immediate-type reactions. We report two male patients, aged 26 and 70 years, respectively, with severe immediate-type hypersensitivity secondary to the administration of corticosteroids esterified with succinate. Skin tests, basophil activation tests and challenge tests were performed for diagnostic evaluation. In both patients, immediate-type skin test reactions were found to methylprednisolone sodium hemisuccinate (MSH) and prednisolone sodium hemisuccinate (PSH). In contrast, nonsuccinylated corticosteroids (including methylprednisolone and prednisolone in one patient) yielded no test reactions. Basophils from one patient exhibited a stimulated expression of the activation marker CD63 upon in vitro incubation with PSH or hydrocortisone sodium succinate, but not with hydrocortisone. Skin tests and basophil activation tests were negative in controls. One patient was challenged with the incriminated drugs. He developed flush, conjunctivitis, tachycardia and dyspnea 2 min after injection of MSH, and dyspnea shortly after intravenous administration of PSH. Oral and intravenous challenge tests with nonsuccinylated corticosteroids were tolerated well by both patients. These case reports should alert clinicians to rare, but severe immediate-type reactions to corticosteroids, related to the succinate moiety in our patients. In case of allergic reactions to corticosteroids, it is mandatory to identify the causative agent and find safe alternatives. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Gelofen Induced Hypersensitivity: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nikkhah Rankohie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are drugs commonly pre-scribed in dental practice for the management of pain and swelling. But, rarely hypersensitiv-ity reactions are reported. Case Report: A 28 year old woman underwent periodontal plastic surgery (gingival graft. Postoperative analgesics (400 mg Gelofen ,oral and antibiotics were administrated for the patient. Three hours after discharge of patient, she complained of redness, itching , rapid swelling of her eyes in 10 minutes, and watery eye discharge 1 hour after taking the drugs. She was treated with 8mg/2ml mg Dexamethasone IM at the dental department and with Hy-drocortisone 100mg/ml IM and antihistamine drugs at the hospital. Conclusion: There are no published protocols and sensitivity and specifity of skin pick testing and patch testing for Gelofen. So avoidance of re-exposure is the best management strategy. The use of Cox-2 specific medications would be a proper alternative for pain relief. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:179-183

  19. [Aspirin hypersensitivity: characteristics and diagnostic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrand, H; Zaouche, S; Dubost, R; Carsin, A; Chatte, G; Freymond, N; Piperno, D; Dubreuil, C; Froehlich, P; Pacheco, Y; Devouassoux, G

    2015-03-01

    In routine medical practice, the diagnosis of aspirin hypersensitivity (AH) remains difficult. No clinical feature or biomarker is available to reliably confirm this diagnosis and oral provocation tests (OPT) are rarely performed. To compare asthmatics with and without AH. The clinical characteristics of 21 asthmatics with and 24 without AH respectively were determined. AH was defined by a positive OPT. A full blood count was done before and 24 hours after the OPT. The medical history was associated with a weak sensitivity (52%) and a good specificity (96%) for assessing the diagnosis of AH. There was a higher prevalence of AH in women, and a higher frequency of allergic rhinitis in AH, but no characteristic was useful to facilitate the diagnosis of AH in asthmatic patients. Our results demonstrate higher values of platelets in AH patients. Following OPT, in AH patients only, a decrease in blood eosinophils and an increase in neutrophils was observed. These results confirm that the diagnosis of AH is challenging, with the history having only weak sensitivity. The observation that fluctuations in eosinophils and neutrophils occur following OPT in AH patients only warrants further investigations and suggests a rapid pro-inflammatory role for aspirin. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Enrique; Ariza, Adriana; Blanca-López, Natalia; Torres, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    To provide a detailed analysis of the latest findings on the mechanisms underlying the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media and comment on the recent advances in diagnosis, focusing on the roles of the skin test, drug provocation test (DPT), and lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Several studies have reported new findings supporting an important role for T-lymphocytes in the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media. The LTT has been used as an in-vitro tool for diagnosis, but with variable results. However, the inclusion of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells as professional antigen-presenting cells has improved the sensitivity of this test. Regarding in-vivo diagnosis, although skin testing has been routine, it has now been shown that its sensitivity and negative predictive value are low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the DPT is a well tolerated and useful procedure that is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Nonimmediate reactions to contrast media are usually T-cell mediated. Diagnosis is based on skin testing, although its sensitivity and negative predictive value are not optimal. Consequently, drug provocation testing is often needed to confirm the diagnosis and also to seek alternative contrast media that can be tolerated.

  1. Primary generalized glucocorticoid resistance and hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandari, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    The human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) is a ubiquitously expressed intracellular, ligand-dependent transcription factor, which mediates the action of glucocorticoids and influences physiological functions essential for life. Alterations in the molecular mechanisms of hGR action impair glucocorticoid signal transduction and alter tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. This review summarizes the pathophysiology, molecular mechanisms and clinical aspects of primary generalized glucocorticoid resistance (PGGR) and hypersensitivity (PGGH). A systematic review of the published, peer-reviewed medical literature (PubMed: 1975 through May 2011) was conducted to identify original articles and reviews on this topic. Evidence synthesis was relied upon the experience of a number of experts in the field, including our extensive personal experience. The molecular basis of PGGR and PGGH has been ascribed to mutations in the hGR gene, which alter tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. The stochastic nature of glucocorticoid signaling pathways in association with the variable effect that hGR gene mutations/polymorphisms might have on glucocorticoid signal transduction indicates that alterations in hGR action may have important implications for many critical biological processes, such as the behavioral and physiological responses to stress, the immune and inflammatory reaction, as well as growth and reproduction. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Hazards of the 'hard cash': hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupeli, Elif; Karnak, Demet; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Kayacan, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a nonimmunoglobulin E-related immune-mediated parenchymal lung disease. A 45-year-old woman who was a lifelong nonsmoker with a six-month history of frequent episodes of cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital. She had been working as a money counter for 20 years at a central bank. Bibasilar crackles on lung auscultation, ground-glass opacities and a mosaic pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, restrictive abnormality on pulmonary function tests and mild hypoxemia were the prominent findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis revealed a predominance of CD4-positive T cells, and she tested positive on her natural challenge test. She was diagnosed with subacute HP based on established criteria. She was advised to discontinue counting fresh banknotes. Prednisolone was commenced, then tapered to discontinue in the ensuing six months. Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved within two months. To the authors' knowledge, the present report is the first to describe 'hard cash HP', possibly caused by chipping dust or printing dye.

  3. Visceral pain hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q

    2009-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a highly prevalent group of heterogeneous disorders whose diagnostic criteria are symptom based in the absence of a demonstrable structural or biochemical abnormality. Chronic abdominal pain or discomfort is a defining characteristic of these disorders and a proportion of patients may display heightened pain sensitivity to experimental visceral stimulation, termed visceral pain hypersensitivity (VPH). We examined the most recent literature in order to concisely review the evidence for some of the most important recent advances in the putative mechanisms concerned in the pathophysiology of VPH. VPH may occur due to anomalies at any level of the visceral nociceptive neuraxis. Important peripheral and central mechanisms of sensitization that have been postulated include a wide range of ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors and trophic factors. Data from functional brain imaging studies have also provided evidence for aberrant central pain processing in cortical and subcortical regions. In addition, descending modulation of visceral nociceptive pathways by the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and psychological factors have all been implicated in the generation of VPH. Particular areas of controversy have included the development of efficacious treatment of VPH. Therapies have been slow to emerge, mainly due to concerns regarding safety. The burgeoning field of genome wide association studies may provide further evidence for the pleiotropic genetic basis of VPH development. Tangible progress will only be made in the treatment of VPH when we begin to individually characterize patients with FGIDs based on their clinical phenotype, genetics and visceral nociceptive physiology.

  4. Estimation of Dog-Bite Risk and Related Morbidity Among Personnel Working With Military Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermann, H; Eiges, N; Sabag, A; Kazum, E; Albagli, A; Salai, M; Shlaifer, A

    Soldiers serving in the Israel Defense Force Military Working Dogs (MWD) Unit spend many hours taming dogs' special skills, taking them on combat missions, and performing various dogkeeping activities. During this intensive work with the aggressive military dogs, bites are common, and some of them result in permanent disability. However, this phenomenon has not been quantified or reported as an occupational hazard. This was a retrospective cohort study based on self-administered questionnaires. Information was collected about soldiers' baseline demographics, duration of the experience of working with dogs, total number of bites they had, circumstances of bite events, and complications and medical treatment of each bite. Bite risk was quantified by incidence, mean time to first bite, and a Cox proportional hazards model. Rates of complications and the medical burden of bites were compared between combat soldiers and noncombat dogkeepers. Bite locations were presented graphically. Seventy-eight soldiers participated and reported on 139 bites. Mean time of working with dogs was 16 months (standard deviation, ±9.4 months). Overall bite incidence was 11 bites per 100 person-months; the mean time to first bite event was 6.3 months. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that none of baseline characteristics significantly increased bite hazard. About 90% of bites occurred during routine activities, and 3.3% occurred on combat missions. Only in 9% of bite events did soldiers observed the safety precautions code. Bite complications included fractures, need for intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical repair, prominent scarring, diminished sensation, and stiffness of proximal joints. Bite complications were similar between combat soldiers and dogkeepers. Most bites (57%) were located on hands and arms. MWD bites are an occupational hazard resulting in significant medical burden. Hands and arms were most common bite locations. Observance of safety precautions may be

  5. Snake bite in Northwest Iran: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Eslamian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: bite affects about 2 million people every year, with more than 100000 mortalities annually. A person bitten by a snake represents a variety of symptoms. Snake bite might be asymptomatic or with mild local symptoms or even could lead to tissue damage and rapid death. This study aimed to investigate characteristics of snake bite in Northwest Iran. Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of all patients with final diagnosis of snake bite who were admitted to Sina Clinical-Educational Center, the referral center for envenomation in Northwest Iran were investigated from 2002 to 2012. Demographic information and laboratory findings were collected using a checklist. Results: During a 10 year period, 160 individuals with snake bite were admitted, of which 128 (77.6% were male. With regard to occupation, farmers accounted for the largest portion (n = 57, 34.6%. The most prevalent sites bitten by snakes were right hand (25.5% and left leg (24.8%. Fifty-seven patients (34.5% had leukocytosis and four (2.4% had coagulopathy. Pain and swelling were two main complaints, with vomiting, dizziness, and tingling in extremities coming afterwards. Conclusion: Because snake bite is one of the most important emergencies presenting to emergency department and Iran’s geographic status bears wide spectrum of poisonous snakes, this study was performed to further explore the clinical and epidemiologic details of snake bite.

  6. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Horse Bite Injury to the Lip – A Case Report | Donkor | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bite injuries to the face are commonly caused by pets and humans. Bite injury by horse is uncommon. A case of horse bite injury and its management is reported. Patient and method: A 12-year-old boy sustained a full-thickness avulsion injury to the lower lip following a bite by a horse. The lip was reconstructed ...

  8. Biting Behaviors among Preschoolers: A Review of the Literature and a Survey of Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero de Atiles, Julia T.; Stegelin, Delores A.; Long, Janie K.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on biting among children in child care settings. Reports a study examining procedures established to handle biting by child care facilities in a southeastern state, which found that 60% of respondents (n=326) handled biting incidents, but only one third reported a policy on biting. Fewer than 3% understood the developmental nature…

  9. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog bite prevention working as well as it should? In this novel, small scale qualitative study, the perceptions of victims regarding their dog bite experience were explored in-depth. The study recruited 8 female participants who had been bitten by a dog in the past 5 years. In-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that dog bites may not be as easily preventable as previously presumed, and that education about dog body language may not prevent some types of dog bites. The reasons participants were bitten were multifaceted and complex. In some cases, there was no interaction with the dog before the bite so there was no opportunity to assess the situation and modify behavior around the dog accordingly. Identifying who was to blame, and had responsibility for preventing the bite, was straightforward for the participants in hindsight. Those bitten blamed themselves and/or the dog owner, but not the dog. Most participants already felt they had a theoretical knowledge that would allow them to recognize dog aggression before the dog bite, yet participants, especially those who worked regularly with dogs, routinely believed, "it would not happen to me." We also identified an attitude that bites were "just one of those things," which could also be a barrier prevention initiatives. Rather than being special to the human-canine relationship, the attitudes discovered mirror those found in other areas of injury

  10. Dog bites to the upper extremity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Joshua; Showery, James; Abdou, Marwa; Pirela-Cruz, Miguel A; Abdelgawad, Amr A

    2015-12-01

    Dog bites are common injuries in children. A large percentage of these dog bites affect the upper extremity. There is little information describing the results of treatment of upper extremity injuries in children. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records for all children less than 19 years old who presented to the emergency department in our level one trauma centre because of dog bites from 2005 to 2011. During the study period, there were 254 paediatric emergency department visits for animal bites, among these there were 118 dog bites, two were excluded because of inadequate documentation leaving 116 patients; 26 of them (22.4%) had bites to the upper extremity. Among the 26 children with dog bites to the upper extremity, 6 (23.1%) were admitted to the hospital for surgery (four patients) or parenteral antibiotics (two patients). Among the four surgeries, two were for extensive laceration and two were for abscess debridement. Of the 41 who presented with bites to the lower extremities, none were admitted to the hospital (P = 0.002). Compared with those who presented the same day they were injured, the relative risk of hospitalization or surgery in patients who presented 1 and 2 days after their injury was 3.5 and 7.0, respectively. Dog bites at the upper extremity are more prone to require surgical intervention and develop infection than those at the lower extremity, and delayed presentation of these injuries is associated with higher incidence of developing infection. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. An Analytical Study of Mammalian Bite Wounds Requiring Inpatient Management

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    Young-Geun Lee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMammalian bite injuries create a public health problem because of their frequency, potential severity, and increasing number. Some researchers have performed fragmentary analyses of bite wounds caused by certain mammalian species. However, little practical information is available concerning serious mammalian bite wounds that require hospitalization and intensive wound management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to perform a general review of serious mammalian bite wounds.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of the medical charts of 68 patients who were referred to our plastic surgery department for the treatment of bite wounds between January 2003 and October 2012. The cases were analyzed according to the species, patient demographics, environmental factors, injury characteristics, and clinical course.ResultsAmong the 68 cases of mammalian bite injury, 58 (85% were caused by dogs, 8 by humans, and 2 by cats. Most of those bitten by a human and both of those bitten by cats were male. Only one-third of all the patients were children or adolescents. The most frequent site of injury was the face, with 40 cases, followed by the hand, with 16 cases. Of the 68 patients, 7 were treated with secondary intention healing. Sixty-one patients underwent delayed procedures, including delayed direct closure, skin graft, composite graft, and local flap.ConclusionsBased on overall findings from our review of the 68 cases of mammalian bites, we suggest practical guidelines for the management of mammalian bite injuries, which could be useful in the treatment of serious mammalian bite wounds.

