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Sample records for bistatic scattering strength

  1. Bistatic Forward Scattering Radar Detection and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forward Scattering Radar (FSR is a special type of bistatic radar that can implement image detection, imaging, and identification using the forward scattering signals provided by the moving targets that cross the baseline between the transmitter and receiver. Because the forward scattering effect has a vital significance in increasing the targets’ Radar Cross Section (RCS, FSR is quite advantageous for use in counter stealth detection. This paper first introduces the front line technology used in forward scattering RCS, FSR detection, and Shadow Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (SISAR imaging and key problems such as the statistical characteristics of forward scattering clutter, accurate parameter estimation, and multitarget discrimination are then analyzed. Subsequently, the current research progress in FSR detection and SISAR imaging are described in detail, including the theories and experiments. In addition, with reference to the BeiDou navigation satellite, the results of forward scattering experiments in civil aircraft detection are shown. Finally, this paper considers future developments in FSR target detection and imaging and presents a new, promising technique for stealth target detection.

  2. Application of Geometric Polarization to Invariance Properties in Bistatic Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. O. Bebbington

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bistatic polarimetric radars provide target properties which just one monostatic system can not reveal. Moreover, augmentation of monostatic systems through the provision of bistatic receive-only stations can be a cheap way to increase the amount of remote sensing data. However, bistatic scattering needs to be investigated in order to properly define target properties such as symmetries and invariance, especially regarding choices of polarization basis. In this paper we discuss how the geometric theory of polarization, in which the geometry of the Poincaré sphere is directly related to 3-D geometry of space rather than the 2-D geometry of the wavefront plane, can be used to reduce the ambiguities in the interpretation of data. We also show how in the coherent case a complex scalar invariant can be determined irrespective of the basis combinations.

  3. Laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanjun; Zhu, Chongyue; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone. Two-dimensional imaging is called as planar imaging. It can reflect the shape of the target and material properties. Two-dimensional imaging has important significance for target recognition. The expression of bistatic laser scattering intensity of lambert cone is obtained based on laser radar eauqtion. The scattering intensity of a micro-element on the target could be obtained. The intensity is related to local angle of incidence, local angle of scattering and the infinitesimal area on the cone. According to the incident direction of laser, scattering direction and normal of infinitesimal area, the local incidence angle and scattering angle can be calculated. Through surface integration and the introduction of the rectangular function, we can get the intensity of imaging unit on the imaging surface, and then get Lambert cone bistatic laser two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation model. We analyze the effect of distinguishability, incident direction, observed direction and target size on the imaging. From the results, we can see that the scattering imaging simulation results of the lambert cone bistatic laser is correct.

  4. Classification of underwater targets from autonomous underwater vehicle sampled bistatic acoustic scattered fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischell, Erin M; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    One of the long term goals of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) minehunting is to have multiple inexpensive AUVs in a harbor autonomously classify hazards. Existing acoustic methods for target classification using AUV-based sensing, such as sidescan and synthetic aperture sonar, require an expensive payload on each outfitted vehicle and post-processing and/or image interpretation. A vehicle payload and machine learning classification methodology using bistatic angle dependence of target scattering amplitudes between a fixed acoustic source and target has been developed for onboard, fully autonomous classification with lower cost-per-vehicle. To achieve the high-quality, densely sampled three-dimensional (3D) bistatic scattering data required by this research, vehicle sampling behaviors and an acoustic payload for precision timed data acquisition with a 16 element nose array were demonstrated. 3D bistatic scattered field data were collected by an AUV around spherical and cylindrical targets insonified by a 7-9 kHz fixed source. The collected data were compared to simulated scattering models. Classification and confidence estimation were shown for the sphere versus cylinder case on the resulting real and simulated bistatic amplitude data. The final models were used for classification of simulated targets in real time in the LAMSS MOOS-IvP simulation package [M. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. Newman, and J. Leonard, J. Field Rob. 27, 834-875 (2010)].

  5. Bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Annotation his book is a major extension of a chapter on bistatic radar written by the author for the Radar Handbook, 2nd edition, edited by Merrill Skolnik. It provides a history of bistatic systems that points out to potential designers the applications that have worked and the dead-ends not worth pursuing. The text reviews the basic concepts and definitions, and explains the mathematical development of relationships, such as geometry, Ovals of Cassini, dynamic range, isorange and isodoppler contours, target doppler, and clutter doppler spread.Key Features * All development and analysis are

  6. Calculating Apparent Forward Loss Using APL Bottom Bistatic Scattering Cross Sections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    .... The models are used to determine the intensity level of the energy forward scattered into a broad-beam receiver from a transmitter while the halfwidths of the transmitter's horizontal and vertical...

  7. Advances in bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  8. Bistatic SAR: Imagery & Image Products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yocky, David A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-10-01

    While typical SAR imaging employs a co-located (monostatic) RADAR transmitter and receiver, bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. The transmitter and receiver geometry determines if the scattered signal is back scatter, forward scatter, or side scatter. The monostatic SAR image is backscatter. Therefore, depending on the transmitter/receiver collection geometry, the captured imagery may be quite different that that sensed at the monostatic SAR. This document presents imagery and image products formed from captured signals during the validation stage of the bistatic SAR research. Image quality and image characteristics are discussed first. Then image products such as two-color multi-view (2CMV) and coherent change detection (CCD) are presented.

  9. Bistatic radar system analysis and software development

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, Ching Leong

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Bistatic radar has some properties that are distinctly different from monostatic radar. Recently bistatic radar has received attention for its potential to detect stealth targets due to enhanced target forward scatter. Furthermore, the feasibility of hitchhiker radar has been demonstrated, which allows passive radar receivers to detect and track targets. This thesis developed a software simulation package in Matlab that provides a conv...

  10. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  11. Bistatic SAR: Proof of Concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yocky, David A.; Doren, Neall E.; Bacon, Terry A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Charles V,; Delaplain, Gilbert G.; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.; White, Kyle R.

    2014-10-01

    Typical synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) imaging employs a co-located RADAR transmitter and receiver. Bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. A bistatic SAR configuration allows for the transmitter and receiver(s) to be in a variety of geometric alignments. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) / New Mexico proposed the deployment of a ground-based RADAR receiver. This RADAR receiver was coupled with the capability of digitizing and recording the signal collected. SNL proposed the possibility of creating an image of targets the illuminating SAR observes. This document describes the developed hardware, software, bistatic SAR configuration, and its deployment to test the concept of a ground-based bistatic SAR. In the proof-of-concept experiments herein, the RADAR transmitter will be a commercial SAR satellite and the RADAR receiver will be deployed at ground level, observing and capturing RADAR ground/targets illuminated by the satellite system.

  12. Bistatic SAR: Signal Processing and Image Formation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the significant processing steps that were used to take the raw recorded digitized signals from the bistatic synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) hardware built for the NCNS Bistatic SAR project to a final bistatic SAR image. In general, the process steps herein are applicable to bistatic SAR signals that include the direct-path signal and the reflected signal. The steps include preprocessing steps, data extraction to for a phase history, and finally, image format. Various plots and values will be shown at most steps to illustrate the processing for a bistatic COSMO SkyMed collection gathered on June 10, 2013 on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

  13. Bistatic sAR data processing algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Xiaolan; Hu, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is critical for remote sensing. It works day and night, in good weather or bad. Bistatic SAR is a new kind of SAR system, where the transmitter and receiver are placed on two separate platforms. Bistatic SAR is one of the most important trends in SAR development, as the technology renders SAR more flexible and safer when used in military environments. Imaging is one of the most difficult and important aspects of bistatic SAR data processing. Although traditional SAR signal processing is fully developed, bistatic SAR has a more complex system structure, so sign

  14. Bistatic Clutter Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    scan. 3.2 DEFINITION OF a0 AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS 1oThe terrain scattering cross section per unit area, a , is defined1 ’ 2 as 4•2d 00 SidA (1) The...pulse Shape. That weighting is denoted as h[t(A)]. The integral f fTfR aodA ri Agd is evaluated with the aid of approximation in which: 1. a is assumed

  15. Mini-RF bistatic observations of Copernican crater ejecta on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, A. M.; Patterson, G. W.; Cahill, J. T. S.

    2017-09-01

    The Mini-RF radar is current operating in a bistatic configuration using the Goldstone DSS-13 and Arecibo Observatory as transmitters in X-band (4.2-cm) and S-band (12.6 cm), respectively. A typical product examining the scattering properties of the lunar surface that can be derived from backscattered microwave radiation is the Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR). Here, we examine the ejecta blankets of Copernican aged craters on the lunar surface in both S- and X-band to examine the scattering properties of young crater ejecta. Several observed craters exhibit a clear opposition effect at low bistatic (phase) angles. This opposition effect is consistent with optical studies of lunar soils done in the laboratory, but these observations are the first time this effect has been measured on the Moon at radar wavelengths. Differences in the CPR behaviour as a function of bistatic angle may also provide opportunities for relative age dating between Copernican craters.

  16. Bistatic SAR/ISAR/FSR geometry, signal models and imaging algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarov, Andon Dimitrov

    2013-01-01

    Bistatic radar consists of a radar system which comprises a transmitter and receiver which are separated by a distance comparable to the expected target distance. This book provides a general theoretical description of such bistatic technology in the context of synthetic aperture, inverse synthetic aperture and forward scattering radars from the point of view of analytical geometrical and signal formation as well as processing theory. Signal formation and image reconstruction algorithms are developed with the application of high informative linear frequency and phase code modulating techniques

  17. Accurate Analysis of Target Characteristic in Bistatic SAR Images: A Dihedral Corner Reflectors Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Ao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dihedral corner reflectors are the basic geometric structure of many targets and are the main contributions of radar cross section (RCS in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. In stealth technologies, the elaborate design of the dihedral corners with different opening angles is a useful approach to reduce the high RCS generated by multiple reflections. As bistatic synthetic aperture sensors have flexible geometric configurations and are sensitive to the dihedral corners with different opening angles, they specially fit for the stealth target detections. In this paper, the scattering characteristic of dihedral corner reflectors is accurately analyzed in bistatic synthetic aperture images. The variation of RCS with the changing opening angle is formulated and the method to design a proper bistatic radar for maximizing the detection capability is provided. Both the results of the theoretical analysis and the experiments show the bistatic SAR could detect the dihedral corners, under a certain bistatic angle which is related to the geometry of target structures.

  18. Mini-RF Bistatic Observations of Lunar Crater Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, A. M.; Patterson, G. W.; Cahill, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Mini-RF radar onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is currently operating in a bistatic configuration using the Goldstone DSS-13 and Arecibo Observatory as transmitters in X-band (4.2-cm) and S-band (12.6 cm), respectively. The Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) is a typical product derived from backscattered microwave radiation that examines the scattering properties of the lunar surface, particularly the roughness of the surface on the order of the radar wavelength. Throughout the LRO extended mission, Mini-RF has targeted young craters on the lunar surface to examine the scattering properties of their ejecta blankets in both S- and X-band. Several observed craters and their ejecta blankets exhibit a clear coherent backscatter opposition effect at low bistatic (phase) angles. This opposition effect is consistent with optical studies of lunar soils done in the laboratory, but these observations are the first time this effect has been measured on the Moon at radar wavelengths. The style of the observed opposition effect differs between craters, which may indicate differences in ejecta fragment formation or emplacement. Differences in the CPR behavior as a function of bistatic angle may also provide opportunities for relative age dating between Copernican craters. Here, we examine the ejecta of nine Copernican and Eratosthenian aged craters in both S-band and X-band and document CPR characteristics as a function bistatic angle in order to test that hypothesis. The youngest craters observed by Mini-RF (e.g., Byrgius A (48 My), Kepler (635-1250 My)) exhibit a clear opposition effect, while older craters such as Hercules have a fairly flat response in CPR as a function of phase angle. Craters with ages between these two ends, e.g., Aristarchus, exhibit a weaker opposition response. Observing the scattering behavior of continuous ejecta blankets in multiple wavelengths may provide further information about the rate of breakdown of rocks of varying size to

  19. Bistatic Space Borne Radar for Early Warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picardi, G; Masdea, A; Tofone, L; Borgarelli, L; Cereoli, L

    2006-01-01

    ...) with the relevant performance. The bistatic solution has been considered as a preferred one due to the good immunity to potential jammer present on the theatre area, allowing also a reduced value of peak transmitter power...

  20. Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon Using Mini-RF on LRO and the Arecibo Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G. W.; Stickle, A. M.; Turner, F. S.; Jensen, J. R.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Spudis, P.; Espiritu, R. C.; Schulze, R. C.; Yocky, D. A.; Wahl, D. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) instrument aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a hybrid dual-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that operated in concert with the Arecibo Observatory to collect bistatic radar data of the lunar nearside from 2012 to 2015. The purpose of this bistatic campaign was to characterize the radar scattering properties of the surface and near-surface, as a function of bistatic angle, for a variety of lunar terrains and search for a coherent backscatter opposition effect indicative of the presence of water ice. A variety of lunar terrain types were sampled over a range of incidence and bistatic angles; including mare, highland, pyroclastic, crater ejecta, and crater floor materials. Responses consistent with an opposition effect were observed for the ejecta of several Copernican-aged craters and the floor of the south-polar crater Cabeus. The responses of ejecta material varied by crater in a manner that suggests a relationship with crater age. The response for Cabeus was observed within the portion of its floor that is not in permanent shadow. The character of the response differs from that of crater ejecta and appears unique with respect to all other lunar terrains observed. Analysis of data for this region suggests that the unique nature of the response may indicate the presence of near-surface deposits of water ice.

  1. Experiment of Azimuth-invariant Bistatic UHF UWB SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongtu; Shi, Shaoying; Mao, Junfa; Li, Fuhai; An, Daoxiang; Zhou, Zhimin; Wang, Guoqian

    2018-01-01

    Bistatic ultrahigh frequency ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar (UHF UWB SAR) has the well ability of the penetrating the foliage, high-resolution imaging and providing the increased information. In the paper, an imaging experiment of the azimuth-invariant bistatic UHF UWB SAR is described and the result is proposed. In August 2015, an along-track bistatic UHF UWB SAR experiment was conducted in China, and the raw data was collected. In this bistatic SAR system, the transmitter and receiver are both carried by a vehicle and separated by an invariable distance. The aim was to investigate the imaging property of the bistatic UHF UWB SAR system. Bistatic image was obtained using the subaperture spectrum-equilibrium method integrated with the fast factorized back projection algorithm (FFBPA). Experiment results prove the validity of the bistatic UHF UWB SAR experiment.

  2. Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon using MINI-RF on LRO and the Arecibo Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G.; Bussey, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Mini-RF team is acquiring bistatic radar measurements of the lunar surface to understand the scattering properties of materials as a function of phase angle. These observations have produced the first lunar bistatic radar images ever collected with non-zero phase angles. The goal of these observations is to differentiate between scatter-ing indicative of surfaces that are rough versus surfaces that harbor water ice in quantities detectible by a radar sys-tem operating at a wavelength of 12.6 cm. Radar observations of planetary surfaces provide unique information on the structure (i.e., roughness) and dielec-tric properties of surface and buried materials. These data can be acquired using a monostatic architecture, where a single antenna serves as the signal transmitter and receiver, or they can be acquired using a bistatic architecture, where a signal is transmitted from one location and received at another. The former provides information on the scattering properties of a target surface at zero phase. The latter provides the same information over a variety of phase angles. NASA's Mini-RF instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico are currently operating in a bistatic architecture (the Arecibo Observatory serves as the transmitter and Mini-RF serves as the receiver). This architecture maintains the hybrid dual-polarimetric nature of the Mini-RF in-strument and, therefore, allows for the calculation of the Stokes parameters (S1, S2, S3, S4) that characterize the backscattered signal (and the products derived from those parameters). A common product derived from the Stokes parameters is the Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR). High CPR val-ues can serve as an indicator of rough surfaces or as an indicator of the presence of water ice. Recent work using monostatic radar data and inferences from surface geology suggests that anomalously high CPR values associated with some polar lunar craters are indicative of the

  3. First Measurements of Aspect Sensitivity of Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes by a Bistatic Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Hoz, C.; Pinedo, H.; Havnes, O.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Rietveld, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) have been observed for the first time by a bistatic radar system comprising the EISCAT VHF (224 MHz) active radar in Tromso (Norway) and the receiving EISCAT_3D demonstrator array located in Kiruna, (Sweden). The receiving system is 234 km southeast from the transmitting radar and its line of sight to the mesosphere above Tromso has an elevation angle of 21 degrees implying an aspect angle of the scattered signals in that direction of 69 degrees. This is the first time that a truly bistatic configuration has been employed to measure the angle dependence of the scattering mechanism of PMSE which otherwise has been measured only in monostatic configurations. The bistatic configuration is unencumbered by drawbacks of the monostatic configuration that cannot reach angles greater than about 20 degrees due to antenna beam pattern degradation and the use of models to extrapolate the angle dependence of the scattered signals. Strong scattering was observed over prolonged periods on several days by the demonstrator array in July of 2011. These measurements are at variance with previous aspect angle measurements that have reported aspect angles no greater than about 15 degrees. These results indicate that the turbulent irregularities that produce the scattering have a high degree of isotropy, which is more in line with Kolmogorov's hypothesis of a universal scaling of turbulence based on the assumption of homogeneity and isotropy in the inertial regime of turbulence which applies also to the Batchelor regime (due to large Schmidt numbers) believed to be the case for PMSE.

  4. Experimental Studies of Low-Frequency Bistatic Reverberation in a Shallow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzhavina, D. V.; Gulin, É. P.

    2000-11-01

    Experimental data are presented on time and frequency dependences of the reverberation level for bistatic transmission and reception at low acoustic frequencies. The data are obtained from the studies carried out in a coastal shallow-water region and in the central region of the Barents Sea with explosion-generated and pulsed cw signals. By using the simplest computational model, approximate estimates are obtained for the effective coefficient of spatial attenuation and the effective scattering coefficient in the frequency band 40 400 Hz.

  5. MAGELLAN BISTATIC RADAR CALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Calibrated data from three orbits of S-Band (13 cm wavelength) Magellan bistatic radar data collected with NASA antenna DSS 63 on 5 June 1994 when the specular point...

  6. Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar with Application to Moving Target Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitewood, A. P; Mueller, B. R; Griffiths, H. D; Baker, C. J

    2005-01-01

    .... This paper describes a bistatic radar system which uses the combination of a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar transmitter on board the European Space Agency's Envisat satellite, and a low-cost...

  7. Performance Prediction and Verification for Bistatic SAR Synchronization Link

    OpenAIRE

    Younis, Marwan; Metzig, Robert; Krieger, Gerhard; Klein, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Bistatic SAR systems have a high potential for scientific, commercial and security applications. One of the benefits is the possibility to generate highly accurate digital elevation models using bistatic interferometry. Examples for proposed bi- and multi-static satellite missions with interferometric capabilities are TanDEM-X and Cartwheel. Both are based on radar instruments placed on different spacecrafts, which gives rise to several technical challenges for the system realization. A f...

  8. Bistatic SAR: State of the Art and Development Trend

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Tao

    2012-01-01

    Bistatic SAR (BiSAR) systems have attracted the interests from global researchers and become a hotspot in the international radar community due to the progress of radar technology and rapidly increased applications nowadays. Based on the BiSAR experiments and breakthrough of the key technology, the paper summarized the general progresses of BiSAR systems, especially in European radar community, from different aspects such as system design, processing idea and topology etc. Different bistatic ...

  9. Bistatic Radar Observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andert, T.; Remus, S.; Simpson, R. A.; Paetzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Tellmann, S.; González Peytavi, G.; Bird, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Objectives of the Rosetta Radio Science investigations included determining the dielectric properties, small-scale roughness, and rotational state of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) from bistatic radar (BSR) measurements. The radio transmitter and high gain antenna (HGA) on the spacecraft beamed right circularly polarized (RCP) radio signals at two wavelengths - 3.6 cm (X-Band) and 13 cm (S-Band) - toward the nucleus surface. Part of the impinging radiation was then scattered toward a 70-m ground station of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) on Earth where it was received and recorded coherently in both RCP and left circular polarization (LCP). Between late September and mid-December 2014 six BSR experiments at 67P/C-G were successfully conducted. Such measurements had never before been attempted at such a small body in interplanetary space. The distances between the spacecraft and the comet varied from 10 km (September) to 30 km (December) and the incident angles ranged from 42° to 56°. In five experiments the HGA footprint was close to the equator; on 29 November the footprint was close to the rotation axis. Both RCP and LCP echoes were detected at X-band during the experiments; the echoes on 29 November were strongest. Rosetta's ultra-stable oscillator provided a very stable frequency reference for transmission; such stability was required because the direct and reflected signals were separated during the experiments by only a fraction of 1 Hz. For a known incidence angle and measured RCP/LCP power ratio, the surface dielectric constant may be obtained by applying Fresnel theory if the surface is sufficiently smooth. In the Rosetta case the resulting power ratios on 29 November yielded non-physical dielectric constants, possibly because of the irregularly shaped surface. The paper will investigate the possibility that a cloud of discrete scatters might be responsible for the observed RCP/LCP ratios.

  10. Development of a Coherent Bistatic Vegetation Model for Signal of Opportunity Applications at VHF UHF-Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurum, Mehmet; Deshpande, Manohar; Joseph, Alicia T.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Lang, Roger H.; Eroglu, Orhan

    2017-01-01

    A coherent bistatic vegetation scattering model, based on a Monte Carlo simulation, is being developed to simulate polarimetric bi-static reflectometry at VHF/UHF-bands (240-270 MHz). The model is aimed to assess the value of geostationary satellite signals of opportunity to enable estimation of the Earth's biomass and root-zone soil moisture. An expression for bistatic scattering from a vegetation canopy is derived for the practical case of a ground-based/low altitude platforms with passive receivers overlooking vegetation. Using analytical wave theory in conjunction with distorted Born approximation (DBA), the transmit and receive antennas effects (i.e., polarization, orientation, height, etc.) are explicitly accounted for. Both the coherency nature of the model (joint phase and amplitude information) and the explicit account of system parameters (antenna, altitude, polarization, etc) enable one to perform various beamforming techniques to evaluate realistic deployment configurations. In this paper, several test scenarios will be presented and the results will be evaluated for feasibility for future biomass and root-zone soil moisture application using geostationary communication satellite signals of opportunity at low frequencies.

  11. The Strength of Chaos: Accurate Simulation of Resonant Electron Scattering by Many-Electron Ions and Atoms in the Presence of Quantum Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0012 The Strength of Chaos: accurate simulation of resonant electron scattering by many-electron ions and atoms in the presence...SUBTITLE The Strength of Chaos: accurate simulation of resonant electron scattering by many- electron ions and atoms in the presence of quantum chaos...Strength of Chaos: accurate simulation of resonant electron scattering by many-electron ions and atoms in the presence of quantum chaos” Date 13

  12. HF Radar Bistatic Measurement of Surface Current Velocities: Drifter Comparisons and Radar Consistency Checks

    OpenAIRE

    Lipa, Belinda; Whelan, Chad; Rector, Bill; Nyden, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    We describe the operation of a bistatic HF radar network and outline analysis methods for the derivation of the elliptical velocity components from the radar echo spectra. Bistatic operation is illustrated by application to a bistatic pair: Both remote systems receive backscattered echo, with one remote system in addition receiving bistatic echoes transmitted by the other. The pair produces elliptical velocity components in addition to two sets of radials. Results are compared with drifter me...

  13. Bistatic High Frequency Radar Ocean Surface Cross Section for an FMCW Source with an Antenna on a Floating Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first- and second-order bistatic high frequency radar cross sections of the ocean surface with an antenna on a floating platform are derived for a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW source. Based on previous work, the derivation begins with the general bistatic electric field in the frequency domain for the case of a floating antenna. Demodulation and range transformation are used to obtain the range information, distinguishing the process from that used for a pulsed radar. After Fourier-transforming the autocorrelation and comparing the result with the radar range equation, the radar cross sections are derived. The new first- and second-order antenna-motion-incorporated bistatic radar cross section models for an FMCW source are simulated and compared with those for a pulsed source. Results show that, for the same radar operating parameters, the first-order radar cross section for the FMCW waveform is a little lower than that for a pulsed source. The second-order radar cross section for the FMCW waveform reduces to that for the pulsed waveform when the scattering patch limit approaches infinity. The effect of platform motion on the radar cross sections for an FMCW waveform is investigated for a variety of sea states and operating frequencies and, in general, is found to be similar to that for a pulsed waveform.

  14. Orbital bistatic radar observations of asteroid Vesta by the Dawn mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Elizabeth M; Heggy, Essam; Kofman, Wlodek

    2017-09-12

    We present orbital bistatic radar observations of a small-body, acquired during occultation by the Dawn spacecraft at asteroid Vesta. The radar forward-scattering properties of different reflection sites are used to assess the textural properties of Vesta's surface at centimeter-to-decimeter scales and are compared to subsurface hydrogen concentrations observed by Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector to assess potential volatile occurrence in the surface and shallow subsurface. We observe significant differences in surface radar reflectivity, implying substantial spatial variations in centimeter-to-decimeter-scale surface roughness. Our results suggest that unlike the Moon, Vesta's surface roughness variations cannot be explained by cratering processes only. In particular, the occurrence of heightened hydrogen concentrations within large smoother terrains (over hundreds of square kilometers) suggests that potential ground-ice presence may have contributed to the formation of Vesta's current surface texture. Our observations are consistent with geomorphological evidence of transient water flow from Dawn Framing Camera images.The Dawn spacecraft has provided orbital bistatic radar observations of a small body in the solar system. Here, the authors present results from Vesta suggesting that smooth terrains with heightened hydrogen concentrations indicate that ground-ice presence potentially helped shape Vesta's current surface texture.

  15. a Semi-Rigorous Sensor Model for Precision Geometric Processing of Mini-Rf Bistatic Radar Images of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Barrett, J. M.; Wahl, D. E.; Erteza, I.; Jackowatz, C. V.; Yocky, D. A.; Turner, S.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Paterson, G. W.

    2016-06-01

    The spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instruments known as Mini-RF were designed to image shadowed areas of the lunar poles and assay the presence of ice deposits by quantitative polarimetry. We have developed radargrammetric processing techniques to enhance the value of these observations by removing spacecraft ephemeris errors and distortions caused by topographic parallax so the polarimetry can be compared with other data sets. Here we report on the extension of this capability from monostatic imaging (signal transmitted and received on the same spacecraft) to bistatic (transmission from Earth and reception on the spacecraft) which provides a unique opportunity to measure radar scattering at nonzero phase angles. In either case our radargrammetric sensor models first reconstruct the observed range and Doppler frequency from recorded image coordinates, then determine the ground location with a corrected trajectory on a more detailed topographic surface. The essential difference for bistatic radar is that range and Doppler shift depend on the transmitter as well as receiver trajectory. Incidental differences include the preparation of the images in a different (map projected) coordinate system and use of "squint" (i.e., imaging at nonzero rather than zero Doppler shift) to achieve the desired phase angle. Our approach to the problem is to reconstruct the time-of-observation, range, and Doppler shift of the image pixel by pixel in terms of rigorous geometric optics, then fit these functions with low-order polynomials accurate to a small fraction of a pixel. Range and Doppler estimated by using these polynomials can then be georeferenced rigorously on a new surface with an updated trajectory. This "semi-rigorous" approach (based on rigorous physics but involving fitting functions) speeds the calculation and avoids the need to manage both the original and adjusted trajectory data. We demonstrate the improvement in registration of the bistatic images for

  16. Bistatic SAR: State of the Art and Development Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Tao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bistatic SAR (BiSAR systems have attracted the interests from global researchers and become a hotspot in the international radar community due to the progress of radar technology and rapidly increased applications nowadays. Based on the BiSAR experiments and breakthrough of the key technology, the paper summarized the general progresses of BiSAR systems, especially in European radar community, from different aspects such as system design, processing idea and topology etc. Different bistatic image formation algorithms have been analyzed and reviewed. Finally, the development trend is discussed in the paper.

  17. Rain Scattering and Co-ordinate Distance Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajny

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of scattered field on the rain objects are based on using of Multiple MultiPole (MMP numerical method. Both bi-static scattering function and bi-static scattering cross section are calculated in the plane parallel to Earth surface. The co-ordination area was determined using the simple model of scattering volume [1]. Calculation for frequency 9.595 GHz and antenna elevation of 25° was done. Obtained results are compared with calculation in accordance to ITU-R recommendation.

  18. Gamow-Teller strength functions from (→p,→p') scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausser, O.

    1987-01-01

    We present here recent (→p, →'p) results from TRIUMF that are relevant to the determination of spin-flip isovector strength functions in nuclei. Distortion factors needed for the extraction of nuclear-structure information have been deduced from cross sections and analyzing powers in elastic scattering for several energies and targets. Nonrelativistic optical potentials obtained by folding effective nucleon (N)-nucleus interactions with nuclear densities are found to overpredict both elastic and reaction cross sections, whereas Dirac calculations that include Pauli blocking are in good agreement with the data. Spin observables (S nn and A y ) for the quasi-elastic region in 54 Fe(→p, →p) at 290 MeV provide some evidence for the reduction of the effective proton mass predicted in relativistic mean-field theories as a consequence of the attractive scalar field in the nuclear medium. The energy dependence of the effective N-nucleus interaction at small momentum transfers has been investigated using isoscalar and isovector 1 + states in 28 Si as probe states. We find that the cross sections for the isovector transitions are in good agreement with predictions for the dominant Vστ part of the Franey-Love interaction. Gamow-Teller (GT) strength functions have been obtained in 24 Mg and 54 Fe from measurements of both cross sections and spin-flip probabilities S nn . The spin-flip cross sections σS nn are particularly useful in heavier nuclei to discriminate against a continuous background of ΔS = 0 excitations. In the (s, d) shell where full shell-model wave functions are available, the GT quenching factors (g A eff / g A free ) 2 ≅ 0.7 are in good agreement with those from recent (p, n) and (n, p) experiments. We show that a state-by-state comparison of (p, p') and (e, e') results has the potential of identifying pionic current contributions in (e, e'). The GT quenching factors in 54 Fe are smaller than in the (s, d) shell probably because of severely

  19. A bistatic sodar for precision wind profiling in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Stuart; Hünerbein, Sabine Von; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    A new ground-based wind profiling technology-a scanned bistatic sodar-is described. The motivation for this design is to obtain a "mastlike"wind vector profile in a single atmospheric column extending from the ground to heights of more than 200 m. The need for this columnar profiling arises from ...

  20. Remote measurements of ambient air pollutants with a bistatic laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    The ambient air pollutants ozone, nitric oxide, and ethylene have been monitored in the Pasadena area with a bistatic IR laser apparatus. These pollutants were measured with a differential absorption technique, using selected wavelengths in the 9.5-, 5.2-, and 10.5-micron regions, respectively. The transmitted laser radiation was detected using both direct and heterodyne detection techniques. In the direct detection case, cube corner retroreflectors provided the return, and the heterodyne detection responded to scattered radiation from various rough surfaces, ranging from 400 m to 1.9 km in distance from the apparatus. Significant departures from ambient background concentration levels were noticed in the region near a local freeway during periods of moderate and heavy traffic.

  1. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  2. Observation of isoscalar multipole strengths in exotic doubly-magic 56Ni in inelastic α scattering in inverse kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bagchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance (ISGMR and the Isoscalar Giant Dipole Resonance (ISGDR compression modes have been studied in the doubly-magic unstable nucleus 56Ni. They were measured by inelastic α-particle scattering in inverse kinematics at 50 MeV/u with the MAYA active target at the GANIL facility. The centroid of the ISGMR has been obtained at Ex=19.1±0.5 MeV. Evidence for the low-lying part of the ISGDR has been found at Ex=17.4±0.7 MeV. The strength distribution for the dipole mode shows similarity with the prediction from the Hartree–Fock (HF based random-phase approximation (RPA [1]. These measurements confirm inelastic α-particle scattering as a suitable probe for exciting the ISGMR and the ISGDR modes in radioactive isotopes in inverse kinematics.

  3. First bistatic oblique-incidence ionograms between digital ionosondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W.; Kressman, R. I.

    1983-08-01

    Identical digital ionosondes (dynasondes) at Brighton, Colorado and at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 864 km distant, were synchronized for bistatic sounding in multifrequency and fixed frequency recording patterns. Three propagation modes are observed, identified, and reconciled with standard propagation theory; these include one-hop propagation by sporadic E(Es) and the F region and two-hop (F - Es). Echo phase measurements at the four spaced antennas of the dynasonde receiving array permit echolocation calculations that are in good agreement with the path midpoint, although effects of ionospheric tilts and time variations are evident. These results encourage the concept of a global real time ionospheric monitoring network consisting of about 90 instruments that perform vertically incident and coordinated bistatic soundings, to yield a total of about 320 measurement 'locations'.

  4. A beamforming algorithm for bistatic SAR image formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowatz, Charles V., Jr.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.

    2010-04-01

    Beamforming is a methodology for collection-mode-independent SAR image formation. It is essentially equivalent to backprojection. The authors have in previous papers developed this idea and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the approach to monostatic SAR image formation vis-à-vis the more standard and time-tested polar formatting algorithm (PFA). In this paper we show that beamforming for bistatic SAR imaging leads again to a very simple image formation algorithm that requires a minimal number of lines of code and that allows the image to be directly formed onto a three-dimensional surface model, thus automatically creating an orthorectified image. The same disadvantage of beamforming applied to monostatic SAR imaging applies to the bistatic case, however, in that the execution time for the beamforming algorithm is quite long compared to that of PFA. Fast versions of beamforming do exist to help alleviate this issue. Results of image reconstructions from phase history data are presented.

  5. An Integration Algorithm for Bistatic Radar Weak Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bistatic radar weak target detection problem is considered in this paper. An effective way to detect weak target is the long time integration. However, range migration (RM will occur due to the high speed. Without knowing the target motion parameters, a long time integration algorithm for bistatic radar is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the algorithm utilizes second-order keystone transform (SKT to remove range curvature. Then the quadratic phase term is compensated by the estimated acceleration. After that, SKT is used once more and the Doppler ambiguity phase term compensation is performed. At last, the target energy is integrated via FT. Simulations are provided to show the validity of the proposed algorithm in the end.

  6. Body Temperature Controlled Optical and Thermal Information Storage Light Scattering Display with Fluorescence Effect and High Mechanical Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Tong, Xiaoqian; He, Huiwen; Ma, Meng; Shi, Yanqin; Wang, Xu

    2017-04-05

    A kind of body temperature controlled optical and thermal information storage light scattering display based on super strong liquid crystalline physical gel with special "loofah-like gel network" was successfully prepared. Such liquid crystal (LC) gel was obtained by mixing a dendritic gelator (POSS-G1-BOC), an azobenzene compound (2Azo2), and a phosphor tethered liquid crystalline host (5CB), which could show its best contrast ratio at around human body temperature under UV light because of the phosphor's fluorescence effect. The gel also has quite strong mechanical strength, which could be used in wearable device field especially under sunlight, even under the forcing conditions as harsh as being centrifuged for 10 min at the speed of 2000 r/min. The whole production process of such a display is quite simple and could lead to displays at any size through noncontact writing. We believe it will have wide applications in the future.

