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Sample records for bite force

  1. Reliable quantification of bite-force performance requires use of appropriate biting substrate and standardization of bite out-lever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, A Kristopher; Jones, Marc E H

    2014-12-15

    Bite-force performance is an ecologically important measure of whole-organism performance that shapes dietary breadth and feeding strategies and, in some taxa, determines reproductive success. It also is a metric that is crucial to testing and evaluating biomechanical models. We reviewed nearly 100 published studies of a range of taxa that incorporate direct in vivo measurements of bite force. Problematically, methods of data collection and processing vary considerably among studies. In particular, there is little consensus on the appropriate substrate to use on the biting surface of force transducers. In addition, the bite out-lever, defined as the distance from the fulcrum (i.e. jaw joint) to the position along the jawline at which the jaws engage the transducer, is rarely taken into account. We examined the effect of bite substrate and bite out-lever on bite-force estimates in a diverse sample of lizards. Results indicate that both variables have a significant impact on the accuracy of measurements. Maximum bite force is significantly greater using leather as the biting substrate compared with a metal substrate. Less-forceful bites on metal are likely due to inhibitory feedback from mechanoreceptors that prevent damage to the feeding apparatus. Standardization of bite out-lever affected which trial produced maximum performance for a given individual. Indeed, maximum bite force is usually underestimated without standardization because it is expected to be greatest at the minimum out-lever (i.e. back of the jaws), which in studies is rarely targeted with success. We assert that future studies should use a pliable substrate, such as leather, and use appropriate standardization for bite out-lever. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Bite Forces and Their Measurement in Dogs and Cats

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    Se Eun Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bite force is generated by the interaction of the masticatory muscles, the mandibles and maxillae, the temporomandibular joints (TMJs, and the teeth. Several methods to measure bite forces in dogs and cats have been described. Direct in vivo measurement of a bite in dogs has been done; however, bite forces were highly variable due to animal volition, situation, or specific measurement technique. Bite force has been measured in vivo from anesthetized dogs by electrical stimulation of jaw adductor muscles, but this may not be reflective of volitional bite force during natural activity. In vitro bite forces have been estimated by calculation of the force produced using mechanical equations representing the jaw adductor muscles and of the mandible and skull structure Bite force can be estimated in silico using finite element analysis (FEA of the computed model of the anatomical structures. FEA can estimate bite force in extinct species; however, estimates may be lower than the measurements in live animals and would have to be validated specifically in domestic dogs and cats to be reliable. The main factors affecting the bite forces in dogs and cats are body weight and the skull’s morphology and size. Other factors such as oral pain, TMJ disorders, masticatory muscle atrophy, and malocclusion may also affect bite force. Knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats is essential for various clinical and research fields such as the development of implants, materials, and surgical techniques as well as for forensic medicine. This paper is a summary of current knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats, including the effect of measurement methods and of other factors.

  3. Bite force measurement based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

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    Padma, Srivani; Umesh, Sharath; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Srinivas, Talabattula

    2017-10-01

    The maximum level of voluntary bite force, which results from the combined action of muscle of mastication, joints, and teeth, i.e., craniomandibular structure, is considered as one of the major indicators for the functional state of the masticatory system. Measurement of voluntary bite force provides useful data for the jaw muscle function and activity along with assessment of prosthetics. This study proposes an in vivo methodology for the dynamic measurement of bite force employing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor known as bite force measurement device (BFMD). The BFMD developed is a noninvasive intraoral device, which transduces the bite force exerted at the occlusal surface into strain variations on a metal plate. These strain variations are acquired by the FBG sensor bonded over it. The BFMD developed facilitates adjustment of the distance between the biting platform, which is essential to capture the maximum voluntary bite force at three different positions of teeth, namely incisor, premolar, and molar sites. The clinically relevant bite forces are measured at incisor, molar, and premolar position and have been compared against each other. Furthermore, the bite forces measured with all subjects are segregated according to gender and also compared against each other.

  4. Bite force and dental implant treatment: a short review

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    Flanagan D

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dennis Flanagan1,2 1Department of Dental Medicine, Implantology LUdeS Foundation, Ricasoli, Malta; 2Private Practice, Willimantic, CT, USA Abstract: Dental implants are placed endosseously, and the bone is the ultimate bearer of the occlusal load. Patients are not uniform in the maximum bite force they can generate. The occlusal biting load in the posterior jaw is usually about three times of that found in the anterior. It is possible for supporting implants to be overloaded by the patients’ biting force, resulting in bone loss and failure of the fixture. Bite force measurement may be an important parameter when planning dental implant treatment. Some patients can generate extreme biting loads that may cause a luxation of the fixture and subsequent loss of osseointegration. A patient with low biting force may be able to have a successful long-term outcome even with poor anatomical bone qualities. Patients with a high bite force capability may have an increased risk for late component fracture or implant failure. There is no correlation of any bite force value that would indicate any overload of a given implant in a given osseous site. Nonetheless, after bite force measurement, a qualitative judgement may be made by the clinician for the selection of an implant diameter and length and prosthetic design. Keywords: occlusal load, newtons, oral function, force, sensor, software

  5. Proximate determinants of bite force in Anolis lizards.

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    Wittorski, Antoine; Losos, Jonathan B; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Performance measures associated with the vertebrate jaw system may provide important insights into vertebrate ecology and evolution because of their importance in many ecologically relevant tasks. Previous studies have shown that in many taxa, evolution toward higher bite force has gone hand in hand with the evolution of larger body size. However, independent of differences in overall body size, bite force may vary depending on head size and shape as well. Moreover, the underlying musculature may also drive variation in bite force. Here, we investigate the proximate determinants of bite force in lizards of the genus Anolis. We dissected the jaw muscles and quantified muscle mass, fibre length, and cross-sectional area. Data were analysed for both sexes independently given the sexual dimorphism detected in the dataset. Our results show that the traits that explain bite force are similar in both males and females with overall body size and muscle mass being the principal determinants. Among the different muscles examined, the adductor externus and the pseudotemporalis groups were the best determinants of bite force. However, models run for males predicted the variation in bite force better than models for females, suggesting that selection on morphology improving bite force may be stronger in males. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  6. Three-dimensional analyses of human bite-force magnitude and moment.

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    van Eijden, T M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the three-dimensional orientation of occlusal force on maximal bite-force magnitude was examined in seven human subjects at three different unilateral anteroposterior bite positions (canine, second premolar and second molar). At each position, bite-force magnitude was registered in 17 precisely defined directions using a three-component force transducer and a feedback method. In addition, to assess the efficiency of transfer of muscle to bite force, for bites produced in the sagittal plane, moment-arm length was determined and the produced bite-force moment calculated. The results showed that the largest possible bite force was not always produced in a direction perpendicular to the occlusal plane. Generally, maximal bite force in medial and posterior directions was larger than that in, respectively, corresponding lateral and anterior directions. In each direction the produced force was larger at the posterior bite point than at the anterior bite point. The combined moment produced by the jaw muscles was largest for vertical bites, smallest for posteriorly directed bites and intermediate for anteriorly directed bites. In the case of vertically and anteriorly directed bites the produced moment did not vary significantly with the bite position. Hence, for these bite positions the jaw closing moment of the muscles must have kept constant. In the case of posteriorly directed bites the produced moment decreased when bite position changed from the anterior to the posterior side of the dentition. This indicated that jaw muscle activity had declined.

  7. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

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    Takaki, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI, using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo, and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil, on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups.

  8. Maximum bite force analysis in different age groups.

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    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-07-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups.

  9. Bite force evaluation in subjects with cleft lip and palate

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    Carla Renata Sipert

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the masticatory function of subjects with cleft lip and palate by analyzing the bite force developed by these individuals. Bite force was evaluated in a group of 27 individuals with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (14 males and 13 females - aged 18-26 years and compared to the data achieved from a group of 20 noncleft subjects (10 males and 10 females - aged 18-26 years. Measurement was achieved on three positions within the dental arch (incisors, right molars and left molars, three times at each position considering the highest value for each one. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test ( α = 5%. There was a significant deficit in bite force in male individuals with cleft lip and palate compared to the male control group (p=0.02, p=0.004, p=0.003 for incisors, right and left molars, respectively. For the female group, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.79, p=0.06, p=0.47. In the group of individuals with clefts, 92.6% were under orthodontic treatment, which could be a reason for the present findings, since it can decrease the bite force more remarkably in males than in females. In conclusion, the bite force is significantly reduced in men when comparing the cleft group to the noncleft group. In females, this reduction was not significant in the same way. However, the main reason for this reduction and for the different behavior between genders should be further investigated.

  10. Poisonous animal bites in the Israel Defense Forces.

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    Haviv, J; Huerta, M; Shpilberg, O; Klement, E; Ash, N; Grotto, I

    1998-01-01

    Soldiers in field units of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) are susceptible to injury by various poisonous animals during training and operations. Bites and envenomations by animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders can be painful and debilitating, and at times life-threatening. We have examined the extent of exposure of IDF soldiers to snake and arthropod bites and the morbidity resulting from these encounters. All reports of IDF soldiers who sought medical attention for snake or arthropod bites between the years 1993-1997 were reviewed at the IDF Medical Corps Headquarters. Monthly distribution of cases was noted for all years, and geographic distribution was studied for all 1997 cases. Over the period 1993-1997 there was a yearly rate of 32-52 physician visits per 100,000 soldiers due to snakebites (mean 43.6/100,000), and 1370-1729 physician visits per 100,000 soldiers due to arthropod bites (mean 1478/100,000). There is a clear overall increase in snake and arthropod bites during the spring and summer months, with a peak in snakebites in May and in arthropod bites in August. 58% of all snakebites in Israel were reported in the central region, with 33% occurring in the south, and 9% in the north of the country. No fatalities due to envenomations have been reported in the IDF in recent years. Poisonous animal species pose a significant threat to the soldiers of the IDF. Overall, envenomation is a common and widespread problem that has significant impact on the military medical system, especially during the spring and summer months. It is possible through institution of proper preventive measures to decrease the exposure of IDF personnel to this environmental hazard.

  11. Clinical significance of isometric bite force versus electrical activity in temporal and masseter muscles

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    Bakke, Merete; Michler, L; Han, K

    1989-01-01

    bite force was 480 Newton (N) in control subjects and 387 N in patients, with corresponding bilateral values of 347 N and 230 N. At predetermined levels of contraction, temporalis and masseter activity were linearly related. Correlations of bite force and activity in short static contractions were......Bite force and activity in temporal and masseter muscles during biting and chewing were recorded in 19 control subjects and 23 subjects with symptoms and signs of functional disorders of the craniomandibular system. The entire group comprised 13 men and 29 women, 14-63 yr of age. Maximal unilateral...... significant with respect to unilateral, but not to bilateral force measurements. Only in the masseter muscle was strength of dynamic contractions during chewing significantly correlated to bite force. With the present method it was demonstrated that unilateral bite force is a simple clinical indicator...

  12. Assessment of masticatory function using bite force measurements in patients treated for mandibular fractures.

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    Sybil, Deborah; Gopalkrishnan, K

    2013-12-01

    Bite force measurements are excellent criteria for assessment of masticatory efficiency. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of mandibular fractures on the bite forces of patients treated for such fractures. Patients who were surgically treated for isolated mandibular fractures in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery from January 2006 to December 2007 were included in the study. Patients were asked to bite on a bite force transducer on the first, fourth, sixth, and ninth postoperative weeks. The bite force values were compared with those of age, sex, and weight-matched controls. A total of 60 patients were included in the study. It was found that maximum bite forces in patients were significantly less than in controls for several weeks after surgery. After the ninth postoperative week, the maximum bite force measured  80% the normal in patients with isolated parasymphysis fractures. The same values reduced to < 60% in patients with fractures of angle and parasymphysis and < 70% in patients with fractures of parasymphysis and condylar complex. An inverse relationship was found between the bite force values and the number of fractures of the mandible. We also found lower bite forces and longer period for normalization in patients who had fractures in those regions of the mandible which are more significantly associated with the masticatory apparatus for example angle or condyle of the mandible.

  13. BITE-FORCE ENDURANCE IN PATIENTS WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT OSTEOARTHROSIS AND INTERNAL DERANGEMENT

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    STEGENGA, B; BROEKHUIJSEN, ML; DEBONT, LGM; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of testing bite force endurance in patients with articular temporomandibular disorders. The endurance of a 50 N bite force was measured in 51 patients with painful temporomandibular joint disorders. The results were compared

  14. Effects of strong bite force on the facial vertical dimension of pembarong performers

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    C. Christina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pembarong performer is a reog dancer who bites on a piece of wood inserted into his/her mouth in order to support a 60 kg Barongan or Dadak Merak mask. The teeth supporting this large and heavy mask are directly affected, as the strong bite force exerted during a dance could affect their vertical and sagital facial dimensions. Purpose: This study aimed to examine the influence of the bite force of pembarong performers due to their vertical and sagital facial dimensions. Methods: The study reported here involved fifteen pembarong performers and thirteen individuals with normal occlusion (with specific criteria. The bite force of these subjects was measured with a dental prescale sensor during its centric occlusion. A cephalometric variation measurement was subsequently performed on all subjects with its effects on their vertical and sagital facial dimensions being measured. Results: The bite force value of the pembarong performers was 394.3816 ± 7.68787 Newtons, while the normal occlusion was 371.7784 ± 4.77791 Newtons. There was no correlation between the bite force and the facial sagital dimension of these subjects. However, a significant correlation did exist between bite force and lower facial height/total facial height (LFH/TFH ratio (p = 0.013. Conversely, no significant correlation between bite force and posterior facial height/total facial height (PFH/TFH ratio (p = 0.785 was detected. There was an inverse correlation between bite force and LFH/TFH ratio (r = -.464. Conclusion: Bite force is directly related to the decrease in LFH/TFH ratio. Occlusal pressure exerted by the posterior teeth on the alveolar bone may increase bone density at the endosteal surface of cortical bone.

  15. A validation study of a new instrument for low cost bite force measurement.

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    Testa, Marco; Di Marco, Anna; Pertusio, Raffaele; Van Roy, Peter; Cattrysse, Erik; Roatta, Silvestro

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative assessment of force in masticatory muscles is not a routine clinical test, probably due to the lack of an "easy-to-use" device. Aim of this study is (1) to present a low cost bite force instrument located in a custom-made housing, designed to guarantee a comfortable and effective bite action, (2) to evaluate its mechanical characteristics, in order to implement it in clinical settings and in experimental setups. Linearity, repeatability and adaptation over time were assessed on a set of four different sensors in bare and housed condition. Application of the housing to the transducer may appreciably alter the transducer's response. Calibration of the housed transducer is thus necessary in order to correctly record real bite force. This solution may represent a low cost and reliable option for biting force measurement and objective assessment of individual force control in the scientific and clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic functional force measurements on an anterior bite plane during the night.

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    Wichelhaus, Andrea; Hüffmeier, Stefan; Sander, Franz-Günter

    2003-11-01

    Anterior bite planes are used in removable and fixed appliance treatment. In removable appliance treatment the question arising is whether the delivered forces can achieve active intrusion in terms of their amplitude and duration. In fixed appliance treatment, the force effect on the incisors and associated pathologic side effects, in particular under the application of intrusion mechanics, have to be considered. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an anterior bite plane during the night. For this purpose ten subjects underwent nocturnal sleep investigations by means of a telemetric system. A silicon force sensor was integrated into an anterior bite plane for continuous measurement of bite forces and of the frequency of occlusal contact with the plate. The occlusal forces exerted on the anterior bite planes ranged between 3 and 80 N. The average forces were 5.5-24 N. The number of occlusal contacts varied between 39 and 558, with forces of between 7 and 9 N being registered in most cases. Major interindividual differences were detected in the magnitude of the force as well as in bite frequency. The intraindividual pattern of arising occlusal forces showed an intermittent force effect. No significant differences were found with regard to gender or growth pattern. In subjects with removable appliances, no active intrusion of teeth is possible during the night owing to the small number of occlusal contacts. Due to the partially very high forces in fixed appliance therapy, the integration of an anterior bite plane has to be assessed as critical in patients with unfavorable root geometry or bruxism.

  17. Postural And Eye-Positional Effects On Human Biting Force: An Experimental Study

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    Altay Tabancacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle groups affected on biting force are called temporal muscle as a major and masseter muscle as a minor. According to the human posture stability, forces of these muscles vary with the force directions. In this case, experimental investigation is strictly important such that biting force under different postural and eye- positional situations is changed. In this study, seven-male and seven-female within the age-range of 17-24 are considered corresponding to having with restorated molar tooth and without that type of tooth. With the help of specially designed biting fork, different posture- and eye-positions are investigated for experimental biting force analysis. Changes in eye-positions are not indicated significant difference for all postural positions. On one hand, it is obtained that biting force of no-filling tooth in men becomes maximum if facial muscles give full effort to biting. On the other hand, effect of facial muscles for women is not clearly noticed depending on the postural differences.

  18. Muscle thickness, bite force, and craniofacial dimensions in adolescents with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction.

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    Pereira, Luciano José; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Castelo, Paula Midori; van der Bilt, Andries

    2007-02-01

    Ultrasonography has been used to determine the association between muscle thickness, temporomandibular dysfuntion (TMD), facial morphology, and bite force. The aim of this study was to evaluate signs and symptoms (SS) of TMD using the craniomandibular index (CMI), masseter and anterior temporalis thickness, facial dimensions, and bite force in adolescents (12-18 years of age): 20 (10 males and 10 females) with SSTMD and 20 without (control, matched for age and gender). Ultrasonography was carried out using Just-Vision 200, and bite force measured with a pressure transducer. The measurements undertaken on the cephalograms included anterior (n-gn, n-Me, sp-gn) and posterior (S-tgo) facial dimensions, jaw inclination (NSL/ML), vertical jaw relationship (NL/ML), gonial angle (ML/RL), and overbite and overjet. The data were analysed with analysis of variance, Pearson's and Spearman's correlation and multiple regression. The SSTMD group showed a smaller bite force than the controls (P influences facial dimensions and bite force in adolescents with SSTMD.

  19. The effects of stretching exercise for upper trapezius on the asymmetric rate of bite force.

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    Lee, Bomjin; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Heo, Kwangjin; Hwang, Hojin; Kim, Boyoung; Han, Dongwook

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of stretching the upper trapezius muscle on the asymmetric rate of bite force. [Subjects] Forty-seven female university students who had all their original teeth, had no disorders in the temporomandibular joints, and had never worn braces; participated in this study. [Methods] An occlusometer was used to measure biting forces. Subsequently, stretching exercises of the upper trapezius were performed. The subjects were divided into 3 groups at the start of the testing: the asymmetric rate of the first group was less than 10%; the asymmetric rate of the second group was between 10% and 20%; and the asymmetric rate of the third group was more than 20%. The stretching exercises were done on the dominant side of the upper trapezius. [Results] After the stretching exercises of the upper trapezius, the results showed that for the first group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was less than 10%, there was a significant increase in asymmetric rate (from 5.1% to 10.3%). For the second group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was measured to be between 10% and 20%, the asymmetric rate decreased from 14.7% to 14.3%, but the change was not statistically significant. For the third group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was more than 20%, there was a significant decrease in asymmetric rate (from 27.8% to 12.6%). [Conclusion] We concluded that stretching exercises of the upper trapezius muscle had a direct effect on the asymmetric rate of biting force.

  20. A preliminary study to find out maximum occlusal bite force in Indian individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Veena; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Pillai, Rajath

    2014-01-01

    bite force was recorded on both (right and left) sides using a specially designed piezoelectric transducer based device. RESULTS: The MMBF in Indian individuals was found to be 372.39 ± 175.93 Newton (N). Males had significantly higher (P = 0.000) MMBF (448.47 ± 191.82 N) as compared to females (296......PURPOSE: This preliminary hospital based study was designed to measure the mean maximum bite force (MMBF) in healthy Indian individuals. An attempt was made to correlate MMBF with body mass index (BMI) and some of the anthropometric features. METHODOLOGY: A total of 358 healthy subjects in the age...

  1. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana.

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    Tom Weihmann

    Full Text Available Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches' mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2 to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.

  2. The effect of maximum bite force on marginal bone loss in mandibular overdenture treatment : an in vivo study

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    van Kampen, F; Cune, M; van der Bilt, A; Bosman, F

    2005-01-01

    The impact of bite force on the marginal bone response around implants is a subject of debate. This study focused on the effect of maximum bite force on marginal bone levels in mandibular implant overdenture treatment. In addition, the effect of the sequence of 3 different loading conditions on

  3. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

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    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01286363.

  4. Effect of bite force and diet composition on craniofacial diversification of Southern South American human populations.

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    Menéndez, Lumila; Bernal, Valeria; Novellino, Paula; Perez, S Ivan

    2014-09-01

    Ecological factors can be important to shape the patterns of morphological variation among human populations. Particularly, diet plays a fundamental role in craniofacial variation due to both the effect of the nutritional status-mostly dependent on the type and amount of nutrients consumed-on skeletal growth and the localized effects of masticatory forces. We examine these two dimensions of diet and evaluate their influence on morphological diversification of human populations from southern South America during the late Holocene. Cranial morphology was measured as 3D coordinates defining the face, base and vault. Size, form, and shape variables were obtained for 474 adult individuals coming from 12 samples. Diet composition was inferred from carious lesions and δ(13) C data, whereas bite forces were estimated using traits of main jaw muscles. The spatial structure of the morphological and ecological variables was measured using correlograms. The influence of diet composition and bite force on morphometric variation was estimated by a spatial regression model. Cranial variation and diet composition display a geographical structure, while no geographical pattern was observed in bite forces. Cranial variation in size and form is significantly associated with diet composition, suggesting a strong effect of systemic factors on cranial growth. Conversely, bite forces do not contribute significantly to the pattern of morphological variation among the samples analyzed. Overall, these results show that an association between diet composition and hardness cannot be assumed, and highlight the complex relationship between morphological diversification and diet in human populations. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Facial dimensions, bite force and masticatory muscle thickness in preschool children with functional posterior crossbite

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    Paula Midori Castelo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Posterior crossbite may affect craniofacial growth and development. Thus, this study aimed to associate facial dimensions (by standardized frontal photographs to masseter and anterior portion of the temporal muscle thickness (by ultrasonography and maximal bilateral bite force in 49 children with deciduous and early mixed dentitions. They were distributed in four groups: deciduous-normal occlusion (DNO, n = 15, deciduous-crossbite (DCB, n = 10, mixed-normal occlusion (MNO, n = 13 and mixed-crossbite (MCB, n = 11. Anterior facial height (AFH, bizygomatic width (FWB, and intergonial width (FWI were determined and associated with muscle thickness and bite force, applying Pearson’s coefficients and multiple logistic regression, with age, gender, body weight and height as the covariates. FWB and FWI were correlated positively with the masseter thickness, whereas AFH/FWB and AFH/FWI ratios had negative correlation, except in the DNO group. The correlation between AFH/FWB and bite force in the MCB group was significantly negative. A higher AFH/FWB in MNO and MCB led to a significantly higher probability for functional crossbite development. In the studied sample, it was observed that children in the early mixed dentition with a long-face trend showed lower bite force and higher probability to present functional posterior crossbite, without significant influence of the covariates.

  6. Relationship between oral status and maximum bite force in preschool children

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    Ching-Ming Su

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: By combining the results of this study, it was concluded that associations of bite force with factors like age, maximum mouth opening and the number of teeth in contact were clearer than for other variables such as body height, body weight, occlusal pattern, and tooth decay or fillings.

  7. Risk factors for low molar bite force in adult orthodontic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene Krogh; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2013-01-01

    sequentially admitted for conventional orthodontic treatment. All subjects had moderate to severe malocclusions. Bite force was measured by a pressure transducer, craniofacial dimensions and head posture were measured on profile radiographs, number of teeth in contact were evaluated with a plastic strip...... dimensions as mandibular prognathia (S-N-Pg, P angle (ML/RL, P ... showed that gender (P angle (P

  8. Visual Feedback of Bilateral Bite Force to Assess Motor Control of the Mandible in Isometric Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Marco; Geri, Tommaso; Signori, Alessio; Roatta, Silvestro

    2015-10-01

    The assessment of the individual ability of modulating and coordinating the right and left bite force is poorly investigated. The present study describes a methodology for the assessment of the bilateral control of the biting force and evaluates the test-retest reliability in a sample of 13 healthy subjects. By modulating the intensity and the left/right balance of the biting force, the subject was able to drive a cursor on the screen to "reach and hold" targets, randomly generated within the physiological "range of force" of the subject. The average motor performance was evaluated by the mean cursor-target distance = 13 ± 5%, the Offset Error = 9 ± 5% and the standard deviation of the force vector = 17.7 ± 6.1% (expressed as % of the target). Mean distance and standard deviation indices had acceptable reliability. This technique improves the characterization of the mandibular motor function and it may have a relevant role for the assessment and rehabilitation of the neuromusculoskeletal disorders affecting the orofacial system.

  9. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimat...

  10. Novel System for Bite-Force Sensing and Monitoring Based on Magnetic Near Field Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sanz Maudes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intraoral devices for bite-force sensing have several applications in odontology and maxillofacial surgery, as bite-force measurements provide additional information to help understand the characteristics of bruxism disorders and can also be of help for the evaluation of post-surgical evolution and for comparison of alternative treatments. A new system for measuring human bite forces is proposed in this work. This system has future applications for the monitoring of bruxism events and as a complement for its conventional diagnosis. Bruxism is a pathology consisting of grinding or tight clenching of the upper and lower teeth, which leads to several problems such as lesions to the teeth, headaches, orofacial pain and important disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The prototype uses a magnetic field communication scheme similar to low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID technology (NFC. The reader generates a low-frequency magnetic field that is used as the information carrier and powers the sensor. The system is notable because it uses an intra-mouth passive sensor and an external interrogator, which remotely records and processes information regarding a patient’s dental activity. This permits a quantitative assessment of bite-force, without requiring intra-mouth batteries, and can provide supplementary information to polysomnographic recordings, current most adequate early diagnostic method, so as to initiate corrective actions before irreversible dental wear appears. In addition to describing the system’s operational principles and the manufacture of personalized prototypes, this report will also demonstrate the feasibility of the system and results from the first in vitro and in vivo trials.

  11. Relationship between orofacial function, dentofacial morphology, and bite force in young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquezin, M C S; Gavião, M B D; Alonso, M B C C; Ramirez-Sotelo, L R; Haiter-Neto, F; Castelo, P M

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the relationship between orofacial function, dentofacial morphology, and bite force in young subjects. Three hundred and sixteen subjects were divided according to dentition stage (early, intermediate, and late mixed and permanent dentition). Orofacial function was screened using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S). Orthodontic treatment need, bite force, lateral and frontal craniofacial dimensions and presence of sleep bruxism were also assessed. The results were submitted to descriptive statistics, normality and correlation tests, analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression to test the relationship between NOT-S scores and the studied independent variables. The variance of NOT-S scores between groups was not significant. The evaluation of the variables that significantly contributed to NOT-S scores variation showed that age and presence of bruxism related to higher NOT-S total scores, while the increase in overbite measurement and presence of closed lip posture related to lower scores. Bite force did not show a significant relationship with scores of orofacial dysfunction. No significant correlations between craniofacial dimensions and NOT-S scores were observed. Age and sleep bruxism were related to higher NOT-S scores, while the increase in overbite measurement and closed lip posture contributed to lower scores of orofacial dysfunction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The relationship between skull morphology, masticatory muscle force and cranial skeletal deformation during biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Zapata Muñoz, Víctor; O'Higgins, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The human skull is gracile when compared to many Middle Pleistocene hominins. It has been argued that it is less able to generate and withstand high masticatory forces, and that the morphology of the lower portion of the modern human face correlates most strongly with dietary characteristics. This study uses geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the relationship between skull morphology, muscle force and cranial deformations arising from biting, which is relevant in understanding how skull morphology relates to mastication. The three-dimensional skull anatomies of 20 individuals were reconstructed from medical computed tomograms. Maximal contractile muscle forces were estimated from muscular anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs). Fifty-nine landmarks were used to represent skull morphology. A partial least squares analysis was performed to assess the association between skull shape and muscle force, and FEA was used to compare the deformation (strains) generated during incisor and molar bites in two individuals representing extremes of morphological variation in the sample. The results showed that only the proportion of total muscle CSA accounted for by the temporalis appears associated with skull morphology, albeit weekly. However, individuals with a large temporalis tend to possess a relatively wider face, a narrower, more vertically oriented maxilla and a lower positioning of the coronoid process. The FEAs showed that, despite differences in morphology, biting results in similar modes of deformation for both crania, but with localised lower magnitudes of strains arising in the individual with the narrowest, most vertically oriented maxilla. Our results suggest that the morphology of the maxilla modulates the transmission of forces generated during mastication to the rest of the cranium by deforming less in individuals with the ability to generate proportionately larger temporalis muscle forces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All

  13. Individual variations in numerically modeled human muscle and temporomandibular joint forces during static biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Laura R; Thornton, Benjamin R; McCall, Willard D; Nickel, Jeffrey C

    2004-01-01

    To test the effects of occlusal force (OF) angle on the variations in predicted muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) forces during unilateral molar bites. The craniomandibular (CM) geometries of 21 individuals were determined from lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs. These geometries were used in a numerical model based on minimization of muscle effort. This model was previously validated for this subject group through the use of jaw tracking and electromyographic data. The model predicted muscle and TMJ forces associated with static OFs on the right mandibular first molar. OF angle was varied from vertical to 40 degrees in the buccal and lingual directions, in increments of 10 degrees. Intra- and intersubject variations in predicted muscle and TMJ forces for unilateral molar biting were dependent on OF angle and CM geometry. Nonvertical OFs were associated with either large anterior temporalis muscle forces (> 100% of applied OF in 3 subjects) or large inferior lateral pterygoid muscle forces (> 90% of applied OF in 3 subjects). On average, vertically and buccally directed OFs were associated with higher mean contralateral TMJ forces (60% of applied OF, SD 12%). Two subjects had large ipsilateral or contralateral TMJ forces (> 90% of applied OF). In a group of healthy subjects, depending on the individual CM geometry, large muscle and/or TMJ forces were predicted to be associated with specific unilateral molar OF angles. Propensities to increased muscle or joint forces may be predisposing factors in the development of myofascial pain or intracapsular disease. The results may explain, in part, the variation in location of symptoms in individuals who first present with temporomandibular disorders.

  14. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  15. Morphometry, bite-force, and paleobiology of the late miocene caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Aureliano

    Full Text Available Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force. The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts.

  16. Morphometry, bite-force, and paleobiology of the late miocene caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts.

  17. Bone-breaking bite force of Basilosaurus isis (Mammalia, Cetacea from the late Eocene of Egypt estimated by finite element analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Snively

    Full Text Available Bite marks suggest that the late Eocence archaeocete whale Basilosaurus isis (Birket Qarun Formation, Egypt fed upon juveniles of the contemporary basilosaurid Dorudon atrox. Finite element analysis (FEA of a nearly complete adult cranium of B. isis enables estimates of its bite force and tests the animal's capabilities for crushing bone. Two loadcases reflect different biting scenarios: 1 an intitial closing phase, with all adductors active and a full condylar reaction force; and 2 a shearing phase, with the posterior temporalis active and minimized condylar force. The latter is considered probable when the jaws were nearly closed because the preserved jaws do not articulate as the molariform teeth come into occulusion. Reaction forces with all muscles active indicate that B. isis maintained relatively greater bite force anteriorly than seen in large crocodilians, and exerted a maximum bite force of at least 16,400 N at its upper P3. Under the shearing scenario with minimized condylar forces, tooth reaction forces could exceed 20,000 N despite lower magnitudes of muscle force. These bite forces at the teeth are consistent with bone indentations on Dorudon crania, reatract-and-shear hypotheses of Basilosaurus bite function, and seizure of prey by anterior teeth as proposed for other archaeocetes. The whale's bite forces match those estimated for pliosaurus when skull lengths are equalized, suggesting similar tradeoffs of bite function and hydrodynamics. Reaction forces in B. isis were lower than maxima estimated for large crocodylians and carnivorous dinosaurs. However, comparison of force estimates from FEA and regression data indicate that B. isis exerted the largest bite forces yet estimated for any mammal, and greater force than expected from its skull width. Cephalic feeding biomechanics of Basilosaurus isis are thus consistent with habitual predation.

  18. Change in bite force and electromyographic activity of masticatory muscle in accordance with change of occlusal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Kyu; Cho, Sung-Min; Yun, Kyoung-In; Park, Je-Uk

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of occlusal plane on masticatory function (biting force, masticatory muscle activity, biting efficiency) after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. The subjects of the present study consisted of a group of 55 adults who had undergone bimaxillary surgery more than 6 months earlier. Lateral cephalographs, bite force, and electromyographic measurements of the anterior temporal [EMG(t)] and masseter muscles [EMG(m)] were recorded before and after bimaxillary surgery. Statistical analyses were performed. In the increased occlusal plane group, the frequency of decreased EMG(t) was significantly high. The frequency of increased EMG(t) was also significantly high in the decreased occlusal plane group. A negative correlation was found between the postoperative occlusal plane angle and the biting force efficiency change. No significant difference was found between the group that moved from an abnormal to a normal range and the group that moved from a normal to an abnormal range. The occlusal plane change was significantly greater in the decreased EMG(t) group than in the increased EMG(t) group. The value of EMG(t) was related to the changes in the occlusal plane, and the biting efficiency was affected by the postoperative occlusal plane angle. However, normalization of the occlusal plane might not play a major role in masticatory function. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mandibular kinematics and maximum voluntary bite force following segmental resection of the mandible without or with reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsen, Sabine S; Oikonomou, Annina; Martini, Markus; Teschke, Marcus

    2018-05-01

    The purpose was to analyze mandibular kinematics and maximum voluntary bite force in patients following segmental resection of the mandible without and with reconstruction (autologous bone, alloplastic total temporomandibular joint replacement (TMJ TJR)). Subjects operated from April 2002 to August 2014 were enrolled in the study. Condylar (CRoM) and incisal (InRoM) range of motion and deflection during opening, condylar retrusion, incisal lateral excursion, mandibular rotation angle during opening, and maximum voluntary bite force were determined on the non-affected site and compared between groups. Influence of co-factors (defect size, soft tissue deficit, neck dissection, radiotherapy, occlusal contact zones (OCZ), and time) was determined. Twelve non-reconstructed and 26 reconstructed patients (13 autologous, 13 TMJ TJR) were included in the study. InRoM opening and bite force were significantly higher (P ≤ .024), and both condylar and incisal deflection during opening significantly lower (P ≤ .027) in reconstructed patients compared with non-reconstructed. Differences between the autologous and the TMJ TJR group were statistically not significant. Co-factors defect size, soft tissue deficit, and neck dissection had the greatest impact on kinematics and number of OCZs on bite force. Reconstructed patients (both autologous and TMJ TJR) have better overall function than non-reconstructed patients. Reconstruction of segmental mandibular resection has positive effects on mandibular function. TMJ TJR seems to be a suitable technique for the reconstruction of mandibular defects including the TMJ complex.

  20. Tooth eruption results from bone remodelling driven by bite forces sensed by soft tissue dental follicles: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafpour, Babak; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing; Zoellner, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent tongue, lip and cheek forces influence precise tooth position, so we here examine the possibility that tissue remodelling driven by functional bite-force-induced jaw-strain accounts for tooth eruption. Notably, although a separate true 'eruptive force' is widely assumed, there is little direct evidence for such a force. We constructed a three dimensional finite element model from axial computerized tomography of an 8 year old child mandible containing 12 erupted and 8 unerupted teeth. Tissues modelled included: cortical bone, cancellous bone, soft tissue dental follicle, periodontal ligament, enamel, dentine, pulp and articular cartilage. Strain and hydrostatic stress during incisive and unilateral molar bite force were modelled, with force applied via medial and lateral pterygoid, temporalis, masseter and digastric muscles. Strain was maximal in the soft tissue follicle as opposed to surrounding bone, consistent with follicle as an effective mechanosensor. Initial numerical analysis of dental follicle soft tissue overlying crowns and beneath the roots of unerupted teeth was of volume and hydrostatic stress. To numerically evaluate biological significance of differing hydrostatic stress levels normalized for variable finite element volume, 'biological response units' in Nmm were defined and calculated by multiplication of hydrostatic stress and volume for each finite element. Graphical representations revealed similar overall responses for individual teeth regardless if incisive or right molar bite force was studied. There was general compression in the soft tissues over crowns of most unerupted teeth, and general tension in the soft tissues beneath roots. Not conforming to this pattern were the unerupted second molars, which do not erupt at this developmental stage. Data support a new hypothesis for tooth eruption, in which the follicular soft tissues detect bite-force-induced bone-strain, and direct bone remodelling at the inner surface of the

  1. Preparing the Periphery for a Subsequent Behavior: Motor Neuronal Activity during Biting Generates Little Force but Prepares a Retractor Muscle to Generate Larger Forces during Swallowing in Aplysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; McManus, Jeffrey M.; Cullins, Miranda J.