  12. Animal Bites in Borujerd: An Overview of Animal Bites in Iran

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    Sabouri Ghannad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Rabies has been reported as the most important endemic zoonotic disease in Iran and still remains as a major public health problem. Objectives The main objective of the current research was to study the epidemiology of animal bites in Borujerd County in Iran and to compare its prevalence to other parts of Iran from April 2006 to September 2011. Patients and Methods The data were recorded in questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Chi-square test was performed to evaluate the relationship among variables and P value was set as 0.05. Results Dog bites were the most common (69.8%, followed by cat (17.2%, fox and wolf (1.4%, sheep and cow (2.8%, monkey and donkey (5%, mouse and squirrel (2.2% and other animals (1.6%. Leg was the most common bite site forming 46.6% of cases, followed by hands (41.8%, buttocks (4.6%, head (4% and body (2.9%. Most of the subjects belonged to the age group < 10 (175.2 per 100000 populations. The injury location was associated significantly with sex and the residential status. Conclusions This study strongly highlights a high priority goal for health authorities to develop educational programs, recommended for the general population to inform them about the benefits of continuing the medication. Vaccination of domestic dogs and also eradication of stray ones, in addition to educational programs should be prioritized by health authorities.

  13. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  14. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    C. F. S. Amaral

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  15. Outbreak of vampire bat biting in a Venezuelan village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Caraballo H.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of 154 cases of vampire bat biting in a four-month period in the gold mine of Payapal, a Venezuelan village, is reported. All patients were bitten during the night and the most bites were on their toes. No complication attributed to the bite was reported. Diagnoses of rabies virus made by means of immunofluorescence were negative. A possible reason for this outbreak may been the development of mining areas, with the inhabitants providing an alternative food source for the bats.

  16. Acquaintance of bite mark identification procedures in Forensic Odontology

    OpenAIRE

    Yuti Malinda; Dewi Zakiawati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Bite mark analysis casework strives to connect a biter to the teeth pattern present on the object linked in some way to crime or event. This analysis requiring an immediate response by the forensic odontologist since the marks fade rapidly in the living and the dead in a matter of hours. The aim of this article is to help the dentist to know and understand the procedures of bite mark identification in forensic odontology field. Literature review: Bite marks may be present th...

  17. Ionic mechanisms of spinal neuronal cold hypersensitivity in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ryan; Brice, Nicola L; Lewis, Richard J; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-12-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is evident in a range of neuropathies and can evoke sensations of paradoxical burning cold pain. Ciguatoxin poisoning is known to induce a pain syndrome caused by consumption of contaminated tropical fish that can persist for months and include pruritus and cold allodynia; at present no suitable treatment is available. This study examined, for the first time, the neural substrates and molecular components of Pacific ciguatoxin-2-induced cold hypersensitivity. Electrophysiological recordings of dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurones were made in non-sentient rats. Subcutaneous injection of 10 nm ciguatoxin-2 into the receptive field increased neuronal responses to innocuous and noxious cooling. In addition, neuronal responses to low-threshold but not noxious punctate mechanical stimuli were also elevated. The resultant cold hypersensitivity was not reversed by 6-({2-[2-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropyl}carbamoyl)pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, an antagonist of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8). Both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity were completely prevented by co-injection with the Nav 1.8 antagonist A803467, whereas the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonist A967079 only prevented hypersensitivity to innocuous cooling and partially prevented hypersensitivity to noxious cooling. In naive rats, neither innocuous nor noxious cold-evoked neuronal responses were inhibited by antagonists of Nav 1.8, TRPA1 or TRPM8 alone. Ciguatoxins may confer cold sensitivity to a subpopulation of cold-insensitive Nav 1.8/TRPA1-positive primary afferents, which could underlie the cold allodynia reported in ciguatera. These data expand the understanding of central spinal cold sensitivity under normal conditions and the role of these ion channels in this translational rat model of ciguatoxin-induced hypersensitivity. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of

  18. Comparison of the bite mark pattern and intercanine distance between humans and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Bina; Anand, Sanjeev; Reddy, Sudhakara; Sahukar, Shruthi Basavaradhya; Supriya, Naga; Pasupuleti, Swetha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog) bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog) using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontolog...

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  1. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... laws Quality DataDerm Quality measures Clinical guidelines Appropriate use criteria Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC ... prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and ...

  2. Dilemmas in Treatment of Recurrent Recalcitrant Dental Anterior Open Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    An anterior open bite is one of the most difficult occlusal abnormalities to treat. Quite often this aberration entails dental component and/or skeletal component. The skeletal open bite will require intrusion of the posterior sextants with the assistance of bite blocks, temporary anchorage devices, high pull headgear, and as a last resort - orthognathic surgery. The orthodontic treatment should be augmented with the orofacial myofunctional therapy. In this article, the author describes 3 different variations of treatment of the dental anterior open bite, first on acrylic models, and then on the actual patients. Consideration should be given to patients with a 'short upper lip," and in this case, surgical correction should be entertained.

  3. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Video library Find a dermatologist "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ ... most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’ ...

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... to remove a tick How to treat a bee sting When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite ... following tips: For painful bites , such as a bee sting, take an over-the-counter painkiller, such ...

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... the mattress for maximum protection. Pay attention to outbreaks. Check the CDC Travel Health Notices website and ... that they can examine you for a transmitted disease. Additional related resources Bug bites and stings: When ...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... hours before wearing them. Use bed nets. If sleeping in the great outdoors, use bed nets to ... that they can examine you for a transmitted disease. Additional related resources Bug bites and stings: When ...

  8. Poisonous Spiders: Bites, Symptoms, and Treatment; an Educational Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Farzad; Banan Khojasteh, Seyed Mahdi; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Rahmani, Farnaz; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    More than 40,000 species of spiders have been identified in the world. Spider bites is a common problem among people, however few of them are harmful but delay in treatment can cause death. Since the spider bites are risk full to human, they should be taken seriously, especially in endemic areas. Our objective in this review was to study about poisonous spiders and find out treatments of them. Therefore, we collected related articles from PubMed database and Google Scholar. Three important syndromes caused by spider bites are loxoscelism, latrodectism and funnel web spider syndrome. Many treatments are used but much more studies should have done to decrease the mortality. In this review, we describes different venomous spiders according to their appearance, symptoms after their bites and available treatments.

  9. Poisonous Spiders: Bites, Symptoms, and Treatment; an Educational Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Rahmani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 40,000 species of spiders have been identified in the world. Spider bites is a common problem among people, however few of them are harmful but delay in treatment can cause death. Since the spider bites are risk full to human, they should be taken seriously, especially in endemic areas. Our objective in this review was to study about poisonous spiders and find out treatments of them. Therefore we collected related articles from PubMed database and Google Scholar. Three important syndromes caused by spider bites are loxoscelism, latrodectism and funnel web spider syndrome. Many treatments are used but much more studies should have done to decrease the mortality. In this review, we describes different venomous spiders according to their appearance, symptoms after their bites and available treatments. 

  10. Facial dog bite injuries in children: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This case shows a case of a child patient victim of animal bite, with lesions limited to the region of the face. The patient was followed up for a month and showed good wound healing without any complications.

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Excellence in Dermatopathology™ Excellence in Pediatric Dermatology™ Donate Search Menu Donate Member resources and programs Member benefits ... to bites and stings FIND A DERMATOLOGIST Advanced Search "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-6", " ...

  12. Effects of skin elasticity on bite mark distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cheri; Marroquin, Leonor A

    2015-12-01

    Bite marks have been reported to have an evidentiary value similar to fingerprints. We believed bite mark distortion would impact the accuracy and reliability of bite mark interpretation. Inked denture-stamps were substituted for actual bite marks and were placed onto 40 participating volunteers' shoulders. Four changes in arm position were photographed using an ABFO #2 reference scale. The measurements of individual tooth widths and intercanine distances in each position were compared. The maximum tooth width distortion observed was 53.8%, whereas the maximum intercanine distance distortion was 41.9%. Distortion was found to increase with age and weight and was non-uniform across a dental arch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ... after a bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  15. Two bite mark cases with inadequate scale references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M L

    1985-07-01

    Most literature addressing comparisons between epidermal bite marks and the perpetrator's bite pattern mandates fastidious coordination between the size of the compared reproductions. While ideal, this is not possible in every case and inability to control this variable in selected cases may not necessarily invalidate the comparison. The first case involves a known perpetrator. All photographic measurements were recorded with acceptable techniques to discover a serious discrepancy in arch size. The second case was degraded by the absence of a ruler in a tangentially made photograph of a bite mark. In both cases, the weight of the conclusions were lessened by these problems but the impartial handling of the evidence and explanation of discrepancies offered credibility to the analyses. Both cases illustrate that a technical infraction in processing and recording bite marks, though serious, need not automatically preempt the analysis.

  16. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  17. Risk of Disease from Mosquito and Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect repellents help reduce the risk of mosquito and tick bites, which can transmit diseases including West Nile Virus, malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and ehrlichiosis.

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  19. A novel bioactive glass-ceramic for treating dentin hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Tirapelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentin hypersensitivity (DH is a painful response to stimulus applied to the open dentinal tubules of a vital tooth. It's a common oral condition, however, without an ideal treatment available yet. This work evaluated in vitro the effect of micron-sized particles from a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate in occluding open dentinal tubules. A dentin disc model was employed to observe comparatively, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, dentinal tubule occlusion by different products and deposition of hydroxyl carbonate apatite (HCA on dentin surface by Biosilicate, after a single application: G1 - Dentifrice with potassium nitrate and fluoride; G2 - Two-step calcium phosphate precipitation treatment; G3 - Water-free gel containing Biosilicate particles (1%; G4 - Biosilicate particles mixed with distilled water in a 1:10 ratio; all of them after 1, 12 and 24 hours of immersion in artificial saliva. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was performed to detect HCA formation on dentin discs filled with Biosilicate after 2 minutes, 30 minutes and 12 hours of immersion in artificial saliva. SEM showed a layer of HCA formed on dentin surface after 24 hours by G4. G1, G2 and G3 promoted not total occlusion of open dentinal tubules after 24 hours. FTIR showed HCA precipitation on the dentin surface induced by Biosilicate after 30 minutes. The micron-sized particles from the bioactive glass-ceramic thus were able to induce HCA deposition in open dentinal tubules in vitro. This finding suggests that Biosilicate may provide a new option for treating DH.

  20. Contact hypersensitivity to oxazolone provokes vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Martinov

    Full Text Available The interplay among pain, allergy and dysregulated inflammation promises to yield significant conceptual advances in immunology and chronic pain. Hapten-mediated contact hypersensitivity reactions are used to model skin allergies in rodents but have not been utilized to study associated changes in pain perception in the affected skin. Here we characterized changes in mechanical hyperalgesia in oxazolone-sensitized female mice challenged with single and repeated labiar skin exposure to oxazolone. Female mice were sensitized with topical oxazolone on their flanks and challenged 1-3 times on the labia. We then measured mechanical sensitivity of the vulvar region with an electronic pressure meter and evaluated expression of inflammatory genes, leukocyte influx and levels of innervation in the labiar tissue. Oxazolone-sensitized mice developed vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia after a single labiar oxazolone challenge. Hyperalgesia lasted up to 24 hours along with local influx of neutrophils, upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and increased density of cutaneous labiar nerve fibers. Three daily oxazolone challenges produced vulvar mechanical hyperalgesic responses and increases in nerve density that were detectable up to 5 days post-challenge even after overt inflammation resolved. This persistent vulvar hyperalgesia is resonant with vulvodynia, an understudied chronic pain condition that is remarkably prevalent in 18-60 year-old women. An elevated risk for vulvodynia has been associated with a history of environmental allergies. Our pre-clinical model can be readily adapted to regimens of chronic exposures and long-term assessment of vulvar pain with and without concurrent inflammation to improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying subsets of vulvodynia and to develop new therapeutics for this condition.

