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Sample records for bistable switching element

  1. A CW Gunn diode bistable switching element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments with a current-controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode are reported. Switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by current pulses of short duration (5-10 ns). Rise times of the order of several nanoseconds could be obtained.

  2. Bistable fluidic valve is electrically switched

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.; Salvinski, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Bistable control valve is selectively switched by direct application of an electrical field to divert fluid from one output channel to another. Valve is inexpensive, has no moving parts, and operates on fluids which are relatively poor electrical conductors.

  3. Two Bistable Switches Govern M Phase Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Satoru; Rata, Scott; Hino, Hirotsugu; Nagai, Takeharu; Novák, Béla

    2016-12-19

    The abrupt and irreversible transition from interphase to M phase is essential to separate DNA replication from chromosome segregation. This transition requires the switch-like phosphorylation of hundreds of proteins by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1):cyclin B (CycB) complex. Previous studies have ascribed these switch-like phosphorylations to the auto-activation of Cdk1:CycB through the removal of inhibitory phosphorylations on Cdk1-Tyr15 [1, 2]. The positive feedback in Cdk1 activation creates a bistable switch that makes mitotic commitment irreversible [2-4]. Here, we surprisingly find that Cdk1 auto-activation is dispensable for irreversible, switch-like mitotic entry due to a second mechanism, whereby Cdk1:CycB inhibits its counteracting phosphatase (PP2A:B55). We show that the PP2A:B55-inhibiting Greatwall (Gwl)-endosulfine (ENSA) pathway is both necessary and sufficient for switch-like phosphorylations of mitotic substrates. Using purified components of the Gwl-ENSA pathway in a reconstituted system, we found a sharp Cdk1 threshold for phosphorylation of a luminescent mitotic substrate. The Cdk1 threshold to induce mitotic phosphorylation is distinctly higher than the Cdk1 threshold required to maintain these phosphorylations-evidence for bistability. A combination of mathematical modeling and biochemical reconstitution show that the bistable behavior of the Gwl-ENSA pathway emerges from its mutual antagonism with PP2A:B55. Our results demonstrate that two interlinked bistable mechanisms provide a robust solution for irreversible and switch-like mitotic entry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solid state bistable power switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, J.; Shulman, H.

    1970-01-01

    Tin and copper provide high current and switching time capabilities for high-current resettable fuses. They show the best performance for trip current and degree of reliability, and have low coefficients of thermal expansion.

  5. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    there has been a considerable interest in bistable solitons in glass fibers (with non-Kerr properties), in connection with optical bistability and other possible applications leading to switching and logic-gate devices. In literature one distinguishes between two kinds of bistable solitons: one for which the nonlinear propagation ...

  6. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously doped fiber couplers. Ajit Kumar. Theoretical aspects of optical solitons Volume 57 Issue 5-6 November-December 2001 pp 969-979 ... Switching between the bistable soliton states in a doubly and inhomogeneously doped fiber system is studied numerically.

  7. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dec. 2001 physics pp. 969–979. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously doped fiber couplers. AJIT KUMAR. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India. Abstract. Switching between the bistable soliton states in a doubly and inhomogeneously doped.

  8. A genetic bistable switch utilizing nonlinear protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Daniel; Holtz, William J; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2012-07-09

    Bistability is a fundamental property in engineered and natural systems, conferring the ability to switch and retain states. Synthetic bistable switches in prokaryotes have mainly utilized transcriptional components in their construction. Using both transcriptional and enzymatic components, creating a hybrid system, allows for wider bistable parameter ranges in a circuit. In this paper, we demonstrate a tunable family of hybrid bistable switches in E. coli using both transcriptional components and an enzymatic component. The design contains two linked positive feedback loops. The first loop utilizes the lambda repressor, CI, and the second positive feedback loop incorporates the Lon protease found in Mesoplasma florum (mf-Lon). We experimentally tested for bistable behavior in exponential growth phase, and found that our hybrid bistable switch was able to retain its state in the absence of an input signal throughout 40 cycles of cell division. We also tested the transient behavior of our switch and found that switching speeds can be tuned by changing the expression rate of mf-Lon. To our knowledge, this work demonstrates the first use of dynamic expression of an orthogonal and heterologous protease to tune a nonlinear protein degradation circuit. The hybrid switch is potentially a more robust and tunable topology for use in prokaryotic systems.

  9. Genes contribute to the switching dynamics of bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robert W; Patrick, Christopher J; Jiang, Yi; Bernat, Edward; He, Sheng

    2011-03-09

    Ordinarily, the visual system provides an unambiguous representation of the world. However, at times alternative plausible interpretations of a given stimulus arise, resulting in a dynamic perceptual alternation of the differing interpretations, commonly referred to as bistable or rivalrous perception. Recent research suggests that common neural mechanisms may be involved in the dynamics of very different types of bistable phenomena. Further, evidence has emerged that genetic factors may be involved in determining the rate of switch for at least one form of bistable perception, known as binocular rivalry. The current study evaluated whether genetic factors contribute to the switching dynamics for distinctly different variants of bistable perception in the same participant sample. Switching rates were recorded for MZ and DZ twin participants in two different bistable perception tasks, binocular rivalry and the Necker Cube. Strong concordance in switching rates across both tasks was evident for MZ but not DZ twins, indicating that genetic factors indeed contribute to the dynamics of multiple forms of bistable perception.

  10. Design of a bistable switch to control cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Diego A; Chaves, Madalena

    2015-12-06

    Bistable switches are widely used in synthetic biology to trigger cellular functions in response to environmental signals. All bistable switches developed so far, however, control the expression of target genes without access to other layers of the cellular machinery. Here, we propose a bistable switch to control the rate at which cells take up a metabolite from the environment. An uptake switch provides a new interface to command metabolic activity from the extracellular space and has great potential as a building block in more complex circuits that coordinate pathway activity across cell cultures, allocate metabolic tasks among different strains or require cell-to-cell communication with metabolic signals. Inspired by uptake systems found in nature, we propose to couple metabolite import and utilization with a genetic circuit under feedback regulation. Using mathematical models and analysis, we determined the circuit architectures that produce bistability and obtained their design space for bistability in terms of experimentally tuneable parameters. We found an activation-repression architecture to be the most robust switch because it displays bistability for the largest range of design parameters and requires little fine-tuning of the promoters' response curves. Our analytic results are based on on-off approximations of promoter activity and are in excellent qualitative agreement with simulations of more realistic models. With further analysis and simulation, we established conditions to maximize the parameter design space and to produce bimodal phenotypes via hysteresis and cell-to-cell variability. Our results highlight how mathematical analysis can drive the discovery of new circuits for synthetic biology, as the proposed circuit has all the hallmarks of a toggle switch and stands as a promising design to control metabolic phenotypes across cell cultures. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. A Precise Temperature-Responsive Bistable Switch Controlling Yersinia Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Aaron Mischa; Schuster, Franziska; Roselius, Louisa; Klein, Johannes; Bücker, René; Herbst, Katharina; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Pisano, Fabio; Wittmann, Christoph; Münch, Richard; Müller, Johannes; Jahn, Dieter; Dersch, Petra

    2016-12-01

    Different biomolecules have been identified in bacterial pathogens that sense changes in temperature and trigger expression of virulence programs upon host entry. However, the dynamics and quantitative outcome of this response in individual cells of a population, and how this influences pathogenicity are unknown. Here, we address these questions using a thermosensing virulence regulator of an intestinal pathogen (RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis) as a model. We reveal that this regulator is part of a novel thermoresponsive bistable switch, which leads to high- and low-invasive subpopulations within a narrow temperature range. The temperature range in which bistability is observed is defined by the degradation and synthesis rate of the regulator, and is further adjustable via a nutrient-responsive regulator. The thermoresponsive switch is also characterized by a hysteretic behavior in which activation and deactivation occurred on vastly different time scales. Mathematical modeling accurately mirrored the experimental behavior and predicted that the thermoresponsiveness of this sophisticated bistable switch is mainly determined by the thermo-triggered increase of RovA proteolysis. We further observed RovA ON and OFF subpopulations of Y. pseudotuberculosis in the Peyer's patches and caecum of infected mice, and that changes in the RovA ON/OFF cell ratio reduce tissue colonization and overall virulence. This points to a bet-hedging strategy in which the thermoresponsive bistable switch plays a key role in adapting the bacteria to the fluctuating conditions encountered as they pass through the host's intestinal epithelium and suggests novel strategies for the development of antimicrobial therapies.

  12. A Precise Temperature-Responsive Bistable Switch Controlling Yersinia Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Mischa Nuss

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different biomolecules have been identified in bacterial pathogens that sense changes in temperature and trigger expression of virulence programs upon host entry. However, the dynamics and quantitative outcome of this response in individual cells of a population, and how this influences pathogenicity are unknown. Here, we address these questions using a thermosensing virulence regulator of an intestinal pathogen (RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model. We reveal that this regulator is part of a novel thermoresponsive bistable switch, which leads to high- and low-invasive subpopulations within a narrow temperature range. The temperature range in which bistability is observed is defined by the degradation and synthesis rate of the regulator, and is further adjustable via a nutrient-responsive regulator. The thermoresponsive switch is also characterized by a hysteretic behavior in which activation and deactivation occurred on vastly different time scales. Mathematical modeling accurately mirrored the experimental behavior and predicted that the thermoresponsiveness of this sophisticated bistable switch is mainly determined by the thermo-triggered increase of RovA proteolysis. We further observed RovA ON and OFF subpopulations of Y. pseudotuberculosis in the Peyer's patches and caecum of infected mice, and that changes in the RovA ON/OFF cell ratio reduce tissue colonization and overall virulence. This points to a bet-hedging strategy in which the thermoresponsive bistable switch plays a key role in adapting the bacteria to the fluctuating conditions encountered as they pass through the host's intestinal epithelium and suggests novel strategies for the development of antimicrobial therapies.

  13. Bistable switches control memory and plasticity in cellular differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Walker, Brandon L.; Iannaccone, Stephen; Bhatt, Devang; Kennedy, Patrick J.; Tse, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Development of stem and progenitor cells into specialized tissues in multicellular organisms involves a series of cell fate decisions. Cellular differentiation in higher organisms is generally considered irreversible, and the idea of developmental plasticity in postnatal tissues is controversial. Here, we show that inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in a human bone marrow stromal cell-derived myogenic subclone suppresses their myogenic ability and converts them into satellite cell-like precursors that respond to osteogenic stimulation. Clonal analysis of the induced osteogenic response reveals ultrasensitivity and an “all-or-none” behavior, hallmarks of a bistable switch mechanism with stochastic noise. The response demonstrates cellular memory, which is contingent on the accumulation of an intracellular factor and can be erased by factor dilution through cell divisions or inhibition of protein synthesis. The effect of MAPK inhibition also exhibits memory and appears to be controlled by another bistable switch further upstream that determines cell fate. Once the memory associated with osteogenic differentiation is erased, the cells regain their myogenic ability. These results support a model of cell fate decision in which a network of bistable switches controls inducible production of lineage-specific differentiation factors. A competitive balance between these factors determines cell fate. Our work underscores the dynamic nature of cellular differentiation and explains mechanistically the dual properties of stability and plasticity associated with the process. PMID:19366677

  14. A faster switching regime for zenithal bistable nematic displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, J.

    1997-01-01

    A simpler and faster switching regime for Zenithal Bistable Nematic displays is reported. A cell, based on homeotropic alignment of nematic liquid crystal over a continuous blazed monograting on one surface, can be switched using bipolar pulses an order of magnitude faster than monopolar pulses of the same voltage. We propose that this regime relies on simple dielectric coupling to drive the cell into a higher energy state with a long pulse time, and the relaxation into a lower energy state after the creation of surface defects from a shorter applied pulse. Although flexoelectric effects are observed, they do not form the basis of state selection as was proposed for the monopolar pulses

  15. Linear population allocation by bistable switches in response to transient stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Jaydeep K; Yao, Guang; Neu, John; Tanouchi, Yu; Lee, Tae Jun; You, Lingchong

    2014-01-01

    Many cellular decision processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and phenotypic switching, are controlled by bistable signaling networks. In response to transient or intermediate input signals, these networks allocate a population fraction to each of two distinct states (e.g. OFF and ON). While extensive studies have been carried out to analyze various bistable networks, they are primarily focused on responses of bistable networks to sustained input signals. In this work, we investigate the response characteristics of bistable networks to transient signals, using both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. We find that bistable systems exhibit a common property: for input signals with short durations, the fraction of switching cells increases linearly with the signal duration, allowing the population to integrate transient signals to tune its response. We propose that this allocation algorithm can be an optimal response strategy for certain cellular decisions in which excessive switching results in lower population fitness.

  16. A Redox-Active Bistable Molecular Switch Mounted inside a Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qishui; Sun, Junling; Li, Peng; Hod, Idan; Moghadam, Peyman Z; Kean, Zachary S; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-11-02

    We describe the incorporation of a bistable mechanically interlocked molecule (MIM) into a robust Zr-based metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, by employing a post-synthetic functionalization protocol. On average, close to two bistable [2]catenanes can be incorporated per repeating unit of the hexagonal channels of NU-1000. The reversible redox-switching of the bistable [2]catenanes is retained inside the MOF, as evidenced by solid-state UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. This research demonstrates that bistable MIMs are capable of exhibiting robust dynamics inside the nanopores of a MOF.

  17. Asymmetric bistable reflection and polarization switching in a magnetic nonlinear multilayer structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuz, Vladimir R.; Novitsky, Denis V.; Prosvirnin, Sergey L.

    2014-01-01

    , while light reflected from the other side has its polarization unchanged. Using the nonlinear transfer matrix calculations in the frequency domain, it is demonstrated that defect resonances in the nonlinear reflection spectra undergo bending, resulting in polarization bistability of reflected light....... This bistability is shown to result in abrupt switching between linear polarization of the output reflected light when the input intensity is varied. This switching is confirmed in finite-difference time-domain simulations, and its hysteresis character is established....

  18. Microscopic observation of zenithal bistable switching in nematic devices with different surface relief structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uche, C; Elston, S J; Parry-Jones, L A

    2005-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystals have been shown to exhibit zenithal electro-optic bistability in devices containing sinusoidal and deformed sinusoidal gratings. Recently it has been shown that zenithal bistable states can also be supported at isolated edges of square gratings. In this paper, we present microscopic observations of bistability in cells containing sinusoidal gratings and long-pitch square gratings. We have also investigated a novel display based on square wells. High frame-rate video microscopy was used to obtain time-sequenced images when the devices were switched with monopolar pulses. These show that zenithal bistable switching can occur by two different processes: (i) domain growth (observed in cells containing sinusoidal gratings) and (ii) homogenous switching (observed in cells containing isolated edges

  19. Stable Amplification and High Current Drop Bistable Switching in Supercritical GaAs Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadpanah, S.H; Jeppsson, B; Jeppesen, Palle

    1974-01-01

    Bistable switching with current drops of 40% and switching times of 100 ps are obtained in pulsed operation of 10¿m supercritically doped n+ nn+ GaAs Transferred Electron Devices (TEDs). When CW-operated the same devices exhibit a 5-17 GHz bandwidth for the stable negative resistance.......Bistable switching with current drops of 40% and switching times of 100 ps are obtained in pulsed operation of 10¿m supercritically doped n+ nn+ GaAs Transferred Electron Devices (TEDs). When CW-operated the same devices exhibit a 5-17 GHz bandwidth for the stable negative resistance....

  20. Frequency selective bistable switching in metamaterial based photonic bandgap medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Jolly

    2014-10-01

    We present frequency selective bistable response at the defect mode of the zero-nbar bandgap of a photonic bandgap (PBG) material made of negative and positive index media. The nonlinear (Kerr) layer acts as the defect layer in the periodic PBG material. Incorporating metamaterial based electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) like resonance in the positive layer leads to unprecedented line narrowing of the defect mode which in turn facilitates narrow frequency selective bistable operation, wherein all the bistable characteristics can be effectively engineered. Thresholding the output intensity selects the narrow band of frequencies that exhibit bistability.

  1. Bistable polarization switching in a continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Afzal, R. Sohrab

    1988-01-01

    Bistability in the output power, polarization state, and mode volume of an argon-ion laser pumped single mode ruby laser at 6943 A has been observed. The laser operates in a radially confined mode which exhibits hysteresis and bistability only when the pump polarization is parallel to the c-axis.

  2. Bistable switching in supercritical n+-n-n+GaAs transferred electron devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøndrup, Peter; Jeppesen, Palle; Jeppson, Bert

    1976-01-01

    Bistable switching in supercritically doped n+-n-n+GaAs transferred electron devices (TED's) is investigated experimentally and interpreted in computer simulations, for which details of the computer program are given. Three switching modes all leading to stable anode domains are discussed, namely...

  3. Focused Role of an Organic Small-Molecule PBD on Performance of the Bistable Resistive Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Sun, Yanmei; Ai, Chunpeng; Lu, Junguo; Wen, Dianzhong; Bai, Xuduo

    2015-12-01

    An undoped organic small-molecule 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenylyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) and a kind of nanocomposite blending poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) into PBD are employed to implement bistable resistive switching. For the bistable resistive switching indium tin oxide (ITO)/PBD/Al, its ON/OFF current ratio can touch 6. What is more, the ON/OFF current ratio, approaching to 10(4), is available due to the storage layer PBD:PMMA with the chemical composition 1:1 in the bistable resistive switching ITO/PBD:PMMA/Al. The capacity, data retention of more than 1 year and endurance performance (>10(4) cycles) of ITO/PBD:PMMA(1:1)/Al, exhibits better stability and reliability of the samples, which underpins the technique and application of organic nonvolatile memory.

  4. A bistable switch in dynamic thiodepsipeptide folding and template-directed ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rakesh; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Wagner, Nathaniel; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2015-10-12

    Bistable reaction networks provide living cells with chemically controlled mechanisms for long-term memory storage. Such networks are also often switchable and can be flipped from one state to the other. We target here a major challenge in systems chemistry research, namely developing synthetic, non-enzymatic, networks that mimic such a complex function. Therefore, we describe a dynamic network that depending on initial thiodepsipeptide concentrations leads to one of two distinct steady states. This bistable system is readily switched by applying the appropriate stimuli. The relationship between the reaction network topology and its capacity to invoke bistability is then analyzed by control experiments and theory. We suggest that demonstrating bistable behavior using synthetic networks further highlights their possible role in early evolution, and may shine light on potential utility for novel applications, such as chemical memories. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Modeling bistable behaviors in morphing structures through finite element simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiaohang; Zheng, Huang; Chen, Wenzhe; Chen, Zi

    2014-01-01

    Bistable structures, exemplified by the Venus flytrap and slap bracelets, can transit between different configurations upon certain external stimulation. Here we study, through three-dimensional finite element simulations, the bistable behaviors in elastic plates in the absence of terminate loads, but with pre-strains in one (or both) of the two composite layers. Both the scenarios with and without a given geometric mis-orientation angle are investigated, the results of which are consistent with recent theoretical and experimental studies. This work can open ample venues for programmable designs of plant/shell structures with large deformations, with applications in designing bio-inspired robotics for biomedical research and morphing/deployable structures in aerospace engineering.

  6. Bulk chirality effect for symmetric bistable switching of liquid crystals on topologically self-patterned degenerate anchoring surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Kyu; Joo, Kyung-Il; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2017-06-26

    We demonstrate a bistable switching liquid crystal (LC) mode utilizing a topologically self-structured dual-groove surface for degenerated easy axes of LC anchoring. In our study, the effect of the bulk elastic distortion of the LC directors on the bistable anchoring surface is theoretically analyzed for balanced bistable states based on a free energy diagram. By adjusting bulk LC chirality, we developed ideally symmetric and stable bistable anchoring and switching properties, which can be driven by a low in-plane pulsed field of about 0.7 V/µm. The fabricated device has a contrast ratio of 196:1.

  7. What is refractive optical bistability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhehov, Tomislav

    1993-01-01

    The basic elements of the theory of refractive optical bistability, assuming mediums with linear absorption are given. Special attention is paid to bistable etalons of semiconductor materials an oxide glasses, since some of them are considered as promising components for optical bistability applications. The design optimization of such devices for minimum switching intensity is analyzed. Computer simulation of the transfer characteristic recording for two InSb etalons is presented. (author)

  8. Switching between bistable states in a discrete nonlinear model with long-range dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Magnus; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of a discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with long-range dispersion, we propose a general mechanism for obtaining a controlled switching between bistable localized excitations. We show that the application of a spatially symmetric kick leads to the excitation of an internal...

  9. Models of charge transport and transfer in molecular switch tunnel junctions of bistable catenanes and rotaxanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flood, Amar H.; Wong, Eric W.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2006-01-01

    The processes by which charge transfer can occur play a foundational role in molecular electronics. Here we consider simplified models of the transfer processes that could be present in bistable molecular switch tunnel junction (MSTJ) devices during one complete cycle of the device from its low- to high- and back to low-conductance state. The bistable molecular switches, which are composed of a monolayer of either switchable catenanes or rotaxanes, exist in either a ground-state co-conformation or a metastable one in which the conduction properties of the two co-conformations, when measured at small biases (+0.1 V), are significantly different irrespective of whether transport is dominated by tunneling or hopping. The voltage-driven generation (±2 V) of molecule-based redox states, which are sufficiently long-lived to allow the relative mechanical movements necessary to switch between the two co-conformations, rely upon unequal charge transfer rates on to and/or off of the molecules. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to image the ground state of the bistable rotaxane in MSTJ-like devices. Consideration of these models provide new ways of looking at molecular electronic devices that rely, not only on nanoscale charge-transport, but also upon the bustling world of molecular motion in mechanically interlocked bistable molecules

  10. All-optical 2-bit header recognition and packet switching using polarization bistable VCSELs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Nakao, Kazuya; Katayama, Takeo; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    2015-04-06

    We propose and evaluate an all-optical 2-bit header recognition and packet switching method using two 1.55-µm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and three optical switches. Polarization bistable VCSELs acted as flip-flop devices by using AND-gate operations of the header and set pulses, together with the reset pulses. Optical packets including 40-Gb/s non-return-to-zero pseudo-random bit-sequence payloads were successfully sent to one of four ports according to the state of two bits in the headers with a 4-bit 500-Mb/s return-to-zero format. The input pulse powers were 17.2 to 31.8 dB lower than the VCSEL output power. We also examined an extension of this method to multi-bit header recognition and packet switching.

  11. On-Demand Final State Control of a Surface-Bound Bistable Single Molecule Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Torres, José A; Simpson, Grant J; Adams, Christopher J; Früchtl, Herbert A; Schaub, Renald

    2018-04-12

    Modern electronic devices perform their defined action because of the complete reliability of their individual active components (transistors, switches, diodes, and so forth). For instance, to encode basic computer units (bits) an electrical switch can be used. The reliability of the switch ensures that the desired outcome (the component's final state, 0 or 1) can be selected with certainty. No practical data storage device would otherwise exist. This reliability criterion will necessarily need to hold true for future molecular electronics to have the opportunity to emerge as a viable miniaturization alternative to our current silicon-based technology. Molecular electronics target the use of single-molecules to perform the actions of individual electronic components. On-demand final state control over a bistable unimolecular component has therefore been one of the main challenges in the past decade (1-5) but has yet to be achieved. In this Letter, we demonstrate how control of the final state of a surface-supported bistable single molecule switch can be realized. On the basis of the observations and deductions presented here, we further suggest an alternative strategy to achieve final state control in unimolecular bistable switches.

  12. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-02-15

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Designing a stochastic genetic switch by coupling chaos and bistability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ouyang, Qi [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Quantitative Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); The Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Hongli, E-mail: hlwang@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Quantitative Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-11-15

    In stem cell differentiation, a pluripotent stem cell becomes progressively specialized and generates specific cell types through a series of epigenetic processes. How cells can precisely determine their fate in a fluctuating environment is a currently unsolved problem. In this paper, we suggest an abstract gene regulatory network to describe mathematically the differentiation phenomenon featuring stochasticity, divergent cell fates, and robustness. The network consists of three functional motifs: an upstream chaotic motif, a buffering motif of incoherent feed forward loop capable of generating a pulse, and a downstream motif which is bistable. The dynamic behavior is typically a transient chaos with fractal basin boundaries. The trajectories take transiently chaotic journeys before divergently settling down to the bistable states. The ratio of the probability that the high state is achieved to the probability that the low state is reached can maintain a constant in a population of cells with varied molecular fluctuations. The ratio can be turned up or down when proper parameters are adjusted. The model suggests a possible mechanism for the robustness against fluctuations that is prominently featured in pluripotent cell differentiations and developmental phenomena.

  14. Stochastic stabilization of phenotypic States: the genetic bistable switch as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marc; Buceta, Javier

    2013-01-01

    We study by means of analytical calculation and stochastic simulations how intrinsic noise modifies the bifurcation diagram of gene regulatory processes that can be effectively described by the Langevin formalism. In a general context, our study raises the intriguing question of how biochemical fluctuations redesign the epigenetic landscape in differentiation processes. We have applied our findings to a general class of regulatory processes that includes the simplest case that displays a bistable behavior and hence phenotypic variability: the genetic auto-activating switch. Thus, we explain why and how the noise promotes the stability of the low-state phenotype of the switch and show that the bistable region is extended when increasing the intensity of the fluctuations. This phenomenology is found in a simple one-dimensional model of the genetic switch as well as in a more detailed model that takes into account the binding of the protein to the promoter region. Altogether, we prescribe the analytical means to understand and quantify the noise-induced modifications of the bifurcation points for a general class of regulatory processes where the genetic bistable switch is included.

  15. Reverse bistable effect in ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with ultra-fast switching at low driving voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Zhao, Xiaojin; Zhao, Huijie; Chigrinov, V G

    2015-05-15

    In this Letter, reverse bistable effect with deep-sub-millisecond switching time is first reported in ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) devices using a homogeneous photo-alignment technique. It is indicated by our experimental results that both the anchoring energy and the dielectric property of the FLC's alignment layer is critical for the existence of the reverse bistable effect. In addition, with the derived criteria of the reverse bistable effect, we quantitatively analyze the switching dynamics of the reverse bistable FLC and the transition condition between the traditional bistability and our presented reverse bistability. Moreover, the fabricated FLC device exhibits an ultra-fast switching of ∼160  μs and a high contrast ratio of 1000:1, both of which were measured at a low driving voltage of 11 V. The featured deep-sub-millisecond switching time is really advantageous for our presented reverse bistable FLC devices, which enables a significant quality improvement of the existing optical devices, as well as a wide range of new applications in photonics and display areas.

  16. Coupled Reversible and Irreversible Bistable Switches Underlying TGFβ-induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Hang; Xing, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and cancer metastasis. Whereas several feedback loops have been shown to regulate EMT, it remains elusive how they coordinately modulate EMT response to TGF-β treatment. We construct a mathematical model for the core regulatory network controlling TGF-β-induced EMT. Through deterministic analyses and stochastic simulations, we show that EMT is a sequential two-step program in which an epithelial cell first is converted to partial EMT then to the mesenchymal state, depending on the strength and duration of TGF-β stimulation. Mechanistically the system is governed by coupled reversible and irreversible bistable switches. The SNAIL1/miR-34 double-negative feedback loop is responsible for the reversible switch and regulates the initiation of EMT, whereas the ZEB/miR-200 feedback loop is accountable for the irreversible switch and controls the establishment of the mesenchymal state. Furthermore, an autocrine TGF-β/miR-200 feedback loop makes the second switch irreversible, modulating the maintenance of EMT. Such coupled bistable switches are robust to parameter variation and molecular noise. We provide a mechanistic explanation on multiple experimental observations. The model makes several explicit predictions on hysteretic dynamic behaviors, system response to pulsed stimulation, and various perturbations, which can be straightforwardly tested. PMID:23972859

  17. The limiting dynamics of a bistable molecular switch with and without noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Michael C; Tyran-Kamińska, Marta

    2016-08-01

    We consider the dynamics of a population of organisms containing two mutually inhibitory gene regulatory networks, that can result in a bistable switch-like behaviour. We completely characterize their local and global dynamics in the absence of any noise, and then go on to consider the effects of either noise coming from bursting (transcription or translation), or Gaussian noise in molecular degradation rates when there is a dominant slow variable in the system. We show analytically how the steady state distribution in the population can range from a single unimodal distribution through a bimodal distribution and give the explicit analytic form for the invariant stationary density which is globally asymptotically stable. Rather remarkably, the behaviour of the stationary density with respect to the parameters characterizing the molecular behaviour of the bistable switch is qualitatively identical in the presence of noise coming from bursting as well as in the presence of Gaussian noise in the degradation rate. This implies that one cannot distinguish between either the dominant source or nature of noise based on the stationary molecular distribution in a population of cells. We finally show that the switch model with bursting but two dominant slow genes has an asymptotically stable stationary density.

  18. Bistable direction switching in an off-axis pumped continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, R. Sohrab; Lawandy, N. M.

    1988-01-01

    A report is presented of the observation of hysteretic bistable direction switching in a single-mode CW ruby laser system. This effect is only observed when the pump beam which is focused into the ruby rod is misaligned with respect to the rod end faces. At low pump powers, the ruby lases in a mode nearly collinear with the pump axis. At a higher pump power the ruby switches to a mode that is collinear with the rod end faces and preserves the original polarization. The effect is large enough to switch the beam by an angle equal to twice the diffraction angle. The observations show that under steady-state pumping, a CW ruby laser can exhibit bistable operation in its output direction and power. A calculation using the heat equation with two concentric cylinders with one as a heat source (pump laser) and the outer wall of the other held at 77 K, gives an increase in core temperature of about 0.01 K. Therefore, the increase in temperature is not large enough to change the index of refraction to account for such large macroscopic effects.

  19. Numerical analysis of intrinsic bistability and chromatic switching in Tm3+ single-doped systems under photon avalanche pumping scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Zhang Xinlu; Chen Lixue

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we predict and numerically demonstrate the intrinsic intensity bistability, spectra bistability and chromatic switching of visible-infrared emission in Tm 3+ single-doped systems that are pumped by the photon avalanche scheme at 648 nm. Based on the coupled rate equation theory, the evolutions of the populations at various Tm 3+ energy levels, emission spectra and fluorescence intensity versus pump excitation are numerically investigated in detail. The results show that intrinsic optical bistability (IOB) associated with emission spectra and luminescence intensity takes place in the vicinity of the avalanche threshold (∼10 kW cm -2 ). When the pump excitation rises above the switching threshold (∼17.5 kW cm -2 ), the chromatic switching between the infrared (1716 nm) and the visible blue (452/469 nm) spectra can be performed. Moreover, the influences of system parameters on IOB and the origin of chromatic switching are discussed. These unique characteristics of Tm 3+ -doped systems would lead to the new possibility of the development of pump-controlled all-solid-state luminescence switches and optical bistability switches.

  20. A bistable switch and anatomical site control Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression in the intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex T Nielsen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental, but unanswered question in host-pathogen interactions is the timing, localization and population distribution of virulence gene expression during infection. Here, microarray and in situ single cell expression methods were used to study Vibrio cholerae growth and virulence gene expression during infection of the rabbit ligated ileal loop model of cholera. Genes encoding the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP and cholera toxin (CT were powerfully expressed early in the infectious process in bacteria adjacent to epithelial surfaces. Increased growth was found to co-localize with virulence gene expression. Significant heterogeneity in the expression of tcpA, the repeating subunit of TCP, was observed late in the infectious process. The expression of tcpA, studied in single cells in a homogeneous medium, demonstrated unimodal induction of tcpA after addition of bicarbonate, a chemical inducer of virulence gene expression. Striking bifurcation of the population occurred during entry into stationary phase: one subpopulation continued to express tcpA, whereas the expression declined in the other subpopulation. ctxA, encoding the A subunit of CT, and toxT, encoding the proximal master regulator of virulence gene expression also exhibited the bifurcation phenotype. The bifurcation phenotype was found to be reversible, epigenetic and to persist after removal of bicarbonate, features consistent with bistable switches. The bistable switch requires the positive-feedback circuit controlling ToxT expression and formation of the CRP-cAMP complex during entry into stationary phase. Key features of this bistable switch also were demonstrated in vivo, where striking heterogeneity in tcpA expression was observed in luminal fluid in later stages of the infection. When this fluid was diluted into artificial seawater, bacterial aggregates continued to express tcpA for prolonged periods of time. The bistable control of virulence gene expression points to a

  1. Bridging time scales in cellular decision making with a stochastic bistable switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldherr Steffen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular transformations which involve a significant phenotypical change of the cell's state use bistable biochemical switches as underlying decision systems. Some of these transformations act over a very long time scale on the cell population level, up to the entire lifespan of the organism. Results In this work, we aim at linking cellular decisions taking place on a time scale of years to decades with the biochemical dynamics in signal transduction and gene regulation, occuring on a time scale of minutes to hours. We show that a stochastic bistable switch forms a viable biochemical mechanism to implement decision processes on long time scales. As a case study, the mechanism is applied to model the initiation of follicle growth in mammalian ovaries, where the physiological time scale of follicle pool depletion is on the order of the organism's lifespan. We construct a simple mathematical model for this process based on experimental evidence for the involved genetic mechanisms. Conclusions Despite the underlying stochasticity, the proposed mechanism turns out to yield reliable behavior in large populations of cells subject to the considered decision process. Our model explains how the physiological time constant may emerge from the intrinsic stochasticity of the underlying gene regulatory network. Apart from ovarian follicles, the proposed mechanism may also be of relevance for other physiological systems where cells take binary decisions over a long time scale.

  2. Coupling between feedback loops in autoregulatory networks affects bistability range, open-loop gain and switching times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Abhinav; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical regulatory networks governing diverse cellular processes such as stress-response, differentiation and cell cycle often contain coupled feedback loops. We aim at understanding how features of feedback architecture, such as the number of loops, the sign of the loops and the type of their coupling, affect network dynamical performance. Specifically, we investigate how bistability range, maximum open-loop gain and switching times of a network with transcriptional positive feedback are affected by additive or multiplicative coupling with another positive- or negative-feedback loop. We show that a network's bistability range is positively correlated with its maximum open-loop gain and that both quantities depend on the sign of the feedback loops and the type of feedback coupling. Moreover, we find that the addition of positive feedback could decrease the bistability range if we control the basal level in the signal-response curves of the two systems. Furthermore, the addition of negative feedback has the capacity to increase the bistability range if its dissociation constant is much lower than that of the positive feedback. We also find that the addition of a positive feedback to a bistable network increases the robustness of its bistability range, whereas the addition of a negative feedback decreases it. Finally, we show that the switching time for a transition from a high to a low steady state increases with the effective fold change in gene regulation. In summary, we show that the effect of coupled feedback loops on the bistability range and switching times depends on the underlying mechanistic details. (paper)

  3. Pre-dispositions and epigenetic inheritance in the Escherichia coli lactose operon bistable switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Lydia; Paul, Gregory; Chen, Yong; Taddei, François; Baigl, Damien; Lindner, Ariel B

    2010-04-13

    The lactose operon regulation in Escherichia coli is a primary model of phenotypic switching, reminiscent of cell fate determination in higher organisms. Under conditions of bistability, an isogenic cell population partitions into two subpopulations, with the operon's genes turned on or remaining off. It is generally hypothesized that the final state of a cell depends solely on stochastic fluctuations of the network's protein concentrations, particularly on bursts of lactose permease expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the cell switching decision are not fully understood. We designed a microfluidic system to follow the formation of a transiently bimodal population within growing microcolonies. The analysis of genealogy and cell history revealed the existence of pre-disposing factors for switching that are epigenetically inherited. Both the pre-induction expression stochasticity of the lactose operon repressor LacI and the cellular growth rate are predictive factors of the cell's response upon induction, with low LacI concentration and slow growth correlating with higher switching probability. Thus, stochasticity at the local level of the network and global physiology are synergistically involved in cell response determination.

  4. High-power subnanosecond operation of a bistable optically controlled semiconductor switch (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoudt, D.C.; Richardson, M.A.; Demske, D.L.; Roush, R.A.; Eure, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    Recent high-power, subnanosecond-switching results of the Bistable Optically controlled Semiconductor Switch (BOSS) are presented. The process of persistent photoconductivity followed by photo-quenching have been demonstrated at megawatt power levels in copper-compensated, silicon-doped, semi-insulating gallium arsenide. These processes allow a switch to be developed that can be closed by the application of one laser pulse and opened by the application of a second laser pulse with a wavelength equal to twice that of the first laser. Switch closure is primarily achieved by elevating electrons from a deep copper center which has been diffused into the material. The opening phase is a two-step process which relies initially on the absorption of the 2-μm laser causing electrons to be elevated from the valance band back into the copper center, and finally on the recombination of electrons in the conduction band with boles in the valance band. The second step requires a sufficient concentration of recombination centers (RC) in the material for opening to occur in the subnanosecond regime. These RC's are generated in the bulk GaAs material by fast-neutron irradiation (∼ 1 MeV) at a fluence of about 3 x 10 15 cm -2 . High-power switching results which demonstrate that the BOSS switch can be opened in the subnanosecond regime are presented for the first time. Neutron-irradiated BOSS devices have been opened against a rising electric field of about 20 kV/cm (10 kV) in a time less than one nanosecond. Kilovolt electrical pulses have been generated with a FWHM of roughly 250 picoseconds

  5. How to turn a genetic circuit into a synthetic tunable oscillator, or a bistable switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Marucci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems and Synthetic Biology use computational models of biological pathways in order to study in silico the behaviour of biological pathways. Mathematical models allow to verify biological hypotheses and to predict new possible dynamical behaviours. Here we use the tools of non-linear analysis to understand how to change the dynamics of the genes composing a novel synthetic network recently constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for In-vivo Reverse-engineering and Modelling Assessment (IRMA. Guided by previous theoretical results that make the dynamics of a biological network depend on its topological properties, through the use of simulation and continuation techniques, we found that the network can be easily turned into a robust and tunable synthetic oscillator or a bistable switch. Our results provide guidelines to properly re-engineering in vivo the network in order to tune its dynamics.

  6. Bistability in Glycolysis Pathway as a Physiological Switch in Energy Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2014-01-01

    The flux of glycolysis is tightly controlled by feed-back and feed-forward allosteric regulations to maintain the body's glucose homeostasis and to respond to cell's growth and energetic needs. Using a mathematical model based on reported mechanisms for the allosteric regulations of the enzymes, we demonstrate that glycolysis exhibits multiple steady state behavior segregating glucose metabolism into high flux and low flux states. Two regulatory loops centering on phosphofructokinase and on pyruvate kinase each gives rise to the bistable behavior, and together impose more complex flux control. Steady state multiplicity endows glycolysis with a robust switch to transit between the two flux states. Under physiological glucose concentrations the glycolysis flux does not move between the states easily without an external stimulus such as hormonal, signaling or oncogenic cues. Distinct combination of isozymes in glycolysis gives different cell types the versatility in their response to different biosynthetic and energetic needs. Insights from the switch behavior of glycolysis may reveal new means of metabolic intervention in the treatment of cancer and other metabolic disorders through suppression of glycolysis. PMID:24911170

  7. Bistability in glycolysis pathway as a physiological switch in energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Yongky, Andrew; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2014-01-01

    The flux of glycolysis is tightly controlled by feed-back and feed-forward allosteric regulations to maintain the body's glucose homeostasis and to respond to cell's growth and energetic needs. Using a mathematical model based on reported mechanisms for the allosteric regulations of the enzymes, we demonstrate that glycolysis exhibits multiple steady state behavior segregating glucose metabolism into high flux and low flux states. Two regulatory loops centering on phosphofructokinase and on pyruvate kinase each gives rise to the bistable behavior, and together impose more complex flux control. Steady state multiplicity endows glycolysis with a robust switch to transit between the two flux states. Under physiological glucose concentrations the glycolysis flux does not move between the states easily without an external stimulus such as hormonal, signaling or oncogenic cues. Distinct combination of isozymes in glycolysis gives different cell types the versatility in their response to different biosynthetic and energetic needs. Insights from the switch behavior of glycolysis may reveal new means of metabolic intervention in the treatment of cancer and other metabolic disorders through suppression of glycolysis.

  8. A bistable gene switch for antibiotic biosynthesis: the butyrolactone regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Mehra

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Many microorganisms, including bacteria of the class Streptomycetes, produce various secondary metabolites including antibiotics to gain a competitive advantage in their natural habitat. The production of these compounds is highly coordinated in a population to expedite accumulation to an effective concentration. Furthermore, as antibiotics are often toxic even to their producers, a coordinated production allows microbes to first arm themselves with a defense mechanism to resist their own antibiotics before production commences. One possible mechanism of coordination among individuals is through the production of signaling molecules. The gamma-butyrolactone system in Streptomyces coelicolor is a model of such a signaling system for secondary metabolite production. The accumulation of these signaling molecules triggers antibiotic production in the population. A pair of repressor-amplifier proteins encoded by scbA and scbR mediates the production and action of one particular gamma-butyrolactone, SCB1. Based on the proposed interactions of scbA and scbR, a mathematical model was constructed and used to explore the ability of this system to act as a robust genetic switch. Stability analysis shows that the butyrolactone system exhibits bistability and, in response to a threshold SCB1 concentration, can switch from an OFF state to an ON state corresponding to the activation of genes in the cryptic type I polyketide synthase gene cluster, which are responsible for production of the hypothetical polyketide. The switching time is inversely related to the inducer concentration above the threshold, such that short pulses of low inducer concentration cannot switch on the system, suggesting its possible role in noise filtering. In contrast, secondary metabolite production can be triggered rapidly in a population of cells producing the butyrolactone signal due to the presence of an amplification loop in the system. S. coelicolor was perturbed experimentally

  9. Unipolar bistable switching of organic non-volatile memory devices with poly(styrene-co-styrenesulfonic acid Na).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongsung; Cho, Byungjin; Song, Sunghoon; Choe, Minhyeok; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Joon-Seop; Choi, Byung-Sang; Lee, Takhee

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrated unipolar organic bistable memory devices with 8 x 8 cross-bar array type structure. The active material for the organic non-volatile memory devices is poly(styrene-co-styrenesulfonic acid Na) (PSSANa). From the electrical measurements of the PSSANa organic memory devices, we observed rewritable unipolar switching behaviors with a stable endurance and narrow cumulative probability. Also the PSSANa memory devices exhibited a uniform cell-to-cell switching with a high ON/OFF ratio of approximately 10(5) and good retention time of approximately 10(4) seconds without significant degradation.

  10. Switching process between bistable positons of multiquantum flux tubes in a thin-film type I superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, J.; Huebener, R.P.; Muhlemeier, B.

    1983-01-01

    A superconducting memory device based on a bistable vortex position represents an interesting storage medium for future Josephson computers. In order to study the operational mode of such a single-flux quantum memory cell, we use as a model system multiquantum flux tubes in a thin-film type I superconductor (Pb). By employing high-resolution stroboscopic magnetooptical flux detection, we are able to globally visualize both spatial and temporal behavior of rapidly switching individual flux tubes. All experimental results agree reasonably well with theoretical model considerations of the energy balance during the elementary switching process

  11. Cell cycle commitment in budding yeast emerges from the cooperation of multiple bistable switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongli; Schmierer, Bernhard; Novák, Béla

    2011-01-01

    The start-transition (START) in the G1 phase marks the point in the cell cycle at which a yeast cell initiates a new round of cell division. Once made, this decision is irreversible and the cell is committed to progressing through the entire cell cycle, irrespective of arrest signals such as pheromone. How commitment emerges from the underlying molecular interaction network is poorly understood. Here, we perform a dynamical systems analysis of an established cell cycle model, which has never been analysed from a commitment perspective. We show that the irreversibility of the START transition and subsequent commitment can be consistently explained in terms of the interplay of multiple bistable molecular switches. By applying an existing mathematical model to a novel problem and by expanding the model in a self-consistent manner, we achieve several goals: we bring together a large number of experimental findings into a coherent theoretical framework; we increase the scope and the applicability of the original model; we give a systems level explanation of how the START transition and the cell cycle commitment arise from the dynamical features of the underlying molecular interaction network; and we make clear, experimentally testable predictions. PMID:22645649

  12. Bistable optical response of a nanoparticle heterodimer : Mechanism, phase diagram, and switching time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugroho, Bintoro; Iskandar, Alexander; Malyshev, V.A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a theoretical study of the bistable optical response of a nanoparticle heterodimer comprised of a closely spaced semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanoparticle. The bistable nature of the response results from the interplay between the quantum dot's optical nonlinearity and its

  13. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikpal@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhan, Bihong, E-mail: bihong_zhan@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Madhu Mohan, M.L.N. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory (LCRL), Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638 401 (India); Schirhagl, Romana [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of BioMedical Engineering, Ant. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wang, Guoping, E-mail: guopingwang@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    constructed and compared. The switching times, the contrast ratio and spontaneous polarization of the nanostructures–HBLC composite film were carried out by systematic investigation. The sample preparation parameters, such as the curing time and curing intensity were optimized. The critical applied voltage to achieve the switching bi-stability of our device is only 4.5 V, which is approximately twice its threshold voltage for Freedericksz transition. This performance puts the hybrid structure at the top level in the state of the art in application oriented research in optics of liquid crystalline composite materials.

  14. Design methodology for all-optical bistable switches based on a plasmonic resonator sandwiched between dielectric waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Yinxiao; Cai, Wei; Wang, Lei; Ying, Cuifeng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-01-01

    We present a bistable device consisting of a Bragg grating resonator with a Kerr medium sandwiched between two dielectric slab waveguides. The resonator is situated in a nanometer-scaled metal–insulator–metal plasmonic waveguide. Due to the dimensional confinement from the dielectric waveguide to the nanoscaled plasmonic waveguide, electric fields are enhanced greatly, which will further reduce the threshold value. Moreover, a semi-analytic method, based on the impedance theory and the transfer matrix method, is developed to study the transmission and reflection spectra as well as the bistability loop of such a switch. Our method is fast and accurate, as confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain simulation. (invited paper)

  15. Bistable microelectromechanical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G.

    1999-01-01

    A bistable microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator is formed on a substrate and includes a stressed membrane of generally rectangular shape that upon release assumes a curvilinear cross-sectional shape due to attachment at a midpoint to a resilient member and at opposing edges to a pair of elongate supports. The stressed membrane can be electrostatically switched between a pair of mechanical states having mirror-image symmetry, with the MEM actuator remaining in a quiescent state after a programming voltage is removed. The bistable MEM actuator according to various embodiments of the present invention can be used to form a nonvolatile memory element, an optical modulator (with a pair of mirrors supported above the membrane and moving in synchronism as the membrane is switched), a switchable mirror (with a single mirror supported above the membrane at the midpoint thereof) and a latching relay (with a pair of contacts that open and close as the membrane is switched). Arrays of bistable MEM actuators can be formed for applications including nonvolatile memories, optical displays and optical computing.

  16. Soliton creation, propagation, and annihilation in aeromechanical arrays of one-way coupled bistable elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Tessa; Lindner, John F.

    We study the dynamics of mechanical arrays of bistable elements coupled one-way by wind. Unlike earlier hydromechanical unidirectional arrays, our aeromechanical one-way arrays are simpler, easier to study, and exhibit a broader range of phenomena. Soliton-like waves propagate in one direction at speeds proportional to wind speeds. Periodic boundaries enable solitons to annihilate in pairs in even arrays where adjacent elements are attracted to opposite stable states. Solitons propagate indefinitely in odd arrays where pairing is frustrated. Large noise spontaneously creates soliton- antisoliton pairs, as predicted by prior computer simulations. Soliton annihilation times increase quadratically with initial separations, as expected for random walk models of soliton collisions.

  17. Circular polarization switching and bistability in an optically injected 1300 nm spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharthi, S. S., E-mail: ssmalh@essex.ac.uk; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Hurtado, A. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Institute of Photonics, Physics Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, 106 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC), Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2015-01-12

    We report the experimental observation of circular polarization switching (PS) and polarization bistability (PB) in a 1300 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). We demonstrate that the circularly polarized optical signal at 1300 nm can gradually or abruptly switch the polarization ellipticity of the spin-VCSEL from right-to-left circular polarization and vice versa. Moreover, different forms of PS and PB between right- and left-circular polarizations are observed by controlling the injection strength and the initial wavelength detuning. These results obtained at the telecom wavelength of 1300 nm open the door for novel uses of spin-VCSELs in polarization sensitive applications in future optical systems.

  18. Granular acoustic switches and logic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices.

  19. Temperature persistent bistability and threshold switching in a single barrier heterostructure hot-electron diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stasch, R.; Hey, R.; Asche, M.

    1996-01-01

    Bistable current–voltage characteristics caused by competition of tunneling through and field-enhanced thermionic emission across a single barrier are investigated in an n–-GaAs/Al0.34Ga0.66As/n+-GaAs structure. The S-shaped part of the characteristic persists in the whole temperature regime...

  20. Convergent Transcription in the Butyrolactone Regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor Confers a Bistable Genetic Switch for Antibiotic Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anushree; Drews, Laurie; Mehra, Sarika; Takano, Eriko; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2011-01-01

    cis-encoded antisense RNAs (cis asRNA) have been reported to participate in gene expression regulation in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Its presence in Streptomyces coelicolor has also been reported recently; however, its role has yet to be fully investigated. Using mathematical modeling we explore the role of cis asRNA produced as a result of convergent transcription in scbA-scbR genetic switch. scbA and scbR gene pair, encoding repressor–amplifier proteins respectively, mediates the synthesis of a signaling molecule, the γ-butyrolactone SCB1 and controls the onset of antibiotic production. Our model considers that transcriptional interference caused by convergent transcription of two opposing RNA polymerases results in fatal collision and transcriptional termination, which suppresses transcription efficiency. Additionally, convergent transcription causes sense and antisense interactions between complementary sequences from opposing strands, rendering the full length transcript inaccessible for translation. We evaluated the role of transcriptional interference and the antisense effect conferred by convergent transcription on the behavior of scbA-scbR system. Stability analysis showed that while transcriptional interference affects the system, it is asRNA that confers scbA-scbR system the characteristics of a bistable switch in response to the signaling molecule SCB1. With its critical role of regulating the onset of antibiotic synthesis the bistable behavior offers this two gene system the needed robustness to be a genetic switch. The convergent two gene system with potential of transcriptional interference is a frequent feature in various genomes. The possibility of asRNA regulation in other such gene-pairs is yet to be examined. PMID:21765930

  1. Bistable Reflective Etalon (BRET)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shellenbarger, Zane

    2003-01-01

    This project designed, fabricated, and characterized normal-incidence etalon structures at 1550 nm wavelength operation for application, as bistable elements, to photonic analog-to-digital conversion...