    2015-01-01

    Some behaviors occur in obligatory sequence, such as reaching before grasping an object. Can the earlier behavior serve to prepare the musculature for the later behavior? If it does, what is the underlying neural mechanism of the preparation? To address this question, we examined two feeding behaviors in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, one of which must precede the second: biting and swallowing. Biting is an attempt to grasp food. When that attempt is successful, the animal immediately switches to swallowing to ingest food. The main muscle responsible for pulling food into the buccal cavity during swallowing is the I3 muscle, whose motor neurons B6, B9, and B3 have been previously identified. By performing recordings from these neurons in vivo in intact, behaving animals or in vitro in a suspended buccal mass preparation, we demonstrated that the frequencies and durations of these motor neurons increased from biting to swallowing. Using the physiological patterns of activation to drive these neurons intracellularly, we further demonstrated that activating them using biting-like frequencies and durations, either alone or in combination, generated little or no force in the I3 muscle. When biting-like patterns preceded swallowing-like patterns, however, the forces during the subsequent swallowing-like patterns were significantly enhanced. Sequences of swallowing-like patterns, either with these neurons alone or in combination, further enhanced forces in the I3 muscle. These results suggest a novel mechanism for enhancing force production in a muscle, and may be relevant to understanding motor control in vertebrates. PMID:25810534

  2. The influence of implant number and attachment type on maximum bite force of mandibular overdentures: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilhan, Hakan; Geckili, Onur; Mumcu, Emre; Cilingir, Altug; Bozdag, Ergun

    2012-06-01

    Assessment of the influence of such factors as attachment type, number of implants, gender and age of patients on maximum bite force (MBF). Sixty-two edentulous patients (32 females, 30 males; aged 64.03 ± 10.07 years, range 42-90 years) with mandibular implant overdentures with various attachment types were included in the study and their MBFs were recorded. The results were evaluated statistically at a significance level of p 0.05) were found with respect to age groups, attachment types and number of implants supporting the mandibular overdentures. Within the limitations of this study, it is concluded that independent of the number applied, dental implants increase MBF in edentulous patients. While males show higher bite force, patient age and attachment type seem not to play an important role. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Occlusal bite force change after orthodontic treatment with Andresen functional appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Susan N; Abu Alhaija, Elham S; Majzoub, Sami

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occlusal bite force (OBF) changes, at the incisal and molar regions, after orthodontic treatment with functional appliance therapy in preadolescent subjects. OBF was measured for patients (17 females and 16 males) before and after the treatment with Andresen functional appliance for an average period of 9 months (mean age was 11.8±1.1 years). Three variables were registered; maximum OBF at molar region and the average of three readings at the molar (AOBF) and incisal regions (IOBF). The same variables were measured in two occasions for a matching non-treated control group with a period of 9 months between the two measurements. No significant changes were seen in the OBF measured parameters in the control group. There was a reduction in all measured parameters. The mean reduction in maximum OBF was 76.1±12.4 N (P appliance caused a significant reduction in OBF immediately after treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Intraoral conversion of occlusal force to electricity and magnetism by biting of piezoelectric elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Ogura, Hideo; Terada, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Very weak electrical, magnetic and ultrasound signal stimulations are known to promote the formation, metabolism, restoration and stability of bone and surrounding tissues after treatment and operations. We have therefore investigated the possibility of intraoral generation of electricity and magnetism by occlusal force in an in vitro study. Biting bimorph piezoelectric elements with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) using dental models generated appropriate magnetism for bone formation, i. e. 0.5-0.6 gauss, and lower electric currents and higher voltages, i. e. 2.0-6.0 μA at 10-22 V (appropriate levels are 30 μA and 1.25 V), as observed by a universal testing machine. The electric currents and voltages could be changed using amplifier circuits. These results show that intraoral generation of electricity and magnetism is possible and could provide post-operative stabilization and activation of treated areas of bone and the surrounding tissues directly and/or indirectly by electrical, magnetic and ultrasound stimulation, which could accelerate healing.

  5. Effects of gape and tooth position on bite force and skull stress in the dingo (Canis lupus dingo using a 3-dimensional finite element approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bourke

    Full Text Available Models of the mammalian jaw have predicted that bite force is intimately linked to jaw gape and to tooth position. Despite widespread use, few empirical studies have provided evidence to validate these models in non-human mammals and none have considered the influence of gape angle on the distribution of stress. Here using a multi-property finite element (FE model of Canis lupus dingo, we examined the influence of gape angle and bite point on both bite force and cranial stress. Bite force data in relation to jaw gape and along the tooth row, are in broad agreement with previously reported results. However stress data showed that the skull of C. l. dingo is mechanically suited to withstand stresses at wide gapes; a result that agreed well with previously held views regarding carnivoran evolution. Stress data, combined with bite force information, suggested that there is an optimal bite angle of between 25 degrees and 35 degrees in C. l. dingo. The function of these rather small bite angles remains unclear.

  6. The force magnitude of a human bite precisely measured at the molar intercuspidation using FBG: part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Gabriela C.; Milczewski, Maura S.; Abe, Ilda; Cidade, Fernando N.; Souza, Mauren A.; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the evolution of a punctual method to determine the bite force. Now the fiber Bragg grating sensor is encapsulated in minimal material between uppers and lowers first molars, at the moment of occlusion, avoiding precontacts between the other teeth in a dentition model. The gypsum dentition castings were performed in semi-adjustable articulator in the occluded situation to maintain angulations of the occlusal plane of a volunteer. The sensor was characterized using loads from 0 to 90 N. Forces of about 0.0112 nm/N were found between right uppers and lowers first molars.

  7. Lizard Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Professional version Home Injuries and Poisoning Bites and Stings Lizard Bites Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Bites and Stings Introduction to Bites and Stings Alligator, Crocodile, and ...

  8. The effect of different attachment systems with implant-retained overdentures on maximum bite force and EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçankale, Mert; Akoğlu, Burçin; Ozkan, Yaşar; Ozkan, Yasemin Kulak

    2012-03-01

    To compare the effect of different attachment systems with implant-retained overdentures on maximum bite force and muscle activity using electromyography (EMG). Denture retention and stability is of considerable interest in prosthetic dentistry. Thirty-five patients were examined: 15 edentulous patients treated with mandibular implant-retained overdentures (MIRO) and maxillary dentures (MCD) (two implant-ball attachment) (BC); 10 edentulous patients treated with MIRO and MCD (four implants-bar attachments) (BRC); 10 patients with edentulous mandibular treated with MIRO and maxillary fixed partial dentures (MFPD) (two implant-ball attachments) (BF). Before implant placement all patients received new dentures. After using these dentures for 3 months the maximum bite force and electrical activity of masseter muscle were measured. Two or four implants were then inserted into the intraforaminal region. After osseointegration periods, patients were treated with MIRO which duplicated their dentures and after three months the measurements were repeated. The data were collected and statistically analysed. Muscle activity and chewing ability increased in the second period of measurements. Also chewing time was significantly decreased at the first measurements. The highest muscle activity was observed in the group of patients treated with group BF. The EMG values of the masseter muscle significantly increased when an implant attachments was used in the overdenture. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Chewing efficiency and maximum bite force with different attachment systems of implant overdentures: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyad, Moustafa Abdou; Khairallah, Ahmed Samir

    2017-06-01

    This crossover study aimed to evaluate and compare chewing efficiency and maximum bite force (MBF) with resilient telescopic and bar attachment systems of implant overdentures in patients with atrophied mandibles. Ten participants with severely resorbed mandibles and persistent denture problems received new maxillary and mandibular conventional dentures (control, CD). After 3 months of adaptation, two implants were inserted in canine region of the mandible. In a quasi-random method, overdentures were connected to the implants with either bar overdentures (BOD) or resilient telescopic overdentures (TOD) attachment systems. Chewing efficiency in terms of unmixed fraction (UF) was measured using chewing gum (after 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 strokes), and MBF was measured using a bite force transducer. Measurements were performed 3 months after using each of the following prostheses: CD, BOD and TOD. Chewing efficiency and MBF increased significantly with BOD and TOD compared to CD. As the number of chewing cycles increased, the UF decreased. TOD recorded significant higher chewing efficiency and MBF than BOD. Resilient telescopic attachments are associated with increased chewing efficiency and MBF compared bar attachments when used to retain overdentures to the implants in patients with atrophied mandibles. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Forças de mordida relacionadas a próteses parciais removíveis inferiores Biting forces related to partially removable mandibular dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Piza PELLIZZER

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar as forças de mordida de 73 indivíduos, por meio de um gnatodinamômetro. Os pacientes eram portadores de próteses parciais removíveis inferiores classes I, II ou III. A arcada antagonista era prótese, parcial removível ou fixa, ou total. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: as selas de extremidade livre, principalmente em suas posições extremas, conduziram a forças de mordida muito baixas; o envolvimento de prótese total, também, conduziu a forças de mordida baixas; o sexo masculino alcançou valores maiores que o feminino; com prótese parcial removível classe III, os dentes naturais molares e pré-molares desenvolveram valores maiores do que com classes I e II.The purpose of this study was to determine the biting forces of individuals wearing classes I, II or III partially removable mandibular dentures. Upper jaws presented fixed bridges, classes I, II or III partially removable dentures, or complete dentures. Measurements of biting forces were obtained by a gnathodynamometer. The conclusions were: classes I and II presented low biting forces, specially far from the last abutment tooth; when the opposite arcade was a complete denture, biting forces were low; males presented higher biting forces than females; natural molars and bicuspids presented higher biting forces with class III than with classes I or II.

  11. Influence of Deformation and Stress between Bone and Implant from Various Bite Forces by Numerical Simulation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosseous oral implant is applied for orthodontic anchorage in subjects with multiple tooth agenesis. Its effectiveness under orthodontic loading has been demonstrated clinically and experimentally. This study investigates the deformation and stress on the bone and implant for different bite forces by three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE methods. A numerical simulation of deformation and stress distributions around implants was used to estimate the survival life for implants. The model was applied to determine the pattern and distribution of deformations and stresses within the endosseous implant and on supporting tissues when the endosseous implant is used for orthodontic anchorage. A threaded implant was placed in an edentulous segment of a human mandible with cortical and cancellous bone. Analytical results demonstrate that maximum stresses were always located around the implant neck in marginal bone. The results also reveal that the stress for oblique force has the maximum value followed by the horizontal force; the vertical force causes the stress to have the minimum value between implant and bone. Thus, this area should be preserved clinically to maintain the structure and function of a bone implant.

  12. [Can magnets or additional intermaxillary forces improve the mode of action of jumping-the-bite plates?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, F G; Wichelhaus, A

    1994-12-01

    The use of accessory intermaxillary elastic traction or magnets during bite jumping appliance therapy marks a significant improvement in patient treatment. The use of interarch traction results in 100% mouth closure during the night, which is independent of the patient's sleeping position. During the night the guide pegs are subjected to almost no stress, which guarantees a quick adaptation. Additional intermaxillary traction does call for anchoring procedures in the maxillary anterior (torque springs) and mandibular molar region (clasps). According to the dental situation, the application of dynamic force can be withdrawn for a transitory period of time. Use of additional magnets in the anterior, depending on sleeping position, leads to complete mouth closure in up to 70 to 90% of the cases. Extensive measures in the mandibular and maxillary anterior areas must be considered when using this variant. In many cases the application of brackets is an absolute necessity. However, when the dental situation calls for it, magnets cannot be deactivated. All magnets in use today corrode very easily. It is, therefore, recommended that magnets used interorally be especially well shielded. Leaky capsules must considered especially problematic. Correct adjustment in the sagittal plane does not in any case guarantee stabilization. Only when a 3- or 4-stage bite has been reached, can it be said that a good adjustment in the neuromuscular masticatory pattern has been achieved. Depending on patient compliance, this period can be significantly drawn out. A functional analysis is not a suitable method for analyzing an extant stable result. With both of these modifications there is a tendency to greater dentoalveolar effect and diminished influence on the skull. The issue of whether magnets have no place in orthodontics, as Gianelly [3] claims, cannot be definitively answered, however, it can be said that intermaxillary traction, especially when force is applied by using super

  13. Effect of telescopic distal extension removable partial dentures on oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force: A preliminary cross over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyad, Moustafa Abdou; Mostafa, Aisha Zakaria

    2018-01-01

    This cross over study aimed to evaluate the effect of telescopic distal extension removable partial dentures on oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with complete maxillary edentulism and partially edentulous mandibles with anterior teeth only remaining were selected for this cross over study. All patients received complete maxillary dentures and mandibular partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP, control). After 3 months of adaptation, PRDP was replaced with conventional telescopic partial dentures (TPD) or telescopic partial dentures with cantilevered extensions (TCPD) in a quasi-random method. Oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured using OHIP-14 questionnaire and Maximum bite force (MBF) was measured using a bite force transducer. Measurements were performed 3 months after using each of the following prostheses; PRDP, TPD, and TCPD. TCPD showed the OHIP-14 lowest scores (i.e., the highest patient satisfaction with their OHRQoL), followed by TPD, and PRDP showed the highest OHIP-14 scores (i.e., the lowest patient satisfaction with OHRQoL). TCPD showed the highest MBF (70.7 ± 3.71), followed by TPD (57.4 ± 3.43) and the lowest MBF (40.2 ± 2.20) was noted with PRDP. WITHIN The Limitations of This Study, Mandibular Telescopic Distal Extension Removable Partial Dentures with Cantilevered Extensions Were Associated with Improved Oral Health Related Quality of Life and Maximum Bite Force Compared to Telescopic or Conventional PRDP. Telescopic distal extension removable prostheses is an esthetic restoration in partially edentulous patients with free end saddle. This article describes the addition of cantilevered extensions of this prosthesis. The results showed that telescopic distal extension removable prostheses with cantilevered extensions were associated with improved oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force compared to telescopic or conventional RPDs

  14. Arthropod bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory

    2013-12-15

    The phylum Arthropoda includes arachnids and insects. Although their bites typically cause only local reactions, some species are venomous or transmit disease. The two medically important spiders in the United States are widow spiders (Latrodectus), the bite of which causes intense muscle spasms, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles), which may cause skin necrosis. Widow bites usually respond to narcotics, benzodiazepines, or, when necessary, antivenom. Most recluse bites resolve uneventfully without aggressive therapy and require only wound care and minor debridement. Tick bites can transmit diseases only after prolonged attachment to the host. Treatment of clothing with permethrin and proper tick removal greatly reduce the risk of infection. Ticks of medical importance in the United States include the black-legged tick, the Lone Star tick, and the American dog tick. The prophylactic use of a single dose of doxycycline for Lyme disease may be justified in high-risk areas of the country when an attached, engorged black-legged tick is removed. Bites from fleas, bedbugs, biting flies, and mosquitoes present as nonspecific pruritic pink papules, but the history and location of the bite can assist with diagnosis. Flea bites are usually on ankles, whereas mosquito bites are on exposed skin, and chigger bites tend to be along the sock and belt lines. Antihistamines are usually the only treatment required for insect bites; however, severe mosquito reactions (skeeter syndrome) may require prednisone. Applying insect repellent containing diethyltoluamide (DEET) 10% to 35% or picaridin 20% is the best method for preventing bites.

  15. Implant-tooth-supported fixed partial prostheses: correlations between in vivo occlusal bite forces and marginal bone reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Kivanç; Uysal, Serdar; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate maximal occlusal bite forces (MOF) and marginal bone level (MBL) changes in patients with implant-tooth-supported fixed partial prostheses (FPP). Twenty nine partially edentulous patients consecutively who received 34 three-occlusal unit FPP with terminal implant and tooth support were subjected to quantification of MOFs using a sub-miniature load cell connected to a data acquisition system and measurement of the MBL changes around implants in digitalized periapical radiographs obtained at prostheses delivery and 24-month follow-up. MOFs for implant support (mean: 353.61 N) significantly differed from tooth support (mean: 275.48 N) (P 0.05). MBL changes at mesial and distal sites of the implants at 24 months of functional loading were 0.28 and 0.097 mm respectively. Although MOFs under functional loading might indicate an increase in load participation for supporting implant, the rigid connection between implant and natural tooth via three-occlusal unit FPP does not jeopardize the time-dependent MBL stability of the implant under functional loads.

  16. Lizard Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stings Alligator, Crocodile, and Iguana Bites Animal Bites Bee, Wasp, Hornet, and Ant ... in Arizona, Sonora, Mexico, and adjacent areas. The venom of these lizards is somewhat similar in content ...

  17. Influence of sustained submaximal clenching fatigue test on electromyographic activity and maximum voluntary bite forces in healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Fan, S; Cai, B; Fang, Z; Jiang, X

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the fatigue induced by sustained motor task in the jaw elevator muscles differed between healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Fifteen patients with TMD and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed a fatigue test consisting of sustained clenching contractions at 30% maximal voluntary clenching intensity until test failure (the criterion for terminating the fatigue test was when the biting force decreased by 10% or more from the target force consecutively for >3 s). The pre- and post-maximal bite forces (MBFs) were measured. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the superficial masseter muscles and anterior temporal muscles bilaterally, and the median frequency at the beginning, middle and end of the fatigue test was calculated. The duration of the fatigue test was also quantified. Both pre- and post-MBFs were lower in patients with TMD than in controls (P fatigue test in TMD patients was significantly shorter than that of the controls (P fatigued, but the electromyographic activation process during the fatigue test is similar between healthy subjects and patients with TMD. However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear, and further research is warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sex-specific trade-offs and compensatory mechanisms: bite force and sprint speed pose conflicting demands on the design of geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, S F; Wynn, M L; Wilson, R S

    2013-10-15

    One of the more intuitive viability costs that can result from the possession of exaggerated sexually selected traits is increased predation pressure as a result of reduced locomotor capacity. Despite mixed empirical support for such locomotor costs, recent studies suggest that such costs may be masked by compensatory traits that effectively offset any detrimental effects. In this study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the locomotor costs associated with improved male-male competitive ability by simultaneously testing for locomotor trade-offs and potential compensatory mechanisms in territorial male and non-territorial female geckos. Fighting capacity and escape performance of male Asian house geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) are likely to pose conflicting demands on the optimum phenotype for each task. Highly territorial and aggressive males may require greater investment in head size/strength but such an enhancement may affect overall escape performance. Among male geckos, we found that greater biting capacity because of larger head size was associated with reduced sprint performance; this trade-off was further exacerbated when sprinting on an incline. Females, however, showed no evidence of this trade-off on either flat or inclined surfaces. The sex specificity of this trade-off suggests that the sexes differ in their optimal strategies for dealing with the conflicting requirements of bite force and sprint speed. Unlike males, female H. frenatus had a positive association between hind-limb length and head size, suggesting that they have utilised a compensatory mechanism to alleviate the possible locomotor costs of larger head sizes. It appears that there is greater selection on traits that improve fighting ability (bite force) for males, but it is viability traits (sprint speed) that appear to be of greater importance for females. Our results emphasise that only by examining both functional trade-offs and potential compensatory mechanisms is it possible

  19. The effect of maximum bite force, implant number, and attachment type on marginal bone loss around implants supporting mandibular overdentures: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckili, Onur; Mumcu, Emre; Bilhan, Hakan

    2012-05-01

    There remains controversy regarding the clinical reasons for late-implant bone loss, which is a critical factor in the long-term success of implant-supported overdentures. Assessment of the effect of such factors as attachment type, number of implants, gender, age, and maximum bite force (MBF) on marginal bone loss (MBL) around implants supporting mandibular overdentures. Sixty-two edentulous patients rehabilitated with two-, three-, or four-implant-supported mandibular overdentures at a university clinic between January 2006 and January 2007 and having a digital panoramic radiograph at the time of loading, were included in this study. All patients received digital panoramic radiographs, and MBL was measured by subtracting bone levels from the first radiograph. MBF was measured using a bite force transducer. The amount of bone loss 48 months after loading was found to be unrelated to gender, age, implant number, attachment type, and splinting (p = .741, p = .953, p = .640, p = .763, p = .370, respectively). A significant correlation was observed between the MBF and the MBL of distal implants on the right side (p implants on the left side (p = .011, 34.6%). MBL around implants supporting mandibular overdentures seems not to be affected by number of implants, attachment type, age, or gender; however, MBL is affected by MBF. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, K. T.; Falkingham, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    Bite mechanics and feeding behaviour in Tyrannosaurus rex are controversial. Some contend that a modest bite mechanically limited T. rex to scavenging, while others argue that high bite forces facilitated a predatory mode of life. We use dynamic musculoskeletal models to simulate maximal biting in T. rex. Models predict that adult T. rex generated sustained bite forces of 35 000–57 000 N at a single posterior tooth, by far the highest bite forces estimated for any terrestrial animal. Scaling ...

  1. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  2. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  3. Bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Stuart L

    2002-12-01

    A simple and practical method for the evaluation of bite mark evidence has been described. There are many other methods, some quite complicated, using overlays, computer analysis and mathematical formulae. This author prefers to adhere to the "KISS principle: "Keep It Simple, Stupid." A jury is generally more willing to accept the positioning of a study model on a one-to-one life-size photograph rather than be led through a complicated analytical procedure. If the juror can hold the model and photograph in his/her hand and see that the teeth and bite mark match (or do not match), data summation can be much more direct. Numerous publications describe more complex matching procedures should circumstances warrant.

  4. Snake bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2010-01-02

    Snake bite is a common and frequently devastating environmental and occupational disease, especially in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Its public health importance has been largely ignored by medical science. Snake venoms are rich in protein and peptide toxins that have specificity for a wide range of tissue receptors, making them clinically challenging and scientifically fascinating, especially for drug design. Although the full burden of human suffering attributable to snake bite remains obscure, hundreds of thousands of people are known to be envenomed and tens of thousands are killed or maimed by snakes every year. Preventive efforts should be aimed towards education of affected communities to use proper footwear and to reduce the risk of contact with snakes to a minimum through understanding of snakes' behaviour. To treat envenoming, the production and clinical use of antivenom must be improved. Increased collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, and laboratory toxinologists should enhance the understanding and treatment of envenoming. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  6. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  7. Dog Bite Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog Bite Emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  8. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  9. Which dogs bite?

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, P

    1991-01-01

    Young children (less than 11 years old) are a particular risk group for dog bites. Dog bites commonly occur from the family pet. Alsatian or alsatian mixes are the biggest group in the study causing dog bites. Alsations are a popular breed. By comparison Retrievers (Labrador and Golden), also a popular breed, caused few bites.

  10. Mathematical model of the human jaw system simulating static biting and movements after unloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, GEC; Otten, E; van Eijden, TMGJ; van Willigen, JD

    1997-01-01

    When the resistance to a forceful isometric bite is suddenly removed in unloading experiments, the bite force drops to zero and the mandible reaches a constant velocity. This occurs at an initial bite force of 100 N after similar to 12 ms when the incisors have moved 4.5 mm. Reflex activity is far

  11. Tail-biting: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nina R; Main, David C J; Mendl, Mike; Edwards, Sandra A

    2010-11-01

    Tail-biting data from different studies are difficult to compare because a range of definitions of tail-biting behaviour and tail-biting lesions are used. Although records from abattoirs provide a large database, their usefulness is restricted as tail-biting is under-recorded and environmental and husbandry factors associated with the behaviour are unlikely to be known. Both farm and abattoir data provide no information on the number of pigs biting, only those bitten. Studying individual animals that tail-bite should give a better understanding of the pig's motivation to tail-bite and which of the components of its environment should be adjusted to improve welfare. This review examines the existing literature on tail-biting in pigs but considered from a new perspective using three different descriptive behavioural types, namely, 'two-stage', 'sudden-forceful' and 'obsessive', each of which may have different motivational bases. The article also considers the different environmental and husbandry factors which may affect each type of behaviour and discusses why this is such a complicated field and why it is often difficult to draw conclusions from available research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K T; Falkingham, P L

    2012-08-23

    Bite mechanics and feeding behaviour in Tyrannosaurus rex are controversial. Some contend that a modest bite mechanically limited T. rex to scavenging, while others argue that high bite forces facilitated a predatory mode of life. We use dynamic musculoskeletal models to simulate maximal biting in T. rex. Models predict that adult T. rex generated sustained bite forces of 35 000-57 000 N at a single posterior tooth, by far the highest bite forces estimated for any terrestrial animal. Scaling analyses suggest that adult T. rex had a strong bite for its body size, and that bite performance increased allometrically during ontogeny. Positive allometry in bite performance during growth may have facilitated an ontogenetic change in feeding behaviour in T. rex, associated with an expansion of prey range in adults to include the largest contemporaneous animals.

  13. Sound Bites that Bite Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 the Danish Minister for Economic Affairs and the Interior, Margrethe Vestager, spoke four words that would haunt her for weeks and months to come. At a press conference she concluded an answer to a touchy political question with the words: ‘That’s the way it is’ [Sådan er det jo]. This la......In 2012 the Danish Minister for Economic Affairs and the Interior, Margrethe Vestager, spoke four words that would haunt her for weeks and months to come. At a press conference she concluded an answer to a touchy political question with the words: ‘That’s the way it is’ [Sådan er det jo...... such massive rhetorical fallout, and I consider Vestager’s attempt at re-appropriating the sound bite as I engage ancient and contemporary rhetorical theory. In a time where a main concern is with the seeming triumph of emotion over reason in political debate, this case illustrates the dangers of over......-relying on reason alone in politics and speaks to the protean nature of rhetorical agency in the age of social media....

  14. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  15. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insect and spider bites cause more deaths from venom reactions than bites from snakes. ... Some people have severe, life-threatening reactions to bee stings ... or lightheadedness Abdominal pain or vomiting Rash or flushing

  16. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can carry other diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever. Spider Bites Most spider bites are minor, ... Clean the area with soap and water, and treat with an antiseptic or antibiotic cream to avoid ...

  17. Bites and stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Janice; Fahridin, Salma; Britt, Helena

    2009-11-01

    Of the 426 bite or sting problems managed, 312 (73%) were caused by insects. There were 114 other types of bites recorded, the most common being dog and spider bites. There were five cases of toxicity from aquatic animal stings or adverse reactions to bee stings (Table 1).

  18. The Stages of Biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Dana

    1999-01-01

    Describes infant and toddler biting behavior as related to developmental differences in exploring the environment, learning cause-effect relationships, and using power to elicit a response. Discusses ways to deal with biting at each level, how to support parents dealing with the behavior at home, and the importance of taking biting related to…

  19. Exotic reptile bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J; Ehrlich, M; Henderson, S O

    1997-09-01

    Reptiles are a growing part of the exotic pet trade, and reptile bites have been considered innocuous in the emergency medicine literature. Two cases are reported of reptile bites, one from a green iguana and the other from a reticulated python. The treatment concerns associated with reptile bites are discussed.

  20. Estimation of Dog-Bite Risk and Related Morbidity Among Personnel Working With Military Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermann, H; Eiges, N; Sabag, A; Kazum, E; Albagli, A; Salai, M; Shlaifer, A

    Soldiers serving in the Israel Defense Force Military Working Dogs (MWD) Unit spend many hours taming dogs' special skills, taking them on combat missions, and performing various dogkeeping activities. During this intensive work with the aggressive military dogs, bites are common, and some of them result in permanent disability. However, this phenomenon has not been quantified or reported as an occupational hazard. This was a retrospective cohort study based on self-administered questionnaires. Information was collected about soldiers' baseline demographics, duration of the experience of working with dogs, total number of bites they had, circumstances of bite events, and complications and medical treatment of each bite. Bite risk was quantified by incidence, mean time to first bite, and a Cox proportional hazards model. Rates of complications and the medical burden of bites were compared between combat soldiers and noncombat dogkeepers. Bite locations were presented graphically. Seventy-eight soldiers participated and reported on 139 bites. Mean time of working with dogs was 16 months (standard deviation, ±9.4 months). Overall bite incidence was 11 bites per 100 person-months; the mean time to first bite event was 6.3 months. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that none of baseline characteristics significantly increased bite hazard. About 90% of bites occurred during routine activities, and 3.3% occurred on combat missions. Only in 9% of bite events did soldiers observed the safety precautions code. Bite complications included fractures, need for intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical repair, prominent scarring, diminished sensation, and stiffness of proximal joints. Bite complications were similar between combat soldiers and dogkeepers. Most bites (57%) were located on hands and arms. MWD bites are an occupational hazard resulting in significant medical burden. Hands and arms were most common bite locations. Observance of safety precautions may be

  1. [Identification from bite marks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, P

    1980-02-01

    Criteria to be considered for establishing the guilt or innocence of a possible offender on the basis of bite marks on the skin of the murder victim were presented using four analyses of bite marks on murder victims. The bite marks must be identifiable; a clear 1:1 photograph should be made which is then compared with impression of a model of the suspect's bite. These impressions are made with graphite on, for example, the surface of a balloon or modelling clay. The evidence provided by a distinct bite mark is almost as conclusive as a fingerprint. Using only the bite mark photographs, the forensic-stomatologic evaluation influenced the course of argumentation in the legal proceedings of three of the four cases discussed; the evaluation was central for the proceedings in one case.

  2. Bite Mark Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SK Padmakumar; VT Beena; N Salmanulfaris; Ashith B Acharya; G Indu; Sajai J Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the in...

  3. No Biting: Policy and Practice for Toddler Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Gretchen

    Noting that no single issue in programs for toddlers inflames parents and frustrates staff the way biting does, this book provides guidance on program policy and practice. The book is based upon discussions of a task force on biting comprised of caregivers and administrators from the child care centers and Early Head Start in Syracuse, New York,…

  4. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites occur in the United States each year. Dogs cause most animal bites. Other biting animals include ... elbow or in the armpit Fever Tiredness Night sweats Shakes If these develop, you should seek emergency ...

  5. The influence of gender and bruxism on the human maximum bite force Avaliação da influência do gênero e do bruxismo na força máxima de mordida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia dos Santos Calderon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of gender and bruxism on the maximum bite force. The concordance for the physical examination of bruxism between examiners was also evaluated. One hundred and eighteen individuals, from both genders, bruxists and non-bruxists, with an average age of 24 years, were selected for this purpose. For group establishment, every individual was submitted to a specific physical examination for bruxism (performed by three different examiners. Subjects were then divided into four groups according to gender and the presence of bruxism. The maximum bite force was measured using a gnathodynamometer at the first molar area, three times on each side, performed twice. The two measurements were made with a 10-day interval. The highest value was recorded. The mean maximum bite force was statistically higher for males (587.2 N when compared to females (424.9 N (p0.05. The concordance between examiners for physical examination of bruxism was considered optimal.O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar a influência do gênero e do bruxismo na força máxima de mordida. A concordância interexaminadores para o exame físico de bruxismo também foi avaliada. Cento e dezoito voluntários, com idade média de 24 anos, divididos por gênero e pela presença de bruxismo, foram selecionados. Para o estabelecimento da amostra todos os voluntários foram submetidos a um exame físico específico para bruxismo (realizado por três examinadores. Então, os voluntários foram divididos em quarto grupos de acordo com o gênero e a presença de bruxismo. A força máxima de mordida foi mensurada, com o auxílio de um gnatodinamômetro, na região de primeiro molar, três vezes de cada lado, em duas sessões distintas. As sessões foram separadas por um intervalo de 10 dias. O maior valor dentre os doze obtidos, foi utilizado como sendo a força máxima. A força máxima de mordida foi estatisticamente maior para o g

  6. Treatment for Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out where to take your child for treatment. If the wound is so large that the edges won’t ... above the bite Your pediatrician may recommend antibiotic therapy for a child who has: Moderate or severe bite wounds Puncture wounds, especially if the bone, tendon, or ...

  7. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  8. Dog and cat bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  9. All about Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisalli, Linda

    2008-01-01

    As directors of early learning programs, one deals with a myriad of issues on a daily basis. One of the more frustrating things that come up from time to time is biting. Biting is particularly problematic because it tends to elicit such a strong response from caregivers, parents, and other children. In this article, the author talks about biting…

  10. Managing the Biting Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claffey, Anne E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the causes of biting behavior and techniques that parents and educators can use to manage biting toddlers. Notes that solutions need to consider the developmental level and needs of the child, the influence of the child's environment, and the role of adults in the child's life. (MDM)

  11. Understanding and Preventing Toddler Biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Veronica

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the problem of toddler biting behavior in child care settings. Describes reasons for biting by toddlers, recommends caregiver responses to toddler biting, presents tips for observing children to identify the biter's patterns, and outlines ways to prevent biting in child care settings. (KB)

  12. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body rash fever and chills fatigue Of a black widow spider bite: rigid, painful muscles within 8 hours no ... child was bitten by a brown recluse or black widow spider Think Prevention! Make sure garages, attics, and woodpiles ...

  13. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  14. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by either of 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are ...

  15. Evaluación electromiográfica de los músculos masticadores durante la fuerza máxima de mordedura Electromyography evaluations of the masticator muscles during the maximum bite force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.P. Coelho-Ferraz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La actividad de los músculos masetero y de la porción anterior temporal de ambos lados, derecho e izquierdo, respectivamente, durante la fuerza máxima de mordedura fue estudiada en voluntarios sanos. El estudio incluyó a 17 voluntarios adultos de ambos sexos, edad promedia de 25 años, que no evidenciaban ningún indicio de disfunción temporomandibular y eran relacionados con la Facultad de Odontología de Piracicaba. Se registraron los datos electromiográficos en ambos lados de la cara del masetero y de la porción anterior de los músculos temporal y suprahioideo en las posiciones postural e isométrica. Se utilizaron electrodos de superficie pasivos para niños, de Ag/AgCl, con forma circular y descargables de Meditrace® Kendall-LTP, modelo Chicopee MA01. Éstos se conectaron a un preamplificador con una ganancia de 20x que formaba un circuito de diferenciales. Se captaron los registros de las señales eléctricas utilizando un equipo EMG-8OOC de EMG System of Brazil, Ltd., de ocho canales, a una frecuencia de 2 KHz con 16 bitios de resolución y un filtro digital con un paso de banda de 20 a 500 Hz. Se utilizó también un transductor de presión que consistía en un tubo de goma con un sensor de presión (MPX 5700* (Motorola SPS, Austin, TX, EE.UU. para registrar la fuerza máxima de mordedura. El análisis estadístico incluyó la correlación lineal, la prueba t emparejada y el análisis de la varianza. Se consideró estadísticamente significativa una probabilidad de pHealthy individuals were examined in terms of the pattern of activity of the masseter and temporal muscles in their anterior portion of both right and left sides, respectively, with the maximum bite force. The study consisted in seventeen adult volunteers with no sign of apparent temporomandibular dysfunction, of both genders, connected to the School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, with average age of 25 years old. The electromyography data were obtained, bilaterally, of

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  17. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  18. Effect of Postnatal Myostatin Inhibition on Bite Mechanics in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan H Williams

    Full Text Available As a negative regulator of muscle size, myostatin (Mstn impacts the force-production capabilities of skeletal muscles. In the masticatory system, measures of temporalis-stimulated bite forces in constitutive myostatin KOs suggest an absolute, but not relative, increase in jaw-muscle force. Here, we assess the phenotypic and physiologic impact of postnatal myostatin inhibition on bite mechanics using an inducible conditional KO mouse in which myostatin is inhibited with doxycycline (DOX. Given the increased control over the timing of gene inactivation in this model, it may be more clinically-relevant for developing interventions for age-associated changes in the musculoskeletal system. DOX was administered for 12 weeks starting at age 4 months, during which time food intake was monitored. Sex, age and strain-matched controls were given the same food without DOX. Bite forces were recorded just prior to euthanasia after which muscle and skeletal data were collected. Food intake did not differ between control or DOX animals within each sex. DOX males were significantly larger and had significantly larger masseters than controls, but DOX and control females did not differ. Although there was a tendency towards higher absolute bite forces in DOX animals, this was not significant, and bite forces normalized to masseter mass did not differ. Mechanical advantage for incisor biting increased in the DOX group due to longer masseter moment arms, likely due to a more anteriorly-placed masseter insertion. Despite only a moderate increase in bite force in DOX males and none in DOX females, the increase in masseter mass in males indicates a potentially positive impact on jaw muscles. Our data suggest a sexual dimorphism in the role of mstn, and as such investigations into the sex-specific outcomes is warranted.

  19. Funnel-web spider bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002844.htm Funnel-web spider bite To use the sharing features on ... the effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous ...