  1. Contact hypersensitivity to oxazolone provokes vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinov, Tijana; Glenn-Finer, Rose; Burley, Sarah; Tonc, Elena; Balsells, Evelyn; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Swanson, Linnea; Daughters, Randy S; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2013-01-01

    The interplay among pain, allergy and dysregulated inflammation promises to yield significant conceptual advances in immunology and chronic pain. Hapten-mediated contact hypersensitivity reactions are used to model skin allergies in rodents but have not been utilized to study associated changes in pain perception in the affected skin. Here we characterized changes in mechanical hyperalgesia in oxazolone-sensitized female mice challenged with single and repeated labiar skin exposure to oxazolone. Female mice were sensitized with topical oxazolone on their flanks and challenged 1-3 times on the labia. We then measured mechanical sensitivity of the vulvar region with an electronic pressure meter and evaluated expression of inflammatory genes, leukocyte influx and levels of innervation in the labiar tissue. Oxazolone-sensitized mice developed vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia after a single labiar oxazolone challenge. Hyperalgesia lasted up to 24 hours along with local influx of neutrophils, upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and increased density of cutaneous labiar nerve fibers. Three daily oxazolone challenges produced vulvar mechanical hyperalgesic responses and increases in nerve density that were detectable up to 5 days post-challenge even after overt inflammation resolved. This persistent vulvar hyperalgesia is resonant with vulvodynia, an understudied chronic pain condition that is remarkably prevalent in 18-60 year-old women. An elevated risk for vulvodynia has been associated with a history of environmental allergies. Our pre-clinical model can be readily adapted to regimens of chronic exposures and long-term assessment of vulvar pain with and without concurrent inflammation to improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying subsets of vulvodynia and to develop new therapeutics for this condition.

  2. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-07-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness of PEG's allergenic potential remains low, due to a general lack of suspicion towards excipients and insufficient product labelling. Information on immediate-type reactions to PEG is limited to anecdotal reports, and the potential for PEG sensitization and cross-sensitization to PEGylated drugs and structurally related derivatives is likely underestimated. Most healthcare professionals have no knowledge of PEG and thus do not suspect PEG's as culprit agents in hypersensitivity reactions. In consequence, patients are at risk of misdiagnosis and commonly present with a history of repeated, severe reactions to a range of unrelated products in hospital and at home. Increased awareness of PEG prevalence, PEG hypersensitivity, and improved access to PEG allergy testing, should facilitate earlier diagnosis and reduce the risk of inadvertent re-exposure. This first comprehensive review provides practical information for allergists and other healthcare professionals by describing the clinical picture of 37 reported cases of PEG hypersensitivity since 1977, summarizing instances where PEG hypersensitivity should be considered and proposing an algorithm for diagnostic management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hypersensitivity to thrombin of platelets from hypercholesterolemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winocour, P.D.; Rand, M.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Hypersensitivity of platelets to thrombin has been associated with hypercholesterolemia. The authors have examined the mechanisms involved in this hypersensitivity. Rats were given diets rich in milk fat and containing added cholesterol and taurocholate to produce hypercholesterolemia (HC) (262 +/- 25 mg%) or added sitosterol as a normocholesterolemic control (NC) (89 +/- 6 mg%). Washed platelets were prelabelled with 14 C-serotonin. In the presence of acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (to inhibit thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) formation) and creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) (to remove released ADP), HC platelets aggregated more (26 +/- 1%) and released more 14 C (9.1 +/- 2.0%) than NC platelets (aggregation: 0%, p 14 C release: 1.5 +/- 0.5%, p 2 formation is involved in the hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin. Total binding of 125 I-thrombin to HC platelets was less than that to NC platelets but HC platelets were smaller and had less protein than NC platelets; the thrombin binding per mg platelet protein was the same for HC and NC platelets, indicating that hypersensitivity to thrombin of HC platelets does not result from increased thrombin binding. Thus, hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin is not due to TXA 2 formation, the action of released ADP or increased thrombin binding

  4. Recurrent cisplatin hypersensitivity reaction after first exposure: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Benjamin; Colonna, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Hypersensitivity reactions to platinum-based chemotherapies are well documented and are often a limiting factor in treating a variety of cancers. Allergy skin testing has been used to determine if repeat exposure is safe. We report a case of a false negative skin allergy test in an atypical presentation of cisplatin hypersensitivity reaction. Case report A 64-year-old male diagnosed with stage IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx who developed a delayed reaction of face swelling and dysphagia following exposure to a single dose of cisplatin. Skin allergy testing performed and was negative. On second dosing of cisplatin, the patient developed an immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Cisplatin was discontinued, and the patient was transitioned to cetuximab. The rest of chemoradiation therapy was completed without further incident. Discussion This case demonstrates the limited efficacy of skin allergy testing for cisplatin. Furthermore, it is an atypical presentation of cisplatin-related hypersensitivity as it occurred following the patient's first dose despite no prior exposure to platinum-based chemotherapy. Conclusion Skin allergy testing has limited sensitivity for platinum-based chemotherapy and caution should be exercised in weighing risk and benefits of re-exposure. Although rare, cisplatin hypersensitivity can present after first exposure.

  5. First report on human-biting Culex pipiens in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jenny C; Schäfer, Martina; Lundström, Jan O

    2016-12-07

    Culex mosquitoes are vectors of several bird-hosted arboviruses that cause outbreaks in Europe, such as Sindbis virus and West Nile virus. Recently, the human-biting form of Culex pipiens, Cx. pipiens biotype molestus, was found causing big nuisance in a housing cooperative in Gothenburg in southern Sweden, confirmed by molecular identification. This is the first report of human-biting Culex in Scandinavia, signalling increased risk of arbovirus infection in northern Europe.

  6. Methods for the Analysis of Human Bite Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naru, A S

    1997-12-01

    The comparison of features within a bite mark injury with the dentition of a suspect may be required during the course of a criminal investigation. A review of the literature regarding bite mark analysis has been undertaken to determine the value of this evidence. Bite marks in skin are complex injuries consisting of abrasions, lacerations, and contusions, caused by the crushing action of the teeth and related structures. Front-line investigators need to recognize and interpret these features, but no standard method of information collection or comparison has been agreed. Many classifications of bite mark types have been proposed, but do not appear to aid mark analysis. Investigations of bite strengths and sucking forces have been inconclusive. Insufficient information exists as to the accuracy and reproducibility of the representation of the dentition by tissue pathology. Histological analysis and collagen staining techniques have attempted to define the area of injury in detail, but have limited application. The quality of the mark is determined by numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Distortion and shrinkage of the tissues introduce dimensional disturbances that require elimination before a comparison can be undertaken. No method exists to quantify and correct these distortions. The investigator must be aware that self-inflicted marks often occur among children and that other events may replicate bite mark injuries. The most common bite mark comparison methods employ an intermediate template produced from the suspect dentition that, when overlaid onto a scale photograph of the injury, demonstrates correspondence. No agreement exists regarding the individuality of human dentition, minimum level of correspondence required to positively identify the assailant, and the accuracy to which tissue pathology can represent these details. It is concluded that bite mark comparison can only exclude a suspect and should not be used for positive identification. Copyright

  7. The Evidentiary Value of Bite Mark Analysis in Criminal Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Suhail H. Al-Amad

    2016-01-01

    For decades, the comparison between a bite mark injury and a suspect’s teeth was considered evidence linking the suspect to the victim. However, in recent years, many convictions were re-assessed by a legal initiative in the United States called the “Innocence Project”. The outcome of this project was the exoneration of many wrongfully convicted inmates. Some of those exonerations were of prisoners who had been convicted based on bite mark evidence. Consequently, the admissibility and evident...

  8. A general review of bite-mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J

    1981-03-01

    Bite-mark evidence has been used as an aid in the identification of criminals in many instances. The author, a forensic odontologist in Liverpool, England, during his lifetime, personally investigated the cases presented which include instances of rape and battery. It is shown how perpetrators of violent injuries were detected from bite marks on the victim or the perpetrator, or on foodstuffs found at the scene of the crime, when the marks were compared to dental impressions taken subsequently.

  9. Tail Biting Trellis Representation of Codes: Decoding and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao. Rose Y.; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents two new iterative algorithms for decoding linear codes based on their tail biting trellises, one is unidirectional and the other is bidirectional. Both algorithms are computationally efficient and achieves virtually optimum error performance with a small number of decoding iterations. They outperform all the previous suboptimal decoding algorithms. The bidirectional algorithm also reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper is a method for constructing tail biting trellises for linear block codes.

  10. Habitual biting of oral mucosa: A conservative treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.

  11. Deep bite malocclusion: exploration of the skeletal and dental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhateja, N.K.; Fida, M.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Correction of deep bite is crucial for maintenance of dental hard and soft tissue structures and for prevention of temporomandibular joint disorders. Exploration of underlying skeletal and dental factors is essential for efficient and individualized treatment planning. To date etiological factors of dental and skeletal deep bite have not been explored in Pakistani orthodontic patients. The objectives of this study were to explore frequencies of dental and skeletal etiological factors in deep bite patients and to determine correlations amongst dental and skeletal etiological factors of deep bite. Methods: The study included a total of 113 subjects (males=35; females=78) with no craniofacial syndromes or prior orthodontic treatment. Pre-treatment orthodontic records were used to evaluate various dental and skeletal parameters. Descriptive statistics of each parameter were calculated. The various study parameters were correlated using Pearson's Correlation. Results: Deep curve of Spee was most frequently seen factor of dental deep bite (72.6%), followed by increased coronal length of upper incisors (28.3%), retroclined upper incisors (17.7%), retroclined lower incisors (8%) and increased coronal length of lower incisors (5.3%). Decreased gonial angle was most commonly found factor of skeletal deep bite (43.4%), followed by decreased mandibular plane angle (27.4%) and maxillary plane's clockwise rotation (26.5%). Frankfort mandibular plane angle and gonial angle showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.66, p=0.000). Conclusions: Reduced gonial angle is most frequently seen skeletal factor, signifying the importance of angulation and growth of ramus in development of deep bite. Deep curve of Spee is most frequently seen dental etiological component in deep bite subjects, hence signifying the importance of intruding the lower anterior teeth. (author)

  12. Effect of molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices in patients with anterior open bite: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Saleem Alsafadi; Mohannad M. Alabdullah; Humam Saltaji; Anas Abdo; Mohamed Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of the study is to assess the effect of molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices on the vertical facial morphology and mandibular rotation during open bite treatment in the permanent dentition. Methods We performed a systematic review of the published data in seven electronic databases up to September 2015. We considered studies for inclusion if they were examining the effects of posterior teeth intrusion on the vertical facial morphology with open bit...

  13. Sensitivity to bites by the bedbug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K; Kempke, D; Naylor, R A; Siva-Jothy, M T

    2009-06-01

    Bedbugs are a public health problem and can cause significant economic losses, but little is known about the effects of bites on humans. We reviewed case reports and published papers on bedbug bites to assess the empirical basis of the commonly cited figure that only approximately 80% of the population are sensitive to bedbug bites. We found the sensitivity estimate to be based on only one study carried out 80 years ago. However, this study did not account for the now well-established fact that only repeated exposure to external allergens leads to skin reactions. In our sample, 18 of 19 persons showed a skin reaction after bedbug exposure, but in most cases only after repeated controlled exposure. With repeated exposure, the latency between bite and skin reactions decreased from approximately 10 days to a few seconds. Our results are relevant for the hospitality industry, where apparently increasing infestation rates are likely to lead to an increase in the number of tourists and hotel employees exposed to bedbugs. Medical and public health professionals may expect to see an increase in the prevalence of people with bedbug bite sensitivity. The significance of the delayed reaction time of skin to bites may also have implications in litigation cases where people seek compensation.

  14. Studying the effects of Bite plane application in intruding and extruding the teeth in patients with deep bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirazi

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep bite is a major clinical problem manifested as higher than normal overbite in anterior region of the jaws. Various studies were conducted to identify the effects of using bite plan and its results. 14 subjects with deep bite were selected out of 400 students of a school who had not proximal caries and had not lost any permanent teeth with healthy periodontal condition. 8 patients were considered as case group and the 6 other as the control group. In case group, a simple labial arc with acrylic palate that caused a gap in occlusion was placed. 2 lateral radiographs were obtained both pre and post 14 months treatment period. After cephalometric analysis, due to bite plane application significant intrusion in mandibular  incisors were observed as well as elongation in both maxillary and mandibular molars.

  15. Asthma and chemical hypersensitivity: prevalence, etiology, and age of onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, S M; Steinemann, A C

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates asthma's national prevalence and potential overlap with chemical hypersensitivity. It also examines asthma's etiology, age of onset, and demographic characteristics. Data were collected from a geographically weighted random sample of the continental U.S. (1058 cases), in four seasonal cohorts (2005-2006). The study found that 12.9% of the sample report asthma, 11.6% report chemical hypersensitivity, and 31.4% of those with asthma report chemical hypersensitivity. Among asthmatics, 38% report irritation from scented products, 37.2% report health problems from air fresheners, and 13.6% report their asthma was caused by toxic exposure. Asthma cases affected each racial/ethic group in roughly the same proportion, with nearly 50% classified as childhood onset.

  16. Current Knowledge and Management of Hypersensitivity to Aspirin and NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Tanya M; Cahill, Katherine N

    Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are some of the most common culprits of drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions, and can lead to a wide array of adverse effects. The accurate and timely diagnosis of aspirin and NSAID-induced hypersensitivity reactions is important for both patient safety and for the initiation of appropriate disease-specific management and treatment. Because there are no reliably validated in vitro tests available, aspirin and NSAID challenges are considered to be the criterion standard for the diagnosis of these hypersensitivity reactions, though in some patients the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a clear clinical history. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks - Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these 'neutral' pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with 'control' pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and 'other' abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and "other" abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (pbiting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs.