  7. Bistatic passive radar simulator with spatial filtering subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossa, Robert; Szlachetko, Boguslaw; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Górski, Maksymilian

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the structure and features of the developed virtual passive FM radar implemented in Matlab system of numerical computations and to present many alternative ways of its performance. An idea of the proposed solution is based on analytic representation of transmitted direct signals and reflected echo signals. As a spatial filtering subsystem a beamforming network of ULA and UCA dipole configuration dedicated to bistatic radar concept is considered and computationally efficient procedures are presented in details. Finally, exemplary results of the computer simulations of the elaborated virtual simulator are provided and discussed.

  8. Direction Finding for Bistatic MIMO Radar with Uniform Circular Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yunhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of direction of arrival (DOA and direction of departure (DOD angle estimation based on polynomial rooting for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar with uniform circular array (UCA configuration is proposed in this paper. The steering vector of the UCA is firstly transformed into a steering vector with a Vandermonde structure by using the Jacobi-Anger expansion. Then the null-spectrum function of the MIMO radar can be written as an expression in which the transmit and receive steering vectors are decoupled. Finally, a two-step polynomial rooting is used to estimate DOA and DOD of targets instead of two-dimensional multiple signal classification (MUSIC search method for bistatic UCA MIMO radar. The angle estimation performance of the proposed method is similar to that of the MUSIC spectral search method, but the computation burden of the proposed polynomial rooting algorithm is much lower than that of the conventional MUSIC method. The simulation results of the proposed algorithm are presented and the performances are investigated and analyzed.

  9. Reanalysis of Clementine Bistatic Radar Data from the Lunar South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard A.; Tyler, G. Leonard

    1998-01-01

    On 9 April 1994 the Clementine spacecraft high-gain antenna was aimed toward the Moon's surface and the resulting 13-cm wavelength radio echoes were received on Earth. Using these data, we have found that the lunar surface generally follows a Lambertian bistatic scattering function sigma(sub 0) = K(sub D)cos(theta(sub i) with K(sub D) approx. 0.003 for the opposite (expected) sense of circular polarization and K(sub D) approx. 0.001 for the same (unexpected) sense. But there are important deviations-of up to 50% in some parts of the echo spectrum-from this simple form. Based on an earlier analysis of these same data, Nozette et al. claimed detection of an enhancement in echoes with right circular polarization from regions near the South Pole in a near-backscatter geometry. Such behavior would be consistent with presence of perhaps large quantities of water ice near the Pole. We have been unable to reproduce that result. Although we find weak suggestions of enhanced echoes at the time of South Pole backscatter, similar features are present at earlier and later times, adjacent frequencies, and in left circular polarization. If enhanced backscatter is present, it is not unique to the South Pole; if not unique to the Pole, then ice is less likely as an explanation for the enhancement.

  10. Bi-Static Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Reflected Signals-of-Opportunity Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate the use of these so-called signals-of-opportunity (SOP) to perform bi-static active microwave remote sensing of land surfaces. Specially,...

  11. LRO MOON MINI-RF 2/3/5 BISTATIC RADAR V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains radar data of the lunar surface from bistatic measurements utilizing the Aricebo Observatory transmitter and LRO Mini-RF receiver.

  12. LRO MOON MINI-RF 2/3/5 BISTATIC RADAR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains radar data of the lunar surface from bistatic measurements utilizing the Aricebo Observatory transmitter and LRO Mini-RF receiver.

  13. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassauer Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF in nuclei in an energy range of about 5–23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR crucial for the modelling of (n,γ and (γ,n reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  14. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassauer, Sergej; Neumann-Cosel, Peter von; Tamii, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF) in nuclei in an energy range of about 5-23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method) allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) crucial for the modelling of (n,γ) and (γ,n) reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  15. Space-based Bistatic Radar for UAV Autonomous Navigation and Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cassola, Marc; Oswald, Michael; Younis, Marwan; del Monte, Luca; Krieger, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Bistatic radars offer several advantages when compared to their monostatic counterparts. In addition to increased performance, sensitivity, coverage and revisit times, all of them parameters which are mainly dependent on their spatial configuration, bistatic radars offer the objective advantage of being more robust to jamming, since the receiver operates as a mere passive system. The proposed system consists of a spaceborne-based radar transmitter illuminating an area of interest and...

  16. Spaceborne to UAV Bistatic Radar System for High-resolution Imaging and Autonomous Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cassola, Marc; Oswald, Michael; Younis, Marwan; Krieger, Gerhard; del Monte, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Bistatic radars offer several advantages when compared to their monostatic counterparts. In addition to increased per- formance, sensitivity, coverage and revisit times, all of them parameters which are mainly dependent on their spatial configuration, bistatic radars offer the objective advantage of being more robust to jamming, since the receiver operates as a mere passive system. The proposed system consists of a spaceborne radar transmitter illuminating an area of interest and o...

  17. A Coverage Theory of Bistatic Radar Networks: Worst-Case Intrusion Path and Optimal Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xiaowen; Zhang, Junshan; Cochran, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study optimal radar deployment for intrusion detection, with focus on network coverage. In contrast to the disk-based sensing model in a traditional sensor network, the detection range of a bistatic radar depends on the locations of both the radar transmitter and radar receiver, and is characterized by Cassini ovals. Furthermore, in a network with multiple radar transmitters and receivers, since any pair of transmitter and receiver can potentially form a bistatic radar, the ...

  18. Separate DOD and DOA Estimation for Bistatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel MUSIC-type algorithm is derived in this paper for the direction of departure (DOD and direction of arrival (DOA estimation in a bistatic MIMO radar. Through rearranging the received signal matrix, we illustrate that the DOD and the DOA can be separately estimated. Compared with conventional MUSIC-type algorithms, the proposed separate MUSIC algorithm can avoid the interference between DOD and DOA estimations effectively. Therefore, it is expected to give a better angle estimation performance and have a much lower computational complexity. Meanwhile, we demonstrate that our method is also effective for coherent targets in MIMO radar. Simulation results verify the efficiency of the proposed method, particularly when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is low and/or the number of snapshots is small.

  19. Bi-static Optical Observations of GEO Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Barker, Edwin S.; Cowardin, Heather; Lederer, Susan M.; Buckalew, Brent

    2014-01-01

    A bi-static study of objects at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) was conducted using two ground-based wide-field optical telescopes. The University of Michigan's 0.6-m MODEST (Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope) located at the Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory in Chile was employed in a series of coordinated observations with the U.S. Naval Observatory's (USNO) 1.3-m telescope at the USNO Flagstaff Station near Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. The goals of this project are twofold: (1) Obtain optical distances to known and unknown objects at GEO from the difference in the observed topocentric position of objects measured with respect to a reference star frame. The distance can be derived directly from these measurements, and is independent of any orbital solution. The wide geographical separation of these two telescopes means that the parallax difference is larger than ten degrees, and (2) Compare optical photometry in similar filters of GEO objects taken during the same time period from the two sites. The object's illuminated surfaces presented different angles of reflected sunlight to the two telescopes.During a four hour period on the night.of 22 February 2014 (UT), coordinated observations were obtained for eight different GEO positions. Each coordinated observation sequence was started on the hour or half-hour, and was selected to ensure the same cataloged GEO object was available in the field of view of both telescopes during the thirty minute observing sequence. GEO objects were chosen to be both controlled and uncontrolled at a range of orbital inclinations, and the objects were not tracked. Instead both telescopes were operated with all drives off in GEO survey mode to discover un-cataloged objects at GEO. The initial results from this proof-of-concept observing run will be presented, with the intent of laying the foundation for future large-scale bi-static observing campaigns of the GEO regime.

  20. Influence of charge density and ionic strength on the aggregation process of cellulose nanocrystals in aqueous suspension, as revealed by small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherhal, Fanch; Cousin, Fabrice; Capron, Isabelle

    2015-05-26

    Aggregation of rodlike colloidal particles is investigated here through the aggregation process by either increasing ionic strength or decreasing surface charge density of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The form factor of the nanoparticles is characterized up to the Guinier plateau using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) extended to very small scattering vector Q. Ionic strength, above the threshold of screening charges, brings aggregative conditions that induced fractal organizations for both charged and uncharged CNCs. These two structures display respective fractal dimensions of 2.1 for charged CNCs at high ionic strength and 2.3 for desulfated CNCs over more than a decade of the scattering vector Q, irrespective of salinity, revealing a denser structuration for neutral particles. This is discussed in the framework of aggregation of rodlike particles with an aspect ratio higher than 8. Furthermore, dilution of the rod gel led to disentanglement of the network of fractal aggregates with a subsequent macroscopic sedimentation of the suspensions, with a characteristic time that depends upon the ionic strength and surface charge density. It revealed a threshold independent of salt content around 2.5 g/L and the metastable out-of-equilibrium character of CNC suspensions.

  1. γ strength function and level density of 208Pb from forward-angle proton scattering at 295 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassauer, S.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Tamii, A.

    2016-11-01

    Background: γ strength functions (GSFs) and level densities (LDs) are essential ingredients of statistical nuclear reaction theory with many applications in astrophysics, reactor design, and waste transmutation. Purpose: The aim of the present work is a test of systematic parametrizations of the GSF recommended by the RIPL-3 database for the case of 208Pb. The upward GSF and LD in 208Pb are compared to γ decay data from an Oslo-type experiment to examine the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis. Methods: The E 1 and M1 parts of the total GSF are determined from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at 295 MeV at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka, Japan. The total LD in 208Pb is derived from the 1- LD extracted with a fluctuation analysis in the energy region of the isovector giant dipole resonance. Results: The E 1 GSF is compared to parametrizations recommended by the RIPL-3 database showing systematic deficiencies of all models in the energy region around neutron threshold. The new data for the poorly known spin-flip M 1 resonance call for a substantial revision of the model suggested in RIPL-3. The total GSF derived from the present data is larger in the PDR energy region than the Oslo data but the strong fluctuations due to the low LD resulting from the double shell closure of 208Pb prevent a conclusion on a possible violation of the BA hypothesis. Using the parameters suggested by RIPL-3 for a description of the LD in 208Pb with the back-shifted Fermi gas model, remarkable agreement between the two experiments spanning a wide excitation energy range is obtained. Conclusions: Systematic parametrizations of the E 1 and M 1 GSF parts need to be reconsidered at low excitation energies. The good agreement of the LD provides an independent confirmation of the approach underlying the decomposition of GSF and LD in Oslo-type experiments.

  2. Monostatic and bistatic lidar systems: simulation to improve SNR and attainable range in daytime operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebo, Ahmed; Salas, Balbina; Hassebo, Yasser Y.

    2017-02-01

    Lidar daylight measurements are limited by sky background noise (BGN). Reducing the BGN is essential to improve Lidar signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We report on an optimization technique to improve SNR in a monostatic/biaxial and bistatic Lidar systems by redesigning the geometrical scheme of Lidar receiver. A series of simulations to calculate the overlap area between both transmitter and receiver field of view (FOV) is conducted to determine optimal receiver aperture shapes, locations, and sizes within different lidar ranges. Techniques to vary receiver aperture shape, position, and size to accommodate backscattering signals over a given range, to maximize Lidar SNR, is introduced. At the same short range, numerical results show a better GF of the bistatic compared to the monostatic/biaxial configurations. A complete comparison between monostatic/biaxial and bistatic configurations, for low altitude measurements between 0.1km and 2km, is discussed.

  3. Range-resolved bistatic imaging lidar for the measurement of the lower atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meki, K; Yamaguchi, K; Li, X; Saito, Y; Kawahara, T D; Nomura, A

    1996-09-01

    A bistatic imaging lidar system using a cooled CCD camera as a detector has been developed for the observation of aerosols, fog, and clouds in the lower atmosphere, especially within several hundred meters of the Earth's surface. Theoretical discussion showed that the received signal does not depend on the measured range. The potential of the bistatic imaging lidar was confirmed through results of nighttime observations of atmospheric phenomena up to 300 m. A range-resolved profile was obtained without scanning and with a very short time resolution, within 1 min.

  4. Source ranging with an underwater geographic point in non-cooperative bistatic sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwa; Jung, Tae Jin; Lee, Kyun Kyung; Myung, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Active sonar is divided into monostatic and bistatic sonar according to the relative positions of the source and the receiver. Bistatic sonar on modern submarines is classified into cooperative and non-cooperative operations. Cooperative operation uses an active signal of a friendly ship; therefore, source information is known a priori, whereas non-cooperative operation utilizes an active signal of the enemy, and hence, it is difficult to acquire source information, such as a source range, which is important for bistatic sonar operation. In order to overcome this difficulty, this paper proposes an estimation method for the source range that employs geographic information, and the utility of the source range estimation is evaluated. For the evaluation, we consider three error components. Then, the validity of the scheme is confirmed through theoretical error analysis and simulation study. The results show that geographic points that satisfy certain specific conditions can be used to estimate the source range within a range of tens of km in the simulation. Finally, we confirm that the receiver could estimate the source range from far away using non-cooperative bistatic sonar.

  5. Mini-RF S- and X-Band Bistatic Radar Observations of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G. W.; Carter, L. M.; Stickle, A. M.; Cahill, J. T. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Morgan, G. A.; Schroeder, D. M.; Mini-RF Team

    2017-10-01

    Mini-RF is operating in concert with the Arecibo Observatory and the Goldstone DSS-13 antenna to collect bistatic radar data. We will provide an update on science questions being addressed by the Mini-RF team in the current LRO extended mission.

  6. Electromagnetic scattering from microwave absorbers - Laboratory verification of the coupled wave theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Jackson, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    W-band measurements of the bistatic scattering function of some common microwave absorbing structures, including periodic wedge-type and pyramid-type iron-epoxy calibration loads and flat carbon-foam 'Echosorb' samples, were made using a network analyzer interface to a focused-lens scattering range. Swept frequency measurements over the 75-100 GHz band revealed specular and Bragg reflection characteristics in the measured data.

  7. Two Dimensional Scattering Analysis of Data-Linked Support Strings for Bistatic Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    track the aircraft before engaging. In the case of the AAA system, the targets position, velocity, and direction are used to aim the guns . SAM systems...radio frequency (RF) cable which feeds the received RF to the receiver for measurement. Because it is a shielded coaxial cable, its clutter contribution...878–887, Jun 2002. ISSN 0018-926X. 23. Swarner, W. and Jr. Peters, L. “Radar cross sections of dielectric or plasma coated conducting spheres and

  8. Solution structure of human plasma fibronectin using small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering at physiological pH and ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, B.P.; Pap, S.; Osterlund, E.; Osterlund, K.; Vuento, M.; Kjems, J.

    1987-01-01

    Human plasma fibronectin has been investigated at physiological pH and ionic strength, by using small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques. The results indicate that the molecule is disc shaped with an axial ratio of about 1:10. In fact, an ellipsoid of revolution with semiaxes a = 1.44 nm and b = c = 13.8 nm is in agreement with the experimental scattering data, and can also fully explain the rather extreme hydrodynamic parameters reported for fibronectin. The X-ray data gave a radius of gyration of 8.9 nm and a molecular weight of 510,000, whereas the neutron data gave slightly larger values, 9.5 nm and 530,000, respectively. From the volume of the best fitting ellipsoid we obtain a degree of hydration of 0.61 g H 2 O/g protein (dry weight). Neutron data, recorded at different D 2 O concentrations in the solvent, gave a match point of 43% D 2 O, which indicates that approximately 80% of the hydrogens bound to oxygen and nitrogen are exchangeable

  9. Non-Cooperative Bistatic SAR Clock Drift Compensation for Tomographic Acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Azcueta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, an important amount of research has been headed towards the measurement of above-ground forest biomass with polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR tomography techniques. This has motivated the proposal of future bistatic SAR missions, like the recent non-cooperative SAOCOM-CS and PARSIFAL from CONAE and ESA. It is well known that the quality of SAR tomography is directly related to the phase accuracy of the interferometer that, in the case of non-cooperative systems, can be particularly affected by the relative drift between onboard clocks. In this letter, we provide insight on the impact of the clock drift error on bistatic interferometry, as well as propose a correction algorithm to compensate its effect. The accuracy of the compensation is tested on simulated acquisitions over volumetric targets, estimating the final impact on tomographic profiles.

  10. A Novel General Imaging Formation Algorithm for GNSS-Based Bistatic SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong-Cheng; Wang, Peng-Bo; Chen, Jie; Liu, Wei; Ge, LinLin; Yang, Wei

    2016-02-26

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) recently plays a more and more significant role in remote sensing applications for its low-cost and real-time global coverage capability. In this paper, a general imaging formation algorithm was proposed for accurately and efficiently focusing GNSS-based bistatic SAR data, which avoids the interpolation processing in traditional back projection algorithms (BPAs). A two-dimensional point target spectrum model was firstly presented, and the bulk range cell migration correction (RCMC) was consequently derived for reducing range cell migration (RCM) and coarse focusing. As the bulk RCMC seriously changes the range history of the radar signal, a modified and much more efficient hybrid correlation operation was introduced for compensating residual phase errors. Simulation results were presented based on a general geometric topology with non-parallel trajectories and unequal velocities for both transmitter and receiver platforms, showing a satisfactory performance by the proposed method.

  11. Analysis for Resolution of Bistatic SAR Configuration with Geosynchronous Transmitter and UAV Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bistatical SAR with geosynchronous illuminator and unmanned aerial vehicle receiver (GEO-UAV BiSAR has significant potential advantages in the field of continuous local observation under a dangerous environment within nearly 24 h. Due to the extreme platform velocity differences, the ellipse orbital movement of GEOSAR makes this BiSAR configuration not like the conventional spaceborne BiSAR. In this paper, based on the orbital kinetic characteristic of GEOSAR, we theoretically analyze the variations of bistatic configuration effect on common azimuth coverage and coherent accumulated time. In addition, two-dimension the resolution is deduced by geometrical configuration on the basis of gradient method. The simulations show that the appropriate selection of initial bistatic configuration can restrain from the appearance of the dead zone in common coverage. And the image results are obtained by frequency domain RD based on Method of Series Reversion (MSR. It is shown that GEO-UAV BiSAR has the high resolution ability.

  12. Focusing Bistatic FMCW SAR Signal by Range Migration Algorithm Based on Fresnel Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yake Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW technique has recently been employed by synthetic aperture radar (SAR to decrease the radar cost and volume. However, the operation range is limited by the direct energy leakage from the transmitting channel to receiving channel due to the operation principle of FMCW technique. Bistatic configuration is an efficient way to increase the isolation between the transmitter and receiver, which could significantly increase the radar standoff range. A bistatic FMCW SAR spectrum model is proposed by using the Fresnel approximation in this paper. This model is similar to that of a monostatic FMCW SAR spectrum, which allows the existing imaging algorithms to be used on bistatic image processing. Based on the new model and the characteristics of FMCW signal, a modified range migration algorithm (RMA for FMCW SAR is proposed to focus the image, which requires less memory and computational load than the traditional RMA. Point-target simulation is used to verify the proposed spectral model and real data processing verified the effectiveness of the proposed RMA.

  13. Excitation strengths and transition radii differences of one-phonon quadrupole excitations from electron scattering on {sup 92,94}Zr and {sup 94}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh Obeid, Abdulrahman

    2014-11-01

    In the framework of this thesis electron scattering experiments on low-energy excitations of {sup 92}Zr and {sup 94}Zr were performed at the S-DALINAC in a momentum transfer range q=0.3-0.6 fm{sup -1}. The nature of one-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states of {sup 92}Zr was investigated by comparison with predictions of the quasi-particle phonon model (QPM). Theoretical (e,e') cross sections have been calculated within the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) to account for Coulomb distortion effects. The reduced strengths of the one-quadrupole phonon states and the one-octupole phonon state have been extracted. The similarity of the momentum-transfer dependence of the form factors between the 2{sup +} states supports the one-phonon nature of the 2{sup +}{sub 2} state of {sup 92}Zr. A new method based on the Plane Wave Born Approximation (PWBA) for a model-independent determination of the ratio of the E2 transition strengths of fully symmetric (FSS) and mixed-symmetry (MSS) one-phonon excitations of heavy vibrational nuclei is introduced. Due to the sensitivity of electron scattering to charge distributions, the charge transition-radii difference can be determined. The basic assumptions (independence from the ratio of Coulomb corrections and from absolute values of transition radii) are tested within the Tassie model, which makes no specific assumptions about the structure of the states other than collectivity. It is shown that a PWBA analysis of the form factors, which usually fails for heavy nuclei, can nevertheless be applied in a relative analysis. This is a new promising approach to determine the ground state transition strength of the 2{sup +} MSS of vibrational nuclei with a precision limited only by the experimental information about the B(E2;2{sup +}{sub 1}→0{sup +}{sub 1}) strength. The PWBA approach furthermore provides information about differences of the proton transition radii of the respective states

  14. Development of a Near-Field Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar for Complex Target Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a description of the design, construction, and characterization of a small electromagnetic anechoic chamber, developed specifically to house a bistatic ISAR system for the analysis of rock samples. Particular emphasis is given to the practicalities of construction, with the intention of assisting those in a similar position, wishing to build an anechoic chamber on a tight budget. The second part of the paper outlines efficient algorithms that may be applied to the tomographic and topographic reconstruction of complex targets within the viewing geometry of this ISAR system.

  15. Mini-RF S- and X-band Bistatic Observations of the Floor of Cabeus Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Gerald Wesley; Stickle, Angela; Turner, Franklin; Jensen, James; Cahill, Joshua; Mini-RF Team

    2017-10-01

    The Mini-RF instrument aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a hybrid dual-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and operates in concert with the Arecibo Observatory (AO) and the Goldstone deep space communications complex 34 meter antenna DSS-13 to collect S- and X-band bistatic radar data of the Moon. Bistatic radar data provide a means to probe the near subsurface for the presence of water ice, which exhibits a strong response in the form of a Coherent Backscatter Opposition Effect (CBOE). This effect has been observed in radar data for the icy surfaces of the Galilean satellites, the polar caps of Mars, polar craters on Mercury, and terrestrial ice sheets in Greenland. Previous work using Mini-RF S-band (12.6 cm) bistatic data suggests the presence of a CBOE associated with the floor of the lunar south polar crater Cabeus. The LRO spacecraft has begun its third extended mission. For this phase of operations Mini-RF is leveraging the existing AO architecture to make S-band radar observations of additional polar craters (e.g., Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini). The purpose of acquiring these data is to determine whether other polar craters exhibit the response observed for Cabeus. Mini-RF has also initiated a new mode of operation that utilizes the X-band (4.2cm) capability of the instrument receiver and a recently commissioned X/C-band transmitter within the Deep Space Network’s (DSN) Goldstone complex to collect bistatic X-band data of the Moon. The purpose of acquiring these data is to constrain the depth/thickness of materials that exhibit a CBOE response - with an emphasis on observing the floor of Cabeus. Recent Mini-RF X-band observations of the floors of the craters Cabeus do not show evidence for a CBOE. This would suggest that the upper ~0.5 meters of the regolith for the floor of Cabeus do not harber water ice in a form detectable at 4.2 cm wavelengths.

  16. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  17. Buried nonmetallic object detection using bistatic ground penetrating radar with variable antenna elevation angle and height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Orfeo, Dan; Burns, Dylan; Miller, Jonathan; Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian

    2017-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been shown to be an effective device for detecting buried objects that have little or no metal content, such as plastic, ceramic, and concrete pipes. In this paper, buried non-metallic object detection is evaluated for different antenna elevation angles and heights using a bistatic air-launched GPR. Due to the large standoff distance between antennas and the ground surface, the air-launched GPR has larger spreading loss than the hand-held GPR and vehicle-mounted GPR. Moreover, nonmetallic objects may have similar dielectric property to the buried medium, which results in further difficulty for accurate detection using air-launched GPR. To study such effects, both GPR simulations and GPR laboratory experiments are performed with various setups where antennas are placed at different heights and angles. In the experiments, the test surface areas are configured with and without rocks in order to examine surface clutter effect. The experimental results evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of bistatic air-launched GPR for detecting buried nonmetallic objects, which provide valuable insights for subsurface scanning with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mounted GPR.

  18. 78 FR 64357 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Bi-State Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... finalized, the effect of this regulation would be to add the Bi-State DPS of greater sage-grouse to the List... 775-861-6300; facsimile 775-861-6301. For specific information related to California (Alpine, Inyo... B); climate change, including drought (Factors A and E); and recreation (Factors A and E). The...

  19. 78 FR 64327 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Bi-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... held at the Tri-County Fairgrounds, Home Economics Room, Sierra Street and Fair Drive, Bishop, CA 93514... contain features essential to the conservation of the DPS, should be included in the designation and why; (c) The features essential to the conservation of the Bi-State DPS as described in the Physical and...

  20. Modeling Radar Scattering by Planetary Regoliths for Varying Angles of Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, P.; Patterson, G. W.; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    Bistatic radar observations can play an important role in characterizing the texture and composition of planetary regoliths. Multiple scattering within a closely-packed particulate medium, such as a regolith, can lead to a response referred to as the Coherent Backscatter Opposition Effect (CBOE), associated with an increase in the intensity of backscattered radiation and an increase in Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) at small bistatic angles. The nature of the CBOE is thought to depend not only on regolith properties, but also on the angle of incidence (Mishchenko, 1992). The latter factor is of particular interest in light of recent radar observations of the Moon over a range of bistatic and incidence angles by the Mini-RF instrument (on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter), operating in bistatic mode with a ground-based transmitter at the Arecibo Observatory. These observations have led to some intriguing results that are not yet well-understood ­- for instance, the lunar South Polar crater Cabeus shows an elevated CPR at only some combinations of incidence angle/bistatic angle, a potential clue to the depth distribution of water ice at the lunar poles (Patterson et al., 2017). Our objective in this work is to develop a model for radar scattering by planetary regoliths that can assist in the interpretation of Mini-RF observations. We approach the problem by coupling the Multiple Sphere T-Matrix (MSTM) code of Mackowski and Mishchenko (2011) to a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. The MSTM code is based on the solution of Maxwell's equations for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the presence of a cluster of scattering/absorbing spheres, and can be used to model the scattering of radar waves by an aggregation of nominal regolith particles. The scattering properties thus obtained serve as input to the Monte Carlo model, which is used to simulate radar scattering at larger spatial scales. The Monte Carlo approach has the advantage of being able to

  1. Reduced complexity FFT-based DOA and DOD estimation for moving target in bistatic MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Hussain

    2016-06-24

    In this paper, we consider a bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. We propose a reduced complexity algorithm to estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) and direction-of-departure (DOD) for moving target. We show that the calculation of parameter estimation can be expressed in terms of one-dimensional fast-Fourier-transforms which drastically reduces the complexity of the optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the two-dimension multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC) and reduced-dimension MUSIC (RD-MUSIC) algorithms. It is shown by simulations, our proposed algorithm has better estimation performance and lower computational complexity compared to the 2D-MUSIC and RD-MUSIC algorithms. Moreover, simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm achieves the Cramer-Rao lower bound. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. The bistatic radar capabilities of the Medicina radiotelescopes in space debris detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Pupillo, G.; Salerno, E.; Pluchino, S.; di Martino, M.

    2010-03-01

    An accurate measurement of the position and trajectory of the space debris fragments is of primary importance for the characterization of the orbital debris environment. The Medicina Radioastronomical Station is a radio observation facility that is here proposed as receiving part of a ground-based space surveillance system for detecting and tracking space debris at different orbital regions (from Low Earth Orbits up to Geostationary Earth Orbits). The proposed system consists of two bistatic radars formed by the existing Medicina receiving antennas coupled with appropriate transmitters. This paper focuses on the current features and future technical development of the receiving part of the observational setup. Outlines of possible transmitting systems will also be given together with the evaluation of the observation strategies achievable with the proposed facilities.

  3. Range resolution improvement in passive bistatic radars using nested FM channels and least squares approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Musa T.; Tofighi, Mohammad; Sevimli, Rasim A.; ćetin, Ahmet E.

    2015-05-01

    One of the main disadvantages of using commercial broadcasts in a Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) system is the range resolution. Using multiple broadcast channels to improve the radar performance is offered as a solution to this problem. However, it suffers from detection performance due to the side-lobes that matched filter creates for using multiple channels. In this article, we introduce a deconvolution algorithm to suppress the side-lobes. The two-dimensional matched filter output of a PBR is further analyzed as a deconvolution problem. The deconvolution algorithm is based on making successive projections onto the hyperplanes representing the time delay of a target. Resulting iterative deconvolution algorithm is globally convergent because all constraint sets are closed and convex. Simulation results in an FM based PBR system are presented.

  4. Joint Angles and Mutual Coupling Estimation Algorithm for Bistatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of angle estimation for a bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar with unknown mutual coupling and proposed a joint algorithm for angles and mutual coupling estimation with the characteristics of uniform linear arrays and subspaces exploitation. We primarily obtain an initial estimate of DOA and DOD, then employ the local one-dimensional searching to estimate exactly DOA and DOD, and finally evaluate the parameters of mutual coupling coefficients via the estimated angles. Exploiting twice of the one-dimensional local searching, our method has much lower computational cost than the algorithm in (Liu and Liao (2012, and automatically obtains the paired two-dimensional angle estimation. Slightly better performance for angle estimation has been achieved via our scheme in contrast to (Liu and Liao (2012, while the two methods indicate very close performance of mutual coupling estimation. The simulation results verify the algorithmic effectiveness of our scheme.

  5. Error Analysis for High Resolution Topography with Bi-Static Single-Pass SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chen, Curtis W.; Hensley, Scott; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    We present a flow down error analysis from the radar system to topographic height errors for bi-static single pass SAR interferometry for a satellite tandem pair. Because of orbital dynamics the baseline length and baseline orientation evolve spatially and temporally, the height accuracy of the system is modeled as a function of the spacecraft position and ground location. Vector sensitivity equations of height and the planar error components due to metrology, media effects, and radar system errors are derived and evaluated globally for a baseline mission. Included in the model are terrain effects that contribute to layover and shadow and slope effects on height errors. The analysis also accounts for nonoverlapping spectra and the non-overlapping bandwidth due to differences between the two platforms' viewing geometries. The model is applied to a 514 km altitude 97.4 degree inclination tandem satellite mission with a 300 m baseline separation and X-band SAR. Results from our model indicate that global DTED level 3 can be achieved.

  6. Integrated Time and Phase Synchronization Strategy for a Multichannel Spaceborne-Stationary Bistatic SAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial separation of the transmitter and receiver in Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (BiSAR makes it a promising and useful supplement to a classical Monostatic SAR system (MonoSAR. This paper proposes a novel integrated time and phase synchronization strategy for a multichannel spaceborne-stationary BiSAR system. Firstly, the time synchronization strategy is proposed, which includes Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF generation under noisy conditions, multichannel calibration and the alignment of the recorded data with the orbital data. Furthermore, the phase synchronization strategy, which fully considers the deteriorative factors in the BiSAR configuration, is well studied. The contribution of the phase synchronization strategy includes two aspects: it not only compensates the phase error, but also improves the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR of the obtained signals. Specifically, all direct signals on different PRF time can be reconstructed with the shift and phase compensation operation using a reference signal. Besides, since the parameters of the reference signal can be estimated only once using the selected practical direct signal and a priori information, the processing complexity is well reduced. Final imaging results with and without compensation for real data are presented to validate the proposed synchronization strategy.

  7. Probing of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances using HF-induced scatter targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results from the Tromsø and Sura heating experiments at high and mid-latitudes are examined. It is shown that the combination of HF-induced target and bi-static HF Doppler radio scatter observations is a profitable method for probing medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs at high and mid-latitudes. HF ionospheric modification experiments provide a way of producing the HF-induced scatter target in a controlled manner at altitudes where the sensitivity to TIDs is highest. Bi-static HF Doppler radio scatter observations were carried out on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path in the course of a Tromsø heating experiment on 16 November 2004 when the pump wave was reflected from an auroral Es-layer. During Sura heating experiments on 19 and 20 August 2004, when the HF pump wave was reflected from the F2 ionospheric layer, multi-position bi-static HF Doppler radio scatter observations were simultaneously performed at three reception points including St. Petersburg, Kharkov, and Rostov-on-Don. Ray tracing and Doppler shift simulations were made for all experiments. A computational technique has been developed allowing the reconstruction of the TID phase velocities from multi-position bi-static HF Doppler scatters. Parameters of medium-scale TIDs were found. In all experiments they were observed in the evening and pre-midnight hours. TIDs in the auroral E-region with periods of about 23 min were traveling southward at speeds of 210 m/s. TIDs in the mid-latitudinal F-region with periods from 20 to 45 min travelled at speeds between 40 and 150 m/s. During quiet magnetic conditions the waves were traveling in the north-east direction. In disturbed conditions the waves were moving in the south-west direction with higher speeds as compared with quiet conditions. Possible sources for the atmospheric gravity waves at middle and high latitudes are discussed.

  8. Mapping sea ice using reflected GNSS signals in a bistatic radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Clara; Zuffada, Cinzia; Shah, Rashmi; Mannucci, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals can be used as a kind of bistatic radar, with receivers opportunistically recording ground-reflected signals transmitted by the GNSS satellites themselves. This technique, GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R), has primarily been explored using receivers flown on aircraft or balloons, or in modeling studies. Last year's launch of the TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1) satellite represents an enormous opportunity to investigate the potential of using spaceborne GNSS receivers to sense changes in the land and ocean surface. Here, we examine the ability of reflected GNSS signals to estimate sea ice extent and sea ice age, as well as comment on the possibility of using GNSS-R to detect leads and polynyas within the ice. In particular, we quantify how the peak power of Delay Doppler Maps (DDMs) generated within the GNSS receiver responds as the satellite flies over the Polar Regions. To compute the effective peak power of each DDM, we first normalize the peak power of the DDM by the noise floor. We also correct for antenna gain, range, and incidence angle. Once these corrections are made, the effective peak power across DDMs may be used as a proxy for changes in surface permittivity and surface roughness. We compare our calculations of reflected power to existing sea ice remote sensing products such as data from the SSMI/S as well as Landsat imagery. Our analysis shows that GNSS reflections are extremely sensitive to the sea ice edge, with increases in reflected power of more than 10 dB relative to reflected power over the open ocean. As the sea ice ages, it thickens and roughens, and reflected power decreases, though it does not decrease below the power over the open ocean. Given the observed sensitivity of GNSS reflections to small features over land and the sensitivity to the sea ice edge, we hypothesize that reflection data could help map the temporal evolution of leads and polynyas.