  20. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  1. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) HealthReach resources will open in a new window. Arabic (العربية) Expand Section Animal Bites and Scratches - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  2. Mosquito Bites are Bad!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of mosquito bites and how to prevent getting them.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  3. Prevent Bite Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most bites come from domesticated animals that the child knows, not from wild or unfamiliar animals. A major concern for parents ... some tips to keep in mind. Teach your child to avoid contact with wild animals. She also needs to stay away from ...

  4. Spider Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t had one in the last five years. Black widow spider You can usually identify a black widow spider by the hourglass marking on its belly. In ... in the South. Signs and symptoms of a black widow spider bite may include: At first, slight swelling and ...

  5. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sting. Handling Bee and Wasp Stings A bee will usually leave behind a stinger attached to a venom sac. Try to remove it as quickly as ... child has had an allergic reaction to a bee or wasp sting in the past, see your ... shape on its underbelly. The venom (a toxic substance) in a black widow bite ...

  6. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  7. Biting into Big Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Maureen McCahan

    1996-01-01

    A mnemonic clue sentence--"He thinks mice bite trees"--is suggested for helping students with learning disabilities or mild mental retardation successfully identify up to 15 digit numbers by relating the sentence to the sequence of hundreds, thousands, millions, billions, and trillions. (DB)

  8. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  9. Bites of Lists - mapping and filtering sublists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    The idea of applying map and filter functions on consecutive sublists instead of on individual list elements is discussed and developed in this paper. A non-empty, consecutive sublist is called a bite. Both map and filter functions accept a function parameter - a bite function - which...... is responsible for returning a prefix bite of a list. We develop families of bite functions via a collection of higher-order bite generators. On top of the bite generators, a number of bite mapping and bite filtering functions are introduced. We illustrate the usefulness of bite mapping and filtering via...

  10. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  11. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  12. Maximal bite force in young adults with temporomandibular disorders and bruxism Força de mordida máxima em adultos jovens com disfunção temporomandibular e bruxismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Aparecida Pizolato

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Parafunctional habits, such as bruxism, are contributory factors for temporomandibular disorders (TMD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maximal bite force (MBF in the presence of TMD and bruxism (TMDB in young adults. Twelve women (mean age 21.5 years and 7 men (mean age 22.4 years, composed the TMDB group. Ten healthy women and 9 men (mean age 21.4 and 22.4 years, respectively formed the control group. TMD symptoms were evaluated by a structured questionnaire and clinical signs/symptoms were evaluated during clinical examination. A visual analogical scale (VAS was applied for stress assessment. MBF was measured with a gnatodynamometer. The subjects were asked to bite 2 times with maximal effort, during 5 seconds, with a rest interval of about one minute. The highest values were considered. The data were analyzed with Shapiro-Wilks W-test, descriptive statistics, paired or unpaired t tests or Mann-Whitney tests when indicated, and Fisher's exact test (p Hábitos parafuncionais, como o bruxismo, podem contribuir para a disfunção temporomandibular (DTM. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a força de mordida máxima (FMM na presença de DTM e bruxismo (DTMB em adultos jovens. Doze mulheres (idade média de 21,5 anos e sete homens (idade média 22,4 anos compuseram o grupo DTMB. O grupo controle foi formado por 10 mulheres e 9 homens saudáveis, com idades médias de 21,4 e 22,4 anos, respectivamente. Os sintomas de DTM foram avaliados com um questionário estruturado, e os sinais/sintomas clínicos foram avaliados no exame clínico. Para avaliar estresse, utilizou-se a escala analógica visual (VAS. A FMM foi mensurada com gnatodinamômetro, e o participante foi orientado a morder com o máximo esforço durante 5 segundos, duas vezes, com intervalo de aproximadamente 1 minuto, considerando-se os valores máximos. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilks, estatística descritiva, teste t pareado e independente, Mann

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library ... biting. Replace the nail-biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, ...

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: Spending ... longer bite any of your nails. For some people, nail biting may be a sign of a ...

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically ... to bite your nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan ...

  17. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your fingers and from your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  18. Reality Bites: Biting at the Center--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jim; Stonehouse, Anne Willis

    1994-01-01

    Examines the problem of biting in group child care, especially among toddlers. Discusses reasons for the behavior such as teething, impulsiveness and lack of self control, excitement and overstimulation, and frustration. Offers advice for child caregivers when biting occurs in their program. (TJQ)

  19. Morphology of open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Karl-Friedrich; Dannhauer, Karl-Heinz; Hierl, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to define and illustrate the skeletal morphology of open-bite patients against the background of sagittal jaw relationships on the basis of lateral cephalograms. Lateral cephalograms of 197 untreated adults were analyzed in dental imaging software (Onyx Ceph 3™; Image Instruments, Chemnitz, Germany). Four groups were formed based on vertical (Index scores) and sagittal (individualized ANB values) parameters. Ninety-nine patients were defined as the control group due to their neutral sagittal and vertical relationships. The remaining patients were found by their vertical relationships to represent open-bite cases and were divided by their sagittal relationships into three study groups: neutral (Class I, n = 34), distal (Class II, n = 26), and mesial (Class III, n = 38). A geometric morphometric approach was used to analyze the x,y-coordinates of 28 skeletal landmarks on each cephalogram. Relative size was captured based on centroid size (CS). The shape-determining factors in the groups were compared by permutation testing after Procrustes transformation, and intergroup differences were visualized in the form of thin-plate splines. While size (CS) was significantly increased in the Class III group, the other two groups were not different from the control group. After Procrustes transformation, characteristic and invariably significant (p common that the mandibular ramus is compressed, but marked differences are seen in terms of vertical development of the maxilla. This differentiated view of open-bite cases should be taken into consideration during individual etiology assessment and treatment planning.

  20. Pigeon tick bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolla, G; Heffler, E; Boita, M

    2018-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a serious systemic allergic reaction with rapid onset and potentially life-threatening. We report in detail a case of severe nocturnal anaphylaxis due to pigeon tick bite showing the diagnostic value of the extract and the recombinant allergen in the diagnostic procedures (basophil...... reagents. Because of the growing number of pigeons in Middle and Southern Europe cities, some cases of idiopathic anaphylaxis could potentially be caused by A. reflexus in those countries. The identification of pigeon ticks as a trigger of anaphylaxis would greatly improve medical care and advice...

  1. Black widow spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobernick, M

    1984-05-01

    Latrodectus mactans has now invaded towns and cities. The spider's venom is a neurotoxin that causes little local reaction but produces pain and spasm in large skeletal muscle groups within 30 minutes to three hours after the bite. Severe envenomation may result in respiratory failure and coma. First aid is of no value. Muscle relaxants are useful in treatment, as is calcium gluconate. Antivenin is indicated for high-risk victims, such as those with hypertension and persons younger than 16 or older than 60 years of age.

  2. Methods for the Analysis of Human Bite Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naru, A S

    1997-12-01

    The comparison of features within a bite mark injury with the dentition of a suspect may be required during the course of a criminal investigation. A review of the literature regarding bite mark analysis has been undertaken to determine the value of this evidence. Bite marks in skin are complex injuries consisting of abrasions, lacerations, and contusions, caused by the crushing action of the teeth and related structures. Front-line investigators need to recognize and interpret these features, but no standard method of information collection or comparison has been agreed. Many classifications of bite mark types have been proposed, but do not appear to aid mark analysis. Investigations of bite strengths and sucking forces have been inconclusive. Insufficient information exists as to the accuracy and reproducibility of the representation of the dentition by tissue pathology. Histological analysis and collagen staining techniques have attempted to define the area of injury in detail, but have limited application. The quality of the mark is determined by numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Distortion and shrinkage of the tissues introduce dimensional disturbances that require elimination before a comparison can be undertaken. No method exists to quantify and correct these distortions. The investigator must be aware that self-inflicted marks often occur among children and that other events may replicate bite mark injuries. The most common bite mark comparison methods employ an intermediate template produced from the suspect dentition that, when overlaid onto a scale photograph of the injury, demonstrates correspondence. No agreement exists regarding the individuality of human dentition, minimum level of correspondence required to positively identify the assailant, and the accuracy to which tissue pathology can represent these details. It is concluded that bite mark comparison can only exclude a suspect and should not be used for positive identification. Copyright

  3. Esthetic correction in open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Parlani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious oral habits, which are persistent, can lead to poor esthetics of a beautiful face. Conventional treatment modalities for an open bite usually include orthodontic treatment and/or skeletal surgery. This article focuses on a different treatment modality for an anterior open bite.

  4. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 2 Go to slide 2 out of 2 Overview To treat a minor bite, first wash your hands thoroughly with soap to avoid ...

  5. Bites and Scratches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tease or provoke any animals, even family pets. Animals should not be disturbed while they are eating or sleeping. If you own a pet, make sure it's properly immunized and licensed. Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, MD Date reviewed: January ... Safe Pets First Aid: Animal Bites Cat Scratch Disease Preventing Dog Bites Rabies ...

  6. Homicidal Snake Bite in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulis, Melad G; Faheem, Ayman L

    2016-03-01

    Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake. Killing a victim by direct snake bite is so rare. There was one reported case where an old couple was killed by snake bite. Here is the first reported case of killing three children by snake bite. It appeared that the diagnosis of such cases is so difficult and depended mainly on the circumstantial evidences. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Shrieking, Biting, and Licking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Stang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines examples of the monstrous-feminine in the form of abject female monsters in a selection of critically acclaimed and commercially successful video games. Various female monsters from CD Projekt RED’s The Witcher series (2007-2015, and Santa Monica Studio’s God of War series (2005-2013 are considered as examples of the abject monstrous-feminine which fall into a long tradition in horror media of making the female body and body movements into something horrific and repulsive. These female monsters use shrieking, biting, licking, and spreading disease as weapons against the male protagonist, who must slay them to restore symbolic order and progress in the games.

  8. [Protection against tick bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, N; Lipsker, Dan

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous tick-borne infections, which include viral (TBE), parasitic (babesiosis) and bacterial diseases. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is the most common tick-borne disease in France. In temperate climates such as in France, ticks bite humans between March and October. Prevention relies on adequate clothing and on repellents. The latter are reviewed in this work. Repellents may be natural, made from eucalyptus, tomato and coconut, or synthetic, among which the most widely used is DEET (N,N,-Diethyl-m-toluamide). Newer, synthetic repellents exist such as IR3535 which, as well as being less toxic, also exhibits greater efficacy against ticks. Some repellents are used on the skin, while others, like permethrin, which is actually an insecticide, may be applied to clothing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Chewing pattern and muscular activation in open bite patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piancino, Maria Grazia; Isola, Gaetano; Merlo, Andrea; Dalessandri, Domenico; Debernardi, Cesare; Bracco, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    Different studies have indicated, in open bite patients, that masticatory muscles tend to generate a small maximum bite force and to show a reduced cross-sectional area with a lower EMG activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinematics parameters of the chewing cycles and the activation of masseters and anterior temporalis muscles of patients with anterior dental open bite malocclusion. There have been no previous reports evaluating both kinematic values and EMG activity of patients with anterior open bite during chewing. Fifty-two young patients (23 boys and 29 girls; mean age±SD 11.5±1.2 and 10.2±1.6years, respectively) with anterior open bite malocclusion and 21 subjects with normal occlusion were selected for the study. Kinematics parameters and surface electromyography (EMG) were simultaneously recorded during chewing a hard bolus with a kinesiograph K7-I Myotronics-Usa. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the open bite patients and the control group for a narrower chewing pattern, a shorter total and closing duration of the chewing pattern, a lower peak of both the anterior temporalis and the masseter of the bolus side. In this study, it has been observed that open bite patients, lacking the inputs from the anterior guidance, that are considered important information for establishing the motor scheme of the chewing pattern, show narrower chewing pattern, shorter lasting chewing cycles and lower muscular activation with respect to the control group. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Dog Bite Rates and Biting Dog Breeds in Texas, 1995-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blocker, David

    2000-01-01

    .... The first aim of this study was to summarize descriptive characteristics of biting dogs and dog bite victims in Texas from 1995 through 1997 using the Texas Department of Health severe animal bite...

  11. Reversible myocarditis after spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Hasan; Ak, Ahmet; Bayir, Aysegul; Avci, Ahmet

    2013-04-08

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus) are poisonous spiders endemic in Turkey. Latrodectus bites may cause myocarditis with increased cardiac enzymes. We treated two men (aged 20 and 33 years) who had myocarditis after black spider bites with leucocytosis and elevated levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction. Both patients had normal results on an ECG, and one patient had abnormal echocardiography with minimal left ventricular wall movement disorder. Both patients were hospitalised in the intensive care unit and treated with intravenous fluids, analgesics, spasmolytic drugs, tetanus prophylaxis and cardiac monitoring. The levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction improved, and the patients were discharged home on the third and fifth hospital day without complications. Myocarditis after a Latrodectus bite is rare, but may be associated with serious complications. Therefore, in regions endemic with Latrodectus spiders, prudent treatment of spider bites may include cardiac evaluation and monitoring.

  12. Tips to Prevent Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the right insect repellent and other preventive actions can discourage ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting insects from landing on you. Tips include avoiding tick habitats and minimizing exposed skin.

  13. Biting. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This column summarizes recent ERIC documents and journal articles, and highlights some World Wide Web resources, that discuss issues related to the problem of children biting in preschool. (Contains 13 annotated summaries.) (SD)

  14. Força de mordida em crianças com mantenedor de espaço funcional na fase da dentadura mista inicial Bite force in children with functional space maintainer in early mixed dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Rodrigues Jacinto-Gonçalves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a influência do mantenedor de espaço funcional (MEF na força muscular em crianças com perda prematura de molares decíduos na fase inicial da dentadura mista (5,5 a 6,5 anos de idade com oclusão normal, considerando-se o padrão facial. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por dois grupos: Grupo MEF (n = 15, com perda precoce de pelo menos um molar decíduo; e Grupo Controle (n = 16. Determinou-se a força de mordida máxima (FM com um tubo transmissor pressurizado, conectado a um circuito eletrônico analógico/digital antes (t0, um mês (t1 e 6 meses (t6 após a instalação do mantenedor. O padrão facial foi determinado pelo índice de Jarabak (FHR. Os dados foram analisados pela estatística descritiva, análise de variância para medidas repetidas, teste t e correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS:a FM foi significativamente menor em t0 e t1 para o Grupo MEF em relação ao Controle. Em t6 não houve diferença. Os dois grupos apresentaram a FM significativamente maior em t6, em relação a t0, mas o percentual de variação para o Grupo MEF foi significativamente maior. Os valores de FHR não se correlacionaram com a FM, não ocorrendo diferença entre os tipos faciais intragrupos. Os dolicofaciais do Grupo MEF apresentaram a FM significativamente menor que os do Grupo Controle, em t0 e t1, mas não em t6. CONCLUSÃO: o maior aumento na FM para o Grupo MEF após 6 meses foi favorecido pelo maior número de contatos oclusais, devido aos dentes artificiais, melhorando a função e recuperando a força muscular.AIM: To verify the influence of a functional space maintainer (FSM in muscle strength in children with premature loss of primary molars in early mixed dentition (5.5-6.5 years old with normal occlusion, considering the facial pattern. METHODS: The sample was distributed in: FSM Group (n = 15, with premature loss of at least one primary molar and a Control Group (n = 16. It was determined the maximal bite force (BF

  15. Human bites of the face

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    involved (90.9%). This was also reported by Muguti et al.3. (29%) and Iregbulem4 (100%). The upper lip was not involved in the present study, and only few series have reported bites to this site - Muguti et al." (5%) and Venter" (7.0%). Iregbulem4 believes that trying to bite off the lip is a subconscious effort to attack and thus.

  16. Bite through the tent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naue, Jana; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Pietsch, Klaus; Sänger, Timo; Schlauderer, Nicola; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    The authors report on a young boy who was bitten into his face by an unknown animal while being asleep in a tent. Given the bite marks and the location of the scene, members of the mustelidae and canidae families were the first "suspects." Deoxyribunucleic acid (DNA) recovered from the tent's wall was analyzed with regard to parts of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal ribunucleic acid (12S rRNA) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes as well as nuclear short tandem repeats (STRs). Since Sanger sequencing revealed a mixed sequence with a strong human component overlying the nonhuman contributor, an animal screening using a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with an intercalating dye and melt curve analysis was employed. The results were later confirmed by cloning. The applied commercial canine STR kit verified the animal family (canidae) but did not help in discriminating the species due to cross-species amplification. In the presented case, the real-time PCR assay offered the cheapest and fastest method for animal family determination, which then allowed for an appropriate and sample-saving strategy to characterize the causative animal species.

  17. Bites and stings: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krau, Stephen D

    2013-06-01

    Rapid and effective treatment of bites is a major variable in the overall outcome of a patient who is a victim of a bite. There are a wide range of animals that bite and sting, and the reactions vary depending on the individual and the animal involved. Although most bites are treated on an outpatient basis, patients who have severe complications related to bites become patients in critical care settings. An overview of potential bite and sting sources, with some general guidelines for what to expect and how to treat the patient, is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... archive Advocacy Action Center News Advocacy priorities AADA Health ... biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting ...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side ... Team Patients Patient advocates Media Advertisers Quick links About AAD Support AAD Donate Shop AAD Product catalog ...

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spending money to keep your nails looking attractive may make you less likely to bite them. Alternatively, ... Just knowing when you’re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop ...

  2. First Aid: Insect Stings and Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a known severe allergy to a stinging or biting insect injectable epinephrine (EpiPen) was used the site ... Insect Repellents With DEET Safe for Kids? Bug Bites and Stings Can I Use Bug Killers and Repellents During ...

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side ... set of nails, such as your thumb nails, first. When that’s successful, eliminate your pinky nails, pointer ...

  4. Heridas por Mordedura / Bites Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coturel A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanus vaccine should be indicated when the patient has not full vaccination scheme and rabies vaccine in cases of suspected or confirmed infected animals.

  5. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. White shark ( Carcharodon carcharias )-inflicted bite wounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White shark ( Carcharodon carcharias )-inflicted bite wounds observed on Cape fur seals ( Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus ) at Black Rocks, Algoa Bay, South Africa. ... The low number of bite-inflicted injuries observed suggests that white sharks attack seals infrequently at Black Rocks. Key words: Algoa Bay, bite injuries, ...

  7. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5070 Bite block. (a) Identification. A bite block...

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through ... effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting can make the skin around your nails feel ...

  9. Sexual dimorphism in bite performance drives morphological variation in chameleons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M da Silva

    Full Text Available Phenotypic performance in different environments is central to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive adaptive divergence and, ultimately, speciation. Because habitat structure can affect an animal's foraging behaviour, anti-predator defences, and communication behaviour, it can influence both natural and sexual selection pressures. These selective pressures, in turn, act upon morphological traits to maximize an animal's performance. For performance traits involved in both social and ecological activities, such as bite force, natural and sexual selection often interact in complex ways, providing an opportunity to understand the adaptive significance of morphological variation with respect to habitat. Dwarf chameleons within the Bradypodion melanocephalum-Bradypodion thamnobates species complex have multiple phenotypic forms, each with a specific head morphology that could reflect its use of either open- or closed-canopy habitats. To determine whether these morphological differences represent adaptations to their habitats, we tested for differences in both absolute and relative bite performance. Only absolute differences were found between forms, with the closed-canopy forms biting harder than their open-canopy counterparts. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was found for both absolute and relative bite force, but the relative differences were limited to the closed-canopy forms. These results indicate that both natural and sexual selection are acting within both habitat types, but to varying degrees. Sexual selection seems to be the predominant force within the closed-canopy habitats, which are more protected from aerial predators, enabling chameleons to invest more in ornamentation for communication. In contrast, natural selection is likely to be the predominant force in the open-canopy habitats, inhibiting the development of conspicuous secondary sexual characteristics and, ultimately, enforcing their overall diminutive

  10. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites. Here’s how: Keep mosquitoes out of your hotel room or lodging Š Choose a hotel or lodging with air conditioning or screens on ... percentages of active ingredient provide longer protection Some brand name examples* (Insect repellents may be sold under ...

  11. Electron "bite-outs" in Dusty Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Hsu, S.; Kempf, S.

    2012-12-01

    The study of dusty plasmas is still an emerging new field that bridges a number of traditionally separate subjects, including for example, celestial mechanics, and plasma physics. Dust particles immersed in plasmas and UV radiation collect electrostatic charges and respond to electromagnetic forces in addition to all the other forces acting on uncharged grains. Simultaneously, dust can alter its plasma environment. Dust particles in plasmas are unusual charge carriers. They are many orders of magnitude heavier than any other plasma particles, and they can have many orders of magnitude larger (negative or positive) time-dependent charges. Dust particles can communicate non-electromagnetic effects (gravity, drag, radiation pressure) to the plasma that can represent new free energy sources. Their presence can influence the collective plasma behavior, for example, by altering the traditional plasma wave modes and by triggering new types of waves and instabilities. Dusty plasmas represent the most general form of space, laboratory, and industrial plasmas. Interplanetary space, comets, planetary rings, asteroids, the Moon, aerosols in the atmosphere, are all examples where electrons, ions, and dust particles coexist. This talk will focus on "electron bite-outs", the apparent reduction of the electron density due to dust charging in a plasma comprised of electrons, ions and dust particles We will compare the recent observations of the plasma conditions near Enceladus at Saturn to the decades old measurements in the Earth's mesosphere. We present model calculations of dust charging in a region where plasma is maintained by UV radiation, and present the time-dependent charge distribution of grains as function of dust density and size distribution. We will also make estimates for possible dusty plasma wave activities as function of the magnitude of the electron "bite-outs".

  12. K-9 Police Dog Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.

  13. Temporomandibular disorders and psychological status in adult patients with a deep bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and psychological status were examined in adult patients with a deep bite and compared with an adult age- and gender-matched control group with neutral occlusion. The deep bite group consisted of 20 females (mean age 30.3 years) and 10 males (mean age 33.1 years......). The control group comprised 20 females (mean age 29.4 years) and 10 males (mean age 34.2 years). TMD examination, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD), cephalometric lateral radiographs, registration of occlusion, and bite force were performed. To test the mean differences between...... group compared with the controls. Somatization scores were significantly higher in the deep bite group compared with the controls (P psychological...

  14. Morphology, ornaments and performance in two chameleon ecomorphs: is the casque bigger than the bite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measey, G John; Hopkins, Kevin; Tolley, Krystal A

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of ecomorphs within a species may represent either unique evolutionary events or multiple convergent events in similar environments. Functional studies of differing morphological traits of ecomorphs have been important to elucidate their role in adaptive radiations. The Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, has two ecomorphs: a large, brightly colored, ornate form found in closed habitats, and a small, dull form with reduced ornamentation found in open vegetation. The typical form is known to use casque size to communicate fighting ability, but it is unknown whether this is an honest signal and whether casque size is related to bite force. We show through a population genetic analysis that these ecomorphs are not separate genetic lineages but the result of multiple transitions between closed and open habitats. From measurements of ornamental and non-ornamental morphological characters and bite force in 105 chameleons, we find that bite force is significantly related to head size and is best predicted by head width. Bite force was reasonably predicted by casque height in ecomorphs from closed habitats, but not in those from open habitats. For size-adjusted data, open habitat males had wider heads, biting harder than closed habitat males. Our data suggest honesty in signaling for closed habitat ecomorphs, but for open habitat ecomorphs communication is different, a finding commensurate with the common framework for species radiations.

  15. Pigs suffering from injurious behaviours like flank biting and tail biting are more interested to manipulate a novel rope than uninjured control animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Ettema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Injurious behaviours in pigs may involve persistent or forceful biting in specific body parts and may result in wounds of the pigs’ tails, ears, flanks and legs. Such behaviours, which may lead to progressive tissue damage, are difficult to counteract. On a commercial farm 22 groups of pigs with

  16. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouth- and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 ml (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In

  17. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouthfeel and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 mL (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  19. Incidence of dog bites in Milwaukee, wis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndon, J A; Jach, G J; Wehrenberg, W B

    1996-04-01

    Dogs are everywhere. The incidence of and injuries caused by dog bites have grown to such epidemic proportions in certain parts of the United States that they are now considered a major public health concern. Playful Rover is no longer a harmless pet. Uncontrolled, he now can be considered a public nuisance. In this study, we evaluated the epidemiology of dog bites recorded in Milwaukee, for calendar years 1989-1991. This assessment included anatomical location of bites, victims' ages, behavioral antecedents, leading up to the bite incidents, season of the year, and animal ownership. The evaluation also measured the correlation coefficient between the frequency of dog bite incidents and median household income distribution within the city. During the 3-year period, a total of 3,926 animal bites, including 3,244 (83%) dog bites, were reported to the City of Milwaukee Department of Health. Of all the dog bites reported, 60% were on the upper extremities. Children less than 15 years old sustained 44% of the injuries, mostly to the head and face. Provocation by the victim accounted for 19% of the cases. The majority of the incidents (67%) occurred during the spring and summer months. In 49% of all cases, the victims families or neighbors owned the animals involved in the biting. Researchers also observed a significant negative correlation between bites and median household income distribution. Study results suggest a need to educate the public about the magnitude of dog-bite problems, enforce leash laws and impound stray dogs as an integral part of prevention programs.

  20. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...... and prevention of tail damage. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on how best to respond to outbreaks: the effectiveness of, for example, removing biters and/or bitten pigs, increasing enrichment, or applying substances to tails should be investigated. Finally, some breeding companies are exploring...

  1. Talking to Patients about Preventing Tick Bites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-14

    This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips.  Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  2. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  3. Tick Bite Alopecia: A Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael C; Milchak, Marissa A; Parnes, Herbert; Ioffreda, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    Tick bites can cause a number of local inflammatory reactions, which are often difficult to differentiate from those induced by other arthropod bites or stings. These include erythematous nodular or pustular lesions, erosive plaques, annular lesions of erythema chronicum migrans, and both scarring and nonscarring inflammatory alopecia. We report a case of nonscarring alopecia in a 21-year-old male who reported a recent history of tick bite to the scalp. The biopsy demonstrated a dense pseudolymphomatous inflammatory infiltrate with numerous eosinophils associated with hair follicle miniaturization and an elevated catagen-telogen count. Signs of external rubbing, including lichen simplex chronicus and the "hamburger sign", were also visualized and are indicative of the associated pruritus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the fifth report of nonscarring tick bite alopecia in the literature and the first in an adult patient. This text will review the classic clinical presentation, histologic findings, and proposed mechanism of tick bite alopecia.

  4. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molar Intrusion in Open-bite Adults Using Zygomatic Miniplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Eiman S; Abdallah, Essam Mohamed; El-Kenany, Walid A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes that arise after intrusion of the maxillary molars using zygomatic miniplates in adult skeletal anterior open bite patients. In addition to measuring the amount and rate of molar intrusion; with special emphasis on changes in the axial inclination of the intruded molars. The study group was composed of 13 anterior open bite patients (mean age 18 years, 8 months ± 2 years, 2 months) with posterior dentoalveolar excess. Mini-plates were placed in the zygomatic buttress bilaterally. The upper arch was segmentally leveled and a double Trans-Palatal Arch (TPA) was bonded. Closed NiTi coil spring was placed bilaterally between the book of the mini-plate just mesial and distal to the first molar buccal tube applying intrusive force of 450 gper side. Lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms were taken before intrusion (T1: post upper segmental leveling) and after intrusion (T2). Comparison between means before and after the intrusion was done using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test (WSRT). Mandibular autorotation followed the molar intrusion, SNB and SN-Pog angles significantly increased while the ANB, MP-SN angle and N-S-Gn angle significantly decreased. The mean amount of accomplished molar intrusion was 3.1mm ± 0.74mm, with a rate of 0.36mm per month ± 0.08mm per month and a bite closure of 6.55mm ± 1.83mm. There was no significant buccal tip in the right and left molars upon intrusion. Conclusion: Miniplates zygomatic anchorage can be used effectively for skeletal open bite correction through posterior dento-alveolar intrusion. Intrusion of the posterior teeth with skeletal anchorage induced counterclockwise rotation of the mandible and, as a consequence, corrected the anteroposterior intermaxillary relationship with a dramatic improvement in the facial soft tissue convexity.

  6. Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get attention or express how they're feeling. Frustration, anger, and fear are strong emotions and toddlers ... in-progress, it's important to create a zero-tolerance culture at home, daycare, and elsewhere. Here are ...

  7. Court presentation of bite mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinnan, A J; Melton, M J

    1985-12-01

    The uniqueness of an individual's bite mark is generally accepted. The use of bite mark analysis to identify or exclude those suspected of crimes is now a well established activity in forensic dentistry. Although the techniques for evaluating bite mark evidence are extremely sophisticated, it is important that the courtroom presentation of such evidence should be as simple as possible and be directed towards those who must judge it. Dentists likely to be involved in the courtroom presentation of bite mark evidence should: be certain that their local law enforcement personnel are frequently updated on the techniques to be used for producing the optimum evidence needed to evaluate bite marks; become acquainted with the current techniques of evaluating bite mark evidence and understand their difficulties and pitfalls; meet with the lawyers (prosecution or defence) before a courtroom appearance, briefing them on the significance of the particular findings; prepare clear and easily understandable visual aids to present to the court the techniques used in the analysis and the bases for the conclusion reached; and offer conclusions derived from the bite mark investigation.

  8. Talking tails : quantifying the development of tail biting in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tail biting is an adverse behaviour characterised by manipulation of a pig’s tail by another pig resulting in tail damage and a possible tail biting outbreak. Tail biting is a common problem in the pig husbandry causing economic losses and reduced animal welfare worldwide. To prevent tail biting,

  9. Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Diane; Bélanger, Marie C; Bécuwe-Bonnet, Véronique; Parent, Joane

    2012-12-01

    Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting.

  10. Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Diane; Bélanger, Marie C.; Bécuwe-Bonnet, Véronique; Parent, Joane

    2012-01-01

    Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting.

  11. A survey of dog bites in Salisbury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H F; Voss, S

    1991-12-01

    A recent survey of patients attending an Accident and Emergency (A&E) department serving several economically depressed Thanet coastal towns found that around 3 per 1000 of the resident population attended each year for the treatment of dog bite injuries (Thomas and Banks, 1990). We report a study of dog bite injuries treated in the A&E department serving Salisbury, a small prosperous Cathedral city, and surrounding villages. In comparison with Thanet, age specific incidence rates for dog bites show a similar pattern but only about half the overall incidence. Some reasons for these findings are suggested and extrapolations for national treatment figures are made.

  12. Error rates in bite mark analysis in an in vivo animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avon, S L; Victor, C; Mayhall, J T; Wood, R E

    2010-09-10

    Recent judicial decisions have specified that one foundation of reliability of comparative forensic disciplines is description of both scientific approach used and calculation of error rates in determining the reliability of an expert opinion. Thirty volunteers were recruited for the analysis of dermal bite marks made using a previously established in vivo porcine-skin model. Ten participants were recruited from three separate groups: dentists with no experience in forensics, dentists with an interest in forensic odontology, and board-certified diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Odontology (ABFO). Examiner demographics and measures of experience in bite mark analysis were collected for each volunteer. Each participant received 18 completely documented, simulated in vivo porcine bite mark cases and three paired sets of human dental models. The paired maxillary and mandibular models were identified as suspect A, suspect B, and suspect C. Examiners were tasked to determine, using an analytic method of their own choosing, whether each bite mark of the 18 bite mark cases provided was attributable to any of the suspect dentitions provided. Their findings were recorded on a standardized recording form. The results of the study demonstrated that the group of inexperienced examiners often performed as well as the board-certified group, and both inexperienced and board-certified groups performed better than those with an interest in forensic odontology that had not yet received board certification. Incorrect suspect attributions (possible false inculpation) were most common among this intermediate group. Error rates were calculated for each of the three observer groups for each of the three suspect dentitions. This study demonstrates that error rates can be calculated using an animal model for human dermal bite marks, and although clinical experience is useful, other factors may be responsible for accuracy in bite mark analysis. Further, this study demonstrates

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Teledermatology Compliance HIT ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ...

  14. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's ... biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video library Find a ...

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nail biting can also leave you vulnerable to infection as you pass harmful bacteria and viruses from ... your nails and develop a skin or nail infection, consult a board-certified dermatologist . "); (function () { var a = "", ...

  17. Tarantula bite leads to death and gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Kalyan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilobrachys hardwikii-giant black hairy spider bite produced two deaths, one case of gangrene of the foot and urticarial rashes in another person in a remote village of Churulia 30 km from Asansol.

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair ... nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your ... Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video library Find ...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting ... 0; c Explore AAD Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: ...

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / ... Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes ...

  2. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Induced by Fire Ant Bites

    OpenAIRE

    Mallepalli, Jyothi R.; Quinet, Robert J.; Sus, Rachana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of eosinophilic fasciitis likely related to proximate fire ant bites and review the literature to summarize the etiology and clinical, laboratory, histopathological, and therapeutic aspects of eosinophilic fasciitis.

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’ ... a doctor. If you bite your nails and develop a skin or nail infection, consult a board- ...

  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ... 0; c Explore AAD Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: ...

  5. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Year Award Step therapy legislation Scope of practice Melanoma state reporting FSMB Interstate Compact Legislative Conference Position ... as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can ...

  6. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... document.write(""); document.write(" Cart "); } else { document.write(" Sign in Cart "); } })(); AAD American Academy of Dermatology Excellence ... For some people, nail biting may be a sign of a more serious psychological or emotional problem. ...

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty ... and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting ...

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated image library Board ... gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try ...

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  10. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... programs & events Learn about skin cancer Get involved Free ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help keep your hands busy and away from ...

  11. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and ... and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting can make the skin around ...

  12. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Alternative payment models Fee schedule State policy State policy and ... recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting one set of nails, such as your thumb nails, ...

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Evaluating practice models ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ...

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help ... of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you ...

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  16. Philodryas patagoniensis bite and local envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, S A; Silveira, P V

    1994-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy bitten by a specimen of Philodryas patagoniensis, a colubrid snake currently classified as nonvenomous, developed signs of local envenoming characterized by swelling and warmth on the bitten limb. This is the first time that local envenoming following Philodryas patagoniensis bite is recognized. Based on the clinical findings and misidentification of the snake, the patient was treated as a victim of Bothrops bite, having received unnecessarily the specific antivenom. Educational efforts to make doctors and health workers capable to identify correctly venomous snakes are necessary, to avoid inappropriate indication of antivenom and decrease the risk of its potentially harmful untoward effects. Examination of the bite site can be useful to the differential diagnosis between pit viper and colubrid bites.

  17. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine ...

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nails feel sore, and it can damage the tissue that makes nails grow, resulting in abnormal-looking ... as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can ...

  19. Open bite treatment using clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Maria Paola; Oliverio, Teresa; Silvestre, Ivana; Lombardo, Luca; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old female patient with dentoalveolar open bite of 4 mm, molar Class I malocclusion, centered midlines, moderate crowding, and labial inclination of the lower incisor was treated with clear aligners to reduce protrusion and close the anterior open bite. The result showed that clear aligners were an effective method with which to correct this malocclusion. The treatment was complete after 18 months. The patient was satisfied with her new appearance and function.

  20. Philodryas patagoniensis bite and local envenoming

    OpenAIRE

    Nishioka,Sérgio de Andrade; Silveira,Paulo Vitor Portella

    1994-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy bitten by a specimen of Philodryas patagoniensis, a colubrid snake currently classified as nonvenomous, developed signs of local envenoming characterized by swelling and warmth on the bitten limb. This is the first time that local envenoming following Philodryas patagoniensis bite is recognized. Based on the clinical findings and misidentification of the snake, the patient was treated as a victim of Bothrops bite, having received unnecessarily the specific antivenom. Educatio...

  1. Anterior open bite: aetiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Paul Jonathan; Madahar, Arun K; Murray, Alison

    2011-10-01

    Anterior open bite has a multi-factorial aetiology comprising: genetically inherited skeletal pattern, soft tissue effect and digit-sucking habits. To formulate an appropriate treatment plan, accurate diagnosis is essential. Simple open bites may sometimes resolve completely during the transition from mixed to permanent dentition, if the digit-sucking habit is broken. More significant open bites, however, sometimes extending right back to the terminal molars, rarely resolve spontaneously and will often require complex orthodontic treatment, involving active molar intrusion or even major orthognathic surgery. Unfortunately, surgery has associated risks attached, including pain, swelling, bruising, altered nerve sensation and, occasionally, permanent anaesthesia, as well as involving significant costs, as with any major surgical procedure under general anaesthesia. The introduction of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) has expanded the possibilities of orthodontic treatment, beyond traditional limitations of tooth movement. Molar intrusion can be successfully carried out without the need for major surgical intervention, thus avoiding all the attendant risks and disadvantages. This paper provides an overview of anterior open bite and uses an illustrative case where open bite was successfully treated with a combination of fixed appliance therapy and TADs. Anterior open bite is commonly seen in general practice. A knowledge of the possible aetiological factors and their potential management should be understood by general dental practitioners. The increased popularity of TADS allows a new and less invasive approach to management of these cases.