  2. Equilibrium and stochastic resonance in finite chains of noisy bistable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morillo, Manuel; Gomez-Ordonez, Jose; Casado, Jose Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We analyze the dependence of the equilibrium distribution of a collective variable of a chain on relevant parameters including the chain size and its connectivity. We also analyze the stochastic resonance effect of the same variable. - Abstract: Using numerical simulations, we analyze equilibrium properties of finite chains of coupled noisy bistable units and their response to weak time periodic forces. Finite chains with global as well as local (nearest neighbors) coupling are considered. We focus on the study of a collective variable defined as the arithmetic mean of the variables characterizing each element of the chain. By contrast with the case of infinite size chains, where the coexistence of several equilibrium distributions for the same values of parameters is possible, for finite chains just a single equilibrium distribution exists for given values of the parameters. We demonstrate that, regardless of the chain connectivity, there exist transition lines separating regions in parameter space where the equilibrium distribution function is either monomodal or multimodal. The location of the transition line depends on the chain connectivity and the size of the system. For driven chains, the response of the system shows stochastic resonant effects. For the two types of chains considered, both the power spectral amplification and the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective variable are analyzed as the noise strength, the coupling parameter and the number of bistable units in the system are varied. Compared with the effects observed in single unit systems, the collective variable shows a strong enhancement of the stochastic resonance effects.

  3. Bistability in a Metabolic Network Underpins the De Novo Evolution of Colony Switching in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallie, Jenna; Libby, Eric; Bertels, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Phenotype switching is commonly observed in nature. This prevalence has allowed the elucidation of a number of underlying molecular mechanisms. However, little is known about how phenotypic switches arise and function in their early evolutionary stages. The first opportunity to provide empirical ...

  4. Intrinsic Noise Profoundly Alters the Dynamics and Steady State of Morphogen-Controlled Bistable Genetic Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules—morphogens—guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms. Here, we explore the dynamics of the toggle switch and use exact numerical simulations of the kinetic reactions, the corresponding Chemical Langevin Equation, and Minimum Action Path theory to establish a framework for studying the effect of gene expression noise on patterning time and boundary position. This provides insight into the time scale, gene expression trajectories and directionality of stochastic switching events between cell states. Taking gene expression noise into account predicts that the final boundary position of a morphogen-induced toggle switch, although robust to changes in the details of the noise, is distinct from that of the deterministic system. Moreover, the dramatic increase in patterning time close to the boundary predicted from the deterministic case is substantially reduced. The resulting stochastic switching introduces differences in patterning time along the morphogen gradient that result in a patterning wave propagating away from the morphogen source with a velocity determined by the intrinsic noise. The wave sharpens and slows as it advances and may never reach steady state in a biologically relevant time. This could explain experimentally observed dynamics of pattern formation. Together the analysis reveals the importance of dynamical transients for understanding morphogen-driven transcriptional networks and indicates that gene expression noise can qualitatively

  5. Intrinsic Noise Profoundly Alters the Dynamics and Steady State of Morphogen-Controlled Bistable Genetic Switches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Perez-Carrasco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules-morphogens-guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms. Here, we explore the dynamics of the toggle switch and use exact numerical simulations of the kinetic reactions, the corresponding Chemical Langevin Equation, and Minimum Action Path theory to establish a framework for studying the effect of gene expression noise on patterning time and boundary position. This provides insight into the time scale, gene expression trajectories and directionality of stochastic switching events between cell states. Taking gene expression noise into account predicts that the final boundary position of a morphogen-induced toggle switch, although robust to changes in the details of the noise, is distinct from that of the deterministic system. Moreover, the dramatic increase in patterning time close to the boundary predicted from the deterministic case is substantially reduced. The resulting stochastic switching introduces differences in patterning time along the morphogen gradient that result in a patterning wave propagating away from the morphogen source with a velocity determined by the intrinsic noise. The wave sharpens and slows as it advances and may never reach steady state in a biologically relevant time. This could explain experimentally observed dynamics of pattern formation. Together the analysis reveals the importance of dynamical transients for understanding morphogen-driven transcriptional networks and indicates that gene expression noise can

  6. Bistability in mushroom-type metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, David E.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2017-07-01

    Here, we study the electromagnetic response of asymmetric mushroom-type metamaterials loaded with nonlinear elements. It is shown that near a Fano resonance, these structures may have a strong tunable, bistable, and switchable response and enable giant nonlinear effects. By using an effective medium theory and full wave simulations, it is proven that the nonlinear elements may allow the reflection and transmission coefficients to follow hysteresis loops, and to switch the metamaterial between "go" and "no-go" states similar to an ideal electromagnetic switch.

  7. MicroRNA-Mediated Positive Feedback Loop and Optimized Bistable Switch in a Cancer Network Involving miR-17-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yichen; Li, Yumin; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Yong

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that play an important role in many key biological processes, including development, cell differentiation, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as central post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs can act as oncogenes and tumor suppressors depending on the context. The present work focuses on the physiological significance of miRNAs and their role in regulating the switching behavior. We illustrate an abstract model of the Myc/E2F/miR-17-92 network presented by Aguda et al. (2008), which is composed of coupling between the E2F/Myc positive feedback loops and the E2F/Myc/miR-17-92 negative feedback loop. By systematically analyzing the network in close association with plausible experimental parameters, we show that, in the presence of miRNAs, the system bistability emerges from the system, with a bistable switch and a one-way switch presented by Aguda et al. instead of a single one-way switch. Moreover, the miRNAs can optimize the switching process. The model produces a diverse array of response-signal behaviors in response to various potential regulating scenarios. The model predicts that this transition exists, one from cell death or the cancerous phenotype directly to cell quiescence, due to the existence of miRNAs. It was also found that the network involving miR-17-92 exhibits high noise sensitivity due to a positive feedback loop and also maintains resistance to noise from a negative feedback loop. PMID:22022595

  8. Double-well chimeras in 2D lattice of chaotic bistable elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, I. A.; Bukh, A. V.; Vadivasova, T. E.; Anishchenko, V. S.; Zakharova, A.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate spatio-temporal dynamics of a 2D ensemble of nonlocally coupled chaotic cubic maps in a bistability regime. In particular, we perform a detailed study on the transition ;coherence - incoherence; for varying coupling strength for a fixed interaction radius. For the 2D ensemble we show the appearance of amplitude and phase chimera states previously reported for 1D ensembles of nonlocally coupled chaotic systems. Moreover, we uncover a novel type of chimera state, double-well chimera, which occurs due to the interplay of the bistability of the local dynamics and the 2D ensemble structure. Additionally, we find double-well chimera behavior for steady states which we call double-well chimera death. A distinguishing feature of chimera patterns observed in the lattice is that they mainly combine clusters of different chimera types: phase, amplitude and double-well chimeras.

  9. Ultra-Fast All-Optical Self-Aware Protection Switching Based on a Bistable Laser Diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi; Vukovic, Dragana; Lorences Riesgo, Abel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel concept of all-optical protection switching with link failure automatic awareness based on AOWFF. The scheme is experimentally demonstrated using a single MG-Y laser diode with a record switching time ~200 ps....

  10. A bistable mechanism for directional sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta, C; Amselem, G; Bodenschatz, E

    2008-01-01

    We present a generic mechanism for directional sensing in eukaryotic cells that is based on bistable dynamics. As the key feature of this modeling approach, the velocity of trigger waves in the bistable sensing system changes its sign across cells that are exposed to an external chemoattractant gradient. This is achieved by combining a two-component activator/inhibitor system with a bistable switch that induces an identical symmetry breaking for arbitrary gradient input signals. A simple kinetic example is designed to illustrate the dynamics of a bistable directional sensing mechanism in numerical simulations

  11. Bistability of Cavity Magnon Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Pu; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Dengke; Li, Tie-Fu; Hu, C.-M.; You, J. Q.

    2018-01-01

    We report the first observation of the magnon-polariton bistability in a cavity magnonics system consisting of cavity photons strongly interacting with the magnons in a small yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere. The bistable behaviors emerged as sharp frequency switchings of the cavity magnon polaritons (CMPs) and related to the transition between states with large and small numbers of polaritons. In our experiment, we align, respectively, the [100] and [110] crystallographic axes of the YIG sphere parallel to the static magnetic field and find very different bistable behaviors (e.g., clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis loops) in these two cases. The experimental results are well fitted and explained as being due to the Kerr nonlinearity with either a positive or negative coefficient. Moreover, when the magnetic field is tuned away from the anticrossing point of CMPs, we observe simultaneous bistability of both magnons and cavity photons by applying a drive field on the lower branch.

  12. Bistability of Cavity Magnon Polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Pu; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Dengke; Li, Tie-Fu; Hu, C-M; You, J Q

    2018-02-02

    We report the first observation of the magnon-polariton bistability in a cavity magnonics system consisting of cavity photons strongly interacting with the magnons in a small yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere. The bistable behaviors emerged as sharp frequency switchings of the cavity magnon polaritons (CMPs) and related to the transition between states with large and small numbers of polaritons. In our experiment, we align, respectively, the [100] and [110] crystallographic axes of the YIG sphere parallel to the static magnetic field and find very different bistable behaviors (e.g., clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis loops) in these two cases. The experimental results are well fitted and explained as being due to the Kerr nonlinearity with either a positive or negative coefficient. Moreover, when the magnetic field is tuned away from the anticrossing point of CMPs, we observe simultaneous bistability of both magnons and cavity photons by applying a drive field on the lower branch.

  13. Inhibitors Alter the Stochasticity of Regulatory Proteins to Force Cells to Switch to the Other State in the Bistable System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Wun-Sin; Lo, Shih-Chiang; Yeh, Chen-Chao; Shu, Che-Chi

    2017-06-30

    The cellular behaviors under the control of genetic circuits are subject to stochastic fluctuations, or noise. The stochasticity in gene regulation, far from a nuisance, has been gradually appreciated for its unusual function in cellular activities. In this work, with Chemical Master Equation (CME), we discovered that the addition of inhibitors altered the stochasticity of regulatory proteins. For a bistable system of a mutually inhibitory network, such a change of noise led to the migration of cells in the bimodal distribution. We proposed that the consumption of regulatory protein caused by the addition of inhibitor is not the only reason for pushing cells to the specific state; the change of the intracellular stochasticity is also the main cause for the redistribution. For the level of the inhibitor capable of driving 99% of cells, if there is no consumption of regulatory protein, 88% of cells were guided to the specific state. It implied that cells were pushed, by the inhibitor, to the specific state due to the change of stochasticity.

  14. Functionally rigid bistable [2]rotaxanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sune; Leung, Ken C-F; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    was investigated as a means to simplify both molecular structure and switching function previously observed in related bistable [2]rotaxanes with flexible spacers between their stations and incorporating a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) ring. The nondegenerate MPTTF-NP switch was isolated as near isomer......-free bistable [2]rotaxane. Utilization of MPTTF removes the cis/trans isomerization that characterizes the tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) parent core structure. Furthermore, only one translational isomer is observed (> 95 ... component resides, to all intents and purposes, predominantly on the MPTTF unit in the ground state. As a consequence of these two effects, the assignment of NMR and UV-vis data is more simplified as compared to previous donor-acceptor bistable [2]rotaxanes. This development has not only allowed for much...

  15. Bianthrone in a Single-Molecule Junction: Conductance Switching with a Bistable Molecule Facilitated by Image Charge Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Bianthrone is a sterically hindered compound that exists in the form of two nonplanar isomers. Our experimental study of single-molecule junctions with bianthrone reveals persistent switching of electric conductance at low temperatures, which can be reasonably associated with molecular isomerizat...

  16. Interplay between switching driven by the tunneling current andatomic force of a bistable four-atom Si quantum dot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yamazaki, S.; Maeda, K.; Sugimoto, Y.; Abe, M.; Zobač, Vladimír; Pou, P.; Rodrigo, L.; Mutombo, Pingo; Perez, R.; Jelínek, Pavel; Morita, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2015), 4356-4363 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02079S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic manipulation * atomic switch * Si quantum dot * scanning tunneling microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 13.779, year: 2015

  17. Synthesizing A Phase Changing Bistable Electroactive Polymer And Silver Nanoparticles Coated Fabric As A Resistive Heating Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhi

    Transducer technologies that convert energy from one form to another (e.g. electrical energy to mechanical energy or thermal energy and vise versa) are considered as the basic building blocks of robots and wearable electronics, two of the rapidly emerging technologies that impact our daily life. With an emphasis on developing the essential smart materials, this dissertation focuses on two specific transducer technologies, bistable large-strain electro-mechanical actuation and resistive Joule heating, in pursuit of refreshable Braille electronic displays and wearable thermal management element, respectively. Dielectric elastomers (DEs) have been intensively studied for their promising ability to mimic human muscles in providing efficient electro-mechanical actuation. They exhibit a unique combination of properties, including large strain, fast response, high energy density, mechanical compliancy, lightweight, and low cost. However, the softness of the DE materials, which is a prerequisite for electrically induced large actuation strain, has been hindering their application in adaptive structures. In these applications such as braille displays, a certain amount of mechanical support is necessary in addition to large strains for the device or system to function. Bistable electroactive polymers (BSEP) that leverage the electrically induced large-strain actuation of DE actuators and the bi-stable rigid-to-rigid deformation of shape memory polymers are innovated to provide large electrical actuation strain in their rubbery state and fix the deformation by cooling down to room temperature to incorporate mechanical rigidity. BSEP materials that can suppress electromechanical instability and exhibit stable mechanical properties in the rubbery state are desired. A bimodal BSEP material with a glass transition temperature right above room temperature has been synthesized employing simple UV curing process. The BSEP has a large storage modulus over 1GPa at room temperature

  18. Bistable scattering in graphene-coated dielectric nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rujiang; Wang, Huaping; Zheng, Bin; Dehdashti, Shahram; Li, Erping; Chen, Hongsheng

    2017-06-22

    In nonlinear plasmonics, the switching threshold of optical bistability is limited by the weak nonlinear responses from the conventional Kerr dielectric media. Considering the giant nonlinear susceptibility of graphene, here we develop a nonlinear scattering model under the mean field approximation and study the bistable scattering in graphene-coated dielectric nanowires based on the semi-analytical solutions. We find that the switching intensities of bistable scattering can be smaller than 1 MW cm -2 at the working frequency. To further decrease the switching intensities, we show that the most important factor that restricts the bistable scattering is the relaxation time of graphene. Our work not only reveals some general characteristics of graphene-based bistable scattering, but also provides a guidance to further applications of optical bistability in the high speed all-optical signal processing.

  19. Bianthrone in a Single-Molecule Junction: Conductance Switching with a Bistable Molecule Facilitated by Image Charge Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    isomerization events. Temperature dependence of the switching rate allows for an estimate of the activation energy of the process, on the order of 120 +/- 50 meV. Quantum-chemical calculations of the potential energy relief of neutral bianthrone and its anion, including identification of transition states......, yields the isolated molecule isomerization barriers too high vs the previous estimate, though compatible with previous experimental studies in solution. Nevertheless, we show that the attraction of the anion in the vicinity of the metal surface by its image charge can change the energetic landscape...

  20. Take it of leave it : Mechanisms underlying bacterial bistable regulatory networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebring, Jeroen; Sorg, Robin; Herber, Martijn; Kuipers, Oscar; Filloux, Alain A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bistable switches occur in regulatory networks that can exist in two distinct stable states. Such networks allow distinct switching of individual cells. In bacteria these switches coexist with regulatory networks that respond gradually to environmental input. Bistable switches play key roles in high

  1. Stochastic dynamics of N bistable elements with global time-delayed interactions: towards an exact solution of the master equations for finite N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimizuka, M; Munakata, T; Rosinberg, M L

    2010-10-01

    We consider a network of N noisy bistable elements with global time-delayed couplings. In a two-state description, where elements are represented by Ising spins, the collective dynamics is described by an infinite hierarchy of coupled master equations which was solved at the mean-field level in the thermodynamic limit. When the number of elements is finite, as is the case in actual laser networks, an analytical description was deemed so far intractable and numerical studies seemed to be necessary. In this paper we consider the case of two interacting elements and show that a partial analytical description of the stationary state is possible if the stochastic process is time symmetric. This requires some relationship between the transition rates to be satisfied.

  2. Bistable Si dopants in the GaAs (1 1 0) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smakman, E P; Koenraad, P M

    2015-01-01

    In this review, recent work is discussed on bistable Si dopants in the GaAs (1 1 0) surface, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The bistability arises because the dopant atom can switch between a positive and a negative charge state, which are associated with two different lattice configurations. Manipulation of the Si atom charge configuration is achieved by tuning the local band bending with the STM tip. Furthermore, illuminating the sample with a laser also influences the charge state, allowing the operation of the dopant atom as an optical switch. The switching dynamics without illumination is investigated in detail as a function of temperature, lateral tip position, and applied tunneling conditions. A physical model is presented that independently describes the thermal and quantum tunneling contributions to the switching frequency and charge state occupation of a single Si atom. The basic functionality of a memory cell is demonstrated employing a single bistable Si dopant as the active element, using the STM tip as a gate to write and read the information. (topical review)

  3. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  4. GABA shapes the dynamics of bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Anouk M; Knapen, Tomas; Scholte, H Steven; St John-Saaltink, Elexa; Donner, Tobias H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-05-06

    Sometimes, perception fluctuates spontaneously between two distinct interpretations of a constant sensory input. These bistable perceptual phenomena provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms that create the contents of conscious perception. Models of bistable perception posit that mutual inhibition between stimulus-selective neural populations in visual cortex plays a key role in these spontaneous perceptual fluctuations. However, a direct link between neural inhibition and bistable perception has not yet been established experimentally. Here, we link perceptual dynamics in three distinct bistable visual illusions (binocular rivalry, motion-induced blindness, and structure from motion) to measurements of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in human visual cortex (as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and to pharmacological stimulation of the GABAA receptor by means of lorazepam. As predicted by a model of neural interactions underlying bistability, both higher GABA concentrations in visual cortex and lorazepam administration induced slower perceptual dynamics, as reflected in a reduced number of perceptual switches and a lengthening of percept durations. Thus, we show that GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter, shapes the dynamics of bistable perception. These results pave the way for future studies into the competitive neural interactions across the visual cortical hierarchy that elicit conscious perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Controllable optical bistability in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yan, Jia-Kai; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistable behavior in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings. The effects of the cavity-pump detuning and the pump power on the bistable behavior are discussed detailedly, the impacts of the atom-pump detuning and the atom-cavity coupling strength on the bistability of the system are also explored, and the influences of the cavity-resonator coupling strength and the cavity decay rate are also taken into consideration. The numerical results demonstrate that by tuning these parameters the bistable behavior of the system can be freely switched on or off, and the threshold of the pump power for the bistability as well as the bistable region width can also be effectively controlled. These results can find potential applications in optical bistable switch in the quantum information processing.

  6. Interlinked bistable mechanisms generate robust mitotic transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Lukas H; Rata, Scott; Hochegger, Helfrid; Novák, Béla

    2017-10-18

    The transitions between phases of the cell cycle have evolved to be robust and switch-like, which ensures temporal separation of DNA replication, sister chromatid separation, and cell division. Mathematical models describing the biochemical interaction networks of cell cycle regulators attribute these properties to underlying bistable switches, which inherently generate robust, switch-like, and irreversible transitions between states. We have recently presented new mathematical models for two control systems that regulate crucial transitions in the cell cycle: mitotic entry and exit, 1 and the mitotic checkpoint. 2 Each of the two control systems is characterized by two interlinked bistable switches. In the case of mitotic checkpoint control, these switches are mutually activating, whereas in the case of the mitotic entry/exit network, the switches are mutually inhibiting. In this Perspective we describe the qualitative features of these regulatory motifs and show that having two interlinked bistable mechanisms further enhances robustness and irreversibility. We speculate that these network motifs also underlie other cell cycle transitions and cellular transitions between distinct biochemical states.

  7. Bistability in biochemical signaling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobie, Eric A

    2011-09-20

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes, slides, and a student assignment for a two-part lecture on the principles underlying bistability in biochemical signaling networks, which are illustrated with examples from the literature. The lectures cover analog, or graded, versus digital, all-or-none, responses in cells, with examples from different types of biological processes requiring each. Rate-balance plots are introduced as a method for determining whether generic one-variable systems exhibit one or several stable steady states. Bifurcation diagrams are presented as a more general method for detecting the presence of bistability in biochemical signaling networks. The examples include an artificial toggle switch, the lac operon in bacteria, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in both Xenopus oocytes and mammalian cells. The second part of the lecture links the concepts of bistability more closely to the mathematical tools provided by dynamical systems analysis. The examples from the first part of the lecture are analyzed with phase-plane techniques and bifurcation analysis, using the scientific programming language MATLAB. Using these programs as a template, the assignment requires the students to implement a model from the literature and analyze the stability of this model's steady states.

  8. In silico evolved lac operons exhibit bistability for artificial inducers, but not for lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, M J A; Hogeweg, P

    2006-10-15

    Bistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli has been widely studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, bistability has been observed when E. coli is induced by an artificial, nonmetabolizable, inducer. However, if the lac operon is induced with lactose, the natural inducer, bistability has not been demonstrated. We derive an analytical expression that can predict the occurrence of bistability both for artificial inducers and lactose. We find very different conditions for bistability in the two cases. Indeed, for artificial inducers bistability is predicted, but for lactose the condition for bistability is much more difficult to satisfy. Moreover, we demonstrate that in silico evolution of the lac operon generates an operon that avoids bistability with respect to lactose, but does exhibit bistability with respect to artificial inducers. The activity of this evolved operon strikingly resembles the experimentally observed activity of the operon. Thus our computational experiments suggest that the wild-type lac operon, which regulates lactose metabolism, is not a bistable switch. Nevertheless, for engineering purposes, this operon can be used as a bistable switch with artificial inducers.

  9. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in asymmetric double quantum wells via spontaneously generated coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Chen, Aixi, E-mail: aixichen@ecjtu.jx.cn [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device.

  10. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in asymmetric double quantum wells via spontaneously generated coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li; Chen, Aixi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device

  11. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  12. On the Selection of Bistability in Genetic Regulatory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Cheol-Min; Almaas, Eivind

    2008-03-01

    Bistability is a defining character of switching and memory devices. Many regulatory circuits observed in cellular reaction networks contain ``bistability motifs'' that endow a cell with efficient and reliable switching between different physiological modes of operation. One of the best characterized system, the lac operon in E. coli, has been shown to display a saddle-node bifurcation when induced by nonmetabolizable lactose analogue inducers, such as isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG) and thio-methyl-galactoside (TMG). Motivated by the absence of bifurcation in the same system with its natural inducer, lactose, we studied the conditions for bistability and rationalized its fitness effects in the light of evolution. Stochastic simulations as well as mean-field approach confirm that history-dependent behavior as well as nongenetic inheritance, being realized by bistability motifs, may be beneficial in fluctuating environments.

  13. Gigarad-tolerant power switches and memory elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, W.T.; Becknell, G.F.; Donelson, J.M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of silicon devices operating without p-n junctions has been studied for radiation hardness. The electric field in these devices is uniform over most of the device, thus causing high-voltage breakdown to increase with electrode spacing. Deep acceptor levels are created in the silicon by diffusing gold atoms into the lattice, or by electron radiation. These acceptor levels, near the center of the band gap, trap out electrons so that the low resistivity of the n-type doped wafer can be raised to intrinsic resistivity. Switching between a high-resistivity state at low currents and a low-resistivity state at high currents occurs at a definite threshold voltage, exhibiting characteristics similar to silicon-controlled rectifiers. Compensating 0.1 ohm-meter (10 ohm-cm) silicon wafers requires electron fluxes of 10 23 electrons per square meter (10 19 electrons per square centimeter). Experiments demonstrating gamma tolerance to 1 Gigarad(Si) are described. Calculations for maximum tolerable neutron fluence are shown, and a phenomenological explanation for these results is presented

  14. An Electronically Controlled 8-Element Switched Beam Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Sharawi, Mohammad S.

    2015-02-24

    An 8-element planar antenna array with electronically controlled switchable-beam pattern is proposed. The planar antenna array consists of patch elements and operates in the 2.45 GHz ISM band. The array is integrated with a digitally controlled feed network that provides the required phases to generate 8 fixed beams covering most of the upper hemisphere of the array. Unlike typical switchable beam antenna arrays, which operate only in one plane, the proposed design is the first to provide full 3D switchable beams with simple control. Only a 3-bit digital word is required for the generation of the 8 different beams. The integrated array is designed on a 3-layer PCB on a Taconic substrate (RF60A). The total dimensions of the fabricated array are 187.1 × 261.3 × 1.3mm3.

  15. Organic bistable light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Liu, Jie; Pyo, Seungmoon; Yang, Yang

    2002-01-01

    An organic bistable device, with a unique trilayer structure consisting of organic/metal/organic sandwiched between two outmost metal electrodes, has been invented. [Y. Yang, L. P. Ma, and J. Liu, U.S. Patent Pending, U.S. 01/17206 (2001)]. When the device is biased with voltages beyond a critical value (for example 3 V), the device suddenly switches from a high-impedance state to a low-impedance state, with a difference in injection current of more than 6 orders of magnitude. When the device is switched to the low-impedance state, it remains in that state even when the power is off. (This is called "nonvolatile" phenomenon in memory devices.) The high-impedance state can be recovered by applying a reverse bias; therefore, this bistable device is ideal for memory applications. In order to increase the data read-out rate of this type of memory device, a regular polymer light-emitting diode has been integrated with the organic bistable device, such that it can be read out optically. These features make the organic bistable light-emitting device a promising candidate for several applications, such as digital memories, opto-electronic books, and recordable papers.

  16. Finite element analysis of optical bistability in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic band gap structures with a defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suryanto, A.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Hammer, Manfred

    We present a new approach based on the recently reported finite element scheme16 to study the optical response of a finite one-dimensional nonlinear grating. Using the transmitted wave amplitude as a numerical input parameter, we are able to find all stable and unstable solutions related to a

  17. Bistable laser device with multiple coupled active vertical-cavity resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-08-19

    A new class of bistable coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor laser devices has been developed. These bistable laser devices can be switched, either electrically or optically, between lasing and non-lasing states. A switching signal with a power of a fraction of a milliwatt can change the laser output of such a device by a factor of a hundred, thereby enabling a range of optical switching and data encoding applications.

  18. The tunable bistable and multistable memory effect in polymer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Atikur; Sanyal, Milan K

    2008-01-01

    Tunable bistable and multistable resistance switching in conducting polymer nanowires has been reported. These wires show reproducible switching transition under several READ-WRITE-ERASE cycles. The switching is observed at low temperature and the ON/OFF resistance ratio for the voltage biased switching transition was found to be more than 10 3 . Current biased measurements show lower ON/OFF ratio and some of the nanowires exhibit a multistable switching transition in current biased measurements. The threshold voltage for switching and the ON/OFF resistance ratio can be tuned by changing doping concentration of the nanowires

  19. Dimensionality reduction of bistable biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, A; Nikoloski, Z; Koseska, A

    2013-03-01

    Time hierarchies, arising as a result of interactions between system's components, represent a ubiquitous property of dynamical biological systems. In addition, biological systems have been attributed switch-like properties modulating the response to various stimuli across different organisms and environmental conditions. Therefore, establishing the interplay between these features of system dynamics renders itself a challenging question of practical interest in biology. Existing methods are suitable for systems with one stable steady state employed as a well-defined reference. In such systems, the characterization of the time hierarchies has already been used for determining the components that contribute to the dynamics of biological systems. However, the application of these methods to bistable nonlinear systems is impeded due to their inherent dependence on the reference state, which in this case is no longer unique. Here, we extend the applicability of the reference-state analysis by proposing, analyzing, and applying a novel method, which allows investigation of the time hierarchies in systems exhibiting bistability. The proposed method is in turn used in identifying the components, other than reactions, which determine the systemic dynamical properties. We demonstrate that in biological systems of varying levels of complexity and spanning different biological levels, the method can be effectively employed for model simplification while ensuring preservation of qualitative dynamical properties (i.e., bistability). Finally, by establishing a connection between techniques from nonlinear dynamics and multivariate statistics, the proposed approach provides the basis for extending reference-based analysis to bistable systems.

  20. Finite element based contact analysis of radio frequency MEMs switch membrane surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Ya; Chalivendra, Vijaya; Huang, Wenzhen

    2017-10-01

    Finite element simulations were performed to determine the contact behavior of radio frequency (RF) micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) switch contact surfaces under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to capture the topography of RF-MEM switch membranes and later they were analyzed for multi-scale regular as well as fractal structures. Frictionless, non-adhesive contact 3D finite element analysis was carried out at different length scales to investigate the contact behavior of the regular-fractal surface using an elasto-plastic material model. Dominant micro-scale regular patterns were found to significantly change the contact behavior. Contact areas mainly cluster around the regular pattern. The contribution from the fractal structure is not significant. Under cyclic loading conditions, plastic deformation in the 1st loading/unloading cycle smooth the surface. The subsequent repetitive loading/unloading cycles undergo elastic contact without changing the morphology of the contacting surfaces. The work is expected to shed light on the quality of the switch surface contact as well as the optimum design of RF MEM switch surfaces.

  1. Bistable cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with multielectrode driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Chang; Tseng, Heng-Yi; Pai, Tsung-Wei; Wu, Yu-Ching; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Jau, Hung-Chang; Chen, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2014-08-01

    An electrically activated bistable light shutter that exploits polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal film was developed. Under double-sided three-terminal electrode driving, the device can be bistable and switched between focal conic and homeotropic textures with a uniform in-plane and vertical electrical field. The transparent state with a transmittance of 80% and the opaque/scattering state with a transmittance of 13% can be realized without any optical compensation film, and each can be simply switched to the other by applying a pulse voltage. Also, gray-scale selection can be performed by varying the applied voltage. The designed energy-saving bistable light shutter can be utilized to preserve privacy and control illumination and the flow of energy.

  2. Analysis and modeling of different topologies for linear switched reluctance motor using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Ganji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an electromagnetic simulation model is introduced for the conventional type of linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM in which the dynamic characteristics of the motor are predicted precisely by carrying out 2D finite element (FE transient analysis using ANSYS FE package. The simulation model is created totally in ANSYS parametric design language (APDL as a parametric model and it can be used easily for different designs of the conventional LSRMs. Introducing linear switched reluctance motor with segmental translator as a new type of LSRM, performance principles and design criteria are presented for two various topologies of this motor. Carrying out 2D FE transient analysis, dynamic characteristics of these two motors are predicted and compared to those obtained for the conventional LSRM.

  3. Stability and morphing characteristics of bistable composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Samer A.

    The focus of the current research is to investigate the potential of using bistable unsymmetric cross-ply laminated composites as a means for achieving structures with morphed characteristics. To this end, an investigation of the design space for laminated composites exhibiting bistable behavior is undertaken and the key parameters controlling their behavior are identified. For this purpose a nonlinear Finite Element methodology using ABAQUS(TM) code is developed to predict both the cured shapes and the stability characteristics of unsymmetric cross-ply laminates. In addition, an experimental program is developed to validate the analytically predicted results through comparison with test data. A new method is proposed for attaching piezoelectric actuators to a bistable panel in order to preserve its favorable stability characteristics as well as optimizing the actuators performance. The developed nonlinear FE methodology is extended to predict the actuation requirements of bistable panels. Actuator requirements, predicted using the nonlinear FE analysis, are found to be in agreement with the test results. The current research also explores the potential for implementing bistable panels for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) wing configuration. To this end, a set of bistable panels is manufactured by combining symmetric and unsymmetric balanced and unbalanced stacking sequence and their stability characteristics are predicted. A preliminary analysis of the aerodynamic characteristics of the manufactured panels is carried out and the aerodynamic benefits of manufactured bistable panel are noted.

  4. Bistability threshold inside hysteresis loop of nonlinear fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosia, Yosia; Ping, Shum; Chao, Lu

    2005-06-27

    We show the Cross Phase Modulation (XPM) effect between CW probe that operates in bistability region and strong Gaussian pump in a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) by Implicit 4th Order Runge-Kutta Method. The XPM effect results in three unique nonlinear switching behaviors of the probe transmission depending on the pump peak intensity and its Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) value. From this observation, we offer the FBG three potential nonlinear switching applications in all-optical signal processing domain as: a step-up all-optical switching, an all-optical inverter, and an all-optical limiter. The bistability threshold that determines the nonlinear switching behaviors of probe transmission after Gaussian pump injection is defined numerically and shown to be equivalent to the unstable state inside hysteresis loop.

  5. Biological noise abatement: coordinating the responses of autonomous bacteria in a synthetic biofilm to a fluctuating environment using a stochastic bistable switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Edward M; Kurz, Volker; Perry, Nicolas; Kyrouac, Douglas; Timp, Gregory

    2014-05-16

    Noise is inherent to single cell behavior. Its origins can be traced to the stochasticity associated with a few copies of genes and low concentrations of protein and ligands. We have studied the mechanisms by which the response of noisy elements can be entrained for biological signal processing. To elicit predictable biological function, we have engineered a gene environment that incorporates a gene regulatory network with the stringently controlled microenvironment found in a synthetic biofilm. The regulatory network leverages the positive feedback found in quorum-sensing regulatory components of the lux operon, which is used to coordinate cellular responses to environmental fluctuations. Accumulation of the Lux receptor in cells, resulting from autoregulation, confers a rapid response and enhanced sensitivity to the quorum-sensing molecule that is retained after cell division as epigenetic memory. The memory of the system channels stochastic noise into a coordinated response among quorum-sensing signal receivers in a synthetic biofilm in which the noise diminishes with repeated exposure to noisy transmitters on the input of a signaling cascade integrated into the same biofilm. Thus, gene expression in the receivers, which are autonomous and do not communicate with each other, is synchronized to fluctuations in the environment.

  6. On the functional relevance of frontal cortex for passive and voluntarily controlled bistable vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; de Jong, Maartje C; Goebel, Rainer; van Ee, Raymond; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-10-01

    In bistable vision, one constant ambiguous stimulus leads to 2 alternating conscious percepts. This perceptual switching occurs spontaneously but can also be influenced through voluntary control. Neuroimaging studies have reported that frontal regions are activated during spontaneous perceptual switches, leading some researchers to suggest that frontal regions causally induce perceptual switches. But the opposite also seems possible: frontal activations may themselves be caused by spontaneous switches. Classically implicated in attentional processes, these same regions are also candidates for the origins of voluntary control over bistable vision. Here too, it remains unknown whether frontal cortex is actually functionally relevant. It is even possible that spontaneous perceptual switches and voluntarily induced switches are mediated by the same top-down mechanisms. To directly address these issues, we here induced "virtual lesions," with transcranial magnetic stimulation, in frontal, parietal, and 2 lower level visual cortices using an established ambiguous structure-from-motion stimulus. We found that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was causally relevant for voluntary control over perceptual switches. In contrast, we failed to find any evidence for an active role of frontal cortex in passive bistable vision. Thus, it seems the same pathway used for willed top-down modulation of bistable vision is not used during passive bistable viewing.

  7. Optical bistability in nonlinear composites with coated ellipsoidal nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Pinchuk, A

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear composite structures show great promise for use in optical switching, signal processing, etc. We derive an effective nonlinear dielectric permittivity of composite structures where coated ellipsoidal nonlinear particles are imbedded in a linear host medium. The derived expression for the effective dielectric permittivity tensor follows the Clasius-Mossotti approximation. We observe conditions for the existence of the optical bistability effect in a coated ellipsoidal particle with a nonlinear core and a metallic shell. Our numerical results show stronger bistability effects in more dense suspensions of nonlinear heterogeneous ellipsoids.

  8. The unsaturated bistable stochastic resonance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenli; Wang, Juan; Wang, Linze

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the characteristics of the output saturation of the classical continuous bistable system (saturation bistable system) and its impact on stochastic resonance (SR). We further proposed a piecewise bistable SR system (unsaturated bistable system) and developed the expression of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using the adiabatic approximation theory. Compared with the saturation bistable system, the SNR is significantly improved in our unsaturated bistable SR system. The numerical simulation showed that the unsaturated bistable system performed better in extracting weak signals from strong background noise than the saturation bistable system.

  9. Controlling bistability by linear augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pooja Rani; Shrimali, Manish Dev; Prasad, Awadhesh; Feudel, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    In many bistable oscillating systems only one of the attractors is desired to possessing certain system performance. We present a method to drive a bistable system to a desired target attractor by annihilating the other one. This shift from bistability to monostability is achieved by augmentation of the nonlinear oscillator with a linear control system. For a proper choice of the control function one of the attractors disappears at a critical coupling strength in an control-induced boundary crisis. This transition from bistability to monostability is demonstrated with two paradigmatic examples, the autonomous Chua oscillator and a neuronal system with a periodic input signal.

  10. Bistable Mechanisms for Space Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A; Tolman, Kyler A; Trease, Brian P; Howell, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Compliant bistable mechanisms are monolithic devices with two stable equilibrium positions separated by an unstable equilibrium position. They show promise in space applications as nonexplosive release mechanisms in deployment systems, thereby eliminating friction and improving the reliability and precision of those mechanical devices. This paper presents both analytical and numerical models that are used to predict bistable behavior and can be used to create bistable mechanisms in materials not previously feasible for compliant mechanisms. Materials compatible with space applications are evaluated for use as bistable mechanisms and prototypes are fabricated in three different materials. Pin-puller and cutter release mechanisms are proposed as potential space applications.

  11. Bistable Mechanisms for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A.; Tolman, Kyler A.; Trease, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Compliant bistable mechanisms are monolithic devices with two stable equilibrium positions separated by an unstable equilibrium position. They show promise in space applications as nonexplosive release mechanisms in deployment systems, thereby eliminating friction and improving the reliability and precision of those mechanical devices. This paper presents both analytical and numerical models that are used to predict bistable behavior and can be used to create bistable mechanisms in materials not previously feasible for compliant mechanisms. Materials compatible with space applications are evaluated for use as bistable mechanisms and prototypes are fabricated in three different materials. Pin-puller and cutter release mechanisms are proposed as potential space applications. PMID:28030588

  12. High Power, Repetitive, Stacked Blumlein Pulse Generators Commuted by a Single Switching Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawalkar, Jayant Dilip

    In this work, the stacked Blumlein pulsers developed at the University of Texas at Dallas were characterized and shown to be versatile sources of pulse power for a variety of applications. These devices consisted of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines were charged in parallel and synchronously commuted repetitively with a single switching element at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages were multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load without the need for complex Marx bank circuitry. Several pulser parameters such as the number of stacked Blumlein lines, line configuration, type of switching element, and the length of the lines, were varied and the waveform characteristics were observed and analyzed. It was shown that these devices are capable of generating fast rising waveforms with a wide range of peak voltage and current values. The generation of high power waveforms with pulse durations in the range of 80-600 ns was demonstrated without degradation of the voltage gains. The results of this work indicated that unlike generators based on stacked transmission lines, the effects of parasitic modes were not appreciable for the stacked Blumlein pulsers. Opportunities for tactically packaging these pulsers were also investigated and a significant reduction in their size and weight was demonstrated. For this, dielectric lifetime and Blumlein spacing studies were performed on small scale prototypes. In addition to production of intense X-ray pulses, the possible applications for these novel pulsers include driving magnetrons for high power microwave generation, pumping laser media, or powering e-beam diodes. They could also serve as compact, tabletop sources of high power pulses for various research experiments.

  13. Bistable near field and bistable transmittance in 2D composite slab consisting of nonlocal core-Kerr shell inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Wu, Ya Min; Gao, Lei

    2017-01-23

    We carry out a theoretical study on optical bistability of near field intensity and transmittance in two-dimensional nonlinear composite slab. This kind of 2D composite is composed of nonlocal metal/Kerr-type dielectric core-shell inclusions randomly embedded in the host medium, and we derivate the nonlinear relation between the field intensity in the shell of inclusions and the incident field intensity with self-consistent mean field approximation. Numerical demonstration has been performed to show the viable parameter space for the bistable near field. We show that nonlocality can provide broader region in geometric parameter space for bistable near field as well as bistable transmittance of the nonlocal composite slab compared to local case. Furthermore, we investigate the bistable transmittance in wavelength spectrum, and find that besides the input intensity, the wavelength operation could as well make the transmittance jump from a high value to a low one. This kind of self-tunable nano-composite slab might have potential application in optical switching devices.

  14. On the bistable zone of milling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

    2015-09-28

    A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Distributed processing in bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, T.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    A very incisive way of studying visual awareness and the mechanisms that underlie it, it to use bistable perception. In bistable perception, an observer's perceptual state alternates between one interpretation and its mutually exclusive counterpart while the stimulus remains the same. This gives us

  16. The Independent and Shared Mechanisms of Intrinsic Brain Dynamics: Insights From Bistable Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Cao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In bistable perception, constant input leads to alternating perception. The dynamics of the changing perception reflects the intrinsic dynamic properties of the “unconscious inferential” process in the brain. Under the same condition, individuals differ in how fast they experience the perceptual alternation. In this study, testing many forms of bistable perception in a large number of observers, we investigated the key question of whether there is a general and common mechanism or multiple and independent mechanisms that control the dynamics of the inferential brain. Bistable phenomena tested include binocular rivalry, vase-face, Necker cube, moving plaid, motion induced blindness, biological motion, spinning dancer, rotating cylinder, Lissajous-figure, rolling wheel, and translating diamond. Switching dynamics for each bistable percept was measured in 100 observers. Results show that the switching rates of subsets of bistable percept are highly correlated. The clustering of dynamic properties of some bistable phenomena but not an overall general control of switching dynamics implies that the brain’s inferential processes are both shared and independent – faster in constructing 3D structure from motion does not mean faster in integrating components into an objects.

  17. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8-11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.

  18. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eDörrenbächer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8 to 11 years of age. We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/ single-task training vs high-demanding/ task-switching training as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/ without video-game elements vs high-motivational/ with video-game elements separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement. However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement, the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing. Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.

  19. Circular magnetic bistability in Co-rich amorphous microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizhik, A; Gonzalez, J; Zhukov, A; Blanco, J M

    2003-01-01

    Circular magnetic bistability associated with a large Barkhausen jump between two states with opposite directions of circular magnetization have been observed by magneto-optical Kerr effect in nearly-zero magnetostrictive glass covered Co-rich amorphous microwire. The influence of external axial tensile stress on the circular switching field has been studied. Observed results have been related with a circular magneto-elastic anisotropy induced by a tensile stress in the outer transversally magnetized shell of the microwire

  20. Optimization of Bistable Viscoelastic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    driving pressure corresponding to the point of bistability, such that the effect is enhanced. The point of bistability is, however, not explicitly contained in the solution, so we opt for a heuristic approach based on the dissipation ratio between the asymmetric and unstable symmetric flow solutions. We...... find a design that significantly reduces the driving pressure required for bistability, and furthermore is in agreement with the approach followed by experimental researchers. Furthermore, by comparing the two asymmetric solutions, we succesfully apply the same approach to a problem with two fluids...

  1. Bistable amphoteric centers in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitina, A. G.; Zuev, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that, at thermodynamic equilibrium, the release of charge carriers from the localized states of bistable amphoteric centers into quasi-free states depends on the degree of compensation. This brings about different functional dependences of the concentration of free charge carriers on temperature. It is found that, in uncompensated semiconductors, the concentration of free charge carriers follows the same dependence in the case of bistable amphoteric centers and bistable amphoteric U - centers, although the distributions of charge carriers over the charge states and configurations are different for these types of centers. The results can be used for interpreting various experimental data insufficiently explained in the context of the traditional approach

  2. A hierarchical stochastic model for bistable perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Albert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Viewing of ambiguous stimuli can lead to bistable perception alternating between the possible percepts. During continuous presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur as single events, whereas during intermittent presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur at more or less regular intervals either as single events or bursts. Response patterns can be highly variable and have been reported to show systematic differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Existing models of bistable perception often use detailed assumptions and large parameter sets which make parameter estimation challenging. Here we propose a parsimonious stochastic model that provides a link between empirical data analysis of the observed response patterns and detailed models of underlying neuronal processes. Firstly, we use a Hidden Markov Model (HMM for the times between percept changes, which assumes one single state in continuous presentation and a stable and an unstable state in intermittent presentation. The HMM captures the observed differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, but remains descriptive. Therefore, we secondly propose a hierarchical Brownian model (HBM, which produces similar response patterns but also provides a relation to potential underlying mechanisms. The main idea is that neuronal activity is described as an activity difference between two competing neuronal populations reflected in Brownian motions with drift. This differential activity generates switching between the two conflicting percepts and between stable and unstable states with similar mechanisms on different neuronal levels. With only a small number of parameters, the HBM can be fitted closely to a high variety of response patterns and captures group differences between healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. At the same time, it provides a link to mechanistic models of bistable perception, linking the group

  3. A hierarchical stochastic model for bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Stefan; Schmack, Katharina; Sterzer, Philipp; Schneider, Gaby

    2017-11-01

    Viewing of ambiguous stimuli can lead to bistable perception alternating between the possible percepts. During continuous presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur as single events, whereas during intermittent presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur at more or less regular intervals either as single events or bursts. Response patterns can be highly variable and have been reported to show systematic differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Existing models of bistable perception often use detailed assumptions and large parameter sets which make parameter estimation challenging. Here we propose a parsimonious stochastic model that provides a link between empirical data analysis of the observed response patterns and detailed models of underlying neuronal processes. Firstly, we use a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for the times between percept changes, which assumes one single state in continuous presentation and a stable and an unstable state in intermittent presentation. The HMM captures the observed differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, but remains descriptive. Therefore, we secondly propose a hierarchical Brownian model (HBM), which produces similar response patterns but also provides a relation to potential underlying mechanisms. The main idea is that neuronal activity is described as an activity difference between two competing neuronal populations reflected in Brownian motions with drift. This differential activity generates switching between the two conflicting percepts and between stable and unstable states with similar mechanisms on different neuronal levels. With only a small number of parameters, the HBM can be fitted closely to a high variety of response patterns and captures group differences between healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. At the same time, it provides a link to mechanistic models of bistable perception, linking the group differences to

  4. A Miniature Coupled Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Arthur, D C; Beeby, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and test of a miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester. Operation of a bistable structure largely depends on vibration amplitude rather than frequency, which makes it very promising for wideband vibration energy harvesting applications. A coupled bistable structure consists of a pair of mobile magnets that create two potential wells and thus the bistable phenomenon. It requires lower excitation to trigger bistable operation compared to conventional bistable structures. Based on previous research, this work focused on miniaturisation of the coupled bistable structure for energy harvesting application. The proposed bistable energy harvester is a combination of a Duffing's nonlinear structure and a linear assisting resonator. Experimental results show that the output spectrum of the miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester was the superposition of several spectra. It had a higher maximum output power and a much greater bandwidth compared to simply the Duffing's structure without the assisting resonator

  5. Bistable gradient networks. II. Storage capacity and behavior near saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Patrick N.; Menzinger, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We examine numerically the storage capacity and the behavior near saturation of an attractor neural network consisting of bistable elements with an adjustable coupling strength, the bistable gradient network. For strong coupling, we find evidence of a first-order “memory blackout” phase transition, as in the Hopfield network. For weak coupling, on the other hand, there is no evidence of such a transition and memorized patterns can be stable even at high levels of loading. The enhanced storage capacity comes, however, at the cost of imperfect retrieval of the patterns from corrupted versions.

  6. Numerical and experimental study of bistable plates for morphing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, F.; Scarselli, G.; Avanzini, G.; Del Core, G.

    2017-04-01

    This study is concerned with the activation energy threshold of bistable composite plates in order to tailor a bistable system for specific aeronautical applications. The aim is to explore potential configurations of the bistable plates and their dynamic behavior for designing novel morphing structure suitable for aerodynamic surfaces and, as a possible further application, for power harvesters. Bistable laminates have two stable mechanical shapes that can withstand aerodynamic loads without additional constraint forces or locking mechanisms. This kind of structures, when properly loaded, snap-through from one stable configuration to another, causing large strains that can also be used for power harvesting scopes. The transition between the stable states of the composite laminate can be triggered, in principle, simply by aerodynamic loads (pilot, disturbance or passive inputs) without the need of servo-activated control systems. Both numerical simulations based on Finite Element models and experimental testing based on different activating forcing spectra are used to validate this concept. The results show that dynamic activation of bistable plates depend on different parameters that need to be carefully managed for their use as aircraft passive wing flaps.

  7. A bistable mechanism for chord extension morphing rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Terrence; Frecker, Mary; Gandhi, Farhan

    2009-03-01

    Research efforts have shown that helicopter rotor blade morphing is an effective means to improve flight performance. Previous example of rotor blade morphing include using smart-materials for trailing deflection and rotor blade twist and tip twist, the development of a comfortable airfoil using compliant mechanisms, the use of a Gurney flap for air-flow deflection and centrifugal force actuated device to increase the span of the blade. In this paper we explore the use of a bistable mechanism for rotor morphing, specifically, blade chord extension using a bistable arc. Increasing the chord of the rotor blade is expected to generate more lift-load and improve helicopter performance. Bistable or "snap through" mechanisms have multiple stable equilibrium states and are a novel way to achieve large actuation output stroke. Bistable mechanisms do not require energy input to maintain a stable equilibrium state as both states do not require locking. In this work, we introduce a methodology for the design of bistable arcs for chord morphing using the finite element analysis and pseudo-rigid body model, to study the effect of different arc types, applied loads and rigidity on arc performance.