  18. Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks – Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these ‘neutral’ pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with ‘control’ pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and ‘other‘ abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and “other“ abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (pbiting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs. PMID:23824700

  19. Efficacy of two commercially available dentifrices in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad KVV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A parallel design clinical study evaluated reduction in hypersensitivity after brushing for 12 weeks with Anchor toothpaste (containing potassium citrate, zinc citrate, triclosan and sodium monofluorophosphate (test and Colgate Total (sodium fluoride, silica, triclosan and copolymer (control dentifrices. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults with sensitivity to hot and cold stimulus in at least two tooth surfaces were stratified at the baseline examination by tactile, hot and cold stimuli scores in two balanced groups. Subjects were randomly allocated the test and control dentifrices and evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks of dentifrice use for hypersensitivity. Results: The two teeth that were selected in each patient were designated as two different sets. The 12 th -week scores as compared to baseline scores for tactile, heat and cold tests in the test group showed a reduction in tooth hypersensitivity by 36.67% (P < 0.01, 20.35% (P < 0.01 and 53.64 % (P < 0.01, respectively, in the first set of teeth and 43.75% (P < 0.01, 24.48% (P < 0.01 and 59.78% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the second set of teeth. The 12 th -week scores as compared to baseline scores for tactile, heat and cold tests in the control group showed a reduction in tooth hypersensitivity by 42.86% (P < 0.01, 13.02% (P < 0.01 and 45.14% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the first set of teeth and 40% (P < 0.01, 16.59% (P < 0.01 and 44.16% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the second set of teeth. Conclusions: Both the products reduced dentinal hypersensitivity in the study subjects at the end of the 12-week period. However, there was no statistically significant difference in reduction in hypersensitivity between the two products.

  20. Hypersensitivity reactions and contrast medium injection: Are they always related?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany); Alfke, Heiko [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Luedenscheid, Luedenscheid (Germany); Klose, Klaus Jochen [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Hypersensitivity (allergic or non-allergic) reactions that occur after contrast medium (CM) injection are usually related to the CM. Recent studies, and case reports lack the analysis of alternate causes that could be also responsible in individual cases. Patients and methods: We investigated the individual relevant factor/causative agent of adult patients with hypersensitivity reactions that occurred in radiological units during CM-enhanced procedures (CT, angiography, urography, or MR-examinations). Both immediate and non-immediate (delayed) reactions were included. To find out the relevant agent a detailed patients' history was carefully analyzed. In addition, the records were retrospectively reviewed, and if indicated and possible laboratory (e.g. basophil activation test) and skin tests (e.g. prick) and/or provocations with CM-injections under routine conditions were performed. Results: 38 patients (men n = 21) suspected for CM-hypersensitivity reactions were identified. These reactions were in most cases mild (n = 21), moderate reactions occurred in 13 cases, and four patients had severe reactions. In 28 patients the reactions were induced by the CM (iodinated CM in 25 cases). Four patients had reactions that were not CM-related (latex allergy, adenosine reaction, vasovagal reaction, unknown cause) and in six cases the reaction was partly CM-related (immunological activation was present due to the patients' diseases). Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that in CM-enhanced procedures not only contrast materials but also a broad range of other factors may also induce hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, the number of CM-induced hypersensitivity is smaller than initially suspected. The knowledge of the cause of a reaction is essential to effectively prevent its recurrence and to improve safety aspects in patients undergoing CM-injection. Larger trials should be performed to more specifically assess alternate causes in patients

  1. Corticosteroid hypersensitivity studies in a skin allergy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbegal, L; DeLeon, F J; Silvestre, J F

    2015-12-01

    Corticosteroids can cause hypersensitivity reactions, particularly delayed-type allergic reactions. A new classification system for testing hypersensitivity to corticosteroids distributes the drugs into 3 groups according to molecular structure; patients are classified according to whether they are allergic to agents in 1 or more of the groups. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of corticosteroid-allergic patients treated at our clinic and apply the new classification system to them; we also compared these patients' characteristics to those of others treated at our clinic. Retrospective study of cases of delayed-type corticosteroid hypersensitivity treated in the skin allergy clinic of a tertiary level hospital over an 11-year period. We reviewed the records of 2857 patients, finding 33 with at least one positive patch test result showing corticosteroid hypersensitivity. Atopic dermatitis and hand involvement were less common in our corticosteroid-allergic patients. All were allergic to a group 1 corticosteroid (most often, budesonide, the culprit in 87.9%). Testing with a specific corticosteroid series revealed that 14 (42.4%) were also allergic to corticosteroids in group 2 and/or group 3. None were allergic exclusively to group 2 or group 3 agents. Twenty-one patients were exposed to a corticosteroid cream from a group their patch test results indicated allergy to; 13 of them (61.9%) did not develop a hypersensitivity reaction. The Spanish standard series only contains group 1 corticosteroids. In the interest of improving allergy management, we recommend testing with a specific corticosteroid series and a patient's own creams whenever patch testing with a standard series reveals a hypersensitivity reaction to corticosteroids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K T; Falkingham, P L

    2012-08-23

    Bite mechanics and feeding behaviour in Tyrannosaurus rex are controversial. Some contend that a modest bite mechanically limited T. rex to scavenging, while others argue that high bite forces facilitated a predatory mode of life. We use dynamic musculoskeletal models to simulate maximal biting in T. rex. Models predict that adult T. rex generated sustained bite forces of 35 000-57 000 N at a single posterior tooth, by far the highest bite forces estimated for any terrestrial animal. Scaling analyses suggest that adult T. rex had a strong bite for its body size, and that bite performance increased allometrically during ontogeny. Positive allometry in bite performance during growth may have facilitated an ontogenetic change in feeding behaviour in T. rex, associated with an expansion of prey range in adults to include the largest contemporaneous animals.

  3. Risk factors for dog bites occurring during and outside of play: are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messam, Locksley L McV; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B; Hart, Lynette A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the effects of selected human-canine interaction/environmental factors on bites occurring when the victim was and was not playing with the dog differed from each other. A veterinary clinic-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in Kingston, Jamaica (709), and San Francisco, USA (513) to compare the effects of selected exposures on non-play bites (161) relative to bites preceded by play with the dog (110) as reported by veterinary clients. Additionally, 951 non-biting dogs were used for a risk factor analysis of bites occurring during play. Using directed acyclic graphs and the change-in-estimate procedure to select and adjust for confounders, modified Poisson regression was used to estimate (a) the ratios of proportions of non-play bites out of all bites comparing exposed to unexposed dogs (proportionate bite ratios) and (b) risk ratios for bites occurring during play for each factor of interest. Proportionate bite ratios ranged from 0.84 to 1.29, with most 95% confidence intervals including one, thus implying a lack of specificity of effects of the examined factors on non-play bites relative to bites occurring during play with the dog. Consistent with this lack of specificity, risk ratios for bites occurring during play were similar in magnitude and direction to risk ratios previously published for non-play bites using the same non-biting dogs as a reference group. No country-specific differences in proportionate bite ratios were detected. Each human-canine environmental factor showed similar levels of association with both types of bites. One possible explanation is that both types of bites have a common causal pathway leading from each factor up to the point of human-canine contact. If the human-canine contact then leads to either play or non-play interactions with dogs and subsequently to both types of bites, the presence of such a common pathway would make the factor non-specific to either type of bite. As

  4. Black widow spider and brown recluse spider bites in Texas from 1998 through 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B; Stanley, Sharilyn K

    2003-10-01

    Black widow spiders and brown recluse spiders are of medical importance to humans in the US. However, these spiders differ in their habits, habitat, and the clinical effects and treatment of their bite. This study used data from human exposure calls to poison centers in Texas to compare the epidemioloy of bites from these 2 spiders. During 1998-2002, 760 black widow spider bites and 1,369 brown recluse spider bites were reported. Black widow spider bite penetrance demonstrated no secular trend during this time period while the penetrance of brown recluse spider bites increased. A higher percentage of black widow spider bites occurred among males, while a higher proportion of brown recluse spider bites were reported for females. Black widow spider bites most frequently had mild outcomes while brown recluse spider bites most often had moderate outcomes. The majority of reported bites for both types of spider occurred at the patient's own residence, although the percentage was lower for black widow spiders. Seasonal trends were noted for both black widow and brown recluse spiders. The highest penetrance of black widow spider bites was observed in western Texas while the highest penetrance of brown recluse spider bites was observed in central Texas. This information is useful for identifying those populations at greatest risk for the respective spider bites.

  5. Hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Christoffer V; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are reported to be the second most common cause of drug hypersensitivity. In 2011, experts from the EAACI/ENDA group and GA(2)LEN proposed a new classification system for NSAID hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to classify...... responders reacted to non-pyrazolone drugs. Only one patient could not be classified according to the EAACI/ENDA system. An overlap between respiratory and cutaneous symptoms was found in 15/39 (38%) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: All but one of our patients could be classified according to the EAACI...

  6. Adrenergic receptors are a fallible index of adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Anders; Liggett, S B; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    by measuring these in a group of subjects with well-documented adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity, patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Mononuclear leukocyte beta 2-adrenergic receptor densities (and binding affinities), measured with 125I-labelled pindolol, and isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP...... to diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Regardless of the mechanism of adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity in such patients, these data provide further evidence that measurements of cellular adrenergic receptors (and adenylate cyclase) in vitro are a fallible index of sensitivity to catecholamines in vivo....

  7. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome not related to G6PD deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkes, Karlijn J G; Tervaert, J W Cohen; Rijken, Feiko; Haas, Lenneke E M

    2015-12-18

    Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening reaction to dapsone. We describe a 55-year-old Caucasian woman with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels presenting with an extensive skin eruption, high-grade fever, pneumonitis and hepatitis, which occurred within 3 weeks after initiation of dapsone. In addition to supportive care, the patient was successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroids and antibiotics. The combination of high-grade fever, skin rash, lung and liver involvement made a dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome very likely. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Functional dyspepsia: the role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  9. Contact hypersensitivity to nickel in patients with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Rożalski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory dermatosis with a complex and not fully explained pathogenesis. Recent years’ research points to a significant percentage of patients with atopic eczema in whom hapten patch test results are positive, especially with respect to nickel. These observations undermine suggestions that contact allergy (type IV hypersensitivity is rare in this group due to the dominance of the Th2-type cellular response characteristic for type I allergic reactions. In this review we aimed to systematize current knowledge regarding the pathomechanisms of contact hypersensitivity to nickel in patients with atopic dermatitis and the potential influence of this hapten on the clinical course of the disease.

  10. Otorrhagia bleeding due to leech bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Askari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leeches are blood-sucking hermaphroditic parasites that attach to vertebrate hosts, bite through the skin, and suck out blood. When leeches feed, they secrete an anticoagulant (hirudin, which helps them get a full meal of blood. This is the first report of leech removal from external auditory canal. Previous leech involvement cases were explained in nasopharynx, larynx, pharynx, eye, and gastrointestinal tract. Prominent sign of all cases was active bleeding from the leech attachment site; that stopped with leech removal. A 24-year-old man was presented to Al-Zahra hospital with left otorrhagia and otalgia from 2 days ago. After suction of ear a small soft foreign body was seen in the external ear near the tympanic membrane, then the ear filled with glycerine phenice, the patient explained decreased movement of foreign body. Four hours later the bloody discharge stopped and otalgia decreased. After suction of clots, a leech was extruded from external auditory canal by alligator. Leech infestation is a rare cause of otorrhagia and should be suspected in the endemic region in all of unusual bleeding; it can be diagnosed and treated by exact inspection and removal.

  11. Cause, setting and ownership analysis of dog bites in Bay County, Florida from 2009 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, J; Templin, M; Jordan, M M; Stanek, D

    2015-02-01

    Emergency room and hospital discharge data have been used to describe the risk factors and public health impact of dog bites. These data sets are based on financial charges for severe bites and underestimates dog bite burdens within communities. This study expands both the source of information and risk factor data collected to provide demographic analysis of dog bite injury risk factors reported in Bay County, Florida in 2009-2010. Extended data for dog bites reported by various sources from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 were collected by Florida Department of Health in Bay County. Data collected included bite victim's age and gender, primary reported cause of bite, setting, dog's restraint status and relationship between the victim and the dog. A total of 799 bites were reported. Most bites (55%) were reported first by healthcare practitioners, particularly bites involving childrendogs and dogs off the owner's property were more likely to be reported by other sources. Boys aged 6-14 years accounted for 2.24 times more bites than same-aged females (Pdog. Inappropriate behaviour management was the most common cause of bites (26%), followed by protective behaviour (24%). Bites of unknown cause were 2.5 times more likely in childrendog fights was the most common cause of bites for persons 15 years or older (24%); females were significantly more likely to be bit than males (P=0.01). Bites by unrestrained dogs off the owner's property (32% of all bites) most commonly involved males. Estimates based solely on healthcare discharge data significantly underestimate dog bite burden within a community. Characterizing these risks by age group or gender provides an opportunity to implement targeted interventions to prevent dog bites. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Chewing pattern and muscular activation in open bite patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piancino, Maria Grazia; Isola, Gaetano; Merlo, Andrea; Dalessandri, Domenico; Debernardi, Cesare; Bracco, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    Different studies have indicated, in open bite patients, that masticatory muscles tend to generate a small maximum bite force and to show a reduced cross-sectional area with a lower EMG activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinematics parameters of the chewing cycles and the activation of masseters and anterior temporalis muscles of patients with anterior dental open bite malocclusion. There have been no previous reports evaluating both kinematic values and EMG activity of patients with anterior open bite during chewing. Fifty-two young patients (23 boys and 29 girls; mean age±SD 11.5±1.2 and 10.2±1.6years, respectively) with anterior open bite malocclusion and 21 subjects with normal occlusion were selected for the study. Kinematics parameters and surface electromyography (EMG) were simultaneously recorded during chewing a hard bolus with a kinesiograph K7-I Myotronics-Usa. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the open bite patients and the control group for a narrower chewing pattern, a shorter total and closing duration of the chewing pattern, a lower peak of both the anterior temporalis and the masseter of the bolus side. In this study, it has been observed that open bite patients, lacking the inputs from the anterior guidance, that are considered important information for establishing the motor scheme of the chewing pattern, show narrower chewing pattern, shorter lasting chewing cycles and lower muscular activation with respect to the control group. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effect of Postnatal Myostatin Inhibition on Bite Mechanics in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan H Williams

    Full Text Available As a negative regulator of muscle size, myostatin (Mstn impacts the force-production capabilities of skeletal muscles. In the masticatory system, measures of temporalis-stimulated bite forces in constitutive myostatin KOs suggest an absolute, but not relative, increase in jaw-muscle force. Here, we assess the phenotypic and physiologic impact of postnatal myostatin inhibition on bite mechanics using an inducible conditional KO mouse in which myostatin is inhibited with doxycycline (DOX. Given the increased control over the timing of gene inactivation in this model, it may be more clinically-relevant for developing interventions for age-associated changes in the musculoskeletal system. DOX was administered for 12 weeks starting at age 4 months, during which time food intake was monitored. Sex, age and strain-matched controls were given the same food without DOX. Bite forces were recorded just prior to euthanasia after which muscle and skeletal data were collected. Food intake did not differ between control or DOX animals within each sex. DOX males were significantly larger and had significantly larger masseters than controls, but DOX and control females did not differ. Although there was a tendency towards higher absolute bite forces in DOX animals, this was not significant, and bite forces normalized to masseter mass did not differ. Mechanical advantage for incisor biting increased in the DOX group due to longer masseter moment arms, likely due to a more anteriorly-placed masseter insertion. Despite only a moderate increase in bite force in DOX males and none in DOX females, the increase in masseter mass in males indicates a potentially positive impact on jaw muscles. Our data suggest a sexual dimorphism in the role of mstn, and as such investigations into the sex-specific outcomes is warranted.