  2. Four-bar linkage modelling in teleost pharyngeal jaws: computer simulations of bite kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubich, Justin R; Westneat, Mark W

    2006-01-01

    The pharyngeal arches of the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) possess large toothplates and a complex musculoskeletal design for biting and crushing hard prey. The morphology of the pharyngeal apparatus is described from dissections of six specimens, with a focus on the geometric conformation of contractile and rotational elements. Four major muscles operate the rotational 4th epibranchial (EB4) and 3rd pharyngobranchial (PB3) elements to create pharyngeal bite force, including the levator posterior (LP), levator externus 3/4 (LE), obliquus posterior (OP) and 3rd obliquus dorsalis (OD). A biomechanical model of upper pharyngeal jaw biting is developed using lever mechanics and four-bar linkage theory from mechanical engineering. A pharyngeal four-bar linkage is proposed that involves the posterior skull as the fixed link, the LP muscle as input link, the epibranchial bone as coupler link and the toothed pharyngobranchial as output link. We used a computer model to simulate contraction of the four major muscles, with the LP as the dominant muscle, the length of which determined the position of the linkage. When modelling lever mechanics, we found that the effective mechanical advantages of the pharyngeal elements were low, resulting in little resultant bite force. By contrast, the force advantage of the four-bar linkage was relatively high, transmitting approximately 50% of the total muscle force to the bite between the toothplates. Pharyngeal linkage modelling enables quantitative functional morphometry of a key component of the fish feeding system, and the model is now available for ontogenetic and comparative analyses of fishes with pharyngeal linkage mechanisms. PMID:16822272

  3. Case Report of a Newborn Injured By Human Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ataoğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bite is a type of wound received from the teeth of an animal, including humans. Human bites are third leading cause of all bites after dog and cat bites. Human bites are severe wounds due to the risk of contamination with mix oral flora and rapid tissue destruction. Bite wounds created by humans are seen in variety of circumstances including aggression, rape, murder, and child abuse. Oral cavity contains beta-hemolytic streptococci, anaerobes and other microorganisms. There have been reported cases of septicemia, severe necrotizing fasciitis, HIV infection, and death caused by human bites. Early reporting and treatment of bite wounds decrease the number and severity of wound infection. Here, we present the case of human bite in a nine-day-old girl and discuss the treatment approaches in the light of the relevant literature.

  4. Total case of dog bites to humans and seasonal patterns of the bites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dog bites are poorly understood and often underestimated public health problem as it causes huge medico-social problem as these attacks result in millions of injuries and thousands of deaths all over the world due to risk of rabies transmission. Approximately 1 in 20 dogs bite a human being during the dogs' lifetime.

  5. prevalence of biting and non-biting flies in relation to species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. Several Dipteran flies are vectors of diseases in the Afro-tropical region. The study was carried out to determine the species abundance of biting and non biting flies prevalent at the Jos Museum. Zoological Garden, north central Nigeria. The flies were trapped using Biconical traps during the raining season of ...

  6. The effects of food viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Graaf, C. de; Prinz, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effect of a food's viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake using a standardized protocol in which subjects sipped through a straw every 20 s for a period of 15 min from one of two products, a chocolate-flavored dairy drink and a chocolate-flavored dairy

  7. Evaluation of occlusal forces in different stages of children - An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: There was a difference in the occlusal bite force at different dentition stages. It was significantly higher in males and in the permanent dentition stage. Height and weight can be considered as predictors of occlusal bite force in older children with permanent dentition.

  8. Root surface areas of maxillary permanent teeth in anterior normal overbite and anterior open bite assessed using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suteerapongpun, Piyadanai; Sirabanchongkran, Supassara; Wattanachai, Tanapan; Sriwilas, Patiyut; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the root surface areas of the maxillary permanent teeth in Thai patients exhibiting anterior normal overbite and in those exhibiting anterior open bite, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images of maxillary permanent teeth from 15 patients with anterior normal overbite and 18 patients with anterior open bite were selected. Three-dimensional tooth models were constructed using Mimics Research version 17.0. The cementoenamel junction was marked manually. The root surface area was calculated automatically by 3-Matic Research version 9.0. The root surface areas of each tooth type from both types of bite were compared using the independent t-test ( P <.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess intraobserver reliability. The mean root surface areas of the maxillary central and lateral incisors in individuals with anterior open bite were significantly less than those in those with normal bite. The mean root surface area of the maxillary second premolar in individuals with anterior open bite was significantly greater than in those with normal bite. Anterior open-bite malocclusion might affect the root surface area, so orthodontic force magnitudes should be carefully determined.

  9. Animal bites and stings with anaphylactic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, John H; Klotz, Stephen A; Pinnas, Jacob L

    2009-02-01

    Anaphylaxis to animal bites and stings poses a significant medical risk of vascular or respiratory reactions that vary according to the patient's response and nature of the insult. Emergency Physicians frequently see patients who complain of an allergic reaction to an animal bite or sting. Although Hymenoptera stings, specifically those of wasps, bees, and hornets, account for the majority of these cases, other invertebrates and vertebrates are capable of causing allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Many of the causative animals are quite unusual, and their bites and stings are not commonly appreciated as potential causes of anaphylaxis. We conducted a literature review to identify documented reports of anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions to animal bites and stings. This summary is meant to heighten awareness of the diversity of animals that may cause anaphylaxis, hopefully leading to more rapid diagnosis and treatment of this dangerous condition. A diverse group of animals was found whose bites and stings cause anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions. Some case summaries are presented. A potentially life-saving plan is to direct patients to proper follow-up care to prevent a future life-threatening reaction, including: prescribing epinephrine and antihistamines with proper instructions for their use; referral to an allergist to determine if skin testing, radioallergosorbent test, and immunotherapy are indicated; and reporting the case to state or local Poison Control Centers. In some cases it may be helpful to consult an entomologist or a pest control service for help in identification and elimination of certain offenders.

  10. Experimental study of the diamond turning characteristics of tungsten carbide (Co 0.5%) when using a chamfered diamond bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jae; Lee, June Key; Hwang, Yeon; Cha, Du Hwan; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2012-11-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) is a widely used as a mold material for fabrication of glass lens because of its superior properties. Due to its extremely high hardness (R c > 90), an abrasive machining process, although unproductive and expensive, is used to fabricate the mold. In this research, the authors investigated the machining possibility of tungsten carbide by single-point diamond turning (SPDT) for fabricating high-quality optical surfaces directly. A finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out in order to investigate the effects of the chamfered length on the cutting forces and the strain rate of single-crystal diamond tools. The obtained FEA results showed that a smaller chamfered length decreased the bite strain rate. The performance characteristics in terms of surface roughness (R a ) and tool wear (VB max ) of a conventional bite and a chamfered bite under same machining conditions were studied, the results were compared. Experimental results suggest that the chamfered bite wased a better performance than the conventional bite in terms of tool wear resistance. The WC surface machined by using the chamfered bite showed a 2.26 nm roughness (R a ), which is suitable for the fabrication of glass lenses.

  11. The effect of lower anterior high pull headgear on treatment of moderate open bite in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Showkatbakhsh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Various methods are used for treatment of open bite. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lower Anterior High Pull Headgear (LAHPH appliance in Class I subjects with moderate open bite and high lower lip line.Materials and Methods: The study group was composed of 10 subjects with a mean age of 15.8±2.5 years and 3.05 ± 0.07 mm moderate open bite. All the patients rejected orthognathic surgery. The treatment included extraction of upper and lower second premolars followed by leveling, banding, bonding, posterior space closure, and anterior retraction. After these procedures, the open bite was reduced to 2.04±1.17 mm. Afterwards, LAHPH was applied for 18 hours per day for 8±2 months. LAHPH appliance was composed of High Pull Headgear and two hooks mounted on its inner bow. Two elastics (1.8, light, Dentaurum connected the upper hooks on the inner bow to the lower hooks on the mandibular canines vertically. The forces produced by the prescribed elastics were 10 and 60 g during mouth closing and opening, respectively. Paired T-test was used to evaluate pre-andpost-treatment outcomes.Results: The pre-and post-treatment cephalometric evaluations showed that the LAHPH reduced effectively the open bite of the patients to 0.15±1.7 mm (P<0.001.Conclusion: This appliance can be used as an acceptable method for closing the open bite in Class I subjects.

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy Action Center News Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair ... bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists ... take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. ...

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch ... counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  19. Epidemiology of sea-snake bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H A

    1975-05-01

    Epidemiological features as reflected by 101 patients with unequivocal sea-snake bite received in north-west Malaya are reviewed. Enhydrina schistosa caused over half the bites, including seven of the eight fatal bites. It is the most dangerous sea-snake to man. Over 90 per cent of the victims were male and 80 of the 101 patients were fishermen bitten at their job. Most victims were bitten on the lower limb through treading on the snake, and this resulted in more cases of serious poisoning than upper limb bites (caused through handling nets, sorting fish and so on). Only 14 cathers were bitten (through treading on the sea-snake; no bathers were bitten while swimming). In patients coming to hospital more than six hours after the bite, there was a four-fold increase in serious poisoning compared with patients coming within six hours of the bite. Thus, as time elapses after the bite, the victim is less likely to seek medical help unless poisoning is severe. Despite the lethal toxicity of sea-snake venom, in patients seen during 1957-61 before sea-snake antivenom became available, the mortality was only 10 per cent. Trivial or no poisoning followed in 80 per cent of the bites. On the other hand, of 11 patients (20 per cent) with serious poisoning, over half (six patients) died despite supportive hospital treatment. These epidemiological features observed in Malaya probably apply to most fishing folk along Asian coastlines where sea-snakes abound. If this is so, sea-snake bite must be a common hazard feared by millions of fishing folk, and a common cause of illness and death. But it is unlikely that the extent of this problem will be revealed to orthodox medicine for many decades because most fishing villages are far from medical centres; and even if hospitals or medical centres are available, fishing folk are usually reluctant to attend them. Only one species of sea-snake, Pelamis platurus, extends to the east coasts of Africa and west coasts of the tropical Americas

  20. Scrotal dog bite: unusual case and review of pediatric literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, M; Prestipino, M; Nardi, N; Falcone, F; Appignani, A

    2009-09-01

    Animal bites to human external genitalia are rare. Only a few cases of scrotal dog bite in children have been reported. We present an additional specific case of a scrotal dog bite in a child because the lesion and its repair have not been previously reported in published pediatric studies. A traumatic resection of the right testicular vas deferens was repaired by microsurgical vasoepididymal anastomosis. A review of the published data was also performed to analyze the management of scrotal dog bite lesions.

  1. Bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes after a cat bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2011-01-01

    Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....

  2. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R.K. Gorea; O.P. Jasuja; Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman; Abhinav Gorea

    2014-01-01

    Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study c...

  3. The mechanics of the first bite.

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Kalpana R; Lucas, Peter W

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the action of the incisor teeth in humans is presented in terms of the fracture of food particles. It is predicted that the resistance of foods with an essentially linear elastic response to an initial bite by the incisors will depend on the square root of the product of two food properties, Young's modulus and toughness. This quantity should be approximately equal to the product of the stress at cracking during a bite, and the square root of the length of a notch or indentatio...

  4. Black widow spider bite: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisford, Kristine; Kautz, Donald D

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of a patient cared for in the hours before her death. After the patient's death, we learned the patient died of a black widow spider bite. This article sheds light on the potential seriousness of this venom and allows for more rapid detection and treatment of those who are unfortunate enough to be bitten. The authors have documented the sequence of events for the patient, outlined the care the patient received, examined the pathophysiology of the body to a spider bite, and then made a passionate appeal for other nurses who work in critical care to do the same with patients in similar situations.

  5. Vine snake (Thelotornis capensis bite in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Otto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A vine snake bite in a dog is reported. There was continued minor bleeding from the assumed nose bite site for 4 days. Currently manufactured snakebite antivenom is not effective against vine snake bites and treatment is supportive.

  6. Bite injuries at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania: A five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bite injuries constitute a continuing challenge to trauma or general surgeons practicing in developing countries. Little work has been done on bite injuries in our setting. This study describes our experience in the management of bite injuries, outlining the etiological spectrum, injury patterns and results of ...

  7. Forensic dentistry and human bite marks: issues for doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Iain A; Hall, Rachel C

    2002-08-01

    The human dentition can be used as a weapon of attack or defence. Bite mark injuries are common in cases of sexual assault, child abuse and homicide. Many bite injuries are first seen in casualty departments where quick and proper recovery of evidence can assist in analysing these injuries. This article describes different bite injuries, collection of evidence and comparative analysis methods.

  8. Seasonal variations in the biting densities of Simulium damnosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variations in the biting densities of Simulium damnosum complex were studied in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria, with the objectives of discovering the season with the highest biting densities and relating the seasonal biting densities with the farming seasons of the people. The study ...

  9. Cheek-biting disorder: another stereotypic movement disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sujit; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Akhtar, Sayeed

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent cheek biting, a form of self-injurious behavior is a rare entity which presents mostly to dentists and dermatologists. We report a case of recurrent severe cheek biting in an adult male leading to mucosal ulceration. The stereotypic pattern of cheek biting and associated behavior bears striking resemblance to other impulse control disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Major upper limb amputation after Snake Bite Gangrene | Ajibade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major lower limb amputations following snake bite gangrene have been reported from the savannah belt of Nigeria. In bites delivered to the upper limb, amputations are often of the digits (minor amputations). We report the case of a male farmer who had an above elbow amputation after a snake bite to the hand. Explanation ...

  11. The Effect of Varying Biting Position on Relative Jaw Muscle EMG activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    significant pain or dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint or masticatory muscles. Class I, II, and III occlusions were represented in the sample. Bite...goal is to protect the temporomandibular joint tissues and therefore minimizes joint force. The second hypothesis is that the system maximizes...modalities for some temporomandibular disorders. Several models have been proposed, but very little experimental work has been accomplished to

  12. Geometry of anterior open bite correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Zachary R; Susarla, Srinivas M; Lawler, Matthew E; Choudhri, Asim F; Peacock, Zachary S

    2015-05-01

    Correction of anterior open bite is a frequently encountered and challenging problem for the craniomaxillofacial surgeon and orthodontist. Accurate clinical evaluation, including cephalometric assessment, is paramount for establishing the diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan. The purposes of this technical note were to discuss the basic geometric principles involved in the surgical correction of skeletal anterior open bites and to offer a simple mathematical model for predicting the amount of posterior maxillary impaction with concomitant mandibular rotation required to establish an adequate overbite. Using standard geometric principles, a mathematical model was created to demonstrate the relationship between the magnitude of the open bite and the magnitude of the rotational movements required for correction. This model was then validated using a clinical case. In summary, the amount of open bite closure for a given amount of posterior maxillary impaction depends on anatomic variables, which can be obtained from a lateral cephalogram. The clinical implication of this relationship is as follows: patients with small mandibles and steep mandibular occlusal planes will require greater amounts of posterior impaction.

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for (var c = 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes ...

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... library Basement Membrane Zone lecture Full lecture Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook ... biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad.aad", "size=160x600", "vpos= ...

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: Spending ...

  16. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G.; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    1994-01-01

    Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to Seed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance...

  17. Death secondary to a donkey's bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aloja, Ernesto; Grimaldi, Leonardo; Cascini, Fidelia; De Mercurio, Domenico; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2011-06-01

    We present a unique case of death due to the assault and bites of a donkey on a 65-year-old man. The farmer, found dead in his farmyard, had a very deep wound in the anterior region of the neck, with a sharp transection of the trachea and severe bleeding by several minor vessels wall disruptions. The cause of death was established to be massive bleeding combined with asphyxia due to aspiration of the blood. Moreover, multiple contusions with associated skin abrasions and perforations were present. The general impression of the injuries was consistent with an animal's bite marks. Herbivorous or omnivorous bite attacks on humans are rare; instead, these animals attack by kicking, trampling, and kneeling, resulting in secondary blunt injuries. The donkey is usually a docile animal, but its behavior can be aggressive during the mating season, and the possibility of biting should not be underestimated, as illustrated by the 2 cases published previously as well as by the case presented here.

  18. Bite-marks on battered children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube-Becker, E

    1977-01-21

    Instances of human bites are generally rare, although it does sometimes occur that people use their teeth as a means of attack of defence. When looking into cases of the ill-treatment of children we often find bite-marks in addition to other signs of abusement. Eleven cases from the Institute of Forensic Medicine at Düsseldorf University are presented out of a total of 48 cases of ill-treatment of children followed by death in which human bite-marks as well as other haematomas on the victims could be proved. In all cases the cause of death was a subdural haematoma. All but three of the offenders were female, and all were young and subject to excess stress so that the act could eventually be regarded as the result of a disintegration of emotional status. The combination of bite-marks with haematomas and other signs of ill-treatment support with sufficient certainty the conclusion that a criminal action of a third person is involved.

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and nail care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs. ... t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid= ...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ...

  1. Dog bite-related fatalities: a 15-year review of Kentucky medical examiner cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Lisa B E; Bernstein, Mark L; Hunsaker, John C; Stewart, Donna M

    2009-09-01

    A human dog bite-related fatality generally refers to death proximately caused by trauma from a dog's teeth and jaws. According to The Humane Society of the United States, more than 300 individuals died of dog attacks in the United States between 1979 and 1996. Children 70 years represent the typical victims. Pit bull-type dogs, Rottweilers, and German Shepherds constitute the majority of canines implicated in these fatalities.This is a 15-year (1991-2005) retrospective review of dog bite-related fatalities undergoing medicolegal investigation in Kentucky. Of the 11 deaths, 10 consisted of multiple bite marks and blunt force injuries of the head and neck, trunk, and extremities. In 1 case, an asplenic victim's immediate cause of death was bacterial sepsis secondary to a dog bite. Individuals ranged between 14 months and 87 years; 7 (63.6%) were Forensic odontological examinations were performed on the dogs in 4 cases. The requisite multidisciplinary investigation includes a detailed assessment of the scene, the victim, and dog or dogs suspected in the attack.

  2. Comparison of posterior occlusion between patients with anterior open bite and scissor deep bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Kun; Xu, Yifei; Hou, Yuxia; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Objective A minor alteration in the posterior occlusal height elicits a large transformation in the anterior vertical dimension. Thus, the present study was performed to determine whether a posterior cusp-to-cusp relation that increases the posterior vertical dimension contributes to an anterior open bite. Methods Study casts were examined from orthodontic patients aged 10 to 27 years, 21 with an open bite and 28 with a scissor deep bite. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the contribution of various factors to these two anterior occlusal patterns. The dental arch width and number of worn cusps were compared between the two groups. Results Patients with an open bite had a significantly higher incidence of a posterior buccal-lingual cusp-to-cusp relation, wider mandibular arch in the molar region, and larger numbers of worn maxillary buccal cusps and mandibular lingual cusps than patients with a scissor deep bite. Conclusions A posterior buccal-lingual cusp-to-cusp relation is associated with a larger anterior vertical dimension, such as that in patients with an open bite.

  3. Snake-bite-induced Acute Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients presenting to a tertiary care kidney center, developing acute kidney injury (AKI) after snake-bite. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Nephrology Department, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, from January 1990 to December 2014. Methodology: All patients coming to SIUT identified as having AKI after snake-bite during the study period were included. AKI was defined according to RIFLE criteria with sudden rise in creatinine or decline in urine output or both. Demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory profile, and final outcome was noted. Result: During the studied period, 115 cases of AKI, secondary to snake-bite, were registered at this institution. Median age of patients was 35.92 ±15.04 (range: 6 - 70) years and male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Time from bite and referral to this hospital ranged from 2 to 28 days (mean: 8.77 ±5.58 days). Oligo-anuria was the most common presentation, being found in 98 (93.90 percentage) patients. Bleeding diathesis was reported in 75 (65.21 percentage) patients on presentation. All patients had normal sized, non-obstructed kidneys on ultrasonography, with no previous comorbids. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 106 (92.17 percentage) patients. Complete recovery was seen in 59 (51.30 percentage), while 15 (13.04 percentage) patients expired during acute phase of illness, 4 (3.47 percentage) developed CKD, 11 (9.56 percentage) required dialysis beyond 90 days, and 26 (22.60 percentage) were lost to long-term follow-up. Conclusion: Snake-bite, leading to multiple complications including renal failure and death, is a major health issue in tropical countries. Late referral of these patients to specialized centres Result in undesirable outcome. (author)

  4. Is current bite mark analysis a misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J G; Blackwell, S A

    2010-09-10

    Four human-to-human bite mark cases in which forensic odontological opinion was found to be in error, or at best deeply divided between experts, are described. These are used to illustrate that there is a growing awareness on the part of the legal profession that bite mark opinions by experts may often be little more than that and that these opinions often cannot be substantiated given the paucity of rigorous scientific evaluation, and will therefore be increasingly challenged. This may not best serve justice and so it is argued that forensic odontology needs to bring more scientific rigour to the evaluation of bite marks. This may threaten to disenfranchise some of the current practitioners and there may be some resistance to change. Forensic odontology is not the only identification science facing such problems, but nevertheless a paradigm shift is predicted in the way bite mark evidence will have to be gathered and evaluated in the future. Some new scientific approaches are described that strive to unravel some of the most basic problems confronting our profession when we attempt to make morphometric comparisons between injuries and the dentition of the biter. A need to capture the actions and consequences of biting in 3D dimensions and simultaneously in real-time is proposed as a path of investigation highly likely to bring some clarity to a confused situation. There is also an urgent need for the ongoing controversy between some of our eminent peers relating to the assumed uniqueness, or otherwise, of the human anterior dentition to be resolved. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis and identification of bite marks in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of bite marks plays an important role in personal identification in forensic casework. Bite marks can be recorded in violent crimes such as sexual offences, homicides, child abuse cases, and during sports events. The arrangement, size and alignment of human teeth are individualistic to each person. Teeth, acting as tools leave recognizable marks depending on tooth arrangement, malocclusion, habits, occupation, tooth fracture, and missing or extra teeth. Bite mark identification is based on the individuality of a dentition, which is used to match a bite mark to a suspect. Bite marks are often considered as valuable alternative to fingerprinting and DNA identification in forensic examinations. The present review describes the classification, characteristics, mechanism of production, and appearance of bite mark injuries, collection of evidence, comparison techniques, and technical aids in the analysis of the bite marks.

  6. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  7. Management of severe anterior open-bite in an adult patient using miniscrews as skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Harikrishnan, Pandurangan

    2010-01-01

    Anterior open bite is often caused by a downward rotation of the mandible and/or by excessive eruption of the posterior teeth. In such cases, it is difficult to establish absolute anchorage for molar intrusion by traditional orthodontic mechanics. This is a case report of successful treatment of a severe anterior open bite using miniscrew anchorage. A female patient of 20 yrs presented with symmetrical frontal facial appearance, increased anterior facial height, convex profile and incompetent lips. Dentally, she had lost both mandibular first molars due to caries and both maxillary first molars were extruded. She had class II canine relationship, 5 mm overjet, 5 mm anterior open bite, 3 mm mandibular midline diastema and a spacing of 2 mm in the maxillary arch. The treatment objectives were to correct the anterior open bite and establish ideal overjet and overbite and to restore the mandibular first molars with fixed prosthesis. Titanium miniscrews (1.3 mm diameter and 9 mm length) were implanted bilaterally in the maxillary arch between the second premolar and the first molar, and an intrusion force was applied with NiTi closed coil springs for 8 months. After molar intrusion, the same screws were used for en masse retraction of the entire dentition (third molars were extracted) for 4 months. The results showed that, after an active treatment of 20 months, the maxillary molars were intruded about 4 mm each and good occlusion was achieved. In conclusion, the miniscrews were very useful in the non-surgical management of adult anterior open bite cases.

  8. The influence of bubbles on the perception carbonation bite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Wise

    Full Text Available Although many people naively assume that the bite of carbonation is due to tactile stimulation of the oral cavity by bubbles, it has become increasingly clear that carbonation bite comes mainly from formation of carbonic acid in the oral mucosa. In Experiment 1, we asked whether bubbles were in fact required to perceive carbonation bite. Subjects rated oral pungency from several concentrations of carbonated water both at normal atmospheric pressure (at which bubbles could form and at 2.0 atmospheres pressure (at which bubbles did not form. Ratings of carbonation bite under the two pressure conditions were essentially identical, indicating that bubbles are not required for pungency. In Experiment 2, we created controlled streams of air bubbles around the tongue in mildly pungent CO2 solutions to determine how tactile stimulation from bubbles affects carbonation bite. Since innocuous sensations like light touch and cooling often suppress pain, we predicted that bubbles might reduce rated bite. Contrary to prediction, air bubbles flowing around the tongue significantly enhanced rated bite, without inducing perceived bite in blank (un-carbonated solutions. Accordingly, though bubbles are clearly not required for carbonation bite, they may well modulate perceived bite. More generally, the results show that innocuous tactile stimulation can enhance chemogenic pain. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed.

  9. Effectiveness of a fixed anterior bite plane in Class II deep-bite patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare Lorenzo; Persin, Leonid; Tugarin, Valery; Markova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment of patients with distoclusion combined with dental deep bite and linguo version of the front upper teeth is one of the most difficult forms of malocclusion to treat to a functional and morphological optimum. Our objective was to analyze the efficacy of a fixed anterior bite plane appliance to disclude the teeth and correct this type of malocclusion. At the Department of Orthodontics MSUMD (Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry), we proposed the use of a fixed anterior bite plane for the effective treatment of patients with distoclusion combined to a dental deep bite. This appliance was used in 35 patients aged 11 to 15 years (13.2 +/- 1.2) with distoclusion combined with deep bite in a therapeutical approach that also involved an osteopathic correction. The appliance permitted the correction of the distoclusion by discluding the posterior teeth, allowing eruption of the molars and premolars which improved the occlusal plane line (Curve of Spee) and changed the inclination of the upper incisors which liberated the mandible from its retruded position. We also noted an effect on the postural status of the patient.

  10. [Venomous and poisonous animals. II. Viper bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P

    2006-10-01

    Vipers are the main cause of the snake envenomations on all continents except Australia where they are none. Viper envenomation may lead to a minimal inflammatory syndrome with clinical (pain, edema) and biological (hyperleukocytosis, proteinuria) manifestations that may be accompanied by hypotension or shock. Emergency situations are due to hemorrhagic syndrome. In frequent cases in which envenomation is limited to a dramatic decrease in coagulation factors without clinical manifestations, severe local or systemic hemorrhage may occur especially if treatment is delayed. Necrotic complications around the bite or in distant vital organs are not uncommon and require careful medical and surgical surveillance. Intravenous antivenom therapy is the only effective treatment. It should be given as soon as possible but can be effective even when administered several days after the bite.

  11. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  12. Evaluation of Snake Bites with Bedside Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef E Jolissaint

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: While watering his lawn, a 36-year-old man felt two sharp bites to his bilateral ankles. He reports that he then saw a light brown, 2-foot snake slither away from him. He came to the emergency department because of pain and swelling in his ankles and inability to bear weight. Physical examination revealed bilateral ankle swelling and puncture marks on his left lateral heel and medial right ankle. Palpation, passive flexion and extension elicited severe pain bilaterally. Blood work including prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PTT, international normalized ratio (INR, and fibrinogen were within normal limits. Consultation with Poison Control indicated the snake was likely a copperhead, which is a venomous snake whose bites rarely require antivenin. Significant findings: In this case, ultrasonography of the lateral surface of the left foot revealed soft tissue edema (red arrow and fluid collection (white asterisk adjacent to the extensor tendon (white arrow. The edematous area resembles cobblestones, with hypoechoic areas of fluid spanning relatively hyperechoic fat lobules. The tendon is surrounded by anechoic fluid, expanding the potential space in the sheath. No hyperechoic foreign objects were noted. Discussion: The patient was diagnosed with soft tissue injury and extensor tenosynovitis after a snake envenomation. Snake venom contains metalloproteinases and other enzymatic proteins that cause local tissue edema and necrosis.1 After a snake bite, ultrasound can be used to assess for retained fangs, soft tissue edema, tendon sheath fluid, muscle fasciculation, and injury to deeper musculature that may not be readily apparent on physical exam.2,3 Most patients with tenosynovitis will recover with immobilization of the joint and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications.4 Rarely, the tendon may become infected requiring antibiotics and surgical intervention.4 Topics: Ultrasound, snake envenomation

  13. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G.; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    1994-01-01

    Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to Seed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance...... and a contributory factor in the transmission of diseases. The authors examine the biology, economic importance and control of four of the most important nonbiting muscids:...

  14. Profile of dog bite victims in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria: a review of dog bite records (2006-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olaniran; Nguku, Patrick; Chukwukere, Silvester; Gaddo, Ayika; Nsubuga, Peter; Umoh, Joliath

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are the major reservoir of rabies virus in Nigeria; transmission to humans is via a bite by rabid dog. Between 2006 and 2008 National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) rabies laboratory reported increased numbers of rabies in dogs and human dog bites. The objective of the study was to use veterinary and health records to develop a profile of bite victims and recommend appropriate public health actions. We used the dog brain specimen result register of Rabies Laboratory of NVRI, from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008" and traced dog bite cases. Structured questionnaires were administered to persons who reported dog bite incident and could be traced. We reviewed records from Evangelical Churches of West Africa (ECWA) clinic from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008" to collect detailed profiles of bite victims. Bite victims linked to positive dog samples were traced to "ECWA clinic" from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008". Most bite victims were dogs were housed and unvaccinated. This study provided important information on the profile of dog bite victims and highlights the need for a sustained awareness and education of children on the dangers of dog bite. It has shown lack of enforcement of regulations for licensing of dogs and rabies vaccination.

  15. Flaccid skin protects hagfishes from shark bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggett, Sarah; Stiles, Jean-Luc; Summers, Adam P; Fudge, Douglas S

    2017-12-01

    Hagfishes defend themselves from fish predators by releasing large volumes of gill-clogging slime when they are attacked. Slime release is not anticipatory, but is only released after an attack has been initiated, raising the question of how hagfishes survive the initial attack, especially from biting predators such as sharks. We tested two hypotheses that could explain how hagfishes avoid damage from shark bites: puncture-resistant skin, and a loose and flaccid body design that makes it difficult for teeth to penetrate body musculature and viscera. Based on data from skin puncture tests from 22 fish species, we found that hagfish skin is not remarkably puncture resistant. Simulated shark bites on hagfish and their closest living relatives, lamprey, as well as whole animal inflation tests, revealed that the loose attachment of hagfish skin to the rest of the body and the substantial 'slack volume' in the subcutaneous sinus protect hagfish musculature and viscera from penetrating teeth. While recent work has found evidence that the capacious subcutaneous sinus in hagfishes is important for behaviours such as knot-tying and burrowing, our work demonstrates that it also plays a role in predator defence. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin may have prolonged the typical two to three days’ incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic.

  17. Biting back: BiTE antibodies as a promising therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Roland B

    2014-06-01

    The experience with gemtuzumab ozogamicin has highlighted both the potential value and limitations of antibodies in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibodies have emerged as a means to harness polyclonal cytotoxic T-cells and cause highly efficient lysis of targeted tumor cells. Promising early results have been obtained with the CD19-directed BiTE antibody, blinatumomab, in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A first candidate for AML is the CD33/CD3 molecule, AMG 330, for which several recent preclinical studies demonstrated high potency and efficacy in destroying CD33(+) human AML cells. Many questions remain to be addressed, but BiTE antibodies may offer an exciting new tool in a disease for which the outcomes in many patients remain unsatisfactory.

  18. Implant-Supported Bite Blocks for Open Bite Correction in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umal H Doshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altering the vertical dimension of the face remains one of the greatest clinical challenges with a multitude of orthodontic, orthopedic and surgical interventions recommended for the correction of associated skeletal, dental and neuromuscular abnormalities. Along with treatment, long-term stability of open bite corrections remains questionable, mainly because of weak musculature. Use of posterior bite blocks has been advocated to stretch the muscles and in turn increases the muscle strength. Muscle stretching also assists in posterior teeth intrusion. In adult patients, implants have been shown to be quite effective for active intrusion. This article highlights an innovative approach which essentially incorporates posterior bite block with active intruding component, i.e. implants. A specific protocol of treatment and retention with this approach is described.

  19. Functional morphology and biomechanics of the tongue-bite apparatus in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Konow, Nicolai; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2009-01-01

    The tongue-bite apparatus and its associated musculoskeletal elements of the pectoral girdle and neurocranium form the structural basis of raking, a unique prey-processing behaviour in salmonid and osteoglossomorph fishes. Using a quantitative approach, the functional osteology and myology of this system were compared between representatives of each lineage, i.e. the salmonid Salvelinus fontinalis (N =10) and the osteoglossomorph Chitala ornata(N = 8). Divergence was found in the morphology of the novel cleithrobranchial ligament, which potentially relates to kinematic differences between the raking lineage representatives. Salvelinus had greater anatomical cross-sectional areas of the epaxial, hypaxial and protractor hyoideus muscles, whereas Chitala had greater sternohyoideus and adductor mandibulae mass. Two osteology-based biomechanical models (a third-order lever for neurocranial elevation and a modified four-bar linkage for hyoid retraction) showed divergent force/velocity priorities in the study taxa. Salvelinus maximizes both force (via powerful cranial muscles) and velocity (through mechanical amplification) during raking. In contrast, Chitala has relatively low muscle force but more efficient force transmission through both mechanisms compared with Salvelinus. It remains unclear if and how behavioural modulation and specializations in the post-cranial anatomy may affect the force/velocity trade-offs in Chitala. Further studies of tongue-bite apparatus morphology and biomechanics in a broader species range may help to clarify the role that osteology and myology play in the evolution of behavioural diversity. PMID:19438765

  20. Mammalian Bite Injuries to the Hand and Their Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Shilpa; Khan, Wasim S; Siddiqui, Nashat A

    2014-01-01

    Bite wounds are a common form of hand injury with the potential to lead to severe local and systemic sequelae and permanent functional impairment. Mammalian bite wounds may be caused by a variety of animal class and species; injuries resulting from dogs, cats and humans are the most widely discussed and reported in the literature. Bite wounds may be contaminated with aggressive pathogens and the anatomical vulnerability of structures within the hand means that without early recognition and tr...

  1. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Leshem, Lall

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small...

  2. Bite mark analysis in forensic routine case work

    OpenAIRE

    Lessig, R.; Weber, M.; Wenzel, V.

    2006-01-01

    The individuality of the human dentition frequently allows the Forensic Odonto-Stomatologist (FOS) to reach a strong opinion of association in cases of identification and bite mark analy-sis. Such analysis can often be useful during the investigation of violent crimes, especially those involving sexual assault. Bites from animals are rarely the object of bite mark analysis. The teeth of animals leave patterned injuries that appear quite different from those created by human teeth. This is esp...

  3. Recognition of bite marks in child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, S A

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals must be attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. Bite marks are one of several visual expressions of active child abuse. The efforts of forensic odontologists, in conjunction with recent technical advancements in bite mark analysis, support the uniqueness of the human dentition and have contributed to the conviction of numerous child abusers. Through recognition, proper documentation, and reporting dentists can help the forensic community use bite marks to solve cases of child maltreatment.

  4. Approximate MAP Decoding on Tail-Biting Trellises

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu, A. S.; Shankar, Priti

    2005-01-01

    We propose two approximate algorithms for MAP decoding on tail-biting trellises. The algorithms work on a subset of nodes of the tail-biting trellis, judiciously selected. We report the results of simulations on an AWGN channel using the approximate algorithms on tail-biting trellises for the $(24,12)$ Extended Golay Code and a rate 1/2 convolutional code with memory 6.