  8. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2013-11-26

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  9. Multichannel all–optical switch based on a thin slab of resonant two–level emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikov Ramil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility of using a thin layer of inhomogeneously broadened resonant emitters as a multichannel all–optical switch. Switching time from the lower stable branch of the system's bistable characteristics to the upper one and vice versa, which determines the speed of operation of a bistable device, is studied.

  10. Dynamics and control of twisting bi-stable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Andres F.; van Gemmeren, Valentin; Anderson, Aaron J.; Weaver, Paul M.

    2018-02-01

    Compliance-based morphing structures have the potential to offer large shape adaptation, high stiffness and low weight, while reducing complexity, friction, and scalability problems of mechanism based systems. A promising class of structure that enables these characteristics are multi-stable structures given their ability to exhibit large deflections and rotations without the expensive need for continuous actuation, with the latter only required intermittently. Furthermore, multi-stable structures exhibit inherently fast response due to the snap-through instability governing changes between stable states, enabling rapid configuration switching between the discrete number of programmed shapes of the structure. In this paper, the design and utilisation of the inherent nonlinear dynamics of bi-stable twisting I-beam structures for actuation with low strain piezoelectric materials is presented. The I-beam structure consists of three compliant components assembled into a monolithic single element, free of moving parts, and showing large deflections between two stable states. Finite element analysis is utilised to uncover the distribution of strain across the width of the flange, guiding the choice of positioning for piezoelectric actuators. In addition, the actuation authority is maximised by calculating the generalised coupling coefficient for different positions of the piezoelectric actuators. The results obtained are employed to tailor and test I-beam designs exhibiting desired large deflection between stable states, while still enabling the activation of snap-through with the low strain piezoelectric actuators. To this end, the dynamic response of the I-beams to piezoelectric excitation is investigated, revealing that resonant excitations are insufficient to dynamically trigger snap-through. A novel bang-bang control strategy, which exploits the nonlinear dynamics of the structure successfully triggers both single and constant snap-through between the stable states

  11. Single coil bistable, bidirectional micromechanical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabat, Ned; Guckel, Henry

    1998-09-15

    Micromechanical actuators capable of bidirectional and bistable operation can be formed on substrates using lithographic processing techniques. Bistable operation of the microactuator is obtained using a single coil and a magnetic core with a gap. A plunger having two magnetic heads is supported for back and forth linear movement with respect to the gap in the magnetic core, and is spring biased to a neutral position in which the two heads are on each side of the gap in the core. The single electrical coil is coupled to the core and is provided with electrical current to attract one of the heads toward the core by reluctance action to drive the plunger to a limit of travel in one direction. The current is then cut off and the plunger returns by spring action toward the gap, whereafter the current is reapplied to the coil to attract the other head of the plunger by reluctance action to drive the plunger to its other limit of travel. This process can be repeated at a time when switching of the actuator is required.

  12. Biomechanical Effects of Platform Switching in Two Different Implant Systems: A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasti Sahabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of platform switching on stress distribution of two different implant systems, using three-dimensional (3D finite element models.Methods: Six 3D finite element models were created to replicate two different implant systems with peri-implant bone tissue, in which six different implant-abutment configurations were represented: model XiVE-a: 3.8-mm-diameter implant and 3.8-mm-diameter abutment; model XiVE-b (platform-switching model: 4.5-mm-diameter implant and 3.8-mm-diameter abutment; model XiVE-c: 4.5-mm-diameter implant and 4.5-mm-diameter abutment; model 3i-a: 4.0-mm-diameter implant and 4.1-mm-diameter abutment; model 3i-b (platform-switching model: 5.0-mm-diameter implant and 4.1-mm-diameter abutment; model 3i-c: 5.0-mm-diameter implant and 5.0-mm-diameter abutment. Axial and oblique loads of 100 were applied to all models.Results: While the pattern of stress distribution was similar for both loading situations, oblique loading resulted in higher intensity and greater distribution of stress than axial loading in both cortical bone and abutment-implant interface. Stress distribution at peri-implant bone was almost identical with similar magnitudes for all six models. In both implant systems, platform switching models demonstrated lower maximum von Mises stress in cortical bone than conventional models. However, in both implant systems and under both loading situation, platform switching models showed higher stresses at the abutment-implant interface than conventional models.Conclusion: In both implant systems, platform switching design reduced the stress concentration in the crestal bone and shifted it towards the area of implant-abutment interface

  13. Bias-dependent interface roughening and its effect on electric bistability of organic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Q.; Ye, F. F.; Li, W. B.; Chen, X. Q.; Yu, H. M.; Yang, X. J.; Hou, X. Y.; You, Y. T.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy are used to study morphological and compositional variations of metal-organic interfaces in organic bistable devices. The results show that bias voltage causes rougher interfaces with new protrusions, and the switching phenomena origins from the evolution of these protrusions under external electric field. In order to exclude other possible factors, three types of bistable devices are designed and examined. In addition, metal-coated AFM probes are utilized to simulate the switching process, which yields similar results and corroborates our conclusion

  14. Bias-dependent interface roughening and its effect on electric bistability of organic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Q.; Ye, F. F.; Li, W. B.; Chen, X. Q.; Yu, H. M.; Yang, X. J.; Hou, X. Y., E-mail: xyhou@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education) and State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); You, Y. T. [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Department of Microelectronics, SIST, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-01-06

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy are used to study morphological and compositional variations of metal-organic interfaces in organic bistable devices. The results show that bias voltage causes rougher interfaces with new protrusions, and the switching phenomena origins from the evolution of these protrusions under external electric field. In order to exclude other possible factors, three types of bistable devices are designed and examined. In addition, metal-coated AFM probes are utilized to simulate the switching process, which yields similar results and corroborates our conclusion.

  15. Random telegraphic voltage noise due to thermal bi-stability in a superconducting weak link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sourav; Kumar, Nikhil; Winkelmann, C. B.; Courtois, Herve; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the random telegraphic voltage noise signal in the hysteretic bi-stable state of a superconducting weak link device. Fluctuation induced random switching between zero voltage state and non-zero-voltage state gives rise to a random telegraphic voltage signal in time domain. This telegraphic noise is used to find the mean lifetime of each of the two states. The mean life time in the zero voltage state is found to decrease with increasing bias current while that of resistive state increases and thus the two cross at certain bias current. We qualitatively discuss this observed switching behavior as arising from the bi-stable nature.

  16. Bistable output from a coupled-resonator vertical-cavity laser diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A. J.; Choquette, K. D.; Chow, W. W.; Allerman, A. A.; Geib, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report a monolithic coupled-resonator vertical-cavity laser with an ion-implanted top cavity and a selectively oxidized bottom cavity which exhibits bistable behavior in the light output versus injection current. Large bistability regions over current ranges as wide as 18 mA have been observed with on/off contrast ratios of greater than 20 dB. The position and width of the bistability region can be varied by changing the bias to the top cavity. Switching between on and off states can be accomplished with changes as small as 250 μW to the electrical power applied to the top cavity. The bistable behavior is the response of the nonlinear susceptibility in the top cavity to the changes in the bottom intracavity laser intensity as the bottom cavity reaches the thermal rollover point

  17. Harnessing the bistable composite shells to design a tunable phononic band gap structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanlong

    2018-02-01

    By proposing a system composed of an array of bistable composite shells immersed in air, we develop a new class of periodic structure to control the propagation of sound. Through numerical investigation, we find that the acoustic band gap of this system can be switched on and off by triggering the snap through deformation of the bistable composite shells. The shape of cross section and filling fraction of unit cell can be altered by different number of bistable composite shells, and they have strong impact on the position and width of the band gap. The proposed concept paves the way of using the bistable structures to design a new class of metamaterials that can be enable to manipulate sound.

  18. Bistable Output from a Coupled-Resonator Vertical-Cavity Laser Diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; CHOW,WENG W.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; GEIB,KENT M.

    2000-07-20

    The authors report a monolithic coupled-resonator vertical-cavity laser with an ion-implanted top cavity and a selectively oxidized bottom cavity which exhibits bistable behavior in the light output versus injection current. Large bistability regions over current ranges as wide as 18 mA have been observed with on/off contrast ratios of greater than 20 dB. The position and width of the bistability region can be varied by changing the bias to the top cavity. Switching between on and off states can be accomplished with changes as small as 250 {micro}W to the electrical power applied to the top cavity. Theoretical analysis suggests that the bistable behavior is the response of the nonlinear susceptibility in the top cavity to the changes in the bottom intracavity laser intensity as the bottom cavity reaches the thermal rollover point.

  19. Temporal nonlocality in bistable perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    A novel conceptual framework for theoretical psychology is presented and illustrated for the example of bistable perception. A basic formal feature of this framework is the non-commutativity of operations acting on mental states. A corresponding model for the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli, the Necker-Zeno model, is sketched and some empirical evidence for it so far is described. It is discussed how a temporal nonlocality of mental states, predicted by the model, can be understood and tested.

  20. Bistable minimum energy structures (BiMES) for binary robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follador, M; Conn, A T; Rossiter, J

    2015-01-01

    Bistable minimum energy structures (BiMES) are devices derived from the union of the concepts of dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures and bistable systems. This article presents this novel approach to active, elastic and bistable structures. BiMES are based on dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), which act as antagonists and provide the actuation for switching between the two equilibrium positions. A central elastic beam is the backbone of the structure and is buckled into the minimum energy configurations by the action of the two DEAs. The theory and the model of the device are presented, and also its fabrication process. BiMES are considered as fundamental units for more complex structures, which are presented and fabricated as proof of concept. Two different ways of combining the multiple units are proposed: a parallel configuration, to make a simple gripper, and a serial configuration, to generate a binary device. The possibility of using the bistable system as a continuous bender actuator, by modulating the actuation voltage of the two DEAs, was also investigated. (paper)

  1. Unstable Modes and Order Parameters of Bistable Signaling Pathways at Saddle-Node Bifurcations: A Theoretical Study Based on Synergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D. Frank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling has become an indispensable part of systems biology which is a discipline that has become increasingly popular in recent years. In this context, our understanding of bistable signaling pathways in terms of mathematical modeling is of particular importance because such bistable components perform crucial functions in living cells. Bistable signaling pathways can act as switches or memory functions and can determine cell fate. In the present study, properties of mathematical models of bistable signaling pathways are examined from the perspective of synergetics, a theory of self-organization and pattern formation founded by Hermann Haken. At the heart of synergetics is the concept of so-called unstable modes or order parameters that determine the behavior of systems as a whole close to bifurcation points. How to determine these order parameters for bistable signaling pathways at saddle-node bifurcation points is shown. The procedure is outlined in general and an explicit example is worked out in detail.

  2. Electron transfer dynamics of bistable single-molecule junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danilov, A.V; Kubatkin, S.; Kafanov, S. G.

    2006-01-01

    We present transport measurements of single-molecule junctions bridged by a molecule with three benzene rings connected by two double bonds and with thiol end-groups that allow chemical binding to gold electrodes. The I-V curves show switching behavior between two distinct states. By statistical ...... analysis of the switching events, we show that a 300 meV mode mediates the transition between the two states. We propose that breaking and reformation of a S-H bond in the contact zone between molecule and electrode explains the observed bistability....

  3. Optical bistability in electrically coupled SOA-BJT devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gehl, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2010-06-01

    A novel optical bistable device based on an electrically coupled semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a bipolar juncture transistor (BJT) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The measured switching time is about 0.9-1.0 us, mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the SOA and the parasitic inductance of the electrical connections. However, the effects of parasitic components can be reduced employing current electronic-photonic integration circuits (EPIC). Numerical simulations confirm that for capacitance values in tens of femtofarads switching speed can reach tens of GHz.

  4. Bistable dynamics of a levitated nanoparticle (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Francesco; Spasenovic, M.; Rica, Raúl A.; Novotny, Lukas; Quidant, Romain

    2015-08-01

    Bistable systems are ubiquitous in nature. Classical examples in chemistry and biology include relaxation kinetics in chemical reactions [1] and stochastic resonance processes such as neuron firing [2,3]. Likewise, bistable systems play a key role in signal processing and information handling at the nanoscale, giving rise to intriguing applications such as optical switches [4], coherent signal amplification [5,6] and weak forces detection [5]. The interest and applicability of bistable systems are intimately connected with the complexity of their dynamics, typically due to the presence of a large number of parameters and nonlinearities. Appropriate modeling is therefore challenging. Alternatively, the possibility to experimentally recreate bistable systems in a clean and controlled way has recently become very appealing, but elusive and complicated. With this aim, we combined optical tweezers with a novel active feedback-cooling scheme to develop a well-defined opto-mechanical platform reaching unprecedented performances in terms of Q-factor, frequency stability and force sensitivity [7,8]. Our experimental system consists of a single nanoparticle levitated in high vacuum with optical tweezers, which behaves as a non-linear (Duffing) oscillator under appropriate conditions. Here, we prove it to be an ideal tool for a deep study of bistability. We demonstrate bistability of the nanoparticle by noise activated switching between two oscillation states, discussing our results in terms of a double-well potential model. We also show the flexibility of our system in shaping the potential at will, in order to meet the conditions prescribed by any bistable system that could therefore then be simulated with our setup. References [1] T. Amemiya, T. Ohmori, M. Nakaiwa, T. Yamamoto, and T. Yamaguchi, "Modeling of Nonlinear Chemical Reaction Systems and Two-Parameter Stochastic Resonance," J. Biol. Phys. 25 (1999) 73 [2] F. Moss, L. M. Ward, and W. G. Sannita, "Stochastic

  5. Design and finite element method analysis of laterally actuated multi-value nano electromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Kloub, Hussam

    2011-09-01

    We report on the design and modeling of novel nano electromechanical switches suitable for implementing reset/set flip-flops, AND, NOR, and XNOR Boolean functions. Multiple logic operations can be implemented using only one switching action enabling parallel data processing; a feature that renders this design competitive with complementary metal oxide semiconductor and superior to conventional nano-electromechanical switches in terms of functionality per device footprint. The structural architecture of the newly designed switch consists of a pinned flexural beam structure which allows low strain lateral actuation for enhanced mechanical integrity. Reliable control of on-state electrical current density is achieved through the use of metal-metal contacts, true parallel beam deflection, and lithographically defined contact area to prevent possible device welding. Dynamic response as a function of device dimensions numerically investigated using ANSYS and MatLab Simulink. © 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  6. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, G.J.; Tong, F.; Hagoort, P.; van Ee, R.

    2009-01-01

    We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability

  7. GABA shapes the dynamics of bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.M.; Knapen, T.; Scholte, H.S.; St. John-Saaltink, E.; Donner, T.H.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Sometimes, perception fluctuates spontaneously between two distinct interpretations of a constant sensory input. These bistable perceptual phenomena provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms that create the contents of conscious perception. Models of bistable perception posit that mutual

  8. Comparison of strain generated in bone by "platform-switched" and "non-platform-switched" implants with straight and angulated abutments under vertical and angulated load: A finite element analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microstrain exhibited by bone around immediately loaded, platform-switched, and non-platform-switched implants under vertical and angled loading using a finite element analysis (FEA and also to evaluate whether platform-switched implants evoke a better response than non-platform-switched implants on a mechanical basis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element study was undertaken to model and analyze an immediate loaded situation. FEA was chosen for this study since it is useful in determining the stress and strain around the dental implant. Bone responses to vertical and angulated loads on straight and angulated abutments (platform-switched and non-platform-switched abutments were evaluated. Results: Non-platform-switched abutments tend to exhibit a lower tensile stress and compressive stress but higher microstrain value (conducive to higher chance of bone resorption than platform-switched abutments. Ideal bone remodeling values of microstrain (50-3000 μϵ were exhibited by platform-switched straight abutments under vertical load and angled load (with an abutment-implant diameter difference of 1 mm. Conclusion: In spite of the obvious advantages, the practice of immediate loading is limited due to apprehension associated with compromised bone response and a higher rate of bone loss around an immediately loaded implant. The mechanical basis for the concept of "platform switching" in immediately loaded situation is analyzed in this context. The results of this limited investigation indicated that the ideal values of microstrain (50-3000 microstrain can be exhibited by platform switching of dental implants (with an abutment-implant diameter difference of 1 mm and can be considered as a better alternative for prevention of crestal bone loss when compared to non-platform-switched implants.

  9. Optical Bistability For Optical Signal Processing And Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyghambarian, N.; Gibbs, H. M.

    1985-02-01

    In this paper we present the basic principles of optical bistability and summarize the current advances in semiconductor optical switching, with emphasis on recent results in GaAs, CuCI, InAs, InSb, CdS, ZnS, and ZnSe etalons. These devices have great potential for applications involving optical signal processing and computing. As an example, we discuss the use of arrays of bistable devices for parallel optical processing and for addressable spatial light modulators. The use of nonlinear etalons as optical gates is also illustrated. To date, GaAs devices have shown the most favorable characteristics for practical applications. They operate at room temperature with a few milliwatts of power using a laser diode as the only light source. Quasi-cw operation and optical fiber signal regeneration have also been demonstrated. A GaAs NOR gate operates in 1 ps with <3 pJ incident energy; this, of course, implies a 1 ps switch-on time for a bistable etalon.

  10. Control of optical bistability and third-order nonlinearity via tunneling induced quantum interference in triangular quantum dot molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Si-Cong, E-mail: tiansicong@ciomp.ac.cn; Tong, Cun-Zhu, E-mail: tongcz@ciomp.ac.cn; Zhang, Jin-Long; Shan, Xiao-Nan; Fu, Xi-Hong; Zeng, Yu-Gang; Qin, Li; Ning, Yong-Qiang [State Key laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Wan, Ren-Gang [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The optical bistability of a triangular quantum dot molecules embedded inside a unidirectional ring cavity is studied. The type, the threshold and the hysteresis loop of the optical bistability curves can be modified by the tunneling parameters, as well as the probe laser field. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the medium are also studied to interpret the corresponding results. The physical interpretation is that the tunneling can induce the quantum interference, which modifies the linear and the nonlinear response of the medium. As a consequence, the characteristics of the optical bistability are changed. The scheme proposed here can be utilized for optimizing and controlling the optical switching process.

  11. Control of optical bistability and third-order nonlinearity via tunneling induced quantum interference in triangular quantum dot molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Si-Cong; Tong, Cun-Zhu; Zhang, Jin-Long; Shan, Xiao-Nan; Fu, Xi-Hong; Zeng, Yu-Gang; Qin, Li; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Wan, Ren-Gang

    2015-01-01

    The optical bistability of a triangular quantum dot molecules embedded inside a unidirectional ring cavity is studied. The type, the threshold and the hysteresis loop of the optical bistability curves can be modified by the tunneling parameters, as well as the probe laser field. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the medium are also studied to interpret the corresponding results. The physical interpretation is that the tunneling can induce the quantum interference, which modifies the linear and the nonlinear response of the medium. As a consequence, the characteristics of the optical bistability are changed. The scheme proposed here can be utilized for optimizing and controlling the optical switching process

  12. The effect of platform switching on stress distribution in implants and periimplant bone studied by nonlinear finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyu; Tang, Chunbo; Yu, Jinhua; Dai, Wenyong; Bao, Yidong; Hu, Dan

    2014-11-01

    It is unknown whether dental implant systems with a platform-switched configuration have better periimplant bone stress distribution and lead to less periimplant bone level changes. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate interfacial stress and stress distribution in implant bone in 2 implant abutment designs (platform-switched design and conventional diameter matching) by using a nonlinear finite element analysis method. A finite element simulation study was applied to 2 commercially available dental implant systems: the Ankylos implant system with a reduced-diameter abutment (platform-switched implant) and the Anthogyr implant system with an abutment of the same diameter (regular platform implant). These 2 dental implant systems were positioned in a bone block, which was constructed based on a cross-sectional image of a human mandible in the molar region. In simulation, a single vertical load of 50 N, 100 N, or 150 N and horizontal loads of 50 N and 100 N were applied to the occlusal surface of the abutment. The finite element analysis found that the Ankylos implant system has a higher maximum von Mises stress in the implant abutment connection section and a lower maximum von Mises stress in the periimplant bone. The opposite results were found in the Anthogyr implant system. Lower stress levels in the periimplant bone with a more uniform stress distribution were found for the Ankylos implant system with a platform-switched configuration. Although relatively higher stress was found in the abutment, premature implant failure is not anticipated because of the high strength of titanium alloy. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-resolution bistable nematic liquid crystal device realized on orientational surface patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yoneya, Makoto; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The four-fold symmetry of a checkerboard-like surface alignment consisted of square domains arrived at the macroscopic orientational bistability of nematic liquid crystals. Switching between the two orientations took place with an appropriate electric field. Here the threshold field of bistable switching decreased as temperature increased, and the light could heat only the selected region in the cell including a light-absorbing medium. Irradiating the laser concurrently with an electric field, we addressed a selected region in the alignment pattern without the disturbance of neighboring regions. Extending this process, we realized an extremely fine bistable device of nematic liquid crystal with a pixel size down to about 2 μm

  14. Optical bistability and optical response of an infrared quantum dot hybridized to VO2 nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Naser; Hatef, Ali; Nadgaran, Hamid; Keshavarz, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we theoretically investigate optical bistability and optical response of a hybrid system consisting of semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) coupled with a vanadium dioxide nanoparticle (VO2NP) in the infrared (IR) regime. The VO2 material exists in semiconductor and metallic phases below and above the critical temperature, respectively where the particle optical properties dramatically change during this phase transition. In our calculations a filling fraction factor controls the VO2NP phase transition when the hybrid system interacts with a laser field. We demonstrate that the switch-up threshold for optical bistability is strongly controlled by filling fraction without changing the structure of the hybrid system. Also, it is shown that, the threshold of optical bistability increases when the VO2NP phases changes from semiconductor to metallic phase. The presented results have the potential to be applied in designing optical switching and optical storage.

  15. Optical bistability controlling light with light

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbs, Hyatt

    1985-01-01

    Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light focuses on optical bistability in nonlinear optical systems. Emphasis is on passive (non-laser) systems that exhibit reversible bistability with input intensity as the hysteresis variable, along with the physics and the potential applications of such systems for nonlinear optical signal processing. This book consists of seven chapters and begins with a historical overview of optical bistability in lasers and passive systems. The next chapter describes steady-state theories of optical bistability, including the Bonifacio-Lugiato model, as we

  16. Protective systems and its protective switching elements on local failures of large slow-capacitor bank system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Mitsuo; Inoue, Kunikazu; Ueno, Isao.

    1994-01-01

    In various applications of pulsed power technologies, large capacitor bank systems are used to feed high current impulse to different experimental devices. The accidental electric breakdown in one of the capacitors in a parallel connection of the large bank may result in serious damages such as mechanical explosion and oil effusion or fire. In most fast banks, each unit capacitor has an output gap switch, which is expected to decouple the capacitors one another. However, no such special element is adopted usually in the slow bank system, partly because of the economical consideration. We have developed a novel and inexpensive protective element for these relatively slow capacitor banks, utilizing a concept of the enclosed type of the fast breakers. The principle of the operation of the protection elements is verified by a simulation experiment. Their practical effectiveness is also successfully demonstrated in the application to the system of the pulsed high magnetic field generator. (author)

  17. Bistable microvalve and microcatheter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Kirk Patrick

    2003-05-20

    A bistable microvalve of shape memory material is operatively connected to a microcatheter. The bistable microvalve includes a tip that can be closed off until it is in the desired position. Once it is in position it can opened and closed. The system uses heat and pressure to open and close the microvalve. The shape memory material will change stiffness and shape when heated above a transition temperature. The shape memory material is adapted to move from a first shape to a second shape, either open or closed, where it can perform a desired function.

  18. Photonic crystal Fano resonances for realizing optical switches, lasers and non-reciprocal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu; Yu, Yi; Hu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    We present our work on photonic crystal membrane devices exploiting Fano resonance between a line-defect waveguide and a side coupled nanocavity. Experimental demonstration of fast and compact all-optical switches for wavelength-conversion is reported. It is shown how the use of an asymmetric str...

  19. Investigation of bistable perception with the "silhouette spinner": sit still, spin the dancer with your will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Hsuan; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Hung, Daisy L; Tseng, Philip; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have used static and non-biologically related stimuli to investigate bistable perception and found that the percept is usually dominated by their intrinsic nature with some influence of voluntary control from the viewer. Here we used a dynamic stimulus of a rotating human body, the silhouette spinner illusion, to investigate how the viewers' intentions may affect their percepts. In two experiments, we manipulated observer intention (active or passive), fixation position (body or feet), and spinning velocity (fast, medium, or slow). Our results showed that the normalized alternating rate between two bistable percepts was greater when (1) participants actively attempted to switch percepts, (2) when participants fixated at the spinner's feet rather than the body, inducing as many as 25 switches of the bistable percepts within 1 min, and (3) when they watched the spinner at high velocity. These results suggest that a dynamic biologically-bistable percept can be quickly alternated by the viewers' intention. Furthermore, the higher alternating rate in the feet condition compared to the body condition suggests a role for biological meaningfulness in determining bistable percepts, where 'biologically plausible' interpretations are favored by the visual system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Method of bistable optical information storage using antiferroelectric phase PLZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Cecil E.

    1990-01-01

    A method for bistable storage of binary optical information includes an antiferroelectric (AFE) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) layer having a stable antiferroelectric first phase and a ferroelectric (FE) second phase obtained by applying a switching electric field across the surface of the device. Optical information is stored by illuminating selected portions of the layer to photoactivate an FE to AFE transition in those portions. Erasure of the stored information is obtained by reapplying the switching field.

  1. Extensively Reversible Thermal Transformations of a Bistable, Fluorescence-Switchable Molecular Solid: Entry into Functional Molecular Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srujana, P; Radhakrishnan, T P

    2015-06-15

    Functional phase-change materials (PCMs) are conspicuously absent among molecular materials in which the various attributes of inorganic solids have been realized. While organic PCMs are primarily limited to thermal storage systems, the amorphous-crystalline transformation of materials like Ge-Sb-Te find use in advanced applications such as information storage. Reversible amorphous-crystalline transformations in molecular solids require a subtle balance between robust supramolecular assembly and flexible structural elements. We report novel diaminodicyanoquinodimethanes that achieve this transformation by interlinked helical assemblies coupled with conformationally flexible alkoxyalkyl chains. They exhibit highly reversible thermal transformations between bistable (crystalline/amorphous) forms, along with a prominent switching of the fluorescence emission energy and intensity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  3. Innovative Energy Harvester Design Using Bistable Mechanism With Compensational Springs In Gravity Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskyi, Bogdan; Parrain, Fabien; Lefeuvre, Elie; Aubry, Denis; Gaucher, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the presented work is to introduce the novel design of electrostatic energy harvester using bistable mechanism with compensational springs in gravity field capable of providing the output of several μW under the excitation of extremely small amplitude (up to 0.2g) and low frequency (10-100Hz). Presented energy harvester uses the bistable hysteresis modification to achieve low-frequency low-amplitude sensibility. It was demonstrated with finite element modelling (FEM) that hysteresis width produced by bistability is changing with a constant linear coefficient as a function of a compensational spring stiffness and thus a device sensitivity could be adjusted to the minimum point for the amplitude of external excitation. Further, highly non-linear bistable double curved beam mechanism assures the high sensitivity in frequencial domain due to the non-defined bandwidth. The equivalent circuit technique is used for simulating the device performance. (paper)

  4. Controlling steady-state and dynamical properties of atomic optical bistability

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Amitabh

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theoretical and experimental studies of atomic optical bistability and multistability, and their dynamical properties in systems with two- and three-level inhomogeneously-broadened atoms inside an optical cavity. By making use of the modified linear absorption and dispersion, as well as the greatly enhanced nonlinearity in the three-level electromagnetically induced transparency system, the optical bistablity and efficient all-optical switching can be achieved at relatively low laser powers, which can be well controlled and manipulated. Un

  5. Thiol-modified MoS2 nanosheets as a functional layer for electrical bistable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guan; Tan, Fenxue; Lv, Bokun; Wu, Mengying; Wang, Ruiqi; Lu, Yue; Li, Xu; Li, Zhiqiang; Teng, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets have been synthesized by one-pot method using 1-ODT as sulfur source and surfactant. The structure, morphology and optical properties of samples were investigated by XRD, FTIR, Abs spectrum and TEM patterns. The XRD pattern indicated that the as-obtained MoS2 belong to hexagonal system. The as-obtained MoS2 nanosheets blending with PVK could be used to fabricate an electrically bistable devices through a simple spin-coating method and the device exhibited an obvious electrical bistability properties. The charge transport mechanism of the device was discussed based on the filamentary switching models.

  6. Bistability in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor inverter circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas L

    2005-09-01

    Radiofrequency signals can disrupt the operation of low frequency circuits. A digital inverter circuit would seem to be immune to such disruption, because its output state usually jumps abruptly between 0 and 5 V. Nevertheless, when driven with a high frequency signal, the inverter can have two coexisting stable states (which are not at 0 and 5 V). Slow switching between these states (by changing the rf signal) will produce a low frequency signal. I demonstrate the bistability in a circuit experiment and in a simple model of the circuit.

  7. Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S.S., E-mail: Shoukryhassan@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Manchester Metropolitan University, Dept. of Computing, Maths. and Digital Technology, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Sharaby, Y.A., E-mail: Yasser_Sharaby@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Ali, M.F.M., E-mail: dr.mona.fathy@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: ajoshi@eiu.edu [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.

  8. Controlling the optical bistability and transmission coefficient in a four-level atomic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Eslami-Majd, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    A novel four level atomic configuration is proposed for controlling the optical bistability and transmission coefficient with application on all-optical switching. Two circularly polarized components from a weak linearly-polarized probe beam are interacted separately by two transitions of this medium. A coherent coupling field has derived another atomic transition. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient of two orthogonally polarized beams at different frequencies can be achieved by adjusting the magnitude of the external magnetic field. It is found that the threshold of the optical bistability can be controlled by magnitude of the external magnetic field. Also, it is shown that optical bistability can be converted to optical multistability by switching the two orthogonally polarized beams. - Highlights: ► An inverted Y-type four level atomic system is proposed. ► Transmission coefficient can be controlled by a novel interesting parameter. ► Optical bistability and multistability can be achieved via external magnetic field. ► It is shown that our proposed model is suitable for all optical switching application.

  9. Design of a Clap Activated Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyi Stephen OLOKEDE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a clap activated switch device that will serve well in different phono-controlled applications, providing inexpensive key and at the same time flee from false triggering.This involves the design of various sages consisting of the pickup transducer, low frequency, audio low power and low noise amplifier, timer, bistable and switches. It also consists of special network components to prevent false triggering and ensure desired performance objectives. A decade counter IC serves the bistable function instead of flip-flop, special transistor and edge triggering network for low audio frequency.

  10. Switching sliding mode force tracking control of piezoelectric-hydraulic pump-based friction element actuation systems for automotive transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

    2009-08-01

    In this study, a nonlinear sliding-mode controller is designed for force tracking of a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (PHP)-based actuation system, which is developed to replace the current electro-hydraulic actuation systems for automatic transmission (AT) friction elements, such as band brakes or clutches. By utilizing the PHP, one can eliminate the various hydraulic components (oil pump, regulating valve and control valve) in current ATs and achieve a simpler configuration with more efficient operation. With the derived governing equation of motion of the PHP-based actuation system integrated with the friction element (band brake), a switching control law is synthesized based on the sliding-mode theory. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control law, its force tracking performance for the engagement of a friction element during an AT 1\\to 2 up-shift is examined experimentally. It is shown that one can successfully track the desired force trajectory for AT shift control with small tracking error. This study demonstrates the potential of the PHP as a new controllable actuation system for AT friction elements.

  11. A broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Beeby, S P

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure. Both analytical model and experimental results showed that the coupled bistable structure requires lower excitation force to trigger bistable operation than conventional bistable structures. A compact electromagnetic vibration energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure was implemented and tested. It was excited under white noise vibrations. Experimental results showed that the coupled bistable energy harvester can achieve bistable operation with lower excitation amplitude and generate more output power than both conventional bistable and linear energy harvesters under white noise excitation

  12. Bistability in a laser with injected signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorobantu, I.A.; Vlad, V.I.; Ursu, I.

    1987-04-01

    A unified description of bistability is given in free running lasers, optical bistable devices, ring lasers and lasers with an injected signal (LIS). A general review of laser instabilities is also presented in the frame of the theory of elementary catastrophes, emphasizing the apparence of higher order catastrophes in the case of a LIS suggesting thus a possibility to devise from first principles the whole hierarchy of laser instabilities. Experimental results on the bistability in the polarisation of LIS are also discussed. (authors)

  13. Bifurcation properties of nematic liquid crystals exposed to an electric field: Switchability, bistability, and multistability

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.

    2013-07-01

    Bistable liquid crystal displays (LCDs) offer the potential for considerable power savings compared with conventional (monostable) LCDs. The existence of two (or more) stable field-free states that are optically distinct means that contrast can be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine the basic physical principles involved in generating multiple stable states and the switching between these states. We consider a two-dimensional geometry in which variable surface anchoring conditions are used to control the steady-state solutions and explore how different anchoring conditions can influence the number and type of solutions and whether or not switching is possible between the states. We find a wide range of possible behaviors, including bistability, tristability, and tetrastability, and investigate how the solution landscape changes as the boundary conditions are tuned. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  14. Towards an optimal model for a bistable nematic liquid crystal display device

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.

    2013-03-13

    Bistable liquid crystal displays offer the potential for considerable power savings compared with conventional (monostable) LCDs. The existence of two stable field-free states that are optically distinct means that contrast can be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine a theoretical model of a possible bistable device, originally proposed by Cummings and Richardson (Euro J Appl Math 17:435-463 2006), and explore means by which it may be optimized, in terms of optical contrast, manufacturing considerations, switching field strength, and switching times. The compromises inherent in these conflicting design criteria are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  15. All-optical bistable logic control based on coupled Tamm plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei Li; Jiang, Yao; Zhu, Ye Yu; Wang, Fen; Rao, Yun Jiang

    2013-10-15

    A method for realizing low-threshold all-optical bistable logic control is proposed based on Tamm plasmons (TPs), which are formed in an asymmetric dielectric Bragg reflector (DBR)-metal-DBR (ADMD) structure with a layer of Kerr medium embedded. The ADMD structure supports two TPs due to coupling of trapped modes at each metal-DBR interface, generating two dips in the structure's reflection spectrum. Thus, control (i.e., pump) and controlled (i.e., probe) light with wavelengths close to the two dips, respectively, can be imported. It is verified theoretically that, thanks to the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity related to excitation of high-quality TP, bistable switching at very low injection intensity can be initiated by strength or direction variation of the pump. Meanwhile, the probe changes correspondingly with the pump. Thus, all-optical bistable logic operation of the probe can be controlled by the pump.

  16. Low-threshold optical bistability with multilayer graphene-covering Otto configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hengliang; Wu, Jipeng; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Wen, Shuangchun; Guo, Jun; Jiang, Leyong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified Otto configuration to realize tunable and low-threshold optical bistability at terahertz frequencies by attaching multilayer graphene sheets to a nonlinear substrate interface. Our work demonstrates that the threshold of optical bistability can be markedly reduced (three orders of magnitude) by covering the nonlinear substrate with multilayer graphene sheets, due to strong local field enhancement with the excitation of surface plasmons. We present the influences of the Fermi energy of graphene, the incident angle, the thickness of air gap and the relaxation time of graphene on the hysteresis phenomenon and give a way to optimize the surface plasmon resonance, which will enable us to further lower the minimal power requirements for realizing optical bistability due to the strong interaction of light with graphene sheets. These results are promising for realization of terahertz optical switches, optical modulators and logical devices. (paper)

  17. Bistable diverter valve in microfluidics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Bandulasena, H.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2011), s. 1225-1233 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499; GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidics * bistable diverter valves * pressure-driven microfluidics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.735, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/x4907p1908151522/

  18. Brain networks underlying bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel H; Karapanagiotidis, Theodoros; Coggan, David D; Wailes-Newson, Kirstie; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Bistable stimuli, such as the Necker Cube, demonstrate that experience can change in the absence of changes in the environment. Such phenomena can be used to assess stimulus-independent aspects of conscious experience. The current study used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to index stimulus-independent changes in neural activity to understand the neural architecture that determines dominance durations during bistable perception (using binocular rivalry and Necker cube stimuli). Anterior regions of the Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL) exhibited robust connectivity with regions of primary sensorimotor cortex. The strength of this region's connectivity with the striatum predicted shorter dominance durations during binocular rivalry, whereas its connectivity to pre-motor cortex predicted longer dominance durations for the Necker Cube. Posterior regions of the SPL, on the other hand, were coupled to associative cortex in the temporal and frontal lobes. The posterior SPL's connectivity to the temporal lobe predicted longer dominance during binocular rivalry. In conjunction with prior work, these data suggest that the anterior SPL contributes to perceptual rivalry through the inhibition of incongruent bottom up information, whereas the posterior SPL influences rivalry by supporting the current interpretation of a bistable stimulus. Our data suggests that the functional connectivity of the SPL with regions of sensory, motor, and associative cortex allows it to regulate the interpretation of the environment that forms the focus of conscious attention at a specific moment in time. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Determining the bistability parameter ranges of artificially induced lac operon using the root locus method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcu, N; Alyürük, H; Demir, G K; Pekergin, F; Cavas, L; Güzeliş, C

    2015-06-01

    This paper employs the root locus method to conduct a detailed investigation of the parameter regions that ensure bistability in a well-studied gene regulatory network namely, lac operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). In contrast to previous works, the parametric bistability conditions observed in this study constitute a complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions. These conditions were derived by applying the root locus method to the polynomial equilibrium equation of the lac operon model to determine the parameter values yielding the multiple real roots necessary for bistability. The lac operon model used was defined as an ordinary differential equation system in a state equation form with a rational right hand side, and it was compatible with the Hill and Michaelis-Menten approaches of enzyme kinetics used to describe biochemical reactions that govern lactose metabolism. The developed root locus method can be used to study the steady-state behavior of any type of convergent biological system model based on mass action kinetics. This method provides a solution to the problem of analyzing gene regulatory networks under parameter uncertainties because the root locus method considers the model parameters as variable, rather than fixed. The obtained bistability ranges for the lac operon model parameters have the potential to elucidate the appearance of bistability for E. coli cells in in vivo experiments, and they could also be used to design robust hysteretic switches in synthetic biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Revisiting the Lissajous figure as a tool to study bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilnhammer, V A; Ludwig, K; Sterzer, P; Hesselmann, G

    2014-05-01

    During bistable vision perception spontaneously "switches" between two mutually exclusive percepts despite constant sensory input. The endogenous nature of these perceptual transitions has motivated extensive research aimed at the underlying mechanisms, since spontaneous perceptual transitions of bistable stimuli should in principle allow for a dissociation of processes related to sensory stimulation from those related to conscious perception. However, transitions from one conscious percept to another are often not instantaneous, and participants usually report a considerable amount of mixed or unclear percepts. This feature of bistable vision makes it difficult to isolate transition-related visual processes. Here, we revisited an ambiguous depth-from-motion stimulus which was first introduced to experimental psychology more than 80 years ago. This rotating Lissajous figure might prove useful in complementing other bistable stimuli, since its perceptual transitions only occur at critical stimulus configurations and are virtually instantaneous, thus facilitating the construction of a perceptually equivalent replay condition. We found that three parameters of the Lissajous figure - complexity, line width, and rotational speed - differentially modulated its perceptual dominance durations and transition probabilities, thus providing experimenters with a versatile tool to study the perceptual dynamics of bistable vision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Power requirements reducing of FBG based all-optical switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Ľubomír.; Solanská, Michaela; Ladányi, Libor; Müllerová, Jarmila

    2017-12-01

    Although Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are well known devices, their using as all-optical switching elements has been still examined. Current research is focused on optimization of their properties for their using in future all-optical networks. The main problem are high switching intensities needed for achieving the changes of the transmission state. Over several years switching intensities have been reduced from hundreds of GW/cm2 to tens of MW/cm2 by selecting appropriate gratings and signal parameters or using suitable materials. Two principal nonlinear effects with similar power requirements can result in the bistable transmission/reflection of an input optical pulse. In the self-phase modulation (SPM) regime switching is achieved by the intense probe pulse itself. Using cross-phase modulation (XPM) a strong pump alters the FBG refractive index experienced by a weak probe pulse. As a result of this the detuning of the probe pulse from the center of the photonic band gap occurs. Using of XPM the effect of modulation instability is reduced. Modulation instability which is the main SPM degradation mechanism. We focused on nonlinear FBGs based on chalcogenide glasses which are very often used in various applications. Thanks to high nonlinear parameters chalcogenide glasses are suitable candidates for reducing switching intensities of nonlinear FBGs.

  2. Waterbomb base: a symmetric single-vertex bistable origami mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Brandon H.; Lund, Jason M.; Lang, Robert J.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2014-09-01

    The origami waterbomb base is a single-vertex bistable origami mechanism that has unique properties which may prove useful in a variety of applications. It also shows promise as a test bed for smart materials and actuation because of its straightforward geometry and multiple phases of motion, ranging from simple to more complex. This study develops a quantitative understanding of the symmetric waterbomb base's kinetic behavior. This is done by completing kinematic and potential energy analyses to understand and predict bistable behavior. A physical prototype is constructed and tested to validate the results of the analyses. Finite element and virtual work analyses based on the prototype are used to explore the locations of the stable equilibrium positions and the force-deflection response. The model results are verified through comparisons to measurements on a physical prototype. The resulting models describe waterbomb base behavior and provide an engineering tool for application development.

  3. Waterbomb base: a symmetric single-vertex bistable origami mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Brandon H; Lund, Jason M; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L; Lang, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The origami waterbomb base is a single-vertex bistable origami mechanism that has unique properties which may prove useful in a variety of applications. It also shows promise as a test bed for smart materials and actuation because of its straightforward geometry and multiple phases of motion, ranging from simple to more complex. This study develops a quantitative understanding of the symmetric waterbomb base's kinetic behavior. This is done by completing kinematic and potential energy analyses to understand and predict bistable behavior. A physical prototype is constructed and tested to validate the results of the analyses. Finite element and virtual work analyses based on the prototype are used to explore the locations of the stable equilibrium positions and the force–deflection response. The model results are verified through comparisons to measurements on a physical prototype. The resulting models describe waterbomb base behavior and provide an engineering tool for application development. (paper)

  4. The smallest chemical reaction system with bistability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bistability underlies basic biological phenomena, such as cell division, differentiation, cancer onset, and apoptosis. So far biologists identified two necessary conditions for bistability: positive feedback and ultrasensitivity. Results Biological systems are based upon elementary mono- and bimolecular chemical reactions. In order to definitely clarify all necessary conditions for bistability we here present the corresponding minimal system. According to our definition, it contains the minimal number of (i reactants, (ii reactions, and (iii terms in the corresponding ordinary differential equations (decreasing importance from i-iii. The minimal bistable system contains two reactants and four irreversible reactions (three bimolecular, one monomolecular. We discuss the roles of the reactions with respect to the necessary conditions for bistability: two reactions comprise the positive feedback loop, a third reaction filters out small stimuli thus enabling a stable 'off' state, and the fourth reaction prevents explosions. We argue that prevention of explosion is a third general necessary condition for bistability, which is so far lacking discussion in the literature. Moreover, in addition to proving that in two-component systems three steady states are necessary for bistability (five for tristability, etc., we also present a simple general method to design such systems: one just needs one production and three different degradation mechanisms (one production, five degradations for tristability, etc.. This helps modelling multistable systems and it is important for corresponding synthetic biology projects. Conclusion The presented minimal bistable system finally clarifies the often discussed question for the necessary conditions for bistability. The three necessary conditions are: positive feedback, a mechanism to filter out small stimuli and a mechanism to prevent explosions. This is important for modelling bistability with

  5. Bistable four-wave mixing response in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Xiao, Si; Liang, Shan; He, Meng-Dong; Luo, Jian-Hua; Kim, Nam-Chol; Chen, Li-Qun

    2017-10-16

    We perform a theoretical study of the bistable four-wave mixing (FWM) response in a coupled system comprised of a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and a photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity in which the SQD is embedded. It is shown that the shape of the FWM spectrum can switch among single-peaked, double-peaked, triple-peaked, and four-peaked arising from the vacuum Rabi splitting and the exciton-nanocavity coupling. Especially, we map out bistability phase diagrams within a parameter subspace of the system, and find that it is easy to turn on or off the bistable FWM response by only adjusting the excitation frequency or the pumping intensity. Our results offer a feasible means for measuring the SQD-PC nanocavity coupling strength and open a new avenue to design optical switches and memories.

  6. MAR elements regulate the probability of epigenetic switching between active and inactive gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbete, José Luis; Buceta, Montserrat; Mermod, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    Gene expression often cycles between active and inactive states in eukaryotes, yielding variable or noisy gene expression in the short-term, while slow epigenetic changes may lead to silencing or variegated expression. Understanding how cells control these effects will be of paramount importance to construct biological systems with predictable behaviours. Here we find that a human matrix attachment region (MAR) genetic element controls the stability and heritability of gene expression in cell populations. Mathematical modeling indicated that the MAR controls the probability of long-term transitions between active and inactive expression, thus reducing silencing effects and increasing the reactivation of silent genes. Single-cell short-terms assays revealed persistent expression and reduced expression noise in MAR-driven genes, while stochastic burst of expression occurred without this genetic element. The MAR thus confers a more deterministic behavior to an otherwise stochastic process, providing a means towards more reliable expression of engineered genetic systems.

  7. A novel bistable energy harvesting concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarselli, G; Nicassio, F; Pinto, F; Ciampa, F; Iervolino, O; Meo, M

    2016-01-01

    Bistable energy harvesting has become a major field of research due to some unique features for converting mechanical energy into electrical power. When properly loaded, bistable structures snap-through from one stable configuration to another, causing large strains and consequently power generation. Moreover, bistable structures can harvest energy across a broad-frequency bandwidth due to their nonlinear characteristics. Despite the fact that snap-through may be triggered regardless of the form or frequency of exciting vibration, the external force must reach a specific snap-through activation threshold value to trigger the transition from one stable state to another. This aspect is a limiting factor for realistic vibration energy harvesting application with bistable devices. This paper presents a novel power harvesting concept for bistable composites based on a ‘lever effect’ aimed at minimising the activation force to cause the snap through by choosing properly the bistable structures’ constraints. The concept was demonstrated with the help of numerical simulation and experimental testing. The results showed that the actuation force is one order of magnitude smaller (3%–6%) than the activation force of conventionally constrained bistable devices. In addition, it was shown that the output voltage was higher than the conventional configuration, leading to a significant increase in power generation. This novel concept could lead to a new generation of more efficient bistable energy harvesters for realistic vibration environments. (paper)

  8. Revisiting bistability in the lysis/lysogeny circuit of bacteriophage lambda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bednarz

    Full Text Available The lysis/lysogeny switch of bacteriophage lambda serves as a paradigm for binary cell fate decision, long-term maintenance of cellular state and stimulus-triggered switching between states. In the literature, the system is often referred to as "bistable." However, it remains unclear whether this term provides an accurate description or is instead a misnomer. Here we address this question directly. We first quantify transcriptional regulation governing lysogenic maintenance using a single-cell fluorescence reporter. We then use the single-cell data to derive a stochastic theoretical model for the underlying regulatory network. We use the model to predict the steady states of the system and then validate these predictions experimentally. Specifically, a regime of bistability, and the resulting hysteretic behavior, are observed. Beyond the steady states, the theoretical model successfully predicts the kinetics of switching from lysogeny to lysis. Our results show how the physics-inspired concept of bistability can be reliably used to describe cellular phenotype, and how an experimentally-calibrated theoretical model can have accurate predictive power for cell-state switching.

  9. Transcriptional Infidelity Promotes Heritable Phenotypic Change in a Bistable Gene Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Alasdair J. E; Halliday, Jennifer A; Blankschien, Matthew D; Burns, Philip A; Yatagai, Fumio; Herman, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Bistable epigenetic switches are fundamental for cell fate determination in unicellular and multicellular organisms. Regulatory proteins associated with bistable switches are often present in low numbers and subject to molecular noise. It is becoming clear that noise in gene expression can influence cell fate. Although the origins and consequences of noise have been studied, the stochastic and transient nature of RNA errors during transcription has not been considered in the origin or modeling of noise nor has the capacity for such transient errors in information transfer to generate heritable phenotypic change been discussed. We used a classic bistable memory module to monitor and capture transient RNA errors: the lac operon of Escherichia coli comprises an autocatalytic positive feedback loop producing a heritable all-or-none epigenetic switch that is sensitive to molecular noise. Using single-cell analysis, we show that the frequency of epigenetic switching from one expression state to the other is increased when the fidelity of RNA transcription is decreased due to error-prone RNA polymerases or to the absence of auxiliary RNA fidelity factors GreA and GreB (functional analogues of eukaryotic TFIIS). Therefore, transcription infidelity contributes to molecular noise and can effect heritable phenotypic change in genetically identical cells in the same environment. Whereas DNA errors allow genetic space to be explored, RNA errors may allow epigenetic or expression space to be sampled. Thus, RNA infidelity should also be considered in the heritable origin of altered or aberrant cell behaviour. PMID:19243224

  10. Diversity and functional properties of bistable pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hisao; Terakita, Akihisa

    2010-11-01

    Rhodopsin and related opsin-based pigments, which are photosensitive membrane proteins, have been extensively studied using a wide variety of techniques, with rhodopsin being the most understood G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Animals use various opsin-based pigments for vision and a wide variety of non-visual functions. Many functionally varied pigments are roughly divided into two kinds, based on their photoreaction: bistable and monostable pigments. Bistable pigments are thermally stable before and after photo-activation, but monostable pigments are stable only before activation. Here, we review the diversity of bistable pigments and their molecular characteristics. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying different molecular characteristics of bistable and monostable pigments. In addition, the potential of bistable pigments as a GPCR model is proposed.