  9. Optimal Power Allocation Strategy in a Joint Bistatic Radar and Communication System Based on Low Probability of Intercept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenguang; Wang, Fei; Salous, Sana; Zhou, Jianjiang

    2017-11-25

    In this paper, we investigate a low probability of intercept (LPI)-based optimal power allocation strategy for a joint bistatic radar and communication system, which is composed of a dedicated transmitter, a radar receiver, and a communication receiver. The joint system is capable of fulfilling the requirements of both radar and communications simultaneously. First, assuming that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) corresponding to the target surveillance path is much weaker than that corresponding to the line of sight path at radar receiver, the analytically closed-form expression for the probability of false alarm is calculated, whereas the closed-form expression for the probability of detection is not analytically tractable and is approximated due to the fact that the received signals are not zero-mean Gaussian under target presence hypothesis. Then, an LPI-based optimal power allocation strategy is presented to minimize the total transmission power for information signal and radar waveform, which is constrained by a specified information rate for the communication receiver and the desired probabilities of detection and false alarm for the radar receiver. The well-known bisection search method is employed to solve the resulting constrained optimization problem. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to reveal the effects of several system parameters on the power allocation results. It is also demonstrated that the LPI performance of the joint bistatic radar and communication system can be markedly improved by utilizing the proposed scheme.

  10. Multiple-Parameter Estimation Method Based on Spatio-Temporal 2-D Processing for Bistatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouguo Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel spatio-temporal 2-dimensional (2-D processing method that can jointly estimate the transmitting-receiving azimuth and Doppler frequency for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar in the presence of spatial colored noise and an unknown number of targets is proposed. In the temporal domain, the cross-correlation of the matched filters’ outputs for different time-delay sampling is used to eliminate the spatial colored noise. In the spatial domain, the proposed method uses a diagonal loading method and subspace theory to estimate the direction of departure (DOD and direction of arrival (DOA, and the Doppler frequency can then be accurately estimated through the estimation of the DOD and DOA. By skipping target number estimation and the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD of the data covariance matrix estimation and only requiring a one-dimensional search, the proposed method achieves low computational complexity. Furthermore, the proposed method is suitable for bistatic MIMO radar with an arbitrary transmitted and received geometrical configuration. The correction and efficiency of the proposed method are verified by computer simulation results.

  11. Multiple-Parameter Estimation Method Based on Spatio-Temporal 2-D Processing for Bistatic MIMO Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shouguo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Kunhui; Tang, Weiping

    2015-12-14

    A novel spatio-temporal 2-dimensional (2-D) processing method that can jointly estimate the transmitting-receiving azimuth and Doppler frequency for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar in the presence of spatial colored noise and an unknown number of targets is proposed. In the temporal domain, the cross-correlation of the matched filters' outputs for different time-delay sampling is used to eliminate the spatial colored noise. In the spatial domain, the proposed method uses a diagonal loading method and subspace theory to estimate the direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA), and the Doppler frequency can then be accurately estimated through the estimation of the DOD and DOA. By skipping target number estimation and the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of the data covariance matrix estimation and only requiring a one-dimensional search, the proposed method achieves low computational complexity. Furthermore, the proposed method is suitable for bistatic MIMO radar with an arbitrary transmitted and received geometrical configuration. The correction and efficiency of the proposed method are verified by computer simulation results.

  12. Solution of scattering from rough surface with a 2D target above it by a hybrid method based on the reciprocity theorem and the forward–backward method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunhua; Zhang Yanmin; He Mingxia; Guo Lixin

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid method based on the forward–backward method (FBM) and the reciprocity theorem (RT) for evaluating the scattering field from dielectric rough surface with a 2D target above it. Here, the equivalent electric/magnetic current densities on the rough surface as well as the scattering field from it are numerically calculated by FBM, and the scattered field from the isolated target is obtained utilizing the method of moments (MOM). Meanwhile, the rescattered coupling interactions between the target and the surface are evaluated employing the combination of FBM and RT. Our hybrid method is first validated by available MOM results. Then, the functional dependences of bistatic and monostatic scattering from the target above rough surface upon the target altitude, incident and scattering angles are numerically simulated and discussed. This study presents a numerical description for the scattering mechanism associated with rescattered coupling interactions between a target and an underlying randomly rough surface. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  13. Study of the Bistatic Radar Cross Section of a 155-mm Artillery Round

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Particular emphasis is given to the forward and specular scattering directions, which display much larger target signatures than other geometries...configurations, the forward and specular scattering, where the target signature is much larger (by at least an order of magnitude) than in any other...Contents List of Figures iv 1. Introduction 1 2. Description of the Target , Computational Methods, and Terminology 2 3. Comparison of FEKO and

  14. Transmit/Receive Spatial Smoothing with Improved Effective Array Aperture for Angle and Mutual Coupling Estimation in Bistatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haomiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a transmit/receive spatial smoothing with improved effective aperture approach for angle and mutual coupling estimation in bistatic MIMO radar. Firstly, the noise in each channel is restrained, by exploiting its independency, in both the spatial domain and temporal domain. Then the augmented transmit and receive spatial smoothing matrices with improved effective aperture are obtained, by exploiting the Vandermonde structure of steering vector with uniform linear array. The DOD and DOA can be estimated by utilizing the unitary ESPRIT algorithm. Finally, the mutual coupling coefficients of both the transmitter and the receiver can be figured out with the estimated angles of DOD and DOA. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  16. Inexpensive Ultrasound Demonstrations as Analogs of Radio Diffraction in the field : Huygens Probe Bistatic experiment on Titan and the Sea Interferometer (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The wave nature of electromagnetic radiation can be exploited in a number of astronomical and remote sensing methods, but is often challenging to visualize in the classroom. One approach with conveniently-inexpensive components is to use sound as an analog. Readily-available ultrasonic transducers at 40 kHz can be driven with a 555 oscillator and received intensity detected with an op-amp and visualized with a digital voltmeter, a lightbulb, or even acoustically. The wavelength of 9mm is convenient for tabletop experiments, with a relevant example being Lloyds Mirror, the interference of a direct wave from a source just above a surface with the reflected wave. As a distant receiver moves in angle through this interference pattern, a series of peaks and nulls in recorded intensity can be interpreted as the height of the transmitter and the reflectivity (i.e. with some assumptions, the roughness) of the reflecting surface. This $10 experiment will be demonstrated at the poster. Such an observation was (serendipitously) made in 2005 after the landing of the Huygens probe on the surface of Titan, where the radio signal measured by Cassini as it set on the horizon as seen from the probe underwent sharp dips in strength that were inverted into a precise measurement of the post-impact probe height. A similar technique in reverse was applied a half century earlier in early Australian radio astronomy to measure the position and width of astrophysical sources from a single clifftop antenna. Ultrasound can be convenient to emulate other radio work, exploiting Doppler effects and (for pulsed sources, like those used in rangers for amateur robotics) propagation time rather than diffraction. Some experiments on tracking Frisbees as an analog for measuring planetary winds by tracking descent probes, and on bistatic delay/Doppler scatterometry as in the CYGNSS GPS-based experiment to measure hurricane winds via sea state, will also be discussed. Huygens probe on the surface of

  17. Observation of Nonlinear Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotseroglou, T.

    2003-12-19

    This experiment tests Quantum Electrodynamics in the strong field regime. Nonlinear Compton scattering has been observed during the interaction of a 46.6 GeV electron beam with a 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} laser beam. The strength of the field achieved was measured by the parameter {eta} = e{var_epsilon}{sub rms}/{omega}mc = 0.6. Data were collected with infrared and green laser photons and circularly polarized laser light. The timing stabilization achieved between the picosecond laser and electron pulses has {sigma}{sub rms} = 2 ps. A strong signal of electrons that absorbed up to 4 infrared photons (or up to 3 green photons) at the same point in space and time, while emitting a single gamma ray, was observed. The energy spectra of the scattered electrons and the nonlinear dependence of the electron yield on the field strength agreed with the simulation over 3 orders of magnitude. The detector could not resolve the nonlinear Compton scattering from the multiple single Compton scattering which produced rates of scattered electrons of the same order of magnitude. Nevertheless, a simulation has studied this difference and concluded that the scattered electron rates observed could not be accounted for only by multiple ordinary Compton scattering; nonlinear Compton scattering processes are dominant for n {ge} 3.

  18. Quasiresonant scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia; Ionescu, Remus A.

    2004-01-01

    The quasiresonant scattering consists from a single channel resonance coupled by direct interaction transitions to some competing reaction channels. A description of quasiresonant Scattering, in terms of generalized reduced K-, R- and S- Matrix, is developed in this work. The quasiresonance's decay width is, due to channels coupling, smaller than the width of the ancestral single channel resonance (resonance's direct compression). (author)

  19. Scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text

  20. Analysis of Approximations and Aperture Distortion for 3D Migration of Bistatic Radar Data with the Two-Step Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanzi Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-step approach is a fast algorithm for 3D migration originally introduced to process zero-offset seismic data. Its application to monostatic GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar data is straightforward. A direct extension of the algorithm for the application to bistatic radar data is possible provided that the TX-RX azimuth is constant. As for the zero-offset case, the two-step operator is exactly equivalent to the one-step 3D operator for a constant velocity medium and is an approximation of the one-step 3D operator for a medium where the velocity varies vertically. Two methods are explored for handling a heterogeneous medium; both are suitable for the application of the two-step approach, and they are compared in terms of accuracy of the final 3D operator. The aperture of the two-step operator is discussed, and a solution is proposed to optimize its shape. The analysis is of interest for any NDT application where the medium is expected to be heterogeneous, or where the antenna is not in direct contact with the medium (e.g., NDT of artworks, humanitarian demining, radar with air-launched antennas.

  1. Critical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs

  2. Critical scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.

  3. Electron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaodong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Shaw, J.J.; Bahri, C.

    1990-01-01

    Electron scattering is one of the best probes available to us to probe the nucleus. It has revealed to us, with unprecedented accuracy, the charge and current distributions of nuclei. It has provided us with positive evidence for meson exchange currents. It was used to 'discover' the quark and it revealed to us that nucleons may be modified in the nuclear environment (EMC Effect). In short, electron scattering has revolutionized the study of nuclear physics. Several recent developments will insure that electron beams which will soon become availabe at CEBAF, Bates and elsewhere will make high-precision coincidence experiments possible. As the technology is becoming available, we are just beginning to exploit polarization degrees of freedom in our experiments. In this paper, we will introduce the formalism of electron scattering, review what we have learned in the past and look ahead toward the future

  4. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  5. On strength of porous material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1999-01-01

    of irregularities only scattered MOE-MOR relations (clouds) can be established from which no really results can be read.For homogeneously produced porous materials, however, like modern ceramics and high performance concretes MOE-MOR relations can be presented which are reliable. The present paper contributes...... from knowing about pore geometry, solid phase stiffness, and zero-porosity strength. Pore geometry is the very important common denominator which controls both both stiffness and strength.The accurate results obtained are finally used to suggest generalizations with respect to strength in general...

  6. Influence of electron scatterings on thermoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cheung Au Yeung, Tin; Hin Kam, Chan

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we employed non-equilibrium Green's function to investigate the electron transport properties in a nanowire in the presence of scatterings. The scattering mechanism is modelled by the Büttiker probe. The effect of electron scattering is analyzed under three conditions: absence of external field; with a bias voltage; and with a finite temperature difference. It is found that weak and strong scattering strengths affect the electron transport in different ways. In the case of weak scattering strength, electron trapping increases the electron density, thereby boosting the conductance significantly. Although the increment in conductance would reduce the Seebeck coefficient slightly, the power factor still increases. In the case of strong scattering strength, electron diffraction causes the redistribution of electrons; accumulation of electrons at the ends of the wire blocks current flow; hence the conductance is reduced significantly. Although the Seebeck coefficient increases slightly, the power factor still decreases. The power factor is enhanced by 6%-18%, at the optimum scattering strength.

  7. Focusing high-squint and large-baseline one-stationary bistatic SAR data using keystone transform and enhanced nonlinear chirp scaling based on an ellipse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Song; Hu, Jian; Sun, Minhong

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the imaging problem for one-stationary bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BiSAR) with high-squint, large-baseline configuration. In this bistatic configuration, accurate focusing of BiSAR data is a difficult issue due to the relatively large range cell migration (RCM), severe range-azimuth coupling, and inherent azimuth-geometric variance. To circumvent these issues, an enhanced azimuth nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) algorithm based on an ellipse model is investigated in this paper. In the range processing, a method combining deramp operation and keystone transform (KT) is adopted to remove linear RCM completely and mitigate range-azimuth cross-coupling. In the azimuth focusing, an ellipse model is established to analyze and depict the characteristic of azimuth-variant Doppler phase. Based on the new model, an enhanced azimuth NLCS algorithm is derived to focus one-stationary BiSAR data. Simulating results exhibited at the end of this paper validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Scattering from extended targets in range-dependent fluctuating ocean-waveguides with clutter from theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Srinivasan; Küsel, Elizabeth T; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C

    2012-08-01

    Bistatic, long-range measurements of acoustic scattered returns from vertically extended, air-filled tubular targets were made during three distinct field experiments in fluctuating continental shelf waveguides. It is shown that Sonar Equation estimates of mean target-scattered intensity lead to large errors, differing by an order of magnitude from both the measurements and waveguide scattering theory. The use of the Ingenito scattering model is also shown to lead to significant errors in estimating mean target-scattered intensity in the field experiments because they were conducted in range-dependent ocean environments with large variations in sound speed structure over the depth of the targets, scenarios that violate basic assumptions of the Ingenito model. Green's theorem based full-field modeling that describes scattering from vertically extended tubular targets in range-dependent ocean waveguides by taking into account nonuniform sound speed structure over the target's depth extent is shown to accurately describe the statistics of the targets' scattered field in all three field experiments. Returns from the man-made targets are also shown to have a very different spectral dependence from the natural target-like clutter of the dominant fish schools observed, suggesting that judicious multi-frequency sensing may often provide a useful means of distinguishing fish from man-made targets.

  9. Scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Written by the author of the widely acclaimed textbook. Theoretical Atomic Physics Includes sections on quantum reflection, tunable Feshbach resonances and Efimov states. Useful for advanced students and researchers. This book presents a concise and modern coverage of scattering theory. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible, and deeper questions related to mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. The book should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. It is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.

  10. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  11. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research

  12. Exploring Vesta's Surface Roughness and Dielectric Properties Using VIR Spectrometer and Bistatic Radar Observations by the Dawn Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E. M.; Heggy, E.; Capria, M. T.; Tosi, F.; Kofman, W. W.; Russell, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple lines of evidence from NASA's Dawn mission suggest transient volatile presence at the surface of asteroid Vesta. Radar remote sensing is a useful technique for the investigation of volatile content at the surface and shallow subsurface, but requires the use of accurate dielectric and topographic models in order to deconvolve the effect of surface roughness from the total observed radar backscatter. Toward this end, we construct a dielectric model for the dry, volatile-poor case of Vesta's surface to represent average surface conditions, and to assess the expected average range of dielectric properties due to known variations in mineralogy, temperature, and density as inferred from Dawn VIR data. We employ dielectric studies of lunar samples to serve as a suitable analog to the Vestan regolith, and in the case of 10-wavelength penetration depth of X-band frequency radar observations, our model yields ɛ' from 2.5 to 2.6 from the night to dayside of Vesta, and tan δ from 0.011 to 0.014. Our estimation of ɛ' corresponds to specular surface reflectivity of ~0.05. In addition to modeling, we have also conducted an opportunistic bistatic radar (BSR) experiment at Vesta using the communications antennas aboard Dawn and on Earth. In this configuration, Dawn transmits a continuous radar signal toward the Earth while orbiting Vesta. As the Dawn spacecraft passes behind Vesta (entering an occultation), the line of sight between Dawn and Earth intersects Vesta's surface, resulting in a reflection of radar waves from the surface and shallow subsurface, which are then received on Earth for analysis. The geometry of the Dawn BSR experiment results in high incidence angles on Vesta's surface, and leads to a differential Doppler shift of only a few 10s of Hz between the direct signal and the surface echo. As a consequence, this introduces ambiguity in the measurement of bandwidth and peak power of each surface echo. We report our interpretations of each surface echo in

  13. Group theory approach to scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.

    1985-01-01

    For certain physical systems, there exists a dynamical group which contains the operators connecting states with the same energy but belonging to potentials with different strengths. This group is called the potential group of that system. The SO(2,1) potential groups structure is introduced to describe physical systems with mixed spectra, such as Morse and Poeschl-teller potentials. The discrete spectrum describes bound states and the continuous spectrum describes bound states and the continuous spectrum describes scattering states. A solvable class of one-dimensional potentials given by Natanzon belongs to this structure with an SO(2,2) potential group. The potential group structure provides us with an algebraic procedure generating the recursion relations for the scattering matrix, which can be formulated in a purely algebraic fashion, divorced from any differential realization. This procedure, when applied to the three-dimensional scattering problem with SO(3,1) symmetry, generates the scattering matrix of the Coulomb problem. Preliminary phenomenological models for elastic scattering in a heavy-ion collision are constructed on the basis. The results obtained here can be regarded as an important extension of the group theory techniques to scattering problems similar to that developed for bound state problems

  14. Solution of a simple inelastic scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Simple examples of elastic scattering, typically from square wells, serve as important pedagogical tools in discussion of the concepts and processes involved in elastic scattering events. An analytic solution of a model inelastic scattering system is presented here to serve in this role for inelastic events. The model and its solution are simple enough to be of pedagogical utility, but also retain enough of the important physical features to include most of the special characteristics of inelastic systems. The specific model chosen is the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Pedagogically important features of inelastic scattering, including its multistate character, convergence behavior, and dependence on an ''inelastic potential'' are emphasized as the solution is determined. Results are presented for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering, which show that the model is capable of providing an elementary representation of vibrationally inelastic scattering

  15. GNSS Reflectometer Instrument for Bi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar (GRIBSAR) measurements of earth science parameters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals scattered from ocean, land and ice are affected by the reflecting surface, and hence the changes induced by the...

  16. GNSS Reflectometer Instrument for Bi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar (GRIBSAR) Measurements of Earth Science Parameters, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals scattered from ocean, land and ice are affected by the reflecting surface, and hence the changes induced by the...

  17. Multi-Target Angle Tracking Algorithm for Bistatic Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO Radar Based on the Elements of the Covariance Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of tracking the direction of arrivals (DOA and the direction of departure (DOD of multiple targets for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar. A high-precision tracking algorithm for target angle is proposed. First, the linear relationship between the covariance matrix difference and the angle difference of the adjacent moment was obtained through three approximate relations. Then, the proposed algorithm obtained the relationship between the elements in the covariance matrix difference. On this basis, the performance of the algorithm was improved by averaging the covariance matrix element. Finally, the least square method was used to estimate the DOD and DOA. The algorithm realized the automatic correlation of the angle and provided better performance when compared with the adaptive asymmetric joint diagonalization (AAJD algorithm. The simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The algorithm provides the technical support for the practical application of MIMO radar.

  18. Multi-Target Angle Tracking Algorithm for Bistatic Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Radar Based on the Elements of the Covariance Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyan; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhou, Qingsong; Li, Xiaobo

    2018-03-07

    In this paper, we consider the problem of tracking the direction of arrivals (DOA) and the direction of departure (DOD) of multiple targets for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. A high-precision tracking algorithm for target angle is proposed. First, the linear relationship between the covariance matrix difference and the angle difference of the adjacent moment was obtained through three approximate relations. Then, the proposed algorithm obtained the relationship between the elements in the covariance matrix difference. On this basis, the performance of the algorithm was improved by averaging the covariance matrix element. Finally, the least square method was used to estimate the DOD and DOA. The algorithm realized the automatic correlation of the angle and provided better performance when compared with the adaptive asymmetric joint diagonalization (AAJD) algorithm. The simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The algorithm provides the technical support for the practical application of MIMO radar.

  19. Application of Bistatic TanDEM-X Interferometry to Measure Lava Flow Volume and Lava Extrusion Rates During the 2012-13 Tolbachik, Kamchatka Fissure Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, J.; Westerhaus, M.; Heck, B.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial imaging methods are a well approved source for mapping lava flows during eruptions and can serve as a base to assess the eruption dynamics and to determine the affected area. However, clouds and smoke often hinder optical systems like the Earth Observation Advanced Land Imager (EO-1-ALI, operated by NASA) to map lava flows properly, which hence affects its reliability. Furthermore, the amount of lava that is extruded during an eruption cannot be determined from optical images - however, it can significantly contribute to assess the accompanying hazard and risk. One way to monitor active lava flows is to quantify the topographic changes over time while using up-to-date high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). Whereas photogrammetric methods still fail when clouds and fume obstruct the sight, innovative radar satellite missions have the potential to generate high-resolution DEMs at any time. The innovative bistatic TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X Add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) satellite mission enables for the first time generating high-resolution DEMs from synthetic aperture radar satellite data repeatedly with reasonable costs and high resolution. The satellite mission consists of the two nearly identical satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X that build a large synthetic aperture radar interferometer with adaptable across- and along-track baselines aiming to generate topographic information globally. In the present study, we apply the TanDEM-X data to study the lava flows that were emplaced during the 2012-13 Tolbachik, Kamchatka fissure eruption. The eruption was composed of very fluid lava flows that effused along a northeast-southwest trending fissure. We used about fifteen bistatic data pairs to generate DEMs prior to, during, and after the eruption. The differencing of the DEMs enables mapping the lava flow field at different times. This allows measuring the extruded volume and to derive the changes in lava extrusion over time.

  20. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  1. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  2. Nucleon elastic and quasielastic scattering on vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, N.N.; Isakov, A.G.; Rudenskaya, E.O.

    1988-01-01

    A unified set of parameters of the neutron optical potential for the 51 V nucleus is searched in the energy range 10 keV - 32 MeV so as to obtain a good agreement with all the available data. These include neutron strength function and elastic scattering data, as well as the neutron total cross sections and (p,n) isobaric analog state quasielastic scattering data

  3. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  4. Intensity statistics of very high frequency sound scattered from wind-driven waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstead, Sean P; Deane, Grant B

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of vhf 100-1000 kHz underwater sound with the ocean surface is explored. The bistatic forward scatter of 300 kHz sound is measured in a wind driven wave channel. Fluctuations in arrival amplitude are described by the scintillation index (SI) which is a measure of arrival intensity variance. SI initially increases with wind speed but eventually saturates to a value of 0.5 when the root-mean-square (rms) roughness is 0.5 mm. An adjusted scintillation index (SI*) is suggested that accounts for the multiple arrivals and properly saturates to a value of 1. Fluctuations in arrival time do not saturate and increase proportionately to the dominant surface wave component. Forward scattering is modeled at frequencies ranging from 50 to 2000 kHz using the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral with surface wave realizations derived from wave gauge data. The amplitude and temporal statistics of the simulated scattering agree well with measured data. Intensity saturation occurs at lower wind speeds for higher frequency sound. Both measured and modeled vhf sound is characterized by many surface arrivals at saturation. Doppler shifts associated with wave motion are expected to vary rapidly for vhf sound however further analysis is required.

  5. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir; Abdul Aziz, Noor Hafizah; Abdul Rashid, Nur Emileen; Ahmad Salah, Asem; Hashim, Fazirulhisyam

    2016-09-29

    The passive bistatic radar (PBR) system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR). The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS) for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system's capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  6. Propagation modeling of ocean-scattered low-elevation GPS signals for maritime tropospheric duct inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin-Peng; Wu Zhen-Sen; Zhao Zhen-Wei; Zhang Yu-Sheng; Wang Bo

    2012-01-01

    The maritime tropospheric duct is a low-altitude anomalous refractivity structure over the ocean surface, and it can significantly affect the performance of many shore-based/shipboard radar and communication systems. We propose the idea that maritime tropospheric ducts can be retrieved from ocean forward-scattered low-elevation global positioning system (GPS) signals. Retrieval is accomplished by matching the measured power patterns of the signals to those predicted by the forward propagation model as a function of the modified refractivity profile. On the basis of a parabolic equation method and bistatic radar equation, we develop such a forward model for computing the trapped propagation characteristics of an ocean forward-scattered GPS signal within a tropospheric duct. A new GPS scattering initial field is defined for this model to start the propagation modeling. A preliminary test on the performance of this model is conducted using measured data obtained from a 2009-experiment in the South China Sea. Results demonstrate that this model can predict GPS propagation characteristics within maritime tropospheric ducts and serve as a forward model for duct inversion

  7. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  8. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  9. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  10. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  11. Outline of Neutron Scattering Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, N. F.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron scattering formalism is briefly surveyed. Topics touched upon include coherent and incoherent scattering, bound and free cross-sections, the Van Hove formalism, magnetic scattering, elastic scattering, the static approximation, sum rules, small angle scattering, inelastic scattering, thermal diffuse scattering, quasielastic scattering, and neutron optics.

  12. Demonstration of scattering suppression in retardation-based plasmonic nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.G.; Pors, A.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard

    2010-01-01

    of counter-propagating short-range surface plasmon polaritons (SR-SPP) and that the transformation of nanorods into split-rings by bending significantly influences the scattering strength. Importantly, strong suppression of scattering for the fundamental SR-SPP resonance is observed when the bend radius...

  13. Scattering cross section of metal catalyst atoms in silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Rurali, R.; Cartoixa, X.

    2010-01-01

    strength of the different metal atoms. We find that Au, Ag, and Cu impurities have very similar scattering cross sections, while Al differs from the rest. Impurities located in the center of the wires scatter significantly more than impurities close to or at the surface. The results for nanowires...

  14. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  15. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  16. Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    to the MF results. 18-01-2017 Memorandum Report Bottom scattering Bottom scattering strength Reverberation Underwater acoustics Active sonar August...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/7160--17-9701 Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water January...18, 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. RogeR C. gauss edwaRd L. Kunz Joseph M. FiaLKowsKi RiChaRd Menis Acoustic Signal

  17. Algebraic scattering theory and heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.; Berge, L.; Fiedeldey, H.

    1993-01-01

    Algebraic scattering theory is used to analyze elastic scattering cross-sections from heavy ion collisions. Collisions epitomized by strong absorption lead to algebraic potentials that can be described by simple exponential forms. But for collisions that are 'transparent', while asymptotically the algebraic potentials are exponential, their actual form (for low 1-values) is quite complex. 7 refs., 4 figs

  18. Magnetic neutron and x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettier, C.

    1999-01-01

    Most of our knowledge about the microscopic properties of magnetic materials comes from neutron scattering experiments owing to the strength of the interaction between the neutron spin and magnetisation densities which is exploited to study the statics and dynamics of magnetic moments. Neutron diffraction is the probe of choice for magnetic structure determinations and inelastic neutron scattering is the only tool to observe the propagation of magnetic excitations. However, neutron scattering suffer from two drawbacks: i) neutron beams have a low flux and a low brilliance; ii) the magnetic neutron scattering amplitude is neither electronic shell sensitive nor species selective. These limitations are easily overcome by the x-ray methods. On the one hand, x-rays are extremely sensitive to electronic distributions and the use of resonant scattering has proven to be extremely sensitive to the symmetry of the site and electronic shell which carries the magnetisation. On the other hand, the high brilliance x-ray beams delivered by the modern synchrotron facilities are perfectly suited to the study of small samples. Furthermore, the recent progress achieved in x-ray instrumentation has stimulated considerable theoretical interest on the use of the x-ray scattering and new phenomena related to magnetism can be directly detected in x-ray scattering experiments. Recent specific examples are presented to underline the complementary use of neutron and x-ray methods. (author)

  19. Neutron scattering from fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering formalism for fractal structures is presented. Volume fractals are exemplified by silica particle clusters formed either from colloidal suspensions or by flame hydrolysis. The determination of the fractional dimensionality through scattering experiments is reviewed, and recent small...

  20. Elastic magnetic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sick, I.

    1985-01-01

    The paper surveys the field of elastic magnetic electron scattering. Magnetic scattering as a configuration analyzer; magnetic form factors of high multipole order; absolute spectroscopic factors; and non-nucleonic constituents; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M C; Sanz, A G; García, G; Muñoz, A; Oller, J C; Blanco, F; Do, T P T; Brunger, M J; Almeida, D; Limão-Vieira, P

    2012-01-01

    Electron scattering from Tetrahydrofuran (C 4 H 8 O) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following a mixed experimental and theoretical approach, total scattering, elastic scattering and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  2. Magnetic photon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.

    1987-05-01

    The report reviews, at an introductory level, the theory of photon scattering from condensed matter. Magnetic scattering, which arises from first-order relativistic corrections to the Thomson scattering amplitude, is treated in detail and related to the corresponding interaction in the magnetic neutron diffraction amplitude. (author)

  3. Light scattering measurements supporting helical structures for chromatin in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A M; Cotter, R I; Pardon, J F

    1978-05-01

    Laser light scattering measurements have been made on a series of polynucleosomes containing from 50 to 150 nucleosomes. Radii of gyration have been determined as a function of polynucleosome length for different ionic strength solutions. The results suggest that at low ionic strength the chromatin adopts a loosely helical structure rather than a random coil. The helix becomes more regular on increasing the ionic strength, the dimension resembling those proposed by Finch and Klug for their solenoid model.

  4. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths-based interve......In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths...

  5. 'Bi-modal' isoscalar giant dipole strength in 58Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, B.K.; Garg, U.; Hedden, M.; Koss, M.; Li, T.; Liu, Y.; Madhusudhana Rao, P.V.; Zhu, S.; Itoh, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Takeda, H.; Uchida, M.; Yasuda, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hara, K.; Kawabata, T.; Akimune, H.; Harakeh, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The strength distribution of the isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR) in 58 Ni has been obtained over the energy range 10.5-49.5 MeV via extreme forward angle scattering (including 0 deg.) of 386 MeV α particles. We observe a 'bi-modal' E1 strength distribution for the first time in an A<90 nucleus. The observed ISGDR strength distribution is in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a recent RPA calculation

  6. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  7. Scattering and absorption of particles emitted by a point source in a cluster of point scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljequist, D.

    2012-01-01

    A theory for the scattering and absorption of particles isotropically emitted by a point source in a cluster of point scatterers is described and related to the theory for the scattering of an incident particle beam. The quantum mechanical probability of escape from the cluster in different directions is calculated, as well as the spatial distribution of absorption events within the cluster. A source strength renormalization procedure is required. The average quantum scattering in clusters with randomly shifting scatterer positions is compared to trajectory simulation with the aim of studying the validity of the trajectory method. Differences between the results of the quantum and trajectory methods are found primarily for wavelengths larger than the average distance between nearest neighbour scatterers. The average quantum results include, for example, a local minimum in the number of absorption events at the location of the point source and interference patterns in the angle-dependent escape probability as well as in the distribution of absorption events. The relative error of the trajectory method is in general, though not generally, of similar magnitude as that obtained for beam scattering.

  8. Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term {\\it \\`a la} Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the elect...

  9. Elastic scattering phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)

  10. Quantum theory of scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Ta You

    1962-01-01

    This volume addresses the broad formal aspects and applications of the quantum theory of scattering in atomic and nuclear collisions. An encyclopedic source of pioneering work, it serves as a text for students and a reference for professionals in the fields of chemistry, physics, and astrophysics. The self-contained treatment begins with the general theory of scattering of a particle by a central field. Subsequent chapters explore particle scattering by a non-central field, collisions between composite particles, the time-dependent theory of scattering, and nuclear reactions. An examinati

  11. Rayleigh scattering in dense fluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, René D.

    2018-01-01

    Iglesias et al. showed that the Rayleigh scattering from helium atoms decreases by collective effects in the atmospheres of cool white dwarf stars. Their study is here extended to consider an accurate evaluation of the atomic polarizability and the density effects involved in the Rayleigh cross-section over a wide density-temperature region. The dynamic dipole polarizability of helium atoms in the ground state is determinated with the oscillator-strength distribution approach. The spectral density of oscillator strength considered includes most significant single and doubly excited transitions to discrete and continuum energies. Static and dynamic polarizability results are confronted with experiments and other theoretical evaluations shown a very good agreement. In addition, the refractive index of helium is evaluated with the Lorentz-Lorenz equation and shows a satisfactory agreement with the most recent experiments. The effect of spatial correlation of atoms on the Rayleigh scattering is calculated with Monte Carlo simulations and effective energy potentials that represent the particle interactions, covering fluid densities between 0.005 and a few g cm-3 and temperatures between 1 000 and 15 000 K. We provide analytical fits from which the Rayleigh cross-section of fluid helium can be easily calculated at wavelength λ > 505.35 Å. Collision-induced light scattering was estimated to be the dominant scattering process at densities greater than 1-2 g cm-3 depending on the temperature.

  12. Scattering mechanical performances for brittle bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Qiao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Scattering mechanical performances of brittle La- and Mg-based BMGs are found in the present study. Upon dynamic loading, there exist largely scattered fracture strengths even if the strain rates are under the same order, and the BMG systems are the same. The negative strain rate dependence for La- and Mg-based BMGs is obtained, i.e., a decreased fracture strength is dominating from quasi-static to dynamic compression. At cryogenic temperatures, distinguishingly low fracture strengths are available for these two brittle BMGs, and decreased tolerance to accommodate strains makes BMGs more and more brittle. It is concluded that the scattering mechanical performances of brittle BMGs should be carefully evaluated before actual applications.

  13. Neutron scattering from fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.

    1986-01-01

    -angle neutron scattering studies of the variation with aggregation rate are presented. These results allow a very detailed comparison to be made with the theoretical scattering curves. Preliminary incoherent inelastic data on the low-frequency dynamics of hydroxylated silica particle aggregates show a clear...

  14. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  15. Introductory theory of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.M.F.

    1986-12-01

    The paper comprises a set of six lecture notes which were delivered to the summer school on 'Neutron Scattering at a pulsed source', Rutherford Laboratory, United Kingdom, 1986. The lectures concern the physical principles of neutron scattering. The topics of the lectures include: diffraction, incoherent inelastic scattering, connection with the Schroedinger equation, magnetic scattering, coherent inelastic scattering, and surfaces and neutron optics. (UK)

  16. Fast analysis of wide-band scattering from electrically large targets with time-domain parabolic equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zi; Chen, Ru-Shan

    2016-03-01

    An efficient three-dimensional time domain parabolic equation (TDPE) method is proposed to fast analyze the narrow-angle wideband EM scattering properties of electrically large targets. The finite difference (FD) of Crank-Nicolson (CN) scheme is used as the traditional tool to solve the time-domain parabolic equation. However, a huge computational resource is required when the meshes become dense. Therefore, the alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme is introduced to discretize the time-domain parabolic equation. In this way, the reduced transient scattered fields can be calculated line by line in each transverse plane for any time step with unconditional stability. As a result, less computational resources are required for the proposed ADI-based TDPE method when compared with both the traditional CN-based TDPE method and the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method. By employing the rotating TDPE method, the complete bistatic RCS can be obtained with encouraging accuracy for any observed angle. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Volume 15. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostorz, G.