  14. Role of bite mark characteristics and localizations in finding an assailant

    OpenAIRE

    Afsin, Huseyin; Karadayi, Beytullah; Cagdir, Sadi A.; Ozaslan, Abdi

    2014-01-01

    The location, size, and number of bite marks can be used as a beneficial indicator of the crime type and feasible group of suspects. This study aims to present information about the bite mark locations, the bite mark characteristics, and the perpetrator′s profile based on three cases which were carried out by the same biter. The attack bites, which observed in all of the three cases, were characterized by serious wounds and tissue loss. Analysis of bite mark characteristics and bite mark loca...

  15. A suggested classification of bite marks in foodstuffs in forensic dental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, G

    1982-01-01

    Bite marks have been reported in flesh, foodstuffs and inanimate objects. Those in foodstuffs occur widely in cases of larceny but also occur in serious crimes such as murder. Evaluation of distinctive characteristics in food bites differs from the corresponding assessment of flesh bite marks in that the assessment is made on the impression made by the labial aspect of the teeth and not on the biting edge, because the teeth penetrate the bitten foods to different depths. The terminology used to describe food bite marks is very varied and a classification of food bites has been formulated in an effort to bring a degree of uniformity to the analysis of such marks.

  16. Use of clear aligners in open bite cases: an unexpected treatment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Garino, Francesco; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2017-06-01

    In open bite case treatments, a proper diagnostic differentiation is essential in determining the appropriate corrective procedures. Dental open bites are generally more responsive to treatment with orthodontics alone, whereas skeletal open bites often require a combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. Patient selection and treatment principles for non-surgical open bite treatment routinely include fixed appliances both labial or lingual. However, removable clear aligners have gained a consistent popularity in the treatment of complex cases including open bite malocclusions. In this article, the authors describe three different clinical cases in which open bite cases had been satisfactorily treated by using clear aligners.

  17. Acute hypersensitivity reaction to Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (CroFab) as initial presentation of galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizer, Justin; Brill, Kaitlin; Charlton, Nathan; King, Joshua

    2017-08-01

    Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom (CroFab), commonly used for the treatment of clinically significant North American crotalinae envenomation, is generally well-tolerated. A novel form of anaphylaxis due to an IgE antibody response to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) has been established following red-meat consumption as well as IV administration of cetuximab, which contain the α-gal epitope. We present a case of α-gal allergy discovered after acute hypersensitivity reaction to FabAV. A 61-year-old healthy female was bitten on her left ankle by Agkistrodon contortrix. Given the patient's rapid progression of pain and swelling, she was given FabAV. During infusion of FabAV, she developed diffuse hives over her entire body and itching, but denied respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and her vital signs remained stable. The FabAV was immediately discontinued and she received intravenous diphenhydramine and famotidine with gradual resolution of symptoms. On further discussion, she denied a history of α-gal or papaya allergy but rarely ate red meat and endorsed sustaining frequent tick bites. Subsequent antibody testing was significant for an α-1,3-galactose IgE concentration of 45,000 U/L (normal allergy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of FabAV hypersensitivity associated with an underlying α-gal allergy.

  18. Agrobacterium -induced hypersensitive necrotic reaction in plant cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High necrosis and poor survival rate of target plant tissues are some of the major factors that affect the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer into plant cells. These factors may be the result of, or linked to, hypersensitive defense reaction in plants to Agrobacterium infection, which may involve the recognition ...

  19. Auditory Hypersensitivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    A review of records was completed to determine whether children with auditory hypersensitivities have difficulty tolerating loud sounds due to auditory-system factors or some other factors not directly involving the auditory system. Records of 150 children identified as not meeting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) criteria and another 50 meeting…

  20. Functional Brain Network Mechanism of Hypersensitivity in Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, UnCheol; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, KyoungEun; Kaplan, Chelsea M; Clauw, Daniel J; Kim, Seunghwan; Mashour, George A; Harris, Richard E

    2018-01-10

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic widespread pain condition characterized by augmented multi-modal sensory sensitivity. Although the mechanisms underlying this sensitivity are thought to involve an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory activity throughout the brain, the underlying neural network properties associated with hypersensitivity to pain stimuli are largely unknown. In network science, explosive synchronization (ES) was introduced as a mechanism of hypersensitivity in diverse biological and physical systems that display explosive and global propagations with small perturbations. We hypothesized that ES may also be a mechanism of the hypersensitivity in FM brains. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) of 10 FM patients. First, we examined theoretically well-known ES conditions within functional brain networks reconstructed from EEG, then tested whether a brain network model with ES conditions identified in the EEG data is sensitive to an external perturbation. We demonstrate for the first time that the FM brain displays characteristics of ES conditions, and that these factors significantly correlate with chronic pain intensity. The simulation data support the conclusion that networks with ES conditions are more sensitive to perturbation compared to non-ES network. The model and empirical data analysis provide convergent evidence that ES may be a network mechanism of FM hypersensitivity.

  1. Evaluating the statistical methodology of randomized trials on dentin hypersensitivity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matranga, Domenica; Matera, Federico; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2017-12-27

    The present study aimed to evaluate the characteristics and quality of statistical methodology used in clinical studies on dentin hypersensitivity management. An electronic search was performed for data published from 2009 to 2014 by using PubMed, Ovid/MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library databases. The primary search terms were used in combination. Eligibility criteria included randomized clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of desensitizing agents in terms of reducing dentin hypersensitivity. A total of 40 studies were considered eligible for assessment of quality statistical methodology. The four main concerns identified were i) use of nonparametric tests in the presence of large samples, coupled with lack of information about normality and equality of variances of the response; ii) lack of P-value adjustment for multiple comparisons; iii) failure to account for interactions between treatment and follow-up time; and iv) no information about the number of teeth examined per patient and the consequent lack of cluster-specific approach in data analysis. Owing to these concerns, statistical methodology was judged as inappropriate in 77.1% of the 35 studies that used parametric methods. Additional studies with appropriate statistical analysis are required to obtain appropriate assessment of the efficacy of desensitizing agents.

  2. A comparative behavioural study of mechanical hypersensitivity in 2 pain models in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marie-Céline; Hrncic, Dragan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Caspani, Ombretta

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of pain sensitivity in humans has been standardized using quantitative sensory testing, whereas in animals mostly paw withdrawal thresholds to diverse stimuli are measured. This study directly compares tests used in quantitative sensory testing (pinpricks, pressure algometer) with tests used in animal studies (electronic von Frey test: evF), which we applied to the dorsal hind limbs of humans after high frequency stimulation and rats after tibial nerve transection. Both experimental models induce profound mechanical hypersensitivity. At baseline, humans and rats showed a similar sensitivity to evF with 0.2 mm diameter tips, but significant differences for other test stimuli (all P pain models (P pain sensitivity, but probe size and shape should be standardized. Hypersensitivity to blunt pressure-the leading positive sensory sign after peripheral nerve injury in humans-is a novel finding in the tibial nerve transection model. By testing outside the primary zone of nerve damage (rat) or activation (humans), our methods likely involve effects of central sensitization in both species.

  3. Epidemiological study of insect bite reactions from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physical effects of the arthropod bites on human skin receive less attention, especially in the rural areas where the per capita income is less. Ours is a rural-based hospital, the vicinity having more of plants, trees, and forests; we undertook the study to find out the relation of insect bite dermatitis in a rural area. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Dermatology outpatient department of our institute on 100 subjects of insect bite dermatitis who were questioned retrospectively about the sequence of events besides their environmental and living conditions. They were examined thoroughly and the relevant clinical findings were noted, also taking into account the prior treatment taken by them, if any. Results and Conclusions: It was found that insect bite dermatitis has no age or gender preponderance, and the protective factors for the same are use of full sleeve clothes and keeping the doors and windows closed at night. On the contrary, the risk factors are residence in areas of heavy insect infestation, use of perfumes and colognes, warm weather in spring and summer and the lack of protective measures. However, there was no direct association of atopy with increased risk of developing insect bite dermatitis.

  4. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: Open bite evolution after tongue reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Rodriguez, E; Gómez, E; Martín, M; Muñoz, J-M; Hernández-Godoy, J; Burgueño, M

    2018-03-01

    Macroglossia causes functional deficits such as airway obstruction, drooling, phonation difficulties, and leads to protrusion of dentoalveolar structures resulting in an anterior open bite and a prognathic mandibular appearance. Macroglossia is present in the majority of patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and surgical treatment may be indicated. A retrospective review was conducted including BWS patients who underwent surgical tongue reduction between 2000 and 2015 at the Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid. Out of 16 patients with BWS, surgery was performed in 11 cases. Tongue protrusion with open bite was the main indication for surgical treatment. Reduction glossectomy was performed using the keyhole technique. We analysed the relationship between age at surgery and evolution of open bite. Complications were minimal and satisfactory outcomes were observed with a decrease in anterior open bite. In this study we have observed that surgical treatment in patients with BWS and open bite accompanied by macroglossia seems to provide positive results with a satisfactory outcome in dentoskeletal alterations.

  5. Bite Injuries to the Hand - Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Pradyumna; Khan, Wasim; Haddad, Behrooz; Mahapatra, Anant Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Patients presenting to the emergency department with bite injuries to the hand sustain them through a number of causes including domesticated as well as stray animal bites, and human bites commonly sustained as a result of violence. The nature of the injuries sustained can be very deceptive. A small tooth mark on the exterior can be a fulminant infection in the tissues deeper down. Tendon injuries, fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges and management of the wound are critical issues faced by a surgeon in dealing with such patients. Similarly the less common bite injuries to the hand, often with disastrous and sometimes fatal complications, do also present to the emergency department. A high incidence of suspicion is needed in dealing with these injuries effectively. In our article we discuss the common as well as uncommon causes of bite injuries to the hand and their management. In addition to reviewing the literature to ascertain the management of such injuries, we also discuss interesting and rare case reports. PMID:25097675

  6. Kissing Bug ( spp. Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Klotz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kissing bugs ( Triatoma spp. frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae. Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  7. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  8. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y. Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y.; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  9. Faustovirus-like asfarvirus in hematophagous biting midges and their vertebrate hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eTemmam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts.The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female C. imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods’ blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents’ urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9% and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus highlights the need

  10. Anterior open bite treated with myofunctional therapy and palatal crib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Moshabab A

    2015-03-01

    This case report demonstrates the treatment effects of palatal crib combined with the myofunctional therapy in a child with anterior open bite (AOB) due to thumb sucking and habitual anterior and low tongue position. The patient, an 11-year-old boy, had an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. Palatal cribs in conjunction with myofunctional therapy were used to discourage sucking habit and to adapt normal tongue position. Successful correction of the AOB with adequate overjet and overbite were achieved with total treatment time of 7 months. The importance of myofunctional therapy in adopting normal tongue position and in maintaining the stability of open bite correction is emphasized.

  11. Biting disrupts integration to spur skull evolution in eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, David C; Wainwright, Peter C; Alfaro, Michael E; Revell, Liam J; Mehta, Rita S

    2014-11-17

    The demand that anatomical structures work together to perform biological functions is thought to impose strong limits on morphological evolution. Breakthroughs in diversification can occur, however, when functional integration among structures is relaxed. Although such transitions are expected to generate variation in morphological diversification across the tree of life, empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. Here we show that transitions between suction-based and biting modes of prey capture, which require different degrees of coordination among skull components, are associated with shifts in the pattern of skull diversification in eels (Anguilliformes). Biting eels have experienced greater independence of the jaws, hyoid and operculum during evolution and exhibit more varied morphologies than closely related suction feeders, and this pattern reflects the weakened functional integration among skull components required for biting. Our results suggest that behavioural transitions can change the evolutionary potential of the vertebrate skeleton by altering functional relationships among structures.

  12. Dog bites in children treated in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, L M; Gardner, M J; O'Connor, J; Amon, N

    2000-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and disability among children. This study sought to describe the characteristics of dog bite injuries to aid in promoting healthy environments for children. This descriptive, retrospective study of one hospital's 1997 emergency department records detailed dog bite injuries to children and adolescents and resultant emergency treatment (N = 204). Children dog's owner was generally a parent or neighbor. Only 2 children received rabies prophylaxis. Parents and children need information about safe interactions with dogs, including community leash laws and quarantine guidelines. Nurses should know the procedures for reporting dog bite injuries to local health authorities. Interested nurses can find many opportunities to assist with community safety campaigns.