  11. A broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Dibin; Beeby, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure. Both analytical model and experimental results showed that the coupled bistable structure requires lower excitation force to trigger bistable operation than conventional bistable structures. A compact electromagnetic vibration energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure was implemented and tested. It was excited under white noise vibrations. Experimental results showed that the coupl...

  12. Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Amemiya

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.

  13. Transcriptional delay stabilizes bistable gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Ott, William; Josić, Krešimir; Bennett, Matthew R

    2013-08-02

    Transcriptional delay can significantly impact the dynamics of gene networks. Here we examine how such delay affects bistable systems. We investigate several stochastic models of bistable gene networks and find that increasing delay dramatically increases the mean residence times near stable states. To explain this, we introduce a non-Markovian, analytically tractable reduced model. The model shows that stabilization is the consequence of an increased number of failed transitions between stable states. Each of the bistable systems that we simulate behaves in this manner.

  14. Evolution of the bi-stable wake of a square-back automotive shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia, Giancarlo; Passmore, Martin; Sardu, Costantino

    2018-01-01

    Square-back shapes are popular in the automotive market for their high level of practicality. These geometries, however, are usually characterised by high drag and their wake dynamics present aspects, such as the coexistence of a long-time bi-stable behaviour and short-time global fluctuating modes that are not fully understood. In the present paper, the unsteady behaviour of the wake of a generic square-back car geometry is characterised with an emphasis on identifying the causal relationship between the different dynamic modes in the wake. The study is experimental, consisting of balance, pressure, and stereoscopic PIV measurements. Applying wavelet and cross-wavelet transforms to the balance data, a quasi-steady correlation is demonstrated between the forces and bi-stable modes. This is investigated by applying proper orthogonal decomposition to the pressure and velocity data sets and a new structure is proposed for each bi-stable state, consisting of a hairpin vortex that originates from one of the two model's vertical trailing edges and bends towards the opposite side as it merges into a single streamwise vortex downstream. The wake pumping motion is also identified and for the first time linked with the motion of the bi-stable vortical structure in the streamwise direction, resulting in out-of-phase pressure variations between the two vertical halves of the model base. A phase-averaged low-order model is also proposed that provides a comprehensive description of the mechanisms of the switch between the bi-stable states. It is demonstrated that, during the switch, the wake becomes laterally symmetric and, at this point, the level of interaction between the recirculating structures and the base reaches a minimum, yielding, for this geometry, a 7% reduction of the base drag compared to the time-averaged result.

  15. Optical bistability and multistability driven by external magnetic field in a dielectric slab doped with nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, R.; Norouzi, F.

    2016-08-01

    The theoretical investigation of controlling the optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) in a dielectric medium doped with nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy centres under optical excitation are reported. The shape of the OB curve from dielectric slab can be tuned by changing the external magnetic field and polarization of the control beam. The effect of the intensity of the control laser field and the frequency detuning of probe laser field on the OB and OM behaviour are also discussed in this paper. The results obtained can be used for realizing an all-optical bistable switching or development of nanoelectronic devices.

  16. Multiple Bistability in Quinonoid-Bridged Diiron(II) Complexes: Influence of Bridge Symmetry on Bistable Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Margarethe; Rechkemmer, Yvonne; Breitgoff, Frauke D; Marx, Raphael; Neugebauer, Petr; Frank, Uta; van Slageren, Joris; Sarkar, Biprajit

    2016-11-21

    Quinonoid bridges are well-suited for generating dinuclear assemblies that might display various bistable properties. In this contribution we present two diiron(II) complexes where the iron(II) centers are either bridged by the doubly deprotonated form of a symmetrically substituted quinonoid bridge, 2,5-bis[4-(isopropyl)anilino]-1,4-benzoquinone (H 2 L2') with a [O,N,O,N] donor set, or with the doubly deprotonated form of an unsymmetrically substituted quinonoid bridge, 2-[4-(isopropyl)anilino]-5-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (H 2 L5') with a [O,O,O,N] donor set. Both complexes display temperature-induced spin crossover (SCO). The nature of the SCO is strongly dependent on the bridging ligand, with only the complex with the [O,O,O,N] donor set displaying a prominent hysteresis loop of about 55 K. Importantly, only the latter complex also shows a pronounced light-induced spin state change. Furthermore, both complexes can be oxidized to the mixed-valent iron(II)-iron(III) form, and the nature of the bridge determines the Robin and Day classification of these forms. Both complexes have been probed by a battery of electrochemical, spectroscopic, and magnetic methods, and this combined approach is used to shed light on the electronic structures of the complexes and on bistability. The results presented here thus show the potential of using the relatively new class of unsymmetrically substituted bridging quinonoid ligands for generating intriguing bistable properties and for performing site-specific magnetic switching.

  17. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  18. Optical Computing Using Interference Filters as Nonlinear Optical Logic Gates and Holographic Optical Elements as Optical Interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lon A.

    This dissertation experimentally explores digital optical computing and optical interconnects with theoretical supports, from the physics of materials and the optimization of devices to system realization. The trend of optical computing is highlighted with the emphasis on the current development of its basic constituent elements, and a couple of algorithms selected to pave the way for utilizing bistable devices for their optical implementations. Optical bistable devices function as "optical transistors" in optical computing. The physics of dispersive optical bistability is briefly described. Bistable ZnS interference filters are discussed in detail regarding their linear and nonlienar characteristics. The optimization of switching characteristics for a bistable ZnS interference filter is discussed, and experimental results are shown. Symbolic substitution which fully takes advantage of regular optical interconnects constitutes two steps: pattern recognition and symbol scription. Two experiments on two digital pattern recognitions and one on a simple but complete symbolic substitution have been demonstrated. The extension of these experiments is an implementation of a binary adder. A one-bit full adder which is a basic block for a computer has been explored experimentally and demonstrated in an all-optical way. The utilization of a bistable device as a nonlinear decision-making element is further demonstrated in an associative memory experiment by incorporating a Vander Lugt matched filter to discriminate two partial fingerprints. The thresholding function of a bistable device enhances the S/N ratio and helps discrimination in associative memory. As the clocking speed of a computer goes higher, e.g. greater than several GHz, the clock signal distribution and packaging become serious problems in VLSI technology. The use of optical interconnects introduces a possible solution. A unique element for holographic optical interconnects, which combines advantages of

  19. Space charge effects and electronic bistability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffini, A.; Strumia, F.; Tommasi, O.

    1996-01-01

    The excitation of metastable states in an atomic beam apparatus by means of electron collision is a widespread technique. The authors have observed a large bistable behaviour in apparatus designed to provide an intense and collimated beam of metastable helium by excitation with orthogonally impinging electrons. This bistable behaviour largely affects the efficiency of the apparatus and is therefore worth of being carefully investigated. The apparatus has an electrode configuration equivalent to that of a tetrode valve with large intergrid distances. The bistability consists in a hysteresis cycle in the curve of the anode current vs. grid voltage. Experimental measurements, supported by a simple theoretical model and by numerical simulation, stress out the crucial role played by space charge effects for the onset of bistability. A comparison with previous observations of this phenomenon is given. Spontaneous current oscillations with various shapes have been recorded in one of the two curves of the hysteresis cycle

  20. Large Out-of-Plane Displacement Bistable Electromagnetic Microswitch on a Single Wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiaodan; Dai, Xuhan; Huang, Yi; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin

    2016-05-05

    This paper presents a bistable microswitch fully batch-fabricated on a single glass wafer, comprising of a microactuator, a signal transformer, a microspring and a permanent magnet. The bistable mechanism of the microswitch with large displacement of 160 μm depends on the balance of the magnetic force and elastic force. Both the magnetic force and elastic force were optimized by finite-element simulation to predict the reliable of the device. The prototype was fabricated and characterized. By utilizing thick laminated photoresist sacrificial layer, the large displacement was obtained to ensure the insulation of the microswitch. The testing results show that the microswitch realized the bistable mechanism at a 3-5 V input voltage and closed in 0.96 ms, which verified the simulation.

  1. Bistable out-of-plane stress-mismatched thermally actuated bilayer devices with large deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessling, B A; Lucas, T M; Moiseeva, E V; Aebersold, J W; Harnett, C K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore microfabricated bistable actuators released as thin films from a silicon wafer. The actuators are based on a serpentine design where two cantilevers are coupled at the tips by a thin-film bar. These devices are parameterized by two lengths: cantilever length and the length of the coupling bar. These two dimensions are systematically varied to study the effect of design parameters on bistability. The three-dimensional devices have extremely large deflection (hundreds of microns rather than tens of microns for most planar microactuators of similar size) and are thermally actuated out of the plane of the wafer by applying a bias across either the left or right side of the serpentine. The bistability of these devices is evaluated using electron and optical microscopy. Potential applications include non-volatile mechanical memory, optical shutters, and reconfigurable antenna elements

  2. Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Masuda, Naoki; Megumi, Fukuda; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2014-08-28

    Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behaviour remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behaviour underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fluctuating between three spatially distributed energy minimums: visual-area-dominant, frontal-area-dominant and intermediate states. Transitions between these energy minimums predicted behaviour, with participants whose brain activity tend to reflect the visual-area-dominant state exhibiting more stable perception and those whose activity transits to frontal-area-dominant states reporting more frequent perceptual switches. Critically, these brain activity dynamics are correlated with individual differences in grey matter volume of the corresponding brain areas. Thus, individual differences in the large-scale dynamics of brain activity link focal brain structure with bistable perception.

  3. Parallel replica dynamics method for bistable stochastic reaction networks: Simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Plecháč, Petr

    2017-12-21

    Stochastic reaction networks that exhibit bistable behavior are common in systems biology, materials science, and catalysis. Sampling of stationary distributions is crucial for understanding and characterizing the long-time dynamics of bistable stochastic dynamical systems. However, simulations are often hindered by the insufficient sampling of rare transitions between the two metastable regions. In this paper, we apply the parallel replica method for a continuous time Markov chain in order to improve sampling of the stationary distribution in bistable stochastic reaction networks. The proposed method uses parallel computing to accelerate the sampling of rare transitions. Furthermore, it can be combined with the path-space information bounds for parametric sensitivity analysis. With the proposed methodology, we study three bistable biological networks: the Schlögl model, the genetic switch network, and the enzymatic futile cycle network. We demonstrate the algorithmic speedup achieved in these numerical benchmarks. More significant acceleration is expected when multi-core or graphics processing unit computer architectures and programming tools such as CUDA are employed.

  4. An analytical approach to bistable biological circuit discrimination using real algebraic geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Gaskins, Dan; Franco, Elisa; Zhou, Tiffany; Murray, Richard M

    2015-07-06

    Biomolecular circuits with two distinct and stable steady states have been identified as essential components in a wide range of biological networks, with a variety of mechanisms and topologies giving rise to their important bistable property. Understanding the differences between circuit implementations is an important question, particularly for the synthetic biologist faced with determining which bistable circuit design out of many is best for their specific application. In this work we explore the applicability of Sturm's theorem--a tool from nineteenth-century real algebraic geometry--to comparing 'functionally equivalent' bistable circuits without the need for numerical simulation. We first consider two genetic toggle variants and two different positive feedback circuits, and show how specific topological properties present in each type of circuit can serve to increase the size of the regions of parameter space in which they function as switches. We then demonstrate that a single competitive monomeric activator added to a purely monomeric (and otherwise monostable) mutual repressor circuit is sufficient for bistability. Finally, we compare our approach with the Routh-Hurwitz method and derive consistent, yet more powerful, parametric conditions. The predictive power and ease of use of Sturm's theorem demonstrated in this work suggest that algebraic geometric techniques may be underused in biomolecular circuit analysis.

  5. Parallel replica dynamics method for bistable stochastic reaction networks: Simulation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Plecháč, Petr

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic reaction networks that exhibit bistable behavior are common in systems biology, materials science, and catalysis. Sampling of stationary distributions is crucial for understanding and characterizing the long-time dynamics of bistable stochastic dynamical systems. However, simulations are often hindered by the insufficient sampling of rare transitions between the two metastable regions. In this paper, we apply the parallel replica method for a continuous time Markov chain in order to improve sampling of the stationary distribution in bistable stochastic reaction networks. The proposed method uses parallel computing to accelerate the sampling of rare transitions. Furthermore, it can be combined with the path-space information bounds for parametric sensitivity analysis. With the proposed methodology, we study three bistable biological networks: the Schlögl model, the genetic switch network, and the enzymatic futile cycle network. We demonstrate the algorithmic speedup achieved in these numerical benchmarks. More significant acceleration is expected when multi-core or graphics processing unit computer architectures and programming tools such as CUDA are employed.

  6. Transgenes of the Mouse Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Locus, Lacking Distal Elements in the 3′ Regulatory Region, Are Impaired for Class Switch Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, Wesley A.; Shi, Jian; Fontaine, Clinton; Collins, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain class switch is mediated by a deletional recombination event between µ and γ, α, or ε constant region genes. This recombination event is upregulated during immune responses by a regulatory region that lies 3′ of the constant region genes. We study switch recombination using a transgene of the entire murine H chain constant region locus. We isolated two lines of mice in which the H chain transgenes were truncated at their 3′ ends. The truncation in both transgenic lines results in deletion of the 3′-most enhancer (HS4) and a region with insulator-like structure and activities. Even though both truncated transgenes express the µ H chain gene well, they undergo very low or undetectable switch recombination to transgenic γ and α constant region genes. For both transgenic lines, germline transcription of some H chain constant regions genes is severely impaired. However, the germline transcription of the γ1 and γ2a genes is at wild type levels for the transgenic line with the larger truncation, but at reduced levels for the transgenic line with the smaller truncation. The dramatic reduction in class switch recombination for all H chain genes and the varied reduction in germline transcription for some H chain genes could be caused by (i) insertion site effects or (ii) deletion of enhancer elements for class switch recombination and transcription, or (iii) a combination of both effects. PMID:23409061

  7. Transgenes of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain locus, lacking distal elements in the 3' regulatory region, are impaired for class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, Wesley A; Shi, Jian; Fontaine, Clinton; Collins, John T

    2013-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain class switch is mediated by a deletional recombination event between µ and γ, α, or ε constant region genes. This recombination event is upregulated during immune responses by a regulatory region that lies 3' of the constant region genes. We study switch recombination using a transgene of the entire murine H chain constant region locus. We isolated two lines of mice in which the H chain transgenes were truncated at their 3' ends. The truncation in both transgenic lines results in deletion of the 3'-most enhancer (HS4) and a region with insulator-like structure and activities. Even though both truncated transgenes express the µ H chain gene well, they undergo very low or undetectable switch recombination to transgenic γ and α constant region genes. For both transgenic lines, germline transcription of some H chain constant regions genes is severely impaired. However, the germline transcription of the γ1 and γ2a genes is at wild type levels for the transgenic line with the larger truncation, but at reduced levels for the transgenic line with the smaller truncation. The dramatic reduction in class switch recombination for all H chain genes and the varied reduction in germline transcription for some H chain genes could be caused by (i) insertion site effects or (ii) deletion of enhancer elements for class switch recombination and transcription, or (iii) a combination of both effects.

  8. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  9. Cramps: a sign of motoneurone 'bistability' in a human patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, F; Cavallari, P; Dworzak, F

    1991-12-09

    In a patient suffering from severe long-lasting cramps, cramps were triggered in the triceps surae by volleys in homonymous Ia afferents (elicited by electrical stimulation or by tendon taps) and were interrupted by antidromic invasion and Renshaw inhibition of triceps surae motoneurones (evoked by a single maximal stimulation of motor axons). This result suggests that the mechanisms which generate the cramps are intrinsic to alpha-motoneurone somata. A similar on-off switching of a self-sustained motor discharge has been observed in the decerebrate cat and recognized to depend on 'bistability' of the motoneuronal membrane. We propose that the same mechanism may be at the origin of the cramp discharge.

  10. Synaptic Bistability Due to Nucleation and Evaporation of Receptor Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2012-01-10

    We introduce a bistability mechanism for long-term synaptic plasticity based on switching between two metastable states that contain significantly different numbers of synaptic receptors. One state is characterized by a two-dimensional gas of mobile interacting receptors and is stabilized against clustering by a high nucleation barrier. The other state contains a receptor gas in equilibrium with a large cluster of immobile receptors, which is stabilized by the turnover rate of receptors into and out of the synapse. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by either an increase (potentiation) or a decrease (depotentiation) of the net receptor flux into the synapse. This changes the saturation level of the receptor gas and triggers nucleation or evaporation of receptor clusters. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  11. Emergence of switch-like behavior in a large family of simple biochemical networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Siegal-Gaskins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bistability plays a central role in the gene regulatory networks (GRNs controlling many essential biological functions, including cellular differentiation and cell cycle control. However, establishing the network topologies that can exhibit bistability remains a challenge, in part due to the exceedingly large variety of GRNs that exist for even a small number of components. We begin to address this problem by employing chemical reaction network theory in a comprehensive in silico survey to determine the capacity for bistability of more than 40,000 simple networks that can be formed by two transcription factor-coding genes and their associated proteins (assuming only the most elementary biochemical processes. We find that there exist reaction rate constants leading to bistability in ∼90% of these GRN models, including several circuits that do not contain any of the TF cooperativity commonly associated with bistable systems, and the majority of which could only be identified as bistable through an original subnetwork-based analysis. A topological sorting of the two-gene family of networks based on the presence or absence of biochemical reactions reveals eleven minimal bistable networks (i.e., bistable networks that do not contain within them a smaller bistable subnetwork. The large number of previously unknown bistable network topologies suggests that the capacity for switch-like behavior in GRNs arises with relative ease and is not easily lost through network evolution. To highlight the relevance of the systematic application of CRNT to bistable network identification in real biological systems, we integrated publicly available protein-protein interaction, protein-DNA interaction, and gene expression data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified several GRNs predicted to behave in a bistable fashion.

  12. Multi-Valued Spin Switch in a Semiconductor Microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraïso, T. K.; Wouters, M.; Léger, Y.; Morier-Genoud, F.; Deveaudhyphen; Plédran, B.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we report on the first realization of multi-valued spin switching in the solid-state. We investigate the physics of spinor bistability with microcavity polaritons in a trap. Spinor interactions lead to special bistability regimes with decoupled thresholds for spin-up and spin-down polaritons. This allows us to establish state-of-the-art spin switching operations. We evidence polarization hysteresis and determine appropriate conditions to achieve spin multistability. For a given excitation condition, three stable spin states coexist for the system. These results open new pathways for the development of innovative spin-based logic gates and memory devices.

  13. Coupled chaotic attractors and driving-induced bistability: A brief ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-04

    breaking interactions in a drive–response system with the driving-induced bistability. The basins of attraction on the initial conditions plane are observed for the driving-induced bistability. The basins are dependent on the interaction ...

  14. Modeling reveals bistability and low-pass filtering in the network module determining blood stem cell fate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Narula

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial regulation of gene expression is ubiquitous in eukaryotes with multiple inputs converging on regulatory control elements. The dynamic properties of these elements determine the functionality of genetic networks regulating differentiation and development. Here we propose a method to quantitatively characterize the regulatory output of distant enhancers with a biophysical approach that recursively determines free energies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions from experimental analysis of transcriptional reporter libraries. We apply this method to model the Scl-Gata2-Fli1 triad-a network module important for cell fate specification of hematopoietic stem cells. We show that this triad module is inherently bistable with irreversible transitions in response to physiologically relevant signals such as Notch, Bmp4 and Gata1 and we use the model to predict the sensitivity of the network to mutations. We also show that the triad acts as a low-pass filter by switching between steady states only in response to signals that persist for longer than a minimum duration threshold. We have found that the auto-regulation loops connecting the slow-degrading Scl to Gata2 and Fli1 are crucial for this low-pass filtering property. Taken together our analysis not only reveals new insights into hematopoietic stem cell regulatory network functionality but also provides a novel and widely applicable strategy to incorporate experimental measurements into dynamical network models.

  15. Manually operatable on-chip bistable pneumatic microstructures for microfluidic manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Arnold; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-09-07

    Bistable microvalves are of particular interest because of their distinct nature of requiring energy consumption only during the transition between the open and closed states. This characteristic can be highly advantageous in reducing the number of external inputs and the complexity of control circuitries since microfluidic devices as contemporary lab-on-a-chip platforms are transferring from research settings to low-resource environments with high integrability and a small form factor. In this paper, we first present manually operatable, on-chip bistable pneumatic microstructures (BPMs) for microfluidic manipulation. The structural design and operation of the BPM devices can be readily integrated into any pneumatically powered microfluidic network consisting of pneumatic and fluidic channels. It is mainly composed of a vacuum activation chamber (VAC) and a pressure release chamber (PRC), of which users have direct control through finger pressing to switch either to the bistable vacuum state (VS) or the atmospheric state (AS). We have integrated multiple BPM devices into a 4-to-1 microfluidic multiplexor to demonstrate on-chip digital flow switching from different sources. Furthermore, we have shown its clinical relevance in a point-of-care diagnostic chip that processes blood samples to identify the distinct blood types (A/B/O) on-chip.

  16. Bistable dynamics of an insect–pathogen model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we were able to construct an insect–pathogen model which has bistable dynamics. This simple model may be helpful to identify the universal mechanisms which lead to bistability in a biological system. The control of bistable system is very difficult because the dynamics has sensitivity to initial conditions. Therefore, to ...

  17. Origin of bistability in the lac Operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, M; Mackey, M C; Zeron, E S

    2007-06-01

    Multistability is an emergent dynamic property that has been invoked to explain multiple coexisting biological states. In this work, we investigate the origin of bistability in the lac operon. To do this, we develop a mathematical model for the regulatory pathway in this system and compare the model predictions with other experimental results in which a nonmetabolizable inducer was employed. We investigate the effect of lactose metabolism using this model, and show that it greatly modifies the bistable region in the external lactose (Le) versus external glucose (Ge) parameter space. The model also predicts that lactose metabolism can cause bistability to disappear for very low Ge. We have also carried out stochastic numerical simulations of the model for several values of Ge and Le. Our results indicate that bistability can help guarantee that Escherichia coli consumes glucose and lactose in the most efficient possible way. Namely, the lac operon is induced only when there is almost no glucose in the growing medium, but if Le is high, the operon induction level increases abruptly when the levels of glucose in the environment decrease to very low values. We demonstrate that this behavior could not be obtained without bistability if the stability of the induced and uninduced states is to be preserved. Finally, we point out that the present methods and results may be useful to study the emergence of multistability in biological systems other than the lac operon.

  18. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-08-16

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant's individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception.

  19. Ground-state kinetics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Li, Hao; Trabolsi, Ali; Coskun, Ali; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-02-18

    The ability to design and confer control over the kinetics of theprocesses involved in the mechanisms of artificial molecular machines is at the heart of the challenge to create ones that can carry out useful work on their environment, just as Nature is wont to do. As one of the more promising forerunners of prototypical artificial molecular machines, chemists have developed bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) over the past couple of decades. These bistable MIMs generally come in the form of [2]rotaxanes, molecular compounds that constitute a ring mechanically interlocked around a dumbbell-shaped component, or [2]catenanes, which are composed of two mechanically interlocked rings. As a result of their interlocked nature, bistable MIMs possess the inherent propensity to express controllable intramolecular, large-amplitude, and reversible motions in response to redox stimuli. In this Account, we rationalize the kinetic behavior in the ground state for a large assortment of these types of bistable MIMs, including both rotaxanes and catenanes. These structures have proven useful in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery to molecular electronic devices. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs can switch between two different isomeric states. The favored isomer, known as the ground-state co-conformation (GSCC) is in equilibrium with the less favored metastable state co-conformation (MSCC). The forward (kf) and backward (kb) rate constants associated with this ground-state equilibrium are intimately connected to each other through the ground-state distribution constant, KGS. Knowing the rate constants that govern the kinetics and bring about the equilibration between the MSCC and GSCC, allows researchers to understand the operation of these bistable MIMs in a device setting and apply them toward the construction of artificial molecular machines. The three biggest influences on the ground-state rate constants arise from

  20. The combination of positive and negative feedback loops confers exquisite flexibility to biochemical switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeuty, Benjamin; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of cellular processes require molecular regulatory pathways to convert a graded signal into a discrete response. One prevalent switching mechanism relies on the coexistence of two stable states (bistability) caused by positive feedback regulations. Intriguingly, positive feedback is often supplemented with negative feedback, raising the question of whether and how these two types of feedback can cooperate to control discrete cellular responses. To address this issue, we formulate a canonical model of a protein–protein interaction network and analyze the dynamics of a prototypical two-component circuit. The appropriate combination of negative and positive feedback loops can bring a bistable circuit close to the oscillatory regime. Notably, sharply activated negative feedback can give rise to a bistable regime wherein two stable fixed points coexist and may collide pairwise with two saddle points. This specific type of bistability is found to allow for separate and flexible control of switch-on and switch-off events, for example (i) to combine fast and reversible transitions, (ii) to enable transient switching responses and (iii) to display tunable noise-induced transition rates. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such bistable switching behavior, and the circuit topologies considered, to specific biological processes such as adaptive metabolic responses, stochastic fate decisions and cell-cycle transitions. Taken together, our results suggest an efficient mechanism by which positive and negative feedback loops cooperate to drive the flexible and multifaceted switching behaviors arising in biological systems

  1. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Joost Brouwer

    Full Text Available We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability resulted from incongruence between binocular disparity and monocular perspective cues that specify different slants (slant rivalry. Psychophysical results revealed that perceptual alternation rates were positively correlated with the degree of perceived incongruence. Functional imaging revealed systematic increases in activity that paralleled the psychophysical results within anterior intraparietal sulcus, prior to the onset of perceptual alternations. We suggest that this cortical activity predicts the frequency of subsequent alternations, implying a putative causal role for these areas in initiating bistable perception. In contrast, areas implicated in form and depth processing (LOC and V3A were sensitive to the degree of slant, but failed to show increases in activity when these cues were in conflict.

  2. Plasmon-modulated bistable four-wave mixing signals from a metal nanoparticle-monolayer MoS2 nanoresonator hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Tan, Xiao-Long; Ma, Jin-Hong; Xu, Si-Qin; Kuang, Zhi-Wei; Liang, Shan; Xiao, Si; He, Meng-Dong; Kim, Nam-Chol; Luo, Jian-Hua; Chen, Li-Qun

    2018-06-22

    We present a study for the impact of exciton-phonon and exciton-plasmon interactions on bistable four-wave mixing (FWM) signals in a metal nanoparticle (MNP)-monolayer MoS 2 nanoresonator hybrid system. Via tracing the FWM response we predict that, depending on the excitation conditions and the system parameters, such a system exhibits 'U-shaped' bistable FWM signals. We also map out bistability phase diagrams within the system's parameter space. Especially, we show that compared with the exciton-phonon interaction, a strong exciton-plasmon interaction plays a dominant role in the generation of optical bistability, and the bistable region will be greatly broadened by shortening the distance between the MNP and the monolayer MoS 2 nanoresonator. In the weak exciton-plasmon coupling regime, the impact of exciton-phonon interaction on optical bistability will become obvious. The scheme proposed may be used for building optical switches and logic-gate devices for optical computing and quantum information processing.

  3. Bistable firing properties of soleus motor units in unrestrained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EKEN, T.; KIEHN, O.

    1989-01-01

    of the motoneuron pool by stimulation of la afferents, or inhibition by stimulation of skin afferents. The shifts were not related to gross limb movements. This phenomenon is referred to as a bistable firing pattern. Bistable firing also occurred spontaneously during quiet standing. Typically the firing frequency...... was unchanged or only phasically influenced. These results demonstrate for the first time a bistable firing pattern during postural activity in the intact animal. The firing pattern closely resembles the bistable behaviour described in spinal motoneurons in reduced preparations, where it is due to the presence...... of a plateau potential. This suggests that the bistable firing is unexplained by plateau potentials also in the intact animal....

  4. Balancing bistable perception during self-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; Blanke, Olaf

    2012-10-01

    In two experiments we investigated whether bistable visual perception is influenced by passive own body displacements due to vestibular stimulation. For this we passively rotated our participants around the vertical (yaw) axis while observing different rotating bistable stimuli (bodily or non-bodily) with different ambiguous motion directions. Based on previous work on multimodal effects on bistable perception, we hypothesized that vestibular stimulation should alter bistable perception and that the effects should differ for bodily versus non-bodily stimuli. In the first experiment, it was found that the rotation bias (i.e., the difference between the percentage of time that a CW or CCW rotation was perceived) was selectively modulated by vestibular stimulation: the perceived duration of the bodily stimuli was longer for the rotation direction congruent with the subject's own body rotation, whereas the opposite was true for the non-bodily stimulus (Necker cube). The results found in the second experiment extend the findings from the first experiment and show that these vestibular effects on bistable perception only occur when the axis of rotation of the bodily stimulus matches the axis of passive own body rotation. These findings indicate that the effect of vestibular stimulation on the rotation bias depends on the stimulus that is presented and the rotation axis of the stimulus. Although most studies on vestibular processing have traditionally focused on multisensory signal integration for posture, balance, and heading direction, the present data show that vestibular self-motion influences the perception of bistable bodily stimuli revealing the importance of vestibular mechanisms for visual consciousness.

  5. Switching dynamics of TaOx-based threshold switching devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Jonathan M.; Gala, Darshil K.; Bain, James A.; Skowronski, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Bi-stable volatile switching devices are being used as access devices in solid-state memory arrays and as the active part of compact oscillators. Such structures exhibit two stable states of resistance and switch between them at a critical value of voltage or current. A typical resistance transient under a constant amplitude voltage pulse starts with a slow decrease followed by a rapid drop and leveling off at a low steady state value. This behavior prompted the interpretation of initial delay and fast transition as due to two different processes. Here, we show that the entire transient including incubation time, transition time, and the final resistance values in TaOx-based switching can be explained by one process, namely, Joule heating with the rapid transition due to the thermal runaway. The time, which is required for the device in the conducting state to relax back to the stable high resistance one, is also consistent with the proposed mechanism.

  6. Bistable Microvalve For Use With Microcatheter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Kirk Patrick

    2003-12-16

    A bistable microvalve of shape memory material is operatively connected to a microcatheter. The bistable microvalve includes a tip that can be closed off until it is in the desired position. Once it is in position it can be opened and closed. The system uses heat and pressure to open and close the microvalve. The shape memory material will change stiffness and shape when heated above a transition temperature. The shape memory material is adapted to move from a first shape to a second shape, either open or closed, where it can perform a desired function.

  7. Unidirectional Transition Waves in Bistable Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Neel; Arrieta, Andres F; Chong, Christopher; Kochmann, Dennis M; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-06-17

    We present a model system for strongly nonlinear transition waves generated in a periodic lattice of bistable members connected by magnetic links. The asymmetry of the on-site energy wells created by the bistable members produces a mechanical diode that supports only unidirectional transition wave propagation with constant wave velocity. We theoretically justify the cause of the unidirectionality of the transition wave and confirm these predictions by experiments and simulations. We further identify how the wave velocity and profile are uniquely linked to the double-well energy landscape, which serves as a blueprint for transition wave control.

  8. Bistable Topological Insulator with Exciton-Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Skryabin, Dmitry V.

    2017-12-01

    The functionality of many nonlinear and quantum optical devices relies on the effect of optical bistability. Using microcavity exciton-polaritons in a honeycomb arrangement of microcavity pillars, we report the resonance response and bistability of topological edge states. A balance between the pump, loss, and nonlinearity ensures a broad range of dynamical stability and controls the distribution of power between counterpropagating states on the opposite edges of the honeycomb lattice stripe. Tuning energy and polarization of the pump photons, while keeping their momentum constant, we demonstrate control of the propagation direction of the dominant edge state. Our results facilitate the development of practical applications of topological photonics.

  9. High-Speed and Low-Energy Flip-Flop Operation of Asymmetric Active-Multimode Interferometer Bi-Stable Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haisong; Chaen, Yutaka; Hagio, Takuma

    2011-01-01

    High-speed (121/25 ps rise/fall time) and low-switching energy (7.1 and 3.4 fJ) alloptical flip-flop operation of single-wavelength high-mesa asymmetric active-MMI bi-stable laser diodes is demonstrated for the first time using 25 ps long switching pulses.......High-speed (121/25 ps rise/fall time) and low-switching energy (7.1 and 3.4 fJ) alloptical flip-flop operation of single-wavelength high-mesa asymmetric active-MMI bi-stable laser diodes is demonstrated for the first time using 25 ps long switching pulses....

  10. Stationary patterns in star networks of bistable units: Theory and application to chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Nikos E; Sebek, Michael; Iribarne, Albert; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Kiss, István Z

    2017-04-01

    We present theoretical and experimental studies on pattern formation with bistable dynamical units coupled in a star network configuration. By applying a localized perturbation to the central or the peripheral elements, we demonstrate the subsequent spreading, pinning, or retraction of the activations; such analysis enables the characterization of the formation of stationary patterns of localized activity. The results are interpreted with a theoretical analysis of a simplified bistable reaction-diffusion model. Weak coupling results in trivial pinned states where the activation cannot propagate. At strong coupling, a uniform state is expected with active or inactive elements at small or large degree networks, respectively. A nontrivial stationary spatial pattern, corresponding to an activation pinning, is predicted to occur at an intermediate number of peripheral elements and at intermediate coupling strengths, where the central activation of the network is pinned, but the peripheral activation propagates toward the center. The results are confirmed in experiments with star networks of bistable electrochemical reactions. The experiments confirm the existence of the stationary spatial patterns and the dependence of coupling strength on the number of peripheral elements for transitions between pinned and retreating or spreading fronts in forced network configurations (where the central or periphery elements are forced to maintain their states).

  11. Control and characterization of a bistable laminate generated with piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew J.; Moosavian, Amin; Inman, Daniel J.

    2017-08-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on utilizing smart materials such as piezoelectric and shape memory alloy actuators to induce snap through of bistable structures for morphing applications. However, there has only been limited success in initiating snap through from both stable states due to the lack of actuation authority. A novel solution in the form of a piezoelectrically generated bistable laminate consisting of only macro fiber composites (MFC), allowing complete configuration control without any external assistance, is explored in detail here. Specifically, this paper presents the full analytical, computational, and experimental results of the laminate’s design, geometry, bifurcation behavior, and snap through capability. By bonding two actuated MFCs in a [0MFC/90MFC]T layup and releasing the voltage post cure, piezoelectric strain anisotropy and the resulting in-plane residual stresses yield two statically stable states that are cylindrically shaped. The analytical model uses the Rayleigh-Ritz minimization of total potential energy and finite element analysis is implemented in MSC Nastran. The [0MFC/90MFC]T laminate is then manufactured and experimentally characterized for model validation. This paper demonstrates the adaptive laminate’s unassisted forward and reverse snap through capability enabled by the efficiencies gained from simultaneously being the actuator and the primary structure.

  12. Magnetic actuation and transition shapes of a bistable spherical cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Loukaides

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Multistable shells have been proposed for a variety of applications; however, their actuation is almost exclusively addressed through embedded piezoelectric patches. Additional actuation techniques are needed for applications requiring high strains or where remote actuation is desirable. Part of the reason for the lack of research in this area is the absence of appropriate models describing the detailed deformation and energetics of such shells. This work presents a bistable spherical cap made of iron carbonyl-infused polydimethylsiloxane. The magnetizable structure can be actuated remotely through permanent magnets while the transition is recorded with a high-speed camera. Moreover, the experiment is reproduced in a finite element (FE dynamic model for comparison with the physical observations. High-speed footage of the physical cap inversion together with the FE modeling gives valuable insight on preferable intermediate geometries. Both methods return similar values for the magnetic field strength required for the snap-through. High-strain multistable spherical cap transformation is demonstrated, based on informed material selection. We discover that non-axisymmetric transition shapes are preferred in intermediate geometries by bistable spherical caps. We develop the methods for design and analysis of such actuators, including the feasibility of remote actuation methods for multistable shells.

  13. A new concept for active bistable twisting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Marc R.

    2005-05-01

    A novel type of morphing structure capable of a large change in shape with a small energy input is discussed in this paper. The considered structures consist of two curved shells that are joined in a specific manner to form a bistable airfoil-like structure. The two stable shapes have a difference in axial twist, and the structure may be transformed between the stable shapes by a simple snap-through action. The benefit of a bistable structure of this type is that, if the stable shapes are operational shapes, power is needed only to transform the structure from one shape to another. The discussed structures could be used in aerodynamic applications such as morphing wings, or as aerodynamic control surfaces. The investigation discussed in this paper considers both experiment and finite-element analysis. Several graphite-epoxy composite and one steel device were created as proof-of-concept models. To demonstrate active control of these structures, piezocomposite actuators were applied to one of the composite structures and used to transform the structure between stable shapes. The analysis was used to compare the predicted shapes with the experimental shapes, and to study how changes to the geometric input values affected the shape and operational characteristics of the structures. The predicted shapes showed excellent agreement with the experimental shapes, and the results of the parametric study suggest that the shapes and the snap-through characteristics can be easily tailored to meet specific needs.

  14. Neuromechanistic Model of Auditory Bistability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rankin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of higher frequency A and lower frequency B tones repeating in an ABA- triplet pattern are widely used to study auditory streaming. One may experience either an integrated percept, a single ABA-ABA- stream, or a segregated percept, separate but simultaneous streams A-A-A-A- and -B---B--. During minutes-long presentations, subjects may report irregular alternations between these interpretations. We combine neuromechanistic modeling and psychoacoustic experiments to study these persistent alternations and to characterize the effects of manipulating stimulus parameters. Unlike many phenomenological models with abstract, percept-specific competition and fixed inputs, our network model comprises neuronal units with sensory feature dependent inputs that mimic the pulsatile-like A1 responses to tones in the ABA- triplets. It embodies a neuronal computation for percept competition thought to occur beyond primary auditory cortex (A1. Mutual inhibition, adaptation and noise are implemented. We include slow NDMA recurrent excitation for local temporal memory that enables linkage across sound gaps from one triplet to the next. Percepts in our model are identified in the firing patterns of the neuronal units. We predict with the model that manipulations of the frequency difference between tones A and B should affect the dominance durations of the stronger percept, the one dominant a larger fraction of time, more than those of the weaker percept-a property that has been previously established and generalized across several visual bistable paradigms. We confirm the qualitative prediction with our psychoacoustic experiments and use the behavioral data to further constrain and improve the model, achieving quantitative agreement between experimental and modeling results. Our work and model provide a platform that can be extended to consider other stimulus conditions, including the effects of context and volition.

  15. Metastable and bistable defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, Bulat N; Abdullin, Kh A; Gorelkinskii, Yurii V

    2000-01-01

    Existing data on the properties and structure of metastable and bistable defects in silicon are analyzed. Primary radiation-induced defects (vacancies, self-interstitial atoms, and Frenkel pairs), complexes of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and other impurity atoms and defects with negative correlation energy are considered. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Generalized nematohydrodynamic boundary conditions with application to bistable twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Angbo

    2008-12-08

    Parallel to the highly successful Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory for the bulk behavior of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), we derive a set of coupled hydrodynamic boundary conditions to describe the NLC dynamics near NLC-solid interfaces. In our boundary conditions, translational flux (flow slippage) and rotational flux (surface director relaxation) are coupled according to the Onsager variational principle of least energy dissipation. The application of our boundary conditions to the truly bistable π -twist NLC cell reveals a complete picture of the dynamic switching processes. It is found that the thus far overlooked translation-rotation dissipative coupling at solid surfaces can accelerate surface director relaxation and enhance the flow rate. This can be utilized to improve the performance of electro-optical nematic devices by lowering the required switching voltages and reducing the switching times. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  17. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  18. Input-Independent Energy Harvesting in Bistable Lattices from Transition Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Myungwon; Arrieta, Andres F

    2018-02-26

    We demonstrate the utilisation of transition waves for realising input-invariant, frequency-independent energy harvesting in 1D lattices of bistable elements. We propose a metamaterial-inspired design with an integrated electromechanical transduction mechanism to the unit cell, rendering the power conversion capability an intrinsic property of the lattice. Moreover, focusing of transmitted energy to desired locations is demonstrated numerically and experimentally by introducing engineered defects in the form of perturbation in mass or inter-element forcing. We achieve further localisation of energy and numerically observe a breather-like mode for the first time in this type of lattice, improving the harvesting performance by an order of magnitude. Our approach considers generic bistable unit cells and thus provides a universal mechanism to harvest energy and realise metamaterials effectively behaving as a capacitor and power delivery system.

  19. Ground-state thermodynamics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Cao, Dennis; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-09-18

    Fashioned through billions of years of evolution, biological molecular machines, such as ATP synthase, myosin, and kinesin, use the intricate relative motions of their components to drive some of life's most essential processes. Having control over the motions in molecules is imperative for life to function, and many chemists have designed, synthesized, and investigated artificial molecular systems that also express controllable motions within molecules. Using bistable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), based on donor-acceptor recognition motifs, we have sought to imitate the sophisticated nanoscale machines present in living systems. In this Account, we analyze the thermodynamic characteristics of a series of redox-switchable [2]rotaxanes and [2]catenanes. Control and understanding of the relative intramolecular movements of components in MIMs have been vital in the development of a variety of applications of these compounds ranging from molecular electronic devices to drug delivery systems. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs undergo redox-activated switching between two isomeric states. Under ambient conditions, the dominant translational isomer, the ground-state coconformation (GSCC), is in equilibrium with the less favored translational isomer, the metastable-state coconformation (MSCC). By manipulating the redox state of the recognition site associated with the GSCC, we can stimulate the relative movements of the components in these bistable MIMs. The thermodynamic parameters of model host-guest complexes provide a good starting point to rationalize the ratio of GSCC to MSCC at equilibrium. The bistable [2]rotaxanes show a strong correlation between the relative free energies of model complexes and the ground-state distribution constants (K(GS)). This relationship does not always hold for bistable [2]catenanes, most likely because of the additional steric and electronic constraints present when the two rings are mechanically interlocked with each other

  20. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  1. Modeling bistable cell-fate choices in the Drosophila eye: qualitative and quantitative perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas G. W.; Tabei, S. M. Ali; Dinner, Aaron R.; Rebay, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of developmental biology is to understand the molecular mechanisms whereby genetic signaling networks establish and maintain distinct cell types within multicellular organisms. Here, we review cell-fate decisions in the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster and the experimental results that have revealed the topology of the underlying signaling circuitries. We then propose that switch-like network motifs based on positive feedback play a central role in cell-fate choice, and discuss how mathematical modeling can be used to understand and predict the bistable or multistable behavior of such networks. PMID:20570936

  2. Memristic Characteristics from Bistable to Tristable Memory with Controllable Charge Trap Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wen, Dianzhong

    2018-02-17

    The incorporation of the one-dimensional carbon nanomaterial carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was found to successfully develop a resistive switching. It implements memristic characteristics which shift from bistable to tristable memory. The localized current pathways in the organic nanocomposite layers for each intermediate resistive state (IRS) are attributed to the trapping mechanism consistent with the fluorescent measurements. Multi-bit organic memories have attracted considerable interest, which provide an effective way to increase the memory density per unit cell area. This study will be useful for the development and tuning of multi-bit storable organic nanocomposite memory device systems.

  3. Memristic Characteristics from Bistable to Tristable Memory with Controllable Charge Trap Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of the one-dimensional carbon nanomaterial carbon nanotubes (CNTs in poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA was found to successfully develop a resistive switching. It implements memristic characteristics which shift from bistable to tristable memory. The localized current pathways in the organic nanocomposite layers for each intermediate resistive state (IRS are attributed to the trapping mechanism consistent with the fluorescent measurements. Multi-bit organic memories have attracted considerable interest, which provide an effective way to increase the memory density per unit cell area. This study will be useful for the development and tuning of multi-bit storable organic nanocomposite memory device systems.

  4. The IGBT as an element of switch discharge with a linear mode use in capacitor discharge power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Cravero, J M

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an unusual use of IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) modules in capacitor discharge power supplies to achieve different current pulse shapes. The new power converters are described with an emphasis on the use of the IGBT as a discharge switch or in a linear mode. The difficulties involved in implementing IGBTs in these modes are analysed. IGBT voltage and gate commands are reviewed for these different modes and the control system that is necessary to regulate the magnet current is described. Finally, the future is envisaged with the new trends in this direction.

  5. Spatial Interferer Rejection in a 4-Element Beamforming Receiver Frontend with a Switched-Capacitor Vector Modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, M.C.M.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; van Vliet, Frank Edward

    2011-01-01

    A 1-4GHz 4-element phased array receiver frontend demonstrates spatial interferer rejection using null steering. Element phase and amplitude control are performed by a switchedcapacitor vector modulator with integrated downconversion, utilizing a rational sine/cosine approximation. The 65nm CMOS

  6. Bistable perception modeled as competing stochastic integrations at two levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Guido; Mattia, Maurizio; Braun, Jochen; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2009-07-01

    We propose a novel explanation for bistable perception, namely, the collective dynamics of multiple neural populations that are individually meta-stable. Distributed representations of sensory input and of perceptual state build gradually through noise-driven transitions in these populations, until the competition between alternative representations is resolved by a threshold mechanism. The perpetual repetition of this collective race to threshold renders perception bistable. This collective dynamics - which is largely uncoupled from the time-scales that govern individual populations or neurons - explains many hitherto puzzling observations about bistable perception: the wide range of mean alternation rates exhibited by bistable phenomena, the consistent variability of successive dominance periods, and the stabilizing effect of past perceptual states. It also predicts a number of previously unsuspected relationships between observable quantities characterizing bistable perception. We conclude that bistable perception reflects the collective nature of neural decision making rather than properties of individual populations or neurons.

  7. Optical bistability and multistability in polaritonic materials doped with nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the optical bistability and multistability in polaritonic materials doped with nanoparticles inside an optical ring cavity. It is found that the optical bistability and multistability can be easily controlled by adjusting the corresponding parameters of the system properly. The effect of the dipole–dipole interaction has also been included in the formulation, which leads to interesting phenomena. Our scheme opens up the possibility of controling the optical bistability and multistability in polaritonic materials doped with nanoparticles. (letter)

  8. Observation of single artificial atom optical bi-stability and its application to single-shot readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luyan; Ginossar, Eran; Guy, Mikhael; Reed, Matthew; Paik, Hanhee; Bishop, Lev S.; Sears, Adam; Petrenko, Andrei; Brecht, Teresa; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, Steven; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2012-02-01

    The high power transient behavior of superconducting qubit-cavity systems has recently been used to perform high fidelity readout of transmon qubits [1]. We show that in the steady state, the system exhibits a bi-stable behavior that can be observed on the single-shot level, with the cavity state switching stochastically between dim and bright states. The switching times are shown to be long compared to the cavity and qubit lifetimes. Some features of the bi-stability can be explained by mean field theory, while its switching dynamics is studied with large scale simulations. Understanding these dynamics will be crucial for studying the transient response, an essential aspect of the qubit readout. We will discuss progress on optimizing readout by shaping the measurement pulse. [4pt] [1] M. D. Reed, L. DiCarlo, B. R. Johnson, L. Sun, D. I. Schuster, L. Frunzio, and R. J. Schoelkopf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173601 (2010)

  9. Relatively slow stochastic gene-state switching in the presence of positive feedback significantly broadens the region of bimodality through stabilizing the uninduced phenotypic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Wu, Pingping; Qian, Hong; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2018-03-01

    Within an isogenic population, even in the same extracellular environment, individual cells can exhibit various phenotypic states. The exact role of stochastic gene-state switching regulating the transition among these phenotypic states in a single cell is not fully understood, especially in the presence of positive feedback. Recent high-precision single-cell measurements showed that, at least in bacteria, switching in gene states is slow relative to the typical rates of active transcription and translation. Hence using the lac operon as an archetype, in such a region of operon-state switching, we present a fluctuating-rate model for this classical gene regulation module, incorporating the more realistic operon-state switching mechanism that was recently elucidated. We found that the positive feedback mechanism induces bistability (referred to as deterministic bistability), and that the parameter range for its occurrence is significantly broadened by stochastic operon-state switching. We further show that in the absence of positive feedback, operon-state switching must be extremely slow to trigger bistability by itself. However, in the presence of positive feedback, which stabilizes the induced state, the relatively slow operon-state switching kinetics within the physiological region are sufficient to stabilize the uninduced state, together generating a broadened parameter region of bistability (referred to as stochastic bistability). We illustrate the opposite phenotype-transition rate dependence upon the operon-state switching rates in the two types of bistability, with the aid of a recently proposed rate formula for fluctuating-rate models. The rate formula also predicts a maximal transition rate in the intermediate region of operon-state switching, which is validated by numerical simulations in our model. Overall, our findings suggest a biological function of transcriptional "variations" among genetically identical cells, for the emergence of bistability and

  10. Durable bistable auxetics made of rigid solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiao; Liu, Lu; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano

    2018-02-01

    Bistable Auxetic Metamaterials (BAMs) are a class of monolithic perforated periodic structures with negative Poisson's ratio. Under tension, a BAM can expand and reach a second state of equilibrium through a globally large shape transformation that is ensured by the flexibility of its elastomeric base material. However, if made from a rigid polymer, or metal, BAM ceases to function due to the inevitable rupture of its ligaments. The goal of this work is to extend the unique functionality of the original kirigami architecture of BAM to a rigid solid base material. We use experiments and numerical simulations to assess performance, bistability and durability of rigid BAMs at 10,000 cycles. Geometric maps are presented to elucidate the role of the main descriptors of BAM architecture. The proposed design enables the realization of BAM from a large palette of materials, including elastic-perfectly plastic materials and potentially brittle materials.