    1979-01-01

    This volume of the Treatise on Materials Science and Technology shows how neutron scattering methods can be used to obtain important information on materials, by guiding the reader through the principles and describing recent applications. Materials scientists, but also solid state physicists, physical chemists, and metallurgists interested in this field, will find a completely referenced survey of the ''classical topics'' of neutron scattering and a more detailed presentation of methods and techniques that are more specifically related to materials science. After a brief review of the general principles in the first chapter, subsequent chapters concentrate on particular methods and problems. The techniques used in neutron crystallography are presented, and selected applications of nuclear and magnetic scattering are discussed. The measurement of phonons, their role in phase transformations, and their behavior in the presence of crystal defects are considered, and quasi-elastic scattering is given detailed treatment. The methods of small-angle scattering and diffuse scattering have been developed to a considerable perfection in recent years and are presented in detail. The structure and dynamics of hydrogen dissolved in metals and the conformation and dynamics of polymers are two outstanding subjects to which neutron scattering has contributed so much in recent years that separate chapters are devoted to covering these fields. Finally, the choice of the appropriate materials is also becoming increasingly crucial in the design and construction of neutron spectrometers. Therefore, the last chapter deals with special materials problems in neutron devices

  18. Thermoelectric band engineering: The role of carrier scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkoske, Evan; Wang, Xufeng; Lundstrom, Mark; Askarpour, Vahid; Maassen, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    Complex electronic band structures, with multiple valleys or bands at the same or similar energies, can be beneficial for thermoelectric performance, but the advantages can be offset by inter-valley and inter-band scattering. In this paper, we demonstrate how first-principles band structures coupled with recently developed techniques for rigorous simulation of electron-phonon scattering provide the capabilities to realistically assess the benefits and trade-offs associated with these materials. We illustrate the approach using n-type silicon as a model material and show that intervalley scattering is strong. This example shows that the convergence of valleys and bands can improve thermoelectric performance, but the magnitude of the improvement depends sensitively on the relative strengths of intra- and inter-valley electron scattering. Because anisotropy of the band structure also plays an important role, a measure of the benefit of band anisotropy in the presence of strong intervalley scattering is presented.

  19. Strength Training for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  20. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    interviews with the parents. For younger children there has been no possibility to test for strengths. In a Danish PhD project a tool to map children’s strengths was needed for children aged 6-16 and with permission from the VIA-institute ‘The Strength Compass’ was made in cooperation with The Danish...

  1. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  2. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...

  3. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...

  4. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well......-being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable...

  5. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C; García, Gustavo; Oller, Juan C; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  6. LIDAR Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection contains 21 papers on the application and development of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Thomson scattering techniques for the determination of spatially resolved electron temperature and density in magnetic confinement experiments, particularly tokamaks. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  8. Magnetic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly review some of the motivations, early results, and techniques of magnetic elastic and inelastic electron-nucleus scattering. We then discuss recent results, especially those acquired at high momentum transfers. 50 refs., 19 figs

  9. Gravitational Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A F; Khanna, Faqir C

    2017-01-01

    Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) as a theory for gravity has been developed similar to the electromagnetic field theory. A weak field approximation of Einstein theory of relativity is similar to GEM. This theory has been quantized. Traditional Bhabha scattering, electron–positron scattering, is based on quantized electrodynamics theory. Usually the amplitude is written in terms of one photon exchange process. With the development of quantized GEM theory, the scattering amplitude will have an additional component based on an exchange of one graviton at the lowest order of perturbation theory. An analysis will provide the relative importance of the two amplitudes for Bhabha scattering. This will allow an analysis of the relative importance of the two amplitudes as the energy of the exchanged particles increases. (paper)

  10. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  11. Pp scattering at SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile-Giboni, E.; Cantale, G.; Hausammann, R.

    1983-01-01

    Using the PM1 polarized proton beam at SIN and a polarized target, the elastic pp scattering as well as the inelastic channel pp → π + d have been studied between 400 and 600 MeV. For the elastic reaction, a sufficient number of spin dependent parameters has been measured in order to do a direct reconstruction of the scattering matrix between 38 0 /sub cm/ and 90 0 /sub cm/. 10 references, 6 figures

  12. Investigation of the coherence between Rayleigh scattering and resonant scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moine, Jean Jacques

    1962-01-01

    This academic work aims at the experimental verification of the coherence between Rayleigh scattering and resonant scattering processes. After some generalities about the Moessbauer Effect, and on thermal agitation and recoil, the author addresses the scattering of protons by atoms and nuclei in a solid body (Rayleigh atomic scattering and resonant nuclear scattering, and interaction between both). He presents the experimental apparatus: gamma ray source, photo detection, diffuser, electronic system. He discusses the expected counting and the experimental results [fr

  13. Coherence effects in Mie scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, D.G.; van Dijk, T.; Visser, T.D.; Wolf, E.

    2012-01-01

    The scattering of a partially coherent beam by a deterministic, spherical scatterer is studied. In particular, the Mie scattering by a Gaussian Schell-model beam is analyzed. Expressions are derived for (a) the extinguished power, (b) the radiant intensity of the scattered field, and (c) the

  14. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  15. New singularities in nonrelativistic coupled channel scattering. II. Fourth order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuri, N.N.; Tsun Wu, T.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a two-channel nonrelativistic potential scattering problem, and study perturbation theory in fourth order for the forward amplitude. The main result is that the new singularity demonstrated in second order in the preceding paper I also occurs at the same point in fourth order. Its strength is again that of a pole. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Magnetoconductivity of quantum wires with elastic and inelastic scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Henrik; Flensberg, Karsten; Smith

    1993-01-01

    equation for the distribution function and determine the conductivity as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The magnetoconductivity exhibits a maximum at a temperature, which depends on the relative strength of the impurity and electron-phonon scattering and shows oscillations when the Fermi...

  17. Electron scattering off nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattone, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    Two recently developed aspects related to the scattering of electrons off nuclei are presented. On the one hand, a model is introduced which emphasizes the relativistic aspects of the problem in the impulse approximation, by demanding strict maintenance of the algebra of the Poincare group. On the other hand, the second model aims at a more sophisticated description of the nuclear response in the case of collective excitations. Basically, it utilizes the RPA formalism with a new development which enables a more careful treatment of the states in the continuum as is the case for the giant resonances. Applications of both models to the description of elastic scattering, inelastic scattering to discrete levels, giant resonances and the quasi-elastic region are discussed. (Author) [es

  18. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasannacharya, B.A.; Goyal, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is one of the most popular neutron scattering technique both for the basic research and as a tool in the hands of applied scientist. SANS is used for studying the structure of a material on a length scale of 10 - 1000 A. SANS is a diffraction experiment that involves scattering of a monocromatic beam of neutrons in order to obtain structural information about macromolecules and heterogeneities. This paper will discuss the design of SANS spectrometers with a special emphasis on the instruments which are better suited for medium flux reactors. The design of several different types of SANS spectrometers will be given. The optimization procedures and appropriate modifications to suit the budget and the space will be discussed. As an example, the design of a SANS spectrometer at CIRUS reactor Trombay will be given. (author)

  19. Invariant scattering convolution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Joan; Mallat, Stéphane

    2013-08-01

    A wavelet scattering network computes a translation invariant image representation which is stable to deformations and preserves high-frequency information for classification. It cascades wavelet transform convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators. The first network layer outputs SIFT-type descriptors, whereas the next layers provide complementary invariant information that improves classification. The mathematical analysis of wavelet scattering networks explains important properties of deep convolution networks for classification. A scattering representation of stationary processes incorporates higher order moments and can thus discriminate textures having the same Fourier power spectrum. State-of-the-art classification results are obtained for handwritten digits and texture discrimination, with a Gaussian kernel SVM and a generative PCA classifier.

  20. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZALIZNYAK, I.A.; LEE, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern science

  1. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  2. Λ scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Humberto [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade de São Paulo,Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali,Calle 5 62-00 Barrio Pampalinda, Cali, Valle (Colombia)

    2016-06-17

    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter Λ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting Λ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the Λ algorithm.

  3. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  4. Scattering ripples from branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    A novel probe of D-brane dynamics is via scattering of a high-energy ripple traveling along an attached string. The inelastic processes in which the D-brane is excited through emission of an additional attached string is considered. Corresponding amplitudes can be found by factorizing a one-loop amplitude derived in this paper. This one-loop amplitude is shown to have the correct structure, but extraction of explicit expressions for the scattering amplitudes is difficult. It is conjectured that the exponential growth of available string states with energy leads to an inclusive scattering rate that becomes large at the string scale, due to excitation of the open-quotes string halo,close quotes and meaning that such probes do not easily see structure at shorter scales. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær

    . In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...

  6. Electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-07-01

    The coupled-channels-optical method has been implemented using two different approximations to the optical potential. The half-on-shell optical potential involves drastic approximations for numerical feasibility but still gives a good semiquantitative description of the effect of uncoupled channels on electron scattering from hydrogen, helium and sodium. The distorted-wave optical potential makes no approximations other than the weak coupling approximation for uncoupled channels. In applications to hydrogen and sodium it shows promise of describing scattering phenomena excellently at all energies. 27 refs., 5 figs

  7. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  8. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  9. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  10. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  11. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  12. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  13. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  14. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  15. Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, D.; Geralico, A.

    2012-02-01

    Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term à la Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle’s rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the electromagnetic wave, i.e., scalar (spin 0), massless spin (1)/(2) and electromagnetic (spin 1) fields, is studied too.

  16. Angular-domain scattering interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Dustin W; Qian, Ruobing; Berger, Andrew J

    2013-11-15

    We present an angular-scattering optical method that is capable of measuring the mean size of scatterers in static ensembles within a field of view less than 20 μm in diameter. Using interferometry, the method overcomes the inability of intensity-based models to tolerate the large speckle grains associated with such small illumination areas. By first estimating each scatterer's location, the method can model between-scatterer interference as well as traditional single-particle Mie scattering. Direct angular-domain measurements provide finer angular resolution than digitally transformed image-plane recordings. This increases sensitivity to size-dependent scattering features, enabling more robust size estimates. The sensitivity of these angular-scattering measurements to various sizes of polystyrene beads is demonstrated. Interferometry also allows recovery of the full complex scattered field, including a size-dependent phase profile in the angular-scattering pattern.

  17. Inelastic electron scattering influence on the strong coupling oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabovich, A.M.; Voitenko, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    The superconducting order parameters Δ and energy gap Δ g are calculated taking into account the pair-breaking inelastic quasiparticle scattering by thermal Bose-excitations, e.g., phonons. The treatment is self-consistent because the scattering amplitude depends on Δ. The superconducting transition for any strength of the inelastic scattering is the phase transition of the first kind and the dependences Δ (T) and Δ g (T) tend to rectangular curve that agrees well with the experiment for high-Tc oxides. On the basis of the developed theory the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate R s in the superconducting state is calculated. The Hebel-Slichter peak in R s (T) is shown to disappear for strong enough inelastic scattering

  18. Investigations of the magnetic materials using neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakurai, Kazuhisa; Takeda, Masayasu

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the neutron magnetic scattering, one can investigate magnetic materials by looking at their magnetic nano structures. It is not exaggerated to state that nearly all the present microscopic knowledge of solid state magnetism has been obtained by neutron magnetic scattering experiments in the steady state neutron beam facilities at research reactors. In this review, we would like to introduce basics of the neutron magnetic scattering and demonstrate its strength by presenting some recent experiments on magnetic materials performed at the Research Reactor JRR-3 facility in the Nuclear Science Research Center, Tokai, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The operation of the pulsed neutron source facility in the Materials and Life Science Facility of Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) will make the magnetic neutron scattering techniques even more common place, and the complementary use of both the steady state and pulsed neutron facilities in the near proximity will serve the broad users from academia and industries investigating magnetic materials. (author)

  19. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  20. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  1. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sanjay

    1982-01-01

    The technique of small angle neutron scattering was first used in Germany less than two decades ago. Since then it has developed very rapidly, and today it is regarded as one of the most powerful techniques in materials, chemical and biological research. During the last decade the combination of high flux reactors and sophisticated instrumentation has revolutionized the technique. This paper endeavours to present a brief but comprehensive review of small angle scattering of neutrons and its applications in solid state research. The domain in which small angle neutron scattering is particularly useful is delineated and some of the methods used in the analysis of data are discussed with special emphasis on recent developments. Typical small angle neutron scattering cameras are described. Finally some experimental results on heterogeneities in metallic systems (both static and dynamic studies), radiation damage in materials, superconductivity, magnetic materials and the technologically very important area of non-destructive testing are reviewed in order to illustrate the wide range of applicability of this technique to problems in solid state research. (author)

  2. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  3. Critical scattering by bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler-Ferrari, N.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1986-11-01

    We apply the complex angular momentum theory to the problem of the critical scattering of light by spherical cavities in the high frequency limit (permittivity greater than the external media) (e.g, air bubble in water) (M.W.O.) [pt

  4. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; van Zyl, Hendrik J. R.

    2017-05-01

    We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5 ×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su (2 | 3) sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter) and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate) scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase) by the su(2 | 2) 2 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su (2) sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  5. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  6. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  7. Electron scattering wings on lines in interacting supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenliang; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2018-03-01

    We consider the effect of electron scattering on lines emitted as a result of supernova interaction with a circumstellar medium, assuming that the scattering occurs in ionized gas in the pre-shock circumstellar medium. The single scattering case gives the broad component in the limit of low optical depth, showing a velocity full width half-maximum that is close to the thermal velocities of electrons. The line shape is approximately exponential at low velocities and steepens at higher velocities. At higher optical depths, the line profile remains exponential at low velocities, but wings strengthen with increasing optical depth. In addition to the line width, the ratio of narrow to broad (scattered) line strength is a possible diagnostic of the gas. The results depend on the density profile of the circumstellar gas, especially if the scattering and photon creation occur in different regions. We apply the scattering model to a number of supernovae, including Type IIn and Type Ia-circumstellar medium (CSM) events. The asymmetry to the red found in some cases can be explained by scattering in a fast wind region that is indicated by observations.

  8. Hanle-Zeeman Scattering Matrix for Magnetic Dipole Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megha, A.; Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sankarasubramanian, K., E-mail: megha@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sankar@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560 034 (India)

    2017-06-01

    The polarization of the light that is scattered by the coronal ions is influenced by the anisotropic illumination from the photosphere and the magnetic field structuring in the solar corona. The properties of the coronal magnetic fields can be well studied by understanding the polarization properties of coronal forbidden emission lines that arise from magnetic dipole ( M 1) transitions in the highly ionized atoms that are present in the corona. We present the classical scattering theory of the forbidden lines for a more general case of arbitrary-strength magnetic fields. We derive the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions using the classical magnetic dipole model of Casini and Lin and applying the scattering matrix approach of Stenflo. We consider a two-level atom model and neglect collisional effects. The scattering matrix so derived is used to study the Stokes profiles formed in coronal conditions in those regions where the radiative excitations dominate collisional excitations. To this end, we take into account the integration over a cone of an unpolarized radiation from the solar disk incident on the scattering atoms. Furthermore, we also integrate along the line of sight to calculate the emerging polarized line profiles. We consider radial and dipole magnetic field configurations and spherically symmetric density distributions. For our studies we adopt the atomic parameters corresponding to the [Fe xiii] 10747 Å coronal forbidden line. We also discuss the nature of the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions and compare it with that for the electric dipole ( E 1) transitions.

  9. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...... correlation to the curing time. The experiments show no correlation between the anisotropy and the curing time and a small strength difference between the two drilling directions. The literature shows variations on which drilling direction that is strongest. Based on a Monto Carlo simulation of the expected...

  10. Thermal-neutron multiple scattering: critical double scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A quantum mechanical formulation for multiple scattering of thermal-neutrons from macroscopic targets is presented and applied to single and double scattering. Critical nuclear scattering from liquids and critical magnetic scattering from ferromagnets are treated in detail in the quasielastic approximation for target systems slightly above their critical points. Numerical estimates are made of the double scattering contribution to the critical magnetic cross section using relevant parameters from actual experiments performed on various ferromagnets. The effect is to alter the usual Lorentzian line shape dependence on neutron wave vector transfer. Comparison with corresponding deviations in line shape resulting from the use of Fisher's modified form of the Ornstein-Zernike spin correlations within the framework of single scattering theory leads to values for the critical exponent eta of the modified correlations which reproduce the effect of double scattering. In addition, it is shown that by restricting the range of applicability of the multiple scattering theory from the outset to critical scattering, Glauber's high energy approximation can be used to provide a much simpler and more powerful description of multiple scattering effects. When sufficiently close to the critical point, it provides a closed form expression for the differential cross section which includes all orders of scattering and has the same form as the single scattering cross section with a modified exponent for the wave vector transfer

  11. Electromagnetic scattering from random media

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    - ;The book develops the dynamical theory of scattering from random media from first principles. Its key findings are to characterize the time evolution of the scattered field in terms of stochastic differential equations, and to illustrate this framework

  12. Electroweak physics and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.; Hwang, W.Y.P.

    1988-01-01

    The electroweak theory is developed and applied to electron scattering from nucleons and light nuclei. It is shown that these scatterings can be used to test the standard theory and probe structure effects. 33 refs., 5 figs

  13. Neutron scattering of lanthanide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, R.M.; Nicklow, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    A selected review of recent neutron scattering results on lanthanide materials is presented. Topics covered include the magnetic structures of the elemental metals, magnetic superlattices, enhanced nuclear magnetism, magnetic excitations and critical scattering. (orig.)

  14. Strong impact of ionic strength on the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.; Vries, de R.J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of ionic strength on the kinetics of heat-induced fibrilar aggregation of bovine -lactoglobulin at pH 2.0. Using in situ light scattering we find an apparent critical protein concentration below which there is no significant fibril formation for all ionic strengths studied.

  15. Nuclear structure of 41Ca from inelastic proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, P.B.; Cline, D.; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    1977-01-01

    Angular distributions have been measured for inelastic and elastic scattering of 19 MeV protons on 40 41 Ca. A total of 89 levels were identified below 6.4 MeV in 41 Ca with an energy resolution of 12 keV. Inelastic transition strengths have been extracted using DWBA theory with a vibrational model form factor. These transition strengths correlate well with inelastic α-scattering and electromagnetic values. The quadrupole strengths are interpreted in terms of the coexistence model and imply that the excited-core admixture in the ground states of both 40 Ca and 41 Ca are approximately 5%. The octupole strengths in 41 Ca exhibits features characteristic of the weak coupling of an fsub(7/2) neutron to the lowest 3 - state in 40 Ca. The l = 5 strength exhibits a similar weak-coupling behavior. In both cases the microscopic structure appreciably reduces the transition strength for the highest spin member of the weak-coupling multiplets. (Auth.)

  16. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world's first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density ...

  17. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the ..... elastic scattering experiments to other short-lived isotopes once the elements are available from the ISOL system. 744. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 83, No.

  18. Industrial Uses of Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesmeyer, Hans Georg

    Recent progress in neutron scattering for industrial purposes is reviewed. The relevant fields of interest are small-angle scattering, high-resolution diffraction, texture determination, reflectometry and radiography. Potential users are encouraged to address themselves to one of the neutron scattering centers given in the Appendix.

  19. Double parton scattering theory overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is quite involved compared with the familiar case of single hard scattering. In this contribution, we review our theoretical understanding of double hard scattering and of its interplay with other reaction mechanisms.

  20. Scattering of vector mesons off nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.F.M.; Friman, B.; Wolf, G.

    2001-12-01

    We construct a relativistic and unitary approach to 'high' energy pion- and photon-nucleon reactions taking the πN, πΔ, ρN, ωN, ηN, K Λ, KΣ final states into account. Our scheme dynamically generates the s- and d-wave nucleon resonances N(1535), N(1650) and N(1520) and isobar resonances Δ(1620) and δ(1700) in terms of quasi-local interaction vertices. The description of photon-induced processes is based on a generalized vector-meson dominance assumption which directly relates the electromagnetic quasi-local 4-point interaction vertices to the corresponding vertices involving the ρ and ω fields. We obtain a satisfactory description of the elastic and inelastic pion- and photon-nucleon scattering data in the channels considered. The resulting s-wave ρ- and ω-nucleon scattering amplitudes are presented. Using these amplitudes we compute the leading density modification of the ρ and ω mass distributions in nuclear matter. We find a repulsive mass shift for the ω meson at small nuclear density but predict considerable strength in resonance-hole like ω-meson modes. Compared to previous calculations our result for the ρ-meson spectral function shows a significantly smaller in-medium effect. This reflects a not too large coupling strength of the N(1520) resonance to the ρN channel. (orig.)

  1. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model

  2. Magnetic scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettier, C.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the relative use of neutrons and X-rays as scattering tools to probe the magnetic properties of materials. Neutron diffraction experiments continue to be the most appropriate tool to determine the magnetic structure of bulk solids. Synchrotron X-ray experiments are and will be used to investigate selectively the magnetic behaviour of different chemical species and/or electronic shells in magnetic systems. There exist some grey areas where the two probes can be used depending on the scientific problem under investigation. In particular, neutrons allow very accurate measurements of magnetic form factors, but X-rays provide a separation of the orbital momentum contribution to magnetisation. Comparisons between X-rays and neutrons studies of magnetism at surfaces are presented. Finally, one can anticipate that only inelastic neutron scattering experiments will allow the observation of magnetic excitations across the whole Brillouin zone

  3. Magnetic diffuse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The diffuse scattering of neutrons from magnetic materials provides unique and important information regarding the spatial correlations of the atoms and the spins. Such measurements have been extensively applied to magnetically ordered systems, such as the ferromagnetic binary alloys, for which the observed correlations describe the magnetic moment fluctuations associated with local environment effects. With the advent of polarization analysis, these techniques are increasingly being applied to study disordered paramagnetic systems such as the spin-glasses and the diluted magnetic semiconductors. The spin-pair correlations obtained are essential in understanding the exchange interactions of such systems. In this paper, we describe recent neutron diffuse scattering results on the atom-pair and spin-pair correlations in some of these disordered magnetic systems. 56 refs

  4. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Semiclassical scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Salvo, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is intended to write the semiclassical scattering amplitude as a sum of terms, each of them being associated to trajectory. First of all the classical equations of motion are studied, considering both the analytical (real and complex) solutions and a certain type of singular solutions, which behave similary to the difracted rays in optics; in particular, in the case of a central nuclear potential, classical effects like rainbow and orbiting and also wave effects like diffraction and direct reflection are singled out. Successively, considering the Debye expansion of the scattering amplitude relative to a central nuclear potential, and evaluating asymptotically each term by means of the saddle point technique, the decay exponents and difraction coefficients relative to such a potential are determined

  6. Optical parametrically gated microscopy in scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Youbo; Adie, Steven G; Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Graf, Benedikt W; Chaney, Eric J; Marjanovic, Marina; Boppart, Stephen A

    2014-09-22

    High-resolution imaging in turbid media has been limited by the intrinsic compromise between the gating efficiency (removal of multiply-scattered light background) and signal strength in the existing optical gating techniques. This leads to shallow depths due to the weak ballistic signal, and/or degraded resolution due to the strong multiply-scattering background--the well-known trade-off between resolution and imaging depth in scattering samples. In this work, we employ a nonlinear optics based optical parametric amplifier (OPA) to address this challenge. We demonstrate that both the imaging depth and the spatial resolution in turbid media can be enhanced simultaneously by the OPA, which provides a high level of signal gain as well as an inherent nonlinear optical gate. This technology shifts the nonlinear interaction to an optical crystal placed in the detection arm (image plane), rather than in the sample, which can be used to exploit the benefits given by the high-order parametric process and the use of an intense laser field. The coherent process makes the OPA potentially useful as a general-purpose optical amplifier applicable to a wide range of optical imaging techniques.

  7. Scattering of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Macek, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Different methods of avoiding the known difficulties of the Coulomb potential scattering theory are reviewed. Mulherin and Zinnes' [J. Math. Phys. 11, 1402 (1976)] ''distorted'' free waves and van Haeringen's [J. Math. Phys. 17, 995 (1976)] Coulomb asymptotic states are considered. The equivalence of both approaches on the energy shell is shown. Actually the possibility of deriving the first method within van Haeringen's formalism by means of a distorted wave procedure is demonstrated

  8. Introduction to scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Small angle scattering and reflectometry are ideal techniques to study material structure and composition on the nano-scale. This talk will focus on the underlying interactions that x-rays and neutrons have with matter. X-rays are electromagnetic radiation and interact with the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus, whereas the primary interaction of the neutron is with the nucleus itself

  9. Means on scattered compacta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banakh, T.; Bonnet, R.; Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), s. 5-10 ISSN 2299-3231 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : scattered compact space * mean operation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/taa.2014.2.issue-1/taa-2014-0002/taa-2014-0002. xml

  10. Molecular-beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N 2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl → NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2 2 P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3 2 P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included

  11. Polarimetric neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasset, F.

    2001-01-01

    Polarimetric Neutron Scattering in introduced, both by, explaining methodological issues and the corresponding instrumental developments. After a short overview of neutron spin polarization and the neutron polarization 3d-vector a pictorial approach of the microscopic theory is used to show how a polarized beam interacts with lattice and magnetic Fourier components in a crystal. Examples are given of using Spherical Neutron Polarimetry (SNP) and the corresponding Cryopad polarimeter for the investigation of non-collinear magnetic structures. (R.P.)

  12. Neutron small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibel, K.

    1975-01-01

    The neutron small-angle scattering system at the High-Flux Reactor in Grenoble consists of three major parts: the supply of cold neutrons via bent neutron guides; the small angle camera D11; and the data handling facilities. The camera D11 has an overall length of 80 m. The effective length of the camera is variable. The length of the collimator before the fixed sample position can be reduced by movable neutron guides; the secondary flight path of 40 m full length contains detector sites in various positions. Thus, a large domain of momentum transfers can be exploited. Scattering angles between 5.10 -4 and 0.5 rad and neutron wavelengths from 0.2 to 2.0 nm are available with the same instrument and the same relative resolution. A large-area position-sensitive detector is used which allows simultaneous recording of intensities scattered into different angles; it is a multiwire proportional chamber. 3808 elements of 1 cm 2 are arranged in a two-dimensional matrix. Future development comprises an increase of the limit in the count rate due to the electronic interface between the detector and on-line computer, actually at 5.10 4 per sec. by one order of magnitude

  13. Neutron scattering in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains

  14. Basic scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    This series of lectures on basic scattering theory were given as part of a course for postgraduate high energy physicists and were designed to acquaint the student with some of the basic language and formalism used for the phenomenological description of nuclear reactions and decay processes used for the study of elementary particle interactions. Well established and model independent aspects of scattering theory, which are the basis of S-matrix theory, are considered. The subject is considered under the following headings; the S-matrix, cross sections and decay rates, phase space, relativistic kinematics, the Mandelstam variables, the flux factor, two-body phase space, Dalitz plots, other kinematic plots, two-particle reactions, unitarity, the partial-wave expansion, resonances (single-channel case), multi-channel resonances, analyticity and crossing, dispersion relations, the one-particle exchange model, the density matrix, mathematical properties of the density matrix, the density matrix in scattering processes, the density matrix in decay processes, and the helicity formalism. Some exercises for the students are included. (U.K.)

  15. What Are Strength Training Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strength training is any practice or exercise specifically designed to increase muscle tone, strength, and fitness. Concerned that strength training will make you bulky and too muscle-y? You are not alone.

  16. Diffuse scattering in Ih ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Krisch, Michael; Bosak, Alexeï; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Bulat, Sergey; Ezhov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of ice Ih, extracted from the subglacial Lake Vostok accretion ice layer (3621 m depth) were investigated by means of diffuse x-ray scattering and inelastic x-ray scattering. The diffuse scattering was identified as mainly inelastic and rationalized in the frame of ab initio calculations for the ordered ice XI approximant. Together with Monte-Carlo modelling, our data allowed reconsidering previously available neutron diffuse scattering data of heavy ice as the sum of thermal diffuse scattering and static disorder contribution. (paper)

  17. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, John

    1975-01-01

    Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation covers the theory and experimental application of plasma scattering. The book discusses the basic properties of a plasma and of the interaction of radiation with a plasma; the relationship between the scattered power spectrum and the fluctuations in plasma density; and the incoherent scattering of low-temperature plasma. The text also describes the constraints and problems that arise in the application of scattering as a diagnostic technique; the characteristic performance of various dispersion elements, image dissectors, and detectors; and the ge

  18. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  19. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zheng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  20. On selection rules and inelastic electron scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuroh, K.

    1986-12-01

    Correlation effects are included in the Bethe-Born theory for the generalized oscillator strength of inelastic scattering of electrons on atoms. The formulation is such as to allow for the calculation of relative line strengths of multiplets. It is used to analyze line strengths of the 4d → 4f transition in La 3+ and Ce 4+ within LS-coupling. The analysis indicates that only singlet states of the intermediate 4d 9 4f configuration are allowed. Calculated line strengths are compared with a recent core electron energy loss spectra of metallic La and tetravalent CeO 2 and there is an overall qualitative agreement between theory and experiment. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Material Strength in Vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollaine, Stephen

    2005-10-01

    Preliminary results of measurements of vanadium strength at 600 kb and 1 Mb, at strain rates between 10^7/s and 10^8/s, are inconsistent with the Steinberg-Guinan [1] model, which is independent of strain rate, but can be made consistent with other models, such as PTW [2]. We compare several different strength models to the data. [1] DJ.Steinberg, S.G.Cochran, and M.W.Guinan, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1498 (1980). [2] D.L. Preston, D.L.Tonks, and D.C. Wallace, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 211 (2003).

  2. Pion inelastic scattering and the pion-nucleus effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This work examines pion inelastic scattering with the primary purpose of gaining a better understanding of the properties of the pion-nucleus interaction. The main conclusion of the work is that an effective interaction which incorporates the most obvious theoretical corrections to the impulse approximation does a good job of explaining pion elastic and inelastic scattering from zero to 200 MeV without significant adjustments to the strength parameters of the force. Watson's multiple scattering theory is used to develop a theoretical interaction starting from the free pion-nucleon interaction. Elastic scattering was used to calibrate the isoscalar central interaction. It was found that the impulse approximation did poorly at low energy, while the multiple scattering corrections gave good agreement with all of the data after a few minor adjustments in the force. The distorted wave approximation for the inelastic transition matrix elements are evaluated for both natural and unnatural parity excitations. The isoscalar natural parity transitions are used to test the reaction theory, and it is found that the effective interaction calibrated by elastic scattering produces good agreement with the inelastic data. Calculations are also shown for other inelastic and charge exchange reactions. It appears that the isovector central interaction is reasonable, but the importance of medium corrections cannot be determined. The unnatural parity transitions are also reasonably described by the theoretical estimate of the spin-orbit interaction, but not enough systematic data exists to reach a firm conclusion

  3. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  4. Antiproton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastry, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    The operation of low energy antiproton ring at CERN has initiated antiproton-nucleus(antip - A) collision experiments. These give information on antiproton-nucleon(antiproton - N) interaction in the nuclei, structure of antiprotonic atoms, antiprotonic bound states in the nucleus, strange particle production etc. Considerable data on antiproton - A scattering cross sections at several incident energies for targets like 12 C, 16 O, 18 Ca etc. have become available. Both elastic and inelastic antiproton-A cross sections show diffractive oscillatory behaviour. As a result, it is possible to qualitatively understand antiproton-A cross sections by treating the target as a black sphere with diffused surface. Phenomenological optical potentials including those generated by the model independent Fourier-Bessel method show that the potential is highly absorptive; imaginary part dominates and has longer range than real part and the latter decreases with energy. Spin-orbit term is less important. Some of these can be understood in terms of meson exchange antiproton-N potentials. The large imaginary part is due to the availability of additional channels initiated by antiproton annihilation. Optical potentials show several ambiguities including the Igo ambiguity. More fundamental approaches to the potential based on antiproton-N t matrix and folding models have been attempted. A comparison of heavy ion scatering and antiproton-A scattering is made. It is shown that semi-classical WKB method is applicable for antiproton-A scattering. Some recent work on antiproton-p potentials, antiprotonic states and strange particle production is discussed. (author). 28 refs., 10 figs., 7 tables

  5. Valley Hall Conductivity in Graphene: Effects of Higher-Order Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tsuneya

    2018-04-01

    The valley Hall conductivity, having opposite signs between the K and K' valleys, is calculated in monolayer and bilayer graphenes with nonzero gap in the presence of short-range scatterers within a single-site approximation. In the case of small disorder, the Hall conductivity is quantized into ±e2/2h and ±e2/h in the monolayer and bilayer graphene, respectively, in the gap region, while it is enhanced over the results in the absence of scatterers in the band region. With the increase in the strength of each impurity potential, large asymmetry between the conduction and valence band appears. For scatterers with attractive potential, the disorder parameter is effectively enhanced and reduced in the conduction and valence band, respectively. The behavior is opposite for repulsive scatterers. Effects of skew scattering causing asymmetry in the scattering direction remain small and do not play significant role.

  6. Wave propagation scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, M Sh

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this collection were written primarily by members of the St. Petersburg seminar in mathematical physics. The seminar, now run by O. A. Ladyzhenskaya, was initiated in 1947 by V. I. Smirnov, to whose memory this volume is dedicated. The papers in the collection are devoted mainly to wave propagation processes, scattering theory, integrability of nonlinear equations, and related problems of spectral theory of differential and integral operators. The book is of interest to mathematicians working in mathematical physics and differential equations, as well as to physicists studying va

  7. Neutron scattering in dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudel, H. U.; Furrer, A.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    Insulating compounds containing dimers of transition metal and rare earth ions have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Energy splittings can be directly determined, and the corresponding parameters are easily extracted from the experimental data. The intensities of dimer...... excitations are modulated by an interference term reflecting the distance between the magnetic ions within the dimers. The INS technique is particularly powerful for the study of effects like: temperature dependence of exchange, the role of biquadratic exchange, the combination of crystal-field and exchange...