  13. An integrated technique for the analysis of skin bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Herman; Owen, Johanna H; van Heerden, Willie F P; Solheim, Tore

    2008-01-01

    The high number of murder, rape, and child abuse cases in South Africa has led to increased numbers of bite mark cases being heard in high courts. Objective analysis to match perpetrators to bite marks at crime scenes must be able to withstand vigorous cross-examination to be of value in conviction of perpetrators. An analysis technique is described in four stages, namely determination of the mark to be a human bite mark, pattern association analysis, metric analysis and comparison with the population data, and illustrated by a real case study. New and accepted techniques are combined to determine the likelihood ratio of guilt expressed as one of a range of conclusions described in the paper. Each stage of the analysis adds to the confirmation (or rejection) of concordance between the dental features present on the victim and the dentition of the suspect. The results illustrate identification to a high degree of certainty.

  14. Immediate and Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions to Proton Pump Inhibitors: Evaluation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Iris M; Banerji, Aleena

    2016-03-01

    PPIs are among the most commonly administered medications in the USA and are generally well tolerated. Immediate and delayed immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions are rare but increasingly recognized adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions can occur due to IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to PPIs and can be evaluated by immediate hypersensitivity skin testing and oral provocation challenge testing. A desensitization protocol can be used when PPI use cannot be avoided in an allergic patient. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs have also been reported. Occupational exposures causing cutaneous reactions to PPIs are the most commonly reported delayed hypersensitivity reaction, followed by drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. This review presents a summary of the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs.

  15. Open bite as a risk factor for orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motokawa, Masahide; Terao, Akiko; Kaku, Masato; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Gonzales, Carmen; Darendeliler, M Ali; Tanne, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the prevalence and degree of root resorption induced by orthodontic treatment in patients with and without open bite. One hundred and eleven patients treated with multibracket appliances were retrospectively selected from the patients and divided into non-open bite (NOB) and open bite (OB) groups. The severity of root resorption and the root shape were classified into five groups on periapical radiographs before and after treatment. Moreover, only in the OB group, all teeth were sub-divided into functional and hypofunctional ones that are occluding and non-occluding. As the results of multiple linear regression analysis of patient characteristics and clinical variables with the number of overall root resorption, the independent variables that were found to contribute significantly to root resorption were bite and abnormal root shape. The prevalences of root resorption evaluated in the number of patients were significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group, and those in the number of teeth were significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group, in particular anterior and premolar teeth. The prevalence of resorbed teeth with abnormal root shapes was also significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group. On the other hand, in OB group, the prevalences of root resorption and teeth with abnormal root shape were significantly greater in hypofunctional teeth than in normal functional teeth. There are more teeth with root resorption and abnormal root shape in open bite cases than in normal bite cases, and more teeth with abnormal root shapes and root resorption in hypofunctional teeth than in functional teeth.

  16. Poisonous animal bites in the Israel Defense Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviv, J; Huerta, M; Shpilberg, O; Klement, E; Ash, N; Grotto, I

    1998-01-01

    Soldiers in field units of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) are susceptible to injury by various poisonous animals during training and operations. Bites and envenomations by animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders can be painful and debilitating, and at times life-threatening. We have examined the extent of exposure of IDF soldiers to snake and arthropod bites and the morbidity resulting from these encounters. All reports of IDF soldiers who sought medical attention for snake or arthropod bites between the years 1993-1997 were reviewed at the IDF Medical Corps Headquarters. Monthly distribution of cases was noted for all years, and geographic distribution was studied for all 1997 cases. Over the period 1993-1997 there was a yearly rate of 32-52 physician visits per 100,000 soldiers due to snakebites (mean 43.6/100,000), and 1370-1729 physician visits per 100,000 soldiers due to arthropod bites (mean 1478/100,000). There is a clear overall increase in snake and arthropod bites during the spring and summer months, with a peak in snakebites in May and in arthropod bites in August. 58% of all snakebites in Israel were reported in the central region, with 33% occurring in the south, and 9% in the north of the country. No fatalities due to envenomations have been reported in the IDF in recent years. Poisonous animal species pose a significant threat to the soldiers of the IDF. Overall, envenomation is a common and widespread problem that has significant impact on the military medical system, especially during the spring and summer months. It is possible through institution of proper preventive measures to decrease the exposure of IDF personnel to this environmental hazard.

  17. Perawatan Maloklusi Klas III Skeletal disertai Open Bite dengan Teknik Begg

    OpenAIRE

    Anggaraeni, Putu Ika; Suparwitri, Sri; H, Soekarsono; SP, Pinandi

    2015-01-01

    Overjet negatif pada maloklusi klas III dapat terjadi karena penyimpangan hubungan incisivus atas dan bawah, adanya malrelasi antara maksila dan mandibula, atau kombinasi keduanya. Maloklusi klas III dapat disertai dengan crowding, deep bite, maupun open bite. Tujuan perawatan adalah untuk mengoreksi cross bite dan open bite, memperoleh overjet dan overbite normal serta hubungan oklusal yang stabil. Pasien laki-laki usia 15 tahun dengan maloklusi Angle klas III dan relasi skeletal klas III, m...

  18. Mass awareness regarding snake bite induced early morning neuroparalysis can prevent many deaths in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rupinder; Dogra, Varundeep; Sharma, Gurudutt; Chauhan, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In North India snake bite deaths are predominantly seen with neurotoxic envenomations (NEs) whereas in South India the hemotoxic envenomation (HE) is more common. Krait is responsible for most deaths in North India. It bites people sleeping on the floors, mostly at night. We describe the profile of venomous snake bites over 1 year in 2013. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India. Demographics, circumstances of bite, envenom...

  19. Prevention of tick bites: an evaluation of a smartphone app

    OpenAIRE

    Antonise-Kamp, L.; Beaujean, D. J. M. A.; Crutzen, R.; van Steenbergen, J. E.; Ruwaard, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common reported tick-borne infection in Europe, and involves transmission of Borrelia by ticks. As long as a vaccine is not available and effective measures for controlling tick populations are insufficient, LB control is focused on preventive measures to avoid tick bites. To inform citizens about the risk of ticks, motivate them to check for tick bites, and encourage them to remove any attached tick as quickly as possible, a mobile app called ‘Tek...

  20. Chronic Osteomyelitis Secondary to Human Bite: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a human bite that was initially inadequately treated and progressed to chronic osteomyelitis, finally resulting in digital amputation. Human bites are seemingly innocuous, but if neglected, may lead to subsequent infection and morbidity. Persistence of symptoms should alert the practitioner to the possibility of infection extending to the soft tissue or bone. Bacteriological studies commonly yield mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora. Early debridement and antibiotic treatment may prevent development of severe soft tissue or bone infection.

  1. Mathematical model of the human jaw system simulating static biting and movements after unloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, GEC; Otten, E; van Eijden, TMGJ; van Willigen, JD

    1997-01-01

    When the resistance to a forceful isometric bite is suddenly removed in unloading experiments, the bite force drops to zero and the mandible reaches a constant velocity. This occurs at an initial bite force of 100 N after similar to 12 ms when the incisors have moved 4.5 mm. Reflex activity is far

  2. The management of dog bite injuries of genitalia in paediatric age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dog bite injuries are common in children and represent an important health-care problem. Most dog bite injuries involve the face or an extremity. Victims tend to seek medical care quickly. Dog bites to the external genitalia are rarely reported, but they potentially result in morbidity if improperly managed. Morbidity is also ...

  3. Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture in preorthodontic patients with anterior open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Phong; Sarauw, Martin Toft; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2014-03-01

    Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture were examined and related to craniofacial morphology in preorthodontic children and adolescents with anterior open bite. One hundred eleven patients (ages, 6-18 years) with an anterior open bite of more than 0 mm were divided into 2 groups of skeletal or dentoalveolar open bite. The skeletal open-bite group comprised 38 subjects (19 girls, 19 boys). The dentoalveolar open-bite group comprised 73 subjects (43 girls, 30 boys). Visual assessment of the cervical column and measurements of craniofacial morphology and head posture were made on profile radiographs. Deviations in the cervical vertebral column morphology occurred in 23.7% of the subjects in the skeletal open-bite group and in 19.2% in the dentoalveolar open-bite group, but the difference was not significant. Head posture was significantly more extended in the skeletal open-bite group compared with the dentoalveolar open-bite group (craniovertical angle [Mx/VER], P open bite. No significant differences in the cervical vertebral column's morphologic deviations were found between the skeletal and the dentoalveolar open-bite groups. Significant differences were found in head posture between the groups and with regard to associations with craniofacial dimensions. This might indicate a respiratory etiologic component in children with anterior open bite. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dog bite injuries in children — a review of data from a South

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dog bite injuries in children — a review of data from a South. African paediatric trauma unit. I P Dwyer, T S Douglas, A B van As. Background and objective. Dog bites are a major cause of preventable traumatic injury in the paediatric population. We aimed to determine the epidemiology of dog bite injuries in a group of ...

  5. The use of videotape to demonstrate the dynamics of bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M H; Frair, J

    1989-01-01

    Traditionally, bite mark photographs have been used to study statically a dynamic event. With the advent of the compact video camcorder, odontologists can now document bite marks on video tape and, in some instances, with the model of the suspect's dentition, may be able to record the dynamics of a bite on human flesh. A review of two cases and equipment used is discussed.

  6. Age-related changes in the propensity of dogs to bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messam, L L McV; Kass, P H; Chomel, B B; Hart, L A

    2013-08-01

    This retrospective cohort study was aimed at describing the effects of age at acquisition, age, and duration of ownership of dogs on the risk of (1) bites during play and (2) non-play bites to humans. Data were collected on 110 dogs that had bitten during play with a person, 161 dogs that had bitten outside of play and 951 non-biting dogs from veterinary clients in Kingston (KGN), Jamaica and San Francisco (SF), USA. Modified Poisson regression was employed to model the relationships of both types of bites to each variable separately. Effects of the variables on dog bite risk (1) during and (2) outside of play with the dog, differed from each other and by type of bite. Effects varied with the dog's age and age-related associations were strongest in dogs younger than 1 year old. Ages at acquisition of dogs at highest risk for bites during play were substantially lower than those at risk for non-play bites. Ages and durations of ownership of dogs at highest risk for bites during play were also lower than those of dogs at highest risk for non-play bites. The propensity of a dog to bite changes as it ages and relationships between dog bites occurring during and outside of play and the dog's age at acquisition, current age, and duration of ownership, differ from each other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pattern of First-Aid Measures Used by Snake-bite Patients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of first aid measures in the management of snake bite by patients in rural communities in Africa is a popular practice. Records of 103 snake bite patients admitted at Zamko Comprehensive Health Centre, were retrieved and reviewed. 84 (81.6%) of the 103 cases with snake bite used first aid measures. Common first ...

  8. Adolescents' experiences of being food-hypersensitive: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde-Larsson Bodil

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiencing or being at risk of adverse reactions to certain food items is a common health issue, especially among children and adolescents. Research has shown that living with the risk of food reactions and always having to take measures to avoid certain food in one's diet has a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to illuminate adolescents' experiences of being food hypersensitive. Methods Three focus group interviews and six individual interviews were carried out with all together 17 adolescents, 14–18 years of age, who had exclusion diets at school due to food hypersensitivity. The interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim and a qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results Five categories with subcategories, and one pervading theme, emerged. The categories were: Perceiving oneself as being particular, Feeling constrained, Experiencing others' ignorance, Keeping control, and Feeling it's okay. A pervading theme was conceptualised as Striving to normalise the experience of being food-hypersensitive. The adolescents regarded themselves as competent and courageous, but also described how they avoided the extra attention it implied to ask for special food considerations taken into account. Their self-conceptions were probably essential for their management of and attitude toward the hypersensitivity condition. They felt deprived, and those at risk of severe food reactions experienced insecurity and fear. Feelings of being disregarded were expressed, as well as facing unreliability and a lack of understanding from others. The continual work of constant vigilance and decision-making was described as time-consuming and frustrating. However, the adolescents also experienced considerate and supportive surroundings and were at pains to tone down the negative experiences and consequences of being food-hypersensitive. Conclusion Food avoidance by itself, and not only the somatic food reactions

  9. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerballe, Morten; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Hansen, Tine Kjær

    2009-01-01

    by questionnaire, skin prick test (SPT) and histamin release (HR) followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. FHS was divided into primary and secondary FHS. Primary FHS was defined as being independent of pollen sensitization, whereas secondary FHS was defined as reactions to pollen related......Osterballe M, Mortz CG, Hansen TK, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SA rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic...... reactions to foods have been reported in the last decade. However, little is known on the prevalence in young adults. This study estimated the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of young adults. We investigated a cohort of 1272 young adults 22 years of age...

  10. Hypersensitivity and chaos signatures in the quantum baker's maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A J; Brun, Todd A; Caves, Carlton M; Schack, Ruediger

    2006-01-01

    Classical chaotic systems are distinguished by their sensitive dependence on initial conditions. The absence of this property in quantum systems has led to a number of proposals for perturbation-based characterizations of quantum chaos, including linear growth of entropy, exponential decay of fidelity, and hypersensitivity to perturbation. All of these accurately predict chaos in the classical limit, but it is not clear that they behave the same far from the classical realm. We investigate the dynamics of a family of quantizations of the baker's map, which range from a highly entangling unitary transformation to an essentially trivial shift map. Linear entropy growth and fidelity decay are exhibited by this entire family of maps, but hypersensitivity distinguishes between the simple dynamics of the trivial shift map and the more complicated dynamics of the other quantizations. This conclusion is supported by an analytical argument for short times and numerical evidence at later times

  11. Ulcerative colitis flair induced by mesalamine suppositories hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Jing

    2014-04-07

    Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, increased inflammatory injury of colon mucosa shown by colonoscopy and elevated peripheral eosinophil count after mesalamine suppositories administration, and the Naranjo algorithm score of 10, the possibility of hypersensitivity reaction to mesalamine suppositories should be considered, warning us to be aware of this potential reaction after administration of mesalamine formulations even if it is the suppositories.