  11. Bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Deboi, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, assembly and test of a development configuration bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve suitable for the control hydrazine and liquid fluorine to an 800 pound thrust rocket engine is described. The valve features a balanced poppet, utilizing metal bellows, a hard poppet/seat interface and a flexure support system for the internal moving components. This support system eliminates sliding surfaces, thereby rendering the valve free of self generated particles.

  12. Optimum Performances for Non-Linear Finite Elements Model of 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor Based on Intelligent Routing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaib Labiod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents torque ripple reduction with speed control of 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM by the determination of the optimal parameters of the turn on, turn off angles Theta_(on, Theta_(off, and the supply voltage using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm and steady state Genetic Algorithm (ssGA. With SRM model, there is difficulty in the control relapsed into highly non-linear static characteristics. For this, the Finite Elements Method (FEM has been used because it is a powerful tool to get a model closer to reality. The mechanism used in this kind of machine control consists of a speed controller in order to determine current reference which must be produced to get the desired speed, hence, hysteresis controller is used to compare current reference with current measured up to achieve switching signals needed in the inverter. Depending on this control, the intelligent routing algorithms get the fitness equation from torque ripple and speed response so as to give the optimal parameters for better results. Obtained results from the proposed strategy based on metaheuristic methods are compared with the basic case without considering the adjustment of specific parameters. Optimized results found clearly confirmed the ability and the efficiency of the proposed strategy based on metaheuristic methods in improving the performances of the SRM control considering different torque loads.

  13. Dynamics of unidirectionally coupled bistable Henon maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sausedo-Solorio, J.M.; Pisarchik, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamics of two bistable Henon maps coupled in a master-slave configuration. In the case of coexistence of two periodic orbits, the slave map evolves into the master map state after transients, which duration determines synchronization time and obeys a -1/2 power law with respect to the coupling strength. This scaling law is almost independent of the map parameter. In the case of coexistence of chaotic and periodic attractors, very complex dynamics is observed, including the emergence of new attractors as the coupling strength is increased. The attractor of the master map always exists in the slave map independently of the coupling strength. For a high coupling strength, complete synchronization can be achieved only for the attractor similar to that of the master map. -- Highlights: → We study dynamics of two bistable Henon maps coupled in a master-slave configuration. → Synchronization time for periodic orbits obeys a -1/2 power law with respect to coupling. → For a high coupling strength, the slave map remains bistable. → Complete synchronization can be achieved only when both maps stay at the same attractor.

  14. Optical tristability and ultrafast Fano switching in nonlinear magnetoplasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjing; Ma, Pujuan; Sun, Hua; Gao, Lei; Noskov, Roman E.

    2018-02-01

    We consider light scattering by a coated magnetoplasmonic nanoparticle with a Kerr-type nonlinear plasmonic shell and a magneto-optic core. Such a structure features two plasmon dipole modes, associated with electronic oscillations on the inner and outer surfaces of the shell. Driven in a nonlinear regime, each mode exhibits a bistable response. Bistability of an inner plasmon leads to switching between this state and a Fano resonance (Fano switching). Once the external light intensity exceeds a critical value, the bistability zones of both eigenmodes overlap, yielding optical tristability characterized by three stable steady states for a given wavelength and light intensity. We develop a dynamic theory of transitions between nonlinear steady states and estimate the characteristic switching time to be as short as 0.5 ps. We also show that the magneto-optical effect allows red and blue spectral shifts of the Fano profile for right and left circular polarizations of the external light, rendering Fano switching sensitive to light polarization. Specifically, one can reach Fano switching for the right circular polarization while cancelling it for the left circular polarization. The results point to a class of ultrafast Fano switchers tunable by a magnetic field for applications in nanophotonics.

  15. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-08-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Simulating the room-temperature dynamic motion of a ferromagnetic vortex in a bistable potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, E.; Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.

    2018-05-01

    The ability to precisely and reliably control the dynamics of ferromagnetic (FM) vortices could lead to novel nonvolatile memory devices and logic gates. Intrinsic and fabricated defects in the FM material can pin vortices and complicate the dynamics. Here, we simulated switching a vortex between bistable pinning sites using magnetic field pulses. The dynamic motion was modeled with the Thiele equation for a massless, rigid vortex subject to room-temperature thermal noise. The dynamics were explored both when the system was at zero temperature and at room-temperature. The probability of switching for different pulses was calculated, and the major features are explained using the basins of attraction map of the two pinning sites.

  17. Sustaining high-energy orbits of bi-stable energy harvesters by attractor selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Janav P.; Arrieta, Andres F.

    2017-11-01

    Nonlinear energy harvesters have the potential to efficiently convert energy over a wide frequency range; however, difficulties in attaining and sustaining high-energy oscillations restrict their applicability in practical scenarios. In this letter, we propose an actuation methodology to switch the state of bi-stable harvesters from the low-energy intra-well configuration to the coexisting high-energy inter-well configuration by controlled phase shift perturbations. The strategy is designed to introduce a change in the system state without creating distinct metastable attractors by exploiting the basins of attraction of the coexisting stable attractors. Experimental results indicate that the proposed switching strategy yields a significant improvement in energy transduction capabilities, is highly economical, enabling the rapid recovery of energy spent in the disturbance, and can be practically implemented with widely used low-strain piezoelectric transducers.

  18. New type of chimera structures in a ring of bistable FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators with nonlocal interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, I. A.; Vadivasova, T. E.; Bukh, A. V.; Strelkova, G. I.; Anishchenko, V. S.

    2017-04-01

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime. A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network and when isolated elements do not oscillate. The region of existence of these structures has been explored when the coupling range and the coupling strength between the network elements are varied.

  19. Multistability in Bistable Ferroelectric Materials toward Adaptive Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally thermodynamically bistable ferroic materials are used for nonvolatile operations based on logic gates (e.g., in the form of field effect transistors). But, this inherent bistability in these class of materials limits their applicability for adaptive operations. Emulating biological

  20. Electrical bistabilities and memory mechanisms of nonvolatile organic bistable devices based on exfoliated muscovite-type mica nanoparticle/poly(methylmethacrylate) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Won Gyu; Lee, Dea Uk; Na, Han Gil; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2018-02-01

    Organic bistable devices (OBDs) with exfoliated mica nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into an insulating poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated by using a spin-coating method. Current-voltage (I-V) curves for the Al/PMMA/exfoliated mica NP/PMMA/indium-tin-oxide/glass devices at 300 K showed a clockwise current hysteresis behavior due to the existence of the exfoliated muscovite-type mica NPs, which is an essential feature for bistable devices. Write-read-erase-read data showed that the OBDs had rewritable nonvolatile memories and an endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the OBDs of 102 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 103 was maintained for retention times larger than 1 × 104 s. The memory mechanisms of the fabricated OBDs were described by using the trapping and the tunneling processes within a PMMA active layer containing exfoliated muscovite-type mica NPs on the basis of the energy band diagram and the I-V curves.

  1. “Let’s Wait and See!” – The Real Option to Switch as a New Element of Customer Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Jörg; Roemer, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that a customer’s option to switch suppliers, and to wait and see before switching, adds to customer value in uncertain markets, and affects the customer’s switching behavior. We use a real options model to examine the value of this option and conduct sensitivity analyses based on data

  2. Ultrafast all-optical switching using signal flow graph for PANDA resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Mahdi; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2013-04-20

    In this paper, the bifurcation behavior of light in the PANDA ring resonator is investigated using the signal flow graph (SFG) method, where the optical transfer function for the through and drop ports of the PANDA Vernier system are derived. The optical nonlinear phenomena, such as bistability, Ikeda instability, and dynamics of light in the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) PANDA ring resonator with four couplers are studied. The transmission curves for bistability and instability as a function of the resonant mode numbers and coupling coefficients for the coupler are derived by the SFG method and simulated. The proposed system has an advantage as no optical pumping component is required. Simulated results show that closed-loop bistable switching can be generated and achieved by varying mode resonant numbers in the SOI-PANDA Vernier resonator, where a smooth and closed-loop bistable switching with low relative output/input power can be obtained and realized. The minimum through-port switching time of 1.1 ps for resonant mode numbers of 5;4;4 and minimum drop port switching time of 1.96 ps for resonant mode numbers of 9;7;7 of the PANDA Vernier resonator are achieved, which makes the PANDA Vernier resonator an operative component for optical applications, such as optical signal processing and a fast switching key in photonics integrated circuits.

  3. Traveling and Pinned Fronts in Bistable Reaction-Diffusion Systems on Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Nikos E.; Kori, Hiroshi; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    Traveling fronts and stationary localized patterns in bistable reaction-diffusion systems have been broadly studied for classical continuous media and regular lattices. Analogs of such non-equilibrium patterns are also possible in networks. Here, we consider traveling and stationary patterns in bistable one-component systems on random Erdös-Rényi, scale-free and hierarchical tree networks. As revealed through numerical simulations, traveling fronts exist in network-organized systems. They represent waves of transition from one stable state into another, spreading over the entire network. The fronts can furthermore be pinned, thus forming stationary structures. While pinning of fronts has previously been considered for chains of diffusively coupled bistable elements, the network architecture brings about significant differences. An important role is played by the degree (the number of connections) of a node. For regular trees with a fixed branching factor, the pinning conditions are analytically determined. For large Erdös-Rényi and scale-free networks, the mean-field theory for stationary patterns is constructed. PMID:23028746

  4. Bistability in Coupled Oscillators Exhibiting Synchronized Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusola, O. I.; Vincent, U. E.; Njah, A. N.; Olowofela, J. A.

    2010-05-01

    We report some new results associated with the synchronization behavior of two coupled double-well Duffing oscillators (DDOs). Some sufficient algebraic criteria for global chaos synchronization of the drive and response DDOs via linear state error feedback control are obtained by means of Lyapunov stability theory. The synchronization is achieved through a bistable state in which a periodic attractor co-exists with a chaotic attractor. Using the linear perturbation analysis, the prevalence of attractors in parameter space and the associated bifurcations are examined. Subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations and abundance of Arnold tongues — a signature of mode locking phenomenon are found.

  5. Lattice stretching bistability and dynamic heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A. V.; Zolotaryuk, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional lattice model is suggested to describe the experimentally observed plateau in force-stretching diagrams for some macromolecules. This chain model involves the nearest-neighbor interaction of a Morse-like potential (required to have a saturation branch) and a harmonic second......-neighbor coupling. Under an external stretching applied to the chain ends, the intersite Morse-like potential results in the appearance of a double-well potential within each chain monomer, whereas the interaction between the second neighbors provides a homogeneous bistable (degenerate) ground state, at least...

  6. The stochastic behavior of a molecular switching circuit with feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Eric

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a statistical physics approach, we study the stochastic switching behavior of a model circuit of multisite phosphorylation and dephosphorylation with feedback. The circuit consists of a kinase and phosphatase acting on multiple sites of a substrate that, contingent on its modification state, catalyzes its own phosphorylation and, in a symmetric scenario, dephosphorylation. The symmetric case is viewed as a cartoon of conflicting feedback that could result from antagonistic pathways impinging on the state of a shared component. Results Multisite phosphorylation is sufficient for bistable behavior under feedback even when catalysis is linear in substrate concentration, which is the case we consider. We compute the phase diagram, fluctuation spectrum and large-deviation properties related to switch memory within a statistical mechanics framework. Bistability occurs as either a first-order or second-order non-equilibrium phase transition, depending on the network symmetries and the ratio of phosphatase to kinase numbers. In the second-order case, the circuit never leaves the bistable regime upon increasing the number of substrate molecules at constant kinase to phosphatase ratio. Conclusion The number of substrate molecules is a key parameter controlling both the onset of the bistable regime, fluctuation intensity, and the residence time in a switched state. The relevance of the concept of memory depends on the degree of switch symmetry, as memory presupposes information to be remembered, which is highest for equal residence times in the switched states. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Artem Novozhilov (nominated by Eugene Koonin, Sergei Maslov, and Ned Wingreen.

  7. Rac1 and RhoA: Networks, loops and bistability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lan K; Kholodenko, Boris N; von Kriegsheim, Alex

    2016-08-17

    Cell migration requires a precise temporal and spatial coordination of several processes which allow the cell to efficiently move. The extension and retraction of membrane protrusion, as well as adhesion are controlled by the Rho-family small GTPases. Two members of the family, Rac1 and RhoA, can show opposite behaviors and spatial localisations, with RhoA being active toward the rear of the cell and regulating its retraction during migration, whereas Rac1 is active toward the front of the cell. In addition to the spatial segregation, RhoA and Rac1 activity at the leading edge of the cells has an element of temporal segregation, with RhoA and Rac1 activities peaking at separate points during the migratory cycle of protrusion and retraction. Elements of this separation have been explained by the presence of 2 mutually inhibitory feedbacks, where Rac1 inhibits RhoA and RhoA in turn can inhibit Rac1. Recently, it was shown that Rac1 and RhoA activity and downstream signaling respond in a bistable manner to perturbations of this network.

  8. Development of FPGA-Based Bistable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Jeong, See Chae; Ha, Jae Hong [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    It is well known that existing nuclear power plant (NPP) control systems contain many components which are becoming obsolete at an increasing rate. Various studies have been conducted to address control system hardware obsolescence. Obsolete analog and digital control systems in non-nuclear power plants are commonly replaced with modern digital control systems, programmable logic controllers (PLC) and distributed control systems (DCS). Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are highlighted as an alternative means for obsolete control systems. FPGAs are advanced digital integrated circuits (ICs) that contain configurable (programmable) blocks of logic along with configurable interconnects between these blocks. Designers can configure (program) such devices to perform a tremendous variety of tasks. FPGAs have been evolved from the technology of Programmable Logic Device (PLD). Nowadays they can contain millions of logic gates by nanotechnology and so be used to implement extremely large and complex functions that previously could be realized only using Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This paper is to present the development of a bistable unit which executes protection functions realized in FPGAs. Functional test is performed to verify its function. An Actel ProASIC3 FPGA platform is implemented as the bistable unit for Plant Protection System (PPS).

  9. Ca++ dependent bistability induced by serotonin in spinal motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Kiehn, O.

    1985-01-01

    The plateau potential, responsible for the bistable state of spinal motoneurons, recently described in the decerebrate cat, was suggested to depend on serotonin (Hounsgaard et al. 1984). In an in vitro preparation of the spinal cord of the turtle we now show that serotonin, applied directly...... to the bath, transforms the intrinsic response properties of motoneurons, uncovering a plateau potential and voltage sensitive bistability. The changes induced by serotonin were blocked by Mn++, while the plateau potential and the bistability remained after application of tetrodotoxin. We conclude...

  10. Frustrated bistability as a means to engineer oscillations in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, S; Semsey, S; Jensen, M H

    2009-05-21

    Oscillations play an important physiological role in a variety of biological systems. For example, respiration and carbohydrate synthesis are coupled to the circadian clock in cyanobacteria (Ishiura et al 1998 Science 281 1519) and ultradian oscillations with time periods of a few hours have been observed in immune response (NF-kappaB, Hoffmann et al 2002 Science 298 1241, Neson et al 2004 Science 306 704), apoptosis (p53, Lahav et al 2004 Nat. Genet. 36 53), development (Hes, Hirata et al 2002 Science 298 840) and growth hormone secretion (Plotsky and Vale 1985 Science 230 461, Zeitler et al 1991 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 8920). Here we discuss how any bistable system can be 'frustrated' to produce oscillations of a desired nature--we use the term frustration, in analogy to frustrated spins in antiferromagnets, to refer to the addition of a negative feedback loop that destabilizes the bistable system. We show that the molecular implementation can use a wide variety of methods ranging from translation regulation, using small non-coding RNAs, to targeted protein modification to transcriptional regulation. We also introduce a simple graphical method for determining whether a particular implementation will produce oscillations. The shape of the resulting oscillations can be readily tuned to produce spiky and asymmetric oscillations--quite different from the shapes produced by synthetic oscillators (Elowitz and Leibler 2000 Nature 403 335, Fung et al 2005 Nature 435 118). The time period and amplitude can also be manipulated and these oscillators are easy to reset or switch on and off using a tunable external input. The mechanism of frustrated bistability could thus prove to be an easily implementable way to synthesize flexible, designable oscillators.

  11. Modeling of rf MEMS switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Barbara; Ho, Fat D.; Hudson, Tracy D.

    2001-10-01

    The microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch offers many benefits in radio frequency (RF) applications. These benefits include low insertion loss, high quality factor (Q), low power, RF isolation, and low cost. The ability to manufacture mechanical switches on a chip with electronics can lead to higher functionality, such as single-chip arrays, and smart switches. The MEMS switch is also used as a building block in devices such as phase shifters, filters, and switchable antenna elements. The MEMS designer needs models of these basic elements in order to incorporate them into their applications. The objective of this effort is to develop lumped element models for MEMS RF switches, which are incorporated into a CAD software. Tanner Research Inc.'s Electronic Design Automation (EDA) software is being used to develop a suite of mixed-signal RF switch models. The suite will include switches made from cantilever beams and fixed-fixed beams. The switches may be actuated by electrostatic, piezoelectric or electromagnetic forces. The effort presented in this paper concentrates on switches actuated by electrostatic forces. The lumped element models use a current-force electrical-mechanical analogy. Finite element modeling and device testing will be used to verify the Tanner models. The effects of materials, geometries, temperature, fringing fields, and mounting geometries are considered.

  12. Spectroscopic and Theoretical Identification of Two Thermal Isomerization Pathways for Bistable Chiral Overcrowded Alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistemaker, Jos C M; Pizzolato, Stefano F; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Pijper, Thomas C; Feringa, Ben L

    2016-09-12

    Chiroptical molecular switches play an important role in responsive materials and dynamic molecular systems. Here we present the synthesis of four chiral overcrowded alkenes and the experimental and computational study of their photochemical and thermal behavior. By irradiation with UV light, metastable diastereoisomers with opposite helicity were generated through high yielding E-Z isomerizations. Kinetic studies on metastable 1-4 using CD spectroscopy and HPLC analysis revealed two pathways at higher temperatures for the thermal isomerization, namely a thermal E-Z isomerization (TEZI) and a thermal helix inversion (THI). These processes were also studied computationally whereby a new strategy was developed for calculating the TEZI barrier for second-generation overcrowded alkenes. To demonstrate that these overcrowded alkenes can be employed as bistable switches, photochromic cycling was performed, which showed that the alkenes display good selectivity and fatigue resistance over multiple irradiation cycles. In particular, switch 3 displayed the best performance in forward and backward photoswitching, while 1 excelled in thermal stability of the photogenerated metastable form. Overall, the alkenes studied showed a remarkable and unprecedented combination of switching properties including dynamic helicity, reversibility, selectivity, fatigue resistance, and thermal stability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. New type of chimera structures in a ring of bistable FitzHugh–Nagumo oscillators with nonlocal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelev, I.A., E-mail: igor_sar@li.ru; Vadivasova, T.E., E-mail: vadivasovate@yandex.ru; Bukh, A.V., E-mail: buh.andrey@yandex.ru; Strelkova, G.I., E-mail: strelkovagi@info.sgu.ru; Anishchenko, V.S., E-mail: wadim@info.sgu.ru

    2017-04-25

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh–Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime. A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network and when isolated elements do not oscillate. The region of existence of these structures has been explored when the coupling range and the coupling strength between the network elements are varied. - Highlights: • Dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh–Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime is studied. • A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network. • The region of existence of new structures has been explored when varying the coupling parameters.

  14. Key Players in the Genetic Switch of Bacteriophage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsing, Anne; Pedersen, Margit; Sneppen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    the bistable genetic switch of bacteriophage TP901-1 through experiments and statistical mechanical modeling. We examine the activity of the lysogenic promoter Pr at different concentrations of the phage repressor, CI, and compare the effect of CI on Pr in the presence or absence of the phage-encoded MOR...

  15. Bistable responses in bacterial genetic networks: Designs and dynamical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Abhinav; Ray, J. Christian J.; Narula, Jatin; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2011-01-01

    A key property of living cells is their ability to react to stimuli with specific biochemical responses. These responses can be understood through the dynamics of underlying biochemical and genetic networks. Evolutionary design principles have been well studied in networks that display graded responses, with a continuous relationship between input signal and system output. Alternatively, biochemical networks can exhibit bistable responses so that over a range of signals the network possesses two stable steady states. In this review, we discuss several conceptual examples illustrating network designs that can result in a bistable response of the biochemical network. Next, we examine manifestations of these designs in bacterial master-regulatory genetic circuits. In particular, we discuss mechanisms and dynamic consequences of bistability in three circuits: two-component systems, sigma-factor networks, and a multistep phosphorelay. Analyzing these examples allows us to expand our knowledge of evolutionary design principles for networks with bistable responses. PMID:21385588

  16. Bistable luminescence of trivalent rare-earth ions in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Jose Garcia; Ramirez O, Maria de la; Rodenas, Airan; Jaque, Daniel; Bausa, Luisa; Bettinelli, Marco; Speghini, Adolfo; Cavalli, Enrico; Ivleva, Lioudmila

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we have examined three new bistable systems based on the luminescence of three different crystals activated with trivalent rare earth ions. We have focussed our attention on Yb 3+ ions activators, for which the most relevant results are obtained. The first crystal, Sr 0.6 Ba 0.4 Nb 2 O 6 , is a ferroelectric material with a relatively low phase transition temperature (∼370 K), which provides bistability in the luminescence of Yb 3+ ions due to the thermal hysteresis associated with phase transition. The second crystal, LiNbO 3 , provides an intrinsic bistability in the luminescence of Yb 3+ ions, which is driven by changes in the excitation intensity. In the third crystal, NdPO 4 , a new mechanism of excitation intensity driven bistability is obtained when activated with Yb 3+ ions, due to a interplay between the Nd 3+ ↔Yb 3+ energy transfer and back transfer processes

  17. Bifurcation of transition paths induced by coupled bistable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chengzhe; Mitarai, Namiko

    2016-06-07

    We discuss the transition paths in a coupled bistable system consisting of interacting multiple identical bistable motifs. We propose a simple model of coupled bistable gene circuits as an example and show that its transition paths are bifurcating. We then derive a criterion to predict the bifurcation of transition paths in a generalized coupled bistable system. We confirm the validity of the theory for the example system by numerical simulation. We also demonstrate in the example system that, if the steady states of individual gene circuits are not changed by the coupling, the bifurcation pattern is not dependent on the number of gene circuits. We further show that the transition rate exponentially decreases with the number of gene circuits when the transition path does not bifurcate, while a bifurcation facilitates the transition by lowering the quasi-potential energy barrier.

  18. Bistability, Epigenetics, and Bet-Hedging in Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, Jan-Willem; Smits, Wiep Klaas; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2008-01-01

    Clonal populations of microbial cells often show a high degree of phenotypic variability under homogeneous conditions. Stochastic fluctuations in the cellular components that determine cellular states can cause two distinct subpopulations, a property called bistability Phenotypic heterogeneity can

  19. Asymmetric Effects on Escape Rates of Bistable System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Canjun; Mei Dongcheng; Dai Zucheng

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric effects on the escape rates from the stable states x ± in the bistable system are analyzed. The results indicate that the multiplicative noise and the additive noise always enhance the particle escape from stable states x ± of bistable. However, the asymmetric parameter r enhances the particle escape from stable state x + , and holds back the particle escape from stable state x - . (general)

  20. Analytic descriptions of stochastic bistable systems under force ramp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friddle, Raymond W

    2016-05-01

    Solving the two-state master equation with time-dependent rates, the ubiquitous driven bistable system, is a long-standing problem that does not permit a complete solution for all driving rates. Here we show an accurate approximation to this problem by considering the system in the control parameter regime. The results are immediately applicable to a diverse range of bistable systems including single-molecule mechanics.

  1. Morphing of Bistable Composite Laminates Using Distributed Piezoelectric Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Dano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bistable unsymmetric cross-ply laminates for morphing application has received growing attention in the last few years. So far, most studies use large rectangular piezoelectric Macro Fiber Composite (MFC patches bonded at the center of the laminate to induce snap-through. However, the use of large rectangular MFC patches bonded in the center of the laminates significantly influences the shape of the laminate by greatly reducing the curvature at the midsection of the laminate where the MFC patches are bonded. This paper presents a study where narrow cocured MFC strips distributed over the entire surface are used to induce snap-through of unsymmetric cross-ply laminates. This MFC configuration allows having a more uniform curvature in the laminate. Since the strips are bonded on both sides, reverse snap-through should be obtained. The study was both theoretical and experimental. A finite element nonlinear analysis was used to predict the two stable cylindrical configurations and the snap-through induced by MFC actuation. For the experimental study, a laminate-MFC structure was manufactured and tested. The shapes were measured using a 3D image correlation system as a function of applied voltage. Good correlations for the cylindrical shape and displacement field were observed.

  2. Piezoelectrically strained bistable laminates with macro fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew J.; Moosavian, Amin; Inman, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The bistability and snap through capability of an unsymmetric laminate consisting of only Macro Fiber Composites (MFC) are investigated. The non-linear analysis predicts two cylindrically stable configurations when strain anisotropy is piezoelectrically induced within a [0MFC/90MFC]T laminate. This is achieved by bonding two MFCs in their actuated states and releasing the voltage post cure to create in-plane residual stresses. The minimization of total potential energy with the Rayleigh-Ritz method are used to analytically model the resulting laminate. A finite element analysis is conducted in MSC Nastran using the piezoelectric-thermal analogy approach to verify the analytical results. The effects of adhesive properties, bonding cure cycles, MFC layup, and its geometry on the curvatures, displacements, and bifurcation voltages are characterized. Finally, the snap through and reverse snap through capabilities with piezoelectric actuation are demonstrated. This adaptive laminate functions as both the actuator and the primary structure and allows large deformations under a non-continuous energy input. Its snap through capability allows full configuration control necessary in morphing applications.

  3. Does visual attention drive the dynamics of bistable perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Kevin C; Brascamp, Jan; Tadin, Duje; Blake, Randolph

    2016-10-01

    How does attention interact with incoming sensory information to determine what we perceive? One domain in which this question has received serious consideration is that of bistable perception: a captivating class of phenomena that involves fluctuating visual experience in the face of physically unchanging sensory input. Here, some investigations have yielded support for the idea that attention alone determines what is seen, while others have implicated entirely attention-independent processes in driving alternations during bistable perception. We review the body of literature addressing this divide and conclude that in fact both sides are correct-depending on the form of bistable perception being considered. Converging evidence suggests that visual attention is required for alternations in the type of bistable perception called binocular rivalry, while alternations during other types of bistable perception appear to continue without requiring attention. We discuss some implications of this differential effect of attention for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying bistable perception, and examine how these mechanisms operate during our everyday visual experiences.

  4. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein switches the pathway of transactivation response element RNA/DNA annealing from loop-loop "kissing" to "zipper".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, My-Nuong; Barany, George; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2009-02-27

    The chaperone activity of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) facilitates multiple nucleic acid rearrangements that are critical for reverse transcription of the single-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA. Annealing of the transactivation response element (TAR) RNA hairpin to a complementary TAR DNA hairpin is an essential step in the minus-strand transfer step of reverse transcription. Previously, we used truncated 27-nt mini-TAR RNA and DNA constructs to investigate this annealing reaction pathway in the presence and in the absence of HIV-1 NC. In this work, full-length 59-nt TAR RNA and TAR DNA constructs were used to systematically study TAR hairpin annealing kinetics. In the absence of NC, full-length TAR hairpin annealing is approximately 10-fold slower than mini-TAR annealing. Similar to mini-TAR annealing, the reaction pathway for TAR in the absence of NC involves the fast formation of an unstable "kissing" loop intermediate, followed by a slower conversion to an extended duplex. NC facilitates the annealing of TAR by approximately 10(5)-fold by stabilizing the bimolecular intermediate ( approximately 10(4)-fold) and promoting the subsequent exchange reaction ( approximately 10-fold). In contrast to the mini-TAR annealing pathway, wherein NC-mediated annealing can initiate through both loop-loop kissing and a distinct "zipper" pathway involving nucleation at the 3'-/5'-terminal ends, full-length TAR hairpin annealing switches predominantly to the zipper pathway in the presence of saturated NC.

  5. Exchange bias and bistable magneto-resistance states in amorphous TbFeCo thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaopu, E-mail: xl6ba@virginia.edu; Ma, Chung T.; Poon, S. Joseph, E-mail: sjp9x@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Devaraj, Arun [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Spurgeon, Steven R.; Comes, Ryan B. [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Amorphous TbFeCo thin films sputter deposited at room temperature on thermally oxidized Si substrate are found to exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Atom probe tomography, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping have revealed two nanoscale amorphous phases with different Tb atomic percentages distributed within the amorphous film. Exchange bias accompanied by bistable magneto-resistance states has been uncovered near room temperature by magnetization and magneto-transport measurements. The exchange anisotropy originates from the exchange interaction between the ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic components corresponding to the two amorphous phases. This study provides a platform for exchange bias and magneto-resistance switching using single-layer amorphous ferrimagnetic thin films that require no epitaxial growth.

  6. Order reconstruction phenomena and temperature-driven dynamics in a 3D zenithally bistable device

    KAUST Repository

    Raisch, A.

    2014-07-01

    We model the zenithally bistable device (ZBD) in three dimensions (3D), within the Landau-de Gennes theory, and find three stable static states in 3D without an applied field: the vertically aligned nematic (VAN) state, the hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) state and a third, high-tilt state, which we call the THAN state, with an interior and a surface defect. We recover the order reconstruction (OR) phenomenon around the defects in the HAN and THAN states and the 3D THAN and HAN solutions exhibit stable biaxial cylinders connecting defects on opposite faces of the ZBD device. We demonstrate a two-way temperature-driven switching between high-tilt and low-tilt states through controlled heating and cooling procedures in two dimensions (2D), with no applied fields. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.

  7. Air-stable memory array of bistable rectifying diodes based on ferroelectric-semiconductor polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manasvi; Sharifi Dehsari, Hamed; Anwar, Saleem; Asadi, Kamal

    2018-03-01

    Organic bistable diodes based on phase-separated blends of ferroelectric and semiconducting polymers have emerged as promising candidates for non-volatile information storage for low-cost solution processable electronics. One of the bottlenecks impeding upscaling is stability and reliable operation of the array in air. Here, we present a memory array fabricated with an air-stable amine-based semiconducting polymer. Memory diode fabrication and full electrical characterizations were carried out in atmospheric conditions (23 °C and 45% relative humidity). The memory diodes showed on/off ratios greater than 100 and further exhibited robust and stable performance upon continuous write-read-erase-read cycles. Moreover, we demonstrate a 4-bit memory array that is free from cross-talk with a shelf-life of several months. Demonstration of the stability and reliable air operation further strengthens the feasibility of the resistance switching in ferroelectric memory diodes for low-cost applications.

  8. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, V.; Kudinov, N.; Zhukov, A.; Perov, N.

    2012-05-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180°. When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  9. Pivotal role of hMT+ in long-range disambiguation of interhemispheric bistable surface motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João Valente; Costa, Gabriel Nascimento; Martins, Ricardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    It remains an open question whether long-range disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires long-range integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding. Our fMRI study (n = 30) revealed a close relation between activity in hMT+ and perceptual switches involving interhemispheric segregation/integration of motion signals, crucially under nonlocal conditions where components do not overlap and belong to distinct hemispheres. Higher signal changes were found in hMT+ in response to spatially segregated component (incoherent) percepts than to pattern (coherent) percepts. This did not occur in early visual cortex, unlike apparent motion, which does not entail surface segmentation. We also identified a role for top-down mechanisms in state transitions. Deconvolution analysis of switch-related changes revealed prefrontal, insula, and cingulate areas, with the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) being particularly involved. We observed that directed influences could emerge either from left or right hMT+ during bistable motion integration/segregation. SPL also exhibited significant directed functional connectivity with hMT+, during perceptual state maintenance (Granger causality analysis). Our results suggest that long-range interhemispheric binding of ambiguous motion representations mainly reflect bottom-up processes from hMT+ during perceptual state maintenance. In contrast, state transitions maybe influenced by high-level regions such as the SPL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4882-4897, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  10. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, V.; Kudinov, N.; Zhukov, A.; Perov, N.

    2012-01-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180°. When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  11. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, V., E-mail: rodionova@magn.ru [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Kudinov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Perov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180 Degree-Sign . When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  12. Active Molecular Plasmonics: Controlling Plasmon Resonances with Molecular Switches

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-02-11

    A gold nanodisk array, coated with bistable, redox-controllable [2]rotaxane molecules, when exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants, undergoes switching of its plasmonic properties reversibly. By contrast, (i) bare gold nanodisks and (ii) disks coated with a redox-active, but mechanically inert, control compound do not display surface-plasmon-based switching. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory, these experimental observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound “molecular machines” can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices.

  13. The effect of current-induced spin switching in the presence of quantum tunneling of magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of transport properties of individual large-spin (S > 1 / 2) atoms/molecules exhibiting magnetic anisotropy is of key importance from the point of view of information processing technologies. The ultimate aim is to incorporate such objects as functional elements of spintronic devices, with the objective of employing spin-polarized currents to control the magnetic state of the system. In particular, for an atom/molecule with the predominant `easy-axis' uniaxial magnetic anisotropy this allows for switching the system's spin between two metastable states. However, the uniaxial component of magnetic anisotropy, underlying the magnetic bistability, is frequently accompanied by the transverse one, whose presence manifests, e.g., as quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). Here, we show that not only does QTM induce an effective energy barrier for the spin switching, but also its effect on the transport reveals as an additional signal in transport characteristics. Furthermore, we propose how to experimentally investigate QTM by means of the STM inelastic transport spectroscopy. also at Adam Mickiewicz University

  14. Switched on!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Like a star arriving on stage, impatiently followed by each member of CERN personnel and by millions of eyes around the world, the first beam of protons has circulated in the LHC. After years in the making and months of increasing anticipation, today the work of hundreds of people has borne fruit. WELL DONE to all! Successfully steered around the 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10:28 this morning, this first beam of protons circulating in the ring marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. "It’s a fantastic moment," said the LHC project leader Lyn Evans, "we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe". Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronize...

  15. Instrumentation for the Development of Reconfigurable Microwave/MM-Wave FGC Passive Elements Using MEMS Switches for 'Smart' Systems on a Chip

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papapolymerou, Ioannis

    2001-01-01

    .... These projects are of major significance to the Department of Defense and include topics such as reconfigurable tuners and band-stop filters using MEMS switches, micromachined cavity diplexers...

  16. Flip-flop between soft-spring and hard-spring bistabilities in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    freedom Toda oscillator that originally exhibits soft-spring bistability with counterclockwise hysteresis cycle. We observe that if the truncation is made third order, the harmonic bistability changes to hard-spring type with a clockwise hysteresis cycle.

  17. Robust network topologies for generating switch-like cellular responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf A Shah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Signaling networks that convert graded stimuli into binary, all-or-none cellular responses are critical in processes ranging from cell-cycle control to lineage commitment. To exhaustively enumerate topologies that exhibit this switch-like behavior, we simulated all possible two- and three-component networks on random parameter sets, and assessed the resulting response profiles for both steepness (ultrasensitivity and extent of memory (bistability. Simulations were used to study purely enzymatic networks, purely transcriptional networks, and hybrid enzymatic/transcriptional networks, and the topologies in each class were rank ordered by parametric robustness (i.e., the percentage of applied parameter sets exhibiting ultrasensitivity or bistability. Results reveal that the distribution of network robustness is highly skewed, with the most robust topologies clustering into a small number of motifs. Hybrid networks are the most robust in generating ultrasensitivity (up to 28% and bistability (up to 18%; strikingly, a purely transcriptional framework is the most fragile in generating either ultrasensitive (up to 3% or bistable (up to 1% responses. The disparity in robustness among the network classes is due in part to zero-order ultrasensitivity, an enzyme-specific phenomenon, which repeatedly emerges as a particularly robust mechanism for generating nonlinearity and can act as a building block for switch-like responses. We also highlight experimentally studied examples of topologies enabling switching behavior, in both native and synthetic systems, that rank highly in our simulations. This unbiased approach for identifying topologies capable of a given response may be useful in discovering new natural motifs and in designing robust synthetic gene networks.

  18. In Silico Evolved lac Operons Exhibit Bistability for Artificial Inducers, but Not for Lactose

    OpenAIRE

    van Hoek, M. J. A.; Hogeweg, P.

    2006-01-01

    Bistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli has been widely studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, bistability has been observed when E. coli is induced by an artificial, nonmetabolizable, inducer. However, if the lac operon is induced with lactose, the natural inducer, bistability has not been demonstrated. We derive an analytical expression that can predict the occurrence of bistability both for artificial inducers and lactose. We find very different condition...

  19. Bistable behaviour of biexciton population in a dense exciton-biexciton system in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An.

    1986-05-01

    The steady state bistable behaviour of biexciton population in a dense exciton-biexciton semiconductor is considered. The intrinsic optical feedback is provided by the recombination mechanism. The exciton-biexciton and biexciton-biexciton interactions play the role of non-linearity responsible for biexciton bistability to occur. The conditions leading to the effect of bistability are obtained and two-parameter phase transition diagrams are drawn for both intensity and frequency bistable phenomena. (author)

  20. Optical bistability induced by quantum coherence in a negative index atomic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Jun; Sun Hui; Li Jin-Ping; Yin Bao-Yin; Guo Hong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Bistability behaviors in an optical ring cavity filled with a dense V-type four-level atomic medium are theoretically investigated. It is found that the optical bistability can appear in the negative refraction frequency band, while both the bistability and multi-stability can occur in the positive refraction frequency bands. Therefore, optical bistability can be realized from conventional material to negative index material due to quantum coherence in our scheme. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  1. Evaluation of bistable systems versus matched filters in detecting bipolar pulse signals

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Fabing; Abbott, Derek; Gao, Qisheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a thorough evaluation of a bistable system versus a matched filter in detecting bipolar pulse signals. The detectability of the bistable system can be optimized by adding noise, i.e. the stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon. This SR effect is also demonstrated by approximate statistical detection theory of the bistable system and corresponding numerical simulations. Furthermore, the performance comparison results between the bistable system and the matched filter show that...

  2. Multistable decision switches for flexible control of epigenetic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Guantes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is now recognized that molecular circuits with positive feedback can induce two different gene expression states (bistability under the very same cellular conditions. Whether, and how, cells make use of the coexistence of a larger number of stable states (multistability is however largely unknown. Here, we first examine how autoregulation, a common attribute of genetic master regulators, facilitates multistability in two-component circuits. A systematic exploration of these modules' parameter space reveals two classes of molecular switches, involving transitions in bistable (progression switches or multistable (decision switches regimes. We demonstrate the potential of decision switches for multifaceted stimulus processing, including strength, duration, and flexible discrimination. These tasks enhance response specificity, help to store short-term memories of recent signaling events, stabilize transient gene expression, and enable stochastic fate commitment. The relevance of these circuits is further supported by biological data, because we find them in numerous developmental scenarios. Indeed, many of the presented information-processing features of decision switches could ultimately demonstrate a more flexible control of epigenetic differentiation.

  3. Pseudospark switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billault, P.; Riege, H.; Gulik, M. van; Boggasch, E.; Frank, K.

    1987-01-01

    The pseudospark discharge is bound to a geometrical structure which is particularly well suited for switching high currents and voltages at high power levels. This type of discharge offers the potential for improvement in essentially all areas of switching operation: peak current and current density, current rise, stand-off voltage, reverse current capability, cathode life, and forward drop. The first pseudospark switch was built at CERN at 1981. Since then, the basic switching characteristics of pseudospark chambers have been studied in detail. The main feature of a pseudospark switch is the confinement of the discharge plasma to the device axis. The current transition to the hollow electrodes is spread over a rather large surface area. Another essential feature is the easy and precise triggering of the pseudospark switch from the interior of the hollow electrodes, relatively far from the main discharge gap. Nanosecond delay and jitter values can be achieved with trigger energies of less than 0.1 mJ, although cathode heating is not required. Pseudospark gaps may cover a wide range of high-voltage, high-current, and high-pulse-power switching at repetition rates of many kilohertz. This report reviews the basic researh on pseudospark switches which has been going on at CERN. So far, applications have been developed in the range of thyratron-like medium-power switches at typically 20 to 40 kV and 0.5 to 10 kA. High-current pseudospark switches have been built for a high-power 20 kJ pulse generator which is being used for long-term tests of plasma lenses developed for the future CERN Antiproton Collector (ACOL). The high-current switches have operated for several hundred thousand shots, with 20 to 50 ns jitter at 16 kV charging voltage and more than 100 kA peak current amplitude. (orig.)

  4. The derivation of a bistable criterion for double V-beam mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cho-Chun; Chen, Rongshun; Lin, Meng-Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the theoretical derivation of the discriminant D as a structural and material criterion for determining whether bistability can occur in micromechanically bistable mechanisms. When D < 0, the mechanism displays bistable behavior if an appropriate force is applied to push the bistable mechanism, whereas when D > 0, bistable behavior cannot occur. The proposed V-beam bistable mechanism was successfully fabricated with various beam lengths and tilted angles. The experiments conducted in this study validated the theoretical study of bistability. A comparison of the theoretical solutions and experimental results shows good agreement. Results further show that to design a bistable V-beam mechanism, the tilted angle should be larger for the same beam length, whereas the beam length should be longer for the same tilted angle. The developed discriminant D can be used to predict if a bistable mechanism can achieve bistable behavior based on structural sizes and material properties. Consequently, researchers can reduce trial-and-error experiments when designing a bistable mechanism. A V-beam with a larger tilted angle of up to 5° was successfully fabricated to act as a bistable mechanism, compared to a 3.5° tilted angle in existing studies. Consequently, the proposed method has the advantages of shorter beam lengths and smaller device areas. (paper)

  5. Switching antidepressants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depressive disorder, with response rates of 50-60%. Switching within or between classes of antidepressants is often required in patients with an insufficient response to SSRIs.12 Because they share a similar mechanism of action, the immediate substitution of one SSRI for another is probably the easiest switching option.

  6. Bistability of mangrove forests and competition with freshwater plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Fuller, Douglas O; Teh, Su Yean; Zhai, Lu; Koh, Hock Lye; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Sternberg, L.D.S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytic communities such as mangrove forests and buttonwood hammocks tend to border freshwater plant communities as sharp ecotones. Most studies attribute this purely to underlying physical templates, such as groundwater salinity gradients caused by tidal flux and topography. However, a few recent studies hypothesize that self-reinforcing feedback between vegetation and vadose zone salinity are also involved and create a bistable situation in which either halophytic dominated habitat or freshwater plant communities may dominate as alternative stable states. Here, we revisit the bistability hypothesis and demonstrate the mechanisms that result in bistability. We demonstrate with remote sensing imagery the sharp boundaries between freshwater hardwood hammock communities in southern Florida and halophytic communities such as buttonwood hammocks and mangroves. We further document from the literature how transpiration of mangroves and freshwater plants respond differently to vadose zone salinity, thus altering the salinity through feedback. Using mathematical models, we show how the self-reinforcing feedback, together with physical template, controls the ecotones between halophytic and freshwater communities. Regions of bistability along environmental gradients of salinity have the potential for large-scale vegetation shifts following pulse disturbances such as hurricane tidal surges in Florida, or tsunamis in other regions. The size of the region of bistability can be large for low-lying coastal habitat due to the saline water table, which extends inland due to salinity intrusion. We suggest coupling ecological and hydrologic processes as a framework for future studies.

  7. Dynamic control of a bistable wing under aerodynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgen, Onur; Arrieta, Andres F; Friswell, Michael I; Hagedorn, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aerodynamic evaluation of a dynamic control technique applied to a bistable unsymmetrical cross-ply composite plate with surface bonded piezoelectric actuators is presented. The plate is clamped on one end to form a low-aspect-ratio wing. A previously proposed dynamic control method, utilizing bending resonance in different stable equilibrium positions, is used to induce snap-through between the two equilibrium states. Compared to quasi-static actuation, driving the bistable plate near resonance using surface bonded piezoelectric materials requires, theoretically, a lower peak excitation voltage to achieve snap-through. First, a set of extensive wind tunnel experiments are conducted on the passive bistable wing to understand the change in the dynamic behavior under various aerodynamic conditions. The passive wing demonstrated sufficient bending stiffness to sustain its shape under aerodynamic loading while preserving the desired bistable behavior. Next, by the use of the resonant control technique, the plate is turned into an effectively monostable structure, or alternatively, both stable equilibrium positions can be reached actively from the other stable equilibrium. Dynamic forward and reverse snap-through is demonstrated in the wind tunnel which shows both the effectiveness of the piezoelectric actuation as well as the load carrying capability of both states of the bistable wing. (paper)

  8. Oscillations in the bistable regime of neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxin, Alex; Compte, Albert

    2016-07-01

    Bistability between attracting fixed points in neuronal networks has been hypothesized to underlie persistent activity observed in several cortical areas during working memory tasks. In network models this kind of bistability arises due to strong recurrent excitation, sufficient to generate a state of high activity created in a saddle-node (SN) bifurcation. On the other hand, canonical network models of excitatory and inhibitory neurons (E-I networks) robustly produce oscillatory states via a Hopf (H) bifurcation due to the E-I loop. This mechanism for generating oscillations has been invoked to explain the emergence of brain rhythms in the β to γ bands. Although both bistability and oscillatory activity have been intensively studied in network models, there has not been much focus on the coincidence of the two. Here we show that when oscillations emerge in E-I networks in the bistable regime, their phenomenology can be explained to a large extent by considering coincident SN and H bifurcations, known as a codimension two Takens-Bogdanov bifurcation. In particular, we find that such oscillations are not composed of a stable limit cycle, but rather are due to noise-driven oscillatory fluctuations. Furthermore, oscillations in the bistable regime can, in principle, have arbitrarily low frequency.

  9. Non-resonant energy harvesting via an adaptive bistable potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinloo, Ashkan Haji; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Narrow bandwidth and easy detuning, inefficiency in broadband and non-stationary excitations, and difficulties in matching a linear harvester’s resonance frequency to low-frequency excitations at small scales, have convinced researchers to investigate nonlinear, and in particular bistable, energy harvesters in recent years. However, bistable harvesters suffer from co-existing low and high energy orbits, and sensitivity to initial conditions, and have recently been proven inefficient when subjected to many real-world random and non-stationary excitations. Here, we propose a novel non-resonant buy-low-sell-high strategy that can significantly improve the harvester’s effectiveness at low frequencies in a much more robust fashion. This strategy could be realized by a passive adaptive bistable system. Simulation results confirm the high effectiveness of the adaptive bistable system following a buy-low-sell-high logic when subjected to harmonic and random non-stationary walking excitations compared to its conventional bistable and linear counterparts. (paper)

  10. Chaos in a new bistable rotating electromechanical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapla Fotsa, R.; Woafo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new electromechanical system with rotating arm and bistable potential energy is studied. • The bistability is generated by the interaction of three permanent magnets, one fixed at the end of the arm and two other fixed at equal distance relative to the central position of the arm. • It exhibits dissipative and Hamiltonian chaos. • Such a bistable electromechanical system can be used as the actuation part of chaotic sieves and mixers. - Abstract: A device consisting of an induction motor activating a rotating rigid arm is designed and comprises a bistable potential due to the presence of three permanent magnets. Its mathematical equations are established and the numerical results both in the absence and in the presence of magnets are compared. The generation of chaotic behavior is achieved using two different external excitations: sinewave and square wave. In the presence of magnets, the system presents periodic and dissipative chaotic dynamics. Approximating the global potential energy to a bistable quartic potential, the Melnikov method is used to derive the conditions for the appearance of Hamiltonian chaos. Such a device can be used for industrial and domestic applications for mixing and sieving activities.

  11. Frontoparietal cortex mediates perceptual transitions in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilnhammer, Veith A; Ludwig, Karin; Hesselmann, Guido; Sterzer, Philipp

    2013-10-02

    During bistable vision, perception oscillates between two mutually exclusive percepts despite constant sensory input. Greater BOLD responses in frontoparietal cortex have been shown to be associated with endogenous perceptual transitions compared with "replay" transitions designed to closely match bistability in both perceptual quality and timing. It has remained controversial, however, whether this enhanced activity reflects causal influences of these regions on processing at the sensory level or, alternatively, an effect of stimulus differences that result in, for example, longer durations of perceptual transitions in bistable perception compared with replay conditions. Using a rotating Lissajous figure in an fMRI experiment on 15 human participants, we controlled for potential confounds of differences in transition duration and confirmed previous findings of greater activity in frontoparietal areas for transitions during bistable perception. In addition, we applied dynamic causal modeling to identify the neural model that best explains the observed BOLD signals in terms of effective connectivity. We found that enhanced activity for perceptual transitions is associated with a modulation of top-down connectivity from frontal to visual cortex, thus arguing for a crucial role of frontoparietal cortex in perceptual transitions during bistable perception.

  12. Advanced Macro-Model with Pulse-Width Dependent Switching Characteristic for Spin Transfer Torque Based Magnetic-Tunnel-Junction Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojeong Kim,; Seungjun Lee,; Hyungsoon Shin,

    2010-04-01

    In spin transfer torque (STT)-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), the switching depends on the current pulse-width as well as the magnitude of the switching current. We present an advanced macro-model of an STT-MTJ for a circuit simulator such as HSPICE. The macro-model can simulate the dependence of switching behavior on current pulse-width in an STT-MTJ. An imaginary resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit is adopted to emulate complex timing behavior which cannot be described nicely by existing functions in HSPICE. Simulation results show the resistance-current (R-I) curve and timing behavior is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  14. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign services that use local exchange switching facilities. (c) If end users of an interstate or... local exchange carriers shall establish rate elements for local switching as follows: (1) Price cap... use local exchange switching facilities for the provision of interstate or foreign services. The...