  8. Neutron scattering from colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, D.J.; Thomas, R.K.; Harris, N.M.; Tabony, J.; White, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper appraises the usefulness of neutron diffraction and small angle scattering for determining the structure of dilute and concentrated sols. For monodisperse polystyrene latex, the particle size and density can be readily determined and an upper limit to density fluctuations within the colloid particle set. For the polystyrene latex peptized by the adsorption of laurate, the physical dimensions and packing density of the adsorbed phase can be determined. The effects of polydispersity for unpeptized and peptized graphite sols, and the effects of extreme particle anisotropy using sols of montmorillonite clay minerals have been studied. (author)

  9. Acoustic Volume Scattering: Its Dependence on Frequency and Biological Scatterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the dependence of acoustic valume scattering on frequency and biological scatterers in the Westfall Seamount Area, 200 miles off... the coast of San Diego, California. Theoretical calculations and experimental data both showed a correlation between the frequency dependence of...scattering (from 1 to 20 kilohertz) and midwater gas-bladder fishes. It is the hypothesis of the report that the size limitation of the swimbladders

  10. A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    stems and leaves, which are expected to far outnumber those scatterers composing the main trunks. The accuracy of the analytical solver is assessed by...which are expected to far outnumber those scatterers composing the main trunks. Furthermore, tree and scene generation for the analytical solver...primitives into cylinders of desired sizes, global translation, and scaling, etc.) is carried out before the entire model is passed on to the scattering

  11. Gender Differences in Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Vivian H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences of 103 physically active men and women in upper and lower body strength as a function of lean body weight and the distribution of muscle and subcutaneous fat in the upper and lower limbs. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  12. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  13. Single Crystal Diffuse Neutron Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Welberry

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse neutron scattering has become a valuable tool for investigating local structure in materials ranging from organic molecular crystals containing only light atoms to piezo-ceramics that frequently contain heavy elements. Although neutron sources will never be able to compete with X-rays in terms of the available flux the special properties of neutrons, viz. the ability to explore inelastic scattering events, the fact that scattering lengths do not vary systematically with atomic number and their ability to scatter from magnetic moments, provides strong motivation for developing neutron diffuse scattering methods. In this paper, we compare three different instruments that have been used by us to collect neutron diffuse scattering data. Two of these are on a spallation source and one on a reactor source.

  14. Using seismic coda waves to resolve intrinsic and scattering attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Shearer, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic attenuation is caused by two factors, scattering and intrinsic absorption. Characterizing scattering and absorbing properties and the power spectrum of crustal heterogeneity is a fundamental problem for informing strong ground motion estimates at high frequencies, where scattering and attenuation effects are critical. Determining the relative amount of attenuation caused by scattering and intrinsic absorption has been a long-standing problem in seismology. The wavetrain following the direct body wave phases is called the coda, which is caused by scattered energy. Many studies have analyzed the coda of local events to constrain crustal and upper-mantle scattering strength and intrinsic attenuation. Here we examine two popular attenuation inversion methods, the Multiple Lapse Time Window Method (MLTWM) and the Coda Qc Method. First, based on our previous work on California attenuation structure, we apply an efficient and accurate method, the Monte Carlo Approach, to synthesize seismic envelope functions. We use this code to generate a series of synthetic data based on several complex and realistic forward models. Although the MLTWM assumes a uniform whole space, we use the MLTWM to invert for both scattering and intrinsic attenuation from the synthetic data to test how accurately it can recover the attenuation models. Results for the coda Qc method depend on choices for the length and starting time of the coda-wave time window. Here we explore the relation between the inversion results for Qc, the windowing parameters, and the intrinsic and scattering Q structure of our synthetic model. These results should help assess the practicality and accuracy of the Multiple Lapse Time Window Method and Coda Qc Method when applied to realistic crustal velocity and attenuation models.

  15. Inelastic scattering of 275 keV neutrons by silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinsky, L.L.; Zhigalov, Ya.A.; Krivenko, V.G.; Purtov, O.A.; Sabbagh, S.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron total, elastic and inelastic scattering cross-scattering of Ag at the E n = 275 KeV neutron energy were measured by using the filtered neutron beam of the WWR-M reactor in Kiev. The d-neutron strength function S n2 of Ag was determined from the analysis of all available data in the E n ≤ keV energy region on neutron inelastic scattering cross-sections with excitation of the first isomeric levels I π m = 7/2 + , E m ∼ 90 keV of 107,109 Ag: S n2 = (1.03 ± 0.19) · 10 -4 . (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  16. Light and neutron scattering study of strongly interacting ionic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiorgio, V.; Corti, M.; Piazza, R.

    1989-01-01

    Dilute solutions of ionic micelles formed by biological glycolipids (gangliosides) have been investigated at various ionic strengths by static and dynamic light scaterring and by small-angle neutron scattering. The size and shape of the micelle is not appreciably affected by the added salt concentration in the range 0-100 mM NaCL. From the measured intensity of scattered light we derive the electric charge Z of the micelle by fitting the data to a theoretical calculation which uses a screened Coulomb potential for the intermicellar interaction, and the hypernetted chain approximation for the calculation of the radial distribution function. The correlation function derived from dynamic light scattering shows the long time contribution typical of concentrated polydisperse systems (author). 15 refs.; 6 figs

  17. A high temperature high pressure cell for quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Kaplonski, J; Unruh, T; Mamontov, E; Meyer, A

    2011-08-01

    We present our recent development of a high temperature high pressure cell for neutron scattering. Combining a water cooled Nb1Zr pressure cell body with an internal heating furnace, the sample environment can reach temperatures of up to 1500 K at a pressure of up to 200 MPa at the sample position, with an available sample volume of about 700 mm(3). The cell material Nb1Zr is specifically chosen due to its reasonable mechanical strength at elevated temperatures and fairly small neutron absorption and incoherent scattering cross sections. With this design, an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio of about 10:1 can be achieved. This opens new possibilities for quasielastic neutron scattering studies on different types of neutron spectrometers under high temperature high pressure conditions, which is particularly interesting for geological research on, e.g., water dynamics in silicate melts.

  18. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  19. Scattering theory for Stark Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Arne

    1994-01-01

    An introduction to the spectral and scattering theory for Schroedinger operators is given. An abstract short range scattering theory is developed. It is applied to perturbations of the Laplacian. Particular attention is paid to the study of Stark Hamiltonians. The main result is an explanation of the discrepancy between the classical and the quantum scattering theory for one-dimensional Stark Hamiltonians. (author). 47 refs

  20. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-03-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

  1. Semiclassical description of scattering with internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Barrios, S.; Gomez-Camacho, J.

    1998-01-01

    The scattering of systems with internal degrees of freedom is studied in the semi-classical approximation. It is found that a special set of states, named coherent internal states, are specially relevant for the semi-classical treatment. A classical trajectory is defined for each coherent internal state. The semi-classical expressions obtained satisfy the superposition principle and are valid for arbitrary coupling strength. (orig.)

  2. Scattering of charged tensor bosons in gauge and superstring theories

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the leading-order scattering amplitude of one vector and two tensor gauge bosons in a recently proposed non-Abelian tensor gauge field theory and open superstring theory. The linear in momenta part of the superstring amplitude has identical Lorentz structure with the gauge theory, while its cubic in momenta part can be identified with an effective Lagrangian which is constructed using generalized non-Abelian field strength tensors.

  3. Light scattering by small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hulst, H C van de

    1981-01-01

    ""A must for researchers using the techniques of light scattering."" ? S. C. Snowdon, Journal of the Franklin InstituteThe measurement of light scattering of independent, homogeneous particles has many useful applications in physical chemistry, meteorology and astronomy. There is, however, a sizeable gap between the abstract formulae related to electromagnetic-wave-scattering phenomena, and the computation of reliable figures and curves. Dr. van de Hulst's book enables researchers to bridge that gap. The product of twelve years of work, it is an exhaustive study of light-scattering properties

  4. Coherence effects in Mie scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David G; van Dijk, Thomas; Visser, Taco D; Wolf, Emil

    2012-01-01

    The scattering of a partially coherent beam by a deterministic, spherical scatterer is studied. In particular, the Mie scattering by a Gaussian Schell-model beam is analyzed. Expressions are derived for (a) the extinguished power, (b) the radiant intensity of the scattered field, and (c) the encircled energy in the far field. It is found that the radiant intensity and the encircled energy in the far field depend on the degree of coherence of the incident beam, whereas the extinguished power does not.

  5. Light Scattering at Various Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering. PMID:4556610

  6. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago

  7. A rail system for circular synthetic aperture sonar imaging and acoustic target strength measurements: design/operation/preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J L; Marston, T M; Lee, K; Lopes, J L; Lim, R

    2014-01-01

    A 22 m diameter circular rail, outfitted with a mobile sonar tower trolley, was designed, fabricated, instrumented with underwater acoustic transducers, and assembled on a 1.5 m thick sand layer at the bottom of a large freshwater pool to carry out sonar design and target scattering response studies. The mobile sonar tower translates along the rail via a drive motor controlled by customized LabVIEW software. The rail system is modular and assembly consists of separately deploying eight circular arc sections, measuring a nominal center radius of 11 m and 8.64 m arc length each, and having divers connect them together in the underwater environment. The system enables full scale measurements on targets of interest with 0.1° angular resolution over a complete 360° aperture, without disrupting target setup, and affording a level of control over target environment conditions and noise sources unachievable in standard field measurements. In recent use, the mobile cart carrying an instrumented sonar tower was translated along the rail in 720 equal position increments and acoustic backscatter data were acquired at each position. In addition, this system can accommodate both broadband monostatic and bistatic scattering measurements on targets of interest, allowing capture of target signature phenomena under diverse configurations to address current scientific and technical issues encountered in mine countermeasure and unexploded ordnance applications. In the work discussed here, the circular rail apparatus is used for acoustic backscatter testing, but this system also has the capacity to facilitate the acquisition of magnetic and optical sensor data from targets of interest. A brief description of the system design and operation will be presented along with preliminary processed results for data acquired from acoustic measurements conducted at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division Test Pond Facility. [Work Supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and

  8. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  9. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  10. Elliptic scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Carlos [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing-Hua University,Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Gomez, Humberto [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade de São Paulo,Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali,Calle 5 62-00 Barrio Pampalinda, Cali, Valle (Colombia)

    2016-06-16

    Recently the CHY approach has been extended to one loop level using elliptic functions and modular forms over a Jacobian variety. Due to the difficulty in manipulating these kind of functions, we propose an alternative prescription that is totally algebraic. This new proposal is based on an elliptic algebraic curve embedded in a ℂP{sup 2} space. We show that for the simplest integrand, namely the n−gon, our proposal indeed reproduces the expected result. By using the recently formulated Λ−algorithm, we found a novel recurrence relation expansion in terms of tree level off-shell amplitudes. Our results connect nicely with recent results on the one-loop formulation of the scattering equations. In addition, this new proposal can be easily stretched out to hyperelliptic curves in order to compute higher genus.

  11. Multichannel Thomson scattering apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretz, N.; Dimock, D.; Foote, V.; Johnson, D.; Long, D.; Tolnas, E.

    1977-07-01

    A Thomson scattering apparatus for measuring the electron temperature and density along a 90 cm diameter of the PLT plasma has been built. A wide angle objective images the 3 mm x 900 mm ruby laser beam onto an image dissector which rearranges the 300 : 1 image to 20 : 1 forming the input slit of a spectrometer. The stigmatic spectrometer provides 20 wavelength elements of approximately 70 A each. A micro-channel-plate image intensifier optically coupled to a cooled SIT tube provides detection with single frame linearity and 1000 : 1 dynamic range. Spatial profiles of N/sub e/ and T/sub e/ in the range 10 13 - 10 14 cm -3 and 0.05 - 3 keV have an accuracy of 30 √10 13 /N/sub e/ (cm -3 ) percent per 1.2 cm element

  12. Understanding the effect of inelastic electron-phonon scattering and channel inhomogeneities on a nanowire FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Niladri

    2018-02-01

    Using self-consistent Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism, the effect of the inelastic scattering due to electron-phonon interaction on the transfer and output characteristics of a coaxially gated generic nanowire field effect transistor has been studied in detail. The scattering strength Do is varied from 0.003 eV2 to 0.3 eV2. There is change in the threshold voltage and suppression of channel current with increasing scattering strength. We also studied the effect of channel inhomogeneities on electron energy. The channel inhomogeneities are invoked by introducing potential step inside the channel. We study the energy relaxation due to inelastic scattering and channel inhomogeneities by comparing the normalized terminal current per energy for the source and drain terminals.

  13. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  14. Fractal radar scattering from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleschko, Klaudia; Korvin, Gabor; Figueroa, Benjamin; Vuelvas, Marco Antonio; Balankin, Alexander S.; Flores, Lourdes; Carreón, Dora

    2003-04-01

    A general technique is developed to retrieve the fractal dimension of self-similar soils through microwave (radar) scattering. The technique is based on a mathematical model relating the fractal dimensions of the georadargram to that of the scattering structure. Clear and different fractal signatures have been observed over four geosystems (soils and sediments) compared in this work.

  15. Mie scattering by three polydispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, F. S., Jr.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the results of aerosol scattering calculations using models representative of the atmospheric aerosol for three laser wavelengths and two kinds of materials. These calculations show that measurements of scattering and polarization parameters can help significantly in characterizing the earth's aerosol.

  16. Dynamic measurement of forward scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rusch, W.

    1975-01-01

    A dynamic method for the measurement of forward scattering in a radio anechoic chamber is described. The quantity determined is the induced-field-ratio (IFR) of conducting cylinders. The determination of the IFR is highly sensitive to 1) multiple scattering between the cylinder and the obpring...

  17. Scattering Theory of Gilbert Damping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brataas, A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2008-01-01

    The magnetization dynamics of a single domain ferromagnet in contact with a thermal bath is studied by scattering theory.We recover the Landau-Liftshitz-Gilbert equation and express the effective fields and Gilbert damping tensor in terms of the scattering matrix. Dissipation of magnetic energy

  18. Investigations of scattering and field enhancement effects in retardation-based plasmonic nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. G.; Pors, A.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard

    2010-01-01

    Modifications in scattering strength of and local field enhancement by retardation-based plasmonic nanoantennas when being transformed from straight nanorods to split-rings are investigated. The scattering properties are monitored by linear reflection and extinction spectroscopy whereas local field......, a feature that we attribute to the decrease in the nanoantenna electric-dipole response in tact with its bending. The experimental observations are corroborated with numerical simulations using the finite-element method....

  19. Brittle-fracture statistics for the determination of the strength of fuel particle coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, K.; Schuster, H.

    1976-04-01

    Two influences on characteristic strength values of brittle materials were investigated: the specimen number which is limited in the laboratory by practical reasons, and the procedure for fitting the Weibull formalism to experimental results. The study was performed with respect to the evaluation of the strength of coatings of HTR-fuel particles. Strength values following Weibull statistics were produced artificially to simulate experimental results. The applicability of four different methods was studied to get best fits of the Weibull parameters to these values. The relation of the scatter of strength values and Weibull parameter to the specimen number is determined. (orig./GSCH) [de

  20. Microdefects revealed by X-ray diffusion scattering in Czochralski-growth dislocation-free silicon single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bublik, B.T.; Zotov, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Microdefects in the regions of Si crystals having different thermal history defined by growth conditions was studied by the X-ray diffuse scattering method on a triple crystal X-ray diffractometer. It was shown that in such crystals the microdefects with positive strength are prevalent. However, between the above indicated regions the defects with the strength of opposite sign prevail

  1. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.

  2. Neutron scattering and physisorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, I.; Thomas, R.K.; Trewern, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments on methane and ammonia adsorbed on a graphitized carbon black are described. Diffraction from adsorbed deuterated methane shows that, at a coverage of 0.7, it forms an epitaxial layer with a √3x√3 structure. Between 50 and 60 K it undergoes a phase transition from two-dimensional solid to liquid (bulk melting point=89.7 K). Similar results are obtained for deuterated methane on a sample of graphon intercalated with potassium. From the effect of adsorbed methane on the intensities of 001 peaks of both substrates the carbon atom of the methane is estimated to be 3.3+-0.2 A from the surface. Ammonia-d 3 on graphon behaves quite differently from methane. It follows a type III isotherm and at low temperatures desorbs from the surface to form bulk ammonia. This has anomalous melting properties which are shown to be related to adsorption isobars for the system. The detailed interpretation of the results emphasizes the close link between adsorption and heterogeneous nucleation. Quasielastic experiments on the ammonia-graphon system show that the adsorbed ammonia is undergoing translational diffusion on the surface which is much faster than in the bulk. This is attributed to the breaking up of the hydrogen bonded network normally present in t

  3. Strength Training and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  4. Strength Development for Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…

  5. Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2009-01-01

    and negative spatial quantum correlations are observed when varying the quantum state incident to the multiple scattering medium, and the strength of the correlations is controlled by the number of photons. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical proposals by implementing......We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive...... the full quantum model of multiple scattering....

  6. The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerlee, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone have been measured as a function of confining pressure and pore pressure. Both the fracture strength and the frictional strength obey the law of effective stress, that is, the strength is determined not by the confining pressure alone but by the difference between the confining pressure and the pore pressure. The fracture strength of the rock varies by as much as 20 per cent depending on the cement between the grains, but the frictional strength is independent of lithology. Over the range 0 2 kb, ??=0??5 + 0??6??n. This relationship also holds for other rocks such as gabbro, dunite, serpentinite, granite and limestone. ?? 1975.

  7. Effect of multiple scattering on lidar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The lidar equation in its standard form involves the assumption that the scattered irradiance reaching the lidar receiver has been only singly scattered. However, in the cases of scattering from clouds and thick aerosol layers, it is shown that multiple scattering cannot be neglected. An experimental method for the detection of multiple scattering by depolarization measurement techniques is discussed. One method of theoretical calculations of double-scattering is presented and discussed

  8. Light scattering reviews 9 light scattering and radiative transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    This book details modern methods of the radiative transfer theory. It presents recent advances in light scattering (measurements and theory) and highlights the newest developments in remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties.

  9. Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeoreh; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Youngchan; Hillman, Timothy R; Min, Bumki; Park, Yongkeun

    2013-09-23

    We present synthetic Fourier transform light scattering, a method for measuring extended angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual microscopic samples. By measuring the light fields scattered from the sample plane and numerically synthesizing them in Fourier space, the angle range of the ARLS patterns is extended up to twice the numerical aperture of the imaging system with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Extended ARLS patterns of individual microscopic polystyrene beads, healthy human red blood cells (RBCs), and Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs are presented.

  10. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, T.

    2013-01-01

    An electron scattering facility is under construction in RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan, which is dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. This is the world's first and currently only facility of its type. The construction is nearly completed, and the first electron scattering experiment off short-lived nuclei will be carried out in the beginning of next year. The charge density distributions of short-lived nuclei will be precisely determined by elastic electron scattering for the first time. Physics pursued at this facility including future perspectives are explained

  11. Chemical applications of neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouw, F R; Price, D L

    1999-01-01

    Neutron scattering represents a versatile technique for chemists, as it explores the structure and dynamics of materials at the atomic scale. This review gives an outline of the neutron scattering formalism and describes diffraction and inelastic and quasielastic scattering techniques. Applications to chemistry are illustrated by examples from recent work on crystalline and liquid organic materials, including heterogeneous systems, bulk polymers and polymer solutions. There is particular emphasis on systems where hydrogen bonding plays a significant role. With more powerful sources and improved instrumentation in prospect, there is considerable potential for future extension of these methods to increasingly complex materials.

  12. Pelletron general purpose scattering chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Kerekette, S.S.; Navin, A.; Kumar, Suresh

    1993-01-01

    A medium sized stainless steel scattering chamber has been constructed for nuclear scattering and reaction experiments at the 14UD pelletron accelerator facility. It has been so designed that several types of detectors, varying from small sized silicon surface barrier detectors to medium sized gas detectors and NaI detectors can be conveniently positioned inside the chamber for detection of charged particles. The chamber has been planned to perform the following types of experiments : angular distributions of elastically scattered particles, fission fragments and other charged particles, angular correlations for charged particles e.g. protons, alphas and fission fragments. (author). 2 figs

  13. Electron scattering and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, T.W.; Walecka, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Electron scattering is treated within the framework of the one-photon exchange approximation. Electron excitation of collective particle-hole states (including the giant dipole resonance) is detailed. The process of quasi-elastic scattering is then discussed within the framework of the Fermi gas model. A brief review is presented of the relationship between electromagnetic interactions and semileptonic weak interactions, stressing the extra knowledge that the electron scattering yields. Finally, a few special topics of interest in intermediate energy physics are examined. 221 references

  14. Interstellar scattering and resolution limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Brian

    Density irregularities in both the interplanetary medium and the ionized component of the interstellar medium scatter radio waves, resulting in limitations on the achievable resolution. Interplanetary scattering (IPS) is weak for most observational situations, and in principle the resulting phase corruption can be corrected for when observing with sufficiently many array elements. Interstellar scattering (ISS), on the other hand, is usually strong at frequencies below about 8 GHz, in which case intrinsic structure information over a range of angular scales is irretrievably lost. With the earth-space baselines now planned, it will be possible to search directly for interstellar refraction, which is suspected of modulating the fluxes of background sources.

  15. Laser light scattering basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, this text introduces the interdisciplinary area of laser light scattering, focusing chiefly on theoretical concepts of quasielastic laser scattering.

  16. Long-Term Strength of a Thick-Walled Pipe Filled with an Aggressive Medium, with Account for Damageability of the Pipe Material and Residual Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriev, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the study of scattered fracture of a thick-walled pipe filled with an aggressive medium, which creates uniform pressure on the inner surface of the pipe. It is assumed that the aggressive medium affects only the value of instantaneous strength. Damageability is described by an integral operator of the hereditary type. The problem is solved with allowance for residual strength of the pipe material behind the fracture front. Numerical calculation is carried out, and relationships between the fracture front coordinate and time for various concentrations of the aggressive medium and residual strength behind the fracture front are constructed.

  17. The tensile strength of liquid helium four

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, a piezoelectric transducer in the form of a hemispherical shell was used to focus high-intensity ultrasound into a small volume of 4 He. The transducer was gated at its resonant frequency of 566 kHz with gate widths of less than 1 msec in order to minimize the effects of transducer heating and acoustic streaming. The onset of the nucleation was detected from the absorption of acoustic energy and the scattering of laser light from microscopic bubbles. A new theory for the diffraction of light from the focal zone of a spherical converging sound wave was developed to confirm calculations of the acoustic pressure amplitude at the focus of the piezoelectric transducer, calculations which were based on the acoustic power radiated into the liquid and the nonlinear absorption of sound. The experimental results were in agreement with homogeneous nucleation theory for a nucleation rate of approximately 10 15 critical size bubbles/sec-cm 3 . This is only the third liquid for which the theoretical tensile strength has been reached and it confirms homogeneous nucleation theory over a range three times greater than any other experiment. A noticeable decrease in the magnitude of the tensile strength was noted at temperatures near the lambda transition and a hypothesis that bubbles are being nucleated heterogeneously on quantitized vortices is presented

  18. The Strength of Selection against Neanderthal Introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Juric

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization between humans and Neanderthals has resulted in a low level of Neanderthal ancestry scattered across the genomes of many modern-day humans. After hybridization, on average, selection appears to have removed Neanderthal alleles from the human population. Quantifying the strength and causes of this selection against Neanderthal ancestry is key to understanding our relationship to Neanderthals and, more broadly, how populations remain distinct after secondary contact. Here, we develop a novel method for estimating the genome-wide average strength of selection and the density of selected sites using estimates of Neanderthal allele frequency along the genomes of modern-day humans. We confirm that East Asians had somewhat higher initial levels of Neanderthal ancestry than Europeans even after accounting for selection. We find that the bulk of purifying selection against Neanderthal ancestry is best understood as acting on many weakly deleterious alleles. We propose that the majority of these alleles were effectively neutral-and segregating at high frequency-in Neanderthals, but became selected against after entering human populations of much larger effective size. While individually of small effect, these alleles potentially imposed a heavy genetic load on the early-generation human-Neanderthal hybrids. This work suggests that differences in effective population size may play a far more important role in shaping levels of introgression than previously thought.

  19. Modeling fluctuations in scattered waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jakeman, E

    2006-01-01

    Fluctuations in scattered waves limit the performance of imaging and remote sensing systems that operate on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. To better understand these fluctuations, Modeling Fluctuations in Scattered Waves provides a practical guide to the phenomenology, mathematics, and simulation of non-Gaussian noise models and discusses how they can be used to characterize the statistics of scattered waves.Through their discussion of mathematical models, the authors demonstrate the development of new sensing techniques as well as offer intelligent choices that can be made for system analysis. Using experimental results and numerical simulation, the book illustrates the properties and applications of these models. The first two chapters introduce statistical tools and the properties of Gaussian noise, including results on phase statistics. The following chapters describe Gaussian processes and the random walk model, address multiple scattering effects and propagation through an extended med...

  20. Disadvantage factor for anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, E.A.; Abdel Krim, M.S.; EL-Dimerdash, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters

  1. Mie scattering of magnetic spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarento, R-J; Bennemann, K-H; Joyes, P; Van de Walle, J

    2004-02-01

    The Mie scattering intensity of a magnetic sphere has been derived by extending the classical Mie scattering approach to a media where the dielectric constant is no more a real number but a tensor with a gyrotropic form. Using a perturbation method the propagation equations of the electromagnetic field are derived. For an incident plane wave the magnetization effect could be detectable. The Mie scattering intensity is analyzed for special incident wave configurations, in particular, for the case where the magnetic field of the incident plane wave is polarized along the magnetization direction. This magnetization effect is most important for the finger pattern of the backscattering intensity. Magnetic Mie scattering is still significant for a magnetic sphere of radius larger than 10 nm.

  2. Parametric model of volumetric scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarill, Simon; Cassarly, William J.; Jenkins, David R.; Yang, Yang; Yu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Guang

    2017-11-01

    We develop a method to determine volumetric scattering model parameter values based on measured BSDF characteristics. Example models often use Mie or Gegenbauer particles. The accuracy and flexibility of this approach are illustrated.

  3. Optical scattering: measurement and analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stover, John C

    2012-01-01

    .... Scatter measurements, now routinely used to determine whether small-surface features are pits or particles and inspiring new technology that provides information on particle material, are also discussed...

  4. Integration rules for scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center,Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2015-09-21

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  5. Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron–pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues. - Highlights: • High-temperature superconductivity is closely associated with antiferromagnetism. • Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations coexist with the superconductivity. • Neutron scattering is essential for characterising the full spectrum of spin excitations

  6. Scattering of light by crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, William

    2012-01-01

    This authoritative graduate-level text describes inelastic light scattering by crystals and its use in the investigation of solid-state excitation, with experimental techniques common to all types of excitation. 1978 edition.

  7. Integration rules for scattering equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-01-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  8. Bibliography for thermal neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, M.; Chihara, J.; Nakahara, Y.; Kadotani, H.; Sekiya, T.

    1976-12-01

    It contains bibliographical references to measurements, calculations, reviews and basic studies on thermal neutron scatterings and dynamical properties of condensed matter. About 2,700 documents up to the end of 1975 are covered. (auth.)

  9. Neutron scattering and models: Titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.

    1997-07-01

    Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental titanium were measured from 4.5 {r_arrow} 10.0 MeV in incident energy increments of {approx} 0.5 MeV. At each energy the measurements were made at forty or more scattering angles distributed between {approx} 17 and 160{degree}. Concurrently, differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured for observed excitations of 0.975 {+-} 0.034, 1.497 {+-} 0.033, 2.322 {+-} 0.058, 3.252 {+-} 0.043, 3.700 {+-} 0.093, 4.317 {+-} 0.075 and 4.795 {+-} 0.100 MeV. All of the observed inelastically-scattered neutron groups were composites of contributions from several isotopes and/or levels. The experimental results were used to develop energy-average optical, statistical and coupled-channels models.

  10. Strength in numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkis, S

    1999-03-01

    A case study showing the attitudes and actions reinforcing discrimination against women's rights in Lebanon is presented. The study illustrates the way in which the public¿s views and the interests of families and local dignitaries can manipulate opinions. Organizations aimed at protecting women's rights have found strength in working together. The Lebanese League, an organization comprised of 17 women's and human rights associations, has established a center and a telephone hotline to encourage abused women to disclose and discuss their situation. The center provides support in the form of legal, psychological and medical assistance. Another organization working with the Lebanese League towards the same vision is the Lebanese Physically Handicapped Union. Efforts to lobby around a Lebanese legislation discriminating against women so far had no success, but all organizations involved are aware of the need to work through a range of interventions, and to take a long-term view, before they can count on any success.

  11. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M

    2014-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the Persistent Scatterer Technique, the latest development in radar interferometric data processing. It is the only book on Permanent Scatterer (PS) technique of radar interferometry, and it details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS technique. The STUN (spatio-temporal unwrapping network) algorithm, developed to cope with these issues in a robust way, is presented and applied to two test sites.

  12. Superconductivity, Antiferromagnetism, and Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron-pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements...

  13. Wavepacket scattering in potential theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, T.A.; Hammer, C.L.

    1977-01-01

    A contour integration technique is developed which enforces the initial conditions for wavepacket-potential scattering. The expansion coefficients for the exact energy eigenstate expansion are automatically expressed in terms of the plane wave expansion coefficients of the initial wavepacket, thereby simplifying what is usually a tedious, mathematical process. The method is applicable regardless of the initial spatial separation of the wavepacket from the scattering center

  14. Phonon scattering by isotopic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacol, D.K.

    1974-06-01

    The effects upon vibrations of a perfect crystal lattice due to the replacement of some of its atoms by isotopes of these atoms are studied. The approach consists in considering the isotopic impurities as scattering centres for the quanta of the elastic waves the objective is to obtain the scattering amplitudes. These amplitudes are obtained through a canonical transformation method which was introduced by Chevalier and Rideau in the study of the Wentzel's model in quantum field theory

  15. Collective effects in pp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the importance of multiple scattering in pp collisions at LHC energies. Large numbers of elementary scatterings will lead to energy densities comparable to the ones obtained in AuAu at RHIC. Similar collective effects will therefore be observed, like hydrodynamical expansion and collective radial flow. We will discuss the results of the corresponding calculations, based on EPOS initial conditions and a 3D hydrodynamical evolution. (author)

  16. Scattered light characterization of FORTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Carter, Anna; Redwine, Keith; Teste, Stephane; Pelton, Russell; Hagopian, John; Kutyrev, Alexander; Li, Mary J.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2017-08-01

    We describe our efforts to build a Wide-Field Lyman alpha Geocoronal simulator (WFLaGs) for characterizing the end-to-end sensitivity of FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy) to scattered Lyman α emission from outside of the nominal (1/2 degree)2 field-of-view. WFLaGs is a 50 mm diameter F/1 aluminum parabolic collimator fed by a hollow cathode discharge lamp with a 80 mm clear MgF2 window housed in a vacuum skin. It creates emission over a 10 degree FOV. WFLaGS will allow us to validate and refine a recently developed scattered light model and verify our scatter light mitigation strategies, which will incorporate low scatter baffle materials, and possibly 3-d printed light traps, covering exposed scatter centers. We present measurements of scattering intensity of Lyman alpha as a function of angle with respect to the specular reflectance direction for several candidate baffle materials. Initial testing of WFLaGs will be described.

  17. Fermions in Two Dimensions: Scattering and Many-Body Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Alexander; Zielinski, Tash; Gandolfi, Stefano; Gezerlis, Alexandros

    2017-12-01

    Ultracold atomic Fermi gases in two dimensions (2D) are an increasingly popular topic of research. The interaction strength between spin-up and spin-down particles in two-component Fermi gases can be tuned in experiments, allowing for a strongly interacting regime where the gas properties are yet to be fully understood. We have probed this regime for 2D Fermi gases by performing T = 0 ab initio diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. The many-body dynamics are largely dependent on the two-body interactions; therefore, we start with an in-depth look at scattering theory in 2D. We show the partial-wave expansion and its relation to the scattering length and effective range. Then, we discuss our numerical methods for determining these scattering parameters. We close out this discussion by illustrating the details of bound states in 2D. Transitioning to the many-body system, we use variationally optimized wave functions to calculate ground-state properties of the gas over a range of interaction strengths. We show results for the energy per particle and parametrize an equation of state. We then proceed to determine the chemical potential for the strongly interacting gas.

  18. Multiple magnetic scattering in small-angle neutron scattering of Nd?Fe?B nanocrystalline magnet

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Saito, Kotaro; Yano, Masao; Ito, Masaaki; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Kato, Akira; Manabe, Akira; Hashimoto, Ai; Gilbert, Elliot P.; Keiderling, Uwe; Ono, Kanta

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of multiple scattering on the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from a Nd?Fe?B nanocrystalline magnet. We performed sample-thickness- and neutron-wavelength-dependent SANS measurements, and observed the scattering vector dependence of the multiple magnetic scattering. It is revealed that significant multiple scattering exists in the magnetic scattering rather than the nuclear scattering of Nd?Fe?B nanocrystalline magnet. It is considered that th...

  19. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  20. Small-angle scattering, topography and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelten, J.

    1978-01-01

    A table is given showing scattering and imaging methods for X-rays and neutrons, followed, by a discussion of such topics as 1. Radiography 2. Topography 3. Small-angle scattering 3.1. The differential cross section 3.2. Comparison of X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering 3.3. Examples of small-angle scattering. (orig.) [de

  1. Fundamentals of neutron scattering by condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherm, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this introductory lecture is to give the basic facts about the scattering of neutrons by condensed matter. This lecture is restricted to nuclear scattering, whereas magnetic scattering will be dealt with in an other course. Most of the formalism, however, can also be easily extended to magnetic scattering. (author) 17 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  2. Higher order equivalent edge currents for fringe wave radar scattering by perfectly conducting polygonal plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    1992-01-01

    An approach for including higher order edge diffraction in the equivalent edge current (EEC) method is proposed. This approach, which applies to monostatic as well as bistatic radar configurations with perfectly conducting polygonal plates, involves three distinct sets of EECs. All of these sets ...

  3. High frequency and pulse scattering physical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Pierce, Allan D

    1992-01-01

    High Frequency and Pulse Scattering investigates high frequency and pulse scattering, with emphasis on the phenomenon of echoes from objects. Geometrical and catastrophe optics methods in scattering are discussed, along with the scattering of sound pulses and the ringing of target resonances. Caustics and associated diffraction catastrophes are also examined.Comprised of two chapters, this volume begins with a detailed account of geometrically based approximation methods in scattering theory, focusing on waves transmitted through fluid and elastic scatterers and glory scattering; surface ray r

  4. Commitee III.1 Ultimate Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the subject of ductile collapse of ships and offshore structures and their components due to buckling and excessive yielding under overload conditions. Consideration is given to load-deflection predictions for components with fabrication imperfections and in-service damage a...... and to the ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of structural systems in order to identify the reserve strength. The effect of uncertainties in the modelling on the strength predictions is highlighted in two design examples....

  5. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion...... test in persons with stroke, generally showing marked reductions in muscle strength of paretic and, to a lesser degree, nonparetic muscles when compared with healthy controls, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity....

  6. Hormonal changes in strength training

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael, Gáll

    2017-01-01

    Title: Hormonal changes in strength training Objectives: Perform a systematic review of literature dealing with hormonal changes in strength training. Based on the informations from aforementioned literature, describe wheather acute hormonal response after a bout of strength training significantly influence the proces of hypertrophy or not. Hormone testosterone and changes of its concentrations is for this thesis the most important. Methods: Method of traditional review was used in this thesi...