  12. Cow's milk protein allergy and other food hypersensitivities in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Carina

    2009-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FHS) is the umbrella term used to describe both food allergy, which involves the immune system, and food intolerances, which do not. It is therefore important that the diagnosis is made by a specialist health care professional such as a paediatrician or allergist. Some experienced dietitians and health visitors may be able to assist in making a diagnosis. The diagnostic work-up includes a medical history and blood tests/skin tests (where applicable). A food and symptom diary followed by a special test diet to identify the foods causing the infant's symptoms may also be needed. Once a diagnosis is made, dietary advice should be given to eliminate or reduce the intake of the offending foods. For cow's milk hypersensitivity in infants, this will include choosing the most appropriate specialised infant formula.

  13. Old, new and hidden causes of perioperative hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene Heise

    2016-01-01

    intravenously such as neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), induction agents and antibiotics have traditionally been reported to be implicated most commonly. It has recently become apparent that there are geographical differences in sensitization patterns related to variation in exposures, referral patterns...... and performance and interpretation of investigations. Differences in sensitization to NMBAs are partly explained by cross sensitization to pholcodine, an ingredient in cough-medicines available in some countries. While NMBAs are the most common causes of perioperative hypersensitivity in some countries, this may...... in causes of perioperative hypersensitivity emerging over time and to increase awareness about the “hidden allergens” in the perioperative setting. Some practical advice on how to approach the patient testing negative on all initial investigations is also included....

  14. Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a shape analysis computer program: Part 2; 'SCIP' and bite marks in skin and foodstuffs

    OpenAIRE

    Nambiar, P.; Bridges, T. E.; Brown, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the use of an interactive shape analysis computer program ('SCIP') and the derivation of a quantitative Similarity Index greatly facilitated the comparison of experimental flat wax bite marks with the dentition of various 'suspects' and the identification of the agent producing the bite. In this study, 'SCIP' was employed in an attempt to quantify the comparison, in the form of the Similarity Index (S.I.), between the 'offender's' teeth and the bite mar...

  15. A Case of Biting Humans by Nabis americoferus (Heteroptera: Nabidae), With Comments on Bites by Other Species of the Genus Nabis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndez, Eduardo I

    2016-01-01

    A case of biting humans by the common damsel bug Nabis americoferus Carayon, 1961 is reported for an adult male in Fargo, ND. The symptoms and evolution of the bite are described. A compilation of cases of other Nabis spp. biting humans in the United States is provided and discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Human Bites of the Face with Tissue Losses in Cosmopolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective series of thirty-six cases of human bites to the face with tissue losses requiring reconstruction during a five-year period, January 1999 to December 2003 is presented. The unmarried female in her third decade dominated both as victim and assailant in incidences related to love affairs and love gone sour.

  17. Amelogenesis Imperfecta with Anterior Open Bite: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Ruchi; Pathak, Anuradha; Goenka, Puneet

    2011-01-01

    This clinical report describes the treatment plan for a young patient affected by amelogenesis imperfecta with anterior open bite. The objectives of the treatment were to eliminate tooth sensitivity while enhancing esthetics and restoring masticatory function. Treatment included resin composite laminate veneers on maxillary anterior teeth and stainless steel crowns for posterior teeth.

  18. The ecology and biting activity of blackflies (Simuliidae) and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies on the ecology and biting activity of blackflies (Simuliidae), as well as an assessment of the prevalence status of Onchocerciasis diseases were conducted in a rural forest area of Ghana. It was observed that the blackfly vector Simulium damnosum s.l was the most abundant and widely distributed of the species ...

  19. April / May 2006. 102 Warm-Blooded Animal Bites

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the individual. But a large percentage of these felines may be wild or stray cats taken in for care. Other. Other domesticated or semi-domesticated animals that cause bites include pets such as ferrets, gerbils, hamsters or rabbits. The occasional wild animal brought into the home as a pet, such as the raccoon, squirrel, skunk.

  20. Etiology and pathogenesis of anterior open bite: A review | Wanjau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the etiology and pathogenesis of anterior open bite malocclusion. Data source: Review of literature was affected through Pubmed, Google scholar and Science direct. References identified from articles found from the primary search were also reviewed. Study selection: Published data on etiology and ...

  1. Knowledge and management of snake bite by general practitioners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge of general practitioners in the rural areas of the Free State and Northern Cape regarding snake bites and their treatment. Methods: Telephonic interviews using structured questionnaires were conducted with a random sample of 50 general practitioners from ...

  2. Extreme skeletal open bite correction with vertical elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Escalante, Marco Antonio; Aliaga-Del Castillo, Aron; Soldevilla, Luciano; Janson, Guilherme; Yatabe, Marilia; Zuazola, Ricardo Voss

    2017-11-01

    Severe skeletal open bites may be ideally treated with a combined surgical-orthodontic approach. Alternatively, compensations may be planned to camouflage the malocclusion with orthodontics alone. This case report describes the treatment of an 18-year-old man who presented with a severe open bite involving the anterior and posterior teeth up to the first molars, increased vertical dimension, bilateral Class III molar relationship, bilateral posterior crossbite, dental midline deviation, and absence of the maxillary right canine and the mandibular left first premolar. A treatment plan including the extraction of the mandibular right first premolar and based on uprighting and vertical control of the posterior teeth, combined with extrusion of the anterior teeth using multiloop edgewise archwire mechanics and elastics was chosen. After 6 months of alignment and 2 months of multiloop edgewise archwire mechanics, the open bite was significantly reduced. After 24 months of treatment, anterior teeth extrusion, posterior teeth intrusion, and counterclockwise mandibular rotation were accomplished. Satisfactory improvement of the overbite, overjet, sagittal malocclusion, and facial appearance were achieved. The mechanics used in this clinical case demonstrated good and stable results for open-bite correction at the 2-year posttreatment follow-up.

  3. Epidemiology of Snake Bites among Selected Communities in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snake is one of the major group of games feared by people in many localities because of their venoms, yet snakes are equally afraid of human beings. This balance of terror apart from affecting both man and snakes has also led to their deaths. Epidemiology of snake bites among selected communities in the enclave of ...

  4. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a snake bite victim: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy occurs in patients with severe emotional or physiologic stress. The prognosis is usually favorable, and the left ventricular wall motion dyskinesis normalizes within days to weeks. In this paper we report a case of snake bite complicated by takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We advise physicians to ...

  5. Venomous Snake Bite Injuries at Kitui District Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical findings and administration of polyvalent antivenin. This study sought to describe common presentation patterns and treatments offered for snake bites at Kitui District Hospital, and to characterize the causative venomous snakes. Patients and methods. This was a prospective case series carried out over a period of 8 ...

  6. Venomous Snake Bite Injuries at Kitui District Hospital | Kihiko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exists. Diagnostic tests for snake species identification are not available and management mainly relies on clinical findings and administration of polyvalent antivenin. This study sought to describe common presentation patterns and treatments offered for snake bites at Kitui District Hospital, and to characterize the causative ...

  7. Innovation in prediction planning for anterior open bite correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzian, Mohammed; Almukhtar, Anas; O'Neil, Michael; Benington, Philip; Al Anezi, Thamer; Ayoub, Ashraf

    2015-05-01

    This study applies recent advances in 3D virtual imaging for application in the prediction planning of dentofacial deformities. Stereo-photogrammetry has been used to create virtual and physical models, which are creatively combined in planning the surgical correction of anterior open bite. The application of these novel methods is demonstrated through the surgical correction of a case.

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite Splinters Treating sunburn Wound care Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ ...

  9. Bite frequency measured by head pitch movements in grazing experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W.; S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2010-01-01

    sensors placed on the head of the cows, bite frequency was registered manually by noting the rip off sound during a specified time bout. Sward registrations comprised grass length measurement by rising plate meter , grass quality by laboratory analysis of hand harvested grass simulating the cows grazing...

  10. Bite Block Vowel Production in Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacks, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored vowel production and adaptation to articulatory constraints in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) plus aphasia. Method: Five adults with acquired AOS plus aphasia and 5 healthy control participants produced the vowels [iota], [epsilon], and [ash] in four word-length conditions in unconstrained and bite block…

  11. Biting-density and microfilariae infection of Simulium damnosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations on the biting-density and microfilariae infection rate of S. damnosumsl population caught around the Mada River was conducted between May 2013 to April 2014. Captured flies were morphologically identified and dissected for parity and infectivity rate. A total of 308 adult female S. damnosum sl were caught, ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to ... bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other ...

  13. Malaria Prevalence and Indoor-Biting Mosquito Vector Abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studies malaria prevalence and the abundance of indoor-biting mosquito vectors in Ogbunike community, Oyi Local Government Area of. Anambra State, Nigeria between May and September 2010. Blood samples were collected from 208 healthy participants (94 males and 114 females) selected from the six ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs. ... t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid= ...

  15. Swine farm infestation with Culicoides species (biting midges) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collection of biting midges within a piggery farm using black-light suction traps revealed the presence of diverse species of Culicoides. Out of a total of one thousand four hundred and five (1,405) midges caught, one thousand three hundred and sixty-six (1,366) were identified as species in the genus Culicoides while the ...

  16. Dog bites and maxillofacial surgery: what can we do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, C J; Graham, A; Shepherd, K; Greenberg, D

    2015-07-01

    The number of injuries caused by dog bites is increasing in the United Kingdom. We review patients admitted with dog bites to a single maxillofacial department in a district general hospital over a 21-month period. Data include patients' characteristics, and the site and severity of injury. The relationship of the victim to the animal and its breed and classification were added where possible. In total, 65 patients, mean age 22 years (range 1-71, median 14) were included. There were 84 wounds, and their site and severity were recorded according to the Lackmann classification. Twelve different breeds of dog were responsible for the bites. An appreciable proportion of those injured were young children. Educational strategies should aim to reduce the incidence of all dog bites, particularly in young children, as their needs after initial treatment are complex. We propose specific strategies to reduce the number of these injuries. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Malaria Prevalence and Indoor-Biting Mosquito Vector Abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... selected from the six villages of the town. Thick and thin blood films were made, stained with Field's stains A and B and examined microscopically. Indoor-biting mosquito vectors were collected using Pyrethrum Knockdown. Collection method (PKC). Of the 208 participants, 121 (58.2%) were malaria ...

  18. Preliminary studies on the biting activity and transmission of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the biting activity and onchocerciasis transmission in Kashoya- Kitomi focus, Western Uganda. Design: Cross-sectional survey in randomly selected sites. Setting: Three districts in Western Uganda. Method: Crab trapping and examination for immature stages of Simulium neavei and full day human ...

  19. Stability of anterior open-bite treatment with occlusal adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Crepaldi, Marcus Vinicius; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Janson, Waldyr

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the long-term stability of anterior open-bite treatment with occlusal adjustment and the dentinal sensitivity caused by this procedure in the long term. The sample comprised 17 open-bite patients who experienced relapse of the negative vertical overbite after orthodontic treatment and were retreated with occlusal adjustment. The cephalometric changes were evaluated on lateral cephalograms obtained before and after the occlusal adjustment and in the long term (mean, 3.4 years after occlusal adjustment). Dentinal sensitivity was also evaluated before the occlusal adjustment, and 1.35 months, 4.61 months, and 3.4 years later. The cephalometric statuses between the 3 evaluations were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests. The percentages of clinically significant relapse were calculated. To compare dentinal sensitivity at the several stages, nonparametric Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were performed. Statistically significant relapse of anterior open bite occurred in 33.3% of the patients. Those who had the procedure before 21 years of age were most likely to experience relapse. Dentinal sensitivity remained within the normal range in the long term. Despite the statistically significant relapse of anterior open bite, clinically significant stability was found in 66.7% of the patients. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP Triggered by a Spider Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Makris

    2009-01-01

    Discussion: A spider bite may represent a possible causative factor of AGEP. A spider's venom contains sphingomyelinase that stimulates the release of IL8 and GM-CSF, which are involved in AGEP pathogenesis. Whether or not the con-current use of antibiotics has an effect in AGEP appearance when combined with a spider's venom, cannot be excluded.

  1. Neurological manifestations in speech after snake bite: A rare case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurological manifestations in speech after snake bite: A rare case. D Vir, D Gupta, M Modi, N Panda. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/pamj.v4i1.53597 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  2. Management of common animal bites in the emergency centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adjunct Professor and Head, Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, University of Pretoria and Steve Biko ... consequence of dog bites. .... excessively? Did the dog behave out of character? Was the dog immunised against rabies? Is the dog known or is it a stray or unknown dog? Is it available for.