  15. Optical Bistability in Graded Core-Shell Granular Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ya-Min; Chen Guo-Qing; Xue Si-Zhong; Zhu Zhuo-Wei; Ma Chao-Qun

    2012-01-01

    The intrinsic optical bistability (OB) of graded core-shell granular composites is investigated. The coated particles are made of cores with gradient dielectric function in c (r) = A(r/a) k and nonlinear shells. In view of the exponential distribution of the core dielectric constant, the potential functions of each region are obtained by solving the Maxwell equations, and the mathematical expressions of electric field in the shells and cores are determined. Numerical study reveals that the optical bistable threshold and the threshold width of the composite medium are dependent on the shell thickness, core dielectric exponent, and power function coefficient. The optical bistable width increases with the decreasing shell thickness and the power exponent and with the increasing power function coefficient

  16. An Optically Driven Bistable Janus Rotor with Patterned Metal Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yiwu; Liu, Jing; Liu, Rui; Guo, Honglian; Yang, Mingcheng; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Ke

    2015-11-24

    Bistable rotation is realized for a gold-coated Janus colloidal particle in an infrared optical trap. The metal coating on the Janus particles are patterned by sputtering gold on a monolayer of closely packed polystyrene particles. The Janus particle is observed to stably rotate in an optical trap. Both the direction and the rate of rotation can be experimentally controlled. Numerical calculations reveal that the bistable rotation is the result of spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by the uneven curvature of the coating patterns on the Janus sphere. Our results thus provide a simple method to construct large quantities of fully functional rotary motors for nano- or microdevices.

  17. Excitonic optical bistability in n-type doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Le Thi Cat Tuong

    1991-07-01

    A resonant monochromatic pump laser generates coherent excitons in an n-type doped semiconductor. Both exciton-exciton and exciton-donor interactions come into play. The former interaction can give rise to the appearance of optical bistability which is heavily influenced by the latter one. When optical bistability occurs at a fixed laser frequency both its holding intensity and hysteresis loop size are shown to decrease with increasing donor concentration. Two possibilities are suggested for experimentally determining one of the two parameters of the system - the exciton-donor coupling constant and the donor concentration, if the other parameter is known beforehand. (author). 36 refs, 2 figs

  18. The Necker-Zeno model for bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    A novel conceptual framework for theoretical psychology is presented and illustrated for the example of bistable perception. A basic formal feature of this framework is the non-commutativity of operations acting on mental states. A corresponding model for the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli, the Necker-Zeno model, is sketched and some empirical evidence for it so far is described. It is discussed how a temporal non-locality of mental states, predicted by the model, can be understood and tested. © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Noise activated bistable sensor based on chaotic system with output defined by temporal coding and firing rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneta, Wojciech; Gomes, Iacyel

    2017-11-01

    Traditional bistable sensors use external bias signal to drive its response between states and their detection strategy is based on the output power spectral density or the residence time difference (RTD) in two sensor states. Recently, the noise activated nonlinear dynamic sensors driven only by noise based on RTD technique have been proposed. Here, we present experimental results of dc voltage measurements by noise-driven bistable sensor based on electronic Chua's circuit operating in a chaotic regime where two single scroll attractors coexist. The output of the sensor is quantified by the proportion of the time the sensor stays in one state to the total observation time and by the spike-count rate with spikes defined by crossings between attractors. The relationship between the stimuli and particular observable for different noise intensities is obtained, the usefulness of each coding scheme is discussed, and the optimal noise intensity for detection is indicated. It is shown that the obtained relationship is the same for any observation time when population coding is used. The optimal time window for both detection and the number of units in population coding is found. Our results may be useful for analyses and understanding of the neural activity and in designing bistable storage elements at length scales where thermal fluctuations drastically increase and the effect of noise must be taken into consideration.

  20. Noise activated bistable sensor based on chaotic system with output defined by temporal coding and firing rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneta, Wojciech; Gomes, Iacyel

    2017-11-01

    Traditional bistable sensors use external bias signal to drive its response between states and their detection strategy is based on the output power spectral density or the residence time difference (RTD) in two sensor states. Recently, the noise activated nonlinear dynamic sensors driven only by noise based on RTD technique have been proposed. Here, we present experimental results of dc voltage measurements by noise-driven bistable sensor based on electronic Chua's circuit operating in a chaotic regime where two single scroll attractors coexist. The output of the sensor is quantified by the proportion of the time the sensor stays in one state to the total observation time and by the spike-count rate with spikes defined by crossings between attractors. The relationship between the stimuli and particular observable for different noise intensities is obtained, the usefulness of each coding scheme is discussed, and the optimal noise intensity for detection is indicated. It is shown that the obtained relationship is the same for any observation time when population coding is used. The optimal time window for both detection and the number of units in population coding is found. Our results may be useful for analyses and understanding of the neural activity and in designing bistable storage elements at length scales where thermal fluctuations drastically increase and the effect of noise must be taken into consideration.

  1. Electrical bistabilities and memory stabilities of nonvolatile bistable devices fabricated utilizing C60 molecules embedded in a polymethyl methacrylate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Lee, Dong Ik; Jung, Jae Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements on Al/fullerene (C 60 ) molecules embedded in polymethyl methacrylate/Al devices at 300 K showed a current bistability due to the existence of the C 60 molecules. The on/off ratio of the current bistability for the memory devices was as large as 10 3 . The retention time of the devices was above 2.5 x 10 4 s at room temperature, and cycling endurance tests on these devices indicated that the ON and OFF currents showed no degradation until 50 000 cycles. Carrier transport mechanisms for the nonvolatile bistable devices are described on the basis of the I-V experimental and fitting results.

  2. Two optical bistability domains in composites of metal nanoparticles with nonlinear dielectric core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewamare, Sisay; Mal'nev, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the local field in metal spherical particles with a dielectric core in an external varying electric field has two maxima at two different frequencies. The second maximum becomes more important with an increment in the metal fraction. Due to the nonlinear dielectric function of the core, the composite of these inclusions may have two optically induced bistability domains at different frequencies. At rather high metal fraction, two bistability domains merge and form one entire bistability domain. The parameters of these domains are studied numerically. The paper focuses on the second bistability domain, which has not been discussed in the literature so far. This domain exists in a comparatively narrow frequency range and its onset fields are lower than those of the first bistability domain. The lowest bistability onset fields are obtained in the entire domain. This peculiarity of the optical induced bistability in the metal composite with small dielectric cores can be attractive for possible applications.

  3. Alpha Power Predicts Persistence of Bistable Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piantoni, Giovanni; Romeijn, Nico; Gomez-Herrero, German; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    Perception is strongly affected by the intrinsic state of the brain, which controls the propensity to either maintain a particular perceptual interpretation or switch to another. To understand the mechanisms underlying the spontaneous drive of the brain to explore alternative interpretations of

  4. Magnetic switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirbie, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs

  5. Bio-inspired structural bistability employing elastomeric origami for morphing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daynes, Stephen; Trask, Richard S; Weaver, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    A structural concept based upon the principles of adaptive morphing cells is presented whereby controlled bistability from a flat configuration into a textured arrangement is shown. The material consists of multiple cells made from silicone rubber with locally reinforced regions based upon kirigami principles. On pneumatic actuation these cells fold or unfold based on the fold lines created by the interaction of the geometry with the reinforced regions. Each cell is able to maintain its shape in either a retracted or deployed state, without the aid of mechanisms or sustained actuation, due to the existence of structural bistability. Mathematical quantification of the surface texture is introduced, based on out-of-plane deviations of a deployed structure compared to a reference plane. Additionally, finite element analysis is employed to characterize the geometry and stability of an individual cell during actuation and retraction. This investigation highlights the critical role that angular rotation, at the center of each cell, plays on the deployment angle as it transitions through the elastically deployed configuration. The analysis of this novel concept is presented and a pneumatically actuated proof-of-concept demonstrator is fabricated. (paper)

  6. THE DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN TURBULENT BISTABLE FLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazol, Adriana; Kim, Jongsoo

    2013-01-01

    We numerically study the volume density probability distribution function (n-PDF) and the column density probability distribution function (Σ-PDF) resulting from thermally bistable turbulent flows. We analyze three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in periodic boxes of 100 pc by side, where turbulence is driven in the Fourier space at a wavenumber corresponding to 50 pc. At low densities (n ∼ –3 ), the n-PDF is well described by a lognormal distribution for an average local Mach number ranging from ∼0.2 to ∼5.5. As a consequence of the nonlinear development of thermal instability (TI), the logarithmic variance of the distribution of the diffuse gas increases with M faster than in the well-known isothermal case. The average local Mach number for the dense gas (n ∼> 7.1 cm –3 ) goes from ∼1.1 to ∼16.9 and the shape of the high-density zone of the n-PDF changes from a power law at low Mach numbers to a lognormal at high M values. In the latter case, the width of the distribution is smaller than in the isothermal case and grows slower with M. At high column densities, the Σ-PDF is well described by a lognormal for all of the Mach numbers we consider and, due to the presence of TI, the width of the distribution is systematically larger than in the isothermal case but follows a qualitatively similar behavior as M increases. Although a relationship between the width of the distribution and M can be found for each one of the cases mentioned above, these relations are different from those of the isothermal case.

  7. The geodynamo as a bistable oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyng, P.; Ossendrijver, M. A. J. H.; Schmitt, D.

    2001-07-01

    Our intent is to provide a simple and quantitative understanding of the variability of the axial dipole component of the geomagnetic field on both short and long time scales. To this end we study the statistical properties of a prototype nonlinear mean field model. An azimuthal average is employed, so that (1) we address only the axisymmetric component of the field, and (2) the dynamo parameters have a random component that fluctuates on the (fast) eddy turnover time scale. Numerical solutions with a rapidly fluctuating alpha reproduce several features of the geomagnetic field: (1) a variable, dominantly dipolar field with additional fine structure due to excited overtones, and sudden reversals during which the field becomes almost quadrupolar, (2) aborted reversals and excursions, (3) intervals between reversals having a Poisson distribution. These properties are robust, and appear regardless of the type of nonlinearity and the model parameters. A technique is presented for analysing the statistical properties of dynamo models of this type. The Fokker-Planck equation for the amplitude a of the fundamental dipole mode shows that a behaves as the position of a heavily damped particle in a bistable potential ~(1-a^2)^2, subject to random forcing. The dipole amplitude oscillates near the bottom of one well and makes occasional jumps to the other. These reversals are induced solely by the overtones. Theoretical expressions are derived for the statistical distribution of the dipole amplitude, the variance of the dipole amplitude between reversals, and the mean reversal rate. The model explains why the reversal rate increases with increasing secular variation, as observed. Moreover, the present reversal rate of the geodynamo, once per (2-3)x10^5years, is shown to imply a secular variation of the dipole moment of ~15% (about the current value). The theoretical dipole amplitude distribution agrees well with the Sint-800 data.

  8. Supra-transmission and bistability in nonlinear media with a photonic and electronic forbidden band gap; Supratransmission et bistabilite nonlineaire dans les milieux a bandes interdites photoniques et electroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevriaux, D

    2007-06-15

    We study wave scattering in different nonlinear media possessing a natural forbidden band gap. In particular, we show the existence of a bistable behavior in media governed by the sine-Gordon equation (short pendular chain, Josephson junction array, quantum Hall bilayer), or the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (Kerr and Bragg media), in discrete and continuous models. These different media are submitted to periodic boundary conditions with a frequency in the forbidden band gap and an amplitude that determines their stability states. Indeed, for a sufficient amplitude (supra-transmission), the medium switches from reflector to transmitter, hence allowing the output signal to jump from evanescent to large values. We give a complete analytical description of the bistability that allows to understand the different stationary states observed and to predict the switch of one state to the other. (author)

  9. Bistable flow spectral analysis. Repercussions on jet pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavilan Moreno, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The most important thing in this paper, is the spectral characterization of the bistable flow in a Nuclear Power Plant. → This paper goes deeper in the effect of the bistable flow over the jet pump and the induced vibrations. → The jet pump frequencies are very close to natural jet pump frequencies, in the 3rd and 6th mode. - Abstract: There have been many attempts at characterizing and predicting bistable flow in boiling water reactors (BWRs). Nevertheless, in most cases the results have only managed to develop models that analytically reproduce the phenomenon (). Modeling has been forensic in all cases, while the capacity of the model focus on determining the exclusion areas on the recirculation flow map. The bistability process is known by its effects given there is no clear definition of its causal process. In the 1980s, Hitachi technicians () managed to reproduce bistable flow in the laboratory by means of pipe geometry, similar to that which is found in recirculation loops. The result was that the low flow pattern is formed by the appearance of a quasi stationary, helicoidal vortex in the recirculation collector's branches. This vortex creates greater frictional losses than regions without vortices, at the same discharge pressure. Neither the behavior nor the dynamics of these vortices were characterized in this paper. The aim of this paper is to characterize these vortices in such a way as to enable them to provide their own frequencies and their later effect on the jet pumps. The methodology used in this study is similar to the one used previously when analyzing the bistable flow in tube arrays with cross flow (). The method employed makes use of the power spectral density function. What differs is the field of application. We will analyze a Loop B with a bistable flow and compare the high and low flow situations. The same analysis will also be carried out on the loop that has not developed the bistable flow (Loop A) at the same moments

  10. Bistable Perception in Normal Aging: Perceptual Reversibility and its Relation to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Santos, Mirella; Mauro, Samantha; Cao, Bo; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Neargarder, Sandy; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2017-01-01

    The effects of age on the ability to resolve perceptual ambiguity are unknown, though it depends on fronto-parietal attentional networks known to change with age. We presented the bistable Necker cube to 24 middle-aged and older adults (OA; 56–78 years) and 20 younger adults (YA; 18–24 years) under passive-viewing and volitional control conditions: Hold one cube percept and Switch between cube percepts. During passive viewing, OA had longer dominance durations (time spent on each percept) than YA. In the Hold condition, OA were less able than YA to increase dominance durations. In the Switch condition, OA and YA did not differ in performance. Dominance durations in either condition correlated with performance on tests of executive function mediated by the frontal lobes. Eye movements (fixation deviations) did not differ between groups. These results suggest that OA’s reduced ability to hold a percept may arise from reduced selective attention. The lack of correlation of performance between Hold and executive-function measures suggests at least a partial segregation of underlying mechanisms. PMID:27116194

  11. Bistable dynamics of an insect–pathogen model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Bistable dynamics of an ... Here we consider density-dependent models of transmission because we characterize diseases that spread through environmental propagules or through random contact among individuals. We consider the case where the ...

  12. Dynamics of a bistable Miura-origami structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbin; Li, Suyi; Ji, Huimin; Wang, K W

    2017-05-01

    Origami-inspired structures and materials have shown extraordinary properties and performances originating from the intricate geometries of folding. However, current state of the art studies have mostly focused on static and quasistatic characteristics. This research performs a comprehensive experimental and analytical study on the dynamics of origami folding through investigating a stacked Miura-Ori (SMO) structure with intrinsic bistability. We fabricate and experimentally investigated a bistable SMO prototype with rigid facets and flexible crease lines. Under harmonic base excitation, the SMO exhibits both intrawell and interwell oscillations. Spectrum analyses reveal that the dominant nonlinearities of SMO are quadratic and cubic, which generate rich dynamics including subharmonic and chaotic oscillations. The identified nonlinearities indicate that a third-order polynomial can be employed to approximate the measured force-displacement relationship. Such an approximation is validated via numerical study by qualitatively reproducing the phenomena observed in the experiments. The dynamic characteristics of the bistable SMO resemble those of a Helmholtz-Duffing oscillator (HDO); this suggests the possibility of applying the established tools and insights of HDO to predict origami dynamics. We also show that the bistability of SMO can be programmed within a large design space via tailoring the crease stiffness and initial stress-free configurations. The results of this research offer a wealth of fundamental insights into the dynamics of origami folding, and provide a solid foundation for developing foldable and deployable structures and materials with embedded dynamic functionalities.

  13. Reversal Negativity and Bistable Stimuli: Attention, Awareness, or Something Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaite, Monika; Koivisto, Mika; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Revonsuo, Antti

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguous (or bistable) figures are visual stimuli that have two mutually exclusive perceptual interpretations that spontaneously alternate with each other. Perceptual reversals, as compared with non-reversals, typically elicit a negative difference called reversal negativity (RN), peaking around 250 ms from stimulus onset. The cognitive…

  14. Kerr nonlinearity and plasmonic bistability in graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Yan, Wei; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    due to field enhancement, and the total nonlinearity is significantly affected by the field inhomogeneity of the plasmonic excitation. Finally, we discuss the emergence of a plasmonic bistability which exists for energies red-shifted relative to the linear resonance. Our results offer insights...

  15. Drag force actuated bistable microswitches for flow sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, W.J.; van Baar, J.J.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents bistable microswitches with Au contacts with the aim to combine them with artificial hairs for flow sensing. The Au contacts are applied on both ends of a silicon nitride beam, suspended by a torsional bar at its center. The beam is provided with electrodes for electrostatic

  16. Phenomenological approach to bistable behavior of Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, K.; Nara, S.; Hamanaka, K.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of unbiased Josephson junction with external electromagnetic field in the presence of externally applied uniform magnetic field is theoretically examined by means of phenomenological treatment. It is proposed that an irradiated junction with suitably chosen parameters shows a bistable behavior of voltage across the junction as a function of the radiation intensity

  17. The Missing Luminous Blue Variables and the Bistability Jump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, N.; Vink, J.S.; de Koter, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss an interesting feature of the distribution of luminous blue variables (LBVs) on the H-R diagram, and we propose a connection with the bistability jump seen in the winds of early-type supergiants. There appears to be a deficiency of quiescent LBVs on the S Doradus instability strip at

  18. Pattern formation in the bistable Gray-Scott model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazin, W.; Rasmussen, K.E.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a computer simulation study of a variety of far-from-equilibrium phenomena that can arise in a bistable chemical reaction-diffusion system which also displays Turing and Hopf instabilities. The Turing bifurcation curve and the wave number for the patterns of maximum linear grow...

  19. Dynamics of a bistable Miura-origami structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbin; Li, Suyi; Ji, Huimin; Wang, K. W.

    2017-05-01

    Origami-inspired structures and materials have shown extraordinary properties and performances originating from the intricate geometries of folding. However, current state of the art studies have mostly focused on static and quasistatic characteristics. This research performs a comprehensive experimental and analytical study on the dynamics of origami folding through investigating a stacked Miura-Ori (SMO) structure with intrinsic bistability. We fabricate and experimentally investigated a bistable SMO prototype with rigid facets and flexible crease lines. Under harmonic base excitation, the SMO exhibits both intrawell and interwell oscillations. Spectrum analyses reveal that the dominant nonlinearities of SMO are quadratic and cubic, which generate rich dynamics including subharmonic and chaotic oscillations. The identified nonlinearities indicate that a third-order polynomial can be employed to approximate the measured force-displacement relationship. Such an approximation is validated via numerical study by qualitatively reproducing the phenomena observed in the experiments. The dynamic characteristics of the bistable SMO resemble those of a Helmholtz-Duffing oscillator (HDO); this suggests the possibility of applying the established tools and insights of HDO to predict origami dynamics. We also show that the bistability of SMO can be programmed within a large design space via tailoring the crease stiffness and initial stress-free configurations. The results of this research offer a wealth of fundamental insights into the dynamics of origami folding, and provide a solid foundation for developing foldable and deployable structures and materials with embedded dynamic functionalities.

  20. Investigation of the environmental implications of the CNT switch through its life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlben, Lindsay Johanna

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are unique allotropes of carbon that have high tensile strength, a high Young's modulus, good thermal conductivity, and depending on the CNT chirality can be metallic or semiconducting. These mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties make CNTs an attractive element in electronic applications such as conductive films, photovoltaics, non-volatile memory devices, batteries, sensors, and displays. Although commercialization of CNT-enabled products is increasing, there remains a significant lack of information regarding the health effects and environmental impacts of CNTs. Some studies have even shown that the behavior, toxicity, and persistence of CNTs may differ from bulk heterogeneous carbon. Given these uncertainties, it is prudent to assess the environmental attributes of CNT products and processes now to discover and potentially prevent adverse effects. This study investigates the environmental implications of a non-volatile bi-stable electromechanical CNT switch through its life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used to track the environmental impacts of the CNT switch through its fabrication and expected use and end-of-life (EOL) stages. Process parameters, energy consumption, input materials, output emissions, and yield efficiencies are determined for the laboratory and full-scale manufacture environments. The Ecoinvent(TM) inventory database and Eco-indicator 1999(TM) method are utilized for the impact assessment. Results for the fabrication stage are reported for highest contributions to environmental impact such as airborne inorganics, land use, and fossil fuels due to Au refining processes and electricity consumption. Extension of the LCA scope is evaluated for the potential replacement of CNT switches to current field-effect transistors (FETs) in flash memory for a cellular phone application. First-order predictions are made for the functionality and performance of the CNT switch during the use stage through an

  1. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Self-Organized Stationary Patterns in Networks of Bistable Chemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Nikos E; Sebek, Michael; Mikhailov, Alexander S; Kiss, István Z

    2016-10-10

    Experiments with networks of discrete reactive bistable electrochemical elements organized in regular and nonregular tree networks are presented to confirm an alternative to the Turing mechanism for the formation of self-organized stationary patterns. The results show that the pattern formation can be described by the identification of domains that can be activated individually or in combinations. The method also enabled the localization of chemical reactions to network substructures and the identification of critical sites whose activation results in complete activation of the system. Although the experiments were performed with a specific nickel electrodissolution system, they reproduced all the salient dynamic behavior of a general network model with a single nonlinearity parameter. Thus, the considered pattern-formation mechanism is very robust, and similar behavior can be expected in other natural or engineered networked systems that exhibit, at least locally, a treelike structure. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Wavelength switching dynamics of two-colour semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, S; Heinricht, P; Brandonisio, N; Amann, A; O’Brien, S

    2012-01-01

    The wavelength switching dynamics of two-colour semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback are presented. These devices incorporate slotted regions etched into the laser ridge waveguide for tailoring the output spectrum. Experimental measurements are presented demonstrating that optical injection in one or both modes of these devices can induce wavelength bistability. Measured switching dynamics with modulated optical injection are shown to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on a simple rate equation model. We also demonstrate experimentally that time-delayed optical feedback can induce wavelength bistability for short external cavity lengths. Numerical simulations indicate that this two-colour optical feedback system can provide fast optical memory functionality based on injected optical pulses without the need for an external holding beam. (paper)

  4. Bistability of the naturally induced lactose utilization system of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajic, Jelena; Wall, Michael

    2006-03-01

    In the absence of the preferred sugar glucose, lactose utilization machinery in the bacterium E. coli is activated. The genetic circuit responsible for this response, lac operon, has been observed to exhibit bistability when induced by an artificial inducer, TMG. Here we investigate conditions under which bistability might be observed in response to lactose. The aim of our study is to establish whether the natural system exhibits bistability, as is often assumed despite the lack of experimental support.

  5. Controlling the optical bistability and multistability in a two-level pumped-probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad; Sahrai, Mostafa; Masoumeh Mousavi, Seyede

    2010-01-01

    We study the behavior of the optical bistability (OB) and multistability (OM) in a two-level pumped-probe atomic system by means of a unidirectional ring cavity. We show that the optical bistability in a two-level atomic system can be controlled by adjusting the intensity of the pump field and the detuning between two fields. We find that applying the pumping field decreases the threshold of the optical bistability.

  6. Bistability and self-oscillations effects in a polariton-laser semiconductor microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, E A; Matinaga, F M

    2007-01-01

    We report an experimental observation of polaritonic optical bistability of the laser emission in a planar semiconductor microcavity with a 100 0 A GaAs single quantum well in the strong-coupling regime. The bistability curves show crossings that indicate a competition between a Kerr-like effect induced by the polariton population and thermal effects. Associated with the bistability, laser-like emission occurs at the bare cavity mode

  7. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom's/SMM's spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonan...

  8. Control of Bistability in a Delayed Duffing Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a high-frequency excitation on nontrivial solutions and bistability in a delayed Duffing oscillator with a delayed displacement feedback is investigated in this paper. We use the technique of direct partition of motion and the multiple scales method to obtain the slow dynamic of the system and its slow flow. The analysis of the slow flow provides approximations of the Hopf and secondary Hopf bifurcation curves. As a result, this study shows that increasing the delay gain, the system undergoes a secondary Hopf bifurcation. Further, it is indicated that as the frequency of the excitation is increased, the Hopf and secondary Hopf bifurcation curves overlap giving birth in the parameter space to small regions of bistability where a stable trivial steady state and a stable limit cycle coexist. Numerical simulations are carried out to validate the analytical finding.

  9. Novel piezoelectric bistable oscillator architecture for wideband vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W Q; Badel, A; Formosa, F; Wu, Y P; Agbossou, A

    2013-01-01

    Bistable vibration energy harvesters are attracting more and more interest because of their capability to scavenge energy over a large frequency band. The bistable effect is usually based on magnetic interaction or buckled beams. This paper presents a novel architecture based on amplified piezoelectric structures. This buckled spring–mass architecture allows the energy of the dynamic mass to be converted into electrical energy in the piezoelectric materials as efficiently as possible. Modeling and design are performed and a normalized expression of the harvester behavior is given. Chirp and band-limited noise excitations are used to evaluate the proposed harvester’s performances. Simulation and experimental results are in good agreement. A method of using a spectrum plot for investigating the interwell motion is presented. The effect of the electric load impedance matching strategy is also studied. Results and comparisons with the literature show that the proposed device combines a large bandwidth and a high power density. (paper)

  10. A minimal model of burst-noise induced bistability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Falk

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of intrinsic noise on stable states of a one-dimensional dynamical system that shows in its deterministic version a saddle-node bifurcation between monostable and bistable behaviour. The system is a modified version of the Schlögl model, which is a chemical reaction system with only one type of molecule. The strength of the intrinsic noise is varied without changing the deterministic description by introducing bursts in the autocatalytic production step. We study the transitions between monostable and bistable behavior in this system by evaluating the number of maxima of the stationary probability distribution. We find that changing the size of bursts can destroy and even induce saddle-node bifurcations. This means that a bursty production of molecules can qualitatively change the dynamics of a chemical reaction system even when the deterministic description remains unchanged.

  11. Bistable dark solitons of a cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a report on exact analytical bistable dark spatial solitons of a nonlinear Helmholtz equation with a cubic-quintic refractive-index model. Our analysis begins with an investigation of the modulational instability characteristics of Helmholtz plane waves. We then derive a dark soliton by mapping the desired asymptotic form onto a uniform background field and obtain a more general solution by deploying rotational invariance laws in the laboratory frame. The geometry of the new soliton is explored in detail, and a range of new physical predictions is uncovered. Particular attention is paid to the unified phenomena of arbitrary-angle off-axis propagation and nondegenerate bistability. Crucially, the corresponding solution of paraxial theory emerges in a simultaneous multiple limit. We conclude with a set of computer simulations that examine the role of Helmholtz dark solitons as robust attractors.

  12. Interface dynamics and domain growth in thermally bistable fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaviv, N.J.; Regev, O.

    1994-01-01

    Domain growth kinetics in a thermally bistable fluid with heat diffusion is studied. The time evolution of interfaces between the stable phases is calculated numerically in two dimensions and compared to some general results derived analytically. The qualitative behavior is found to be similar to the previously studied cases where fluid dynamics was neglected. There are, however, several important differences such as the value of the dynamical exponent, which determines the power law of the system's correlation length growth. The introduction of fluid motion into the model introduces additional properties, unfamiliar to previously studied systems, like the change of the pressure or the size of the system. This behavior is due to the advection of mass. The present model may have general relevance to any system modeled by a real Ginzburg-Landau-type equation coupled to fluid dynamical conservation equations. In particular, it is a step forward on the way to a faithful modeling of thermally bistable cloudy astrophysical media

  13. Mathematical modeling of Myosin induced bistability of Lamellipodial fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, S; Manhart, A; Schmeiser, C

    2017-01-01

    For various cell types and for lamellipodial fragments on flat surfaces, externally induced and spontaneous transitions between symmetric nonmoving states and polarized migration have been observed. This behavior is indicative of bistability of the cytoskeleton dynamics. In this work, the Filament Based Lamellipodium Model (FBLM), a two-dimensional, anisotropic, two-phase continuum model for the dynamics of the actin filament network in lamellipodia, is extended by a new description of actin-myosin interaction. For appropriately chosen parameter values, the resulting model has bistable dynamics with stable states showing the qualitative features observed in experiments. This is demonstrated by numerical simulations and by an analysis of a strongly simplified version of the FBLM with rigid filaments and planar lamellipodia at the cell front and rear.

  14. Internal optical bistability of quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor nanoheterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyanchuk, Oleksandr V.; Kramar, Natalia K.; Kramar, Valeriy M.

    2018-01-01

    We represent the results of numerical computations of the frequency and temperature domains of possible realization of internal optical bistability in flat quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor nanoheterostructures with a single quantum well (i.e., nanofilms). Particular computations have been made for a nanofilm of layered semiconductor PbI2 embedded in dielectric medium, i.e. ethylene-methacrylic acid (E-MAA) copolymer. It is shown that an increase in the nanofilm's thickness leads to a long-wave shift of the frequency range of the manifestation the phenomenon of bistability, to increase the size of the hysteresis loop, as well as to the expansion of the temperature interval at which the realization of this phenomenon is possible.

  15. Stochastic sensitivity of a bistable energy model for visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarchik, Alexander N.; Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev

    2017-01-01

    Modern trends in physiology, psychology and cognitive neuroscience suggest that noise is an essential component of brain functionality and self-organization. With adequate noise the brain as a complex dynamical system can easily access different ordered states and improve signal detection for decision-making by preventing deadlocks. Using a stochastic sensitivity function approach, we analyze how sensitive equilibrium points are to Gaussian noise in a bistable energy model often used for qualitative description of visual perception. The probability distribution of noise-induced transitions between two coexisting percepts is calculated at different noise intensity and system stability. Stochastic squeezing of the hysteresis range and its transition from positive (bistable regime) to negative (intermittency regime) are demonstrated as the noise intensity increases. The hysteresis is more sensitive to noise in the system with higher stability.

  16. Autocatalytic, bistable, oscillatory networks of biologically relevant organic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Sergey N.; Kraft, Lewis J.; Ainla, Alar; Zhao, Mengxia; Baghbanzadeh, Mostafa; Campbell, Victoria E.; Kang, Kyungtae; Fox, Jerome M.; Whitesides, George M.

    2016-09-01

    Networks of organic chemical reactions are important in life and probably played a central part in its origin. Network dynamics regulate cell division, circadian rhythms, nerve impulses and chemotaxis, and guide the development of organisms. Although out-of-equilibrium networks of chemical reactions have the potential to display emergent network dynamics such as spontaneous pattern formation, bistability and periodic oscillations, the principles that enable networks of organic reactions to develop complex behaviours are incompletely understood. Here we describe a network of biologically relevant organic reactions (amide formation, thiolate-thioester exchange, thiolate-disulfide interchange and conjugate addition) that displays bistability and oscillations in the concentrations of organic thiols and amides. Oscillations arise from the interaction between three subcomponents of the network: an autocatalytic cycle that generates thiols and amides from thioesters and dialkyl disulfides; a trigger that controls autocatalytic growth; and inhibitory processes that remove activating thiol species that are produced during the autocatalytic cycle. In contrast to previous studies that have demonstrated oscillations and bistability using highly evolved biomolecules (enzymes and DNA) or inorganic molecules of questionable biochemical relevance (for example, those used in Belousov-Zhabotinskii-type reactions), the organic molecules we use are relevant to metabolism and similar to those that might have existed on the early Earth. By using small organic molecules to build a network of organic reactions with autocatalytic, bistable and oscillatory behaviour, we identify principles that explain the ways in which dynamic networks relevant to life could have developed. Modifications of this network will clarify the influence of molecular structure on the dynamics of reaction networks, and may enable the design of biomimetic networks and of synthetic self-regulating and evolving

  17. Brain mechanisms for simple perception and bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Megan; Arteaga, Daniel; He, Biyu J

    2013-08-27

    When faced with ambiguous sensory inputs, subjective perception alternates between the different interpretations in a stochastic manner. Such multistable perception phenomena have intrigued scientists and laymen alike for over a century. Despite rigorous investigations, the underlying mechanisms of multistable perception remain elusive. Recent studies using multivariate pattern analysis revealed that activity patterns in posterior visual areas correlate with fluctuating percepts. However, increasing evidence suggests that vision--and perception at large--is an active inferential process involving hierarchical brain systems. We applied searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging signals across the human brain to decode perceptual content during bistable perception and simple unambiguous perception. Although perceptually reflective activity patterns during simple perception localized predominantly to posterior visual regions, bistable perception involved additionally many higher-order frontoparietal and temporal regions. Moreover, compared with simple perception, both top-down and bottom-up influences were dramatically enhanced during bistable perception. We further studied the intermittent presentation of ambiguous images--a condition that is known to elicit perceptual memory. Compared with continuous presentation, intermittent presentation recruited even more higher-order regions and was accompanied by further strengthened top-down influences but relatively weakened bottom-up influences. Taken together, these results strongly support an active top-down inferential process in perception.

  18. Interplay of bistable kinetics of gene expression during cellular growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P

    2009-01-01

    In cells, the bistable kinetics of gene expression can be observed on the level of (i) one gene with positive feedback between protein and mRNA production, (ii) two genes with negative mutual feedback between protein and mRNA production, or (iii) in more complex cases. We analyse the interplay of two genes of type (ii) governed by a gene of type (i) during cellular growth. In particular, using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we show that in the case where gene 1, operating in the bistable regime, regulates mutually inhibiting genes 2 and 3, also operating in the bistable regime, the latter genes may eventually be trapped either to the state with high transcriptional activity of gene 2 and low activity of gene 3 or to the state with high transcriptional activity of gene 3 and low activity of gene 2. The probability to get to one of these states depends on the values of the model parameters. If genes 2 and 3 are kinetically equivalent, the probability is equal to 0.5. Thus, our model illustrates how different intracellular states can be chosen at random with predetermined probabilities. This type of kinetics of gene expression may be behind complex processes occurring in cells, e.g., behind the choice of the fate by stem cells

  19. Fluidic Elements based on Coanda Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin OLIVOTTO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains first some definitions and classifications regarding the fluidic elements. Thegeneral current status is presented, nominating the main specific elements based on the Coanda effect developedspecially in Romania. In particularly the development of an original bistable element using industrial compressedair at industrial pressure supply is presented. The function of this element is based on the controlled attachmentof the main jet at a curved wall through the Coanda effect. The methods used for particular calculation andexperiments are nominated. The main application of these elements was to develop a specific execution element:a fluidic step–by-step motor based on the Coanda effect.

  20. VO{sub 2}-like thermo-optical switching effect in one-dimensional nonlinear defective photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Juan, E-mail: juanzhang@staff.shu.edu.cn, E-mail: ywang@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, Rongjun [Key Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks, School of Communication and Information Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wang, Yang, E-mail: juanzhang@staff.shu.edu.cn, E-mail: ywang@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-06-07

    A new approach to achieve VO{sub 2}-like thermo-optical switching in a one-dimensional photonic crystal by the combination of thermo-optical and optical Kerr effects was proposed and numerically demonstrated in this study. The switching temperature and the hysteresis width can be tuned in a wide temperature range. Steep transition, high optical contrast, and low pumping power can be achieved at the same time. This kind of one-dimensional photonic crystal-based bistable switch will be low-cost, easy-to-fabricate, and versatile in practical applications compared with traditional VO{sub 2}-type one.

  1. Bistability in spinal motoneurons in vivo: systematic variations in rhythmic firing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R H; Heckman, C J

    1998-08-01

    In the presence of the monoamines serotonin and norepinephrine, spinal motoneurons can exhibit bistable behavior, in which a brief period of excitatory input evokes prolonged self-sustained firing. A brief inhibitory input returns the cell to the quiescent state. To determine whether motoneurons differ in their capacity for bistable behavior, intracellular recordings were obtained in the decerebrate cat preparation. To enhance the likelihood of encountering bistable behavior, the noradrenergic alpha1 agonist methoxamine was applied to the ventral surface of the cord. The capacity of the cells to produce bistable behavior was assessed from the duration of self-sustained firing evoked by a brief (1.5 s) excitatory synaptic input from muscle spindle Ia afferents. About 35% (17 of 49) of the cells produced steady self-sustained firing for >3 s and were considered fully bistable. The other 32 cells ( approximately 65%) were partially bistable, with self-sustained firing lasting zero current, so that the ascending current threshold was positive while the descending current threshold was negative. This negative offset meant that fully bistable cells could exhibit tonic firing without depolarizing injected current. Partially bistable cells exhibited very different F-I characteristics. Firing rate acceleration was just as large as in fully bistable cells but did not occur until well above the current level needed to initiate rhythmic firing. F-I gain after acceleration was negative, there was little to no hysteresis between the ascending and descending firing thresholds, and both thresholds were above the zero current level. These properties of partially bistable cells suggest their functional role is in tasks requiring relatively brief, high forces. The low thresholds of fully bistable cells mean they will be readily recruited in low force tasks like posture, where their prolonged self-sustained firing would be advantageous.

  2. Thermal Response and Stability Characteristics of Bistable Composite Laminates by Considering Temperature Dependent Material Properties and Resin Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M.; Ziaei-Rad, S.; Salehi, H.

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the stability characteristics and thermal response of a bistable composite plate with different asymmetric composition were considered. The non-linear finite element method (FEM) was utilized to determine the response of the laminate. Attention was focused on the temperature dependency of laminate mechanical properties, especially on the thermal expansion coefficients of the composite graphite-epoxy plate. Also the effect of including the resin layers on the stability characteristics of the laminate was investigated. The effect of the temperature on the laminate cured configurations in the range of 25°C to 180°C and -60°C to 40°C was examined. The results indicate that the coefficient of thermal expansions has a major effect on the cured shapes. Next, optical microscopy was used to characterize the laminate composition and for the first time the effect of including the resin layers on the actuation loads that causes snapping behavior between two stable shapes was studied. The results obtained from the finite element simulations were compared with experimental results and a good correlation was obtained. Finally, the stability characteristics of a tapered composite panel were investigated for using in a sample winglet as a candidate application of bistable structures.

  3. Direct design of an energy landscape with bistable DNA origami mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifeng; Marras, Alexander E; Su, Hai-Jun; Castro, Carlos E

    2015-03-11

    Structural DNA nanotechnology provides a feasible technique for the design and fabrication of complex geometries even exhibiting controllable dynamic behavior. Recently we have demonstrated the possibility of implementing macroscopic engineering design approaches to construct DNA origami mechanisms (DOM) with programmable motion and tunable flexibility. Here, we implement the design of compliant DNA origami mechanisms to extend from prescribing motion to prescribing an energy landscape. Compliant mechanisms facilitate motion via deformation of components with tunable stiffness resulting in well-defined mechanical energy stored in the structure. We design, fabricate, and characterize a DNA origami nanostructure with an energy landscape defined by two stable states (local energy minima) separated by a designed energy barrier. This nanostructure is a four-bar bistable mechanism with two undeformed states. Traversing between those states requires deformation, and hence mechanical energy storage, in a compliant arm of the linkage. The energy barrier for switching between two states was obtained from the conformational distribution based on a Boltzmann probability function and closely follows a predictive mechanical model. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability to actuate the mechanism into one stable state via additional DNA inputs and then release the actuation via DNA strand displacement. This controllable multistate system establishes a foundation for direct design of energy landscapes that regulate conformational dynamics similar to biomolecular complexes.

  4. A Bistable Circuit Involving SCARECROW-RETINOBLASTOMA Integrates Cues to Inform Asymmetric Stem Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Díaz-Triviño, Sara; Blilou, Ikram; Grieneisen, Verônica A.; Sozzani, Rosangela; Zamioudis, Christos; Miskolczi, Pál; Nieuwland, Jeroen; Benjamins, René; Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Horvath, Beatrix; Long, Yuchen; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Zhang, Hongtao; Xu, Jian; Murray, James A.H.; Benfey, Philip N.; Bako, Laszlo; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Scheres, Ben

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In plants, where cells cannot migrate, asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) must be confined to the appropriate spatial context. We investigate tissue-generating asymmetric divisions in a stem cell daughter within the Arabidopsis root. Spatial restriction of these divisions requires physical binding of the stem cell regulator SCARECROW (SCR) by the RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) protein. In the stem cell niche, SCR activity is counteracted by phosphorylation of RBR through a cyclinD6;1-CDK complex. This cyclin is itself under transcriptional control of SCR and its partner SHORT ROOT (SHR), creating a robust bistable circuit with either high or low SHR-SCR complex activity. Auxin biases this circuit by promoting CYCD6;1 transcription. Mathematical modeling shows that ACDs are only switched on after integration of radial and longitudinal information, determined by SHR and auxin distribution, respectively. Coupling of cell-cycle progression to protein degradation resets the circuit, resulting in a “flip flop” that constrains asymmetric cell division to the stem cell region. PMID:22921914

  5. Electric bistability induced by incorporating self-assembled monolayers/aggregated clusters of azobenzene derivatives in pentacene-based thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chiao-Wei; Huang, Ding-Chi; Tao, Yu-Tai

    2012-10-24

    Composite films of pentacene and a series of azobenzene derivatives are prepared and used as the active channel material in top-contact, bottom-gate field-effect transistors. The transistors exhibit high field-effect mobility as well as large I-V hysteresis as a function of the gate bias history. The azobenzene moieties, incorporated either in the form of self-assembled monolayer or discrete multilayer clusters at the dielectric surface, result in electric bistability of the pentacene-based transistor either by photoexcitation or gate biasing. The direction of threshold voltage shifts, size of hysteresis, response time, and retention characteristics all strongly depend on the substituent on the benzene ring. The results show that introducing a monolayer of azobenzene moieties results in formation of charge carrier traps responsible for slower switching between the bistable states and longer retention time. With clusters of azobenzene moieties as the trap sites, the switching is faster but the retention is shorter. Detailed film structure analyses and correlation with the transistor/memory properties of these devices are provided.

  6. Cooperativity Leads to Temporally-Correlated Fluctuations in the Bacteriophage Lambda Genetic Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Quinn Shenker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative interactions are widespread in biochemical networks, providing the nonlinear response that underlies behavior such as ultrasensitivity and robust switching. We introduce a temporal correlation function—the conditional activity—to study the behavior of these phenomena. Applying it to the bistable genetic switch in bacteriophage lambda, we find that cooperative binding between binding sites on the prophage DNA lead to non-Markovian behavior, as quantified by the conditional activity. Previously, the conditional activity has been used to predict allosteric pathways in proteins; here, we show that it identifies the rare unbinding events which underlie induction from lysogeny to lysis.

  7. Configurational rearrangements of bistable centers in covalent semiconductors - phase transitions of the second type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanyukovich, V.A.; Karas', V.I.; Lomako, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new radiation configurational-bistable defect diffring from the known similar defects by the fact that it possessestemperature inversion of states is detected in gallium arsenide. Configurational-bistable rearrangements are shown to be considered as phase transitions of the second type

  8. Bistable traveling waves for a competitive-cooperative system with nonlocal delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanling; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2018-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of bistable traveling waves for a competitive-cooperative reaction and diffusion system with nonlocal time delays. The existence of bistable waves is established by appealing to the theory of monotone semiflows and the finite-delay approximations. Then the global stability of such traveling waves is obtained via a squeezing technique and a dynamical systems approach.

  9. Changes in the configuration of bistable centers in covalent semiconductors. Second-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanyukovich, V.A.; Karas', V.I.; Lomako, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new radiation defect with a bistable configuration was discovered in gallium arsenide. It differed from similar known defects by an inversion of states caused by variation of temperature. It is shown that configuration-bistable modifications of the structure can be regarded as second-order phase transitions

  10. Topical Meeting on Optical Bistability Held at Rochester, New York on 15-17 June 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    ThB16-1 SELF-BEATING INSTABILITIES IN BISTABLE DEVICES J.A. MARTIN-PEREDA .. M.A. MURIEL DEPARTAMENTO DE ELECTRONICA CUANTICA E.T.S. ING...OPTICAL BISTABLL SYSTEMS J.A. MARTIN PEREDA M.A. MURIEL ; DEPARTAMENIO DE ELECTRONICA CUANTICA E.T.S. ING. TELLCOMUNICACION UNIVERSIDAD POLITECNICA DE

  11. Bistable traveling wave solutions in a competitive recursion system with Ricker nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Pan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using an abstract scheme of monotone semiflows, the existence of bistable traveling wave solutions of a competitive recursion system is established. From the viewpoint of population dynamics, the bistable traveling wave solutions describe the strong inter-specific actions between two competitive species.

  12. Simulation of linear Switched Reluctance Motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Amoros, Jordi; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Andrada Gascón, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of linear switched reluctance motor drives. A Matlab-Simulink environment coupled with finite element analysis is used to perform the simulations. Experimental and simulation results for a double sided linear switched motor drive prototype are reported and compared to verify the simulation model.

  13. Single motor–variable stiffness actuator using bistable switching mechanisms for independent motion and stiffness control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Stefan; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    This paper presents a proof of concept of a variable stiffness actuator (VSA) that uses only one (high power) input motor. In general, VSAs use two (high power) motors to be able to control both the output position and the output stiffness, which possibly results in a heavy, and bulky system. In

  14. A Bistable Switch and Anatomical Site Control Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression in the Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard; Dolganov, N. A.; Rasmussen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental, but unanswered question in host-pathogen interactions is the timing, localization and population distribution of virulence gene expression during infection. Here, microarray and in situ single cell expression methods were used to study Vibrio cholerae growth and virulence gene...... expression during infection of the rabbit ligated ileal loop model of cholera. Genes encoding the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT) were powerfully expressed early in the infectious process in bacteria adjacent to epithelial surfaces. Increased growth was found to co......, a chemical inducer of virulence gene expression. Striking bifurcation of the population occurred during entry into stationary phase: one subpopulation continued to express tcpA, whereas the expression declined in the other subpopulation. ctxA, encoding the A subunit of CT, and toxT, encoding the proximal...

  15. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, Kaushik; Zhan, Bihong; Mohan, M. L. N. Madhu; Schirhagl, Romana; Wang, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. In this article, we exhibit a simple, one-step bench top synthesis of zinc oxide nano-tetrapods and nano-spheres which were tailored by the facial growth of nano-wires

  16. A Bistable Gene Switch for Antibiotic Biosynthesis : The Butyrolactone Regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehra, Sarika; Charaniya, Salim; Takano, Eriko; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2008-01-01

    Many microorganisms, including bacteria of the class Streptomycetes, produce various secondary metabolites including antibiotics to gain a competitive advantage in their natural habitat. The production of these compounds is highly coordinated in a population to expedite accumulation to an effective

  17. Optical bistability via quantum interference from incoherent pumping and spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahrai, M.; Asadpour, S.H.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistability (OB) in a V-type three-level atomic system confined in a unidirectional ring cavity via incoherent pumping field. It is shown that the threshold of optical bistability can be controlled by the rate of an incoherent pumping field and by interference mechanism arising from the spontaneous emission and incoherent pumping field. We demonstrate that the optical bistability converts to optical multi-stability (OM) by the quantum interference mechanism. - Highlights: → We modulate the optical bistability (OB) in a four-level N-type atomic system. → The threshold of optical bistability can be controlled by the quantum interferences. → OB converts to optical multi-stability (OM) by the quantum interferences. → We discuss the effect of an incoherent pumping field on reduction of OB threshold.

  18. A review of the recent research on vibration energy harvesting via bistable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harne, R L; Wang, K W

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of the conversion of vibrational energy into electrical power has become a major field of research. In recent years, bistable energy harvesting devices have attracted significant attention due to some of their unique features. Through a snap-through action, bistable systems transition from one stable state to the other, which could cause large amplitude motion and dramatically increase power generation. Due to their nonlinear characteristics, such devices may be effective across a broad-frequency bandwidth. Consequently, a rapid engagement of research has been undertaken to understand bistable electromechanical dynamics and to utilize the insight for the development of improved designs. This paper reviews, consolidates, and reports on the major efforts and findings documented in the literature. A common analytical framework for bistable electromechanical dynamics is presented, the principal results are provided, the wide variety of bistable energy harvesters are described, and some remaining challenges and proposed solutions are summarized. (topical review)

  19. Determinants of bistability in induction of the Escherichia coli lac operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisigmeyer, D W; Stajic, J; Nemenman, I; Hlavacek, W S; Wall, M E

    2008-09-01

    The authors have developed a mathematical model of regulation of expression of the Escherichia coli lac operon, and have investigated bistability in its steady-state induction behaviour in the absence of external glucose. Numerical analysis of equations describing regulation by artificial inducers revealed two natural bistability parameters that can be used to control the range of inducer concentrations over which the model exhibits bistability. By tuning these bistability parameters, the authors found a family of biophysically reasonable systems that are consistent with an experimentally determined bistable region for induction by thio-methylgalactoside (TMG) (in Ozbudak et al. Nature, 2004, 427; p. 737). To model regulation by lactose, the authors developed similar equations in which allolactose, a metabolic intermediate in lactose metabolism and a natural inducer of lac, is the inducer. For biophysically reasonable parameter values, these equations yield no bistability in response to induction by lactose - only systems with an unphysically small permease-dependent export effect can exhibit small amounts of bistability for limited ranges of parameter values. These results cast doubt on the relevance of bistability in the lac operon within the natural context of E. coli, and help shed light on the controversy among existing theoretical studies that address this issue. The results also motivate a deeper experimental characterisation of permease-independent transport of lac inducers, and suggest an experimental approach to address the relevance of bistability in the lac operon within the natural context of E. coli. The sensitivity of lac bistability to the type of inducer emphasises the importance of metabolism in determining the functions of genetic regulatory networks.