  5. Water vapour and heat combine to elicit biting and biting persistence in tsetse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuis, Charles J F; Béguin, Steve; Vlimant, Michèle; Guerin, Patrick M

    2013-08-19

    Tsetse flies are obligatory blood feeders, accessing capillaries by piercing the skin of their hosts with the haustellum to suck blood. However, this behaviour presents a considerable risk as landing flies are exposed to predators as well as the host's own defense reactions such as tail flicking. Achieving a successful blood meal within the shortest time span is therefore at a premium in tsetse, so feeding until replete normally lasts less than a minute. Biting in blood sucking insects is a multi-sensory response involving a range of physical and chemical stimuli. Here we investigated the role of heat and humidity emitted from host skin on the biting responses of Glossina pallidipes, which to our knowledge has not been fully studied in tsetse before. The onset and duration of the biting response of G. pallidipes was recorded by filming movements of its haustellum in response to rapid increases in temperature and/or relative humidity (RH) following exposure of the fly to two airflows. The electrophysiological responses of hygroreceptor cells in wall-pore sensilla on the palps of G. pallidipes to drops in RH were recorded using tungsten electrodes and the ultra-structure of these sensory cells was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Both latency and proportion of tsetse biting are closely correlated to RH when accompanied by an increase of 13.1°C above ambient temperature but not for an increase of just 0.2°C. Biting persistence, as measured by the number of bites and the time spent biting, also increases with increasing RH accompanied by a 13.1°C increase in air temperature. Neurones in wall-pore sensilla on the palps respond to shifts in RH. Our results show that temperature acts synergistically with humidity to increase the rapidity and frequency of the biting response in tsetse above the levels induced by increasing temperature or humidity separately. Palp sensilla housing hygroreceptor cells, described here for the first time in tsetse

  6. Perawatan Maloklusi Angle Klas I dengan Gigi Depan Crowding Berat dan Cross Bite Menggunakan Teknik Begg pada Pasien dengan Kebersihan Mulut Buruk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gigi depan crowding/berjejal parah dan cross bite adalah kasus yang sering dijumpai pada perawatan ortodontik. Gigi crowding dapat menyulitkan membersihkan mulut pada area gigi crowding sehingga dapat menyebabkan masalah periodontal. Salah satu keuntungan perawatan ortodontik cekat dengan teknik Begg adalah menghasilkan gaya yang ringan dalam megkoreksi gigi berjejal dan cross bite dapat memberikan kenyamanan pada pasien. Tujuan perawatan ini adalah untuk mengkoreksi gigi berjejal dan cross bite dalam waktu yang singkat menggunakan teknik Begg. Seorang pasien wanita umur 24 tahun dengan maloklusi Angle klas I dan skeletal klas III protrusif mandibula, gigi depan crowding berat dan cross bite, konstraksi lengkung pada kedua rahang, pergeseran median line rahang atas dan bawah disertai, gingivitis berat dan karies. Skaling, perawatan saluran akar dan pencabutan gigi non vital dilakukan sebelum perawatan ortodontik dilakukan. Koreksi dengan teknik Begg memerlukan waktu selama 6 bulan untuk mengkoreksi gigi crowding dan cross bite semuanya dalam waktu yang sama. Koreksi kasus gigi depan crowding berat dan cross bite disertai masalah periodontal dapat dilakukan dengan teknik Begg dalam waktu yang singkat dengan kemajuan yang bagus.   Treatment of Class I Angle Malocclusion with Severe Crowding and Crossbite of Anterior Teeth Using Begg Technique in Bad Oral Hygiene Patient. The severe crowding and cross bite of anterior teeth were very common type cases in orthodontic. Crowding teeth compromised the oral hygiene due to the difficulty in oral cleansing on the crowding area that cause periodontal problem. One of advantages of fixed orthodontic treatment using Begg technique produced the light forces in correcting crowding and cross bite could give convenience to patients. The purpose of this treatment is to correct crowding and cross bite in a short period of time using Begg technique. A 24 years old female patient with Class I Angle

  7. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Wolc, A.; Ducro, B.J.; Frankena, K.; Garrick, D.J.; Dekkers, J.C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite

  8. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog ...

  9. Biting injuries and transmission of Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamede, Rodrigo K; McCallum, Hamish; Jones, Menna

    2013-01-01

    The Tasmanian devil is threatened with extinction by devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a unique infectious cancer in which the tumour cells themselves, which derive from a single long-dead host devil, are the infective agent and the tumour is an infectious parasitic cell line. Transmission is thought to occur via direct inoculation of tumour cells when susceptible and infected individuals bite each other or by fomitic transfer of tumour cells. The nature of transmission and the extent to which biting behaviour and devil ecology is associated with infection risk remains unclear. Until our recent study in north-west Tasmania showed reduced population and individual impacts, DFTD had caused massive population declines in all populations monitored. In this paper, we investigate seasonal patterns of injuries resulting from bites between individuals, DFTD infection status and tumour location in two populations to determine whether the number of bites predicts the acquisition of DFTD and to explore the possibility that the reduced impacts of DFTD in north-west Tasmania are attributed to reduced bite rates. Devils with fewer bites were more likely to develop DFTD and primary tumours occurred predominantly inside the oral cavity. These results are not consistent with transmission occurring from the biter to the bitten animal but suggest that dominant individuals delivering bites, possibly by biting the tumours of other devils, are at higher risk of acquiring infection than submissive individuals receiving bites. Bite rates, which were higher during autumn and winter, did not differ between sites, suggesting that the reduced population impacts in north-west Tasmania cannot be explained by lower bite rates. Our study emphasizes the importance of longitudinal studies of individually marked animals for understanding the ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and parasites in wild populations. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British

  10. Culicoides Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Kibanga, Uganda Protectorate, A. D. Fraser , VIII- 10 (BMNH). n* _ ~~wnncic A mdilrm-Sized b ______ 5 __ ^_^--_-___ Aark hr~wn spcip. , ---- Females eyes...5,300 ft, S. A. Neave , biting hand at light (1930 hours), 21-28-V-11. Paratype: P, same data as holotype (BMNH). Culicoides julvtthorax (Austen...Intype: Q, vie, KI.uC, I_Jmiro; Uganda Protecto- rate, 3,700 ft elev., S. A. Neave , 1618-VIII-11 (BMNH). Culictides multiguttutu Goetghebuer 193.513

  11. [Reactions to insect stings and bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubojević, Suzana; Lipozencić, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Reaction to insect sting and bite may be local, such as erythema, edema and pruritus, or systemic, such as anaphylactic reaction. Diagnosis can be made by patient history, clinical picture, skin testing, total and specific IgE level, and provocation test. Local reactions are treated with cold compresses, topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. Oral and intramuscular antihistamines and corticosteroids are used for the treatment of mild systemic reactions, and in severe reaction epinephrine injections are added. Hyposensitization is indicated in patients with severe systemic reaction, positive skin tests and high level of specific IgE antibodies.

  12. Retrospective study of dog bite cases reported to ECWA Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of dog bite cases reported to ECWA Veterinary Clinic Bukuru was carried out in Plateau State, Nigeria to understand the pattern of occurrence in this region. A total of two hundred and forty seven (247) dog bite cases were reported between May, 2009 and June, 2010. The dogs profile showed that ...

  13. Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa. Fasil Mengistu1, Kedir Hussen1, Abraham Ali1, Goroma Getahun1, Dessalegn Sifer1. Abstract. Introduction: Animal bites and scratches represent the most important public health issue related to dogs and cats because of the risk of rabies transmission associated with ...

  14. Human Bites of the Face with Tissue Losses in Cosmopolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Milaki Asuku

    Uchendu 6 working in the same center a decade later reported a five-year series consisting of 37 cases of human bite to the lip and tissue loss. In the western world human bites are more frequently encountered in institutions for the care of the developmentally disabled individuals as reported by Lindsey and colleagues 7.

  15. Animal and Human Bites in Children | Osaghae | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Mammals that live closely and interact with man and man himself can inflict injury on children in the home through bites. Previous reports on mammalian bites in Nigeria are few and mainly on dogs, though other mammals also inflict injuries on children. There are also no reports on the injuries arising from ...

  16. Insect bite hypersensitivity in horses: genetic and epidemiological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by bites of Culicoides spp. IBH reduces welfare of affected horses and at present no effective preventive measure or cure exists. Aim of our research was to increase knowledge of the

  17. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  18. Aeromonas hydrophila wound infection following a tiger bite in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easow, J M; Tuladhar, Rashmi

    2007-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a rare human pathogen. Reports of zoonotic infection developing after large feline bites are even rarer. We are documenting the first case of human wound infection with A. hydrophila following a tiger bite. The patient responded well following wound debridement, secondary suturing and combination antibiotic therapy.

  19. Ward Round - Crocodile bites in Malawi: microbiology and surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case series of 5 patients admitted over 5 months to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital who had sustained injuries from a crocodile bite. Three patients required amputation of a limb. The severe soft tissue injury associated with a crocodile bite and the unusual normal oral flora of the crocodile create challenges ...

  20. Human bite and human immune deficiency virus (HIV) transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The concentration of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the saliva of a carrier is low. As a result, human bite is not considered the traditional route of HIV infection transmission. Aim: To report a case of HIV sero-positivity following a human bite. Setting: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port ...

  1. The Evidentiary Value of Bite Mark Analysis in Criminal Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail H. Al-Amad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the comparison between a bite mark injury and a suspect’s teeth was considered evidence linking the suspect to the victim. However, in recent years, many convictions were re-assessed by a legal initiative in the United States called the “Innocence Project”. The outcome of this project was the exoneration of many wrongfully convicted inmates. Some of those exonerations were of prisoners who had been convicted based on bite mark evidence. Consequently, the admissibility and evidentiary value of bite mark evidence came under profound scrutiny. On the other hand, proponents of bite mark evidence advocate the use of bite mark evidence in courts as an evidence of approximation, rather than conclusion. This paper will discuss the genesis and history of bite mark evidence, as well as the modern analysis of bite marks that is based on metric and non-metric digital assessment. The evidentiary value of bite  marks and the weight they should carry in today’s courts will be discussed.

  2. Classification of anterior open bite using individualized cephalometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Bock, Franziska; Böhm, Bernhard; Fuhrmann, Robert A

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the cephalometric characteristics of the open bite, and to classify the open bite according to individualized norms. The lateral cephalograms of 134 patients with an anterior open bite (min -0.5 mm) were analyzed. Patients were classified according to the inclination of the jaws, applying the principles of individualized cephalometry. The harmony box described by Hasund was used to define individualized norms for the inclination of the upper and lower jaws in each patient. The open bite was classified into four sub-types: (1) dental, (2) skeletal with enlarged ML-NSL angle, (3) skeletal with reduced ML-NSL angle, and (4) skeletal with deviations in upper and lower jaws. A skeletal open bite was found in 89 patients (66.4%). A dental open bite was found in 45 patients (33.6%). A number of significant differences were found between these four groups using single-factor variance analysis and the Bonferroni a posteriori test, (p < or = 0.05, p < or = 0.01, p < or = 0.001). The most prominent variables were index value of anterior facial hight, total facial height ratio, gonial angle, and Y-axis. No significant differences were found for overbite, however. It was possible to use individualized norms to classify the open bite into four sub-types. The demarcation between the four groups was supported statistically. The extent of the anterior open bite does not allow any conclusions as to the craniofacial pattern.

  3. Maintenance of a deep bite prior to surgical mandibular advancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Coul, F. Op; Oosterkamp, B. C. M.; Jansma, Johan; Bierman, Michiel; Pruim, G. J.; Sandham, John

    The aim of this study was to compare, retrospectively, two orthodontic treatment approaches in patients treated by a BSSO. In one group (4 males, 20 females; mean age pre-surgery 29.3 years), the deep bite was maintained (deep bite group) while in the other (3 males, 10 females; mean age pre-surgery

  4. Factors Associated with Rabies Awareness and Attitude to Dog Bite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preponderance of stray dogs at the study site necessitated assessment of awareness on rabies and associated factors, attitude to dog bite and knowledge on rabies among students and staff members in a University community. We reviewed hospital records for dog bite cases from 2005 to 2010 and administered structured ...

  5. Individual piglets' contribution to the development of tail biting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Kemp, B.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting hypotheses exist about the contribution of individual pigs to the development of a tail-biting outbreak, but there is limited quantitative information to support or dismiss them. This study aims to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour at pen and individual piglet level,

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skin, hair, and nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", " ... Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick When to see ...

  7. Bonded mandibular posterior bite plane: Fabrication, insertion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bite planes are one of the most commonly used auxiliaries during orthodontic treatment. They can be used in different segments of the maxillary and mandibular arch depending upon the type of malocclusion. The present paper describes the requirements of the bonded mandibular posterior bite plane and its fabrication.

  8. Snake bite in Gombe | Mustapha | Highland Medical Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: Snake bite is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria as in many parts of the tropics. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the clinical pattern of snake bite in Gombe. Methods: Two hundred and seven (207) cases of snakebite admitted at the State Specialist Hospital Gombe over ...

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch cream, such as hydrocortisone. Another option is to take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  10. Case report: acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis following viper bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Anyi; Shan, Renfei; Huang, Daochao; Zhou, Jiajia; Keenoo, Anaswasseem; Qin, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The most serious complications of the central nervous system that occur after venomous snake bite are intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke.We present a rarely seen central nervous system complication, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, after a treated Deinagkistrodon's viper bite.On April 5, 2015, a 50-year-old male farmer was bitten on his right leg by a Deinagkistrodon's viper. The bite rendered the victim unconscious for 14 days, during which he was treated with tetanus toxoid and polyvalent antisnake venom. Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was suspected after magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. After a high dose of methylprednisolone was used as diagnostic treatment, the patient started recovering fast.ADEM is a rare complication after snake bite, and is triggered by venom or antivenin. Magnetic resonance imaging helps in the early diagnosis of ADEM, and high-dose corticosteroid therapy appears to be effective in ADEM after viper bite or antivenin management.

  11. Evaluation and treatment of patients with human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, M H; Roenigk, H H; Smith, E S; Pierce, L J

    1989-06-01

    Physicians and other health care workers who care for patients who have sustained human bite marks need a working protocol to ensure that these patients receive proper care. This protocol involves taking a thorough history and performing a physical examination, approximately determining the bite mark age, and administering proper therapy. The history will help to determine whether a criminal act has been committed and which agencies need to be notified. The American Board of Forensic Odontology published criteria for bite mark analysis in 1984 that included a description of the bite mark including its size, shape, and color, along with techniques for collection of evidence from both the victim and suspect. To determine bite mark age, tissue response to injury (inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and matrix formation and remodeling) is reviewed. Finally, the bacteria that are found in these wounds and the proper use of antimicrobial agents are expanded upon.

  12. Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nail biting (NB is a common, but unresolved, problem in psychiatry, psychology, medicine and dentistry. While it seems that NB is a simple behavior that can be stopped easily, many of the children with NB have already tried to stop it, but they have not been successful. The frustrations due to failed attempt involve others such as parents and siblings. The present review aims at providing an overview of prevalence, co-morbidities, education and counseling, and management for NB. Overall, the reviewed literatures suggest that co-morbidities of psychiatric disorders and other stereotypic behaviors in clinical sample of children with NB is more than 80%, and more than half of the parents suffer from psychiatric disorders mainly depression. Treatment of NB, however, is not as easy as it seems. The management of NB is much more complicated than just focusing on stopping it. Nail biting cannot be managed without considering its co-morbidities, antecedents and consequences. It might be concluded form the reviewed literature that children with NB, parents, siblings, and teachers should be educated about what to do and what not to do about NB. Punishment is not effective. Moreover, clinical randomized controlled trials are required to make available evidence-based behavioral and pharmacologic treatment protocols

  13. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D; Winocur, E

    2012-07-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion ('the bite') are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query 'Bruxism [Majr] AND (Dental Occlusion [Majr] OR Malocclusion [Majr])', yielded 93 articles, of which 46 papers were finally included in the present review*. Part of the included publications dealt with the possible associations between bruxism and aspects of occlusion, from which it was concluded that neither for occlusal interferences nor for factors related to the anatomy of the oro-facial skeleton, there is any evidence available that they are involved in the aetiology of bruxism. Instead, there is a growing awareness of other factors (viz. psychosocial and behavioural ones) being important in the aetiology of bruxism. Another part of the included papers assessed the possible mediating role of occlusion between bruxism and its purported consequences (e.g. tooth wear, loss of periodontal tissues, and temporomandibular pain and dysfunction). Even though most dentists agree that bruxism may have several adverse effects on the masticatory system, for none of these purported adverse effects, evidence for a mediating role of occlusion and articulation has been found to date. Hence, based on this review, it should be concluded that to date, there is no evidence whatsoever for a causal relationship between bruxism and the bite. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Bites, stings, and rigors: clinical considerations in African operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, James H; Verlo, April R; Givens, Melissa L; Munoz, Cesar E

    2014-01-01

    The natural health threats in Africa pose daunting clinical challenges for any provider, as evidenced by the current Ebola epidemic in West Africa, but the threat is multiplied for the Special Operations provider on the continent who faces these challenges with limited resources and the tyranny of distance. The majority of operationally significant health risks can be mitigated by strict adherence to a comprehensive force health protection plan. The simplest, yet most effective, technique for preventing mosquito-borne diseases is the prevention of mosquito bites with repellent, bed nets, and appropriate clothing in addition to chemoprophylaxis. Some of the more likely or lethal infectious diseases encountered on the continent include malaria, Chikungunya, dengue, human immunodeficiency virus, and Ebola. Venomous snakes pose a particular challenge since the treatment can be as deadly as the injury. Providers supporting African operations should educate themselves on the clinical characteristics of possible envenomations in their area while promoting snake avoidance as the primary mitigation measure. To succeed in Africa, the Special Operations provider must consider how to meet these challenges in an environment where there may not be reliable evacuation, hospitalization, or logistics channels. 2014.

  15. Management of vascular trauma from dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingba, A George; Robinson, Eric A; Jester, Andrea L; Rapp, Brian M; Tsai, Anthony; Motaganahalli, Raghu L; Dalsing, Michael C; Murphy, Michael P

    2013-11-01

    Vascular trauma from large-dog bites present with a combination of crush and lacerating injuries to the vessel, as well as significant adjacent soft tissue injury and a high potential for wound complications. This retrospective case series evaluates our 15 years of experience in managing this uncommonly seen injury into suggested treatment recommendations. From our database, 371 adult patients presented with dog bites between July 1997 and June 2012. Twenty (5.4%) of those patients had vascular injuries requiring surgical intervention. Patient demographics, anatomic location of injury, clinical presentation, imaging modality, method of repair, and complication rates were reviewed to assess efficacy in preserving limb function. Pediatric patients were managed at the regional children's hospital and, therefore, not included in this study. Among the 20 surgically treated vascular injuries, there were 13 arterial-only injuries, two venous-only injuries, and five combination arterial and venous injuries. Seventeen patients (85%) had upper extremity injuries; three patients had lower extremity injuries (15%). The axillobrachial artery was the most commonly injured single vessel (n = 9/20; 45%), followed by the radial artery (n = 4/20; 20%). Surgical repair of vascular injuries consisted of resection and primary anastomosis (four), interposition bypass of artery with autogenous vein (13), and ligation (two), with (one) being a combination of bypass and ligation. All patients had debridement of devitalized tissue combined with pulse lavage irrigation and perioperative antibiotics. Associated injuries requiring repair included muscle and skin (n = 10/20; 50%), bone (n = 1/20; 5%), nerve (n = 1/20; 5%), and combinations of the three (n = 5/20; 25%). Postoperative antibiotic therapy was administered for 14.7 ± 8.2 days in all 20 patients. Four patients (20%) developed postoperative wound infections, although this did not compromise their vascular repair. Of the patients

  16. Snake bite in Northwest Iran: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Eslamian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: bite affects about 2 million people every year, with more than 100000 mortalities annually. A person bitten by a snake represents a variety of symptoms. Snake bite might be asymptomatic or with mild local symptoms or even could lead to tissue damage and rapid death. This study aimed to investigate characteristics of snake bite in Northwest Iran. Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of all patients with final diagnosis of snake bite who were admitted to Sina Clinical-Educational Center, the referral center for envenomation in Northwest Iran were investigated from 2002 to 2012. Demographic information and laboratory findings were collected using a checklist. Results: During a 10 year period, 160 individuals with snake bite were admitted, of which 128 (77.6% were male. With regard to occupation, farmers accounted for the largest portion (n = 57, 34.6%. The most prevalent sites bitten by snakes were right hand (25.5% and left leg (24.8%. Fifty-seven patients (34.5% had leukocytosis and four (2.4% had coagulopathy. Pain and swelling were two main complaints, with vomiting, dizziness, and tingling in extremities coming afterwards. Conclusion: Because snake bite is one of the most important emergencies presenting to emergency department and Iran’s geographic status bears wide spectrum of poisonous snakes, this study was performed to further explore the clinical and epidemiologic details of snake bite.

  17. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Horse Bite Injury to the Lip – A Case Report | Donkor | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bite injuries to the face are commonly caused by pets and humans. Bite injury by horse is uncommon. A case of horse bite injury and its management is reported. Patient and method: A 12-year-old boy sustained a full-thickness avulsion injury to the lower lip following a bite by a horse. The lip was reconstructed ...

  19. Biting Behaviors among Preschoolers: A Review of the Literature and a Survey of Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero de Atiles, Julia T.; Stegelin, Delores A.; Long, Janie K.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on biting among children in child care settings. Reports a study examining procedures established to handle biting by child care facilities in a southeastern state, which found that 60% of respondents (n=326) handled biting incidents, but only one third reported a policy on biting. Fewer than 3% understood the developmental nature…

  20. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog bite prevention working as well as it should? In this novel, small scale qualitative study, the perceptions of victims regarding their dog bite experience were explored in-depth. The study recruited 8 female participants who had been bitten by a dog in the past 5 years. In-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that dog bites may not be as easily preventable as previously presumed, and that education about dog body language may not prevent some types of dog bites. The reasons participants were bitten were multifaceted and complex. In some cases, there was no interaction with the dog before the bite so there was no opportunity to assess the situation and modify behavior around the dog accordingly. Identifying who was to blame, and had responsibility for preventing the bite, was straightforward for the participants in hindsight. Those bitten blamed themselves and/or the dog owner, but not the dog. Most participants already felt they had a theoretical knowledge that would allow them to recognize dog aggression before the dog bite, yet participants, especially those who worked regularly with dogs, routinely believed, "it would not happen to me." We also identified an attitude that bites were "just one of those things," which could also be a barrier prevention initiatives. Rather than being special to the human-canine relationship, the attitudes discovered mirror those found in other areas of injury

  1. Dog bites to the upper extremity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Joshua; Showery, James; Abdou, Marwa; Pirela-Cruz, Miguel A; Abdelgawad, Amr A

    2015-12-01

    Dog bites are common injuries in children. A large percentage of these dog bites affect the upper extremity. There is little information describing the results of treatment of upper extremity injuries in children. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records for all children less than 19 years old who presented to the emergency department in our level one trauma centre because of dog bites from 2005 to 2011. During the study period, there were 254 paediatric emergency department visits for animal bites, among these there were 118 dog bites, two were excluded because of inadequate documentation leaving 116 patients; 26 of them (22.4%) had bites to the upper extremity. Among the 26 children with dog bites to the upper extremity, 6 (23.1%) were admitted to the hospital for surgery (four patients) or parenteral antibiotics (two patients). Among the four surgeries, two were for extensive laceration and two were for abscess debridement. Of the 41 who presented with bites to the lower extremities, none were admitted to the hospital (P = 0.002). Compared with those who presented the same day they were injured, the relative risk of hospitalization or surgery in patients who presented 1 and 2 days after their injury was 3.5 and 7.0, respectively. Dog bites at the upper extremity are more prone to require surgical intervention and develop infection than those at the lower extremity, and delayed presentation of these injuries is associated with higher incidence of developing infection. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. An Analytical Study of Mammalian Bite Wounds Requiring Inpatient Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Geun Lee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMammalian bite injuries create a public health problem because of their frequency, potential severity, and increasing number. Some researchers have performed fragmentary analyses of bite wounds caused by certain mammalian species. However, little practical information is available concerning serious mammalian bite wounds that require hospitalization and intensive wound management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to perform a general review of serious mammalian bite wounds.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of the medical charts of 68 patients who were referred to our plastic surgery department for the treatment of bite wounds between January 2003 and October 2012. The cases were analyzed according to the species, patient demographics, environmental factors, injury characteristics, and clinical course.ResultsAmong the 68 cases of mammalian bite injury, 58 (85% were caused by dogs, 8 by humans, and 2 by cats. Most of those bitten by a human and both of those bitten by cats were male. Only one-third of all the patients were children or adolescents. The most frequent site of injury was the face, with 40 cases, followed by the hand, with 16 cases. Of the 68 patients, 7 were treated with secondary intention healing. Sixty-one patients underwent delayed procedures, including delayed direct closure, skin graft, composite graft, and local flap.ConclusionsBased on overall findings from our review of the 68 cases of mammalian bites, we suggest practical guidelines for the management of mammalian bite injuries, which could be useful in the treatment of serious mammalian bite wounds.

  3. Animal Bites in Borujerd: An Overview of Animal Bites in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabouri Ghannad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Rabies has been reported as the most important endemic zoonotic disease in Iran and still remains as a major public health problem. Objectives The main objective of the current research was to study the epidemiology of animal bites in Borujerd County in Iran and to compare its prevalence to other parts of Iran from April 2006 to September 2011. Patients and Methods The data were recorded in questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Chi-square test was performed to evaluate the relationship among variables and P value was set as 0.05. Results Dog bites were the most common (69.8%, followed by cat (17.2%, fox and wolf (1.4%, sheep and cow (2.8%, monkey and donkey (5%, mouse and squirrel (2.2% and other animals (1.6%. Leg was the most common bite site forming 46.6% of cases, followed by hands (41.8%, buttocks (4.6%, head (4% and body (2.9%. Most of the subjects belonged to the age group < 10 (175.2 per 100000 populations. The injury location was associated significantly with sex and the residential status. Conclusions This study strongly highlights a high priority goal for health authorities to develop educational programs, recommended for the general population to inform them about the benefits of continuing the medication. Vaccination of domestic dogs and also eradication of stray ones, in addition to educational programs should be prioritized by health authorities.

  4. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  5. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. S. Amaral

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  6. Outbreak of vampire bat biting in a Venezuelan village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Caraballo H.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of 154 cases of vampire bat biting in a four-month period in the gold mine of Payapal, a Venezuelan village, is reported. All patients were bitten during the night and the most bites were on their toes. No complication attributed to the bite was reported. Diagnoses of rabies virus made by means of immunofluorescence were negative. A possible reason for this outbreak may been the development of mining areas, with the inhabitants providing an alternative food source for the bats.

  7. Acquaintance of bite mark identification procedures in Forensic Odontology

    OpenAIRE

    Yuti Malinda; Dewi Zakiawati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Bite mark analysis casework strives to connect a biter to the teeth pattern present on the object linked in some way to crime or event. This analysis requiring an immediate response by the forensic odontologist since the marks fade rapidly in the living and the dead in a matter of hours. The aim of this article is to help the dentist to know and understand the procedures of bite mark identification in forensic odontology field. Literature review: Bite marks may be present th...

  8. Comparison of the bite mark pattern and intercanine distance between humans and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Bina; Anand, Sanjeev; Reddy, Sudhakara; Sahukar, Shruthi Basavaradhya; Supriya, Naga; Pasupuleti, Swetha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog) bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog) using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontolog...

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... laws Quality DataDerm Quality measures Clinical guidelines Appropriate use criteria Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC ... prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and ...

  12. Dilemmas in Treatment of Recurrent Recalcitrant Dental Anterior Open Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    An anterior open bite is one of the most difficult occlusal abnormalities to treat. Quite often this aberration entails dental component and/or skeletal component. The skeletal open bite will require intrusion of the posterior sextants with the assistance of bite blocks, temporary anchorage devices, high pull headgear, and as a last resort - orthognathic surgery. The orthodontic treatment should be augmented with the orofacial myofunctional therapy. In this article, the author describes 3 different variations of treatment of the dental anterior open bite, first on acrylic models, and then on the actual patients. Consideration should be given to patients with a 'short upper lip," and in this case, surgical correction should be entertained.

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video library Find a dermatologist "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ ... most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’ ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... to remove a tick How to treat a bee sting When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite ... following tips: For painful bites , such as a bee sting, take an over-the-counter painkiller, such ...

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... the mattress for maximum protection. Pay attention to outbreaks. Check the CDC Travel Health Notices website and ... that they can examine you for a transmitted disease. Additional related resources Bug bites and stings: When ...

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... hours before wearing them. Use bed nets. If sleeping in the great outdoors, use bed nets to ... that they can examine you for a transmitted disease. Additional related resources Bug bites and stings: When ...

  18. Poisonous Spiders: Bites, Symptoms, and Treatment; an Educational Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Farzad; Banan Khojasteh, Seyed Mahdi; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Rahmani, Farnaz; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    More than 40,000 species of spiders have been identified in the world. Spider bites is a common problem among people, however few of them are harmful but delay in treatment can cause death. Since the spider bites are risk full to human, they should be taken seriously, especially in endemic areas. Our objective in this review was to study about poisonous spiders and find out treatments of them. Therefore, we collected related articles from PubMed database and Google Scholar. Three important syndromes caused by spider bites are loxoscelism, latrodectism and funnel web spider syndrome. Many treatments are used but much more studies should have done to decrease the mortality. In this review, we describes different venomous spiders according to their appearance, symptoms after their bites and available treatments.

  19. Poisonous Spiders: Bites, Symptoms, and Treatment; an Educational Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Rahmani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 40,000 species of spiders have been identified in the world. Spider bites is a common problem among people, however few of them are harmful but delay in treatment can cause death. Since the spider bites are risk full to human, they should be taken seriously, especially in endemic areas. Our objective in this review was to study about poisonous spiders and find out treatments of them. Therefore we collected related articles from PubMed database and Google Scholar. Three important syndromes caused by spider bites are loxoscelism, latrodectism and funnel web spider syndrome. Many treatments are used but much more studies should have done to decrease the mortality. In this review, we describes different venomous spiders according to their appearance, symptoms after their bites and available treatments. 

  20. Facial dog bite injuries in children: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This case shows a case of a child patient victim of animal bite, with lesions limited to the region of the face. The patient was followed up for a month and showed good wound healing without any complications.

  1. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Excellence in Dermatopathology™ Excellence in Pediatric Dermatology™ Donate Search Menu Donate Member resources and programs Member benefits ... to bites and stings FIND A DERMATOLOGIST Advanced Search "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-6", " ...

  2. Effects of skin elasticity on bite mark distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cheri; Marroquin, Leonor A

    2015-12-01

    Bite marks have been reported to have an evidentiary value similar to fingerprints. We believed bite mark distortion would impact the accuracy and reliability of bite mark interpretation. Inked denture-stamps were substituted for actual bite marks and were placed onto 40 participating volunteers' shoulders. Four changes in arm position were photographed using an ABFO #2 reference scale. The measurements of individual tooth widths and intercanine distances in each position were compared. The maximum tooth width distortion observed was 53.8%, whereas the maximum intercanine distance distortion was 41.9%. Distortion was found to increase with age and weight and was non-uniform across a dental arch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ... after a bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a ...

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  5. Two bite mark cases with inadequate scale references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M L

    1985-07-01

    Most literature addressing comparisons between epidermal bite marks and the perpetrator's bite pattern mandates fastidious coordination between the size of the compared reproductions. While ideal, this is not possible in every case and inability to control this variable in selected cases may not necessarily invalidate the comparison. The first case involves a known perpetrator. All photographic measurements were recorded with acceptable techniques to discover a serious discrepancy in arch size. The second case was degraded by the absence of a ruler in a tangentially made photograph of a bite mark. In both cases, the weight of the conclusions were lessened by these problems but the impartial handling of the evidence and explanation of discrepancies offered credibility to the analyses. Both cases illustrate that a technical infraction in processing and recording bite marks, though serious, need not automatically preempt the analysis.

  6. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  7. Risk of Disease from Mosquito and Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect repellents help reduce the risk of mosquito and tick bites, which can transmit diseases including West Nile Virus, malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and ehrlichiosis.

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  9. First report on human-biting Culex pipiens in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jenny C; Schäfer, Martina; Lundström, Jan O

    2016-12-07

    Culex mosquitoes are vectors of several bird-hosted arboviruses that cause outbreaks in Europe, such as Sindbis virus and West Nile virus. Recently, the human-biting form of Culex pipiens, Cx. pipiens biotype molestus, was found causing big nuisance in a housing cooperative in Gothenburg in southern Sweden, confirmed by molecular identification. This is the first report of human-biting Culex in Scandinavia, signalling increased risk of arbovirus infection in northern Europe.

  10. The Evidentiary Value of Bite Mark Analysis in Criminal Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Suhail H. Al-Amad

    2016-01-01

    For decades, the comparison between a bite mark injury and a suspect’s teeth was considered evidence linking the suspect to the victim. However, in recent years, many convictions were re-assessed by a legal initiative in the United States called the “Innocence Project”. The outcome of this project was the exoneration of many wrongfully convicted inmates. Some of those exonerations were of prisoners who had been convicted based on bite mark evidence. Consequently, the admissibility and evident...

  11. A general review of bite-mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J

    1981-03-01

    Bite-mark evidence has been used as an aid in the identification of criminals in many instances. The author, a forensic odontologist in Liverpool, England, during his lifetime, personally investigated the cases presented which include instances of rape and battery. It is shown how perpetrators of violent injuries were detected from bite marks on the victim or the perpetrator, or on foodstuffs found at the scene of the crime, when the marks were compared to dental impressions taken subsequently.

  12. Tail Biting Trellis Representation of Codes: Decoding and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao. Rose Y.; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents two new iterative algorithms for decoding linear codes based on their tail biting trellises, one is unidirectional and the other is bidirectional. Both algorithms are computationally efficient and achieves virtually optimum error performance with a small number of decoding iterations. They outperform all the previous suboptimal decoding algorithms. The bidirectional algorithm also reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper is a method for constructing tail biting trellises for linear block codes.

  13. Habitual biting of oral mucosa: A conservative treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.

  14. Deep bite malocclusion: exploration of the skeletal and dental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhateja, N.K.; Fida, M.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Correction of deep bite is crucial for maintenance of dental hard and soft tissue structures and for prevention of temporomandibular joint disorders. Exploration of underlying skeletal and dental factors is essential for efficient and individualized treatment planning. To date etiological factors of dental and skeletal deep bite have not been explored in Pakistani orthodontic patients. The objectives of this study were to explore frequencies of dental and skeletal etiological factors in deep bite patients and to determine correlations amongst dental and skeletal etiological factors of deep bite. Methods: The study included a total of 113 subjects (males=35; females=78) with no craniofacial syndromes or prior orthodontic treatment. Pre-treatment orthodontic records were used to evaluate various dental and skeletal parameters. Descriptive statistics of each parameter were calculated. The various study parameters were correlated using Pearson's Correlation. Results: Deep curve of Spee was most frequently seen factor of dental deep bite (72.6%), followed by increased coronal length of upper incisors (28.3%), retroclined upper incisors (17.7%), retroclined lower incisors (8%) and increased coronal length of lower incisors (5.3%). Decreased gonial angle was most commonly found factor of skeletal deep bite (43.4%), followed by decreased mandibular plane angle (27.4%) and maxillary plane's clockwise rotation (26.5%). Frankfort mandibular plane angle and gonial angle showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.66, p=0.000). Conclusions: Reduced gonial angle is most frequently seen skeletal factor, signifying the importance of angulation and growth of ramus in development of deep bite. Deep curve of Spee is most frequently seen dental etiological component in deep bite subjects, hence signifying the importance of intruding the lower anterior teeth. (author)

  15. Sensitivity to bites by the bedbug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K; Kempke, D; Naylor, R A; Siva-Jothy, M T

    2009-06-01

    Bedbugs are a public health problem and can cause significant economic losses, but little is known about the effects of bites on humans. We reviewed case reports and published papers on bedbug bites to assess the empirical basis of the commonly cited figure that only approximately 80% of the population are sensitive to bedbug bites. We found the sensitivity estimate to be based on only one study carried out 80 years ago. However, this study did not account for the now well-established fact that only repeated exposure to external allergens leads to skin reactions. In our sample, 18 of 19 persons showed a skin reaction after bedbug exposure, but in most cases only after repeated controlled exposure. With repeated exposure, the latency between bite and skin reactions decreased from approximately 10 days to a few seconds. Our results are relevant for the hospitality industry, where apparently increasing infestation rates are likely to lead to an increase in the number of tourists and hotel employees exposed to bedbugs. Medical and public health professionals may expect to see an increase in the prevalence of people with bedbug bite sensitivity. The significance of the delayed reaction time of skin to bites may also have implications in litigation cases where people seek compensation.

  16. Studying the effects of Bite plane application in intruding and extruding the teeth in patients with deep bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirazi

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep bite is a major clinical problem manifested as higher than normal overbite in anterior region of the jaws. Various studies were conducted to identify the effects of using bite plan and its results. 14 subjects with deep bite were selected out of 400 students of a school who had not proximal caries and had not lost any permanent teeth with healthy periodontal condition. 8 patients were considered as case group and the 6 other as the control group. In case group, a simple labial arc with acrylic palate that caused a gap in occlusion was placed. 2 lateral radiographs were obtained both pre and post 14 months treatment period. After cephalometric analysis, due to bite plane application significant intrusion in mandibular  incisors were observed as well as elongation in both maxillary and mandibular molars.