  7. A Canonical Password Strength Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Panferov, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We notice that the "password security" discourse is missing the most fundamental notion of the "password strength" -- it was never properly defined. We propose a canonical definition of the "password strength", based on the assessment of the efficiency of a set of possible guessing attack. Unlike naive password strength assessments our metric takes into account the attacker's strategy, and we demonstrate the necessity of that feature. This paper does NOT advise you to include "at least three ...

  8. UV Irradiance Enhancements by Scattering of Solar Radiation from Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Feister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scattering of solar radiation by clouds can reduce or enhance solar global irradiance compared to cloudless-sky irradiance at the Earth’s surface. Cloud effects to global irradiance can be described by Cloud Modification Factors (CMF. Depending on strength and duration, irradiance enhancements affect the energy balance of the surface and gain of solar power for electric energy generation. In the ultraviolet region, they increase the risk for damage to living organisms. Wavelength-dependent CMFs have been shown to reach 1.5 even in the UV-B region at low altitudes. Ground-based solar radiation measurements in the high Andes region at altitudes up to 5917 m a.s.l showed cloud-induced irradiance enhancements. While UV-A enhancements were explained by cloud scattering, both radiation scattering from clouds and Negative Ozone Anomalies (NOA have been discussed to have caused short-time enhancement of UV-B irradiance. Based on scenarios using published CMF and additional spectroradiometric measurements at a low-altitude site, the contribution of cloud scattering to the UV-B irradiance enhancement in the Andes region has been estimated. The range of UV index estimates converted from measured UV-B and UV-A irradiance and modeled cloudless-sky ratios UV-B/erythemal UV is compatible with an earlier estimate of an extreme UV index value of 43 derived for the high Andes.

  9. Faraday effect on stimulated Raman scattering in the linear region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. J.; Li, B.; Xiang, J.; Cao, L. H.; Zheng, C. Y.; Hao, L.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents the effect of Faraday rotation on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). When light propagates along the magnetic field upon plasma, Faraday rotation occurs. The rotation angle can be expressed as {{d}}θ /{{d}}{s}=2.93× {10}-4B\\tfrac{{n}e/{n}c}{\\sqrt{1-{n}e/{n}c}} {cm}}-1 approximately, where θ is the rotation angle and s is distance, n e is the electron density, n c is the critical density and B is magnetic field in unit of Gauss. Both the incident light and Raman light have Faraday effects. The angle between the polarization directions of incident light and Raman light changes with position. The driven force of electron plasma wave also reduces, and then SRS scattering level is reduced. Faraday rotation effect can increase the laser intensity threshold of Raman scattering, even if the magnetic field strength is small. The circularly polarized light incident case is also compared with that of the linearly polarized light incident. The Raman scattering level of linearly polarized light is much smaller than that of circularly polarized light in the magnetized plasma. The difference between linearly and circularly polarized lights is also discussed.

  10. Ab initio phonon point defect scattering and thermal transport in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos A.; Lindsay, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    We study the scattering of phonons from point defects and their effect on lattice thermal conductivity κ using a parameter-free ab initio Green's function methodology. Specifically, we focus on the scattering of phonons by boron (B), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus substitutions as well as single- and double-carbon vacancies in graphene. We show that changes of the atomic structure and harmonic interatomic force constants locally near defects govern the strength and frequency trends of the scattering of out-of-plane acoustic (ZA) phonons, the dominant heat carriers in graphene. ZA scattering rates due to N substitutions are nearly an order of magnitude smaller than those for B defects despite having similar mass perturbations. Furthermore, ZA phonon scattering rates from N defects decrease with increasing frequency in the lower-frequency spectrum in stark contrast to expected trends from simple models. ZA phonon-vacancy scattering rates are found to have a significantly softer frequency dependence (˜ω0 ) in graphene than typically employed in phenomenological models. The rigorous Green's function calculations demonstrate that typical mass-defect models do not adequately describe ZA phonon-defect scattering rates. Our ab initio calculations capture well the trend of κ vs vacancy density from experiments, though not the magnitudes. This work elucidates important insights into phonon-defect scattering and thermal transport in graphene, and demonstrates the applicability of first-principles methods toward describing these properties in imperfect materials.

  11. Strength layout of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moczall, K.; Schmid, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Different properties are required from pipes of nuclear power plants according to their respective importance for the safety as well as the availability of a plant. For reasons of expediency and profitability, it has therefore been necessary to attach 5 requiremental stages to the above-mentioned as well as to all other components. Of the five stages, the first three represent those which are of major, medium or minor importance for safety of nuclear plants. The 4th stage gives in general the importance of the availability of a plant, whereas the 5th stage is provided for the rest of the pipes. The requirements of conventional, technical regulations are generally fulfilled in the 4th stage, whereas, phased accordingly, exceeding requirements are set up and specified in the first three stages. These requirements refer to the securing of the workability of plant components, to (redundant, resp. diverse) layout, and to the quality of components (qualifying of producers and production processes, preliminary checking of production papers, supervision of production, material and construction testing, documentation) as well as to strength verification (pressure test, stress-strain measurements, stress and fatigue analysis). (orig.) [de

  12. Signalling control strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Hans V

    2008-06-07

    Metabolic control analysis (MCA) has become what it is, largely because the special organization of living cells led to rather specific questions. These questions focused on the role of enzymes, genes, and, in subsequent generalizations, on well-defined process activities. With an emphasis on the work by Heinrich and co-workers, the theory behind MCA is summarized in a way that leads naturally to its extensions to hierarchical systems, such as gene expression and signal transduction, and to control beyond the steady state. The analysis of the control properties of signal transduction cascades is reviewed with an emphasis on the relative importance of the protein kinases and the protein phosphatases. The two types of enzyme are both important for the amplitude of signal transduction, whereas phosphatases may be more important for the later phases of signal transduction and for its duration. Novel MCA of concentrations and fluxes that vary with time is explicated. It is concluded that the clarity and operationality of concepts such as control strength (now control coefficient) plus the clear theoretical frameworks provided by Heinrich and colleagues, should enable us greatly to reduce the Babylonian confusion that could otherwise occur in the data deluges of Systems Biology.

  13. Improving Interlaminar Shear Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Justin

    2015-01-01

    To achieve NASA's mission of space exploration, innovative manufacturing processes are being applied to the fabrication of complex propulsion elements.1 Use of fiber-reinforced, polymeric composite tanks are known to reduce weight while increasing performance of propulsion vehicles. Maximizing the performance of these materials is needed to reduce the hardware weight to result in increased performance in support of NASA's missions. NASA has partnered with the Mississippi State University (MSU) to utilize a unique scalable approach of locally improving the critical properties needed for composite structures. MSU is responsible for the primary development of the concept with material and engineering support provided by NASA. The all-composite tank shown in figure 1 is fabricated using a prepreg system of IM7 carbon fiber/CYCOM 5320-1 epoxy resin. This is a resin system developed for out-of-autoclave applications. This new technology is needed to support the fabrication of large, all composite structures and is currently being evaluated on a joint project with Boeing for the Space Launch System (SLS) program. In initial efforts to form an all composite pressure vessel using this prepreg system, a 60% decrease in properties was observed in scarf joint regions. Inspection of these areas identified interlaminar failure in the adjacent laminated structure as the main failure mechanism. This project seeks to improve the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) within the prepreg layup by locally modifying the interply region shown in figure 2.2

  14. Applications of inverse and algebraic scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.

    1997-01-01

    Inverse scattering theories, algebraic scattering theory and exactly solvable scattering potentials are diverse ways by which scattering potentials can be defined from S-functions specified by fits to fixed energy, quantal scattering data. Applications have been made in nuclear (heavy ion and nucleon-nucleus scattering), atomic and molecular (electron scattering from simple molecules) systems. Three inverse scattering approaches are considered in detail; the semiclassical WKB and fully quantal Lipperheide-Fiedeldey method, than algebraic scattering theory is applied to heavy ion scattering and finally the exactly solvable Ginocchio potentials. Some nuclear results are ambiguous but the atomic and molecular inversion potentials are in good agreement with postulated forms. 21 refs., 12 figs

  15. High Strength Steel Welding Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Glen

    1998-01-01

    .... These electrodes were insensitive to moderate variations in chemical composition or cooling rate, had acceptable strength and impact toughness, and exhibited more uniform mechanical properties...

  16. Analysis of PKP scattering using mantle mixing simulations and axisymmetric 3D waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Samuel M.; Ritsema, Jeroen; van Keken, Peter E.; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje

    2018-03-01

    The scattering of PKP waves in the lower mantle produces isolated signals before the PKIKP phase. We explore whether these so-called PKIKP precursors can be related to wave scattering off mid ocean ridge basalt (MORB) fragments that have been advected in the deep mantle throughout geologic time. We construct seismic models of small-scale (>20 km) heterogeneity in the lower mantle informed by mantle mixing simulations from Brandenburg et al. (2008) and generate PKIKP precursors using 3D, axisymmetric waveform simulations up to 0.75 Hz. We consider two end-member geodynamic models with fundamentally different distributions of MORB in the lower mantle. Our results suggest that the accumulation of MORB at the base of the mantle is a viable hypothesis for the origin of PKP scattering. We find that the strength of the PKIKP precursor amplitudes is consistent with P wave speed heterogeneity of 0.1-0.2%, as reported previously. The radial distribution of MORB has a profound effect on the strength of PKIKP precursors. Simulation of PKIKP precursors for models with an increasing MORB concentration in the lowermost 500 km of the mantle appears to reproduce most accurately the strength of PKIKP precursors in Global Seismic Network waveforms. These models assume that MORB has an excess density of at least 7%. Additional simulations of more complex geodynamic models will better constrain the geodynamic conditions to explain the significant variability of PKP scattering strength.

  17. Aerosol single scattering albedo estimated across China from a combination of ground and satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon Ho Lee; Zhanqing Li; Man Sing Wong; Jinyuan Xin; Wang Yuesi; Wei Min Hao; Fengsheng Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Single scattering albedo (SSA) governs the strength of aerosols in absorbing solar radiation, but few methods are available to directly measure this important quantity. There currently exist many ground-based measurements of spectral transmittance from which aerosol optical thickness (AOT) are retrieved under clear sky conditions. Reflected radiances at the top of the...

  18. Grain boundary strength as point defect sink strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volobuev, A.V.; Gann, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Sink strength of spherical grain boundary as an absolutely absorbing surface and as finite thickness wall consisting of the edge dislocations are considered. The values of the grain boundary sink strength are shown to be critically dependent on the point defect recombination degree

  19. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  20. Cancer Prevention: Distinguishing Strength of Evidence from Strength of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett S. Kramer, MD, MPH, Associate Director for Disease Prevention and Director of the Office of Medical Applications of Research in the Office of Disease Prevention, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, presented "Cancer Prevention: Distinguishing Strength of Evidence from Strength of Opinion".

  1. Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new 'constituent quark model' sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.

  2. Scattering in relativistic particle mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bievre, S.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis the authors studied scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. He uses the results to analyze gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. A general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics is presented and the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e., those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group are studied. The second part of the analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Using general geometric arguments, gauge invariance of the scattering transformation in the Todorov-Komar Hamiltonian constraint model is proved. Finally, quantization of the models is discussed

  3. Low-Frequency Surface Backscattering Strengths Measured in the Critical Sea Test Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-19

    same vessel over a 0.5- to 1-h period, where they exploded at depth, resulting in a bistatic source-receiver geometry. Spatially- Hammed beams with...Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, NRL/FR/7140--97-9822, Feb. 5, 1997 19. Urick, R.J., Principles of Underwater Sound, 2nd ed., Mc-Graw Hill, New York

  4. Systematics of atom-atom collision strengths at high speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, G.H.; Inokuti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The collision strengths for atom-atom collisions at high speeds are calculated in the first Born approximation. We studied four classes of collisions, distinguished depending upon whether each of the collision partners becomes excited or not. The results of numerical calculations of the collision strengths are presented for all neutral atoms with Z< or =18. The calculations are based on atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions found in the literature. The relative contribution of each class of collision processes to the total collision cross section is examined in detail. In general, inelastic processes dominate for low-Z atoms, while elastic scattering is more important for large Z. Other systematics of the collision strengths are comprehensively discussed. The relevant experimental literature has been surveyed and the results of this work for the three collision systems H-He, He-He, and H-Ar are compared with the data for electron-loss processes. Finally, suggestions are made for future work in measurements of atom-atom and ion-atom collision cross sections

  5. Topics in electromagnetic, acoustic, and potential scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuntaplook, Umaporn

    the former (previously known) results. The link with time-independent quantum mechanical scattering, via morphology-dependent resonances (MDRs), is discussed in Chapter 2. This requires a generalization of the classical problem for scattering of a plane wave from a uniform spherically-symmetric inhomogeneity (in which the velocity of propagation is a function only of the radial coordinate r. i.e.. c = c(r)) to a piecewise-uniform inhomogeneity. In Chapter 3 the Jost-function formulation of potential scattering theory is used to solve the radial differential equation for scattering which can be converted into an integral equation corresponding via the Jost boundary conditions. The first two iterations for the zero angular momentum case l = 0 are provided for both two-layer and three-layer models. It is found that the iterative technique is most useful for long wavelengths and sufficiently small ratios of interior and exterior wavenumbers. Exact solutions are also provided for these cases. In Chapter 4 the time-independent quantum mechanical 'connection' is exploited further by generalizing previous work on a spherical well potential to the case where a delta 'function' potential is appended to the exterior of the well (for l ≠ 0). This corresponds to an idealization of the former approach to the case of a 'coated sphere'. The poles of the associated 'S-matrix' are important in this regard, since they correspond directly with the morphology-dependent resonances discussed in Chapter 2. These poles (for the l = 0 case, to compare with Nussenzveig's analysis) are tracked in the complex wavenumber plane as the strength of the delta function potential changes. Finally, a set of 4 Appendices is provided to clarify some of the connections between (i) the scattering of acoustic/electromagnetic waves from a penetrable/dielectric sphere and (ii) time-independent potential scattering theory in quantum mechanics. This, it is hoped, will be the subject of future work.

  6. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  7. On the Relationship Between PMSE Strength and Particle Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, T.; Havnes, O.

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the relationship between particle precipitation and PMSE strength on days where we observe PMSE layers both with the EISCAT VHF and UHF radars. The UHF observations of the ionization and its variation, above the PMSE layer, is used as a measure of precipitation. Variations of the precipitation is compared with variations of the PMSE strengths observed with both radars. Although many cases apparently show a clear connection between precipitation and PMSE, where an increased precipitation leads to a strengthening of the PMSE, our findings confirm that there is no general and simple proportionality between the two. For the weakest PMSE there appears to be no correlation between precipitation and PMSE strength. For PMSEs around average strength of our observations there appears to be a weak positive correlation, which can be predicted by a time-dependent dust cloud charge model. On some occasions an increased precipitation can, apparently, initially lead to an increase of PMSE strength which at some point starts to decline even if the precipitation continue to increase. This feature can also be seen in the results from the statistical analysis, however the number of occurrences is too low to conclude with significance and the time-dependent charge model described here does not reproduce such features. We have studied to what degree models for the PMSE scattering can explain the various cases of reaction of PMSE to changes in precipitation.

  8. in situ measurements of the acoustic target strength of cape horse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acoustic target strength (TS) of Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis was measured in situ at 38 kHz during two surveys over the Namibian continental shelf in 1998 and 1999 using a SIMRAD EK500 echosounder/ES38D submersible split-beam transducer. Scattered aggregations of horse mackerel ...

  9. Kerr scattering coefficients via isomonodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Bruno Carneiro da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Novaes, Fábio [International Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte,Av. Odilon Gomes de Lima 1722, Capim Macio, Natal-RN 59078-400 (Brazil)

    2015-11-23

    We study the scattering of a massless scalar field in a generic Kerr background. Using a particular gauge choice based on the current conservation of the radial equation, we give a generic formula for the scattering coefficient in terms of the composite monodromy parameter σ between the inner and the outer horizons. Using the isomonodromy flow, we calculate σ exactly in terms of the Painlevé V τ-function. We also show that the eigenvalue problem for the angular equation (spheroidal harmonics) can be calculated using the same techniques. We use recent developments relating the Painlevé V τ-function to Liouville irregular conformal blocks to claim that this scattering problem is solved in the combinatorial sense, with known expressions for the τ-function near the critical points.

  10. Helium atom scattering from surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    High resolution helium atom scattering can be applied to study a number of interesting properties of solid surfaces with great sensitivity and accuracy. This book treats in detail experimental and theoretical aspects ofthis method as well as all current applications in surface science. The individual chapters - all written by experts in the field - are devoted to the investigation of surface structure, defect shapes and concentrations, the interaction potential, collective and localized surface vibrations at low energies, phase transitions and surface diffusion. Over the past decade helium atom scattering has gained widespread recognitionwithin the surface science community. Points in its favour are comprehensiveunderstanding of the scattering theory and the availability of well-tested approximation to the rigorous theory. This book will be invaluable to surface scientists wishing to make an informed judgement on the actual and potential capabilities of this technique and its results.

  11. An analysis of scatter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David M.; Saltz, Joel H.

    1990-01-01

    A formal analysis of a mapping method known as scatter decomposition (SD) is presented. SD divides an irregular domain into many equal-size pieces and distributes them modularly among processors. It is shown that, if a correlation in workload is a convex function of distance, then scattering a more finely decomposed domain yields a lower average processor workload variance; if the workload process is stationary Gaussian and the correlation function decreases linearly in distance to zero and then remains zero, scattering a more finely decomposed domain yields a lower expected maximum processor workload. Finally, if the correlation function decreases linearly across the entire domain, then (among all mappings that assign an equal number of domain pieces to each processor) SD minimizes the average processor workload variance. The dependence of these results on the assumption of decreasing correlation is illustrated with cases where a coarser granularity actually achieves better load balance.

  12. Scattering of accelerated wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, S.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Della Valle, G.

    2018-03-01

    Wave-packet scattering from a stationary potential is significantly modified when the wave packet is subject to an external time-dependent force during the interaction. In the semiclassical limit, wave-packet motion is simply described by Newtonian equations, and the external force can, for example, cancel the potential force, making a potential barrier transparent. Here we consider wave-packet scattering from reflectionless potentials, where in general the potential becomes reflective when probed by an accelerated wave packet. In the particular case of the recently introduced class of complex Kramers-Kronig potentials we show that a broad class of time-dependent forces can be applied without inducing any scattering, while there is a breakdown of the reflectionless property when there is a broadband distribution of initial particle momentum, involving both positive and negative components.

  13. Scattering functions of Platonic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Shew, Chwen-Yang [City University of New York (CUNY); He, Lilin [ORNL; Meilleur, Flora [ORNL; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; Liu, Emily [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Smith, Greg [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Pynn, Roger [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The single-particle small-angle scattering properties of five Platonic solids, including the tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron, are systematically investigated. For each given geometry, the Debye spatial autocorrelation function, pair distance distribution function and intraparticle structure factor (form factor) are calculated and compared with the corresponding scattering function of a spherical reference system. From the theoretical models, the empirical relationship between the dodecahedral and icosahedral structural characteristics and those of the equivalent spheres is found. Moreover, the single-particle scattering properties of icosahedral and spherical shells with identical volume are investigated, and the prospect of using different data analysis approaches to explore their structural differences is presented and discussed.

  14. Scattering functions of Platonic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Li, Xin [ORNL; Liu, Emily [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Pynn, Roger [ORNL; Shew, Chwen-Yang [City University of New York (CUNY); Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Meilleur, Flora [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In this report the single-particle scattering properties of five Platonic solids, including tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron, are investigated in a systematic manner. For each given geometry, the Debye spatial autocorrelation function (r), pair distance distribution function (PDDF) p (r) and intraparticle structure factor (form factor) P (Q) are respectively calculated and compared to the corresponding scattering function of the spherical referential system. Based on our theoretical models, the empirical relationship between the dodecahedral and icosahedral structural characteristics and those of the equivalent spheres is found. Moreover, the single-particle scattering properties of the icosahedral and the spherical shells with the same volume are further investigated and the prospect of using different data analysis approaches to explore their structural difference is also presented and discussed.

  15. Neutron scattering by Dirac multipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, S. W.; Khalyavin, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Scattering by magnetic charge formed by Dirac multipoles that are magnetic and polar is examined in the context of materials with properties that challenge conventional concepts. An order parameter composed of Dirac quadrupoles has been revealed in the pseudo-gap phase of ceramic, high-T c superconductors on the basis of Kerr effect and magnetic neutron Bragg diffraction measurements. Construction of Dirac quadrupoles that emerge from centrosymmetric sites used by Cu ions in the ceramic superconductor Hg1201 is illustrated, together with selection rules for excitations that will feature in neutron inelastic scattering, and RIXS experiments. We report magnetic scattering amplitudes for diffraction by polar multipoles that have universal value, because they are not specific to ceramic superconductors. To illustrate this attribute, we consider neutron Bragg diffraction from a magnetically ordered iridate (Sr2IrO4) and discuss shortcomings in published interpretations of diffraction data.

  16. Neutron scattering by Dirac multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S W; Khalyavin, D D

    2017-01-01

    Scattering by magnetic charge formed by Dirac multipoles that are magnetic and polar is examined in the context of materials with properties that challenge conventional concepts. An order parameter composed of Dirac quadrupoles has been revealed in the pseudo-gap phase of ceramic, high- T c superconductors on the basis of Kerr effect and magnetic neutron Bragg diffraction measurements. Construction of Dirac quadrupoles that emerge from centrosymmetric sites used by Cu ions in the ceramic superconductor Hg1201 is illustrated, together with selection rules for excitations that will feature in neutron inelastic scattering, and RIXS experiments. We report magnetic scattering amplitudes for diffraction by polar multipoles that have universal value, because they are not specific to ceramic superconductors. To illustrate this attribute, we consider neutron Bragg diffraction from a magnetically ordered iridate (Sr 2 IrO 4 ) and discuss shortcomings in published interpretations of diffraction data. (paper)

  17. SCATTERING FROM RAMIFIED POLYMERIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Benhamou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, of great interest to us is a quantitative study of the scattering properties from ramified polymeric systems of arbitrary topology. We consider three types of systems, namely ramified polymers in solution, ramified polymer blends, or ternary mixtures made of two ramified polymers of different chemical nature immersed in a good solvent. To achieve the goal of the study, use is made of the Random Phase Approximation. First we determine the exact expression of the form factor of an ideal ramified polymer of any topology, from which we extract the exact expression of its gyration radius. Using the classical Zimm's formulae and the exact form factor, we determine all scattering properties of these three types of ramified polymeric systems. The main conclusion is that ramification of the chains induces drastic changes of the scattering properties.

  18. Wigner representation in scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remler, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The basic equations of quantum scattering are translated into the Wigner representation. This puts quantum mechanics in the form of a stochastic process in phase space. Instead of complex valued wavefunctions and transition matrices, one now works with real-valued probability distributions and source functions, objects more responsive to physical intuition. Aside from writing out certain necessary basic expressions, the main purpose is to develop and stress the interpretive picture associated with this representation and to derive results used in applications published elsewhere. The quasiclassical guise assumed by the formalism lends itself particularly to approximations of complex multiparticle scattering problems is laid. The foundation for a systematic application of statistical approximations to such problems. The form of the integral equation for scattering as well as its mulitple scattering expansion in this representation are derived. Since this formalism remains unchanged upon taking the classical limit, these results also constitute a general treatment of classical multiparticle collision theory. Quantum corrections to classical propogators are discussed briefly. The basic approximation used in the Monte Carlo method is derived in a fashion that allows for future refinement and includes bound state production. The close connection that must exist between inclusive production of a bound state and of its constituents is brought out in an especially graphic way by this formalism. In particular one can see how comparisons between such cross sections yield direct physical insight into relevant production mechanisms. A simple illustration of scattering by a bound two-body system is treated. Simple expressions for single- and double-scattering contributions to total and differential cross sections, as well as for all necessary shadow corrections thereto, are obtained and compared to previous results of Glauber and Goldberger

  19. Scattering of polarized 7Li by 120Sn and projectile-target spin-dependent interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuragi, Y.; Yahiro, M.; Kamimura, M.; Tanifuji, M.

    1986-07-01

    Scattering of 7 Li by 120 Sn targets at E lab = 44 MeV is investigated in the coupled-channel frame by taking account of the projectile virtual excitations to the lowest three excited states. Calculations are performed by the cluster-folding (CF) interactions and the double-folding (DF) one. Both interactions reproduce very well the expeimental data on the cross section, the vector analyzing power, the second-rank tensor ones and the third-rank tensor one in elastic and projectile inelastic scattering, although some differences are found between the CF results and the DF ones. In the calculation, the virtual excitations of the projectile are important for most of the analyzing powers and the spin-orbit interaction is indispensable for the vector analyzing power. These features are in contrast to those in 7 Li - 58 Ni scattering at 20 MeV and are interpreted as over-Coulomb-barrier effects. The scattering amplitudes and the analyzing powers are investigated by the invariant amplitude method, which provides a key connecting the spin-dependent interactions to the analyzing powers. The method proposes an important relationship between the tensor analyzing powers, which is useful in analyses of both theoretical and experimental results. Finally, it is found that in the elastic scattering the second-rank tensor analyzing powers are proportional to the strength of the second-rank tensor interaction and the vector and third-rank tensor analyzing powers to the square or cube of the strength of this interaction, while in the inelastic scattering the cross section is proportional to the square of the strength of the tensor interaction, other quantities being weakly dependent on the strength. (author)

  20. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  1. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... training certification and experience with kids and strength training. When teaching a new exercise, the trainer should have kids perform the exercise under his or her supervision in a hazard-free, well-lit, and ... and after strength training. Kids should begin with one set of 8– ...

  2. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  3. Incoherent Scatter Radar User Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A. D.

    1984-04-01

    The incoherent scatter radar technique has developed over the years into one of the most powerful tools for investigating physical processes in the upper atmosphere. The National Science Foundation (NSF) now supports a chain of four incoherent scatter facilities at Sondrestromfjord (Greenland), Millstone Hill (Massachusetts), Arecibo (Puerto Rico), and Jicamarca (PERU). Six European nations support the EISCAT facility in northern Scandinavia, and France also has a radar at St. Santin. Recently, the organizations reponsible for each of the six radars agreed to participate in a centralized data base being established at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to make their data more readily accessible to the scientific community at large.

  4. Optical scattering measurement and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stover, John C

    2012-01-01

    Newly included are scatter models for pits and particles as well as the use of wafer scanners to locate and size isolated surface features. New sections cover the multimillion-dollar wafer scanner business, establishing that microroughness is the noise, not the signal, in these systems. Scatter measurements, now routinely used to determine whether small-surface features are pits or particles and inspiring new technology that provides information on particle material, are also discussed. These new capabilities are now supported by a series of international standards, and a new chapter reviews t

  5. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This program uses ab-initio and multiple scattering to study surface dynamical processes; high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy is used in particular. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50--300 eV). The analyses have been extended to surfaces of ordered alloys. Phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross section calculations. Work on low-energy electron and positron holography is mentioned

  6. Scattering behaviour of Janus particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kaya, H

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in polymer synthesis has produced so-called Janus micelles: tailor-made copolymer structures in which the blocks constitute separate moieties. We present expressions for the form factors, P(Q), and the radii of gyration, R sub g , of Janus particles with spherical and cylindrical morphology and check their validity by comparison to simulated scattering data, calculated from Monte Carlo generations of the pair-distance distribution function, p(r). The effect of block incompatibilities on the scattering is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  7. Commercial applications of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The fact that industry is now willing to pay the full commercial cost for certain neutron scattering experiments aimed at solving its urgent materials - related problems is a true testimony to the usefulness of neutrons as microscopic probes. This paper gives examples of such use of three techniques drawn mainly from our experience at AEA Technology Harwell Laboratory. These are diffraction to measure residual stress, small angle neutron scattering to examine hardening precipitates in ferritic steels brought about by irradiation, and reflectivity to study amorphous diamond layers deposited on silicon. In most cases it is the penetrative power of the neutron which proves to be its best asset for commercial industrial applicaitons. (author)

  8. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  9. Quasielastic nucleon scattering using polarized beams and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1990-07-01

    Inelastic scattering of polarized intermediate energy nucleons to continuum nuclear states is discussed with emphasis on recent results. Spin momentum correlations of protons in polarized targets of 3 He were observed for the first time. Complete spin observables in (p,p') show effects of the nuclear spin-isospin response and of an NN interaction modified by the nuclear medium. A comparison of Gamow Teller and isovector M1 giant resonance strengths in the sd shell provides evidence for large meson exchange current effects in the M1. (Author) (37 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.)

  10. The origin of scattering in the inner Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharamaiah, K. R.; Narayan, Ramesh

    1988-01-01

    It is argued that the enhanced scattering of radiowaves observed at low Galactic longitude and latitude is caused by the low-density outer envelopes of H II regions in the inner 8 kpc of the Galaxy. A simple phenomenological theory is developed to estimate the strength of density fluctuations in a turbulent medium and apply the theory to the H II envelopes, using the densities and sizes determined from a recent 325-MHz recombination-line survey. The predicted values are in good agreement with the observations.

  11. Ion temperature via laser scattering on ion Bernstein waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurden, G.A.; Ono, M.; Wong, K.L.

    1981-10-01

    Hydrogen ion temperature has been measured in a warm toroidal plasma with externally launched ion Bernstein waves detected by heterodyne CO 2 laser scattering. Radial scanning of the laser beam allows precise determination of k/sub perpendicular to/ for the finite ion Larmor radius wave (ω approx. less than or equal to 2Ω/sub i/). Knowledge of the magnetic field strength and ion concentration then give a radially resolved ion temperature from the dispersion relation. Probe measurements and Doppler broadening of ArII 4806A give excellent agreement

  12. Investigation of neutron scattering for a multisphere spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Count rates were measured as a function of distance from a planar concrete reflector for a set of eight Bonner-sphere detectors and four isotopic neutron sources. These data can be used to determine the contributions of scattered neutrons to the response of moderated detectors used in environments bounded by concrete. A model based on images of the original source can be developed to produce an equation that describes the data well, if the strengths of the image sources can be treated as variable parameters. Values of the parameters appearing in the equations are given based on least-squares analysis of the experimental results

  13. STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  14. The aggregation behavior of zinc-free insulin studied by small-angle neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J.S.; Hansen, S.; Bauer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of zinc-free insulin has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of pH and ionic strength of the solution. The pair distance distribution functions for the 12 samples have been obtained by indirect Fourier transformation. The results show......-particle correlation effects, were obtained by an indirect Fourier transformation, omitting the data at small scattering vectors, which are influenced by these effects. By this procedure the weight-averaged molecular mass and the average radius of gyration were determined. These parameters vary from 1.3 times...... to an equilibrium model recently introduced by Kadima et al. (1993). The neutron scattering results agree well with the predictions of this model except that broader mass distributions are suggested by neutron scattering....

  15. Forge-Hardened TiZr Null-Matrix Alloy for Neutron Scattering under Extreme Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuo Okuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For neutron scattering research that is performed under extreme conditions, such as high static pressures, high-strength metals that are transparent to the neutron beam are required. The diffraction of the neutron beam by the metal, which follows Bragg’s law, can be completely removed by alloying two metallic elements that have coherent scattering lengths with opposite signs. An alloy of Ti and Zr, which is known as a TiZr null-matrix alloy, is an ideal combination for such purposes. In this study, we increased the hardness of a TiZr null-matrix alloy via extensive mechanical deformation at high temperatures. We successfully used the resulting product in a high-pressure cell designed for high-static-pressure neutron scattering. This hardened TiZr null-matrix alloy may play a complementary role to normal TiZr alloy in future neutron scattering research under extreme conditions.

  16. Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy for tissue engineering application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilbekova, Dana; Yakupov, Talgat; Ogay, Vyacheslav; Umbayev, Bauyrzhan; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Utegulov, Zhandos N.

    2018-02-01

    Biomechanical properties of mammalian bones, such as strength, toughness and plasticity, are essential for understanding how microscopic scale mechanical features can link to macroscale bones' strength and fracture resistance. We employ Brillouin light scattering (BLS) micro-spectroscopy for local assessment of elastic properties of bones under compression and the efficacy of the tissue engineering approach based on heparin-conjugated fibrin (HCF) hydrogels, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and osteogenic stem cells in the regeneration of the bone tissues. BLS is noninvasive and label-free imaging modality for probing mechanical properties of hard tissues that can give information on structure-function properties of normal and pathological tissues. Results showed that HCF gels containing combination of all factors had the best effect with complete defect regeneration at week 9 and that the bones with fully consolidated fractures have higher values of elastic moduli compared to the bones with defects.

  17. Neutron scattering in ORNL's calibration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.; Murakami, H.

    1991-01-01

    Room scattering corrections for several common neutron detectors in a new neutron calibration facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory were measured. Results for three radioisotopic sources in ground scattering and enclosed room scattering situations are compared with two model calculations, and the agreement is good. A personnel neutron spectrometer was used to examine further the spectral variation inside the enclosed neutron room. Scattered fluence and scattered dose equivalent results from the spectral measurements indicate that the scattering predictions using models hold only for small-source-to-detector distances. Additional observations from this study are also presented. (author)

  18. Bibliography for thermal neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Masanobu; Chihara, Junzo; Gotoh, Yorio; Kadotani, Hiroyuki; Sekiya, Tamotsu.

    1979-09-01

    Bibliographic references are given for measurements, calculations, reviews and basic studies of thermal neutron scattering and dynamical properties of condensed matter. This is the sixth edition covering 3,326 articles collected up to 1978. The edition being the final issue of the present bibliography series, a forthcoming edition will be published in a new form of bibliography. (author)

  19. Scattering Amplitudes from Intersection Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, Sebastian

    2018-04-06

    We use Picard-Lefschetz theory to prove a new formula for intersection numbers of twisted cocycles associated with a given arrangement of hyperplanes. In a special case when this arrangement produces the moduli space of punctured Riemann spheres, intersection numbers become tree-level scattering amplitudes of quantum field theories in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulation.

  20. Elastic scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspar, Jan; Deile, M

    The seemingly simple elastic scattering of protons still presents a challenge for the theory. In this thesis we discuss the elastic scattering from theoretical as well as experimental point of view. In the theory part, we present several models and their predictions for the LHC. We also discuss the Coulomb-hadronic interference, where we present a new eikonal calculation to all orders of alpha, the fine-structure constant. In the experimental part we introduce the TOTEM experiment which is dedicated, among other subjects, to the measurement of the elastic scattering at the LHC. This measurement is performed primarily with the Roman Pot (RP) detectors - movable beam-pipe insertions hundreds of meters from the interaction point, that can detect protons scattered to very small angles. We discuss some aspects of the RP simulation and reconstruction software. A central point is devoted to the techniques of RP alignment - determining the RP sensor positions relative to each other and to the beam. At the end we pres...