  20. Comparison of switching control algorithms effective in restricting the switching in the neighborhood of the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, JinWook; Chung, Lan; Smyth, Andrew W

    2010-01-01

    The active interaction control (AIC) system consisting of a primary structure, an auxiliary structure and an interaction element was proposed to protect the primary structure against earthquakes and winds. The objective of the AIC system in reducing the responses of the primary structure is fulfilled by activating or deactivating the switching between the engagement and the disengagement of the primary and auxiliary structures through the interaction element. The status of the interaction element is controlled by switching control algorithms. The previously developed switching control algorithms require an excessive amount of switching, which is inefficient. In this paper, the excessive amount of switching is restricted by imposing an appropriately designed switching boundary region, where switching is prohibited, on pre-designed engagement–disengagement conditions. Two different approaches are used in designing the newly proposed AID-off and AID-off 2 algorithms. The AID-off 2 algorithm is designed to affect deactivated switching regions explicitly, unlike the AID-off algorithm, which follows the same procedure of designing the engagement–disengagement conditions of the previously developed algorithms, by using the current status of the AIC system. Both algorithms are shown to be effective in reducing the amount of switching times triggered from the previously developed AID algorithm under an appropriately selected control sampling period for different earthquakes, but the AID-off 2 algorithm outperforms the AID-off algorithm in reducing the number of switching times

  1. Noticeable positive Doppler effect on optical bistability in an N-type active Raman gain atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zeng-Guang; Zhang Jing-Tao; Niu Yue-Ping; Gong Shang-Qing

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the Doppler effect on optical bistability in an N-type active Raman gain atomic system inside an optical ring cavity. It is shown that the Doppler effect can greatly enhance the dispersion and thus create the bistable behaviour or greatly increase the bistable region, which has been known as the positive Doppler effect on optical bistability. In addition, we find that a positive Doppler effect can change optical bistability from the hybrid dispersion-gain type to a dispersive type

  2. Spatial bistability generates hunchback expression sharpness in the Drosophila embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J P Lopes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, the positional information provided by concentration gradients of maternal factors directs pattern formation by providing spatially dependent cues for gene expression. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, a classic example of this is the sharp on-off activation of the hunchback (hb gene at midembryo, in response to local concentrations of the smooth anterior-posterior Bicoid (Bcd gradient. The regulatory region for hb contains multiple binding sites for the Bcd protein as well as multiple binding sites for the Hb protein. Some previous studies have suggested that Bcd is sufficient for properly sharpened Hb expression, yet other evidence suggests a need for additional regulation. We experimentally quantified the dynamics of hb gene expression in flies that were wild-type, were mutant for hb self-regulation or Bcd binding, or contained an artificial promoter construct consisting of six Bcd and two Hb sites. In addition to these experiments, we developed a reaction-diffusion model of hb transcription, with Bcd cooperative binding and hb self-regulation, and used Zero Eigenvalue Analysis to look for multiple stationary states in the reaction network. Our model reproduces the hb developmental dynamics and correctly predicts the mutant patterns. Analysis of our model indicates that the Hb sharpness can be produced by spatial bistability, in which hb self-regulation produces two stable levels of expression. In the absence of self-regulation, the bistable behavior vanishes and Hb sharpness is disrupted. Bcd cooperative binding affects the position where bistability occurs but is not itself sufficient for a sharp Hb pattern. Our results show that the control of Hb sharpness and positioning, by hb self-regulation and Bcd cooperativity, respectively, are separate processes that can be altered independently. Our model, which matches the changes in Hb position and sharpness observed in different experiments, provides a

  3. Application of the Asymptotic Taylor Expansion Method to Bistable Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Ozer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent method called asymptotic Taylor expansion (ATEM is applied to determine the analytical expression for eigenfunctions and numerical results for eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation for the bistable potentials. Optimal truncation of the Taylor series gives a best possible analytical expression for eigenfunctions and numerical results for eigenvalues. It is shown that the results are obtained by a simple algorithm constructed for a computer system using symbolic or numerical calculation. It is observed that ATEM produces excellent results consistent with the existing literature.

  4. Bistable Helmholtz solitons in cubic-quintic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a nonlinear Helmholtz equation for modeling the evolution of broad optical beams in media with a cubic-quintic intensity-dependent refractive index. This type of nonlinearity is appropriate for some semiconductor materials, glasses, and polymers. Exact analytical soliton solutions are presented that describe self-trapped nonparaxial beams propagating at any angle with respect to the reference direction. These spatially symmetric solutions are, to the best of our knowledge, the first bistable Helmholtz solitons to be derived. Accompanying conservation laws (both integral and particular forms) are also reported. Numerical simulations investigate the stability of the solitons, which appear to be remarkably robust against perturbations

  5. Intercellular calcium waves in glial cells with bistable dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Shuai, Jianwei

    2011-04-01

    A two-dimensional model is proposed for intercellular calcium (Ca2 +) waves with Ca2 +-induced IP3 regeneration and the diffusion of IP3 through gap junctions. Many experimental observations in glial cells, i.e. responding to local mechanical stimulation, glutamate application, mechanical stimulation followed by ACh application, and glutamate followed by mechanical stimulation, are reproduced and classified by the model. We show that a glial cell model with bistable dynamics, i.e. a Ca2 + oscillation state coexisting with a fixed point, can cause a prolonged plateau of Ca2 + signals in the cells nearby the stimulated cell when the cell network responds to the local mechanical stimulation.

  6. Entire solutions for bistable lattice differential equations with obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Aaron; Vleck, E S Van

    2018-01-01

    The authors consider scalar lattice differential equations posed on square lattices in two space dimensions. Under certain natural conditions they show that wave-like solutions exist when obstacles (characterized by "holes") are present in the lattice. Their work generalizes to the discrete spatial setting the results obtained in Berestycki, Hamel, and Matuno (2009) for the propagation of waves around obstacles in continuous spatial domains. The analysis hinges upon the development of sub and super-solutions for a class of discrete bistable reaction-diffusion problems and on a generalization of a classical result due to Aronson and Weinberger that concerns the spreading of localized disturbances.

  7. Optical bistability of graphene in the terahertz range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Bludov, Yu V.; Santos, Jaime E.

    2014-01-01

    We use an exact solution of the relaxation-time Boltzmann equation in a uniform ac electric field to describe the nonlinear optical response of graphene in the terahertz (THz) range. The cases of monolayer, bilayer, and ABA-stacked trilayer graphene are considered, and the monolayer species...... is shown to be the most appropriate one to exploit the nonlinear free electron response. We find that a single layer of graphene shows optical bistability in the THz range, within the electromagnetic power range attainable in practice. The current associated with the third harmonic generation is also...

  8. Voltage-driven beam bistability in a reorientational uniaxial dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Piccardi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on voltage controlled bistability of optical beams propagating in a nonlocal reorientational uniaxial dielectric, namely, nematic liquid crystals. In the nonlinear regime where spatial solitons can be generated, two stable states are accessible to a beam of given power in a finite interval of applied voltages, one state corresponding to linear diffraction and the other to self-confinement. We observe such a first-order transition and the associated hysteresis in a configuration when both the beam and the voltage reorientate the molecules beyond a threshold.

  9. A Switch Architecture For Real-time Multimedia Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a switch that can be used to transfer multimedia type of trafJic. The switch provides a guaranteed throughput and a bounded latency. We focus on the design of a prototype Switching Element using the new technology opportunities being offered today. The architecture meets the

  10. Model-based design of bistable cell factories for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Shyam; Cluett, William R; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2018-04-15

    Metabolism can exhibit dynamic phenomena like bistability due to the presence of regulatory motifs like the positive feedback loop. As cell factories, microorganisms with bistable metabolism can have a high and a low product flux at the two stable steady states, respectively. The exclusion of metabolic regulation and network dynamics limits the ability of pseudo-steady state stoichiometric models to detect the presence of bistability, and reliably assess the outcomes of design perturbations to metabolic networks. Using kinetic models of metabolism, we assess the change in the bistable characteristics of the network, and suggest designs based on perturbations to the positive feedback loop to enable the network to produce at its theoretical maximum rate. We show that the most optimal production design in parameter space, for a small bistable metabolic network, may exist at the boundary of the bistable region separating it from the monostable region of low product fluxes. The results of our analysis can be broadly applied to other bistable metabolic networks with similar positive feedback network topologies. This can complement existing model-based design strategies by providing a smaller number of feasible designs that need to be tested in vivo. http://lmse.biozone.utoronto.ca/downloads/. krishna.mahadevan@utoronto.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Boolean models can explain bistability in the lac operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Stigler, Brandilyn

    2011-06-01

    The lac operon in Escherichia coli has been studied extensively and is one of the earliest gene systems found to undergo both positive and negative control. The lac operon is known to exhibit bistability, in the sense that the operon is either induced or uninduced. Many dynamical models have been proposed to capture this phenomenon. While most are based on complex mathematical formulations, it has been suggested that for other gene systems network topology is sufficient to produce the desired dynamical behavior. We present a Boolean network as a discrete model for the lac operon. Our model includes the two main glucose control mechanisms of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. We show that this Boolean model is capable of predicting the ON and OFF steady states and bistability. Further, we present a reduced model which shows that lac mRNA and lactose form the core of the lac operon, and that this reduced model exhibits the same dynamics. This work suggests that the key to model qualitative dynamics of gene systems is the topology of the network and Boolean models are well suited for this purpose.

  12. Optical bi-stable shutter development/improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizon, J. L.; Haddad, N.; Castillo, R.

    2012-09-01

    Two of the VLT instruments (Giraffe and VIMOS) are using the large magnetic E/150 from Prontor (with an aperture diameter of 150 mm). As we were facing an unacceptable number of failures with this component some improvement plan was discussed already in 2004. The final decision for starting this program was conditioned by the decision from the constructor to stop the production. The opportunity was taken to improve the design building a fully bi-stable mechanism in order to reduce the thermal dissipation. The project was developed in collaboration between the two main ESO sites doing the best use of the manpower and of the technical capability available at the two centers. The project took advantage of the laser Mask Manufacturing Unit and the invar sheets used to prepare the VIMOS MOS mask to fabricate the shutter petals. Our paper describes the development including the intensive and long optimization period. To conclude this optimization we proceed with a long life test on two units. These units have demonstrate a very high level of reliability (up to 100 000 cycles without failure which can be estimated to an equivalent 6 years of operation of the instrument) A new bi-stable shutter driver and controller have also been developed. Some of the highlights of this unit are the fully configurable coil driving parameters, usage of braking strategy to dump mechanical vibration and reduce mechanical wearing, configurable usage of OPEN and CLOSE sensors, non volatile storage of parameters, user friendly front panel interface.

  13. Optical nonlinearity and bistability in the bound exciton energy range of CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, T.; Gutowski, J.

    1988-01-01

    Under high excitation conditions thick CdS samples show pronounced broad-band nonlinear transmission in the bound exciton region and up to a wavelength of about 515 nm at cryo-temperatures. This behavior is only explainable in a model based on impurity neutralization and bound exciton creation. The suitability of these nonlinearities to yield optical bistability will be shown. Bistable operation is investigated in dependence of crystal thickness, impurity concentration, excitation density, wavelength, and temperature. A strong correlation to acceptor-bound exciton generation is obtained, and the explanation of this bistable operation fits well with that of the above mentioned transmission behavior. (author)

  14. Bistability Analysis of Excitatory-Inhibitory Neural Networks in Limited-Sustained-Activity Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yun; Wu Liang; Wu Dan; Zhu Shiqun

    2011-01-01

    Bistable behavior of neuronal complex networks is investigated in the limited-sustained-activity regime when the network is composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The standard stability analysis is performed on the two metastable states separately. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show consistently that the difference between time scales of excitatory and inhibitory populations can influence the dynamical behaviors of the neuronal networks dramatically, leading to the transition from bistable behaviors with memory effects to the collapse of bistable behaviors. These results may suggest one possible neuronal information processing by only tuning time scales. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Ultra-fast all-optical plasmonic switching in near infra-red spectrum using a Kerr nonlinear ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmohammadi, Tofiq; Abbasian, Karim; Yadipour, Reza

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an all-optical plasmonic switch based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanoplasmonic waveguide with a Kerr nonlinear ring resonator is introduced and studied. Two-dimensional simulations utilizing the finite-difference time-domain algorithm are used to demonstrate an apparent optical bistability and significant switching mechanisms (in enabled-low condition: T(ON/OFF) =21.9 and in enabled-high condition: T(ON/OFF) =24.9) of the signal light arisen by altering the pump-light intensity. The proposed all-optical switching demonstrates femtosecond-scale feedback time (90 fs) and then ultra-fast switching can be achieved. The offered all-optical switch may recognize potential significant applications in integrated optical circuits.

  16. Photoresistance switching of plasmonic nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Nicoli, Francesca; Chen, Chang; Lagae, Liesbet; Groeseneken, Guido; Stakenborg, Tim; Zandbergen, Henny W; Dekker, Cees; Van Dorpe, Pol; Jonsson, Magnus P

    2015-01-14

    Fast and reversible modulation of ion flow through nanosized apertures is important for many nanofluidic applications, including sensing and separation systems. Here, we present the first demonstration of a reversible plasmon-controlled nanofluidic valve. We show that plasmonic nanopores (solid-state nanopores integrated with metal nanocavities) can be used as a fluidic switch upon optical excitation. We systematically investigate the effects of laser illumination of single plasmonic nanopores and experimentally demonstrate photoresistance switching where fluidic transport and ion flow are switched on or off. This is manifested as a large (∼ 1-2 orders of magnitude) increase in the ionic nanopore resistance and an accompanying current rectification upon illumination at high laser powers (tens of milliwatts). At lower laser powers, the resistance decreases monotonically with increasing power, followed by an abrupt transition to high resistances at a certain threshold power. A similar rapid transition, although at a lower threshold power, is observed when the power is instead swept from high to low power. This hysteretic behavior is found to be dependent on the rate of the power sweep. The photoresistance switching effect is attributed to plasmon-induced formation and growth of nanobubbles that reversibly block the ionic current through the nanopore from one side of the membrane. This explanation is corroborated by finite-element simulations of a nanobubble in the nanopore that show the switching and the rectification.

  17. A metric for characterizing the bistability of molecular quantum-dot cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuhui; Lent, Craig S

    2008-04-16

    Much of molecular electronics involves trying to use molecules as (a) wires, (b) diodes or (c) field-effect transistors. In each case the criterion for determining good performance is well known: for wires it is conductance, for diodes it is conductance asymmetry, while for transistors it is high transconductance. Candidate molecules can be screened in terms of these criteria by calculating molecular conductivity in forward and reverse directions, and in the presence of a gating field. Hence so much theoretical work has focused on understanding molecular conductance. In contrast a molecule used as a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) cell conducts no current at all. The keys to QCA functionality are (a) charge localization, (b) bistable charge switching within the cell and (c) electric field coupling between one molecular cell and its neighbor. The combination of these effects can be examined using the cell-cell response function which relates the polarization of one cell to the induced polarization of a neighboring cell. The response function can be obtained by calculating the molecular electronic structure with ab initio quantum chemistry techniques. We present an analysis of molecular QCA performance that can be applied to any candidate molecule. From the full quantum chemistry, all-electron ab initio calculations we extract parameters for a reduced-state model which reproduces the cell-cell response function very well. Techniques from electron transfer theory are used to derive analytical models of the response function and can be employed on molecules too large for full ab initio treatment. A metric is derived which characterizes molecular QCA performance the way transconductance characterizes transistor performance. This metric can be assessed from absorption measurements of the electron transfer band or quantum chemistry calculations of appropriate sophistication.

  18. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  19. Bistability and hysteresis in epigenetic regulation of the lactose operon. Since Delbrück, a long series of ignored models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, M; Charvin, G; Guespin-Michel, J

    2005-12-14

    Bistability is the capacity of a system to switch in an "all-or-none" manner between alternative steady states. This powerful concept originates from the analysis of non-linear equations driving open systems. It is one of the various patterns of regulation associated with a particular class of dynamic structures that Glansdorff and Prigogine baptised "dissipative structures". The idea of discontinuous transitions between alternative states was first formulated much earlier, by Delbrück, in 1949. Cohn and Horibata and Novick and Weiner confirmed that such transitions occur in experiments on the lactose operon carried out ten years later. Modelling with non-linear differential equations made it possible to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the lac operon, and modelling by asynchronous logical analysis elucidated the determinant role played by positive feedback circuits in the emergence of multistationarity. Nevertheless, these studies were largely ignored until the recent demonstration of the hysteretic nature of the bistable transition between alternative states of the lac operon. As originally suggested by Delbrück, the pattern of lactose consumption adopted by the bacterium is controlled epigenetically rather than genetically: the true key determinant is the direction of change of an environmental variable with respect to the structural components of the operon.

  20. Optical bistability in the oscillation of an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-three-level laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junhai; Tian, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical modeling analysis is presented to study the optical bistability exhibited in the oscillation of an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-three-level laser. All the major characteristics of optical bistability depend on two normalized parameters, f and x a , which are defined by f = I sat,a /I sat,m and x a = 2α a0 p a /δ and are related to measurable properties of the laser medium. In comparison with the case of a homogeneously broadened laser, the essential condition for the occurrence of such bistability, f a /(x a + 1), turns out to be the same, whereas the intensities at the up- and down-thresholds are substantially increased and the bistability range is reduced. (paper)

  1. Optical bistability of a thin film of resonant atoms in a phase-sensitive thermostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharov, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown theoretically that when a thin film of two-level atoms interacting with a resonant coherent electromagnetic wave is additionally illuminated with a squeezed field, a bistable transmission/reflection regime for coherent waves is obtained. This regime depends strongly on the phase difference between the coherent and the squeezed fields. New regimes, including a bistable regime, for the interaction of a coherent field with a film of resonant atoms are predicted based on this phenomenon. 14 refs., 5 figs

  2. Bistability of heat transfer of a viscous liquid under conditions of flow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkikh, A.V.; Seleznev, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    The heat exchange model for a viscous liquid flowing under the pressure drop effect in a tube, surrounded by the medium with a lower temperature, is considered. It is shown that the system bistable behavior is possible by availability of the liquid viscosity exponential dependence on the temperature and by negligible dissipative heat release. The transitions between cold and hot flows in this case should proceed by a jump. The liquid and channel parameters, whereby the bistability may be observed, are determined [ru

  3. Heat dissipation and information flow for delayed bistable Langevin systems near coherence resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tiejun

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, stochastic thermodynamics of delayed bistable Langevin systems near coherence resonance is discussed. We calculate the heat dissipation rate and the information flow of a delayed bistable Langevin system under various noise intensities. Both the heat dissipation rate and the information flow are found to be bell-shaped functions of the noise intensity, which implies that coherence resonance manifests itself in the thermodynamic properties.

  4. A predictive coding account of bistable perception - a model-based fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilnhammer, Veith; Stuke, Heiner; Hesselmann, Guido; Sterzer, Philipp; Schmack, Katharina

    2017-05-01

    In bistable vision, subjective perception wavers between two interpretations of a constant ambiguous stimulus. This dissociation between conscious perception and sensory stimulation has motivated various empirical studies on the neural correlates of bistable perception, but the neurocomputational mechanism behind endogenous perceptual transitions has remained elusive. Here, we recurred to a generic Bayesian framework of predictive coding and devised a model that casts endogenous perceptual transitions as a consequence of prediction errors emerging from residual evidence for the suppressed percept. Data simulations revealed close similarities between the model's predictions and key temporal characteristics of perceptual bistability, indicating that the model was able to reproduce bistable perception. Fitting the predictive coding model to behavioural data from an fMRI-experiment on bistable perception, we found a correlation across participants between the model parameter encoding perceptual stabilization and the behaviourally measured frequency of perceptual transitions, corroborating that the model successfully accounted for participants' perception. Formal model comparison with established models of bistable perception based on mutual inhibition and adaptation, noise or a combination of adaptation and noise was used for the validation of the predictive coding model against the established models. Most importantly, model-based analyses of the fMRI data revealed that prediction error time-courses derived from the predictive coding model correlated with neural signal time-courses in bilateral inferior frontal gyri and anterior insulae. Voxel-wise model selection indicated a superiority of the predictive coding model over conventional analysis approaches in explaining neural activity in these frontal areas, suggesting that frontal cortex encodes prediction errors that mediate endogenous perceptual transitions in bistable perception. Taken together, our current work

  5. A predictive coding account of bistable perception - a model-based fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veith Weilnhammer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In bistable vision, subjective perception wavers between two interpretations of a constant ambiguous stimulus. This dissociation between conscious perception and sensory stimulation has motivated various empirical studies on the neural correlates of bistable perception, but the neurocomputational mechanism behind endogenous perceptual transitions has remained elusive. Here, we recurred to a generic Bayesian framework of predictive coding and devised a model that casts endogenous perceptual transitions as a consequence of prediction errors emerging from residual evidence for the suppressed percept. Data simulations revealed close similarities between the model's predictions and key temporal characteristics of perceptual bistability, indicating that the model was able to reproduce bistable perception. Fitting the predictive coding model to behavioural data from an fMRI-experiment on bistable perception, we found a correlation across participants between the model parameter encoding perceptual stabilization and the behaviourally measured frequency of perceptual transitions, corroborating that the model successfully accounted for participants' perception. Formal model comparison with established models of bistable perception based on mutual inhibition and adaptation, noise or a combination of adaptation and noise was used for the validation of the predictive coding model against the established models. Most importantly, model-based analyses of the fMRI data revealed that prediction error time-courses derived from the predictive coding model correlated with neural signal time-courses in bilateral inferior frontal gyri and anterior insulae. Voxel-wise model selection indicated a superiority of the predictive coding model over conventional analysis approaches in explaining neural activity in these frontal areas, suggesting that frontal cortex encodes prediction errors that mediate endogenous perceptual transitions in bistable perception. Taken together

  6. The rate dependent response of a bistable chain at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benichou, Itamar; Zhang, Yaojun; Dudko, Olga K.; Givli, Sefi

    2016-10-01

    We study the rate dependent response of a bistable chain subjected to thermal fluctuations. The study is motivated by the fact that the behavior of this model system is prototypical to a wide range of nonlinear processes in materials physics, biology and chemistry. To account for the stochastic nature of the system response, we formulate a set of governing equations for the evolution of the probability density of meta-stable configurations. Based on this approach, we calculate the behavior for a wide range of parametric values, such as rate, temperature, overall stiffness, and number of elements in the chain. Our results suggest that fundamental characteristics of the response, such as average transition stress and hysteresis, can be captured by a simple law which folds the influence of all these factors into a single non-dimensional quantity. We also show that the applicability of analytical results previously obtained for single-well systems can be extended to systems having multiple wells by proper definition of rate and of the transition stress.

  7. Angular dependence of the exchange bias for the bistable state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuhao [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004 (China); Research College of materials science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004 (China); Xu, Xiaohong, E-mail: xuxh@dns.sxnu.edu.cn [Research College of materials science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004 (China); Key Laboratory of Magnetic Molecules and Magnetic Information Materials, Ministry of Education, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004 (China)

    2017-06-15

    The angular dependence of the exchange bias (ADEB) has been investigated in detail when the exchange-coupled ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer is in the bistable state. Complete and incomplete jump phenomena were found at the intrinsic easy and hard axes, when they pass through two special positions making the angular deviation of 58.2826° and 121.7174° from the easy axis of the uniaxial anisotropy, respectively. The combination of these different types of the jump phenomena at the intrinsic easy and hard axes yields five distinct types of the ADEB. The physical condition for each type of ADEB is established. Additionally, the extreme value problem of the exchange bias field and coercivity are also discussed, which is an important technological issue in the design of the magnetoresistive and spintronic devices. These results enable us to make a comprehensive understanding of the experimental ADEB curves.

  8. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in a graphene monolayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Duo, E-mail: zhangduo10@126.com [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Sun, Zhaoyu [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Ding, Chunling [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Yu, Rong [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Yang, Xiaoxue [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-02-15

    We theoretically investigate the behavior of optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) in a graphene monolayer system driven by an elliptically polarized control field and a right-hand circularly polarized probe field. Our numerical results show that it is easy to realize the transition from OB to OM or vice versa by adjusting the frequency detunings of the probe field and the control field, as well as the polarization-dependent phase difference between the two components of the control laser field. The influences of the intensity of the control field and the cooperation parameter on the OB behavior are also discussed in detail. These results may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in optoelectronics and solid-state quantum information science.

  9. Bistability of flight states for heavy falling plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edwin; Huang, Wei-Xi

    2017-11-01

    Interactions of falling flat plates in two-dimensional flows is presented through direct numerical simulation and immersed boundary method. The transition from steady falling to tumbling flight for heavy plates is presented. At steep angles of release, the plates undergo a period of amplitude increasing fluttering motion before developing to tumble. For the same fluid-solid system of Reynolds number Re and moment of inertia I*, shallow angles of release develop to a state of steady falling after a period of diminishing fluttering amplitude. Simulations further construct a mapping of this bistable region. Relationships among Re, I*, and the critical angles of release separating the two flight states are also provided. The inclusion of this finding on the mapping of flight states suggests fluttering motion as a transitional state before the onset of tumble. National Natural Science Foundation of China or NSFC (Grant No. 11322221).

  10. Cell individuality: the bistable gene expression of the type III secretion system in Dickeya dadantii 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Quan; Laiosa, Michael D; Steeber, Douglas A; Biddle, Eulandria M; Peng, Quan; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii 3937 is a gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium that expresses genes encoding a type III secretion system (T3SS) in a bistable pattern when cultured in a homogeneous minimal media. In this work, we further characterized the bistable gene expression of T3SS at the single-cell level. We demonstrated that bistable expression of the HrpL-regulon genes, such as hrpA and hrpN, is controlled by the same regulatory mechanism. We also showed that the expression level of the T3SS master regulatory gene hrpL plays an important role in the development of the bistable expression of hrpA. A high expression level of hrpL is required but unable to guarantee the high-state expression of hrpA in a cell. In addition, bistable expression patterns of T3SS genes in other gram-negative pathogens of the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families were also described in this study. This suggests that the T3SS bistability might be a conserved population behavior in several gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

  11. Investigation of a bistable dual-stage vibration isolator under harmonic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kai; Huang, Hai; Harne, R L; Wang, K W

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the steady-state performance of a dual-stage vibration isolator, which is configured by a bistable oscillator and a linear oscillator. The potential force of the bistable stage comprises negative linear and positive cubic nonlinear stiffnesses such that the two restoring force contributions may counterbalance to minimize dynamic force transmission. By applying a first-order harmonic balance, it is predicted that the bistable dual-stage isolator may significantly outperform an equivalent pure linear dual-stage isolator. This conclusion is verified through a series of numerical investigations. Following a parametric study, design guidelines are detailed to achieve performance improvements. Then, the ‘valley’ response, which is the special phenomenon of the bistable dual-stage isolator due to the counterbalance of the negative linear and positive nonlinear potential forces, is revealed and quantitatively explained. Numerical studies demonstrate the role of initial conditions, and it is shown that the likelihood of beneficial single periodic valley and intra-well responses for isolation purposes can be increased by greater bistable stage damping. Finally, a bistable dual-stage isolator prototype is developed and tested, and the numerical and experimental results verify the theoretical predictions. (paper)

  12. Magnetic-field induced bistability in a quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuanyi; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically study the magnetic-field induced bistability in a quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity. A critical magnetic field is obtained, and the bistability appears if a magnetic field is greater than the critical value. For a positive energy detuning of the pump from the bare exciton polaritons, one bistability loop first emerges, then it divides into two loops, and finally one of them vanishes with the increasing magnetic field. This phenomenon originates from the magnetic-field modulated interactions for opposite spins. In the variational process, there are two important effects: one is a logic gate with a small variation of the excitation laser, and the other is a spin texture like skyrmion and this texture is periodic if the energy detuning varies periodically in real space, which is useful for designing the spin-dependent optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • We study the bistability induced by a magnetic field in a microcavity. • One bistability loop can divide into two, and then the two loops return to one. • A spin texture like skyrmion and logic gate arise in the variation of bistability loop

  13. Evidence for distinct mechanisms underlying attentional priming and sensory memory for bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhuis, M A B; Kristjánsson, Á; Brascamp, J W

    2015-08-01

    Attentional selection in visual search paradigms and perceptual selection in bistable perception paradigms show functional similarities. For example, both are sensitive to trial history: They are biased toward previously selected targets or interpretations. We investigated whether priming by target selection in visual search and sensory memory for bistable perception are related. We did this by presenting two trial types to observers. We presented either ambiguous spheres that rotated over a central axis and could be perceived as rotating in one of two directions, or search displays in which the unambiguously rotating target and distractor spheres closely resembled the two possible interpretations of the ambiguous stimulus. We interleaved both trial types within experiments, to see whether priming by target selection during search trials would affect the perceptual outcome of bistable perception and, conversely, whether sensory memory during bistable perception would affect target selection times during search. Whereas we found intertrial repetition effects among consecutive search trials and among consecutive bistable trials, we did not find cross-paradigm effects. Thus, even though we could ascertain that our experiments robustly elicited processes of both search priming and sensory memory for bistable perception, these same experiments revealed no interaction between the two.

  14. Predicting the asymmetric response of a genetic switch to noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochab-Marcinek, Anna

    2008-09-07

    We present a simple analytical tool which gives an approximate insight into the stationary behavior of nonlinear systems undergoing the influence of a weak and rapid noise from one dominating source, e.g. the kinetic equations describing a genetic switch with the concentration of one substrate fluctuating around a constant mean. The proposed method allows for predicting the asymmetric response of the genetic switch to noise, arising from the noise-induced shift of stationary states. The method has been tested on an example model of the lac operon regulatory network: a reduced Yildirim-Mackey model with fluctuating extracellular lactose concentration. We calculate analytically the shift of the system's stationary states in the presence of noise. The results of the analytical calculation are in excellent agreement with the results of numerical simulation of the noisy system. The simulation results suggest that the structure of the kinetics of the underlying biochemical reactions protects the bistability of the lactose utilization mechanism from environmental fluctuations. We show that, in the consequence of the noise-induced shift of stationary states, the presence of fluctuations stabilizes the behavior of the system in a selective way: Although the extrinsic noise facilitates, to some extent, switching off the lactose metabolism, the same noise prevents it from switching on.

  15. Stochastic switching induced adaptation in a starved Escherichia coli population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Shimizu

    Full Text Available Population adaptation can be determined by stochastic switching in living cells. To examine how stochastic switching contributes to the fate decision for a population under severe stress, we constructed an Escherichia coli strain crucially dependent on the expression of a rewired gene. The gene essential for tryptophan biosynthesis, trpC, was removed from the native regulatory unit, the Trp operon, and placed under the extraneous control of the lactose utilisation network. Bistability of the network provided the cells two discrete phenotypes: the induced and suppressed level of trpC. The two phenotypes permitted the cells to grow or not, respectively, under conditions of tryptophan depletion. We found that stochastic switching between the two states allowed the initially suppressed cells to form a new population with induced trpC in response to tryptophan starvation. However, the frequency of the transition from suppressed to induced state dropped off dramatically in the starved population, in comparison to that in the nourished population. This reduced switching rate was compensated by increasing the initial population size, which probably provided the cell population more chances to wait for the rarely appearing fit cells from the unfit cells. Taken together, adaptation of a starved bacterial population because of stochasticity in the gene rewired from the ancient regulon was experimentally confirmed, and the nutritional status and the population size played a great role in stochastic adaptation.

  16. Melanopsin bistability: a fly's eye technology in the human retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic S Mure

    Full Text Available In addition to rods and cones, the human retina contains light-sensitive ganglion cells that express melanopsin, a photopigment with signal transduction mechanisms similar to that of invertebrate rhabdomeric photopigments (IRP. Like fly rhodopsins, melanopsin acts as a dual-state photosensitive flip-flop in which light drives both phototransduction responses and chromophore photoregeneration that bestows independence from the retinoid cycle required by rods and cones to regenerate photoresponsiveness following bleaching by light. To explore the hypothesis that melanopsin in humans expresses the properties of a bistable photopigment in vivo we used the pupillary light reflex (PLR as a tool but with methods designed to study invertebrate photoreceptors. We show that the pupil only attains a fully stabilized state of constriction after several minutes of light exposure, a feature that is consistent with typical IRP photoequilibrium spectra. We further demonstrate that previous exposure to long wavelength light increases, while short wavelength light decreases the amplitude of pupil constriction, a fundamental property of IRP difference spectra. Modelling these responses to invertebrate photopigment templates yields two putative spectra for the underlying R and M photopigment states with peaks at 481 nm and 587 nm respectively. Furthermore, this bistable mechanism may confer a novel form of "photic memory" since information of prior light conditions is retained and shapes subsequent responses to light. These results suggest that the human retina exploits fly-like photoreceptive mechanisms that are potentially important for the modulation of non-visual responses to light and highlights the ubiquitous nature of photoswitchable photosensors across living organisms.

  17. A Mechanical Switch Using Spectral Microshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon L.; Saaski, Elric W.; Hartl, James C.

    1989-02-01

    Among the simplest fiber optic sensors, are those which operate in a binary fashion; they were the first sensor types to be developed. Early experiments with fiber bundles and shutters produced demonstrations of, for example, displacement sensors. Typical applications range from position sensing for aircraft landing gear to counting objects on a production line. Because they frequently replace electrical snap action switches, binary sensors are generally called optical switches. Optical switch applications account for a much larger market than the more complex analog measurements discussed in the balance of this volume. This paper presents an optical switch concept that uses a single fiber and is tolerant of back reflections. The sensor element is a low finesse Fabry-Perot pressure sensor which replaces the electrical contact in a conventional snap action switch.

  18. The effect of magnetic field on bistability in 1D photonic crystal doped by magnetized plasma and coupled nonlinear defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdian, H.; Mohammadzahery, Z.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we study the defect mode and bistability behavior of 1-D photonic band gap structure with magnetized plasma and coupled nonlinear defects. The transfer matrix method has been employed to investigate the magnetic field effect on defect mode frequency and bistability threshold. The obtained results show that the frequency of defect mode and bistability threshold can be altered, without changing the structure of the photonic multilayer. Therefore, the bistability behavior of the subjected structure in the presence of magnetized plasma can be utilized in manufacturing wide frequency range devices

  19. Influence of Fano interference and incoherent processes on optical bistability in a four-level quantum dot nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein Asadpour, Seyyed; Solookinejad, G; Panahi, M; Ahmadi Sangachin, E

    2016-01-01

    Role of Fano interference and incoherent pumping field on optical bistability in a four-level designed InGaN/GaN quantum dot nanostructure embedded in a unidirectional ring cavity are analyzed. It is found that intensity threshold of optical bistability can be manipulated by Fano interference. It is shown that incoherent pumping fields make the threshold of optical bistability behave differently by Fano interference. Moreover, in the presence of Fano interference the medium becomes phase-dependent. Therefore, the relative phase of applied fields can affect the behaviors of optical bistability and intensity threshold can be controlled easily. (paper)

  20. Asymmetric bipolar resistive switching in solution-processed Pt/TiO{sub 2}/W devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biju, Kuyyadi P; Bourim, El Mostafa; Hwang, Hyunsang [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro (Oryong-dong), Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, XinJun; Kim, Insung; Jung, Seungjae; Siddik, Manzar; Lee, Joonmyoung, E-mail: biju@gist.ac.k, E-mail: hwanghs@gist.ac.k [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro (Oryong-dong), Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The resistive switching characteristics of Pt/TiO{sub 2}/W devices in a submicrometre via-hole structure are investigated. TiO{sub 2} film is grown by the sol-gel spin coating technique. The device exhibits reversible and reproducible bistable resistive switching with a rectifying effect. The Schottky contact at the Pt/TiO{sub 2} interface limits electron injection under reverse bias resulting in a rectification ratio of >60 at 2 V in the low-resistance state. The switching mechanism in our device can be interpreted as an anion migration-induced redox reaction at the tungsten bottom electrode (W). The rectifying effect can significantly reduce the sneak path current in a crossbar array and provide a feasible way to achieve high memory density.

  1. Control of switching between metastable superconducting states in δ-MoN nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buh, Jože; Kabanov, Viktor; Baranov, Vladimir; Mrzel, Aleš; Kovič, Andrej; Mihailovic, Dragan

    2015-12-21

    The superconducting state in one-dimensional nanosystems is very delicate. While fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting wave function lead to the spontaneous decay of persistent supercurrents in thin superconducting wires and nanocircuits, discrete phase-slip fluctuations can also lead to more exotic phenomena, such as the appearance of metastable superconducting states in current-bearing wires. Here we show that switching between different metastable superconducting states in δ-MoN nanowires can be very effectively manipulated by introducing small amplitude electrical noise. Furthermore, we show that deterministic switching between metastable superconducting states with different numbers of phase-slip centres can be achieved in both directions with small electrical current pulse perturbations of appropriate polarity. The observed current-controlled bi-stability is in remarkable agreement with theoretically predicted trajectories of the system switching between different limit cycle solutions of a model one-dimensional superconductor.

  2. Interconnecting network for switching data packets and method for switching data packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Alan Frederic; Minkenberg, Cyriel Johan Agnes; Stunkel, Craig Brian

    2010-05-25

    The interconnecting network for switching data packets, having data and flow control information, comprises a local packet switch element (S1) with local input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, a remote packet switch element (S2) with remote input buffers (I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, and data lines (L) for interconnecting the local and the remote packet switch elements (S1, S2). The interconnecting network further comprises a local and a remote arbiter (A1, A2) which are connected via control lines (CL) to the input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y), I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)), and which are formed such that they can provide that the flow control information is transmitted via the data lines (L) and the control lines (CL).

  3. Mathematical modeling of atopic dermatitis reveals "double-switch" mechanisms underlying 4 common disease phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Hüttinger, Elisa; Christodoulides, Panayiotis; Miyauchi, Kosuke; Irvine, Alan D; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Kubo, Masato; Tanaka, Reiko J

    2017-06-01

    The skin barrier acts as the first line of defense against constant exposure to biological, microbial, physical, and chemical environmental stressors. Dynamic interplay between defects in the skin barrier, dysfunctional immune responses, and environmental stressors are major factors in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). A systems biology modeling approach can yield significant insights into these complex and dynamic processes through integration of prior biological data. We sought to develop a multiscale mathematical model of AD pathogenesis that describes the dynamic interplay between the skin barrier, environmental stress, and immune dysregulation and use it to achieve a coherent mechanistic understanding of the onset, progression, and prevention of AD. We mathematically investigated synergistic effects of known genetic and environmental risk factors on the dynamic onset and progression of the AD phenotype, from a mostly asymptomatic mild phenotype to a severe treatment-resistant form. Our model analysis identified a "double switch," with 2 concatenated bistable switches, as a key network motif that dictates AD pathogenesis: the first switch is responsible for the reversible onset of inflammation, and the second switch is triggered by long-lasting or frequent activation of the first switch, causing irreversible onset of systemic T H 2 sensitization and worsening of AD symptoms. Our mathematical analysis of the bistable switch predicts that genetic risk factors decrease the threshold of environmental stressors to trigger systemic T H 2 sensitization. This analysis predicts and explains 4 common clinical AD phenotypes from a mild and reversible phenotype through to severe and recalcitrant disease and provides a mechanistic explanation for clinically demonstrated preventive effects of emollient treatments against development of AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Controller Architectures for Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigate different controller architectures in connection with controller switching. The controller switching is derived by using the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. A number of different architectures for the implementation of the YJBK parameterization...... are described and applied in connection with controller switching. An architecture that does not include inversion of the coprime factors is introduced. This architecture will make controller switching particular simple....

  5. Tuning the resistive switching memory in a metal–ferroelectric–semiconductor capacitor by field effect structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.Y., E-mail: shouyu.wang@yahoo.com [College of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074 (China); Guo, F.; Wang, X. [College of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074 (China); Liu, W.F., E-mail: wfliu@tju.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gao, J., E-mail: jugao@hku.hk [Department of Physics, the University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Bistable or tristable electrically conducting state is observed. • Coefficient can be tuned in situ by modulating carrier's density. • The RS effects may be of significance for multi-source controlled memory devices. - Abstract: Resistive switching (RS) effects based on a correlation between ferroelectric polarization and conductivity might become of particular interest for nonvolatile memory applications, because they are not subjected to the scaling restrictions. Here we report on RS behaviors modulated by a reversal of ferroelectric polarization in heterostructures comprising of a ferroelectric layer and a semiconducting manganite film. It is found that electrically conducting state is bistable or even tristable; and via the polarization flipping, a maximum resistive switching coefficient (R{sub max}/R{sub min}) is found to be larger than 3000 with bias of 6 V in Ag/BaTiO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} at room temperature. More importantly, employing field-effect structure with ferroelectric PMN-PT as substrate, we found that the resistive switching behaviors can be tuned in situ by modulating the concentration of carriers in the semiconducting manganite layer. Possible mechanisms are discussed on the basis of the interplay of bound ferroelectric charges, charged defects in ferroelectric layer and mobile carriers in manganite thin films. The giant RS effects observed here may be of significance for memory devices by combing electronic conduction with magnetic, spintronic, and optical functionalities.

  6. Transitions in genetic toggle switches driven by dynamic disorder in rate coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hang, E-mail: hangchen@mit.edu; Thill, Peter; Cao, Jianshu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-05-07

    In biochemical systems, intrinsic noise may drive the system switch from one stable state to another. We investigate how kinetic switching between stable states in a bistable network is influenced by dynamic disorder, i.e., fluctuations in the rate coefficients. Using the geometric minimum action method, we first investigate the optimal transition paths and the corresponding minimum actions based on a genetic toggle switch model in which reaction coefficients draw from a discrete probability distribution. For the continuous probability distribution of the rate coefficient, we then consider two models of dynamic disorder in which reaction coefficients undergo different stochastic processes with the same stationary distribution. In one, the kinetic parameters follow a discrete Markov process and in the other they follow continuous Langevin dynamics. We find that regulation of the parameters modulating the dynamic disorder, as has been demonstrated to occur through allosteric control in bistable networks in the immune system, can be crucial in shaping the statistics of optimal transition paths, transition probabilities, and the stationary probability distribution of the network.

  7. Transitions in genetic toggle switches driven by dynamic disorder in rate coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hang; Thill, Peter; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-01-01

    In biochemical systems, intrinsic noise may drive the system switch from one stable state to another. We investigate how kinetic switching between stable states in a bistable network is influenced by dynamic disorder, i.e., fluctuations in the rate coefficients. Using the geometric minimum action method, we first investigate the optimal transition paths and the corresponding minimum actions based on a genetic toggle switch model in which reaction coefficients draw from a discrete probability distribution. For the continuous probability distribution of the rate coefficient, we then consider two models of dynamic disorder in which reaction coefficients undergo different stochastic processes with the same stationary distribution. In one, the kinetic parameters follow a discrete Markov process and in the other they follow continuous Langevin dynamics. We find that regulation of the parameters modulating the dynamic disorder, as has been demonstrated to occur through allosteric control in bistable networks in the immune system, can be crucial in shaping the statistics of optimal transition paths, transition probabilities, and the stationary probability distribution of the network.

  8. Breaking an epigenetic chromatin switch: curious features of hysteresis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomeric silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi H Nagaraj

    Full Text Available In addition to gene network switches, local epigenetic modifications to DNA and histones play an important role in all-or-none cellular decision-making. Here, we study the dynamical design of a well-characterized epigenetic chromatin switch: the yeast SIR system, in order to understand the origin of the stability of epigenetic states. We study hysteresis in this system by perturbing it with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We find that SIR silencing has many characteristics of a non-linear bistable system, as observed in conventional genetic switches, which are based on activities of a few promoters affecting each other through the abundance of their gene products. Quite remarkably, our experiments in yeast telomeric silencing show a very distinctive pattern when it comes to the transition from bistability to monostability. In particular, the loss of the stable silenced state, upon increasing the inhibitor concentration, does not seem to show the expected saddle node behavior, instead looking like a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. In other words, the 'off' state merges with the 'on' state at a threshold concentration leading to a single state, as opposed to the two states remaining distinct up to the threshold and exhibiting a discontinuous jump from the 'off' to the 'on' state. We argue that this is an inevitable consequence of silenced and active regions coexisting with dynamic domain boundaries. The experimental observations in our study therefore have broad implications for the understanding of chromatin silencing in yeast and beyond.

  9. All-polymer bistable resistive memory device based on nanoscale phase-separated PCBM-ferroelectric blends

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2012-11-21

    All polymer nonvolatile bistable memory devices are fabricated from blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) and n-type semiconducting [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The nanoscale phase separated films consist of PCBM domains that extend from bottom to top electrode, surrounded by a ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. Highly conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) polymer electrodes are used to engineer band offsets at the interfaces. The devices display resistive switching behavior due to modulation of this injection barrier. With careful optimization of the solvent and processing conditions, it is possible to spin cast very smooth blend films (Rrms ≈ 7.94 nm) and with good reproducibility. The devices exhibit high Ion/I off ratios (≈3 × 103), low read voltages (≈5 V), excellent dielectric response at high frequencies (Ïμr ≈ 8.3 at 1 MHz), and excellent retention characteristics up to 10 000 s. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. UV durable colour pigment doped SmA liquid crystal composites for outdoor trans-reflective bi-stable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Davey, A. B.; Crossland, W. A.; Chu, D. P.

    2012-10-01

    High brightness trans-reflective bi-stable displays based on smectic A (SmA) liquid crystals (LCs) can have nearly perfect transparency in the clear state and very high reflection in the scattered state. Because the LC material in use is stable under UV radiation, this kind of displays can stand for strong day-light and therefore be ideal for outdoor applications from e-books to public signage and advertisement. However, the colour application has been limited because the traditional colourants in use are conventional dyes which are lack of UV stability and that their colours are easily photo bleached. Here we present a colour SmA display demonstrator using pigments as colourant. Mixing pigments with SmA LCs and maintain the desirable optical switching performance is not straightforward. We show here how it can be done, including how to obtain fine sized pigment nano-particles, the effects of particle size and size distribution on the display performance. Our optimized pigments/SmA compositions can be driven by a low frequency waveform (~101Hz) to a scattered state to exhibit colour while by a high frequency waveform (~103Hz) to a cleared state showing no colour. Finally, we will present its excellent UV life-time (at least performances are still to be fully understood. We hope this work will not only demonstrate a new and practical approach for outdoor reflective colour displays but also provide a new material system for fundamental liquid crystal colloid research work.

  11. Hindrances to bistable front propagation: application to Wolbachia invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin, Grégoire; Strugarek, Martin; Vauchelet, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    We study the biological situation when an invading population propagates and replaces an existing population with different characteristics. For instance, this may occur in the presence of a vertically transmitted infection causing a cytoplasmic effect similar to the Allee effect (e.g. Wolbachia in Aedes mosquitoes): the invading dynamics we model is bistable. We aim at quantifying the propagules (what does it take for an invasion to start?) and the invasive power (how far can an invading front go, and what can stop it?). We rigorously show that a heterogeneous environment inducing a strong enough population gradient can stop an invading front, which will converge in this case to a stable front. We characterize the critical population jump, and also prove the existence of unstable fronts above the stable (blocking) fronts. Being above the maximal unstable front enables an invading front to clear the obstacle and propagate further. We are particularly interested in the case of artificial Wolbachia infection, used as a tool to fight arboviruses.

  12. Ultralong relaxation times in bistable hybrid quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Andreas; Putz, Stefan; Krimer, Dmitry O; Astner, Thomas; Zens, Matthias; Glattauer, Ralph; Streltsov, Kirill; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae; Rotter, Stefan; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Majer, Johannes

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear systems, whose outputs are not directly proportional to their inputs, are well known to exhibit many interesting and important phenomena that have profoundly changed our technological landscape over the last 50 years. Recently, the ability to engineer quantum metamaterials through hybridization has allowed us to explore these nonlinear effects in systems with no natural analog. We investigate amplitude bistability, which is one of the most fundamental nonlinear phenomena, in a hybrid system composed of a superconducting resonator inductively coupled to an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centers. One of the exciting properties of this spin system is its long spin lifetime, which is many orders of magnitude longer than other relevant time scales of the hybrid system. This allows us to dynamically explore this nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics and demonstrate a critical slowing down of the cavity population on the order of several tens of thousands of seconds-a time scale much longer than observed so far for this effect. Our results provide a foundation for future quantum technologies based on nonlinear phenomena.

  13. Bistable behavior of the lac operon in E. coli when induced with a mixture of lactose and TMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hernández, Orlando; Santillán, Moisés

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate multistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli when it is induced by a mixture of lactose and the non-metabolizable thiomethyl galactoside (TMG). In accordance with previously published experimental results and computer simulations, our simulations predict that: (1) when the system is induced by TMG, the system shows a discernible bistable behavior while, (2) when the system is induced by lactose, bistability does not disappear but excessively high concentrations of lactose would be required to observe it. Finally, our simulation results predict that when a mixture of lactose and TMG is used, the bistability region in the extracellular glucose concentration vs. extracellular lactose concentration parameter space changes in such a way that the model predictions regarding bistability could be tested experimentally. These experiments could help to solve a recent controversy regarding the existence of bistability in the lac operon under natural conditions.