  17. Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks - Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these 'neutral' pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with 'control' pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and 'other' abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and "other" abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (pbiting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs.

  18. Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks – Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these ‘neutral’ pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with ‘control’ pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and ‘other‘ abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and “other“ abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (pbiting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs. PMID:23824700

  19. Risk factors for dog bites occurring during and outside of play: are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messam, Locksley L McV; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B; Hart, Lynette A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the effects of selected human-canine interaction/environmental factors on bites occurring when the victim was and was not playing with the dog differed from each other. A veterinary clinic-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in Kingston, Jamaica (709), and San Francisco, USA (513) to compare the effects of selected exposures on non-play bites (161) relative to bites preceded by play with the dog (110) as reported by veterinary clients. Additionally, 951 non-biting dogs were used for a risk factor analysis of bites occurring during play. Using directed acyclic graphs and the change-in-estimate procedure to select and adjust for confounders, modified Poisson regression was used to estimate (a) the ratios of proportions of non-play bites out of all bites comparing exposed to unexposed dogs (proportionate bite ratios) and (b) risk ratios for bites occurring during play for each factor of interest. Proportionate bite ratios ranged from 0.84 to 1.29, with most 95% confidence intervals including one, thus implying a lack of specificity of effects of the examined factors on non-play bites relative to bites occurring during play with the dog. Consistent with this lack of specificity, risk ratios for bites occurring during play were similar in magnitude and direction to risk ratios previously published for non-play bites using the same non-biting dogs as a reference group. No country-specific differences in proportionate bite ratios were detected. Each human-canine environmental factor showed similar levels of association with both types of bites. One possible explanation is that both types of bites have a common causal pathway leading from each factor up to the point of human-canine contact. If the human-canine contact then leads to either play or non-play interactions with dogs and subsequently to both types of bites, the presence of such a common pathway would make the factor non-specific to either type of bite. As

  20. Black widow spider and brown recluse spider bites in Texas from 1998 through 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B; Stanley, Sharilyn K

    2003-10-01

    Black widow spiders and brown recluse spiders are of medical importance to humans in the US. However, these spiders differ in their habits, habitat, and the clinical effects and treatment of their bite. This study used data from human exposure calls to poison centers in Texas to compare the epidemioloy of bites from these 2 spiders. During 1998-2002, 760 black widow spider bites and 1,369 brown recluse spider bites were reported. Black widow spider bite penetrance demonstrated no secular trend during this time period while the penetrance of brown recluse spider bites increased. A higher percentage of black widow spider bites occurred among males, while a higher proportion of brown recluse spider bites were reported for females. Black widow spider bites most frequently had mild outcomes while brown recluse spider bites most often had moderate outcomes. The majority of reported bites for both types of spider occurred at the patient's own residence, although the percentage was lower for black widow spiders. Seasonal trends were noted for both black widow and brown recluse spiders. The highest penetrance of black widow spider bites was observed in western Texas while the highest penetrance of brown recluse spider bites was observed in central Texas. This information is useful for identifying those populations at greatest risk for the respective spider bites.

  1. Otorrhagia bleeding due to leech bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Askari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leeches are blood-sucking hermaphroditic parasites that attach to vertebrate hosts, bite through the skin, and suck out blood. When leeches feed, they secrete an anticoagulant (hirudin, which helps them get a full meal of blood. This is the first report of leech removal from external auditory canal. Previous leech involvement cases were explained in nasopharynx, larynx, pharynx, eye, and gastrointestinal tract. Prominent sign of all cases was active bleeding from the leech attachment site; that stopped with leech removal. A 24-year-old man was presented to Al-Zahra hospital with left otorrhagia and otalgia from 2 days ago. After suction of ear a small soft foreign body was seen in the external ear near the tympanic membrane, then the ear filled with glycerine phenice, the patient explained decreased movement of foreign body. Four hours later the bloody discharge stopped and otalgia decreased. After suction of clots, a leech was extruded from external auditory canal by alligator. Leech infestation is a rare cause of otorrhagia and should be suspected in the endemic region in all of unusual bleeding; it can be diagnosed and treated by exact inspection and removal.

  2. Cause, setting and ownership analysis of dog bites in Bay County, Florida from 2009 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, J; Templin, M; Jordan, M M; Stanek, D

    2015-02-01

    Emergency room and hospital discharge data have been used to describe the risk factors and public health impact of dog bites. These data sets are based on financial charges for severe bites and underestimates dog bite burdens within communities. This study expands both the source of information and risk factor data collected to provide demographic analysis of dog bite injury risk factors reported in Bay County, Florida in 2009-2010. Extended data for dog bites reported by various sources from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 were collected by Florida Department of Health in Bay County. Data collected included bite victim's age and gender, primary reported cause of bite, setting, dog's restraint status and relationship between the victim and the dog. A total of 799 bites were reported. Most bites (55%) were reported first by healthcare practitioners, particularly bites involving childrendogs and dogs off the owner's property were more likely to be reported by other sources. Boys aged 6-14 years accounted for 2.24 times more bites than same-aged females (Pdog. Inappropriate behaviour management was the most common cause of bites (26%), followed by protective behaviour (24%). Bites of unknown cause were 2.5 times more likely in childrendog fights was the most common cause of bites for persons 15 years or older (24%); females were significantly more likely to be bit than males (P=0.01). Bites by unrestrained dogs off the owner's property (32% of all bites) most commonly involved males. Estimates based solely on healthcare discharge data significantly underestimate dog bite burden within a community. Characterizing these risks by age group or gender provides an opportunity to implement targeted interventions to prevent dog bites. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Bite force and sleep quality in patients with bruxism before and after using a mandibular advancement device = Força de mordida e qualidade do sono em pacientes bruxômanos antes e após o uso de placa de avanço mandibular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainieri, Vivian Chiada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar a força de mordida e a qualidade do sono em pacientes com bruxismo antes e depois do uso de uma placa de avanço mandibular resiliente. Metodologia: Dezoito pacientes com bruxismo em atendimento na Clínica de Oclusão da Faculdade de Odontologia da PUCRS foram selecionados de acordo com os critérios de eligibilidade do estudo, examinados segundo o protocolo RDC/DTM e tratados com uma placa de avanço mandibular resiliente. Antes e após 30 dias de uso da placa de avanço mandibular os sujeitos foram submetidos a testes de força máxima de mordida com um transdutor de força compressiva de arco cruzado posicionado na região de primeiro molar; de qualidade do sono, de acordo com o questionário QAS da Universidade de Toronto; e de contagem do número de contrações do músculo masseter durante o sono usando-se o adesivo BiteStrip®. Os dados foram analisados por teste t de Student, teste de Wilcoxon e teste de McNemar ao nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Houve diminuição significativa (P < 0,05 dos parâmetros de bruxismo, de força de mordida e do escore total do QAS após o uso da placa de avanço mandibular por 30 dias. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que o uso da placa de avanço mandibular resiliente por um mês reduziu a força de mordida e o bruxismo e melhorou a qualidade do sono nesta amostra

  4. Role of bite mark characteristics and localizations in finding an assailant

    OpenAIRE

    Afsin, Huseyin; Karadayi, Beytullah; Cagdir, Sadi A.; Ozaslan, Abdi

    2014-01-01

    The location, size, and number of bite marks can be used as a beneficial indicator of the crime type and feasible group of suspects. This study aims to present information about the bite mark locations, the bite mark characteristics, and the perpetrator′s profile based on three cases which were carried out by the same biter. The attack bites, which observed in all of the three cases, were characterized by serious wounds and tissue loss. Analysis of bite mark characteristics and bite mark loca...

  5. A suggested classification of bite marks in foodstuffs in forensic dental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, G

    1982-01-01

    Bite marks have been reported in flesh, foodstuffs and inanimate objects. Those in foodstuffs occur widely in cases of larceny but also occur in serious crimes such as murder. Evaluation of distinctive characteristics in food bites differs from the corresponding assessment of flesh bite marks in that the assessment is made on the impression made by the labial aspect of the teeth and not on the biting edge, because the teeth penetrate the bitten foods to different depths. The terminology used to describe food bite marks is very varied and a classification of food bites has been formulated in an effort to bring a degree of uniformity to the analysis of such marks.

  6. Use of clear aligners in open bite cases: an unexpected treatment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Garino, Francesco; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2017-06-01

    In open bite case treatments, a proper diagnostic differentiation is essential in determining the appropriate corrective procedures. Dental open bites are generally more responsive to treatment with orthodontics alone, whereas skeletal open bites often require a combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. Patient selection and treatment principles for non-surgical open bite treatment routinely include fixed appliances both labial or lingual. However, removable clear aligners have gained a consistent popularity in the treatment of complex cases including open bite malocclusions. In this article, the authors describe three different clinical cases in which open bite cases had been satisfactorily treated by using clear aligners.

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Award Advocate of the Year Award Cochrane Scholarship Diversity Mentorship Program Van Scott Award and Frost Lectureship ... Academy councils, committees, and task forces Camp Discovery Diversity Mentorship Program Health Volunteers Overseas International resources Native ...

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Award Advocate of the Year Award Cochrane Scholarship Diversity Mentorship Program Van Scott Award and Frost Lectureship ... Academy councils, committees, and task forces Camp Discovery Diversity Mentorship Program Health Volunteers Overseas International Native American ...

  9. Epidemiological study of insect bite reactions from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physical effects of the arthropod bites on human skin receive less attention, especially in the rural areas where the per capita income is less. Ours is a rural-based hospital, the vicinity having more of plants, trees, and forests; we undertook the study to find out the relation of insect bite dermatitis in a rural area. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Dermatology outpatient department of our institute on 100 subjects of insect bite dermatitis who were questioned retrospectively about the sequence of events besides their environmental and living conditions. They were examined thoroughly and the relevant clinical findings were noted, also taking into account the prior treatment taken by them, if any. Results and Conclusions: It was found that insect bite dermatitis has no age or gender preponderance, and the protective factors for the same are use of full sleeve clothes and keeping the doors and windows closed at night. On the contrary, the risk factors are residence in areas of heavy insect infestation, use of perfumes and colognes, warm weather in spring and summer and the lack of protective measures. However, there was no direct association of atopy with increased risk of developing insect bite dermatitis.

  10. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: Open bite evolution after tongue reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Rodriguez, E; Gómez, E; Martín, M; Muñoz, J-M; Hernández-Godoy, J; Burgueño, M

    2018-03-01

    Macroglossia causes functional deficits such as airway obstruction, drooling, phonation difficulties, and leads to protrusion of dentoalveolar structures resulting in an anterior open bite and a prognathic mandibular appearance. Macroglossia is present in the majority of patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and surgical treatment may be indicated. A retrospective review was conducted including BWS patients who underwent surgical tongue reduction between 2000 and 2015 at the Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid. Out of 16 patients with BWS, surgery was performed in 11 cases. Tongue protrusion with open bite was the main indication for surgical treatment. Reduction glossectomy was performed using the keyhole technique. We analysed the relationship between age at surgery and evolution of open bite. Complications were minimal and satisfactory outcomes were observed with a decrease in anterior open bite. In this study we have observed that surgical treatment in patients with BWS and open bite accompanied by macroglossia seems to provide positive results with a satisfactory outcome in dentoskeletal alterations.

  11. Bite Injuries to the Hand - Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Pradyumna; Khan, Wasim; Haddad, Behrooz; Mahapatra, Anant Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Patients presenting to the emergency department with bite injuries to the hand sustain them through a number of causes including domesticated as well as stray animal bites, and human bites commonly sustained as a result of violence. The nature of the injuries sustained can be very deceptive. A small tooth mark on the exterior can be a fulminant infection in the tissues deeper down. Tendon injuries, fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges and management of the wound are critical issues faced by a surgeon in dealing with such patients. Similarly the less common bite injuries to the hand, often with disastrous and sometimes fatal complications, do also present to the emergency department. A high incidence of suspicion is needed in dealing with these injuries effectively. In our article we discuss the common as well as uncommon causes of bite injuries to the hand and their management. In addition to reviewing the literature to ascertain the management of such injuries, we also discuss interesting and rare case reports. PMID:25097675

  12. Kissing Bug ( spp. Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Klotz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kissing bugs ( Triatoma spp. frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae. Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  13. Treatment of a Class I deep bite malocclusion in a periodontally compromised adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo do Amaral; Ferreira, Rogério do Amaral

    2007-11-01

    Light forces and an appropriate force system should be used to treat adult patients with periodontal disease. To describe the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with a Class I deep bite malocclusion, horizontal and vertical bone loss and root resorption. After periodontal surgery and initial alignment of the maxillary incisors with a fixed orthodontic appliance the maxillary incisors were splinted together as a single unit. A double palatal arch and sectional buccal archwires were used for anchorage. The palatal arch and splint were joined by a NiTi coil spring (100 g). The incisor segment was then intruded and retracted with a force acting just below the centre of resistance of the splinted incisor teeth. The force system avoided extruding the maxillary molars. The maxillary teeth were then rebonded to close the spaces between maxillary lateral incisors and canines. A Hawley appliance was used for retention. Treatment was completed in 22 months. Surgical treatment and intrusion with light forces encouraged the development of periodontal attachment to the teeth affected by severe horizontal and vertical bone loss. Retraction of the proclined incisors improved the facial aesthetics.

  14. Anterior open bite treated with myofunctional therapy and palatal crib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Moshabab A

    2015-03-01

    This case report demonstrates the treatment effects of palatal crib combined with the myofunctional therapy in a child with anterior open bite (AOB) due to thumb sucking and habitual anterior and low tongue position. The patient, an 11-year-old boy, had an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. Palatal cribs in conjunction with myofunctional therapy were used to discourage sucking habit and to adapt normal tongue position. Successful correction of the AOB with adequate overjet and overbite were achieved with total treatment time of 7 months. The importance of myofunctional therapy in adopting normal tongue position and in maintaining the stability of open bite correction is emphasized.

  15. Biting disrupts integration to spur skull evolution in eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, David C; Wainwright, Peter C; Alfaro, Michael E; Revell, Liam J; Mehta, Rita S

    2014-11-17

    The demand that anatomical structures work together to perform biological functions is thought to impose strong limits on morphological evolution. Breakthroughs in diversification can occur, however, when functional integration among structures is relaxed. Although such transitions are expected to generate variation in morphological diversification across the tree of life, empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. Here we show that transitions between suction-based and biting modes of prey capture, which require different degrees of coordination among skull components, are associated with shifts in the pattern of skull diversification in eels (Anguilliformes). Biting eels have experienced greater independence of the jaws, hyoid and operculum during evolution and exhibit more varied morphologies than closely related suction feeders, and this pattern reflects the weakened functional integration among skull components required for biting. Our results suggest that behavioural transitions can change the evolutionary potential of the vertebrate skeleton by altering functional relationships among structures.

  16. Dog bites in children treated in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, L M; Gardner, M J; O'Connor, J; Amon, N

    2000-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and disability among children. This study sought to describe the characteristics of dog bite injuries to aid in promoting healthy environments for children. This descriptive, retrospective study of one hospital's 1997 emergency department records detailed dog bite injuries to children and adolescents and resultant emergency treatment (N = 204). Children dog's owner was generally a parent or neighbor. Only 2 children received rabies prophylaxis. Parents and children need information about safe interactions with dogs, including community leash laws and quarantine guidelines. Nurses should know the procedures for reporting dog bite injuries to local health authorities. Interested nurses can find many opportunities to assist with community safety campaigns.

  17. An integrated technique for the analysis of skin bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Herman; Owen, Johanna H; van Heerden, Willie F P; Solheim, Tore

    2008-01-01

    The high number of murder, rape, and child abuse cases in South Africa has led to increased numbers of bite mark cases being heard in high courts. Objective analysis to match perpetrators to bite marks at crime scenes must be able to withstand vigorous cross-examination to be of value in conviction of perpetrators. An analysis technique is described in four stages, namely determination of the mark to be a human bite mark, pattern association analysis, metric analysis and comparison with the population data, and illustrated by a real case study. New and accepted techniques are combined to determine the likelihood ratio of guilt expressed as one of a range of conclusions described in the paper. Each stage of the analysis adds to the confirmation (or rejection) of concordance between the dental features present on the victim and the dentition of the suspect. The results illustrate identification to a high degree of certainty.

  18. Open bite as a risk factor for orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motokawa, Masahide; Terao, Akiko; Kaku, Masato; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Gonzales, Carmen; Darendeliler, M Ali; Tanne, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the prevalence and degree of root resorption induced by orthodontic treatment in patients with and without open bite. One hundred and eleven patients treated with multibracket appliances were retrospectively selected from the patients and divided into non-open bite (NOB) and open bite (OB) groups. The severity of root resorption and the root shape were classified into five groups on periapical radiographs before and after treatment. Moreover, only in the OB group, all teeth were sub-divided into functional and hypofunctional ones that are occluding and non-occluding. As the results of multiple linear regression analysis of patient characteristics and clinical variables with the number of overall root resorption, the independent variables that were found to contribute significantly to root resorption were bite and abnormal root shape. The prevalences of root resorption evaluated in the number of patients were significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group, and those in the number of teeth were significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group, in particular anterior and premolar teeth. The prevalence of resorbed teeth with abnormal root shapes was also significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group. On the other hand, in OB group, the prevalences of root resorption and teeth with abnormal root shape were significantly greater in hypofunctional teeth than in normal functional teeth. There are more teeth with root resorption and abnormal root shape in open bite cases than in normal bite cases, and more teeth with abnormal root shapes and root resorption in hypofunctional teeth than in functional teeth.

  19. Perawatan Maloklusi Klas III Skeletal disertai Open Bite dengan Teknik Begg

    OpenAIRE

    Anggaraeni, Putu Ika; Suparwitri, Sri; H, Soekarsono; SP, Pinandi

    2015-01-01

    Overjet negatif pada maloklusi klas III dapat terjadi karena penyimpangan hubungan incisivus atas dan bawah, adanya malrelasi antara maksila dan mandibula, atau kombinasi keduanya. Maloklusi klas III dapat disertai dengan crowding, deep bite, maupun open bite. Tujuan perawatan adalah untuk mengoreksi cross bite dan open bite, memperoleh overjet dan overbite normal serta hubungan oklusal yang stabil. Pasien laki-laki usia 15 tahun dengan maloklusi Angle klas III dan relasi skeletal klas III, m...

  20. Mass awareness regarding snake bite induced early morning neuroparalysis can prevent many deaths in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rupinder; Dogra, Varundeep; Sharma, Gurudutt; Chauhan, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In North India snake bite deaths are predominantly seen with neurotoxic envenomations (NEs) whereas in South India the hemotoxic envenomation (HE) is more common. Krait is responsible for most deaths in North India. It bites people sleeping on the floors, mostly at night. We describe the profile of venomous snake bites over 1 year in 2013. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India. Demographics, circumstances of bite, envenom...

  1. Prevention of tick bites: an evaluation of a smartphone app

    OpenAIRE

    Antonise-Kamp, L.; Beaujean, D. J. M. A.; Crutzen, R.; van Steenbergen, J. E.; Ruwaard, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common reported tick-borne infection in Europe, and involves transmission of Borrelia by ticks. As long as a vaccine is not available and effective measures for controlling tick populations are insufficient, LB control is focused on preventive measures to avoid tick bites. To inform citizens about the risk of ticks, motivate them to check for tick bites, and encourage them to remove any attached tick as quickly as possible, a mobile app called ‘Tek...

  2. Chronic Osteomyelitis Secondary to Human Bite: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a human bite that was initially inadequately treated and progressed to chronic osteomyelitis, finally resulting in digital amputation. Human bites are seemingly innocuous, but if neglected, may lead to subsequent infection and morbidity. Persistence of symptoms should alert the practitioner to the possibility of infection extending to the soft tissue or bone. Bacteriological studies commonly yield mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora. Early debridement and antibiotic treatment may prevent development of severe soft tissue or bone infection.

  3. The management of dog bite injuries of genitalia in paediatric age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dog bite injuries are common in children and represent an important health-care problem. Most dog bite injuries involve the face or an extremity. Victims tend to seek medical care quickly. Dog bites to the external genitalia are rarely reported, but they potentially result in morbidity if improperly managed. Morbidity is also ...

  4. Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture in preorthodontic patients with anterior open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Phong; Sarauw, Martin Toft; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2014-03-01

    Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture were examined and related to craniofacial morphology in preorthodontic children and adolescents with anterior open bite. One hundred eleven patients (ages, 6-18 years) with an anterior open bite of more than 0 mm were divided into 2 groups of skeletal or dentoalveolar open bite. The skeletal open-bite group comprised 38 subjects (19 girls, 19 boys). The dentoalveolar open-bite group comprised 73 subjects (43 girls, 30 boys). Visual assessment of the cervical column and measurements of craniofacial morphology and head posture were made on profile radiographs. Deviations in the cervical vertebral column morphology occurred in 23.7% of the subjects in the skeletal open-bite group and in 19.2% in the dentoalveolar open-bite group, but the difference was not significant. Head posture was significantly more extended in the skeletal open-bite group compared with the dentoalveolar open-bite group (craniovertical angle [Mx/VER], P open bite. No significant differences in the cervical vertebral column's morphologic deviations were found between the skeletal and the dentoalveolar open-bite groups. Significant differences were found in head posture between the groups and with regard to associations with craniofacial dimensions. This might indicate a respiratory etiologic component in children with anterior open bite. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dog bite injuries in children — a review of data from a South

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dog bite injuries in children — a review of data from a South. African paediatric trauma unit. I P Dwyer, T S Douglas, A B van As. Background and objective. Dog bites are a major cause of preventable traumatic injury in the paediatric population. We aimed to determine the epidemiology of dog bite injuries in a group of ...

  6. The use of videotape to demonstrate the dynamics of bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M H; Frair, J

    1989-01-01

    Traditionally, bite mark photographs have been used to study statically a dynamic event. With the advent of the compact video camcorder, odontologists can now document bite marks on video tape and, in some instances, with the model of the suspect's dentition, may be able to record the dynamics of a bite on human flesh. A review of two cases and equipment used is discussed.

  7. Age-related changes in the propensity of dogs to bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messam, L L McV; Kass, P H; Chomel, B B; Hart, L A

    2013-08-01

    This retrospective cohort study was aimed at describing the effects of age at acquisition, age, and duration of ownership of dogs on the risk of (1) bites during play and (2) non-play bites to humans. Data were collected on 110 dogs that had bitten during play with a person, 161 dogs that had bitten outside of play and 951 non-biting dogs from veterinary clients in Kingston (KGN), Jamaica and San Francisco (SF), USA. Modified Poisson regression was employed to model the relationships of both types of bites to each variable separately. Effects of the variables on dog bite risk (1) during and (2) outside of play with the dog, differed from each other and by type of bite. Effects varied with the dog's age and age-related associations were strongest in dogs younger than 1 year old. Ages at acquisition of dogs at highest risk for bites during play were substantially lower than those at risk for non-play bites. Ages and durations of ownership of dogs at highest risk for bites during play were also lower than those of dogs at highest risk for non-play bites. The propensity of a dog to bite changes as it ages and relationships between dog bites occurring during and outside of play and the dog's age at acquisition, current age, and duration of ownership, differ from each other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pattern of First-Aid Measures Used by Snake-bite Patients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of first aid measures in the management of snake bite by patients in rural communities in Africa is a popular practice. Records of 103 snake bite patients admitted at Zamko Comprehensive Health Centre, were retrieved and reviewed. 84 (81.6%) of the 103 cases with snake bite used first aid measures. Common first ...

  9. [Biomechanical study on dento-alveolar arch forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Brînduşa; Burlui, V

    2009-01-01

    This study has two major objectives. The first one is to draw attention in an original device especially conceived and designed to measure bite force; the second purpose of the study is represented by proper measurements of individual bite force during bilateral clenching for two lots of patients using this device and comparing the outcomes to those of other similar studies, in order to prove its practical utility. 62 young (20-35 years of age) healthy patients were tested: 35 fully dentured subjects in control group and 27 subjects with various single unit treated edentation, in test group. The two potentiometers from the lateral side of the device are connected to a computer which would measure, register and interpret the outcomes during three different sessions of clenching for each patient. Measured values showed that the mean maximum bilateral bite force in patients with no edentation was, in all cases, higher than in patients with single unit treated edentation for all three sessions. Because the device allows simultaneous bilateral registration of the bite force, during the same session, it is obvious that it can measure also the asymmetry between left and right dental hemi-arches. Therefore, in control group, mean values found in left side were higher (369.36N - 399.75N) than right side (352.18N - 392.15N); an opposite situation was found in test group: higher values were found in right side (313.75N - 329.43N) comparing to left side (310.54N -321.53N). The device proved to be usefull not only for measuring bite force in one region of dental arches, but it is designed to simultaneous register parameters from various regions; the values obtained in this study are similar to those reported by others authors who used more sophisticated devices, so that this simple device proves its usefulness.

  10. Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a shape analysis computer program: Part 2; 'SCIP' and bite marks in skin and foodstuffs

    OpenAIRE

    Nambiar, P.; Bridges, T. E.; Brown, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the use of an interactive shape analysis computer program ('SCIP') and the derivation of a quantitative Similarity Index greatly facilitated the comparison of experimental flat wax bite marks with the dentition of various 'suspects' and the identification of the agent producing the bite. In this study, 'SCIP' was employed in an attempt to quantify the comparison, in the form of the Similarity Index (S.I.), between the 'offender's' teeth and the bite mar...

  11. A Case of Biting Humans by Nabis americoferus (Heteroptera: Nabidae), With Comments on Bites by Other Species of the Genus Nabis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndez, Eduardo I

    2016-01-01

    A case of biting humans by the common damsel bug Nabis americoferus Carayon, 1961 is reported for an adult male in Fargo, ND. The symptoms and evolution of the bite are described. A compilation of cases of other Nabis spp. biting humans in the United States is provided and discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Human Bites of the Face with Tissue Losses in Cosmopolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective series of thirty-six cases of human bites to the face with tissue losses requiring reconstruction during a five-year period, January 1999 to December 2003 is presented. The unmarried female in her third decade dominated both as victim and assailant in incidences related to love affairs and love gone sour.

  13. Amelogenesis Imperfecta with Anterior Open Bite: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Ruchi; Pathak, Anuradha; Goenka, Puneet

    2011-01-01

    This clinical report describes the treatment plan for a young patient affected by amelogenesis imperfecta with anterior open bite. The objectives of the treatment were to eliminate tooth sensitivity while enhancing esthetics and restoring masticatory function. Treatment included resin composite laminate veneers on maxillary anterior teeth and stainless steel crowns for posterior teeth.

  14. The ecology and biting activity of blackflies (Simuliidae) and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies on the ecology and biting activity of blackflies (Simuliidae), as well as an assessment of the prevalence status of Onchocerciasis diseases were conducted in a rural forest area of Ghana. It was observed that the blackfly vector Simulium damnosum s.l was the most abundant and widely distributed of the species ...

  15. April / May 2006. 102 Warm-Blooded Animal Bites

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the individual. But a large percentage of these felines may be wild or stray cats taken in for care. Other. Other domesticated or semi-domesticated animals that cause bites include pets such as ferrets, gerbils, hamsters or rabbits. The occasional wild animal brought into the home as a pet, such as the raccoon, squirrel, skunk.

  16. Etiology and pathogenesis of anterior open bite: A review | Wanjau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the etiology and pathogenesis of anterior open bite malocclusion. Data source: Review of literature was affected through Pubmed, Google scholar and Science direct. References identified from articles found from the primary search were also reviewed. Study selection: Published data on etiology and ...

  17. Knowledge and management of snake bite by general practitioners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge of general practitioners in the rural areas of the Free State and Northern Cape regarding snake bites and their treatment. Methods: Telephonic interviews using structured questionnaires were conducted with a random sample of 50 general practitioners from ...

  18. Extreme skeletal open bite correction with vertical elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Escalante, Marco Antonio; Aliaga-Del Castillo, Aron; Soldevilla, Luciano; Janson, Guilherme; Yatabe, Marilia; Zuazola, Ricardo Voss

    2017-11-01

    Severe skeletal open bites may be ideally treated with a combined surgical-orthodontic approach. Alternatively, compensations may be planned to camouflage the malocclusion with orthodontics alone. This case report describes the treatment of an 18-year-old man who presented with a severe open bite involving the anterior and posterior teeth up to the first molars, increased vertical dimension, bilateral Class III molar relationship, bilateral posterior crossbite, dental midline deviation, and absence of the maxillary right canine and the mandibular left first premolar. A treatment plan including the extraction of the mandibular right first premolar and based on uprighting and vertical control of the posterior teeth, combined with extrusion of the anterior teeth using multiloop edgewise archwire mechanics and elastics was chosen. After 6 months of alignment and 2 months of multiloop edgewise archwire mechanics, the open bite was significantly reduced. After 24 months of treatment, anterior teeth extrusion, posterior teeth intrusion, and counterclockwise mandibular rotation were accomplished. Satisfactory improvement of the overbite, overjet, sagittal malocclusion, and facial appearance were achieved. The mechanics used in this clinical case demonstrated good and stable results for open-bite correction at the 2-year posttreatment follow-up.

  19. Epidemiology of Snake Bites among Selected Communities in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snake is one of the major group of games feared by people in many localities because of their venoms, yet snakes are equally afraid of human beings. This balance of terror apart from affecting both man and snakes has also led to their deaths. Epidemiology of snake bites among selected communities in the enclave of ...

  20. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a snake bite victim: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy occurs in patients with severe emotional or physiologic stress. The prognosis is usually favorable, and the left ventricular wall motion dyskinesis normalizes within days to weeks. In this paper we report a case of snake bite complicated by takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We advise physicians to ...

  1. Venomous Snake Bite Injuries at Kitui District Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical findings and administration of polyvalent antivenin. This study sought to describe common presentation patterns and treatments offered for snake bites at Kitui District Hospital, and to characterize the causative venomous snakes. Patients and methods. This was a prospective case series carried out over a period of 8 ...

  2. Venomous Snake Bite Injuries at Kitui District Hospital | Kihiko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exists. Diagnostic tests for snake species identification are not available and management mainly relies on clinical findings and administration of polyvalent antivenin. This study sought to describe common presentation patterns and treatments offered for snake bites at Kitui District Hospital, and to characterize the causative ...

  3. Innovation in prediction planning for anterior open bite correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzian, Mohammed; Almukhtar, Anas; O'Neil, Michael; Benington, Philip; Al Anezi, Thamer; Ayoub, Ashraf

    2015-05-01

    This study applies recent advances in 3D virtual imaging for application in the prediction planning of dentofacial deformities. Stereo-photogrammetry has been used to create virtual and physical models, which are creatively combined in planning the surgical correction of anterior open bite. The application of these novel methods is demonstrated through the surgical correction of a case.

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite Splinters Treating sunburn Wound care Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ ...

  5. Bite frequency measured by head pitch movements in grazing experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W.; S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2010-01-01

    sensors placed on the head of the cows, bite frequency was registered manually by noting the rip off sound during a specified time bout. Sward registrations comprised grass length measurement by rising plate meter , grass quality by laboratory analysis of hand harvested grass simulating the cows grazing...

  6. Bite Block Vowel Production in Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacks, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored vowel production and adaptation to articulatory constraints in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) plus aphasia. Method: Five adults with acquired AOS plus aphasia and 5 healthy control participants produced the vowels [iota], [epsilon], and [ash] in four word-length conditions in unconstrained and bite block…

  7. Biting-density and microfilariae infection of Simulium damnosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations on the biting-density and microfilariae infection rate of S. damnosumsl population caught around the Mada River was conducted between May 2013 to April 2014. Captured flies were morphologically identified and dissected for parity and infectivity rate. A total of 308 adult female S. damnosum sl were caught, ...

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to ... bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other ...

  9. Malaria Prevalence and Indoor-Biting Mosquito Vector Abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studies malaria prevalence and the abundance of indoor-biting mosquito vectors in Ogbunike community, Oyi Local Government Area of. Anambra State, Nigeria between May and September 2010. Blood samples were collected from 208 healthy participants (94 males and 114 females) selected from the six ...

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs. ... t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid= ...

  11. Swine farm infestation with Culicoides species (biting midges) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collection of biting midges within a piggery farm using black-light suction traps revealed the presence of diverse species of Culicoides. Out of a total of one thousand four hundred and five (1,405) midges caught, one thousand three hundred and sixty-six (1,366) were identified as species in the genus Culicoides while the ...

  12. Dog bites and maxillofacial surgery: what can we do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, C J; Graham, A; Shepherd, K; Greenberg, D

    2015-07-01

    The number of injuries caused by dog bites is increasing in the United Kingdom. We review patients admitted with dog bites to a single maxillofacial department in a district general hospital over a 21-month period. Data include patients' characteristics, and the site and severity of injury. The relationship of the victim to the animal and its breed and classification were added where possible. In total, 65 patients, mean age 22 years (range 1-71, median 14) were included. There were 84 wounds, and their site and severity were recorded according to the Lackmann classification. Twelve different breeds of dog were responsible for the bites. An appreciable proportion of those injured were young children. Educational strategies should aim to reduce the incidence of all dog bites, particularly in young children, as their needs after initial treatment are complex. We propose specific strategies to reduce the number of these injuries. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Malaria Prevalence and Indoor-Biting Mosquito Vector Abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... selected from the six villages of the town. Thick and thin blood films were made, stained with Field's stains A and B and examined microscopically. Indoor-biting mosquito vectors were collected using Pyrethrum Knockdown. Collection method (PKC). Of the 208 participants, 121 (58.2%) were malaria ...

  14. Preliminary studies on the biting activity and transmission of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the biting activity and onchocerciasis transmission in Kashoya- Kitomi focus, Western Uganda. Design: Cross-sectional survey in randomly selected sites. Setting: Three districts in Western Uganda. Method: Crab trapping and examination for immature stages of Simulium neavei and full day human ...

  15. Stability of anterior open-bite treatment with occlusal adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Crepaldi, Marcus Vinicius; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Janson, Waldyr

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the long-term stability of anterior open-bite treatment with occlusal adjustment and the dentinal sensitivity caused by this procedure in the long term. The sample comprised 17 open-bite patients who experienced relapse of the negative vertical overbite after orthodontic treatment and were retreated with occlusal adjustment. The cephalometric changes were evaluated on lateral cephalograms obtained before and after the occlusal adjustment and in the long term (mean, 3.4 years after occlusal adjustment). Dentinal sensitivity was also evaluated before the occlusal adjustment, and 1.35 months, 4.61 months, and 3.4 years later. The cephalometric statuses between the 3 evaluations were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests. The percentages of clinically significant relapse were calculated. To compare dentinal sensitivity at the several stages, nonparametric Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were performed. Statistically significant relapse of anterior open bite occurred in 33.3% of the patients. Those who had the procedure before 21 years of age were most likely to experience relapse. Dentinal sensitivity remained within the normal range in the long term. Despite the statistically significant relapse of anterior open bite, clinically significant stability was found in 66.7% of the patients. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP Triggered by a Spider Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Makris

    2009-01-01

    Discussion: A spider bite may represent a possible causative factor of AGEP. A spider's venom contains sphingomyelinase that stimulates the release of IL8 and GM-CSF, which are involved in AGEP pathogenesis. Whether or not the con-current use of antibiotics has an effect in AGEP appearance when combined with a spider's venom, cannot be excluded.

  17. Neurological manifestations in speech after snake bite: A rare case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurological manifestations in speech after snake bite: A rare case. D Vir, D Gupta, M Modi, N Panda. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/pamj.v4i1.53597 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  18. Management of common animal bites in the emergency centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adjunct Professor and Head, Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, University of Pretoria and Steve Biko ... consequence of dog bites. .... excessively? Did the dog behave out of character? Was the dog immunised against rabies? Is the dog known or is it a stray or unknown dog? Is it available for.

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  20. [The Vulnerable Heel of Achilles: Intratendinous Abscess Following a Cat Bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschin, David; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Seifert, Julia

    2017-06-01

    An 83-year-old patient suffered a cat bite dorsally to the Achilles tendon. In the further course, he developed an isolated intratendinous abscess of the Achilles tendon, which was surgically revised twice and subsequently healed with antibiotic treatment. In Germany, about 40,000 bite injuries of different origins occur annually. Most of these injuries are cat or dog bites, while human bites are rare. Although the course is often complicated, there are no standard recommendations for treatment. An intratendinous abscess after animal bite injury has not been described in the literature as yet. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. A case: Acute myocardial infarction in a child due to spider bite

    OpenAIRE

    Laho, Edmond; Puca, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a case of a ten-years-old girl, who suffered myocardial ischemia following by "black widow" spider bite. A few minutes after the bite, her parents saw a small, black and shiny lesion in insect bite. The clinical signs began about 3-4 hours after the bite. The venom of the Latrodectus mactans "black widow" is toxic, resulting about 5-6 % fatality rate. The case of a black widow spider bite resulting in myocardial ischemia is very rare and has not been d...