  1. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  2. Transition radiation and transition scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    Transition radiation is a process of a rather general character. It occurs when some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example, a charge) moves at a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and (or) nonstationary medium or near such a medium. The simplest type of transition radiation takes place when a charge crosses a boundary between two media (the role of one of the media may be played by vacuum). In the case of periodic variation of the medium, transition radiation possesses some specific features (resonance transition radiation or transition scattering). Transition scattering occurs, in particular, when a permittivity wave falls onto an nonmoving (fixed) charge. Transition scattering is closely connected with transition bremsstrahlung radiation. All these transition processes are essential for plasma physics. Transition radiation and transition scattering have analogues outside the framework of electrodynamics (like in the case of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation). In the present report the corresponding range of phenomena is elucidated, as far as possible, in a generally physical aspect. (Auth.)

  3. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Robert [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  4. Nuclear matter and electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sick, I. [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)

  5. Geometric scattering in robotic manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; van der Schaft, Arjan; Maschke, B.M.; Melchiorri, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interconnection of two robots, which are modeled as port-controlled Hamiltonian systems through a transmission line with time delay. There will be no analysis of the time delay, but its presence justifies the use of scattering variables to preserve passivity. The

  6. Pauli Principle and Pion Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethe, H. A.

    1972-10-01

    It is pointed out that if the Pauli principle is taken into account in the discussion of pion scattering by complex nuclei (as it ought, of course, to be) some rather implausible consequences of some earlier treatments of this problem can be avoided. (auth)

  7. Proton scattering from unstable nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Recent improvements in the intensities and optical qualities of radioactive beams have made possible the study of elastic and inelastic proton scattering on unstable nuclei. The design and performances of an innovative silicon strip detector array devoted to such experiments are described. The quality of the data ...

  8. Simple model for molecular scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nirav; Ticknor, Christopher; Hazzard, Kaden

    2017-04-01

    The collisions of ultracold molecules are qualitatively different from the collisions of ultracold atoms due to the high density of bimolecular resonances near the collision energy. We present results from a simple N-channel scattering model with square-well channel potentials and constant channel couplings (inside the well) designed to reproduce essential features of chaotic molecular scattering. The potential depths and channel splittings are tuned to reproduce the appropriate density of states for the short-range bimolecular collision complex (BCC), which affords a direct comparison of the resulting level-spacing distribution to that expected from random matrix theory (RMT), namely the so-called Wigner surmise. The density of states also sets the scale for the rate of dissociation from the BCC to free molecules, as approximated by transition state theory (TST). Our model affords a semi-analytic solution for the scattering amplitude in the open channel, and a determinantal equation for the eigenenergies of the short-ranged BCC. It is likely the simplest finite-ranged scattering model that can be compared to expectations from the approximations of RMT, and TST. The validity of these approximations has implications for the many-channel Hubbard model recently developed. This research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF PHY-1125915.

  9. Coupling between minimum scattering antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...

  10. Scattering theory and orthogonal polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geronimo, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The application of the techniques of scattering theory to the study of polynomials orthogonal on the unit circle and a finite segment of the real line is considered. The starting point is the recurrence relations satisfied by the polynomials instead of the orthogonality condition. A set of two two terms recurrence relations for polynomials orthogonal on the real line is presented and used. These recurrence relations play roles analogous to those satisfied by polynomials orthogonal on unit circle. With these recurrence formulas a Wronskian theorem is proved and the Christoffel-Darboux formula is derived. In scattering theory a fundamental role is played by the Jost function. An analogy is deferred of this function and its analytic properties and the locations of its zeros investigated. The role of the analog Jost function in various properties of these orthogonal polynomials is investigated. The techniques of inverse scattering theory are also used. The discrete analogues of the Gelfand-Levitan and Marchenko equations are derived and solved. These techniques are used to calculate asymptotic formulas for the orthogonal polynomials. Finally Szego's theorem on toeplitz and Hankel determinants is proved using the recurrence formulas and some properties of the Jost function. The techniques of inverse scattering theory are used to calculate the correction terms

  11. ENZYME CATALYTIC RESONANCE SCATTERING SPECTRAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Hydrogen peroxide oxidized guaiacol to form tetramer particles that exhibited a strong resonance scattering (RS) peak at 530 nm in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in citric acid-Na2HPO4 buffer solution of pH 4.4. The RS peak increased when the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased.

  12. Antiproton-Proton Glory Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures @*p and K|-p backwards scattering between 8 and 16 GeV/c in the Omega spectrometer using the S1 beam, with sensitivities of several events per nanobarn. The mechanism responsible for backward scattering in channels not mediated by particle exchange is not understood, and could be almost energy-independent glory scattering, especially since relatively high cross sections of 190~(@*p) and 120~(K|-p)nb have been measured earlier at 5~GeV/c. @p|-p backwards scattering is measured for monitoring purposes. The trigger requires a forward particle of momentum close to the beam momentum. Absence of light in the two forward Cerenkov counters indicates that the particle is a proton. Combinations of an incident @p|- and an outgoing K|+, or an incident K|- or @* and an outgoing @p|+, cover the following byproducts: @*p~@A~@p|+@p|- which is an (allowed) baryon exchange reaction, and the exotic exchange reactions @p|-p~@A~K|+Y K|-p~@A~@p|+Y|-, where Y|- may be the @S|- or the Y*|-(1385).

  13. Inelastic scattering on 100Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirota, S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of the nuclear structure of 100 Ru whe investigated by means of the scattering of 100 Ru (p,p') 100 Ru* with 16 MeV protons, where 21 states were investigated. The emergent protons were analysed by a magnetic spectrograph, of the enge type with a typical resolution of ≅ 9 KeV. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  14. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... Research Center for Electron-Photon Science, Tohoku University, 1-2-1 Mikamine,. Sendai, 982-0826, Japan. E-mail: ... scattering has remained the one and only way to determine the charge density distribu- tions. It is one of the fundamental ..... Knowing the absolute lumi- nosity, one can determine the ...

  15. Geometric Scattering in Robotic Telemanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Schaft, Arjan van der; Maschke, Bernhard; Melchiorri, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interconnection of two robots, which are modeled as port-controlled Hamiltonian systems through a transmission line with time delay. There will be no analysis of the time delay, but its presence justifies the use of scattering variables to preserve passivity. The

  16. Geometric scattering in robotic telemanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; van der Schaft, Arjan; Mashke, Bernhard; Melchiorri, Claudio

    In this paper, we study the interconnection of two robots, which are modeled as port-controlled Hamiltonian systems through a transmission line with time delay. There will be no analysis of the time delay, but its presence justifies the use of scattering variables to preserve passivity. The

  17. Ab initio phonon scattering by dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Carrete, Jesús; van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Mingo, Natalio; Madsen, Georg K. H.

    2017-06-01

    Heat management in thermoelectric and power devices as well as in random access memories poses a grand challenge and can make the difference between a working and an abandoned device design. Despite the prevalence of dislocations in all these technologies, the modeling of their thermal resistance is based on 50-year-old analytical approximations, whose simplicity was driven by practical limitations rather than physical insight. We introduce an efficient ab initio approach based on Green's functions computed by two-dimensional reciprocal space integration. By combining elasticity theory and density functional theory, we calculate the scattering strength of a 90∘ misfit edge dislocation in Si. Because of the breakdown of the Born approximation, earlier literature models fail, even qualitatively. We find that a dislocation density larger than 109cm-2 is necessary to substantially influence thermal conductivity at room temperature and above. We quantify how much of the reduction of thermal conductivity measured in nanograined samples can be explained by realistic dislocation concentrations.

  18. Neutron scattering and models: Silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.

    1996-07-01

    Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental silver were measured from 1.5 → 10 MeV at ∼ 100 keV intervals up to 3 MeV, at ∼ 200 keV intervals from 3 → 4 MeV, and at ∼ 500 keV intervals above 4 MeV. At ≤ 4 MeV the angular range of the measurements was ∼ 20 0 → 160 0 with 10 measured values below 3 MeV and 20 from 3 → 4 MeV at each incident energy. Above 4 MeV ≥ 40 scattering angles were used distributed between ∼ 17 0 and 16 0 All of the measured elastic distributions included some contributions due to inelastic scattering. Below 4 MeV the measurements determined cross sections for ten inelastically-scattered neutron groups corresponding to observed excitations of 328 ± 13, 419 ± 50, 748 ± 25, 908 ± 26, 115 ± 38, 1286 ± 25, 1507 ± 20, 1632 ± 30, 1835 ± 20 and 1944 ± 26 keV. All of these inelastic groups probably were composites of contributions from the two isotopes 107 Ag and 109 Ag. The experimental results were interpreted in terms of the spherical optical model and of rotational and vibrational coupled-channels models, and physical implications are discussed. In particular, the neutron-scattering results are consistent with a ground-state rotational band with a quadrupole deformation Β 2 = 0.20 ± ∼ 10% for both of the naturally-occurring silver isotopes

  19. Mathematical theory of potential scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, T.

    1963-01-01

    Before we go into a detailed discussion of the potential scattering we would like to spend a few words on the reason potential scattering is interesting. We think that one of the main reasons of success of the potential model is that we can discuss it quite rigorously and that at the same time it gives a fairly intuitive picture of the scattering process and it provides in a way the language for a fully relativistic theory. We do not think that the potential model has been particularly satisfactory in explaining quantitatively the known experimental data, for instance the nucleon-nucleon scattering; yet we have good reasons to believe that at low energy any field theory will ultimately yield some sort of spin-dependent potential, containing spin orbit coupling and exchange terms. How this can be done and how far one has gone in this direction has nothing to do with the subject of these lectures which are merely concerned with the discussion of the solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a given class of potentials. That is,we assume from the very beginning that a potential exists although we do not know it or we know only broad features like the range and its analytic properties as function of the distance. For simplicity we do not deal with spin or exchange terms although they can be taken care of with little modifications. We just want to find those features of potential scattering which are to a large extent independent of the particular selection of the potential.

  20. Prediction of Torsional Strength for Very High Early Strength Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woraphot PRACHASAREE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Very early high strength geopolymers are gaining acceptance as alternative repair materials for highways and other infrastructure. In this study, a very rapid geopolymer binder based on Metakaolin (MK and Parawood ash (PWA, developed by the authors, was experimentally tested and a prediction model for its torsional strength is proposed. The geopolymer samples were subjected to uniaxial compression, flexural beam, and torsion tests. The modulus of rupture and torsional strength in terms of compression strength were found to be well approximated by 0.7(f’c1/2 and 1/7(x2y (f’c1/2, respectively. Also an interaction relation to describe combined bending and torsion was developed in this study. In addition, the effects of aspect ratio (y/x were studied on both torsional strength and combined bending and torsion. It was found that an aspect ratio of y/x = 3 significantly reduced the torsional resistance, to about 50 % of the torsional strength of a square section.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.4.17280

  1. Small angle neutron scattering modeling of copper-rich precipitates in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic to nuclear scattering intensity ratio observed in the scattering from copper rich precipitates in irradiated pressure vessel steels is much smaller than the value of 11.4 expected for a pure copper precipitate in iron. A model for precipitates in pressure vessel steels which matches the observed scattering typically incorporates manganese, nickel, silicon and other elements and it is assumed that the precipitate is non-magnetic. In the present work consideration is given to the effect of composition gradients and ferromagnetic penetration into the precipitate on the small angle scattering cross section for copper rich clusters as distinguished from conventional precipitates. The calculation is an extension of a scattering model for micelles which consist of shells of varying scattering density. A discrepancy between recent SANS scattering experiments on pressure vessel steels was found to be related to applied magnetic field strength. The assumption of cluster structure and its relation to atom probe FIM findings as well as the effects of insufficient field for magnetic saturation is discussed

  2. Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-jian Li; Jun-ding Liu; Rui Yan; Wen Zheng; Sheng-jun Shao

    2014-01-01

    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress (Kf line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests: the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural lo...

  3. Scatter and contamination of a low-scatter mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, J. R.; McIntosh, M. B.; Akerman, M. A.

    1991-12-01

    The contamination of high-quality, space-borne optics by particles originating from baffle systems could significantly alter the performance of the optics. To assess this potential problem, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a low-scatter beryllium mirror was measured at the 10.6-micron wavelength with the mirror in the 'cleaned' state and after controlled contaminations with aluminum oxide powder up to 100 microns in size. The aluminum oxide powder was used to simulate particles which could be released from a typical baffle material. After contamination, the particle size distribution on the mirror surface was statistically sampled using a scanning electron microscope image analysis technique. The BRDF measurements of the contaminated mirror were compared to Mie scattering theory calculations for subwavelength, wavelength, and superwavelength particles sizes.

  4. Advantages of neutron scattering for biological structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.P.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of neutron scattering for protein crystallography, scattering from oriented systems, and solution scattering are summarized. Techniques for minimizing the disadvantages are indicated

  5. Scattering by two spheres: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    of suspended sediments. The scattering properties of single regular-shaped particles have been studied in depth by several authors in the past. However, single particle scattering cannot explain all features of scattering by suspended sediment. When the concentration of particles exceeds a certain limit......, multiple particle scattering becomes important. As a first step in the investigation of mutual interactions between several particles, the acoustical scattering by two spheres has been studied theoretically and experimentally and the results are reported in this paper. The study has mainly been focused...... on three issues: (1) to develop a simplified theory for scattering by two elastical spheres; (2) to measure the scattering by two spheres in a water tank, and (3) to compare the theoretical/numerical results with the measured data. A number of factors influencing multiple scattering, including...

  6. Molecular X-ray scattering, ch. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzen, Th. L.

    1977-01-01

    This chapter considers the evaluation of coherently and incoherently scattered X-ray intensities of single freely rotating molecules (gas scattering). A purely analytical procedure is given based upon the use of LCAO-MO Gaussian wave functions

  7. Scattering and transfer reactions with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    From the elastic scattering analysis the input parameters are found for the inelastic scattering analysis and the transfer reactions of the heavy ion reactions. The main theme reported is the likeness and conection among these processes. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  9. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of falls. This can help you maintain independence as you age. Manage chronic conditions. Strength training ... 2016. Resistance training for health and fitness. American College of Sports Medicine. https://www.acsm.org/public- ...

  10. Resonance scattering and singularities of the scattering function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, W.D. [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study, and Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Stellenbosch (South Africa); Nazmitdinov, R.G. [Department de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-15

    Recent studies of transport phenomena with complex potentials are explained by generic square root singularities of spectrum and eigenfunctions of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Using a two channel problem we demonstrate that such singularities produce a significant effect upon the pole behaviour of the scattering matrix, and more significantly upon the associated residues. This mechanism explains why by proper choice of the system parameters the resonance cross section is increased drastically in one channel and suppressed in the other channel. (authors)

  11. Time-reversal of electromagnetic scattering for small scatterer classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J Torquil; Berryman, James G

    2012-01-01

    Time-reversal operators, or the alternatively labelled, but equivalent, multistatic response matrix methods, are used to show how to determine the number of scatterers present in an electromagnetic scattering scenario that might be typical of UneXploded Ordinance (UXO) detection, classification and removal applications. Because the nature of the target UXO application differs from that of many other common inversion problems, emphasis is placed here on classification and enumeration rather than on detailed imaging. The main technical issues necessarily revolve around showing that it is possible to find a sufficient number of constraints via multiple measurements (i.e. using several distinct views at the target site) to solve the enumeration problem. The main results show that five measurements with antenna pairs are generally adequate to solve the classification and enumeration problems. However, these results also demonstrate a need for decreasing noise levels in the multistatic matrix as the number n of scatterers increases for the intended practical applications of the method. (paper)

  12. Scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kerker, Milton

    1969-01-01

    The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation discusses the theory of electromagnetic scattering and describes some practical applications. The book reviews electromagnetic waves, optics, the interrelationships of main physical quantities and the physical concepts of optics, including Maxwell's equations, polarization, geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction. The text explains the Rayleigh2 theory of scattering by small dielectric spheres, the Bessel functions, and the Legendre functions. The author also explains how the scattering functions for a homogenous sphere chan

  13. Scattered X-ray beam nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, G.; Kosanetzky, J.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray scatter interactions generally dominate the linear attenuation coefficient at the photon energies typical of medical and industrial radiography. Specific advantages of X-ray scatter imaging, including a flexible choice of measurement geometry, direct 3D-imaging capability (tomography) and improved information for material characterization, are illustrated with results from Compton and coherent scatter devices. Applications of a Compton backscatter scanner (ComScan) in the aerospace industry and coherent scatter imaging in security screening are briefly considered [pt

  14. World strength map: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.; Mooney, Walter

    2010-05-01

    Rheology and strength of the Earth's lithosphere have been debated since the beginning of the last century, when the concept of a strong lithosphere overlying viscous asthenosphere was introduced. The issue of strength of the lithospheric plates and their spatial and temporal variations is important for many geodynamic applications. For rocks with given mineralogical composition and microstructure, temperature is one of the most important parameters controlling rheology. We present the first world strength map obtained from global thermal and crustal models. Temperature estimates for the deeper horizons of the lithosphere, where the heat transport is mostly conductive, requires a precise knowledge of many crustal parameters (mainly thermal conductivity and heat production), which are extremely uncertain. Therefore, we use a combination of indirect approaches, such as seismic tomography and geothermal analysis. Furthermore, we implement a global crustal model on the base of previous compilations. Lithology of the upper and lower crust was classified based on tectonic maps of the World in agreement with the previous study of Tesauro et al. (2009). The results show a good correspondence between strength values and geological features. We observe some general tendency for old cratons and areas affected by the Tertiary volcanism, characterized by high and low strength values, respectively. At the same time, relevant differences in the strength distribution between similar structures are found.

  15. Study of the unbound proton-rich nucleus $^{21}$Al with resonance elastic and inelastic scattering using an active target

    CERN Multimedia

    We intend to measure the structure of the unbound nucleus $^{21}$Al via resonance elastic and inelastic scattering with an active target. There are many goals: \\\\ a) to locate the 1/2$^{+}$ level in $^{21}$Al that brings information on the Thomas-Ehrman shift, \\\\ b) to measure the energy spectrum of $^{21}$Al which is a N=8 isotone with the resonance elastic scattering reaction, \\\\ c) to investigate via inelastic scattering the strength of core excitations in the existence of narrow unbound resonances beyond the proton drip-line.

  16. Quasielastic Neutron Scattering by Superionic Strontium Chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickens, M. H.; Hutchings, M. T.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    The scattering, from powder and single crystal samples, appears only above the superionic transition temperature, 1000K. The integrated intensity is found to be strongly dependent on the direction and magnitude of the scattering vector, Q, (which suggests the scattering is coherent) but does not ...

  17. Multiple wave scattering from fractal aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korvin, Gabor E-mail: gabor@kfupm.edu.sa; Oleschko, Klavdia

    2004-01-01

    Multiple scattered waves from fractal aggregates create spurious resonances in the high-frequency part of the wave-field's Fourier spectrum. It is shown by a probabilistic convolutional model that for extended fractal media with strong scattering cross-section, multiple scattering can affect the value of the fractal dimension estimated from the wave-field's Fourier power spectrum.

  18. Recent development in magnetic neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1993-01-01

    Neutron scattering results contain many new concepts in modern magnetism. We review here the most recent neutron magnetic scattering studies from so called '214' copper oxide lamellar materials, because a number of important developments in magnetism are condensed in this novel subject. We show that neutron scattering has played crucial role in our understanding of modern magnetism. (author)

  19. Intermediate energy nucleon-deuteron scattering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Sloan's conclusion (1969) that terms of the multiple-scattering series beyond single scattering contribute only to S- and P-wave amplitudes in an S-wave separable model is examined. A comparison of experiments with the calculation at 146 MeV shows that the conclusion is valid in nucleon-deuteron scattering applications.

  20. Electron-electron scattering in the Weinberg-Salam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Hideharu

    1988-01-01

    The Weinberg theory is generally believed to have been established in recent years. At distances smaller than 10 -16 cm, the strength of weak interactions becomes almost equal to that of the electromagnetic interactions. The grand unified theories proposed so far are based on the idea that the coupling constants for the Abelian U(1) field, the non-Abelian SU(2) field and the non-Abelian SU(3) color field depend on momentum transfer, or distance. At distances smaller than 10 -29 cm, weak electromagnetic and strong interactions are assumed to become almost the same strength. The question here is whether nature has no new features in the vast range from 10 -16 cm (10 2 GeV) to 10 -29 cm (10 15 GeV) and whether the substructure of quark or lepton can be expected to be revealed at the next accelerator energy region. The Weinberger-Salam theory may lose its validity even in near future experiments. In any case, it must be overhauled from various aspects. From this point of view, by using the Weinberger-Salam theory, calculation of the differential cross section for elastic electron-electron scattering is re-examined to make clear the difference with the results of QED. In addition, as an example of experiments which could investigate the Weinberger-Salam theory more in detail, a short account is given of the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from a polarized electron target. (Nogami, K.)

  1. COMBINED STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING IN COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Aspenes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11 or a control group (n = 9 from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers

  2. Estimating the location of scatterers using correlation of scattered rayleigh waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmankaya, U.; Kaslilar, A.; Van Wijk, K.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by a technique called seismic interferometry, we estimate the location of scatterers in a scaled model, where many near-surface scatterers are present. We isolate the scattered wavefield and evaluate correlation of scattered waves at different receiver locations. The cross-correlation

  3. Vector Boson Scattering at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcan, V E

    2009-01-01

    While the Higgs model is the best studied scenario of electroweak symmetry breaking, there is no fundamental reason for the physics responsible for the symmetry breaking to be weakly-coupled. Many alternatives exist, predicting highly model-dependent signatures. By measuring the cross-section for the W and Z scattering at the LHC, it will be possible to obtain model-independent evidence for strong symmetry breaking or to constrain these various models. ATLAS Collaboration has recently performed a realistic simulation of this process and its backgrounds, which takes into account the detector effects and has developed new jet-analysis techniques for identifying vector bosons within the immense QCD backgrounds expected at the LHC. These techniques and the prospects for measuring the scattering signal will be presented.

  4. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, L; Brunger, M J; Zecca, A; Blanco, F; García, G

    2014-01-01

    Using a Beer–Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C 4 H 6 O 2 ) in the incident positron energy range 0.15–50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1–1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ∼2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect. (paper)

  5. Anomalous X-Ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g., in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discussion of the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references.

  6. Phase transitions and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, G.

    1993-01-01

    A review is given of recent advances in neutron scattering studies of solid state physics. I have selected the study of a structural phase transition as the best example to demonstrate the power of neutron scattering techniques. Since energy analysis is relatively easy, the dynamical aspects of a transition can be elucidated by the neutron probe. I shall discuss in some detail current experiments on the 100 K transition in SrTiO 3 , the crystal which has been the paradigm of neutron studies of phase transitions for many years. This new experiment attempts to clarify the relation between the neutron central peak, observed in energy scans, and the two length scales observed in recent x-ray diffraction studies where only scans in momentum space are possible. (author)

  7. Shear Brillouin light scattering microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonseok; Besner, Sebastien; Ramier, Antoine; Kwok, Sheldon J J; An, Jeesoo; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-11

    Brillouin spectroscopy has been used to characterize shear acoustic phonons in materials. However, conventional instruments had slow acquisition times over 10 min per 1 mW of input optical power, and they required two objective lenses to form a 90° scattering geometry necessary for polarization coupling by shear phonons. Here, we demonstrate a confocal Brillouin microscope capable of detecting both shear and longitudinal phonons with improved speeds and with a single objective lens. Brillouin scattering spectra were measured from polycarbonate, fused quartz, and borosilicate in 1-10 s at an optical power level of 10 mW. The elastic constants, phonon mean free path and the ratio of the Pockels coefficients were determined at microscopic resolution.

  8. New Techniques in Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas Okkels

    potential performance than any existing facility, however in order to use this pulse structure optimally many existing neutron scattering instruments will need to be redesigned. This defense will concentrate on the design and optimization of the inverse time-of-flight cold neutron spectrometer CAMEA......, simulations and prototyping to optimize the instrument and ensure that it will deliver the predicted performance when constructed. During the design a new prismatic analyser concept that can be of interest to many other neutron spectrometers was developed. The design work was compiled into an instrument......Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher...

  9. Scattering characteristics from porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabet-Dariani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   Porous silicon (PS layers come into existance as a result of electrochemical anodization on silicon. Although a great deal of research has been done on the formation and optical properties of this material, the exact mechanism involved is not well-understood yet.   In this article, first, the optical properties of silicon and porous silicon are described. Then, previous research and the proposed models about reflection from PS and the origin of its photoluminescence are reveiwed. The reflecting and scattering, absorption and transmission of light from this material, are then investigated. These experiments include,different methods of PS sample preparation their photoluminescence, reflecting and scattering of light determining different characteristics with respect to Si bulk.

  10. Unifying relations for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao

    2018-02-01

    We derive new amplitudes relations revealing a hidden unity among a wideranging variety of theories in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. Our results rely on a set of Lorentz invariant differential operators which transmute physical tree-level scattering amplitudes into new ones. By transmuting the amplitudes of gravity coupled to a dilaton and two-form, we generate all the amplitudes of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, Dirac-Born-Infield theory, special Galileon, nonlinear sigma model, and biadjoint scalar theory. Transmutation also relates amplitudes in string theory and its variants. As a corollary, celebrated aspects of gluon and graviton scattering like color-kinematics duality, the KLT relations, and the CHY construction are inherited traits of the transmuted amplitudes. Transmutation recasts the Adler zero as a trivial consequence of the Weinberg soft theorem and implies new subleading soft theorems for certain scalar theories.

  11. Phase transitions and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, G.

    1993-01-01

    A review is given of recent advances in neutron scattering studies of solid state physics. The author has selected the study of a structural phase transition as the best example to demonstrate the power of neutron scattering techniques. Since energy analysis is relatively easy, the dynamical aspects of a transition can be elucidated by the neutron probe. He will discuss in some detail current experiments on the 100K transition in SrTiO 3 , the crystal which has been the paradigm of neutron studies of phase transitions for many years. This new experiment attempts to clarify the relation between the neutron central peak, observed in energy scans, and the two length scales observed in recent x-ray diffraction studies where only scans in momentum space are possible

  12. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  13. Theory of Graphene Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Eric J; Yang, Yuan; Kocia, Lucas; Chen, Wei; Fang, Shiang; Borunda, Mario; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2016-02-23

    Raman scattering plays a key role in unraveling the quantum dynamics of graphene, perhaps the most promising material of recent times. It is crucial to correctly interpret the meaning of the spectra. It is therefore very surprising that the widely accepted understanding of Raman scattering, i.e., Kramers-Heisenberg-Dirac theory, has never been applied to graphene. Doing so here, a remarkable mechanism we term"transition sliding" is uncovered, explaining the uncommon brightness of overtones in graphene. Graphene's dispersive and fixed Raman bands, missing bands, defect density and laser frequency dependence of band intensities, widths of overtone bands, Stokes, anti-Stokes anomalies, and other known properties emerge simply and directly.

  14. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  15. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L 3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  16. Development of new methods for studying nanostructures using neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop improved instrumentation for studying the microscopic structures of materials using neutron scattering. Neutron scattering has a number of advantages for studying material structure but suffers from the well-known disadvantage that neutrons' ability to resolve structural details is usually limited by the strength of available neutron sources. We aimed to overcome this disadvantage using a new experimental technique, called Spin Echo Scattering Angle Encoding (SESAME) that makes use of the neutron's magnetism. Our goal was to show that this innovation will allow the country to make better use of the significant investment it has recently made in a new neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and will lead to increases in scientific knowledge that contribute to the Nation's technological infrastructure and ability to develop advanced materials and technologies. We were successful in demonstrating the technical effectiveness of the new method and established a baseline of knowledge that has allowed ORNL to start a project to implement the method on one of its neutron beam lines.

  17. Development of new methods for studying nanostructures using neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, Roger [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2016-03-18

    The goal of this project was to develop improved instrumentation for studying the microscopic structures of materials using neutron scattering. Neutron scattering has a number of advantages for studying material structure but suffers from the well-known disadvantage that neutrons’ ability to resolve structural details is usually limited by the strength of available neutron sources. We aimed to overcome this disadvantage using a new experimental technique, called Spin Echo Scattering Angle Encoding (SESAME) that makes use of the neutron’s magnetism. Our goal was to show that this innovation will allow the country to make better use of the significant investment it has recently made in a new neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and will lead to increases in scientific knowledge that contribute to the Nation’s technological infrastructure and ability to develop advanced materials and technologies. We were successful in demonstrating the technical effectiveness of the new method and established a baseline of knowledge that has allowed ORNL to start a project to implement the method on one of its neutron beam lines.

  18. Spectroscopy, scattering, and KK molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The author presents a pedagogical description of a new theoretical technique, based on the multichannel Schroedinger equation, for simultaneously applying the quark model to both meson spectroscopy and meson-meson scattering. This is an extension of an earlier analysis which led to the prediction that the f{sub o}(975) and a{sub o}(980) scalar mesons are K{bar K} molecular states.

  19. Scattering influence in mammographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, Martin Eduardo; Almeida, Adelaide de

    1996-01-01

    The quantification of mammographic images affected by scattered radiation is studied. The average glandular dose as a function of kVp and breast thickness for breast composition 50/50% is also evaluated. The results show that the contrast decreases with increasing of kVp and breast thickness, and the average glandular dose increase with increasing breast thickness and decreases with increasing kVp

  20. Scattering theory for Riemannian Laplacians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Kenichi; Skibsted, Erik

    In this paper we introduce a notion of scattering theory for the Laplace-Beltrami operator on non-compact, connected and complete Riemannian manifolds. A principal condition is given by a certain positive lower bound of the second fundamental form of angular submanifolds at infinity. Another cond...... metrics studied previously in the literature). A consequence of the theory is spectral theory for the Laplace-Beltrami operator including identification of the continuous spectrum and absence of singular continuous spectrum....

  1. Electron scattering by hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    A variational method to calculate the differential cross section of the electron-hydrogen atom scattering process is presented. The second Born approximation is calculated, through a variational calculation using the energy and electronic charge simultaneously as parameters, in order to calculate the differential cross section which is written in a fractional form according to the Schwinger variational principle. Effects due to the electron change are included in the calculations. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Neutron scattering by Dirac multipoles

    OpenAIRE

    Lovesey, S. W.; Khalyavin, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    Ordered magnetic charge created by Dirac multipoles that are magnetic and polar is examined. It has previously been revealed in the pseudo-gap phase of high-Tc materials by use of the Kerr effect and magnetic neutron Bragg diffraction. There are several forms of the polar operator for magnetic neutron scattering built from spin and electric dipole operators of unpaired electrons. Construction of Dirac quadrupoles that emerge from centrosymmetric sites used by Cu ions in the ceramic supercondu...

  3. Potential scattering of Dirac particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaller, B.

    1981-01-01

    A quantum mechanical interpretation of the Dirac equation for particles in external electromagnetic potentials is discussed. It is shown that a consequent development of the Stueckelberg-Feynman theory into a probabilistic interpretation of the Dirac equation corrects some prejudices concerning negative energy states, Zitterbewegung and bound states in repulsive potentials and yields the connection between propagator theory and scattering theory. Limits of the Dirac equation, considered as a wave mechanical equation, are considered. (U.K.)

  4. Dipole term and first derivative at K=0 of the generalized oscillator strength of He by keV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backx, C.; Tol, R.R.; Wight, G.R.; Wiel, M.J. van der

    1975-01-01

    An approximate method is described for obtaining the derivative to K 2 of the generalized oscillator strength for keV electron scattering at zero momentum transfer, over a large range of energy losses. The measured data enable the reduction of the systematical uncertainty in the derivation of optical oscillator strengths to below 1%. Results are presented for He over the spectral range of 19 to 65 eV. The data for the derivation are in satisfactory agreement with earlier electron scattering results at lower impact energy and extend over a sufficient range to allow the application of a sum rule for this term of the generalized oscillator strength. (Auth.)

  5. Glory scattering by black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzner, R.A.; DeWitte-Morette, C.; Nelson, B.; Zhang, T.

    1985-01-01

    We present a physically motivated derivation of the JWKB backward glory-scattering cross section of massless waves by Schwarzschild black holes. The angular dependence of the cross section is identical with the one derived by path integration, namely, dsigma/dΩ = 4π 2 lambda -1 B/sub g/ 2 (dB mWπ, where lambda is the wavelength, B(theta) is the inverse of the classical deflection function CTHETA(B), B/sub g/ is the glory impact parameter, s is the helicity of the scattered wave, and J/sub 2s/ is the Bessel function of order 2s. The glory rings formed by scalar waves are bright at the center; those formed by polarized waves are dark at the center. For scattering of massless particles by a spherical black hole of mass M, B(theta)/Mapprox.3 √3 + 3.48 exp(-theta), theta > owigπ. The numerical values of dsigma/dΩ for this deflection function are found to agree with earlier computer calculations of glory cross sections from black holes

  6. Narrowband Compton Scattering Yield Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykovanov, Sergey; Seipt, Daniel; Kharin, Vasily

    2017-10-01

    Compton Scattering (CS) of laser light off high-energy electrons is a well-established source of X- and gamma-rays for applications in medicine, biology, nuclear and material sciences. Main advantage of CS photon sources is the possibility to generate narrow spectra as opposed to a broad continuum obtained when utilizing Bremsstrahlung. However, due to the low cross-section of the linear process, the total photon yield is quite low. The most straightforward way to increase the number of photon-electron beam scattering events is to increase the laser pulse intensity at the interaction point by harder focusing. This leads to an unfortunate consequence. Increase in the laser pulse normalized amplitude a0, leads to additional ponderomotive spectrum broadening of the scattered radiation. The ponderomotive broadening is caused by the v × B force, which slows the electron down near the peak of the laser pulse where the intensity is high, and can be neglected near the wings of the pulse, where the intensity is low. We show that laser pulse chirping, both nonlinear (laser pulse frequency ''following'' the envelope of the pulse) and linear, leads to compensation of the ponderomotive broadening and considerably enhances the yield of the nonlinear Compton sources. Work supported by the Helmholtz Association via Helmholtz Young Investigators Grant (VH-NG-1037).

  7. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  8. Wave propagation and scattering in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Akira

    1978-01-01

    Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an

  9. Tunable, anomalous Mie scattering using spatial coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyundou; Schouten, Hugo F; Visser, Taco D

    2015-10-15

    We demonstrate that a J0-Bessel-correlated beam that is incident on a homogeneous sphere produces a highly unusual distribution of the scattered field, with the maximum no longer occurring in the forward direction. Such a beam can be easily generated using a spatially incoherent, annular source. Moreover, the direction of maximal scattering can be shifted by changing the spatial coherence length. In this process, the total power that is scattered remains constant. This new tool to control scattering directionality may be used to steer the scattered field away from the forward direction and selectively address detectors situated at different angles.