  3. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  4. Food allergens: Hypersensitivity to food and food constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reactions to food which occur only in susceptible individuals may result from true physical hypersensitivity to components of foods or from psychological factors. Non-allergic food hypersensitivity may be due to a metabolic defect in the affected individual, while in food allergy immune mechanism is involved. Food allergy can be further subdivided into IgE-mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy, depending on the underlying allergic mechanism. Most cases of confirmed food allergy involve the production of IgE antibodies and a network of interactions between various cell types and chemical mediators. This type of allergic reaction is known as an IgE-mediated allergy (or a type I hypersensitivity reaction, and it produces immediate symptoms. The most severe form of IgE-mediated allergy is systematic answer known as anaphylaxis that can be fatal in the absence of adequate medical help. Other less severe allergy manifestations are symptoms like swelling, itching, redness and heat in the mouth, gut, skin or respiratory tract. Hypersensitivity to food requires special dietary treatment, but total exclusion of some foods from the diet can be very difficult, because of the wide distribution of some foodstuffs in the diet or their presence as impurities in other foods. It is very important that producers have good systems of control, traceability and labeling of possible presence of food allergens in order to help people with food allergies to conduct their restrictive diets that are in most cases their lifelong treatment.

  5. A Case of Possible Hypersensitivity Reactions to Human Insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamescu Eduard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin therapy is commonly used in diabetic patients. It represents the only option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and could be part of the treatment plan for the patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical appearance of hypersensitivity reactions to insulin vary significantly, depending on the immune mechanism involved. Many skin prick tests could be interpreted as positive reactions (either by using inappropriate concentrations or due to other mast cell degranulation causes.

  6. Mayer Wave Activity in Vasodepressor Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    KENNY, ROSE; BOYLE, GERARD; FINUCANE, CIARAN

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Aims Mayer waves are low frequency blood pressure waves, whose modulation involves central/peripheral baroreflex pathways. Although vasodepressor carotid sinus hypersensitivity (VDCSH) is a common hypotensive disorder in ageing, the mechanism of VDCSH is unknown. We hypothesize that VDCSH is due to impaired baroreflex function and that Mayer wave amplitude and oscillation frequency are therefore altered. Methods and results Ten minutes ECG and continuous beat-to-beat blood pr...

  7. A haemodynamic study of pulmonary hypertension in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rudolf K F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Ramos, Roberta P; Ferreira, Eloara V M; Messina, Carolina M S; Kuranishi, Lilian T; Gimenez, Andrea; Campos, Orlando; Silva, Célia M C; Ota-Arakaki, Jaquelina S

    2014-08-01

    Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a common fibrotic interstitial lung disease. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension diagnosed by right heart catheterisation and its cardiopulmonary function findings in patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis are unknown. Consecutive symptomatic patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis were prospectively evaluated. All patients were submitted to right heart catheterisation, pulmonary function testing, a 6-min walk test, echocardiography, blood gas determination and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide analyses. Nonhypoxaemic patients also underwent incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing. 50 patients underwent right heart catheterisation; 25 (50%) of these had pulmonary hypertension and 22 (44%) had a pre-capillary haemodynamic pattern. The patients with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension had lower forced vital capacity (mean ± sd 50 ± 17% versus 69 ± 22% predicted, p<0.01), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (37 ± 12% versus 47 ± 14% predicted, p<0.01), arterial oxygen tension (median (interquartile range) 59.0 (47.8-69.3) versus 73.0 (62.2-78.5) mmHg, p<0.01) and saturation after the 6-min walk test (78 ± 8% versus 86 ± 7%, p<0.01). In pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension, oxygen uptake was also lower at the anaerobic threshold (41 ± 11% versus 50 ± 8% predicted, p=0.04) and at peak exercise (12.8 ± 1.6 versus 15.0 ± 2.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), p=0.02). Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension is common in symptomatic chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and is related to interstitial lung disease severity. Additionally, pulmonary hypertension is more prevalent in hypoxaemic patients with impaired lung function and exercise capacity. ©ERS 2014.

  8. Perioperative latex hypersensitivity reactions: an integrative literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Mota,Aline Nair Biaggio; Turrini,Ruth Natalia Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This article characterizes hypersensitivity reactions during anesthetic-surgical procedures. This integrative literature review was conducted in the LILACS, CINAHL, COCHRANE and MEDLINE databases including papers published from 1966 to September 2011. A total of 17 case reports, two prevalence studies and one cohort study were identified. Latex reactions were mainly type III and the primary source of intraoperative reaction was latex gloves. The average time for clinical manifestation was 59....

  9. Hypersensitivity to Etoposide in case of metastatic gestational choriocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazović, Biljana; Milenković, Vera; Delić, Marina; Mazić, Sanja; Jeremic, Katarina; Hrgović, Zlatko

    2013-01-01

    Etoposide is commonly used in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms. Hypersensitivity reactions to etoposide are infrequently reported and include hypotension, hypertension, flushing, diaphoresis, chest discomfort, dyspnea, bronchospasm and loss of consciousness. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who experienced acute bronchospasm, tachycardia, hypoxia and hypotension. The symptoms resolved within an hour after administration of intravenous fluids, methylprednisolone, diphenhydramine and oxygen. Subsequently, the patient was given etoposide phosphate without incident.

  10. Evolutionary Medicine: Semen Sampling and Seminal Plasma Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon G. Gallup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that each male may have a unique semen signature, and there are reasons to consider the possibility that semen sampling (i.e., being inseminated by different prospective mates during courtship may be part of an evolved female mate assessment strategy. Here we theorize that seminal plasma hypersensitivity represents the extreme negative end of this continuum and functions as a deterrent to mating with genetically incompatible suitors.

  11. [The Vulnerable Heel of Achilles: Intratendinous Abscess Following a Cat Bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschin, David; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Seifert, Julia

    2017-06-01

    An 83-year-old patient suffered a cat bite dorsally to the Achilles tendon. In the further course, he developed an isolated intratendinous abscess of the Achilles tendon, which was surgically revised twice and subsequently healed with antibiotic treatment. In Germany, about 40,000 bite injuries of different origins occur annually. Most of these injuries are cat or dog bites, while human bites are rare. Although the course is often complicated, there are no standard recommendations for treatment. An intratendinous abscess after animal bite injury has not been described in the literature as yet. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. A case: Acute myocardial infarction in a child due to spider bite

    OpenAIRE

    Laho, Edmond; Puca, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a case of a ten-years-old girl, who suffered myocardial ischemia following by "black widow" spider bite. A few minutes after the bite, her parents saw a small, black and shiny lesion in insect bite. The clinical signs began about 3-4 hours after the bite. The venom of the Latrodectus mactans "black widow" is toxic, resulting about 5-6 % fatality rate. The case of a black widow spider bite resulting in myocardial ischemia is very rare and has not been d...

  13. The management of dog bite injuries of genitalia in paediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Bertozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dog bite injuries are common in children and represent an important health-care problem. Most dog bite injuries involve the face or an extremity. Victims tend to seek medical care quickly. Dog bites to the external genitalia are rarely reported, but they potentially result in morbidity if improperly managed. Morbidity is also directly related to the severity of initial wound. Guidelines for the management of dog bites include irrigation, dιbridment, antibiotic therapy, consideration of tetanus and rabies immunisation and suture of wounds or surgical reconstruction. Literature review was conducted and focused to analyze the management of dog bite lesions involving external genitalia.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Fluoridated Mouthwash and Sodium Bicarbonate in Management of Dentin Hypersensitivity: An In Vitro SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikame, Vasundhara; Doshi, Yogesh; Horowitz, Robert A; Kevadia-Shah, Vidhi; Shah, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (ie, baking soda) can be used as an adjunct to surgical periodontal therapy to reduce dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Sodium bicarbonate mouthwash has numerous appealing attributes, including high availability, low cost, low abrasivity, water solubility, buffering capability, and, in high concentrations, antimicrobial properties. It is also safe to use. The primary underlying cause of DH is open dentinal tubules from loss of either cementum or enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate, through scanning electron microscopic examination, the effect of sodium bicarbonate on dentinal tubule occlusion and compare it with that of fluoridated mouthwash.

  15. Inhibition of three novel Radix Scutellariae extracts on immediate hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Wang, Jiangning; Shi, Haiyun; Gao, Lei; Wang, Xueyan

    2014-01-01

    Radix Scutellariae, a few papers reported its pharmacology activities including alleviate small intestines smooth muscles spasm, sedation, antihypertensive effect. However, the inhibition of its different organic extracts on immediate hypersensitivity has not bee researched. To investigate the anti-immediate hypersensitivity of three extracts including ethanol extracts, acetone extracts, ethyl acetate extracts from Radix Scutellariae, four pharmacological screening model were chose, such as 4-Aminopyridine induced pruritus model, histamine-induced mouse paw edema model, PCA(passive cutaneous anaphylaxis) in ear of mouse, activie cutaneous anaphylaxismouse (mouse ear edema test), furthermore, total IgE level in the sensitized mice serum was evaluated deeply. Ethanol group at 1.42 g/kg and 0.71 g/kg could greatly decrease the licking number to 1.2 and 12.7 respectively; also keep mice paw swelling at 0.29 ml and 0.51 ml at 15 min after injection of histamine. Both ear passive cutaneous allergic reaction and active cutaneous anaphylaxis-ear swelling test demonstrated that ethanol group exhibit great inhibition on immediate hypersensitivity.Low IgE level was found in ethanol group, but high in other two groups. The ethanol extracts exhibits obvious strong inhibition, however, the acetone ones and ethyl acetate showed a little.

  16. Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity to systemic corticosteroids: 2 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Lauren; Pratt, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Both immediate, type I reactions and delayed hypersensitivity, type IV reactions to systemic corticosteroid preparations have been reported. Type I reactions are rare, with delayed hypersensitivity reactions being slightly more common. A 33-year-old woman presented repeatedly to the emergency department with asthma attacks. She developed pruritus and hives approximately 30 minutes after the administration of parenteral corticosteroids. Her respiratory status deteriorated approximately 6 hours after she received the corticosteroids. An acute eczematous dermatitis on her face, neck, and upper body appeared 24 hours after administration of the corticosteroids. The dermatitis peaked at 72 hours. Intradermal testing to Solu-Medrol, Solu-Cortef, prednisone, and Decadron confirmed a type I, anaphylactoid reaction. The dermatitis that presented 24 hours after administration of the parenteral corticosteroids is consistent clinically with a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the corticosteroids. A second patient, a 51-year-old woman, developed urticarial lesions that lasted approximately 30 minutes, immediately after intralesional triamcinolone injections for keloid scars. Intradermal testing was performed. She showed a positive reaction to triamcinolone confirming a type I allergy to this steroid. It is important to consider an allergy to corticosteroids in patients with worsening anaphylactic symptoms after administration of systemic corticosteroids.

  17. Nickel-induced hypersensitivity: etiology, immune reactions, prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostýnek, Jurij J

    2002-08-01

    As a contact allergen causing type I and type IV hypersensitivity, mediated by reagins and allergen-specific T lymphocytes, expressed in a wide range of cutaneous eruptions following dermal or systemic exposure, nickel has acquired the distinction of being among the most frequent causes of hypersensitivity, occupationally as well as among the general population. In synoptic form the many effects that nickel has on the organism are presented, to provide a comprehensive picture of the aspects of that metal with many biologically noxious, but metallurgically indispensable characteristics. This paper reviews the epidemiology, the prognosis for occupational and non-occupational nickel allergic hypersensitivity (NAH), the many types of exposure and the resulting immune responses, immunotoxicity and rate of diffusion through the skin. Alternatives towards prevention and remediation, topical and systemic, for this pervasive and increasing form of morbidity resulting from multiple types of exposure are discussed. Merits and limitations of preventive measures in industry and private life are considered, as well as the effectiveness of topical and systemic therapy in treating NAH.

  18. Nephritic syndrome following multiple bee stings: a late hypersensitivity reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Shankha Subhra; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Nayek, Kaustav; Mitra, Piyali

    2015-05-01

    Most hypersensitivity reactions to insect stings are immediate, ranging from transient local reactions of little medical consequence to fatal anaphylaxis. Rarely, some patients have delayed reactions after a period of apparent normality which manifest as systemic features which can be life-threatening. A 3-year-old boy was attacked by a swarm of bees, estimated to be about 200 in number. There was an immediate cutaneous reaction which was treated at a local hospital. After 9 days, he presented with oliguria, dark-coloured urine, pedal oedema, hypertension and acute kidney injury (AKI). He was managed conservatively with fluid restriction, control of blood pressure and peritoneal dialysis, and renal function returned to normal gradually over the following 9 days. The delayed-onset AKI and other laboratory abnormalities suggested a immune-mediated type III hypersensitivity reaction leading to renal insufficiency. After improvement of initial hypersensitivity reactions, patients with bee stings should be followed up in order to detect any late-onset complications which might be life-threatening.

  19. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Suspected zonisamide-related anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, Audrey; Sammut, Veronique

    2017-12-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for sudden onset of cluster seizures. CLINICAL FINDINGS At an emergency clinic, the cat had hyperimmunoglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia. On referral, treatment with levetiracetam, zonisamide, and phenobarbital initially provided good control of cluster seizure activity (attributable to epilepsy of unknow origin). Two weeks later, assessments revealed that serum phenobarbital concentration was within the ideal range but serum zonisamide concentration exceeded the recommended therapeutic range. The dosage of zonisamide was therefore decreased. Four days after dosage reduction, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy. Cytologic analysis of lymph node aspirate samples revealed a heterogeneous population of well-differentiated lymphocytes, interpreted as marked reactivity. Although neoplasia could not be ruled out, hypersensitivity to phenobarbital was suspected, and this treatment was discontinued. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Despite cessation of phenobarbital administration, generalized peripheral lymphadenopathy progressed and hyperglobulinemia and cytopenias developed. These abnormalities resolved after discontinuation of zonisamide administration. The cat remained seizure free with no recurrence of the aforementioned concerns after reinstitution of phenobarbital treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of zonisamide-related lymphadenopathy, hyperglobulinemia, and cytopenias in a cat. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is well documented in human medicine, but little information has been published in the veterinary medical literature. Although the effects of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in this cat were serious, these effects were reversible with treatment discontinuation.