  2. The management of dog bite injuries of genitalia in paediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Bertozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dog bite injuries are common in children and represent an important health-care problem. Most dog bite injuries involve the face or an extremity. Victims tend to seek medical care quickly. Dog bites to the external genitalia are rarely reported, but they potentially result in morbidity if improperly managed. Morbidity is also directly related to the severity of initial wound. Guidelines for the management of dog bites include irrigation, dιbridment, antibiotic therapy, consideration of tetanus and rabies immunisation and suture of wounds or surgical reconstruction. Literature review was conducted and focused to analyze the management of dog bite lesions involving external genitalia.

  3. Treatment and retention of relapsed anterior open-bite with low tongue posture and tongue-tie: A 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Su-Jung; Munkhshur, Janchivdorj; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Ngan, Peter; Kim, Seong-Hun

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the current report is to present 6-year long-term stability and 10-year follow-up data for an adult patient who was treated with a tongue elevator for relapsed anterior open-bite. The 19-year-old male patient presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing his food. Collectively, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed an anterior open-bite, low tongue posture, and tongue-tie. The patient opted for orthodontic treatment alone, without any surgical procedure. A lingual frenectomy was recommended to avoid the risk of relapse, but the patient declined because he was not experiencing tongue discomfort. Initial treatment of the anterior open-bite with molar intrusion and tongue exercises was successful, but relapse occurred during the retention period. A tongue elevator was used for retreatment, because the approach was minimally invasive and suited the patient's requirements regarding discomfort, cost, and time. The appliance changed the tongue posture and generated an altered tongue force, which ultimately resulted in intrusive dentoalveolar effects, and a subsequent counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. The results showed long-term stability and were maintained for six years through continual use of the tongue elevator. The results of this case indicated that a tongue elevator could be used not only as an alternative treatment for open-bite, but also as an active retainer.

  4. Perawatan Maloklusi Klas III Skeletal disertai Open Bite dengan Teknik Begg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ika Anggaraeni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Overjet negatif pada maloklusi klas III dapat terjadi karena penyimpangan hubungan incisivus atas dan bawah, adanya malrelasi antara maksila dan mandibula, atau kombinasi keduanya. Maloklusi klas III dapat disertai dengan crowding, deep bite, maupun open bite. Tujuan perawatan adalah untuk mengoreksi cross bite dan open bite, memperoleh overjet dan overbite normal serta hubungan oklusal yang stabil. Pasien laki-laki usia 15 tahun dengan maloklusi Angle klas III dan relasi skeletal klas III, mandibula protrusif, cross bite anterior (overjet -3 mm, open bite 12-22 terhadap 43-34, cross bite posterior bilateral, dan pergeseran garis tengah inter incisivus rahang bawah kekanan 0,7 mm. Perawatan ortodontik dilakukan dengan alat cekat teknik Begg, diawali dengan pencabutan gigi 34 dan 44 serta grinding gigi anterior rahang atas. Elastik intermaksiler klas III, elastik cross posterior, dan elastik vertikal digunakan untuk koreksi cross bite anterior dan posterior serta open bite. Kesimpulan dari hasil perawatan dengan teknik Begg, cross bite anterior dan posterior serta open bite terkoreksi (overjet 2 mm dan overbite 2 mm. Garis tengah inter incisivus rahang bawah dan rahang atas sejajar dengan garis tengah wajah. Maj Ked Gi; Desember 2013; 20(2: 192-198.

  5. Dog bite injuries among American Indian and Alaska Native children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Adam; Holman, Robert C; Callinan, Laura S; Hennessy, Thomas W; Cheek, James E; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2013-06-01

    To examine dog bites among American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) children visiting Indian Health Service and tribal health facilities. We retrospectively analyzed hospitalizations and outpatient visits with a diagnosis of dog bite between 2001 and 2008 in AI/AN children aged bite hospitalizations and outpatient visits were estimated by age group, sex, region, and number and location of open wounds using Indian Health Service data. Analyses of hospitalizations for the general US population agedbite hospitalization rate was higher among AI/AN children in Alaska (6.1/100,000 population) and the Southwest region (5.3/100,000) compared with the general US child population (3.1/100,000; 95% CI, 2.9-3.3/100,000). The average annual outpatient visit rate in AI/AN children was highest in the Alaska (596.4/100,000), Southwest (540.0/100,000), and Northern Plains West (537.6/100,000) regions. The hospitalization rate was highest in both AI/AN and US males agedOpen wounds diagnoses were most commonly seen on the head, neck, and face in hospitalized children (45.5% of open wounds in AI/AN children, 59.3% in US children; SE, 1.0%) and on the leg in AI/AN outpatients (35.6%). Dog bites represent a significant public health threat in AI/AN children in the Alaska, the Southwest, and Northern Plains West regions of the US. Enhanced animal control and education efforts should reduce dog bite injuries and associated problems with pets and stray dogs, such as emerging infectious diseases. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  6. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ashutosh Santoshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small lacerations on the distal-third of the forearm. Copious irrigation with normal saline was done and he was administered anti-tetanus and post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was commenced. Radiographs revealed fracture of radius and ulna in the mid-shaft region. He underwent emergency wound debridement, and the ulna was stabilised with an intra-medullary square nail. Seventy-two hours later, he underwent re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis. He had an uneventful recovery and at three-month follow-up, the fractures had healed radiographically in anatomic alignment. At two-year follow-up, he is doing well, is pain free and has a normal range of motion compared to the contralateral side. Conclusion: Horse bites behave as compound fractures however rabies prophylaxis will be needed and careful observation is needed. Early radical debridement, preliminary skeletal stabilisation, re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis to plate, and antibiotic prophylaxis were the key to the successful management of our patient. Keywords: Horse; animal bite; forearm; open fracture

  7. Role of bite mark characteristics and localizations in finding an assailant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsin, Huseyin; Karadayi, Beytullah; Cagdir, Sadi A; Ozaslan, Abdi

    2014-09-01

    The location, size, and number of bite marks can be used as a beneficial indicator of the crime type and feasible group of suspects. This study aims to present information about the bite mark locations, the bite mark characteristics, and the perpetrator's profile based on three cases which were carried out by the same biter. The attack bites, which observed in all of the three cases, were characterized by serious wounds and tissue loss. Analysis of bite mark characteristics and bite mark localizations of these three cases by the relevant experts provided helpful information for the police units which searched for the assailant. But, in order to conduct criminal profiling from bite marks objectively, the number of case series is advised to be expanded.

  8. What is the function of nail biting: an analog assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tim Ivor; Rose, Rebecca; Chisholm, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    To compare the frequency of nail biting in 4 settings (interventions) designed to elicit the functions of nail biting and to compare the results with a self-report questionnaire about the functions of nail biting. Randomised allocation of participants to order of conditions. University Psychology Department. Forty undergraduates who reported biting their nails. Left alone (boredom), solving maths problems (frustration), reprimanded for nail biting (contingent attention), continuous conversation (noncontingent attention). Number of times the undergraduates bit their nails. Nail biting occurred most often in two conditions, boredom and frustration. Nail biting in young adults occurs as a result of boredom or working on difficult problems, which may reflect a particular emotional state. It occurs least often when people are engaged in social interaction or when they are reprimanded for the behavior.

  9. Deep bite: a case report with chewing pattern and electromyographic activity before and after therapy with function generating bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piancino, M G; Vallelonga, T; Debernardi, C; Bracco, P

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this case report is the concurrent evaluation of the masticatory pattern and the electromyographic activity, recorded during mastication, before and after therapy of deep bite malocclusion. An 11-year-old boy, affected by deep bite (overbite = 5 mm) was treated by the use of a functional appliance (Function Generating Bite for Deep bite correction = FGB-D). Mandibular movements during mastication of a soft and a hard bolus were recorded both before and 10 months after correction of the malocclusion. Electromyographic activity (EMG) of the masseters and anterior temporalis muscles were recorded at the same time. Chewing cycles and EMG activity were recorded with the K7 I kinesiograph (Myotronics Inc., Seattle, WA-USA). Before therapy a higher EMG activity was recorded for both masseters and anterior temporalis muscles in comparison with the results after therapy. The results showed a great decrease of the EMG activity of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. Moreover, the height and width of the chewing cycles in the frontal plane increased after therapy. The functional improvement showed after therapy with FGB-D showed that the functional appliance is able to correct the dental malocclusion and the masticatory function. The orthodontic treatment should consider not only the repositioning of teeth within the dental arches but also the effects on function, especially when the malocclusion involves the muscular and skeletal structures.

  10. Jaw-muscle force and excursion scale with negative allometry in platyrrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B; Yuan, Tian; Ross, Callum F; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2015-07-14

    Platyrrhines span two orders of magnitude in body size and are characterized by diverse feeding behaviors and diets. While size plays an important role in primate feeding behavior and masticatory apparatus morphology, we know little about size-correlated changes in the force-generating (physiologic cross-sectional area; PCSA) and excursion/stretch (fiber length; L f ) capabilities of the jaw-closing muscles in platyrrhines. We examined scaling relationships of the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles in 21 platyrrhine species. Previous work suggests that larger platyrrhines are at a mechanical disadvantage for generating bite forces compared with smaller platyrrhines. We hypothesize that scaling of jaw-muscle fiber architecture counters this size-correlated decrease in mechanical advantage. Thus, we predicted that jaw-muscle PCSAs and muscle weights scale with positive allometry while L f s scale with negative allometry, relative to load-arm estimates for incisor/molar biting and chewing. Jaw-muscle PCSAs and L f s appear to scale with negative allometry relative to load-arm estimates and body size. Negative allometry of jaw-muscle weights partially accounts for the size-correlated decreases in PCSA and L f . Estimates of bite force also scale with negative allometry. Large-bodied platyrrhines (e.g., Alouatta) are at a relative disadvantage for generating jaw-muscle and bite force as well as jaw-muscle stretch, compared with smaller species (e.g., Callithrix). The net effect is that larger platyrrhines likely produce relatively smaller maximal bite forces compared with smaller taxa. Relative to small- and intermediate-sized platyrrhines, large-bodied platyrrhines feed on some of the least mechanically challenging foods, consistent with the size-correlated decrease in relative muscle and bite forces across the clade. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Impact of first aid training in management of snake bite victims in Madi valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, D P; Thapa, C L; Hamal, P K

    2010-04-01

    Tropical lowland on Nepal is at full of risk to snake bite. The snake bite mortality is due to lack of awareness about proper management of victims. The study aims to assess the change in the pattern of management of snake bite victims after first aid training. A retrospective study was done from October 2007 to October 2008 among 43 snake bite victims in rural Madi valley comprising of 4 village development committees where first aid training was conducted one year before. Only 26% of the snake bite victims approached traditional healer before arriving at the heath facility. The case fatality rate dropped to 22% after venomous snake bite. Pressure Immobilization bandaging and local compression pad immobilization technique was used by 56% who went to the health facility. Mean duration for reaching health facility was 61.51±33.55 minutes. Common places of bite were field 16 (37.2%), Indoor 6 (14%), while sleeping 6 (14%), and yard 6 (14%). Lower extremity bites were 32 (74.4%), upper extremity 8 (18.6%) and head 3 (7%). Bicycle was the commonest mode of transport 22 (51%) followed by ambulance 9(27.9%) and Motorcycle 6 (11%). First aid training changes the attitude of the people in management of snake bite victims and is one of the effective ways in decreasing mortality. Nationwide campaigning should be done especially at snake bite prone area about the proper first aid technique to improve the awareness level of the general population.

  12. A new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients: A technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woong; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Symkhampha, Khanthaly [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Health Sciences, Vientiane (Lao People' s Democratic Republic)

    2015-06-15

    Panoramic radiographs taken using conventional chin-support devices have often presented problems with positioning accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this report was to propose a new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients that better addresses these two issues. A new panoramic radiography bite block similar to the bite block for dentulous patients was developed to enable proper positioning stability for edentulous patients. The new bite block was designed and implemented in light of previous studies. The height of the new bite block was 18 mm and to compensate for the horizontal edentulous space, its horizontal width was 7 mm. The panoramic radiographs using the new bite block were compared with those using the conventional chin-support device. Panoramic radiographs taken with the new bite block showed better stability and bilateral symmetry than those taken with the conventional chin-support device. Patients also showed less movement and more stable positioning during panoramic radiography with the new bite block. Conventional errors in panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients could be caused by unreliability of the chin-support device. The newly proposed bite block for panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients showed better reliability. Further study is required to evaluate the image quality and reproducibility of images with the new bite block.

  13. A new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients: A technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Woong; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2015-06-01

    Panoramic radiographs taken using conventional chin-support devices have often presented problems with positioning accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this report was to propose a new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients that better addresses these two issues. A new panoramic radiography bite block similar to the bite block for dentulous patients was developed to enable proper positioning stability for edentulous patients. The new bite block was designed and implemented in light of previous studies. The height of the new bite block was 18 mm and to compensate for the horizontal edentulous space, its horizontal width was 7 mm. The panoramic radiographs using the new bite block were compared with those using the conventional chin-support device. Panoramic radiographs taken with the new bite block showed better stability and bilateral symmetry than those taken with the conventional chin-support device. Patients also showed less movement and more stable positioning during panoramic radiography with the new bite block. Conventional errors in panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients could be caused by unreliability of the chin-support device. The newly proposed bite block for panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients showed better reliability. Further study is required to evaluate the image quality and reproducibility of images with the new bite block.

  14. Describing the relationship between cat bites and human depression using data from an electronic health record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Hanauer

    Full Text Available Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation.

  15. Biting behaviour of African malaria vectors: 1. where do the main vector species bite on the human body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braack, Leo; Hunt, Richard; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Gericke, Anton; Munhenga, Givemore; Haddow, Andrew D; Becker, Piet; Okia, Michael; Kimera, Isaac; Coetzee, Maureen

    2015-02-04

    Malaria control in Africa relies heavily on indoor vector management, primarily indoor residual spraying and insecticide treated bed nets. Little is known about outdoor biting behaviour or even the dynamics of indoor biting and infection risk of sleeping household occupants. In this paper we explore the preferred biting sites on the human body and some of the ramifications regarding infection risk and exposure management. We undertook whole-night human landing catches of Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa and Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus in Uganda, for seated persons wearing short sleeve shirts, short pants, and bare legs, ankles and feet. Catches were kept separate for different body regions and capture sessions. All An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus group individuals were identified to species level by PCR. Three of the main vectors of malaria in Africa (An. arabiensis, An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus) all have a preference for feeding close to ground level, which is manifested as a strong propensity (77.3% - 100%) for biting on lower leg, ankles and feet of people seated either indoors or outdoors, but somewhat randomly along the lower edge of the body in contact with the surface when lying down. If the lower extremities of the legs (below mid-calf level) of seated people are protected and therefore exclude access to this body region, vector mosquitoes do not move higher up the body to feed at alternate body sites, instead resulting in a high (58.5% - 68.8%) reduction in biting intensity by these three species. Protecting the lower limbs of people outdoors at night can achieve a major reduction in biting intensity by malaria vector mosquitoes. Persons sleeping at floor level bear a disproportionate risk of being bitten at night because this is the preferred height for feeding by the primary vector species. Therefore it is critical to protect children sleeping at floor level (bednets; repellent-impregnated blankets or sheets, etc

  16. Orthodontic and orthopaedic treatment for anterior open bite in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentini-Oliveira, Débora A; Carvalho, Fernando R; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Ye, Qingsong; Prado, Lucila B F; Prado, Gilmar F; Hu, Rongdang

    2014-09-24

    Anterior open bite occurs when there is a lack of vertical overlap of the upper and lower incisors. The aetiology is multifactorial including: oral habits, unfavourable growth patterns, enlarged lymphatic tissue with mouth breathing. Several treatments have been proposed to correct this malocclusion, but interventions are not supported by strong scientific evidence. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate orthodontic and orthopaedic treatments to correct anterior open bite in children. The following databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 14 February 2014); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)(The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 14 February 2014); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 14 February 2014); LILACS via BIREME Virtual Health Library (1982 to 14 February 2014); BBO via BIREME Virtual Health Library (1980 to 14 February 2014); and SciELO (1997 to 14 February 2014). We searched for ongoing trials via ClinicalTrials.gov (to 14 February 2014). Chinese journals were handsearched and the bibliographies of papers were retrieved. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of orthodontic or orthopaedic treatments or both to correct anterior open bite in children. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of all reports identified. Risk ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for dichotomous data. The continuous data were expressed as described by the author. Three randomised controlled trials were included comparing: effects of Frankel's function regulator-4 (FR-4) with lip-seal training versus no treatment; repelling-magnet splints versus bite-blocks; and palatal crib associated with high-pull chincup versus no treatment.The study comparing repelling-magnet splints versus bite-blocks could not be analysed because the authors interrupted the treatment earlier than planned due to side effects in four of ten patients

  17. Fixed functional therapy with an anterior bite plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaboulian, Jubin; Ghassemi, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case report describes the treatment of Class II tendency in a patient using fixed functional appliance therapy. The appliance used was the fixed flat bite plane, consisting of an incisal acrylic located palatal to the maxillary anteriors that connected to maxillary first molar bands via heavy-gauge wires. The case reviewed involves a white male, age twelve, four months at the beginning of treatment. The patient exhibited a Class II end on molar relationship skeletal pattern with an ANB of 3 degrees and corresponding incisal overjet of 2mm, with 90% overbite. At the conclusion of treatment, fixed functional bite plane therapy resulted in improved overbite, molar canine class I relationship. The results of this case suggest use of the fixed appliance can be successful in improving function, esthetics and increased stability of post treatment both dentally and skeletally in the Class II tendency patient with severe overbite with minimal patient compliance.

  18. Imaging spectrum of bites, stings, and their complications: pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Phillip M; Bancroft, Laura W; Peterson, Jeffrey J; Roberts, Catherine C; Liu, Patrick T; Zaleski, Christopher G

    2009-09-01

    Soft-tissue injuries from animal bites and insect stings are frequent causes of emergency department visits. Although many cases follow a short and benign clinical course, life-threatening complications can occur. Imaging can play an important role in guiding clinical care by revealing the scope of the injury and associated complications. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the epidemiology of animal-related injuries, with a focus on imaging manifestations of soft-tissue injury using multiple techniques in a pictorial review format. This article reviews the imaging manifestations of soft-tissue injuries caused by animal bites and insect stings. After completing this article, the reader should have an improved ability to recognize complications of soft-tissue injuries and the role of advanced imaging in select cases.

  19. Biting versus chewing: eating style and social aggression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Zampollo, Francesca; Camps, Guido; Shimizu, Mitsuru

    2014-04-01

    Does biting food lead to aggressive behavior? An experimental study is reported where children ages 6-10 (n = 12) were served chicken either on-the-bone or pre-cut in bite-size pieces. When children ate on-the-bone chicken, they exhibited more aggressive behavior than pre-cut, boneless chicken. For example, children were more likely to violate the counselor's instructions by leaving the eating area after eating on-the-bone chicken compared to kids who ate pre-cut chicken. These findings suggest a connection between how children eat and how they behave. This could have implications for developmental psychologists as well as for educators and parents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The benefit of differential moment concept in managing posterior anchorage and avoiding bite deepening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto Wijaya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anchorage is one of the major concerns in orthodontic space closure. Various methods have been proposed to enhance posterior anchorage in space closure such as headgear, Nance holding appliance, and micro implant as temporary anchorage devices. However, several issues such as patient's compliance, appliance effectiveness, and cost of the device become many clinicians concern. The differential moment concept in segmented arch is a technique that requires no patient compliance but can effectively manage posterior anchorage and avoid bite deepening by careful application of forces and moments. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to show the use of differential moment concept in segmented arch technique to manage posterior anchorage and to avoid bite deepening. Case: A 21 years old female patient with protrusive teeth as her chief complaint was treated using fixed orthodontic appliance. Case management: The treatment included four first bicuspid extraction and space closure utilizing differential moment concept in segmented arch. Conclusion: It can be concluded that application of differential moment concept in segmented arch technique is a non invasive, compliance independent, effective, and cost efficient method to manage posterior anchorage and to avoid bite deepening.latar belakang: Penjangkaran merupakan salah satu aspek yang sering kali menjadi masalah dalam penutupan ruang pada perawatan ortodonti. Berbagai metode disarankan untuk memperkuat penjangkaran posterior dalam penutupan ruang seperti headgear, piranti penahan Nance, dan implan mikro sebagai alat penjangkar sementara. Namun demikian, beberapa hal seperti kerjasama pasien, efektivitas piranti, dan biaya dari alat-alat tersebut sering menjadi perhatian/pertimbangan bagi klinisi. Konsep momen diferensial pada segmented arch adalah suatu cara yang efektif untuk memperkuat penjangkaran dan menghindari pendalaman gigitan tanpa memerlukan kerjasama pasien. tujuan

  1. Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a shape analysis computer program: Part 2; "SCIP" and bite marks in skin and foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, P; Bridges, T E; Brown, K A

    1995-12-01

    In a previous paper 1, we have shown that the use of an interactive shape analysis computer program ("SCIP") and the derivation of a quantitative Similarity Index 1 greatly facilitated the comparison of experimental flat wax bite marks with the dentition of various 'suspects' and the identification of the agent producing the bite. In this study, "SCIP" was employed in an attempt to quantify the comparison, in the form of the Similarity Index (S.I.), between the "offender's" teeth and the bite marks produced on foodstuffs and on human skin, under experimental conditions. The use of "SCIP" and the S.I. is recommended as a routine means of eliminating suspects in bite mark cases. If a reasonable number of reference points have been registered in the bitten material and particularly if the perpetrator has any unusual features in the anterior dentition, the matching of the bite mark with the actual offender is a possibility with this method.

  2. SNAKE BITE WITH TOXIC DEMYELINATION – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Snakebite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in India. India has the highest number of deaths due to snake bite1 Neurotoxicity due to snakebite is well-known with varied presentation.2 Common cases of snakebites are of saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus, Russell’s viper (a viperidae, krait (Bungarus caeruleus, common cobra (Naja naja king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah.3

  3. Latrodectism—Effects of the Black Widow Spider Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Timms, Patrick K.; Gibbons, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    Latrodectism—envenomation by the black widow spider, Latrodectus mactans—has been reported in virtually every state. The spider is particularly prevalent in the Southwest, Southeast and California, and symptoms from its bite are painful and may be confusing to clinicians. Prompt improvement can be expected in most cases with administration of calcium and muscle relaxant, but some patients may require treatment with antivenin. No deaths occurred in our series of 11 patients, although one case ...

  4. Human bite wounds: a swiss emergency department experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Malek; Hatzigianni, Panagiota; Fux, Christoph; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2012-04-01

     Human bites (HB) are the third most common bite wound diagnosed in emergency departments, after dog and cat bites. Management of HB can be challenging, given the high risk of infection associated with multiorganism-rich oral flora. Recognition and early aggressive treatment are essential steps in preventing infections and other associated complications. A retrospective, 10-year electronic chart review was performed, which identified 104 HB. Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome were noted for each case. Most of the patients were male, with a male:female ratio of 4:1. A majority of patients (n = 53, 51%) presented with finger and hand injuries. Only 13.8% were bitten on the head or neck, and 25% on the upper limbs. The remainder (35.2%) of patients sustained injuries to other body parts. Twelve operations were necessary and performed by plastic and hand surgeons. More than half of the patients (60.5%) received antibiotic therapy, and 84.6% of the patients had their tetanus prophylaxis administered or received a booster by the time of treatment. Only 40.4% of patients had a post-bite serology test to rule out bloodborne viral infections, none of whom tested positive. The viral status of the biter was known in two cases. The goals of HB management are to minimize infection risk and its complications, and to prevent the transmission of systemic infections, such as hepatitis B/C and HIV. Accurate documentation and a management algorithm should be instituted in emergency departments in order to achieve these goals. .

  5. Pott′s puffy tumor following an insect bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pott′s puffy tumor, a feature of osteomyelitis of the frontal bone, is a rare entity, especially in adults. Sir Percival Pott originally described this condition as a complication of trauma to the frontal bone. This is also a recognized complication of fronto-ethmoidal sinusitis. We present a rare case of Pott′s puffy tumor caused by an insect bite presenting initially as a preseptal cellulitis and explore its pathogenesis and management.

  6. Stability of deep-bite correction: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Greg J.; Bates, Steven B.; Ehlert, Ambre A.; Whiting, Dean P.; Chen, Stephanie S.-H.; Bollen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Deep bite occurs in about 15% to 20% of the US population. Currently, it is unknown which types of correction are most efficient or stable. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate factors related to stability of deep-bite correction. Materials and Methods An electronic search of 4 databases was performed from January 1, 1966 to June 27, 2012. Studies were considered for inclusion if they reported on deep bite samples that underwent orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. Records were required at the initial, posttreatment, and 1-year posttreatment times. Hand searching of reference lists of the included studies was performed. Data were abstracted using custom forms, and risk of bias was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were case series, with considerable potential for bias. The significant heterogeneity of the studies precluded meta-analyses, and only descriptive statistics and stratified comparisons were reported. On average, patients underwent significant overbite improvement during treatment, and most of the correction was maintained long-term. Across all studies, the mean initial overbite, posttreatment overbite, and long-term overbite were 5.3, 2.6, and 3.4 mm, respectively. Initial severity appeared to be related to long-term stability. However, this relationship was difficult to isolate from other factors. The length of follow-up did not appear to be related to the amount of relapse. Conclusions Although the quality of the current evidence is not high, patients with deep-bite malocclusion appear to undergo relatively successful treatment, and most of the correction appears to be stable. PMID:23630651

  7. Stability of deep-bite correction: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Greg J; Bates, Steven B; Ehlert, Ambre A; Whiting, Dean P; Chen, Stephanie S-H; Bollen, Anne-Marie

    2012-09-01

    Deep bite occurs in about 15% to 20% of the US population. Currently, it is unknown which types of correction are most efficient or stable. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate factors related to stability of deep-bite correction. An electronic search of 4 databases was performed from January 1, 1966 to June 27, 2012. Studies were considered for inclusion if they reported on deep bite samples that underwent orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. Records were required at the initial, posttreatment, and 1-year posttreatment times. Hand searching of reference lists of the included studies was performed. Data were abstracted using custom forms, and risk of bias was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were case series, with considerable potential for bias. The significant heterogeneity of the studies precluded meta-analyses, and only descriptive statistics and stratified comparisons were reported. On average, patients underwent significant overbite improvement during treatment, and most of the correction was maintained long-term. Across all studies, the mean initial overbite, posttreatment overbite, and long-term overbite were 5.3, 2.6, and 3.4 mm, respectively. Initial severity appeared to be related to long-term stability. However, this relationship was difficult to isolate from other factors. The length of follow-up did not appear to be related to the amount of relapse. Although the quality of the current evidence is not high, patients with deep-bite malocclusion appear to undergo relatively successful treatment, and most of the correction appears to be stable.

  8. Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seneviratne U

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell′s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

  9. An examination of the psychological aspects of bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R A

    1984-03-01

    The intent of this paper is to present some psychological threads which appear to be operative for the perpetrator of bite marks. In the catalogue of multiple motivations, there appears to be a current theme of power, control, potency, and the attempt to have a psychological symbolization of the perpetrator's omniscient capacity for absorbing life essences. In an examination of these highly complex needs, the modern perpetrator appears to act out consistently with cultural biases coupled with immediate psychological needs which have pressed for expression. Due to a pattern of psychologically expressed ritualism, the perpetrator will often inadvertently leave important psychological clues at the crime scene. The attack style, mode of death, characteristics of the victim, etc.--these components reveal the information on the type of psychological needs that the perpetrator is trying to satisfy. In the cases of bite marks associated with violent crime, it becomes crucial to an "investigator" what type of personality characteristics are welded together to form this kind of need complex. After reviewing cases reported in the literature and after conducting psychological interviews with perpetrators, three major groups of perpetrators seem to be apparent. The first group is motivated out of an anger track, the second group is motivated out of sadistic biting, and the third is out of the more traditional "cannibal complex" motif.

  10. [Occlusal plane orientation and postoperative anterior open bite relapse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivi, P; Cheynet, F; Chossegros, C; Blanc, J-L

    2009-11-01

    Most published data on relapse in open bite maxillo-mandibular deformities give raw results but do not suggest any specific therapy. Indeed, their authors compare the various osteotomy techniques but without identifying risk factors for relapse (dysfunctional or architectural). We studied the predictive value of occlusal plane tilting, in the long-term relapse of open bite maxillo-mandibular deformity. Fifty patients were included between 1996 and 2007. For each patient, Delaire cephalometric analysis was performed on preoperative, immediate and late postoperative teleradiographs. Immediate real postoperative occlusal plane tilting was analyzed and compared with "ideal" theoretical occlusal plane tilting (calculated with Delaires' analysis). The patients were classified in two groups: one with slight discrepancy between these two planes (+/-3.75 degrees) and one with large discrepancies between these two planes (greater than 3.75 degrees or lesser than 3.75 degrees). Postoperative relapse was seven times more frequent when the postoperative plane tilting was superior to +/-3.75 degrees in reference to the ideal plane. Postoperative occlusal plane tilting is a predictive factor of postoperative open bite relapse.

  11. How do biting disease vectors behaviourally respond to host availability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakob, Laith

    2016-08-25

    Ecological theory predicts a diverse range of functional responses of species to resource availability; but in the context of human blood consumption by disease vectors, a simplistic, linear response is ubiquitously assumed. A simple and flexible model formulation is presented that extends the Holling's Types to account for a wider range of qualitatively distinct behaviours, and used to examine the impact of different vector responses to the relative availability of multiple blood-host species. Epidemiological models of falciparum malaria, Chagas disease and Lyme disease demonstrate that the standard, often implicit, assumption of a linear functional response can lead to spurious under- or over-estimates in disease transmission potential, across a full range of pathogen life-cycles. It is shown how the functional response in vector biting can augment disease intervention outcomes. Interactions between vector biting behaviour and uneven pathogen transmission probabilities between alternative hosts, as is the case for Chagas disease, can render infection more resilient to control. Both the novel response formula and the nested vector-borne disease structure offer a flexible framework that can be applied to other vector-borne diseases in assessing the role of this newly identified aspect of biting behavioural ecology.

  12. Orthodontic treatment of anterior open bite: a review article--is surgery always necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Isabelle; Figel, Philipp; Winchester, Lindsay

    2014-09-01

    Anterior open bite cases are very difficult to treat satisfactorily because of their multifactorial aetiology and their very high relapse rate. Dependent on the origin of the anterior open bite malocclusion and the patient's age, there are several treatment possibilities ranging from deterrent appliances, high-pull headgear, fixed appliances with and without extractions to orthognathic surgery, and skeletal anchorage with miniplates or miniscrews. The gold standard treatment of skeletal anterior open bite cases is the combined approach of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and orthognathic surgery. In recent years, temporary anchorage devices (TAD) have been developed to correct anterior open bites orthodontically. With the introduction of TAD as an effective treatment modality, orthognathic surgery may be avoidable in selected anterior open bite cases. This is a relatively new technique and to date there remains a lack of evidence of long-term stability of anterior open bite closure with TAD.

  13. Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture in preorthodontic patients with anterior open bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Phong; Sarauw, Martin Toft; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture were examined and related to craniofacial morphology in preorthodontic children and adolescents with anterior open bite. METHODS: One hundred eleven patients (ages, 6-18 years) with an anterior open bite of more than 0 mm were...... posture were made on profile radiographs. RESULTS: Deviations in the cervical vertebral column morphology occurred in 23.7% of the subjects in the skeletal open-bite group and in 19.2% in the dentoalveolar open-bite group, but the difference was not significant. Head posture was significantly more...... extended in the skeletal open-bite group compared with the dentoalveolar open-bite group (craniovertical angle [Mx/VER], P posture was associated with craniofacial morphology: extended posture was associated with a large cranial base angle...

  14. Risk of Lyme disease development after a tick bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite numerous research of Lyme disease (LD, there are still many concerns about environmental of infectious agent of LD, as well as its prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this work was to determine the risk of LD in relation to the way of removing ticks and duration of tick attachment. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2007 a prospective study was conducted including persons with tick bite referred to the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, and followed for the occurrence of early Lyme disease up to six months after a tick bite. Epidemiological questionnaire was used to collect relevant information about the place and time of tick bites, the way of a removing tick, duration of tick attachment, remnants of a tick left in the skin (parts of the mouth device and the signs of clinical manifestations of LD. Duration of tick attachment was determined on the basis of size of engorged tick and epidemiological data. Removed ticks were determined by the key of Pomerancev. Professional removing of attached tick was considered to be removing of tick with mechanical means by healthcare personnel. Fisher's exact test, Chi squares test and calculation of the relative risk (RR were used for data analysis. Results. Of 3 126 patients with tick bite, clinical manifestations of LD were demonstrated in 19 (0.61%. In the group of subjects (n = 829 in which a tick was not removed professionally there were 17 (2.05% cases with LD, while in the group of respondents (n=2 297 in who a tick was removed professionally there were 2 (0.09% cases with LD after tick bite (RR, 23.55; p < 0.0001. The disease was most frequent in the group of respondents with incompletely and unprofessionally removed ticks (2.46%. In the groups of patients with unprofessionally but completely removed ticks LD occurred in 0.89%, while in the group of subjects with a tick removed by an expert, but incompletely in 0.78% cases. The disease occurred

  15. Are BiTEs the "missing link" in cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadevara, Carter M; Gedeon, Patrick C; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Verla, Terence; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Choi, Bryan D; Fecci, Peter E; Sampson, John H

    2015-06-01

    Conventional treatment for cancer routinely includes surgical resection and some combination of chemotherapy and radiation. These approaches are frequently accompanied by unintended and highly toxic collateral damage to healthy tissues, which are offset by only marginal prognostic improvements in patients with advanced cancers. This unfortunate balance has driven the development of novel therapies that aim to target tumors both safely and efficiently. Over the past decade, mounting evidence has supported the therapeutic utility of T-cell-centered cancer immunotherapy, which, in its various iterations, has been shown capable of eliciting highly precise and robust antitumor responses both in animal models and human trials. The identification of tumor-specific targets has further fueled a growing interest in T-cell therapies given their potential to circumvent the non-specific nature of traditional treatments. Of the several strategies geared toward achieving T-cell recognition of tumor, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) represent a novel class of biologics that have garnered enthusiasm in recent years due to their versatility, specificity, safety, cost, and ease of production. Bispecific T-cell Engagers (BiTEs) are a subclass of bsAbs that are specific for CD3 on one arm and a tumor antigen on the second. As such, BiTEs function by recruiting and activating polyclonal populations of T-cells at tumor sites, and do so without the need for co-stimulation or conventional MHC recognition. Blinatumomab, a well-characterized BiTE, has emerged as a promising recombinant bscCD19×CD3 construct that has demonstrated remarkable antitumor activity in patients with B-cell malignancies. This clinical success has resulted in the rapid extension of BiTE technology against a greater repertoire of tumor antigens and the recent US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) accelerated approval of blinatumomab for the treatment of a rare form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this review

  16. Cephalometric evaluation of adult anterior open bite non-extraction treatment with Invisalign

    OpenAIRE

    Moshiri, Shuka; Araújo, Eustáquio A.; McCray, Julie F.; Thiesen, Guilherme; Kim, Ki Beom

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by means of cephalometric appraisal, the vertical effects of non-extraction treatment of adult anterior open bite with clear aligners (Invisalign system, Align Technology, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 30 adult patients with anterior open bite treated using Invisalign (22 females, 8 males; mean age at start of treatment: 28 years and 10 months; mean anterior open bite at start of treatment: 1.8 mm) were...

  17. Bite marks in forensic dentistry: a review of legal, scientific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, B R

    1995-02-01

    Bite marks are an important and sometimes controversial aspect of forensic odontology. The discipline has recently received considerable attention in the media and in scientific realms. Although there are many cases in which bite mark evidence has been critical to the conviction or exoneration of criminal defendants, there is continuing dispute over its interpretation and analysis. This article explores the legal and scientific basis of bite mark evidence.

  18. Early orthodontic treatment of skeletal open-bite malocclusion with the open-bite bionator: a cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraia, Efisio; Marinelli, Andrea; Baroni, Giulia; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2007-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the open-bite bionator in growing subjects with increased vertical dimensions. The records of 20 subjects with high-angle skeletal relationships (MPA > or =25 degrees) were examined. Cephalometric measurements were compared with those obtained from 23 sets of records of an untreated group matched according to age, sex, vertical skeletal relationships, and time intervals between records. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed before the start of treatment (mean age; 8.3 years) and after therapy and retention, with a mean period of observation of 2.5 years. The treated group had a significantly smaller palatal plane-mandibular plane angle (-1.9 degrees) and a greater overbite (+1.5 mm) associated with a significantly smaller overjet when compared with the control group. Based on the analysis of this sample, early treatment of skeletal open bite with the open-bite bionator appears to produce a modest effect that mainly consists of significant improvement in intermaxillary divergence. No favorable effects on the extrusion of posterior teeth were found.