  14. Bistable behavior of the lac operon in E. coli when induced with a mixture of lactose and TMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz-Hernández

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate multistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli when it is induced by a mixture of lactose and the non-metabolizable thiomethyl galactoside (TMG. In accordance with previously published experimental results and computer simulations, our simulations predict that: (1 when the system is induced by TMG, the system shows a discernible bistable behavior while, (2 when the system is induced by lactose, bistability does not disappear but excessively high concentrations of lactose would be required to observe it. Finally, our simulation results predict that when a mixture of lactose and TMG is used, the bistability region in the extracellular glucose concentration vs. extracellular lactose concentration parameter space changes in such a way that the model predictions regarding bistability could be tested experimentally. These experiments could help to solve a recent controversy regarding the existence of bistability in the lac operon under natural conditions.

  15. Computational modeling of the hematopoietic erythroid-myeloid switch reveals insights into cooperativity, priming, and irreversibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Chickarmane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell lineage choices are decided by genetic networks that are turned ON/OFF in a switch-like manner. However, prior to lineage commitment, genes are primed at low expression levels. Understanding the underlying molecular circuitry in terms of how it governs both a primed state and, at the other extreme, a committed state is of relevance not only to hematopoiesis but also to developmental systems in general. We develop a computational model for the hematopoietic erythroid-myeloid lineage decision, which is determined by a genetic switch involving the genes PU.1 and GATA-1. Dynamical models based upon known interactions between these master genes, such as mutual antagonism and autoregulation, fail to make the system bistable, a desired feature for robust lineage determination. We therefore suggest a new mechanism involving a cofactor that is regulated as well as recruited by one of the master genes to bind to the antagonistic partner that is necessary for bistability and hence switch-like behavior. An interesting fallout from this architecture is that suppression of the cofactor through external means can lead to a loss of cooperativity, and hence to a primed state for PU.1 and GATA-1. The PU.1-GATA-1 switch also interacts with another mutually antagonistic pair, C/EBPalpha-FOG-1. The latter pair inherits the state of its upstream master genes and further reinforces the decision due to several feedback loops, thereby leading to irreversible commitment. The genetic switch, which handles the erythroid-myeloid lineage decision, is an example of a network that implements both a primed and a committed state by regulating cooperativity through recruitment of cofactors. Perturbing the feedback between the master regulators and downstream targets suggests potential reprogramming strategies. The approach points to a framework for lineage commitment studies in general and could aid the search for lineage-determining genes.

  16. Topological photonic orbital-angular-momentum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhang, Chuanwei; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2018-04-01

    The large number of available orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) states of photons provides a unique resource for many important applications in quantum information and optical communications. However, conventional OAM switching devices usually rely on precise parameter control and are limited by slow switching rate and low efficiency. Here we propose a robust, fast, and efficient photonic OAM switch device based on a topological process, where photons are adiabatically pumped to a target OAM state on demand. Such topological OAM pumping can be realized through manipulating photons in a few degenerate main cavities and involves only a limited number of optical elements. A large change of OAM at ˜10q can be realized with only q degenerate main cavities and at most 5 q pumping cycles. The topological photonic OAM switch may become a powerful device for broad applications in many different fields and motivate a topological design of conventional optical devices.

  17. Analysis of Switched-Rigid Floating Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar R. Marur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In explicit finite element simulations, a technique called deformable-to-rigid (D2R switching is used routinely to reduce the computation time. Using the D2R option, the deformable parts in the model can be switched to rigid and reverted back to deformable when needed during the analysis. The time of activation of D2R however influences the overall dynamics of the system being analyzed. In this paper, a theoretical basis for the selection of time of rigid switching based on system energy is established. A floating oscillator problem is investigated for this purpose and closed-form analytical expressions are derived for different phases in rigid switching. The analytical expressions are validated by comparing the theoretical results with numerical computations.

  18. Optical bistability and four-wave mixing in a hybrid optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Yuan, Xiaorong; Cui, Yuanshun; Chen, Guibin; Zuo, Fen; Jiang, Cheng

    2017-10-01

    We explore theoretically the optical bistability and four-wave mixing (FWM) in a hybrid optomechanical system, where the mechanical resonator is simultaneously coupled to a cavity field and a two-level system (qubit). We can use a strong control field driving the cavity to control the bistable behavior of the steady-state photon number, phonon number, and the population inversion. The impact of qubit-resonator coupling strength on the bistable behavior is discussed. Furthermore, the two-level system can significantly modify the output fields of the cavity, leading to double optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) and the enhancement of the FWM intensity. We find that the distance between the two peaks in the FWM spectrum can be controlled by the qubit-resonator coupling strength, and the peak value of the FWM intensity can be adjusted by the Rabi frequency of the control field.

  19. Experimental Analysis of a Coupled Energy Harvesting System with Monostable and Bistable Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D; Folkmer, B; Manoli, Y

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present experimental results from an energy harvesting system with two coupled energy harvesters. The energy conversion mechanism of the two coupled energy harvesters is based on the electromagnetic principle. The coupling is generated by two magnets in a repulsive arrangement. In this manner a bistable configuration can be obtained if the gap between the magnets is sufficiently small. We demonstrate that the total power output can be increased in comparison to a linear reference system, if specific conditions are fulfilled. In this respect, the highest power output occurs in the nonlinear region of a monostable system configuration, mostly near the transition to a bistable configuration. On the other hand, the results also indicate, that a bistable operating mode does not necessarily enhance the power output of the coupled system

  20. Orientational transitions in ferromagnetic liquid crystals with bistable coupling between colloidal particles and the matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakhlevnykh, A. N., E-mail: anz@psu.ru; Petrov, D. A. [Perm State National Research University (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    We study the orientational response of a ferromagnetic liquid crystal that is induced by magnetic and electric fields. A modified form of the energy of the orientational interaction between magnetic impurity particles and the liquid crystal matrix that leads to bistable coupling is considered. It is shown that apart from magnetic impurity segregation, first-order orientational transitions can be due to the bistability of the potential of the orientational coupling between the director and the magnetization. The ranges of material parameters that lead to optical bistability are determined. The possibility of first-order orientational transitions is analyzed for the optical phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary light rays transmitted through a ferronematic cell. It is shown that an electric field applied in the given geometry considerably enhances the magneto-orientational response of the ferronematic.

  1. Dynamics of interface in three-dimensional anisotropic bistable reaction-diffusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of dynamics of interface (wave front) in three-dimensional (3D) reaction-diffusion (RD) system for bistable media with anisotropy constructed by means of anisotropic surface tension. An equation of motion for the wave front is derived to carry out stability analysis of transverse perturbations, which discloses mechanism of pattern formation such as labyrinthine in 3D bistable media. Particularly, the effects of anisotropy on wave propagation are studied. It was found that, sufficiently strong anisotropy can induce dynamical instabilities and lead to breakup of the wave front. With the fast-inhibitor limit, the bistable system can further be described by a variational dynamics so that the boundary integral method is adopted to study the dynamics of wave fronts.

  2. Dynamic and energetic characteristics of a bistable piezoelectric vibration energy harvester with an elastic magnifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangqing; Liao, Wei-Hsin; Yang, Binqiang; Wang, Xuebao; Xu, Wentan; Li, Xiuling

    2018-05-01

    Bistable piezoelectric energy harvesters are being increasingly seen as an alternative to batteries in low-power devices. However, their energy harvesting characteristics are limited. To enhance these, we use a configuration including an elastic magnifier to amplify base excitation and provide sufficient kinetic energy to overcome potential well barriers, thus leading to large-amplitude bistable motion. We derive the distributed parameter mathematical model of this configuration by using Hamilton's principle. We then investigate the nonlinear dynamic behaviors and energetic characteristics and analyze the bifurcation for the equilibrium solution of the model. The simulations and experiments show high electromechanical responses and energy generation characteristics of the proposed system over a broad frequency band. The results suggest that, compared with a typical bistable piezoelectric energy harvester, the proposed energy harvester system with an elastic magnifier can provide higher output over a broader frequency band at lower excitation levels by adjusting the system's mass and stiffness ratios.

  3. A computational role for bistability and traveling waves in motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart eHeitmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive changes in behavior require rapid changes in brain states yet the brain must also remain stable. We investigated two neural mechanisms for evoking rapid transitions between spatiotemporal synchronization patterns of beta oscillations (13--30Hz in motor cortex. Cortex was modeled as a sheet of neural oscillators that were spatially coupled using a center-surround connection topology. Manipulating the inhibitory surround was found to evoke reliable transitions between synchronous oscillation patterns and traveling waves. These transitions modulated the simulated local field potential in agreement with physiological observations in humans. Intermediate levels of surround inhibition were also found to produce bistable coupling topologies that supported both waves and synchrony. State-dependent perturbation between bistable states produced very rapid transitions but were less reliable. We surmise that motor cortex may thus employ state-dependent computation to achieve very rapid changes between bistable motor states when the demand for speed exceeds the demand for accuracy.

  4. Effect of second-order coupling on optical bistability in a hybrid optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Nejad, Ali; Baghshahi, Hamid R.; Askari, Hassan R.

    2017-11-01

    We theoretically investigate an optomechanical system consisting of two coupled cavities, a bare optomechanical cavity and a traditional one. An optical parametric amplifier (OPA) is placed inside the traditional cavity. Optomechanical cavity has an oscillating mirror and a fixed one. In addition to the first order coupling between mechanical resonator of the system and the radiation pressure of optomechanical cavity, we consider a second order interaction between them. The evaluation of the system's behavior shows bistability in the mean photon number of optomechanical cavity. Our results show that, the second order coupling leads to degenerate solutions for the equation of mean photon number of optomechanical cavity. We see that the strength of SOC can change the domain of bistability region of optomechanical cavity. Also, properties of the field driving OPA have remarkable effects on the stability of optomechanical cavity. Moreover, we show that the domain of bistability region can be modified by changing of optical properties of the system.

  5. Complementary resistive switching in BaTiO{sub 3}/NiO bilayer with opposite switching polarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Institut d’Electronique de Micro-électronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), CNRS, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, avenue Poincaré, BP 60069, 59652, Villeneuve d’Ascq cedex (France); Wei, Xianhua, E-mail: weixianhua@swust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Lei, Yao [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yuan, Xincai [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zeng, Huizhong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Au/BaTiO{sub 3}/NiO/Pt bilayer device shows complementary resistive switching (CRS) without electroforming which is mainly ascribed to anti-serial stack of two RRAM cells with bipolar behaviors. - Highlights: • Complementary resistive switching (CRS) has been investigated in Au/BaTiO{sub 3}/NiO/Pt by stacking the two elements with different switching types. • The realization of complementary resistive switching (CRS) is mainly ascribed to the anti-serial stack of two RRAM cells with bipolar behaviors. • Complementary resistive switching (CRS) in bilayer is effective to solve the sneak current problem briefly and economically. - Abstract: Resistive switching behaviors have been investigated in the Au/BaTiO{sub 3}/NiO/Pt structure by stacking the two elements with different switching types. The conducting atomic force microscope measurements on BaTiO{sub 3} thin films and NiO thin films suggest that with the same active resistive switching region, the switching polarities in the two semiconductors are opposite to each other. It is in agreement with the bipolar hysteresis I–V curves with opposite switching polarities for single-layer devices. The bilayer devices show complementary resistive switching (CRS) without electroforming and unipolar resistive switching (URS) after electroforming. The coexistence of CRS and URS is mainly ascribed to the co-effect of electric field and Joule heating mechanisms, indicating that changeable of resistance in this device is dominated by the redistribution of oxygen vacancies in BaTiO{sub 3} and the formation, disruption, restoration of conducting filaments in NiO. CRS in bilayer with opposite switching polarities is effective to solve the sneak current without the introduction of any selector elements or an additional metal electrode.

  6. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  7. Propensity for Bistability of Bursting and Silence in the Leech Heart Interneuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dashevskiy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of neuronal activity regimes has been reported under normal and pathological conditions. Such multistability could enhance the flexibility of the nervous system and has many implications for motor control, memory, and decision making. Multistability is commonly promoted by neuromodulation targeting specific membrane ionic currents. Here, we investigated how modulation of different ionic currents could affect the neuronal propensity for bistability. We considered a leech heart interneuron model. It exhibits bistability of bursting and silence in a narrow range of the leak current parameters, conductance (gleak and reversal potential (Eleak. We assessed the propensity for bistability of the model by using bifurcation diagrams. On the diagram (gleak, Eleak, we mapped bursting and silent regimes. For the canonical value of Eleak we determined the range of gleak which supported the bistability. We use this range as an index of propensity for bistability. We investigated how this index was affected by alterations of ionic currents. We systematically changed their conductances, one at a time, and built corresponding bifurcation diagrams in parameter planes of the maximal conductance of a given current and the leak conductance. We found that conductance of only one current substantially affected the index of propensity; the increase of the maximal conductance of the hyperpolarization-activated cationic current increased the propensity index. The second conductance with the strongest effect was the conductance of the low-threshold fast Ca2+ current; its reduction increased the propensity index although the effect was about two times smaller in magnitude. Analyzing the model with both changes applied simultaneously, we found that the diagram (gleak, Eleak showed a progressively expanded area of bistability of bursting and silence.

  8. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia; Peng, Fang Z.

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  9. FreeSWITCH Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Minessale, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This is a problem-solution approach to take your FreeSWITCH skills to the next level, where everything is explained in a practical way. If you are a system administrator, hobbyist, or someone who uses FreeSWITCH on a regular basis, this book is for you. Whether you are a FreeSWITCH expert or just getting started, this book will take your skills to the next level.

  10. Bistability of self-modulation oscillations in an autonomous solid-state ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudetskii, V Yu

    2013-01-01

    Bistable self-modulation regimes of generation for a ring YAG : Nd chip laser with the counterpropagating waves asymmetrically coupled via backward scattering are simulated numerically. Two branches of bistable self-modulation regimes of generation are found in the domain of the parametric resonance between the selfmodulation and relaxation oscillations. The self-modulation regimes observed in earlier experiments pertain to only one of the branches. Possible reasons for such a discrepancy are considered, related to the influence of technical and natural noise on the dynamics of solid-state ring lasers. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  11. A silicon-nanowire memory driven by optical gradient force induced bistability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, B. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Institute of Microelectronics, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Cai, H., E-mail: caih@ime.a-star.edu.sg; Gu, Y. D.; Kwong, D. L. [Institute of Microelectronics, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Chin, L. K.; Ng, G. I.; Ser, W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Huang, J. G. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Institute of Microelectronics, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Yang, Z. C. [School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, A. Q., E-mail: eaqliu@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-28

    In this paper, a bistable optical-driven silicon-nanowire memory is demonstrated, which employs ring resonator to generate optical gradient force over a doubly clamped silicon-nanowire. Two stable deformation positions of a doubly clamped silicon-nanowire represent two memory states (“0” and “1”) and can be set/reset by modulating the light intensity (<3 mW) based on the optical force induced bistability. The time response of the optical-driven memory is less than 250 ns. It has applications in the fields of all optical communication, quantum computing, and optomechanical circuits.

  12. Toward Singlet-Triplet Bistable Nonalternant Kekulé Hydrocarbons: Azulene-to-Naphthalene Rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soumyajit; Wu, Jishan

    2015-12-04

    Recent developments of open-shell singlet diradicaloids motivated the search for stable singlet-triplet bistable nonalternant polycyclic hydrocarbons. During the synthesis of this type of molecule, such as the dibenzo-cyclohepta[def]fluorene 3, an unexpected azulene-to-naphthalene rearrangement was observed at room temperature, which resulted in new nonalternant hydrocarbons 8a/8b with a closed-shell singlet ground state. These studies provided insight into the unique chemistry of azulene and challenges for the synthesis of singlet-triplet bistable polycyclic hydrocarbons.

  13. Chimeralike states in networks of bistable time-delayed feedback oscillators coupled via the mean field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, V I; Kulminskiy, D D; Prokhorov, M D

    2017-08-01

    We study the collective dynamics of oscillators in a network of identical bistable time-delayed feedback systems globally coupled via the mean field. The influence of delay and inertial properties of the mean field on the collective behavior of globally coupled oscillators is investigated. A variety of oscillation regimes in the network results from the presence of bistable states with substantially different frequencies in coupled oscillators. In the physical experiment and numerical simulation we demonstrate the existence of chimeralike states, in which some of the oscillators in the network exhibit synchronous oscillations, while all other oscillators remain asynchronous.

  14. A Compliant Bistable Mechanism Design Incorporating Elastica Buckling Beam Theory and Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Ümit; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a new compliant bistable mechanism design is introduced. The combined use of pseudo-rigid-body model (PRBM) and the Elastica buckling theory is presented for the first time to analyze the new design. This mechanism consists of the large deflecting straight beams, buckling beams......, and a slider. The kinematic analysis of this new mechanism is studied, using nonlinear Elastica buckling beam theory, the PRBM of a large deflecting cantilever beam, the vector loop closure equations, and numerically solving nonlinear algebraic equations. A design method of the bistable mechanism...

  15. Optically levitated nanoparticle as a model system for stochastic bistable dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, F; Rica, R A; Spasenović, M; Gieseler, J; Rondin, L; Novotny, L; Quidant, R

    2017-05-09

    Nano-mechanical resonators have gained an increasing importance in nanotechnology owing to their contributions to both fundamental and applied science. Yet, their small dimensions and mass raises some challenges as their dynamics gets dominated by nonlinearities that degrade their performance, for instance in sensing applications. Here, we report on the precise control of the nonlinear and stochastic bistable dynamics of a levitated nanoparticle in high vacuum. We demonstrate how it can lead to efficient signal amplification schemes, including stochastic resonance. This work contributes to showing the use of levitated nanoparticles as a model system for stochastic bistable dynamics, with applications to a wide variety of fields.

  16. Study on non-linear bistable dynamics model based EEG signal discrimination analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Lin, Han; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations generating from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. EEG signal is looked as one of the most important factors that will be focused in the next 20 years. In this paper, EEG signal discrimination based on non-linear bistable dynamical model was proposed. EEG signals were processed by non-linear bistable dynamical model, and features of EEG signals were characterized by coherence index. Experimental results showed that the proposed method could properly extract the features of different EEG signals.

  17. Thermodynamic limit of a nonequilibrium steady state: Maxwell-type construction for a bistable biochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2009-10-02

    We show that the thermodynamic limit of a bistable phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle has a selection rule for the "more stable" macroscopic steady state. The analysis is akin to the Maxwell construction. Based on the chemical master equation approach, it is shown that, except at a critical point, bistability disappears in the stochastic model when fluctuation is sufficiently low but unneglectable. Onsager's Gaussian fluctuation theory applies to the unique macroscopic steady state. With an initial state in the basin of attraction of the "less stable" steady state, the deterministic dynamics obtained by the law of mass action is a metastable phenomenon. Stability and robustness in cell biology are emergent stochastic concepts.

  18. The operational mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink, M.; Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a reliable memory element is crucial for the fabrication of 'plastic' logic circuits. We use numerical simulations to show that the switching mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches is the stray field of the polarized ferroelectric phase. The stray field

  19. The operational mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink, Martijn; Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    The availability of a reliable memory element is crucial for the fabrication of 'plastic' logic circuits. We use numerical simulations to show that the switching mechanism of ferroelectric-driven organic resistive switches is the stray field of the polarized ferroelectric phase. The stray field

  20. Silicon Controlled Switch for Detection of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    7 II. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF KEY CIRCUIT ELEMENTS A. SCS STANDALONE I-V OPERATION A Silicon -Controlled Switch (SCS) is a semiconductor...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited SILICON CONTROLLED...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SILICON CONTROLLED SWITCH FOR DETECTION OF IONIZING RADIATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Karl J

  1. Switched reluctance motor optimal geometry design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Neamt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM analysis using Finite Element Method (FEM for geometrical optimization in terms of volume ratio of torque on the rotor, the so-called specific torque. The optimization parameter is the pair: stator and rotor pole angles, which forms a crucial part of the design process.

  2. Bistable dynamics underlying excitability of ion homeostasis in neuron models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hübel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When neurons fire action potentials, dissipation of free energy is usually not directly considered, because the change in free energy is often negligible compared to the immense reservoir stored in neural transmembrane ion gradients and the long-term energy requirements are met through chemical energy, i.e., metabolism. However, these gradients can temporarily nearly vanish in neurological diseases, such as migraine and stroke, and in traumatic brain injury from concussions to severe injuries. We study biophysical neuron models based on the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH formalism extended to include time-dependent ion concentrations inside and outside the cell and metabolic energy-driven pumps. We reveal the basic mechanism of a state of free energy-starvation (FES with bifurcation analyses showing that ion dynamics is for a large range of pump rates bistable without contact to an ion bath. This is interpreted as a threshold reduction of a new fundamental mechanism of ionic excitability that causes a long-lasting but transient FES as observed in pathological states. We can in particular conclude that a coupling of extracellular ion concentrations to a large glial-vascular bath can take a role as an inhibitory mechanism crucial in ion homeostasis, while the Na⁺/K⁺ pumps alone are insufficient to recover from FES. Our results provide the missing link between the HH formalism and activator-inhibitor models that have been successfully used for modeling migraine phenotypes, and therefore will allow us to validate the hypothesis that migraine symptoms are explained by disturbed function in ion channel subunits, Na⁺/K⁺ pumps, and other proteins that regulate ion homeostasis.

  3. Bistability in the chemical master equation for dual phosphorylation cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzani, Armando; Castellani, Gastone C.; Giampieri, Enrico; Remondini, Daniel; Cooper, Leon N.

    2012-06-01

    Dual phospho/dephosphorylation cycles, as well as covalent enzymatic-catalyzed modifications of substrates are widely diffused within cellular systems and are crucial for the control of complex responses such as learning, memory, and cellular fate determination. Despite the large body of deterministic studies and the increasing work aimed at elucidating the effect of noise in such systems, some aspects remain unclear. Here we study the stationary distribution provided by the two-dimensional chemical master equation for a well-known model of a two step phospho/dephosphorylation cycle using the quasi-steady state approximation of enzymatic kinetics. Our aim is to analyze the role of fluctuations and the molecules distribution properties in the transition to a bistable regime. When detailed balance conditions are satisfied it is possible to compute equilibrium distributions in a closed and explicit form. When detailed balance is not satisfied, the stationary non-equilibrium state is strongly influenced by the chemical fluxes. In the last case, we show how the external field derived from the generation and recombination transition rates, can be decomposed by the Helmholtz theorem, into a conservative and a rotational (irreversible) part. Moreover, this decomposition allows to compute the stationary distribution via a perturbative approach. For a finite number of molecules there exists diffusion dynamics in a macroscopic region of the state space where a relevant transition rate between the two critical points is observed. Further, the stationary distribution function can be approximated by the solution of a Fokker-Planck equation. We illustrate the theoretical results using several numerical simulations.

  4. Perceptual memory drives learning of retinotopic biases for bistable stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Peter Murphy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The visual system exploits past experience at multiple timescales to resolve perceptual ambiguity in the retinal image. For example, perception of a bistable stimulus can be biased towards one interpretation over another when preceded by a brief presentation of a disambiguated version of the stimulus (positive priming or through intermittent presentations of the ambiguous stimulus (stabilization. Similarly, prior presentations of unambiguous stimuli can be used to explicitly train a long-lasting association between a percept and a retinal location (perceptual association. These phenonema have typically been regarded as independent processes, with short-term biases attributed to perceptual memory and longer-term biases described as associative learning. Here we tested for interactions between these two forms of experience-dependent perceptual bias and demonstrate that short-term processes strongly influence long-term outcomes. We first demonstrate that the establishment of long-term perceptual contingencies does not require explicit training by unambiguous stimuli, but can arise spontaneously during the periodic presentation of brief, ambiguous stimuli. Using rotating Necker cube stimuli, we observed enduring, retinotopically specific perceptual biases that were expressed from the outset and remained stable for up to forty minutes, consistent with the known phenomenon of perceptual stabilization. Further, bias was undiminished after a break period of five minutes, but was readily reset by interposed periods of continuous, as opposed to periodic, ambiguous presentation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that perceptual biases can arise naturally and may principally reflect the brain’s tendency to favor recent perceptual interpretation at a given retinal location. Further, they suggest that an association between retinal location and perceptual state, rather than a physical stimulus, is sufficient to generate long-term biases in perceptual

  5. Switched Antenna Array Tile for Real-Time Microwave Imaging Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-26

    way switch. Control of the switched elements is accomplished through the use of a CPLD ( Complex Programmable Logic Device), which is depicted in 3. The...acquisition speed. The arrays use the slot antenna element depicted in Fig. 4. The element is integrated within the array’s aluminum SP4T Switch LNA Fig. 2...pattern in both E- and H- planes . III. IMAGING RESULTS To assess the imaging capability of a fully electronic tiled aperture of the array depicted in

  6. Plasma erosion switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Goldstein, S.A.; Miller, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    The plasma erosion switch is a device capable of initially carrying high currents, and then of opening in nanoseconds to stand off high voltages. It depends upon the erosion of a plasma which initially fills the switch. The sheath between the plasma and the cathode behaves as a diode with a rapidly increasing A-K gap. Preliminary tests of the switch on the Proto I accelerator at Sandia will be described. In these tests, the switch consisted of a cylinder of highly ionized plasma four inches in diameter and one-inch thick surrounding a one-inch cathode. The switch shorted out prepulse voltages and allowed energy to be stored in the diode inductance outside the switch until the accelerator current reached 75 kA. The switch impedance then rose rapidly to approximately 100 ω in 5 nanoseconds, whereupon the accelerator current transferred to the cathode. Current rise rates of 3.10 13 A/sec were limited by cathode turn-on. Voltage rise rates of 10 15 V/sec were achieved. The elimination of prepulse and machine turn-on transients allowed A-K gaps of 2 mm to be used with 2.5 MV pulses, yielding average E fields of 12 MV/cm. Staged versions of the device are being built and should improve rise rates. The switch shows promise for use with future, higher power, lower inductance machines

  7. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  8. A Strategy for Magnifying Vibration in High-Energy Orbits of a Bistable Oscillator at Low Excitation Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guang-Qing; Liao Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on how to maintain a high-energy orbit motion of a bistable oscillator when subjected to a low level excitation. An elastic magnifier (EM) positioned between the base and the bistable oscillator is used to magnify the base vibration displacement to significantly enhance the output characteristics of the bistable oscillator. The dimensionless electromechanical equations of the bistable oscillator with an EM are derived, and the effects of the mass and stiffness ratios between the EM and the bistable oscillator on the output displacement are studied. It is shown that the jump phenomenon occurs at a lower excitation level with increasing the mass and stiffness ratios. With the comparison of the displacement trajectories and the phase portraits obtained from experiments, it is validated that the bistable oscillator with an EM can effectively oscillate in a high-energy orbit and can generate a superior output vibration at a low excitation level as compared with the bistable oscillator without an EM. (paper)

  9. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bányai, L

    1989-01-01

    This book contains all the papers presented at the NATO workshop on "Optical Switching in Low Dimensional Systems" held in Marbella, Spain from October 6th to 8th, 1988. Optical switching is a basic function for optical data processing, which is of technological interest because of its potential parallelism and its potential speed. Semiconductors which exhibit resonance enhanced optical nonlinearities in the frequency range close to the band edge are the most intensively studied materials for optical bistability and fast gate operation. Modern crystal growth techniques, particularly molecular beam epitaxy, allow the manufacture of semiconductor microstructures such as quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots in which the electrons are only free to move in two, one or zero dimensions, of the optically excited electron-hole pairs in these low respectively. The spatial confinement dimensional structures gives rise to an enhancement of the excitonic nonlinearities. Furthermore, the variations of the microstr...

  10. Connectionist interpretation of the association between cognitive dissonance and attention switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takao

    2014-12-01

    A novel connectionist model accounting for cognitive dissonance is described, in which the concepts of self and attention switching are considered. The model is composed of a unit corresponding to self, a bistable pair comprising two units relevant to two dissonant cognitions, and links whose weights correspond to cognitive evaluations. The model makes it possible to use mathematical formulas to represent the cognitive-dissonance process. Analysis reveals that the model fits experimental data of major paradigms in cognitive dissonance theory. The model shows that attention switching, which is produced by internal and external stimuli, causes building-up of cognitive dissonance and retardation of its reduction. The psychological phenomenon of selective exposure is interpreted on the basis of the operation of the model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequency-dependent dielectric contribution of flexoelectricity allowing control of state switching in helicoidal liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, B I; Elston, S J

    2013-07-01

    The contribution of flexoelectric polarization to the dielectric susceptibility in helicoidal liquid crystals is formulated for the static equilibrium case, and further in the case of a time-varying field. A dispersion of the dielectric permittivity due to the frequency response of flexoelectric switching is described. The special case of a negative dielectric-anisotropy nematic material is considered and experimentally shown to agree with the analytical theory. It is further demonstrated how relaxation of the flexoelectric contribution to the dielectric tensor in this special case can be exploited to switch between states in cholesteric liquid crystal structures by altering the applied time-dependent field amplitude, if Δε-Δεε(0). Consequentially, a versatile mechanism for driving between states in liquid crystal systems has been demonstrated and its implications for technology are suggested, and include dual-mode, bistable, and transflective displays.

  12. Frequency-dependent dielectric contribution of flexoelectricity allowing control of state switching in helicoidal liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, B. I.; Elston, S. J.

    2013-07-01

    The contribution of flexoelectric polarization to the dielectric susceptibility in helicoidal liquid crystals is formulated for the static equilibrium case, and further in the case of a time-varying field. A dispersion of the dielectric permittivity due to the frequency response of flexoelectric switching is described. The special case of a negative dielectric-anisotropy nematic material is considered and experimentally shown to agree with the analytical theory. It is further demonstrated how relaxation of the flexoelectric contribution to the dielectric tensor in this special case can be exploited to switch between states in cholesteric liquid crystal structures by altering the applied time-dependent field amplitude, if Δɛ-Δɛɛ0. Consequentially, a versatile mechanism for driving between states in liquid crystal systems has been demonstrated and its implications for technology are suggested, and include dual-mode, bistable, and transflective displays.

  13. Enhanced bipolar resistive switching behavior in polar Cr-doped barium titanate thin films without electro-forming process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Thakre

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced, repeatable and robust resistive switching phenomenon was observed in Cr substituted BaTiO3 polar ferroelectric thin films; fabricated and deposited by the sol-gel approach and spin coating technique, respectively. An enhanced bistable bipolar resistive switching (BRS phenomenon without electro-forming process, low switching voltage (∼ 2 V and moderate retention characteristics of 104 s along with a high Roff/Ron resistance ratio ∼103 was achieved. The current conduction analysis showed that the space charge limited conduction (SCLC and Schottky emission conduction dominate in the high voltage range, while thermally active charge carriers (ohmic in the lower voltage range. The impedance spectroscopy study indicates the formation of current conducting path and rupturing of oxygen vacancies during SET and RESET process.

  14. Enhanced bipolar resistive switching behavior in polar Cr-doped barium titanate thin films without electro-forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Atul; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-12-01

    An enhanced, repeatable and robust resistive switching phenomenon was observed in Cr substituted BaTiO3 polar ferroelectric thin films; fabricated and deposited by the sol-gel approach and spin coating technique, respectively. An enhanced bistable bipolar resistive switching (BRS) phenomenon without electro-forming process, low switching voltage (˜ 2 V) and moderate retention characteristics of 104 s along with a high Roff/Ron resistance ratio ˜103 was achieved. The current conduction analysis showed that the space charge limited conduction (SCLC) and Schottky emission conduction dominate in the high voltage range, while thermally active charge carriers (ohmic) in the lower voltage range. The impedance spectroscopy study indicates the formation of current conducting path and rupturing of oxygen vacancies during SET and RESET process.

  15. Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J W

    2013-06-13

    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the \\'ON\\' state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between \\'free\\', \\'pinned\\' and \\'clamped\\' states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Transient voltage sharing in series-coupled high voltage switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available For switching voltages in excess of the maximum blocking voltage of a switching element (for example, thyristor, MOSFET or bipolar transistor such elements are often coupled in series - and additional circuitry has to be provided to ensure equal voltage sharing. Between each such series element and system ground there is a certain parasitic capacitance that may draw a significant current during high-speed voltage transients. The "open" switch is modelled as a ladder network. Analy­sis reveals an exponential progression in the distribution of the applied voltage across the elements. Overstressing thus oc­curs in some of the elements at levels of the total voltage that are significantly below the design value. This difficulty is overcome by grading the voltage sharing circuitry, coupled in parallel with each element, in a prescribed manner, as set out here.

  17. Intrinsic optical bistability of thin films of linear molecular aggregates : The two-exciton approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klugkist, Joost; Malyshev, Victor; Knoester, Jasper

    2008-01-01

    We generalize our recent work on the optical bistability of thin films of molecular aggregates [J. A. Klugkist et al., J. Chem. Phys. 127, 164705 (2007)] by accounting for the optical transitions from the one-exciton manifold to the two-exciton manifold as well as the exciton-exciton annihilation of

  18. Interplay of Multisensory Processing, Attention, and Consciousness as Revealed by Bistable Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ling Yeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined the novel crossmodal semantic congruency effect on bistable figures in which a static stimulus gives rise to two competing percepts that alternate over time. Participants viewed the bistable figure “my wife or my mother-in-law” while listening to the voice of an old woman or a young lady speaking in an unfamiliar language. They had to report whether they saw the old woman, the young lady, or a mixed percept. Robust crossmodal semantic congruency effects in the measures of the first percept and the predominance duration were observed. The possibilities that the participants simply responded to, and/or that they fixed at the location in favor of, the percept congruent with the sound that they happened to hear were ruled out. When the participants were instructed to maintain their attention to a specific view, a strong top-down modulation on the perception of bistable figure was observed, although the audiovisual semantic congruency effect still remained. These results thus demonstrate that top-down attention (ie,, selection and/or voluntary control modulates the audiovisual semantic congruency effect. As the alternating percepts in bistable figures indicate competition for conscious perception, this study has important implications for the multifaceted interactions between multisensory processing, attention, and consciousness.

  19. Serotonin‐induced bistability of turtle motoneurones caused by a nifedipine‐sensitive calcium plateau potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Kiehn, O.

    1989-01-01

    between two stable states by brief depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current pulses. As an expression of this bistable firing behaviour, the frequency‐current relation in response to a triangular current injection was counter‐clockwise in serotonin while clockwise in normal medium. 3. The delay to onset...

  20. Spatial waves of advance with bistable dynamics: cytoplasmic and genetic analogues of Allee effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, N H; Turelli, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Unlike unconditionally advantageous "Fisherian" variants that tend to spread throughout a species range once introduced anywhere, "bistable" variants, such as chromosome translocations, have two alternative stable frequencies, absence and (near) fixation. Analogous to populations with Allee effects, bistable variants tend to increase locally only once they become sufficiently common, and their spread depends on their rate of increase averaged over all frequencies. Several proposed manipulations of insect populations, such as using Wolbachia or "engineered underdominance" to suppress vector-borne diseases, produce bistable rather than Fisherian dynamics. We synthesize and extend theoretical analyses concerning three features of their spatial behavior: rate of spread, conditions to initiate spread from a localized introduction, and wave stopping caused by variation in population densities or dispersal rates. Unlike Fisherian variants, bistable variants tend to spread spatially only for particular parameter combinations and initial conditions. Wave initiation requires introduction over an extended region, while subsequent spatial spread is slower than for Fisherian waves and can easily be halted by local spatial inhomogeneities. We present several new results, including robust sufficient conditions to initiate (and stop) spread, using a one-parameter cubic approximation applicable to several models. The results have both basic and applied implications.

  1. Flexible Bistable Smectic-A Liquid Crystal Device Using Photolithography and Photoinduced Phase Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A flexible bistable smectic-A liquid crystal (SmA LC device using pixel-isolated mode was demonstrated, in which SmA LC molecules were isolated in pixels by vertical polymer wall and horizontal polymer layer. The above microstructure was achieved by using ultraviolet (UV photolithography and photoinduced phase separation. The polymer wall was fabricated by photolithography, and then the SmA LC was encapsulated in pixels between polymer wall through UV-induced phase separation, in which the polymer wall acts as supporting structure from mechanical pressure and maintains the cell gap from bending, and the polymer layer acts as adhesive for tight attachment of two substrates. The results demonstrated that all the intrinsic bistable properties of the SmA LC are preserved, and good electrooptical characteristics such as high contrast ratio and excellent stability of the bistable states were characterized. This kind of SmA bistable flexible display has high potential to be used as electronic paper, smart switchable reflective windows, and so forth.

  2. Combined fMRI- and eye movement-based decoding of bistable plaid motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbertz, Gregor; Ketkar, Madhura; Guggenmos, Matthias; Sterzer, Philipp

    2018-05-01

    The phenomenon of bistable perception, in which perception alternates spontaneously despite constant sensory stimulation, has been particularly useful in probing the neural bases of conscious perception. The study of such bistability requires access to the observer's perceptual dynamics, which is usually achieved via active report. This report, however, constitutes a confounding factor in the study of conscious perception and can also be biased in the context of certain experimental manipulations. One approach to circumvent these problems is to track perceptual alternations using signals from the eyes or the brain instead of observers' reports. Here we aimed to optimize such decoding of perceptual alternations by combining eye and brain signals. Eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in twenty participants while they viewed a bistable visual plaid motion stimulus and reported perceptual alternations. Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) for fMRI was combined with eye-tracking in a Support vector machine to decode participants' perceptual time courses from fMRI and eye-movement signals. While both measures individually already yielded high decoding accuracies (on average 86% and 88% correct, respectively) classification based on the two measures together further improved the accuracy (91% correct). These findings show that leveraging on both fMRI and eye movement data may pave the way for optimized no-report paradigms through improved decodability of bistable motion perception and hence for a better understanding of the neural correlates of consciousness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of frontal and parietal brain areas in bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, T.; Brascamp, J.; Pearson, J.; van Ee, R.; Blake, R.

    2011-01-01

    When sensory input allows for multiple, competing perceptual interpretations, observers' perception can fluctuate over time, which is called bistable perception. Imaging studies in humans have revealed transient responses in a right-lateralized network in the frontal-parietal cortex (rFPC) around

  4. Early Top-Down Influences on Bistable Perception Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michael A.; Gavin, William J.; Nerger, Janice L.

    2008-01-01

    A longstanding debate exists in the literature concerning bottom-up vs. top-down influences on bistable perception. Recently, a technique has been developed to measure early changes in brain activity (via ERPs) related to perceptual reversals (Kornmeier & Bach, 2004). An ERP component, the reversal negativity (RN) has been identified, and is…

  5. Intrinsic membrane properties causing a bistable behaviour of α-motoneurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Hultborn, H.; Jespersen, B.

    1984-01-01

    injected depolarizing current pulse and is terminated by a short train of inhibitory synaptic potentials or a hyperpolarizing current pulse. It is concluded that maintained motor unit firing triggered by a brief train of impulses in Ia afferent reflects an intrinsic bistable behaviour of α-motoneurones....

  6. Controllable optical bistability in photonic-crystal one-atom laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoyong; Lue Shuchen

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the property of optical bistability in a photonic-crystal one-atom laser when nonlinear microcavity is present. The physical system consists of a coherently driven two-level light emitter strongly coupled to a high-quality microcavity which is embedded within a photonic crystal and another coherent probing field which has incident into the microcavity. In our case, the microcavity is fabricated by nonlinear material and placed as an impurity in photonic crystal. This study reveals that such a system can exhibit optical bistability. The dependence of threshold value and hysteresis loop on the photonic band gap of the photonic crystal, driving field Rabi frequency and dephasing processes, are studied. Our results clearly illustrate the ability to control optical bistability through suitable photonic-crystal architectures and external coherent driving field, and this study suggests that in a photonic-crystal nonlinear microcavity, the one-atom laser acts as an effective controllable bistable device in the design of all-light digital computing systems in the near future.

  7. Different cell fates from cell-cell interactions: core architectures of two-cell bistable networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouault, Hervé; Hakim, Vincent

    2012-02-08

    The acquisition of different fates by cells that are initially in the same state is central to development. Here, we investigate the possible structures of bistable genetic networks that can allow two identical cells to acquire different fates through cell-cell interactions. Cell-autonomous bistable networks have been previously sampled using an evolutionary algorithm. We extend this evolutionary procedure to take into account interactions between cells. We obtain a variety of simple bistable networks that we classify into major subtypes. Some have long been proposed in the context of lateral inhibition through the Notch-Delta pathway, some have been more recently considered and others appear to be new and based on mechanisms not previously considered. The results highlight the role of posttranscriptional interactions and particularly of protein complexation and sequestration, which can replace cooperativity in transcriptional interactions. Some bistable networks are entirely based on posttranscriptional interactions and the simplest of these is found to lead, upon a single parameter change, to oscillations in the two cells with opposite phases. We provide qualitative explanations as well as mathematical analyses of the dynamical behaviors of various created networks. The results should help to identify and understand genetic structures implicated in cell-cell interactions and differentiation. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bistability breaks-off deterministic responses to intracortical stimulation during non-REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pigorini

    2015-04-01

    These results point to bistability as the underlying critical mechanism that prevents the emergence of complex interactions in human thalamocortical networks during NREM sleep. Besides sleep, the same basic neurophysiological dynamics may play a role in pathological conditions(Casali et al., 2013; Rosanova et al., 2012 where cortico-cortical communication and consciousness are impaired in spite of preserved neuronal activity.

  9. A micromachined silicon valve driven by a miniature bi-stable electro-magnetic actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohm, S.; Burger, G.J.; Burger, G.J.; Korthorst, M.T.; Roseboom, F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a novel combination of a micromachined silicon valve with low dead volume and a bi-stable electromagnetic actuator produced by conventional machining is presented. The silicon valve part, 7×7×1 mm3 in dimensions, is a sandwich construction of two KOH etched silicon wafers with a layer

  10. First-passage time in a bistable potential with colored noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Piscina, L.; Maria Sancho, J.; Javier de la Rubia, F.; Lindenberg, K.; Tsironis, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    A precise digital simulation of a bistable system under the effect of colored noise is carried out. A set of data for the mean first-passage time is obtained. The results are interpreted and compared with presently available theories, which are revisited following a new insight. Discrepancies that have been discussed in the literature are understood within our framework

  11. Optical cross-connect circuit using hitless wavelength selective switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebuchi, Yuta; Hisada, Masahiko; Kato, Tomoyuki; Kokubun, Yasuo

    2008-01-21

    We have proposed and demonstrated the basic elements of a full matrix optical switching circuit (cross-connect circuit) using a hitless wavelength selective switch (WSS). The cross-connect circuits are made of a multi-wavelength channel selective switch consisting of cascaded hitless WSSs, and a multi-port switch. These switching elements are realized through the individual Thermo-Optic (TO) tuning of a series-coupled microring resonator, and can switch arbitrary wavelength channels without blocking other wavelength channels during tuning. We demonstrate a four wavelength selective switch using a parallel topology of double series coupled microring resonators and a three wavelength selective switch using a parallel topology of quadruple series coupled microring resonators. Since the spectrum shape of quadruple series coupled microring is much more box-like than the double series, a high extinction ratio of 39.0-46.6 dB and low switching cross talk of 19.3-24.5 dB were achieved.

  12. The transformation of optical bistability effect and of generated pulses in operation of a DFB laser with two sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Phu; Dinh Van Hoang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper is presented the transformation of characteristics of optical bistability effect and of generated pulses in operation of a DFB laser with two sections. By solving the rate equations describing the operation of this laser the appearance of optical bistability effect in stationary regime and of short pulses in transient regime is obtained. With the variation of dynamical laser parameter we can evaluate the transformation indicated above. The method of examination used here is simple for determining the influence of any dynamical laser parameter on characteristics of optical bistability effect and generated pulses. (author)

  13. Optical bistability and multistability in a three-level Δ-type atomic system under the nonresonant condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai-Xi, Chen; Zhi-Ping, Wang; De-Hai, Chen; Yan-Qiu, Xu

    2009-01-01

    Under a nonresonant condition, we theoretically investigate hybrid absorptive-dispersive optical bistability and multistability behaviours in a three-level Δ-type system by using a microwave field to drive a hyperfine transition between two upper excited states inside a unidirectional ring cavity. We find that the optical bistability and multistability behaviours can be controlled by adjusting the intensity of the microwave field or the intensity of the coherent coupling field. Furthermore, our studies show an interesting phenomenon of the transition from the optical bistability to the optical multistability only by changing the negative detuning of the coupling field into the positive detuning of the coupling field. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  14. Design and experiment of controlled bistable vortex induced vibration energy harvesting systems operating in chaotic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Zhong, Z.-W.; Wang, Y.; Srikanth, N.

    2018-01-01

    Vortex induced vibration based energy harvesting systems have gained interests in these recent years due to its potential as a low water current energy source. However, the effectiveness of the system is limited only at a certain water current due to the resonance principle that governs the concept. In order to extend the working range, a bistable spring to support the structure is introduced on the system. The improvement on the performance is essentially dependent on the bistable gap as one of the main parameters of the nonlinear spring. A sufficiently large bistable gap will result in a significant performance improvement. Unfortunately, a large bistable gap might also increase a chance of chaotic responses, which in turn will result in diminutive harvested power. To mitigate the problem, an appropriate control structure is required to stabilize the chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter with the bistable supporting structure. Based on the nature of the double-well potential energy in a bistable spring, the ideal control structure will attempt to drive the responses to inter-well periodic vibrations in order to maximize the harvested power. In this paper, the OGY control algorithm is designed and implemented to the system. The control strategy is selected since it requires only a small perturbation in a structural parameter to execute the control effort, thus, minimum power is needed to drive the control input. Facilitated by a wake oscillator model, the bistable VIV system is modelled as a 4-dimensional autonomous continuous-time dynamical system. To implement the controller strategy, the system is discretized at a period estimated from the subspace hyperplane intersecting to the chaotic trajectory, whereas the fixed points that correspond to the desired periodic orbits are estimated by the recurrence method. Simultaneously, the Jacobian and sensitivity matrices are estimated by the least square regression method. Based on the defined fixed point and the

  15. Involvement of the visual change detection process in facilitating perceptual alternation in the bistable image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Tomokazu; Bunya, Mao; Araki, Osamu

    2017-08-01

    A bistable image induces one of two perceptual alternatives. When the bistable visual image is continuously viewed, the percept of the image alternates from one possible percept to the other. Perceptual alternation was previously reported to be induced by an exogenous perturbation in the bistable image, and this perturbation was theoretically interpreted to cause neural noise, prompting a transition between two stable perceptual states. However, little is known experimentally about the visual processing of exogenously driven perceptual alternation. Based on the findings of a previous behavioral study (Urakawa et al. in Perception 45:474-482, 2016), the present study hypothesized that the automatic visual change detection process, which is relevant to the detection of a visual change in a sequence of visual events, has an enhancing effect on the induction of perceptual alternation, similar to neural noise. In order to clarify this issue, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), an electroencephalographic brain response that reflects visual change detection, was evoked while participants continuously viewed the bistable image. In terms of inter-individual differences in neural and behavioral data, we found that enhancements in the peak amplitude of vMMN1, early vMMN at a latency of approximately 150 ms, correlated with increases in the proportion of perceptual alternation across participants. Our results indicate the involvement of automatic visual change detection in the induction of perceptual alternation, similar to neural noise, thereby providing a deeper insight into the neural mechanisms underlying exogenously driven perceptual alternation in the bistable image.

  16. Molecular switches at the synapse emerge from receptor and kinase traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the synaptic connection strengths between neurons are believed to play a role in memory formation. An important mechanism for changing synaptic strength is through movement of neurotransmitter receptors and regulatory proteins to and from the synapse. Several activity-triggered biochemical events control these movements. Here we use computer models to explore how these putative memory-related changes can be stabilised long after the initial trigger, and beyond the lifetime of synaptic molecules. We base our models on published biochemical data and experiments on the activity-dependent movement of a glutamate receptor, AMPAR, and a calcium-dependent kinase, CaMKII. We find that both of these molecules participate in distinct bistable switches. These simulated switches are effective for long periods despite molecular turnover and biochemical fluctuations arising from the small numbers of molecules in the synapse. The AMPAR switch arises from a novel self-recruitment process where the presence of sufficient receptors biases the receptor movement cycle to insert still more receptors into the synapse. The CaMKII switch arises from autophosphorylation of the kinase. The switches may function in a tightly coupled manner, or relatively independently. The latter case leads to multiple stable states of the synapse. We propose that similar self-recruitment cycles may be important for maintaining levels of many molecules that undergo regulated movement, and that these may lead to combinatorial possible stable states of systems like the synapse.

  17. Macro-mechanics controls quantum mechanics: mechanically controllable quantum conductance switching of an electrochemically fabricated atomic-scale point contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Torben; Wertz, Florian; Xie, Fangqing; Heinze, Marcel; Schmieder, Philipp; Lutzweiler, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas

    2018-01-12

    Here, we present a silver atomic-scale device fabricated and operated by a combined technique of electrochemical control (EC) and mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ). With this EC-MCBJ technique, we can perform mechanically controllable bistable quantum conductance switching of a silver quantum point contact (QPC) in an electrochemical environment at room temperature. Furthermore, the silver QPC of the device can be controlled both mechanically and electrochemically, and the operating mode can be changed from 'electrochemical' to 'mechanical', which expands the operating mode for controlling QPCs. These experimental results offer the perspective that a silver QPC may be used as a contact for a nanoelectromechanical relay.

  18. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  19. BROOKHAVEN: Switched power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Hosted by Brookhaven's Center for Accelerator Physics, a recent workshop on switched power techniques attracted a group of specialists to Shelter Island, New York, location of several important physics meetings, including the famous 1947 sessions which helped mould modern quantum electrodynamics. The current interest in switched power stemmed from a series of papers by W. Willis of CERN, starting in 1984. The idea is for stored electrical energy to be suddenly switched on to a transmission line, producing a very short (about 10 ps) electromagnetic pulse in a region traversed by a particle beam

  20. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College and Graduate School, The City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Jaafar, Reem [Department of Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science, LaGuardia Community College, The City University of New York, 31-10 Thomson Avenue, Long Island City, New York 11101 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.