  10. Small-angle scattering on soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, K.

    1994-01-01

    Small angle x-ray and neutron scattering provides tools for investigation of structures on the length scale 10 to 1000 A. This is the length scale which is relevant for many topics within soft materials, like biological macromolecules, polymers, colloids, etc. The very large difference between the scattering amplitude of neutrons by regular hydrogen and deuterium makes neutron scattering a very important technique within soft condensed matter. The basic theory for small angle scattering is reviewed. Experimental results obtained by small angle scattering are shown, with emphasis on soft materials. (author). 33 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  11. Characterization of Nanoparticles by Scattering Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Benjamin; Liu Tianbo

    2000-01-01

    Basic principles and applications of different scattering techniques (including static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)) on the characterization of nanoparticles are reviewed in this paper. By choosing a suitable scattering technique or a combination of different techniques for nanoparticle characterization, the particles' molecular weight, radius of gyration, hydrodynamic radius, size distribution, shape and internal structure as well as interparticle interactions of nanoparticles, can be determined. Examples including some sophisticated colloidal systems are presented

  12. Far-infrared laser scattering in the ACT-I toroidal device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goree, J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Ono, M.; Wong, K.L.

    1984-12-01

    A far-infrared laser scattering diagnostic has been built for the ACT-I toroidal device. The optical system uses a passively stabilized 447-..mu..m CH/sub 3/I laser. A polyethylene etalon is the beam splitter. The vacuum windows are plastic (TPX), which we found has the vacuum property Q 6.5 x 10/sup -9/ torr-liter/sec/cm/sup 2/. Using paraboloidal and ellipsoidal mirrors for detection optics improves the signal strength and allows a better rf enclosure design for the detector. The diagnostic was tested by scattering from an ion Bernstein wave, a technique which can be used for ion temperature diagnostics.

  13. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section for the 6He + 27Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamim, E.A.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Mendes Junior, D.R.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Chamon, L.C.; Hussein, M.S.; Moro, A.M.; Arazi, A.; Padron, I.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Assuncao, M.; Barioni, A.; Camargo, O.; Denke, R.Z.; Faria, P.N. de; Pires, K.C.C.

    2007-01-01

    The elastic scattering of the radioactive halo nucleus 6 He on 27 Al target was measured at four energies close to the Coulomb barrier using the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil) facility. The Sao Paulo Potential (SPP) was used and its diffuseness and imaginary strength were adjusted to fit the elastic scattering angular distributions. Reaction cross-sections were extracted from the optical model fits. The reduced reaction cross-sections of 6 He on 27 Al are similar to those for stable, weakly bound projectiles as 6,7 Li, 9 Be and larger than stable, tightly bound projectile as 16 O on 27 Al

  14. Understanding charge transfer of Li+ and Na+ ions scattered from metal surfaces with high work function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lin; Wu Wen-Bin; Liu Pin-Yang; Xiao Yun-Qing; Li Guo-Peng; Liu Yi-Ran; Jiang Hao-Yu; Guo Yan-Ling; Chen Xi-Meng

    2016-01-01

    For Li + and Na + ions scattered from high work function metal surfaces, efficient neutralization is observed, and it cannot be explained by the conventional free electron model. In order to explain these experimental data, we investigate the velocity-dependent neutral fraction with the modified Brako–Newns (BN) model. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data. We find that the parallel velocity effect plays an important role in neutralizing the Li + and Na + ions for large angle scattering. The nonmonotonic velocity behavior of neutral fraction is strongly related to the distance-dependent coupling strength between the atomic level and metal states. (paper)

  15. Electron scattering by molecular oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddy, P.E.

    1999-03-01

    Collisions of electrons with molecules is one of the fundamental processes which occur both in atomic and molecular physics and also in chemistry. These collisions are vital in determining the energy balance and transport properties of electrons in gases and plasmas at low temperatures. There are many important applications for the basic understanding of these collision processes. For example, the study of planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium involves electron collisions with both molecules and molecular ions. In particular, two of the major cooling mechanisms of electrons in the Earth's ionosphere are (i) the fine structure changing transitions of oxygen atoms by electron impact and (ii) the resonant electron-impact vibrational excitation of N 2 . Other applications include magnetohydrodynamic power generation and laser physics. A molecule, by definition, will contain more than one nucleus and consequently the effect of nuclear motion in the molecule leads to many extra processes in electron scattering by molecules which cannot occur in electron-atom scattering. As for atoms, both elastic and inelastic scattering occur, but in the case of inelastic electron scattering by molecules, the target molecule is excited to a different state by the process. The excitation may be one, or some combination, of rotational, vibrational and electronic transitions. Other reactions which may occur include dissociation of the molecule into its constituent atoms or ionisation. Another difficulty arises when considering the interactions between the electron and the molecule, This interaction, which considerably complicates the calculation, is non-spherical and various methods have been developed over the years to represent this interaction. This thesis considers electron scattering by molecular oxygen in the low energy range i.e. 0-15eV. These collisions are of considerable interest in atmospheric physics and chemistry where the electron impact excitation of O 2 has

  16. Deep Inelastic Scattering on Ultracold Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hofmann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss Bragg scattering on both Bose and Fermi gases with strong short-range interactions in the deep inelastic regime of large wave vector transfer q, where the dynamic structure factor is dominated by a resonance near the free-particle energy ℏω=ϵ_{q}=ℏ^{2}q^{2}/2m. Using a systematic short-distance expansion, the structure factor at high momentum is shown to exhibit a nontrivial dependence on frequency characterized by two separate scaling regimes. First, for frequencies that differ from the single-particle energy by terms of order O(q (i.e., small deviations compared to the single-particle energy, the dynamic structure factor is described by the impulse approximation of Hohenberg and Platzman. Second, deviations of order O(q^{2} (i.e., of the same order or larger than the single-particle energy are described by the operator product expansion, with a universal crossover connecting both regimes. The scaling is consistent with the leading asymptotics for a number of sum rules in the large momentum limit. Furthermore, we derive an exact expression for the shift and width of the single-particle peak at large momentum due to interactions, thus extending a result by Beliaev [J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 7, 299 (19580044-4510] for the low-density Bose gas to arbitrary values of the scattering length a. The shift exhibits a maximum around qa≃1, which is connected with a maximum in the static structure factor due to strong short-range correlations. For Bose gases with moderate interaction strengths, the theoretically predicted shift is consistent with the value observed by Papp et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 135301 (2008PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.101.135301]. Finally, we develop a diagrammatic theory for the dynamic structure factor which accounts for the correlations beyond Bogoliubov theory. It covers the full range of momenta and frequencies and provides an explicit example for the emergence of asymptotic scaling at large momentum.

  17. Mechanism of nuclear rainbow scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, S. [Department of Applied Science and Environment, Kochi Women University, Kochi 780-8515 (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Full text: Nuclear rainbow phenomenon has been widely observed in light heavy ion scattering such as {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0, {sup 16} 0 + {sup 12} C and {sup 12} C + {sup 12} C and great progress has been made experimentally and theoretically especially in the nineties. The nuclear rainbow has been understood quite often in analogy to meteorological rainbow caused by scattering of light from water droplets, because they are both considered to be a refractive phenomenon. Traditionally nuclear rain- bow has been explained by the far side component of the scattering amplitudes in the presence of a strong attractive force: The observed Airy structure in the angular distributions has been understood by the interference between it's two sub amplitudes in analogy to the interference of two refractive waves in meteorological rainbow, although it was not easy to theoretically extract its components separately. By studying the {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0 scattering measured at Strasbourg, we have theoretically succeeded in extracting the sub amplitudes of the far side scattering in a rigorous but easy way: the sub amplitudes are obtained by decomposing the calculated scattering amplitude into its internal wave and barrier wave components. It is found that the Airy structure observed in the angular distributions in the E L = 75-145 MeV is caused by the interference between the far side internal-wave and far side barrier-wave. The minima in the 90-excitation function, which has been interpreted to be the passage of the Airy elephants, can also be explained as the interference between the far side internal- wave and barrier-wave. It is noted that although the internal wave is a refracted wave the barrier wave is a reflected wave, which does not feel the attractive potential in the very internal region. This means that the nuclear Airy structure is caused by the interference between the refractive wave and reflective wave. This finding is very different from the traditional

  18. Tsunami scattering provinces in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofjeld, H. O.; Titov, V. V.; González, F. I.; Newman, J. C.

    We use a scattering index to identify the regions in the Pacific Ocean where topographic features scatter significant tsunami energy. Based on linear wave theory, the index is computed from the Smith/Sandwell topography. Consistent with numerical simulations, it shows that there is a narrow band of strong scatterers running across the ocean from the northwest (Emperor Seamount Chain) to the southeast (Easter Island Fracture Zone). The eastern Pacific is nearly devoid of scatterers, except for this band and isolated features along the eastern margin. To the west of the band lies a region with moderate scattering; the strongest scattering occurs in the southwestern Pacific. The Pacific is rimmed by island arcs and shallow continental shelves that also trap and scatter tsunamis. These results show that numerical models of trans-Pacific tsunamis must resolve the effects of the small-scale topography in order to accurately simulate their wave patterns and amplitudes.

  19. PREFACE: Atom-surface scattering Atom-surface scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    It has been a privilege and a real pleasure to organize this special issue or festschrift in the general field of atom-surface scattering (and its interaction) in honor of J R Manson. This is a good opportunity and an ideal place to express our deep gratitude to one of the leaders in this field for his fundamental and outstanding scientific contributions. J R Manson, or Dick to his friends and colleagues, is one of the founding fathers, together with N Cabrera and V Celli, of the 'Theory of surface scattering and detection of surface phonons'. This is the title of the very well-known first theoretical paper by Dick published in Physical Review Letters in 1969. My first meeting with Dick was around twenty years ago in Saclay. J Lapujoulade organized a small group seminar about selective adsorption resonances in metal vicinal surfaces. We discussed this important issue in surface physics and many other things as if we had always known each other. This familiarity and warm welcome struck me from the very beginning. During the coming years, I found this to be a very attractive aspect of his personality. During my stays in Göttingen, we had the opportunity to talk widely about science and life at lunch or dinner time, walking or cycling. During these nice meetings, he showed, with humility, an impressive cultural background. It is quite clear that his personal opinions about history, religion, politics, music, etc, come from considering and analyzing them as 'open dynamical systems'. In particular, with good food and better wine in a restaurant or at home, a happy cheerful soirée is guaranteed with him, or even with only a good beer or espresso, and an interesting conversation arises naturally. He likes to listen before speaking. Probably not many people know his interest in tractors. He has an incredible collection of very old tractors at home. In one of my visits to Clemson, he showed me the collection, explaining to me in great detail, their technical properties

  20. SMEX03 Airborne GPS Bistatic Radar Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals reflected from the Earth’s surface and collected on an airborne platform. The...

  1. CLPX-Airborne: Airborne GPS Bistatic Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of measurements of GPS signals reflected from the Earth's surface and collected on an airborne platform. A modified GPS Delay Mapping Receiver...

  2. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J

    2014-01-01

    is related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG...... and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (Pstrength measures in individual patients did not differ, suggesting that the muscle...... force reported was not subject to fatigue, but reflected fixed weakness. The male patients showed a greater reduction in muscle force in all eight muscle groups than women with MG (60% vs 77% of normal, Pstrength in shoulder abductors was most affected (51% vs 62...

  3. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  4. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    . Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...... environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...

  5. Time delay in quantum scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tee, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    As is well known, the knowledge of the scattering cross section and its angular dependence, as a function of energy, is insufficient to determine the phase shifts uniquely. This led Eisenbud and Wigner to propose the measurement of the scattering lifetime or time delay as an additional independent datum. A rigorous time-dependent study of time delay within the framework of Hilbert space formalism is presented. Specifically, Martin's theory of time delay and the validity of the Eisenbud-Wigner time delay formula are extended to spherically symmetric potentials satisfying the asymptotic fall-off rate V(r) → O(r/sup -2-epsilon/). This extension is obtained by use of a maximal estimate of the rate of convergence of the asymptotic condition and the elimination of Martin's requirement that the scattering operator S be three times differentiable with respect to the free-particle Hamiltonian H 0 . Also presented are related results on the total time a quantum particle spends inside some bounded regions in position space. It is then proved that any two free particles having identical distributions of energy and angular momentum take exactly identical expectation values for the transit time across an arbitrary spherical region centered at the origin in position space. Ways to extend this result to nonfree Hamiltonians are indicated. Finally, the relationship between the position operator and the Eisenbud-Wigner time delay operator is examined. It is shown that the usual method of calculating time delay based on the classical analysis of the position operator is not exact

  6. Scatter correction for positron emission mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a scatter correction method for a regularized list mode maximum likelihood reconstruction algorithm for the positron emission mammograph (PEM) that is being developed at our laboratory. The scatter events inside the object are modelled as additive Poisson random variables in the forward model of the reconstruction algorithm. The mean scatter sinogram is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation program. With the assumption that the background activity is nearly uniform, the Monte Carlo scatter simulation only needs to run once for each PEM configuration. This saves computation time. The crystal scatters are modelled as a shift-invariant blurring in image domain because they are more localized. Thus, the useful information in the crystal scatters can be deconvolved in high-resolution reconstructions. The propagation of the noise from the estimated scatter sinogram into the reconstruction is analysed theoretically. The results provide an easy way to calculate the required number of events in the Monte Carlo scatter simulation for a given noise level in the image. The analysis is also applicable to other scatter estimation methods, provided that the covariance of the estimated scatter sinogram is available. (author)

  7. Scatter correction for positron emission mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper we present a scatter correction method for a regularized list mode maximum likelihood reconstruction algorithm for the positron emission mammograph (PEM) that is being developed at our laboratory. The scatter events inside the object are modeled as additive Poisson random variables in the forward model of the reconstruction algorithm. The mean scatter sinogram is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation program. With the assumption that the background activity is nearly uniform, the Monte Carlo scatter simulation only needs to run once for each PEM configuration. This saves computational time. The crystal scatters are modeled as a shift-invariant blurring in image domain because they are more localized. Thus, the useful information in the crystal scatters can be deconvolved in high-resolution reconstructions. The propagation of the noise from the estimated scatter sinogram into the reconstruction is analyzed theoretically. The results provide an easy way to calculate the required number of events in the Monte Carlo scatter simulation for a given noise level in the image. The analysis is also applicable to other scatter estimation methods, provided that the covariance of the estimated scatter sinogram is available.

  8. Advances in neutron scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some aspects of the application of neutron scattering to problems in polymer science, surface chemistry, and adsorption phenomena, as well as molecular biology, are reviewed. In all these areas, very significant work has been carried out using the medium flux reactors at Harwell, Juelich and Risoe, even without the use of advanced multidetector techniques or of a neutron cold source. A general tendency can also be distinguished in that, for each of these new fields, a distinct preference for colder neutrons rather than thermal neutron beams can be seen. (author)

  9. Oxide research using neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, B.A.; Howard, C.J.; Kennedy, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Oxide materials form a large group of technologically and scientifically important materials, and research on these types of materials is on the forefront of scientific research. The important properties of these materials, such as the electronic, magnetic and mechanical properties, are related to the structure and chemical composition of those materials. As the structure is so important in the understanding of the properties, neutron scattering is playing a key role due to its advantages in characterising the role of the oxygen. We present here some examples of the latest oxide structures studied by neutron powder diffraction at ANSTO

  10. Fluence determination by scattering measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Albergo, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Pillon, M; Angarano, M M; Creanza, D; De Palma, M

    2000-01-01

    An alternative method to determine particle fluence is proposed, which is particularly suitable for irradiations with low-energy charged-particle beams. The fluence is obtained by measuring the elastic scattering produced by a composite thin target placed upstream of the sample. The absolute calibration is performed by comparison with the measured radioactivation of vanadium and copper samples. The composite thin target, made of aluminium, carbon and gold, allows not only the fluence to be measured, but also a continuous monitoring of the beam space distribution. Experimental results with a 27 MeV proton beam are reported and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. (7 refs).

  11. Light scattering near phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Cummins, HZ

    1983-01-01

    Since the development of the laser in the early 1960's, light scattering has played an increasingly crucial role in the investigation of many types of phase transitions and the published work in this field is now widely dispersed in a large number of books and journals.A comprehensive overview of contemporary theoretical and experimental research in this field is presented here. The reviews are written by authors who have actively contributed to the developments that have taken place in both Eastern and Western countries.

  12. Thermally stimulated scattering in plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    this experiment local heat conduction is of little importance and the dynamic evolution for the electron temperature is dominated by heating and energy exchange with the ion component. These features are incorporated in the analysis. The resulting set of equations gives a growth rate and characteristic scale size......A theory for stimulated scattering of a laser beam is formulated where the dominant nonlinearity is the ohmic heating of the plasma. The analysis is carried out with particular reference to experimental investigations of CO2 laser heating of linear discharge plasma. In the conditions characterizing...

  13. Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceno, Raul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.

  14. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  15. Alloys studied by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morii, Yukio

    1993-01-01

    Neutron scattering study on the martensitic transformation and spinodal decomposition of alloys is described. Lattice vibration mode [110]TA 1 in various noble metal bcc-based alloys was measured. An analysis of the (110) interplanar force constants revealed a relation between the force constants and the martensite phase at low temperatures. Time resolved experiments of spinodal decomposition of MnCu were carried out to investigate how the separated (decomposed) phase grows in time. In the late regime of the decomposition, the size of the precipitate increased with a power law oft 0.37 while the crystallite grew as t 0.236 . (author)

  16. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in the Stable Nickel Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, Lee John

    A series of measurements of stable nickel isotopes were performed at the Australian National University in Canberra. Excited states in 58,60,62Ni were populated via inelastic scattering of proton beams delivered by the 14UD Pelletron accelerator. Multiple setups were used in order to determine the structure of low-lying states. The CAESAR array of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used to measure the (E2/M1) mixing ratio of transitions from angular distributions of gamma rays. The Super-e spectrometer was used to measure conversion coefficients for a number of J to J transitions. The data obtained from both devices was combined with previously measured parent lifetimes and branching ratios to determine E0 transition strengths between J-pi transitions. The E0 transition strength for the second 0+ to first 0+ transitions in 60,62Ni have been measured for the first time through internal conversion electron detection. The experimental value of 132(+59,-70) for 62Ni agrees within 2 sigma of the previous result obtained from internal pair formation. However it is likely that the previous experimental results used an outdated theoretical model for internal pair formation emission. This work also represents the first measurements of E0 transition strengths between 2+ states in Ni isotopes. There is generally large E0 strength between the 2+ states, particularly in the second 2+ to first 2+ transition, however there is also a large uncertainty in the measurements owing to the difficulties involved in measuring conversion coefficients. In 62Ni, the E0 transition strength of 172(+62,-77) for the second 2+ to first 2+ transition gives further weight to the argument against the spherical vibrator model, as an E0 transition is forbidden if there is a change of only one phonon. The large measurement also indicates the presence of shape coexistence, complementing the recent experimental work carried out in the neutron-rich Ni isotopes.

  17. Polynomial expansions and transition strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is statistical spectroscopy applied to determining strengths and strength sums of excitation processes in nuclei. The focus will be on a ds-shell isoscalar E2 study with detailed shell-model results providing the standard for comparison; similar results are available for isovector E2 and M1 and E4 transitions as well as for single-particle transfer and ν +- decay. The present study is intended to serve as a tutorial for applications where shell-model calculations are not feasible. The problem is posed and a schematic theory for strengths and sums is presented. The theory is extended to include the effect of correlations between H, the system Hamiltonian, and theta, the excitation operator. Associated with correlation measures is a geometry that can be used to anticipate the goodness of a symmetry. This is illustrated for pseudo SU(3) in the fp-shell. Some conclusions about fluctuations and collectivity that one can deduce from the statistical results for strengths are presented

  18. Fast electromagnetic field strength probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Serra, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    Diode detectors and thermocouple detectors are conventionally used to measure electromagnetic field strength. Both detectors have some disadvantages for applications where a fast response and a high dynamic range is required. The diode detector is limited in dynamic range. The dynamic range is

  19. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  20. Repair strength of dental amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chiayi; Speigel, Jason; Mjör, Ivar A

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that newly triturated amalgam condensed vertically on old amalgam was essential for establishing a bond between the new and old amalgams. Twelve rectangular bars were prepared with Dispersalloy and Tytin to establish their baseline flexure strength values. An additional 12 specimens were made and separated into 24 equal halves. All fracture surfaces were abraded with a flat end fissure bur. Twelve surfaces were paired with the original amalgam, and the remaining 12 surfaces were repaired with a different amalgam. At first, freshly triturated amalgam was condensed vertically on the floor of the specimen mold (Group A). The majority of specimens repaired with Group A failed to establish bond at the repair interface. All repair surfaces were abraded again and prepared by a second method. A metal spacer was used to create a four-wall cavity to facilitate vertical condensation directly on the repair surface (Group B). The specimens were stored in ambient air for seven days prior to flexure testing. The strength of specimens repaired with Group B ranged from 26% to 54% of the baseline specimens. ANOVA showed that amalgams repaired with a different amalgam yielded higher strength values than those repaired with the original amalgam, and the baseline specimens exhibited significantly higher strength values than all the repaired specimens.

  1. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-03

    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.

  2. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  3. Investigating the Nanoporous Structure of Aluminosilicate Geopolymers with Small Angle Scattering and Imaging Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitland, C.F.; Buckley, C.E.; O'Connor, B.H.; Rowles, M.R.; Hart, R.D.; Gilbert, E.P.; Connolly, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Rowles and O'Connor optimised the compressive strength of a geopolymer produced by sodium silicate-activation of metakaolinite, and found that this material may have a greater compressive strength than ordinary Portland cement. It has been observed that similar metakaolin-based geopolymers have a multiscale structure that consists of partially dissolved metakaolinite embedded in a nanoporous matrix. The characteristics of the nanostructure within this matrix influence the physical properties of the geopolymer. An investigation, using small-angle neutron scattering and imaging techniques, into how the matrix nanostructure varies with chemical composition of the starting material has been undertaken. The results of this investigation will be reported. (authors)

  4. Intrabeam scattering in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mertens, Tom; Sousa Da Costa, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Intrabeam Scattering (IBS) is the process where particles within an accelerator beam elastically scatter off each other. The effect of IBS is not to be confused with the Coulomb repulsion due to the fields generated by the other particles in the beam. The Coulomb repulsion effects are referred to as space-charge effects in Accelerator Physics and become less important than IBS at high energies because of the 1/gamma^2 that occurs in the space-charge equations making IBS one of the most important causes of beam size growth. At high energies (for example at 7 TeV or the LHC nominal operation energy) IBS effects are counteracted by Radiation Damping effects, in some cases leading to decrease in beam sizes instead of beam growth. But at the time of writing the operation energies were still low enough to neglect Radiation Damping Effects in comparison with IBS effects (Radiation Lifetimes were a factor five to ten higher than the IBS Lifetimes in the cases presented at the end of this text). Because of its effect ...

  5. Pion scattering and nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A phenomenological optical-model analysis of pion elastic scattering and single- and double-charge-exchange scattering to isobaric-analog states is reviewed. Interpretation of the optical-model parameters is briefly discussed, and several applications and extensions are considered. The applications include the study of various nuclear properties, including neutron deformation and surface-fluctuation contributions to the density. One promising extension for the near future would be to develop a microscopic approach based on powerful momentum-space methods brought to existence over the last decade. In this, the lowest-order optical potential as well as specific higher-order pieces would be worked out in terms of microscopic pion-nucleon and delta-nucleon interactions that can be determined within modern meson-theoretical frameworks. A second extension, of a more phenomenological nature, would use coupled-channel methods and shell-model wave functions to study dynamical nuclear correlations in pion double charge exchange. 35 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  6. Neutron scattering on magnetic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Frédéric

    2007-09-01

    During the early 1980s, advanced techniques for the deposition of ultra-thin metal films were developed. The combination of different types of materials gave rise to new physical phenomena such as the magnetic exchange coupling in superlattices or the exchange bias between ferro and anti-ferro layers. The field was very active because of the associated industrial applications in magnetic field sensors. New types of heterostructures combining magnetic oxides, insulating oxides or magnetic semiconductors are still being developed. Alongside the fabrication of these new meta-materials made of thin films stacking, polarized neutron reflectometry has emerged as a routine tool for the characterization of magnetic hetero-structures. In the recent years, the new developments of polarized reflectivity have been connected to the study of micro and nanostructures, especially micromagnetic structures in multilayers. The technique of off-specular scattering has been developed for the study of the roughness or the micromagnetism at a micrometric scale. For the study of nanometric structures, in the range below 100 nm, grazing incidence Small Angle Scattering is being considered. To cite this article: F. Ott, C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  7. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  8. Single scattering properties of hydrosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, L.; Zhai, P.; Hu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The single scattering or inherent optical properties (IOPs) of hydrosols play an important role in the complete study of ocean optics, ocean color remote sensing, and ocean biogeochemistry research. Measurements show that hydrosols can be of various sizes and shapes, which suggests that general non-spherical models should be considered for the study of IOPs of hydrosols. In this work, the IOPs of randomly oriented non-spherical hydrosols of both absorbing and non-absorbing types are modeled using the Amsterdam Discrete Dipole Approximation (ADDA). We have defined the degree of optical non-sphericity (DONS) and investigated the dependence of DONS on refractive indices, sizes, and aspect ratios. For particles with non-unit aspect ratios, the magnitude of DONS increases with an increase of refractive index and aspect ratio. In general, the value of DONS increases with increase in particle size. The variation of DONS with respect to refractive indices and aspect ratios of the hydrosols makes it an important parameter in the study of ocean optics. Dependence of backscattering fraction on non-sphericity, size, and aspect ratio of the hydrosols is also demonstrated. The modeling of single scattering properties of hydrosols with different microphysical parameters would help to interpret the ocean radiation field measured by in situ or remote sensing sensors. Understanding the IOPs of hydrosols would lead to better radiative transfer models in ocean waters and new remote sensing technologies of hydrosol compositions.

  9. Neutron scattering from quantum liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent neutron scattering measurements on the quantum liquids 4 He and 3 He are described. In the Bose superfluid there is a well-defined excitation for wave vectors less than 3.6 A -1 . In the Fermi liquid measurements are much more difficult because of the large absorption cross section, but measurements at the Institute Laue-Langevin have shown that there are no well-defined excitations at 0.63 0 K for wave vectors between 1.0 and 2.6 A -1 . The difference between these results is due to the existence of particle-hole excitations in the Fermi liquid into which collective excitations can decay. Because of the simplicity of the excitations in 4 He, it has become a testing ground for the effects of the interactions between the excitations. Measurements are described which show that while roton-roton interactions are attractive at small wave vectors they are repulsive at larger wave vectors. The scattering at large momentum transfer in 4 He has been measured, but its interpretation is still open to question

  10. Neutron scattering on magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, F.

    2007-01-01

    During the early eighties, advanced techniques for the deposition of ultra-thin metal films were developed. The combination of different types of materials gave rise to new physical phenomena such as the magnetic exchange coupling in superlattices or the exchange bias between ferro and anti-ferro layers. New types of heterostructures combining magnetic oxides, insulating oxides or magnetic semiconductors are still being developed. Alongside the fabrication of these new meta-materials made of thin films stacking, polarized neutron reflectometry has emerged as a routine tool for the characterization of magnetic hetero-structures. In the recent years, the new developments of polarized reflectivity have been connected to the study of micro- and nano-structures, especially micro-magnetic structures in multilayers. The technique of off-specular scattering has been developed for the study of the roughness or the micro magnetism at a micro metric scale. For the study of nano-metric structures, in the range below 100 nm, grazing incidence Small Angle Scattering is being considered. In thin films, the volume of magnetic matter is very small but nevertheless, diffraction experiments can be performed owing to the good performances of modern neutron spectrometers

  11. The fate of scattered planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, Benjamin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As gas giant planets evolve, they may scatter other planets far from their original orbits to produce hot Jupiters or rogue planets that are not gravitationally bound to any star. Here, we consider planets cast out to large orbital distances on eccentric, bound orbits through a gaseous disk. With simple numerical models, we show that super-Earths can interact with the gas through dynamical friction to settle in the remote outer regions of a planetary system. Outcomes depend on planet mass, the initial scattered orbit, and the evolution of the time-dependent disk. Efficient orbital damping by dynamical friction requires planets at least as massive as the Earth. More massive, longer-lived disks damp eccentricities more efficiently than less massive, short-lived ones. Transition disks with an expanding inner cavity can circularize orbits at larger distances than disks that experience a global (homologous) decay in surface density. Thus, orbits of remote planets may reveal the evolutionary history of their primordial gas disks. A remote planet with an orbital distance ∼100 AU from the Sun is plausible and might explain correlations in the orbital parameters of several distant trans-Neptunian objects.

  12. An electrical analogy to Mie scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, José M; Connaughton, Stephen; Ott, Christian; Weber, Heiko B; Krstić, Vojislav

    2016-09-27

    Mie scattering is an optical phenomenon that appears when electromagnetic waves, in particular light, are elastically scattered at a spherical or cylindrical object. A transfer of this phenomenon onto electron states in ballistic graphene has been proposed theoretically, assuming a well-defined incident wave scattered by a perfectly cylindrical nanometer scaled potential, but experimental fingerprints are lacking. We present an experimental demonstration of an electrical analogue to Mie scattering by using graphene as a conductor, and circular potentials arranged in a square two-dimensional array. The tabletop experiment is carried out under seemingly unfavourable conditions of diffusive transport at room-temperature. Nonetheless, when a canted arrangement of the array with respect to the incident current is chosen, cascaded Mie scattering results robustly in a transverse voltage. Its response on electrostatic gating and variation of potentials convincingly underscores Mie scattering as underlying mechanism. The findings presented here encourage the design of functional electronic metamaterials.

  13. Neutron scattering in concrete and wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facure, A.; Silva, A. X.; Falcao, R. C.; Crispim, V. R.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the energy spectra of photoneutrons, scattered by ordinary, high-density concrete and wood barriers, have been evaluated using the MCNP4B code. These spectra were calculated for different scattering angles, and for incident neutron energies varying between 0.1 and 10 MeV. The results presented are required to simulate typical photoneutron fluence, produced by medical accelerators, which is scattered by the room walls and reaches the door. It was found that the mean energy of the scattered neutrons does not depend on the scattering angle. Furthermore, it was found that the scattered neutron energies are lower in wood and baryte concrete, which indicates that these materials can be used for lining the maze walls in order to reduce neutron dose at the room door. These data will help to estimate the personal dose received by the patient and staff in radiotherapy facilities. (authors)

  14. Classical trajectory in non-relativistic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    With the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics as a guide, the classical trajectory is incorporated into quantum scattering theory. The Feynman path integral formalism is used as a starting point, and classical transformation theory is applied to the phase of the wave function so derived. This approach is then used to derive an expression for the scattering amplitude for potential scattering. It is found that the amplitude can be expressed in an impact parameter representation similar to the Glauber formalism. Connections are then made to the Glauber approximation and to semiclassical approximations derived from the Feynman path integral formalism. In extending this analysis to projectile-nucleus scattering, an approximation scheme is given with the first term being the same as in Glauber's multiple scattering theory. Higher-order approximations, thus, are found to give corrections to the fixed scatterer form of the impulse approximation inherent in the Glauber theory

  15. Entanglement degradation in depolarizing light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the classical regime, when a beam of light is scattered by a medium, it may emerge partially or completely depolarized depending on the optical properties of the medium. Correspondingly, in the quantum regime, when an entangled two-photon pair is scattered, the classical depolarization may result in an entanglement degradation. Here, relations between photon scattering, entanglement and multi-mode detection are investigated. We establish a general framework in which one- and two-photon elastic scattering processes can be discussed, and we focus on the study of the intrinsic entanglement degradation caused by a multi-mode detection. We show that any multi-mode scattered state cannot maximally violate the Bell-CHSH inequality because of the momentum spread. The results presented here have general validity and can be applied to both deterministic and random scattering processes. (author)

  16. Scattering of acoustic waves by small crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, I. B.; Tarasov, L. L.

    2003-03-01

    Features of underwater sound scattering by small crustaceans are considered. The scattering data are obtained with the use of unique instrumentation that allows one to measure quantitative scattering characteristics (backscattering cross sections and angular scattering patterns) for crustaceans of different sizes, at different frequencies (20 200 kHz) and different insonification aspects. A computational model of crustaceans is considered with allowance for both the soft tissues of the main massive part of the animal's body and the stiff armour. The model proves to be advantageous for explaining some scattering features observed in the experiments. The scattering cross sections of crustaceans measured by other researchers are presented in a unified form appropriate for comparison. Based on such a quantitative comparison, relatively simple approximate empirical formulas are proposed for estimating the backscattering cross sections of small (within several centimeters) marine crustaceans in a broad frequency range.

  17. Newtonian versus black-hole scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siopsis, G.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss non-relativistic scattering by a Newtonian potential. We show that the gray-body factors associated with scattering by a black hole exhibit the same functional dependence as scattering amplitudes in the Newtonian limit, which should be the weak-field limit of any quantum theory of gravity. This behavior arises independently of the presence of supersymmetry. The connection to two-dimensional conformal field theory is also discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Low energy positron scattering from helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.P.; Jones, A.; Caradonna, P.; Makochekanwa, C.; Buckman, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    A new experiment has been developed for high resolution studies of positron scattering from atoms and molecules. Based on the Surko trap technology, a pulsed positron beam has been used to obtain preliminary measurements of low energy, differential elastic scattering cross sections from helium. The operation of the beamline is described and preliminary absolute cross section values for scattering energies of 5, 10 and 15 eV are presented and compared with contemporary theoretical calculations

  19. Coulomb correction to elastic. alpha. -. alpha. scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, P.K.; Jana, A.K.; Haque, N.; Talukdar, B. (Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India (IN))

    1991-02-01

    The elastic {alpha}-{alpha} scattering is treated within the framework of a generalized phase-function method (GPFM). This generalization consists in absorbing the effect of Coulomb interaction in the comparison functions for developing the phase equation. Based on values of scattering phase shifts computed by the present method, it is concluded that the GPFM provides an uncomplicated approach to rigorous Coulomb correction in the {alpha}-{alpha} scattering.

  20. Lectures on the inverse scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.E.

    1983-06-01

    In a series of six lectures an elementary introduction to the theory of inverse scattering is given. The first four lectures contain a detailed theory of solitons in the framework of the KdV equation, together with the inverse scattering theory of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation. In the fifth lecture the dressing method is described, while the sixth lecture gives a brief review of the equations soluble by the inverse scattering method. (author)