  19. Clinical categories of exaggerated skin reactions to mosquito bites and their pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Kazuki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anatomical distribution of human bite marks in a series of 67 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G L; Noguchi, T T

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the anatomical distribution of human bite marks, as well as their distribution by age of victim and type of crime involved. Bite marks in this study occurred primarily in sex-related crimes, child abuse cases, and cases involving other types of physical altercations. Bite marks were found on virtually all areas of the body, with more than one bite mark on 40% of the victims. Female victims were most commonly bitten on the breasts, arms, and legs, while male victims were most commonly bitten on the arms and shoulders.

  1. Are they dermatological lesions, bottle top burns or bite mark injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeratna, Jayanie B

    2014-07-01

    Bite marks can be considered as a patterned injury where identification of the causative tool will lead to the identification of the perpetrator. When patterned injuries resembling bite marks are seen on the victim or an assailant of a potential crime, all efforts must be made to carry out an immediate and proper investigation. The classical human bite mark pattern will appear as an oval or circular injury. However there are several dermatological lesions which can be misinterpreted or confused with bite marks. Similarly scars left as a result of contact with hot objects can sometimes bear a resemblance to bite marks. To the untrained eye, identification of bite mark injuries is not an easy task. Since bite marks are common in cases of child abuse and neglect, it is recommended that dental surgeons with forensic background become members of the child abuse and neglect management teams. During investigation of bite marks in alleged cases of child abuse and neglect, it is imperative to compare the injury with dentition of all the persons who have direct access to the child including siblings and playmates. Information revealed through the forensic analysis of bite marks not only helps in the criminal investigation but also in the clinical management of the persons concern.

  2. Integrated magnetic and elastic force systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourauel, Christoph; Köklü, Saduman O; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2002-08-01

    Magnetic force increases as the distance (d) of the force- generating elements (F approximately 1/d(2)) decreases, whereas elastic force decreases as the distance decreases (F approximately kd). These opposing characteristics suggest that combining both force systems will establish an integrated system with a long-range working ability. The objective of this study was to determine the vertical closure force (F(X)) and the transverse axis moment (M(Y)) of an integrated force system, ie, attracting magnets with elastics (vertical or Classes II and III). F(X) and M(Y) were examined on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system. It was found that the integrated force system had a positive closure force (+F(X)) that never declined to 0 and a long working range. Three regions characterized the force-deflection curve of F(X): the magnetic region (0-3 mm, for magnets with 3/16-in medium elastics), in which the decline in magnetic force was larger than the increase in elastic force (6.3-2.5 N); the constant region (3-7 mm), in which the decline in magnetic force equaled the increase in elastic force (2.5-2.9 N); and the elastic region (7-10 mm), in which there was only an increase in elastic force (2.9-3.5 N). The transverse axis moment (+M(Y)), which tends to close the bite, developed especially in magnets with a single vertical elastic. Clinically, inactivation of vertical elastics by closing the mouth can be overruled by the integrated force system because it exerts adequate force level at both short and long distances.

  3. Early treatment of anterior open bite: Comparison of the vertical and horizontal morphological changes induced by magnetic bite-blocks and adjusted rapid molar intruders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albogha, Mhd Hassan; Takahashi, Ichiro; Sawan, Mhd Naser

    2015-01-01

    This prospective clinical study aims to determine the differences between two treatment modalities for anterior open bite in growing patients. The treatment modalities involved the use of magnetic bite-blocks (MBBs) or rapid molar intruders (RMIs) applied with posterior bite-blocks. Fifteen consecutive patients with a mean age of 11.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.6) years and a mean open bite of -3.9 mm were treated with MBBs. Another 15 consecutive patients with a mean age of 10.9 (SD = 1.8) years and a mean open bite of -3.8 mm were treated with RMIs applied on bite-blocks. Cephalometric radiographs were obtained before (T1) and immediately after appliance removal (T2). The treatments lasted four months, during which the appliances were cemented to the teeth. The morphological changes were measured in each group and compared using logistic regression analysis. The MBB group exhibited significantly greater decreases in SNA angle, ANB angle, overjet, and maxillary incisor angle (p open bites and maxillary incisor protrusions.

  4. Comet 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Spectrometer Graph This artist's concept illustrates a comet being torn to shreds around a dead star, or white dwarf, called G29-38. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope observed a cloud of dust around this white dwarf that may have been generated from this type of comet disruption. The findings suggest that a host of other comet survivors may still orbit in this long-dead solar system. The white dwarf G29-38 began life as a star that was about three times as massive as our sun. Its death involved the same steps that the sun will ultimately undergo billions of years from now. According to theory, the G29-38 star became brighter and brighter as it aged, until it bloated up into a dying star called a red giant. This red giant was large enough to engulf and evaporate any terrestrial planets like Earth that happened to be in its way. Later, the red giant shed its outer atmosphere, leaving behind a shrunken skeleton of star, called a white dwarf. If the star did host a planetary system, outer planets akin to Jupiter and Neptune and a remote ring of icy comets would remain. The Spitzer observations provide observational evidence for this orbiting outpost of comet survivors. Astronomers speculate that one such comet was knocked into the inner regions of G29-38, possibly by an outer planet. As the comet approached very close to the white dwarf, it may have been torn apart by the star's tidal forces. Eventually, all that would be left of the comet is a disk of dust. This illustration shows a comet in the process of being pulverized: part of it still exists as a chain of small clumps, while the rest has already spread out into a dusty disk. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 broke apart in a similar fashion when it plunged into Jupiter in 1994. Evidence for Comets Found in Dead Star's Dust The graph of data, or spectrum, from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope indicates that a dead star, or white dwarf, called G29-38, is shrouded by a cloud

  5. Outdoor biting by Anopheles mosquitoes on Bioko Island does not currently impact on malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John; Lines, Jo; Fuseini, Godwin; Schwabe, Christopher; Monti, Feliciano; Slotman, Michel; Vargas, Daniel; Garcia, Guillermo; Hergott, Dianna; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2015-04-21

    There have been many recent reports that the rate of outdoor biting by malaria vectors has increased. This study examined the impact this might have on malaria transmission by assessing the association between exposure to outdoor bites and malaria infection on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Responses to questions about time spent outside the previous night from a malaria indicator survey were combined with human landing catch measurements of hourly rates of outdoor and indoor biting for the whole island to estimate the number of outdoor and indoor bites received by each survey respondent. The association between RDT measured malaria infection status of individuals and outdoor bites received was investigated. The average number of bites received per person per night was estimated as 3.51 in total, of which 0.69 (19.7%) would occur outdoors. Malaria infection was not significantly higher in individuals who reported spending time outside between 7 pm and 6 am the previous night compared to those not spending time outside in both adults (18.9% vs 17.4%, p = 0.20) and children (29.2% vs 27.1%, p = 0.20). Malaria infection in neither adults (p = 0.56) nor in children (p = 0.12) was associated with exposure to outdoor bites, even after adjusting for confounders. Malaria vector mosquitoes in Bioko do bite humans outdoors, and this has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of vector control. However, outdoor biting is currently not a major factor influencing the malaria burden, mainly because more than 95% of the population are indoors during the middle of the night, which is the peak biting period for malaria vector mosquitoes. The majority of resources should remain with control measures that target indoor biting and resting such as LLINs and IRS.

  6. Mass awareness regarding snake bite induced early morning neuroparalysis can prevent many deaths in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rupinder; Dogra, Varundeep; Sharma, Gurudutt; Chauhan, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    In North India snake bite deaths are predominantly seen with neurotoxic envenomations (NEs) whereas in South India the hemotoxic envenomation (HE) is more common. Krait is responsible for most deaths in North India. It bites people sleeping on the floors, mostly at night. We describe the profile of venomous snake bites over 1 year in 2013. The study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India. Demographics, circumstances of bite, envenomation, first aid, delay, consultation, treatment, anti-venom, and outcomes were recorded for all victims of snake bite. We included all consecutive adult (>18 years) venomous snake bite victims admitted from January to December 2013. A total of 91 patients with venomous snake bites were included in the study. Pure NEs were 41 (45.1%), pure HE in 31 (34.1%), 7 (7.7%) had mixed NE + HE, and 12 (13.2%) had only local swelling. Forty patients (44%) were bitten during sleep presenting as NE (92.5%), NE + HE (5%), and HE (2.5%). Findings in the 51 patients (56%) bitten during activity were HE (58.8%), local swelling (23.5%), NE + HE (9.8%), and NE (7.8%) ( P NE patients out of which 23 (96%) went to alternate practitioners or religious healers. Almost all (97.5%) bites during sleep resulted in NE in our study. About 96% of NE sought first aid from alternate practitioners or religious healers in hope of some magical treatment. Thus, a deadly combination of krait bite during sleep and wrong health seeking behavior is responsible for high mortality krait bites in this region. Mass public awareness regarding krait bites can prevent mortality in many such cases.

  7. Comparison of two treatment strategies for the early treatment of an anterior skeletal open bite : Posterior bite block-vertical pull chin cup (PBB-VPC) vs. posterior bite block-high pull headgear (PBB-HPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkkahraman, Hakan; Cetin, Ebru

    2017-07-01

    Aim of the present study was to compare the effects of posterior bite block-vertical pull chin cup (PBB-VPC) and posterior bite block-high pull headgear (PBB-HPH) in the early treatment of anterior open bite. This retrospective study was carried out using pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) lateral cephalometric radiographs of 28 patients treated with either PBB-VPC or PBB-HPH and 14 age-matched control patients with anterior open bite. The treatment changes were evaluated with 20 measurements (7 angular and 13 linear). Intergroup comparisons of the cephalometric measurements were performed by ANOVA, and a post hoc Tukey test was used to perform multiple comparisons. There was no significant difference in the open bite correction between the two treatment groups, but both groups showed significantly greater increases in overbite than the controls (P open bite. Retrusion of the upper/lower incisors and a slight increase in the upper anterior dentoalveolar height were the most evident findings in the PBB-VPC group. In the PBB-HPH group, forward maxillary growth was significantly restricted, ANB and overjet were reduced, and the upper and lower incisors were significantly retruded.

  8. Prevention of tick bites: an evaluation of a smartphone app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonise-Kamp, L; Beaujean, D J M A; Crutzen, R; van Steenbergen, J E; Ruwaard, D

    2017-12-04

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common reported tick-borne infection in Europe, and involves transmission of Borrelia by ticks. As long as a vaccine is not available and effective measures for controlling tick populations are insufficient, LB control is focused on preventive measures to avoid tick bites. To inform citizens about the risk of ticks, motivate them to check for tick bites, and encourage them to remove any attached tick as quickly as possible, a mobile app called 'Tekenbeet' (Dutch for 'tick bite') was developed and released. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usage and user satisfaction of the 'Tekenbeet' app and to investigate whether it affects users' knowledge, perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, response efficacy, current behavior and intention to comply with preventive measures. Usage of the app was evaluated with data obtained from Google Analytics. A survey among the Dutch general adult population with two data collection periods evaluated the usage, user satisfaction and its influence on abovementioned outcomes. Data obtained from Google Analytics showed the app was downloaded almost 40,000 in the 20 months following the launch. The 'tick radar' and 'tick diary' screens were viewed most often. In addition, a total of 554 respondents completed an online survey. The mean user satisfaction score was 7.44 (on a scale of 1-10) and 90.9% of respondents would recommend the app to others. On average, survey respondents who downloaded the app (n = 243) recorded significantly more often higher knowledge scores (OR 3.37; 95% CI 2.02-5.09) and had a higher intention to comply with preventive measures (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.22-5.85) compared to respondents who did not download the app (n = 311). The 'Tekenbeet' app is a frequently used and well-appreciated educational tool to increase public knowledge of ticks and tick bites. It also helps to improve the user's intention to apply preventive measures. The use of

  9. Upper face and orbit "degloving" dog bite injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Joseph; Lee, Ken; Klein, Richard; Slonim, Charles B

    2009-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman who attempted suicide lay unconscious on her floor for an unknown time period while her 2 pet dachshunds chewed her upper face and bilateral periorbital areas including all 4 eyelids, both lacrimal glands, all of the conjunctiva from both eyes, the extraocular muscles on the left side only, and anterior orbital fat from both sides. A subtotal exenteration was performed on her left orbit and a temporoparietal fasciocutaneous flap was used to reconstruct her right orbit with buccal mucosa replacing both the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such extensive orbital injuries from dog bites.

  10. Do herbal medicines have potential for managing snake bite envenomation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y K; Peshin, S S

    2012-05-01

    Snake envenomation is a global public health problem, with highest incidence in Southeast Asia. Inadequate health services, difficult transportation and consequent delay in antisnake venom administration are the main reasons for high mortality. Adverse drug reactions and inadequate storage conditions limit the use of antisnake venom. The medicinal plants, available locally and used widely by traditional healers, therefore need attention. A wide array of plants and their active principles have been evaluated for pharmacological properties. However, numerous unexplored plants claimed to be antidotes in folklore medicine need to be studied. The present article reviews the current status of various medicinal plants for the management of snake bite.

  11. Correction of anterior open bite in a case of achondroplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpagam S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment planning for patients with skeletal deformities is often considered challenging. This article reports a female patient with achondroplasia who presented with severe maxillary retrognathism and vertical excess along with anterior open bite. The clinical and cephalometric findings of the patient are detailed here. The treatment plan consisted of modified anterior maxillary osteotomy for simultaneous vertical and sagittal augmentation along with orthodontic intervention. The course of surgical-orthodontic treatment and the results are presented. This treatment is to be followed by correction of vertical maxillary excess after completion of growth. This paper concludes that the dentoalveolar component of a skeletal deformity can be handled independent of the craniofacial management.

  12. Snake bite in dogs and its successful treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ananda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dog viz. Labrador and Alsatian cross were presented to the peripheral hospital with a history of frothy salivation, dull, depressed, abnormal gait and with recumbent position. They were diagnosed for snake bite based on the history and physical examination. The hematological parameters showed reduced values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and increased total leukocyte count. The biochemical values showed elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase and creatinine. The successful treatment was done with anti-snake venom, fluid, corticosteroid, muscuranic receptor antagonist and antibiotic with careful monitoring. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 66-67

  13. [Bite mark analysis. Part 1. Methods and overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Valck, E

    1995-06-01

    Criminal cases in which a suspect or a victim has left his or her teeth marks on another person or on an inanimate object such as a candy bar, an apple, cheese or even a beer can seem to occur more frequently. Testifying to the similarity or dissimilarity of a suspect's dentition to the bite mark in question is probably the most unique contribution that forensic dentistry makes to the judicial inquiry. This is a grave responsibility because a defendant's life or freedom may depend on the testimony given by the forensic odontologist in court.

  14. Latrodectism—Effects of the Black Widow Spider Bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Patrick K.; Gibbons, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    Latrodectism—envenomation by the black widow spider, Latrodectus mactans—has been reported in virtually every state. The spider is particularly prevalent in the Southwest, Southeast and California, and symptoms from its bite are painful and may be confusing to clinicians. Prompt improvement can be expected in most cases with administration of calcium and muscle relaxant, but some patients may require treatment with antivenin. No deaths occurred in our series of 11 patients, although one case was complicated by serum sickness. PMID:3962294

  15. Zone 3 ruptured globe from a dog bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Benjamin P; Cavuoto, Kara; Rachitskaya, Aleksandra

    2015-02-01

    Periocular injuries from dog bites are relatively common in school-age children, but intraocular trauma is exceedingly rare. We present a 7-year-old boy who sustained a zone 3 ruptured globe injury after attack by a Perro de Presa Canario. At presentation, visual acuity in the injured eye was counting fingers. Surgical exploration revealed an inferotemporal corneoscleral laceration extending 15 mm posterior to the limbus, with protrusion of uveal tissue, which was repaired. Visual acuity improved to 20/40 by the first postoperative month. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dog bite injuries in children – a review of data from a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objective. Dog bites are a major cause of preventable traumatic injury in the paediatric population. We aimed to determine the epidemiology of dog bite injuries in a group of South African children with a view to developing potential preventive strategies. Design, setting, subjects. A retrospective review was ...

  17. Prevalence Of Dog Bites In A Rural Community: A 15 Year Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of dog bites in Comprehensive Health Centre, Okoyong south-south Nigeria. Eleven cases of dog bite were recorded out of a total of 25,000 patients seen during a fifteen- year period (1990-2004). This gives a prevalence of 44 per 100,000 population.

  18. Dog Bite – A Rare Cause Of Oesophageal Injury | Arif | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though rabies has been successfully controlled in some provinces, dog bite is a common problem encountered in the Accident and Emergency (A & E) departments of South Africa. In our experience, dog bites are usually from police dog units or a neighbour's dog. Oesophageal injury is very lethal if not treated early.

  19. The frequency and effect of shark-inflicted bite injuries to the reef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shark bite injuries on reef manta rays Manta alfredi off the coast of Inhambane, Mozambique, were examined over a three-year period (2003–2006). The frequency and seasonality of attacks, the rate of wound healing, and the possible identities of attackers were explored. This study presents the first examination of bite ...

  20. Identification of the mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant, Jatropha curcas, was performed to specifically identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil as a whole. Jatropha curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and part of Africa to repel biting insect...

  1. TheraBite exercises to treat trismus secondary to head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Beurskens, Carien H. G.; Reintsema, Harry; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TheraBite exercises on mouth opening and to analyze factors influencing this effect in a patient record evaluation. Effect of exercises with a TheraBite to treat trismus was evaluated in 69 head and neck cancer patients of two university medical

  2. Factors associated with anterior open bite in children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castilho, Lia Silva; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Pires E Souza, Luiz Gustavo de Almeida; Romualdo, Leiliane Teresinha de Almeida; Souza E Silva, Maria Elisa; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva

    2018-01-01

    To investigate factors associated with anterior open bite in individuals aged from 2 to 33 years with developmental disabilities. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 271 dental records were examined. The anterior open bite analyzed was determined based on clinic exam. These variables were also analyzed: gender, age, education level of mother, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mouth breathing, use of anticonvulsant drugs, hyperkinesis, pacifier use, thumb sucking, seizure, and involuntary movements. For the purposes of analysis, the individuals were categorized as being with and without anterior open bite. Variables with a p-value of open bite than nasal breathers. Pacifier users are more likely to have an anterior open bite (3.32-fold, 95% CI: 1.62-6.77). Individuals with reported involuntary movements had a 2.66-fold (95% CI: 1.26-5.63) greater chance of exhibiting anterior open bite. Users of anticonvulsants drugs had a 3.05 (95% CI: 1.57-5.92) greater chance of showing anterior open bite. Involuntary movements, mouth breathing, using anticonvulsant drugs, and using pacifier are factors associated with anterior open bite in patients with developmental disabilities. © 2017 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tongue Strength: Its Relationship to Tongue Thrusting, Open-Bite, and Articulatory Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, James P.; Culatta, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    No significant differences in tongue strength were found between any of the three groups of 7- to 16-year old children: normal speaking with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, frontal lisping with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, and normal controls. (Author/DLS)

  4. Skeletal and Dentoalveolar Cephalometric Features of Anterior Open Bite among Yemeni Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daer, Ammar Abdulkareem; Abuaffan, Amal Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to determine the cephalometric features for a sample of Yemeni adults with anterior open bite. Material and Methods. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for 65 Yemeni university students (46 males and 19 females), 18-25 years old, with clinical anterior open bite (vertical overbite ≤ 0 mm) and no previous orthodontic treatment. The radiographs were manually traced; twelve angular, five linear measurements, and facial index were assessed, analyzed statistically, and compared to 194 Yemeni norms (89 males and 105 females) as well as cephalometric features of open bite subjects in previous studies. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed in skeletal and dental cephalometric values of Yemeni patients with anterior open bite when compared to Yemeni norms; mainly in the anteroposterior relation, the open bite individuals had higher significant value in SNA, SNB, and SNPg angles. In addition, a higher statistical significant difference was recorded in all variables of vertical relation when compared with norms. In contrast, NL-NSL angle revealed higher value among normal individuals. Dental variables among open bite individuals showed a greater degree of dental proclination, higher statistically significant value in [Formula: see text]-NA°, [Formula: see text]-NA mm and I-NB mm, and a lower significant value in U1-L1 in open bite group. Conclusion. Open bite Yemeni individual's skeletal and dentoalveolar variables significantly differ from Yemeni norms in the extent of the anteroposterior, vertical developmental pattern and dental relations.

  5. Clinical Presentation And Outcome Of Snake-Bite Patients At Zamko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Presentation And Outcome Of Snake-Bite Patients At Zamko Comprehensive Health Centre, Langtang, Plateau State. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ... Farming and walking along the bush-path carry equal risk of exposure and accounted for 70% of bites. In 96% (99) of cases ...

  6. Human and other mammalian bite injuries of the hand: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen A; Stoll, Laura E; Lauder, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    The hand is the most common site for bite injuries. Because of specific characteristics of hand anatomy, bite mechanics, and organisms found in human and animal saliva, even small wounds can lead to aggressive infections. Failure to recognize and treat hand bites can result in significant morbidity. Human and animal bites most commonly lead to polymicrobial bacterial infections with a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Pasteurella species are commonly found in dog and cat bite wounds, and Eikenella is characteristic of human wounds. Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and anaerobic bacterial species are common to all mammals. Although public health measures in developed countries have been highly effective at reducing rabies transmission, dog bites remain the most common source of rabies infection worldwide. Human bites can transmit HIV, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C, especially when contaminated blood is exposed to an open wound. Appropriate management of any mammal bite requires recognition, early wound cleansing, evaluation of injured structures, and infection prophylaxis. Structural repair is performed as indicated by the severity and contamination of the injury, and wounds may require delayed closure. Wound infections typically require débridement, empiric antibiotics, and delayed repair or reconstruction. Copyright 2014 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  7. Snake Bite: A review of Current Literature | Dreyer | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snake bite is a significant public health problem in rural areas of many parts of the world1. Venomous snakes are found worldwide, except for a few islands and the frozen environments. Snake bite most commonly affects those living in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of Africa, Asia, the. Americas and Oceania.

  8. Snake bites in Nigeria: A study of the prevalence and treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Although snake bites occur frequently in Benin City, the prevalence has not been documented. This study was therefore done to determine the prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and the orthodox treatment of victims. Methods: The study was retrospective and data on victims of snake bite covering a period of twenty ...

  9. Domestic donkey (Equus africanus asinus bites: An unusual aetiology of severe scalp injuries in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Droussi

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: The bite of a donkey is rare aetiology of scalp injuries. Special features of these injuries, including a literature review, are discussed focusing on the care of these patients in the emergency centre, describing the surgical procedures required and antibiotic choice. Recommendations for the management of donkey bite scalp injuries are provided.

  10. Culicoides obsoletus allergens for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    AInsect Bite Hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common skin allergy in horses and involves a Type I (IgE mediated) hypersensitivity reaction against bites of insects, mainly of the Culicoides species. Welfare of affected horses is seriously reduced and no fully curative treatment is yet

  11. Medicinal plants used to treat Snake bite by Fulani Herdsmen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their village settlement positions make it more difficult for them to assess antiserum, the only source of treatment available for snake bite, Therefore the only option left for them is the use of village surrounding medicinal plants for the treatment of the snake bite. Recent efforts on ethnopharmacology revealed several of these ...

  12. Development of botanical-based biopesticides and repellents against biting flies on livestock animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biting flies are important insect pests causing millions of dollars in losses to the livestock industry. The attack by biting flies causes significant losses in animal production and potential food contamination and disease transmission. This presentation reports our recent findings on the developme...

  13. Bergeyella zoohelcum Associated with Abscess and Cellulitis After a Dog Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jumi; Humphries, Romney; Doerr, Laura; Jerris, Robert C; Westblade, Lars F

    2016-02-01

    Cat and dog bites are a common cause of injury in young children. Bergeyella zoohelcum is a rarely reported zoonotic pathogen that is a part of cat and dog oral flora. We present a case of a child with B. zoohelcum abscess and cellulitis after a dog bite and review previously reported cases.

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with anterior open bite in 2 to 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and factors associated with anterior open bite in 2 to 5 year old children in Benin city, Nigeria. ... Background: Anterior open bite is said to exist when there is an actual vertical gap between the upper and lower incisors with the teeth in centric occlusion. This could occur in the anterior or posterior region, and may ...

  15. A retrospective review of snake bite victims admitted in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The details of all patients with snake bite admitted to a tertiary teaching care hospital from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively retrieved and reviewed. The details regarding age, gender, first aid received or not, time elapsed between the bite, emergency care management and ASV (Anti Snake Venom) ...

  16. First report of clinical presentation of a bite by a running spider ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the clinical progression of symptoms over a period of 5 days of a bite inflicted by a Philodromus sp. spider. Commonly known as 'running spiders', these are not considered to be harmful to humans. This report, however, is the first description of an actual bite by a member of this group of spiders ...

  17. Common adder bite to the tongue causing life threatening toxicity from airway compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte C G; Jessen, Casper L; Lambertsen, Karin

    2010-01-01

    We illustrate the acute phase and development of symptoms in a 24-year-old man following a European Common Viper bite to the tongue.......We illustrate the acute phase and development of symptoms in a 24-year-old man following a European Common Viper bite to the tongue....

  18. Steric Nature of the Bite Angle. A Closer and a Broader Look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeist, W.-J.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The bite angle (ligand-metal-ligand angle) is known to greatly influence the activity of catalytically active transition-metal complexes towards bond activation. Here, we have computationally explored how and why the bite angle has such effects in a wide range of prototypical C-X bonds and palladium

  19. A comparison between direct and indirect methods available for human bite mark analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouble, Roland F; Craig, Geoffrey T

    2004-01-01

    Comparison techniques used in bite mark analysis are many and varied, the choice of technique depending largely on personal preference. Until recently, no one technique has been shown to be better than the others, and very little research has been carried out to compare different methods. This study evaluates and compares the accuracy of direct comparisons between suspects' models and bite marks with indirect comparisons in the form of conventional traced overlays of suspects' models or a new method using photocopier-generated overlays. Artificial bite marks in pigskin were made using standardized sets of models and recorded as photographs and fingerprint powder lifts on tape. The bite mark photographs and fingerprint lifts were coded and randomized so that a blind comparison could be made with the models, traced overlays, and photocopier-generated overlays using a modified version of the American Board of Forensic Odontology Scoring (ABFO) System for Bite Marks. It was found that the photocopier-generated overlays were significantly more accurate at matching the correct bite mark to the correct models irrespective of whether the bite mark was recorded photographically or as a fingerprint lift. The photocopier-generated overlays were also found to be more sensitive at matching the correct bite marks to the correct models than the other two methods used. The modified ABFO scoring system was able to discriminate between a correct match and several incorrect matches by awarding a high score to the correct match.

  20. An audit of the clinical profile of snake bites among female patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A lot of work had been done on the clinical profiles of patients with snake bites but none on female patients alone. In this medical audit, we undertook to study the clinical profiles of snake bites among female patients seen over a two year period at a federal Government designated treatment centre, Zamko.

  1. A comparison of bite size and BMI in a cafeteria setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Ryan S; Muth, Eric R; Hoover, Adam

    2017-11-01

    Our study investigated the relationship between BMI and bite size in a cafeteria setting. Two hundred and seventy one participants consumed one meal each. Participants were free to select any food provided by the cafeteria and could return for additional food as desired. Bite weights were measured with a table embedded scale. Data were analyzed with ANOVAs, regressions, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, and a repeated measures general linear model for quartile analysis. Obese participants were found to take larger bites than both normal (p=0.002) and overweight participants (p=0.017). Average bite size increased by 0.20g per point increase in BMI. Food bites and drink bites were analyzed individually, showing 0.11g/BMI and 0.23g/BMI slopes, respectively. Quartiles of bites were also analyzed, and a significant interaction was found between normal and obese participants (p=0.034) such that the lower two quartiles were similar, but the upper two quartiles showed an increase in bite size for obese participants. The source of these effects could be the result of a combination of several uncontrolled factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa | Mengistu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Animal bites and scratches represent the most important public health issue related to dogs and cats because of the risk of rabies transmission associated with physical, psychological trauma and wound infection. Objective: The study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of animal bite of human beings in ...

  3. Prevalence of Dog Bites in Rural and Urban Slums of Delhi: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rabies is a fatal disease of the central nervous system caused by the bites of warm‑blooded animals. One of the important methods of controlling rabies is by interventions to limit the number of dog bites, the most common source of transmission of rabies to humans in the community. Community‑based data on ...

  4. Level and pattern of human rabies and dog bites in Techiman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Rabies is a viral zoonotic disease that is transmitted primarily by bites from rabid dogs and has the highest case fatality rate of most infectious diseases in humans. We described a 6-year trend of rabies and dog bites in a peri-urban district in Ghana. Methods: A record review was conducted in the health ...

  5. Open-bite treatment utilizing clear removable appliances with intermaxillary and intramaxillary elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Tae Weon

    2009-01-01

    Clear removable appliances with elastics can be effective and efficient in extruding maxillary teeth during aligner treatment or following a relapse of an open bite. Some patients with open bites refuse to wear conventional fixed appliances. In these individuals, clear aligners with elastics could be a valuable alternative. © 2009 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. All Rights Reserved

  6. Relax and Try This Instead: Abbreviated Habit Reversal for Maladaptive Self-Biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin M.; Swearer, Susan M.; Friman, Patrick C.

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of an abbreviated habit reversal procedure to reduce maladaptive oral self-biting in an adolescent boy in residential care. Treatment involved a combination of relaxation and two competing responses (gum chewing and tongue-lip rubbing). The intervention eliminated the biting and the tissue damage it caused.…

  7. Dog Bites in Humans and Estimating Human Rabies Mortality in Rabies Endemic Areas of Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin; Dhand, Navneet K.; Gyeltshen, Tashi; Firestone, Simon; Zangmo, Chhimi; Dema, Chimi; Gyeltshen, Rawang; Ward, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. Methods A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009–2010 among dog bites victims who visited three hospitals in Bhutan for anti-rabies vaccine injection. Decision tree modeling was used to estimate human deaths from rabies following dog bite injuries in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. Results Three hundred and twenty four dog bite victims were interviewed. The annual incidence of dog bites differed between the hospital catchment areas: 869.8 (95% CI: 722.8–1022.5), 293.8 (240–358.2) and 284.8 (251.2–323) per 100,000 people in Gelephu, Phuentsholing and Thimphu, respectively. Males (62%) were more at risk than females (Pbites and rabies is necessary, particularly for children in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan. PMID:22132247

  8. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latr.) associated with livestock farms in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Holm, Høgni; Overgaard Nielsen, Boy

    2017-01-01

    A large number of biting midges (Culicoides) were collected in light traps operating simultaneously outside and indside 25 Faroese byres. The catch comprised two species: C. (Culicoides) impunctatus Goetghebuer, 1920, accounting for >98% of all biting midges trapped, and C. (Oecacta...

  9. Medicinal plants used to treat Snake bite by Fulani Herdsmen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ameen

    Fulani herdsmen for the treatment of snake bites. Preliminary investigations on the potentials of some plants as antidotes against snake bite have been promising. The extract of the leaves of Guiera senegalensis was found to detoxify (in vitro) venom from two common northern Nigerian snake species, Echis carinatus and ...

  10. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in swedish-born icelandic horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, M.; Eriksson, S.; Schurink, A.; Andersson, L.S.; Sundquist, M.; Frey, R.; Brostrom, H.; Bergstrom, T.; Ducro, B.J.; lindgren, G.

    2015-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by biting midges, mainly of the genus Culicoides. The disease predominantly comprises a type I hypersensitivity reaction, causing severe itching and discomfort that reduce the welfare and commercial

  11. Rope test may indicate efficacy of tail-biting treatments in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Tail biting is a most serious welfare problem in pigs raised for slaughter. In instances of an outbreak of tail biting, scientists have recommended that farmers take measures such as removal of affected animals, provision of enrichment materials and application of repellents to the pigs' tails.

  12. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  13. Maximal bite force and surface EMG in patients with myasthenia gravis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijnen, FG; Wokke, JHJ; Kuks, JBM; van der Glas, HW; Bosman, F

    2000-01-01

    Masticatory muscle strength was quantified in patients with bulbar myasthenia gravis and compared with that of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis, patients in clinical remission (whether or not pharmacological) who previously suffered from bulbar myasthenia gravis, and healthy subjects. Maximal

  14. Anterior open-bite treatment by means of zygomatic miniplates: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beycan, Kadir; Erverdi, Nejat

    2017-01-01

    This case report presents the treatment of a patient with skeletal Cl II malocclusion and anterior open-bite who was treated with zygomatic miniplates through the intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth. A 16-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of anterior open-bite had a symmetric face, incompetent lips, convex profile, retrusive lower lip and chin. Intraoral examination showed that the buccal segments were in Class II relationship, and there was anterior open-bite (overbite -6.5 mm). The cephalometric analysis showed Class II skeletal relationship with increased lower facial height. The treatment plan included intrusion of the maxillary posterior teeth using zygomatic miniplates followed by fixed orthodontic treatment. At the end of treatment Class I canine and molar relationships were achieved, anterior open-bite was corrected and normal smile line was obtained. Skeletal anchorage using zygomatic miniplates is an effective method for open-bite treatment through the intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth.

  15. Brain gene expression differences are associated with abnormal tail biting behavior in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, E; Jensen, P; Isaksson, A; Keeling, L J

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge about gene expression in animals involved in abnormal behaviors can contribute to the understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. This study aimed to explore the motivational background to tail biting, an abnormal injurious behavior and severe welfare problem in pig production. Affymetrix microarrays were used to investigate gene expression differences in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex of pigs performing tail biting, pigs receiving bites to the tail and neutral pigs who were not involved in the behavior. In the hypothalamus, 32 transcripts were differentially expressed (P biting behavior as performers or receivers. Among these 19 transcripts were genes associated with production traits in pigs (PDK4), sociality in humans and mice (GTF2I) and novelty seeking in humans (EGF). These are in line with hypotheses linking tail biting with reduced back fat thickness and explorative behavior. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. Healed or non-healed? computed tomography (CT) visualisation of morphology of bite trace ichnotaxa on a dinosaur bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland; Lauridsen, Henrik; Fiirgaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    . Ichnotaxa defined by theropod bite traces can provide useful information for understanding feeding behaviour. However, objective interpretation of possible bite traces can be difficult using traditional visual inspection. In this study, the bite traces on a fossilised dinosaur bone were comprehensively...

  17. Decision support system with semantic model to assess the risk of tail biting in pigs. 2. 'Validation'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Keeling, L.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Hulsegge, B.

    2004-01-01

    Tail biting is a multifactorial problem with important welfare as well as economic consequences. Different stakeholders in the pig production chain, such as farmers, consumers and policy makers are interested in the level of tail biting, because tail biting may affect productivity, profit and animal

  18. The Effect of Psychological State and Social Support on Nail-Biting in Adolescents: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisman, Fatma Nevin; Tok, Ozlem; Ergun, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    Nail-biting is one of the most common behavioral problems in children. This study aimed to examine factors affecting nail-biting among adolescents and the effects of psychological state and social support on nail-biting. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and May of 2014 in seven schools in Istanbul (N = 724). Data were…

  19. Decision support system with semantic model to assess the risk of tail biting in pigs. 1. Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Hulsegge, B.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Keeling, L.

    2004-01-01

    Tail biting is a multifactorial problem with important welfare as well as economic consequences. Different stakeholders in the pig production chain, such as farmers, consumers and policy makers are interested in reducing the level of tail biting, because tail biting may affect productivity, profit

  20. Analysis of cases caused by acute spider bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihni Sulaj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective study of 176 patients in the University Hospital Center of Tirana (Albania, during the period 2001–2011, admitted with the diagnosis of a suspected spider bite. Three fatalities were registered during this decade covered from our study, with a clinical picture of marked hypertension, tachycardia and acute cardiac failure leading to death within a minimum of 25 h and a maximum of 42 h from the occurrence. Out of the total of 176 patients, we had 59% (104 cases females, and 41% males. The overwhelming majority of the patients lived in rural areas (155 of the cases; extremities were mostly affected from the bites. A summary of clinical signs and a brief review of the available literature are made in the results and discussion section of this paper. Authors advocate that special precautions should be taken especially in severe forms of interesting autonomous nerve system, with aggressive fluid resuscitation, supportive therapy and close monitoring of vital signs.